Opticon Company Analysis Case Study History Essay Help

Information technology, typically abbreviated 'IT,' is the administration of data using computers. It involves the use of computer technology in the business sector. It is an automated procedure that has replaced the previous manual approach of information management in a business. It enables firms to electronically gather, store, and process a variety of data in order to generate reports used to manage day-to-day operations. IT is currently becoming an indispensable aspect of all business sectors. It has affected all employees at all levels, from upper management to middle management to receptionists. Information technology has generally had a significant impact on many enterprises. It has a significant impact on the architecture of business offices, which impacts how, where, and when work should be performed (Wallace par.2).

Information technology has improved the manner in which business transactions are conducted today. It has facilitated the electronic sharing of knowledge via networks, allowing people to behave as though they reside in a global village. IT has made it easier for Africans and Asians to purchase software in real time from Europe. Similarly, Europeans can utilize the same technology to purchase things from African or Asian nations. This model is known as e-commerce and is available as B2B, B2C, and C2C formats (king Par.3).

Information technology has also improved the veracity and effectiveness of company operations. The software used to collect and handle the data is extremely precise, and the reports it generates accurately reflect the reality of the data inputted. When mutual approaches are used to generate reports, several errors are likely to occur during the input or calculation of the multiple variables required to generate the reports. Information Technology enables the electronic storage of data, which is frequently encrypted to prevent unauthorized alteration (King par, 7).

Oticon is a Danish firm that specializes in producing a variety of hearing solutions, which has allowed it to expand and open subsidiaries in other countries, including the United States, China, and Europe. Its numerous offshoot enterprises posed a significant difficulty to its financial administration. Its financial division was consisted of obsolete systems and data sources that contained redundant, inconsistent, and inaccurate data. This prompted the business to continually switch between Excel and other alternatives. The management realized that their answer hinged on building an integrated system that would for consolidation, budgeting, and forecasting to be carried out using a unified financial model. Microsoft Corporation's financial management model was selected. Microsoft Corporation was chosen because to its efficiency and the availability of other Microsoft programs, such as Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Word 2007, which were believed to be compatible with the anticipated model. The workforce was pleased with the planned Office PerformancePoint Server 2007 concept. This is an integrated performance management tool with comprehensive features for financial planning, consolidation, budgeting, and forecasting. In addition, it enabled the financial administrators to utilize Microsoft Office 2007 applications, including Excel, Word, PowerPoint, and others (Hilton 3-5).

Working with Oticon can be a rewarding experience if given the chance. This is due to Oticon's management's willingness to invest in current technology, which keeps its personnel technologically current and ensures a less stressful work environment. The implementation of the new financial Microsoft model that eliminates duplication of chores and ensures accuracy is an example of a management team committed to provide its employees with favorable working conditions (Oticon 4).

The initiative that I can suggest to the management team at Oticon is the incorporation of a gateway into their system. The portal will function as a self-service tool that will provide access to various human resource files for the employees. Through this system, employees will be able to update their contact information, resumes, and other personal information. Similarly, when customers transfer to foreign locations, they will be able to verify their prior payrolls and update their bank information. This feature will also make it easier for employees to gain access to instructional materials they may utilize to enhance their abilities. Finally, the tool will allow employees to submit leave requests to human resource management with ease. This will serve as an excellent incentive for its workers (Valadez par. 6).

Opticon should also make substantial investments in its technology to improve its e-commerce. This will be a very significant decision, as it will lessen their need to open new offices in other locations. They will be able to market and sell their items globally via the internet from their primary headquarters. This will allow them to save a significant amount of expenses connected with operating other offices. The existence of e-commerce enables even some enterprises to function successfully with virtual offices, making this a sound approach. Investing more in IT will also create more team collaboration through improved communication.


2008 Web.

William King. "The Role of Information Technology in Business Growth." Ezine Articles, 2008. Web.

"Complexity of New Office Designs: Considering Your Future Workplace," by Mary Wallace. 2000, Wallace Research Group. Web.

Valadez , Brenda. "Self Service Portal for Your Employees". Using Web Based Applications. 2008. Web.

[supanova question]

Aspects Of Strategic Management History Essay Help


Strategic management has been one of the most successful instruments for enhancing the performance, decision-making, and execution of organizations and processes. Although the notion has been prevalent in the commercial sector, its use in the public sector has continued to expand (Smith, 7). Since the 1980s, the public sector in the United Arab Emirates has been experiencing reforms, which has led to an increased understanding of the significance of providing quality services in the public sector. It has been discovered that strategic management is an excellent instrument for transforming a bureaucratic public sector into one that is more inventive and responsive (Joyce and Adrian 25). This study aims to determine the degree to which local governments in UAE have adopted and implemented strategic management.

Subjects to Select From

The value of strategic management in the UAE Local government strategic management methods in the UAE Influencing elements of strategic management implementation in UAE Comparison of strategic management and other kinds of management in the United Arab Emirates Transformative effects of strategic management on UAE organizations

Significance of the Research

This topic is of relevance since the study's findings will increase knowledge and comprehension of strategic management and its application by local governments in UAE. The significance of the study lies in the fact that it will:

Determine the strategic management framework and idea that takes into account the nature of work and the environment of local governments. Improve the theory and model of strategic management in public organizations whose nature of service is comparable to that of local governments. Raise public organizations' awareness of the need for a practical and appropriate strategic management framework as a tool for enhancing organizational effectiveness. Provide vital information regarding the aspects that influence the successful implementation of strategic management in public enterprises.

Research Techniques

Analyzed Population

The study will focus on UAE local authorities. It will target all local governments in the UAE in an effort to attain consistency and homogeneity, as all local governments are established and governed by the same law. There are city councils, district councils, and municipal councils among the local authorities.

Data Gathering

A perception survey will be conducted to measure factors using a structured questionnaire in order to collect data. The questionnaires will be mailed out to all local governments. In addition, interviews will be performed in selected local governments to obtain the opinions of specific respondents, particularly the local government's higher management. The collection of additional data from government sources, departments, records, files, and other papers. Secondary data will be collected from relevant seminar and research papers, statistical abstracts, relevant parliamentary acts, periodicals, and newspapers (Besley and Noble 30).

Relationship of the Project to Other Works

Strategic management is the methodical process of managing an organization's future orientation in a way that ensures its continued success. It involves identifying the goals and mission of an organization, as well as managing the design and implementation of strategies (Morden 5).

Strategic management can be viewed as a series of steps that include analyzing the threats and opportunities that exist in the external environment, analyzing the weaknesses and strengths of an organization within the internal environment, establishing the mission and goals of an organization, developing strategies by matching the organization's strengths and weaknesses with the threats and opportunities in the environment, and finally implementing those strategies (Saddler and Craig 45).

This suggested project is connected to other works in the field of strategic management in a number of ways. For example, the project has close ties to strategic planning. In the 1950s, companies began to develop systematic methods for determining how and where they will conduct business in the future. The progression of managers' strategy formulation was known as strategic planning (Igor 84). Later, the phrase strategic management was expanded to cover plan implementation and environmental evaluation. Since strategic management is considered a blend of strategic implementation and strategic planning, it is strongly tied to the studies conducted on strategic formulation.

Importance of the Project in Acquiring Knowledge of the Subject

This project will provide crucial information for comprehending the topic of strategic management in the UAE. The study will begin by attempting to provide a comprehensive description of strategic management and what it comprises. Some firms seek to implement the principles of strategic management without properly comprehending what they entail, and consequently fail (Strategic Management : A Complete Study Guide 4). Therefore, the project will play a crucial role in advancing organizations' knowledge of strategic management. The second method the initiative will promote understanding of the topic is by highlighting the practical use of strategic management within enterprises (Strategic Management 5).

Summary of Acquired Knowledge in the Subject

Strategic management is one of the performance-enhancing methods that many businesses have adopted. Since the 1950s, public firms have also adopted the idea, which was formerly linked with private businesses (Nutt 56). This issue has been studied in depth in order to complete the project successfully. For instance, studies have demonstrated that strategic management enhances the success of businesses (Thompson and Martin 15). It is also useful for identifying an organization's shortcomings and strengths. Lastly, it plays an essential part in the formulation of the mission and objectives of organizations.

Research Timeline

Week 1 is devoted to developing the research topic. Week 2 – Meeting with tutor to discuss the topic Week 3 – Identifying research requirements Week 4 – Developing the proposal's outline Week 5 – Conducting a pre-visit in locations where research will be conducted. Weeks 6 and 7 – Finishing the literature review Weeks 8 and 9 – Conducting the actual research Week 10 – Data analysis and compilation Week 11 – Final exam Construction of the final product Week 12 – Presentation of research

Sources Cited

Russel Besley and Ian Noble AVA Publishing, 2004. Visual Research: An Introduction to Research Methodologies. Print

Igor and Ansof Implementing Strategic Management, New York: Prentice Hall, 1984.Print

Joyce, Paul, and Adrian Woods A Novel Approach to Developing Skills, Knowledge, and Creativity in Strategic Management. Washington, Kogan Page, 2001.print

Morden, Anthony The fundamentals of strategic management. New York: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2007.Print

Nutt, Paul. Strategic Management of Government and Nonprofit Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1992.Print

Philip Saddler and James Craig Strategic Management, New York: Kogan Page Publishers, 2003.Print

This is Robert Smith. Print version: Strategic Management and Planning in the Public Sector, Longman: Harlow, 1994.

Strategic Management n.d. Web.

Strategic Management: A Comprehensive Study Guide was published online in 2012.

John Thompson and Frank Martin. Strategic Management, New York: Cengage Learning, 2010.Print

[supanova question]

Employee Turnover Drivers In The Hospitality Sector History Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Review of Literature Further Reading Principal Concepts Methodological Effects Time Schedule Reference List


Turnover is an important management concept because it influences organizational performance. By losing brilliant individuals, businesses expose themselves to productivity losses and higher costs associated with hiring and training new employees. As a result, limiting employee turnover is a goal for any organization, and the literature in this field aims to support this process by explaining the characteristics that predict employee turnover or promote retention. The proposed management research project will focus on a hospitality industry organization that has recently experienced a significant turnover rate. The objective of the project is to investigate the causes of employee turnover within the organization and make ideas for addressing them in order to promote retention.

Literature Review

Turnover is one of the most studied topics in management study. According to Lee et al. (2017), nearly 2,000 articles on employee turnover have been published in the previous century. Initial study in the field focused on the elements leading to employee turnover intentions in an effort to assist companies in identifying employees who are likely to depart (Hom et al., 2017). Commonly, employee turnover is separated into voluntary and involuntary categories based on whether the individual is fired by their employer or leaves for personal reasons (Hongvichit, 2015). Voluntary turnover is especially undesirable for businesses, as it can result in the loss of highly qualified and talented employees. Therefore, voluntary turnover has been proposed as a measure of an organization's efficacy (Nica, 2016). Predicting employee turnover and managing employees who may quit the company is therefore essential for organizations to achieve their performance objectives.

The relevance of research on the causes of employee turnover has not diminished over time. Modern research demonstrates that employee turnover is influenced by structural, managerial, and psychological factors that impact employees and their workplaces (Katsiea, Theodosiu and Morgan, 2015). In general, research indicates that perceived support, organisational commitment, perceived employability, organisational justice, corporate culture, person-organisation fit, job security, and promotional opportunities all impact employee turnover in a variety of industries and businesses (Kalidass and Bahron, 2015; Kim et al. 2017; Mathieu and Babiak, 2016; Pang, Kucukusta and Chan, 2015; Zhang, 2016). Moreover, job satisfaction has been highlighted as one of the most significant elements associated with employee turnover, with some scholars arguing that it acts as a motivating or mediating factor (Ekhsan, 2019; Frederiksen, 2017; Rubel and Kee, 2015). Other researchers have also cited the impact of psychological variables, such as friendship and advice networks (Vardaman et al., 2015). Research shows the existence of a link between employee turnover and leadership practices, with transformational leadership believed to lower employee turnover (Amankwaa and Anku-Tsede, 2015; Puni, Agyemang and Asamoah, 2016; Sun and Wang, 2016). In general, previous research provides a valuable foundation for analyzing turnover in particular organizational environments.

Additional Reading

Al Mamun, C. A., and Hasan, M. N. (2017). "Factors influencing employee turnover and effective retention strategies in business organizations: a conceptual view." Problems and Perspectives in Management, 15(1), pp. 63-71.

The paper by Al Mamun and Hasan (2017) would be valuable for the project since it provides a conceptual picture of employee turnover and highlights crucial theoretical and practical links affecting this topic. This makes the article crucial for constructing the theoretical foundation upon which the study will be conducted.

Are they leaving or staying: a qualitative investigation of turnover issues for Generation Y hospitality employees with a hospitality education, Brown, E. A., N. J. Thomas, and R. H. Bosselman (2015).

International Journal of Hospitality Management, volume 46, pages 130-137.

This article focuses on employee turnover among Generation Y hospitality workers. Given that a major proportion of employees in the contemporary hotel industry are young, it is expected that the study will be valuable in determining their perceptions and reasons for leaving.

Employee turnover in the hospitality business utilizing Herzberg's two-factor motivation-hygiene theory. (2018). International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(1), pp. 218-248.

This article examines how employee turnover in the hospitality business relates to Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction. The article's content would be especially helpful in determining the reasons for departure that reflect the theoretical perspective of employee contentment and dissatisfaction. In addition, Herzberg's approach could be used to produce retention-related recommendations.

Impact of human resource management strategies on employee turnover intentions. Journal of Indian Business Research, 9(3), 2017.

This article describes a research of the factors influencing employee turnover in the hospitality sector. The research focuses on a reasonably high sample size, which allows for extrapolation to other populations. According to the study's authors, there are a number of turnover factors that are unique to the hospitality business that should be included in future research.

Qiu, H., et al. (2015). Exploring the causes of staff turnover intention in China's hotel business. Journal of China Tourism Research, 11(1), pp. 53-66.

This research is particularly useful for making recommendations since it investigates the influence of various human resources practices in decreasing or enabling employee turnover. The research was conducted in the hospitality industry, thus the results are applicable to the organization in question.

Principal Concepts

The principles of turnover intention, retention, and work satisfaction will be utilized to solve the problem of employee turnover in the chosen organization. Employee turnover is mostly caused by turnover intention, which refers to an employee's desire to leave the organization (Hongvichit, 2015). Retention is the reverse of turnover and refers to the number of employees that remain with an organization (Lee et al., 2017; Zhang, 2016). Companies utilize retention strategies to reduce employee turnover by addressing issues that contribute to it or by providing new reasons for employees to remain. Numerous retention tactics are correlated with job satisfaction, which is vital to the issue at hand. In the context of this study, job satisfaction will be defined as the favorable perceptions of various organizational features, such as rewards and promotional possibilities, held by employees (Holston-Okae, 2018). Consequently, the ultimate objective of the project is to investigate the causes of employee turnover in the selected organization and use this knowledge to develop retention strategies based on enhancing job satisfaction, thereby reducing the likelihood of turnover among current and future employees.


Given the small sample size, a qualitative phenomenological study appears to be the most appropriate method for investigating the problem of interest. This approach focuses on uncovering commonalities among participant experiences and use them to define the characteristics of a certain event. HR data obtained from the selected firms, such as exit interviews and logs, will serve as the major data source for the study. The data will undergo content analysis in order to identify common turnover drivers. Then, the results will be correlated with theories on turnover intentions and retention techniques, and suggestions will be made for future improvement.


It is anticipated that the project will offer the selected organization with more information regarding the causes of employee resignations and terminations. The report's recommendations will assist the organization in tackling the factors that may be contributing to an increase in turnover intentions, hence making the company more effective at retaining important people. In turn, this will result in enhanced organizational performance and a decreased risk of financial costs associated with hiring and training. Due to the fact that the research will be based on secondary data and will pose minor ethical hazards, the advantages to the organization greatly surpass the project's expenditures.

Time Schedule

Project Phase Duration Commencement Date Termination

Data Gathering

Data Analysis

Formulation and Validation of Recommendations

Report Construction


Al Mamun, C. A., and Hasan, M. N. (2017). "Factors influencing employee turnover and effective retention strategies in business organizations: a conceptual view." Problems and Perspectives in Management, 15(1), pp. 63-71. Linking transformational leadership to employee turnover: the moderating influence of alternative employment opportunities, Amankwaa, A., and Anku-Tsede, O. (2015). International Journal of Business Administration, volume 6, number 4, pages 19-29. Brown, E. A., N. J. Thomas, and R. H. Bosselman (2015), "Are they leaving or staying: a qualitative analysis of turnover issues for Generation Y hospitality employees with a hospitality education," International Journal of Hospitality Management, 46, pp. 130-137. The influence of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on employee turnover intention, Ekhsan, M. (2019), Journal of Business, Management, and Accounting, 1(1), pp. 48-55. German Journal of Human Resource Management, 31(2), pp. 132-161. Frederiksen, A. (2017). "Job Satisfaction and Employee Turnover: A Firm-Level Perspective." Employee turnover in the hospitality business utilizing Herzberg's two-factor motivation-hygiene theory. (2018). International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(1), pp. 218-248. One hundred years of employee turnover theory and study, Hom, P. W., et al. 102(3) Journal of Applied Psychology, pages 530-545 Hongvichit, S. (2015). The research development and future outlook of employee turnover intention. International Business Research, 8(6), pp. 218-223. The association between perceived supervisor support, perceived organizational support, organizational commitment, and employee intention to leave the organization, International Journal of Business Administration, volume 6, number 5, pages 82-89. Why people quit: understanding employee turnover intentions among export sales managers, Katsikea, E., Theodosiou, M., and Morgan, R. E. (2015). International Business Review, volume 24 number 3, pages 367-379. Kim, S., et al. (2017). "Determinants of employee turnover intention." Corporate Communications: An International Journal 22(3): 308-328. On the next decade of study in voluntary employee turnover, Lee, T. W., et al., (2017) Academy of Management Perspectives, volume 31, number 3, pages 201-221. Mathieu, C., and Babiak, P. (2016). "Corporate psychopathy and abusive supervision: their impact on employees' job satisfaction and intention to leave." Personality and Individual Differences, 91, pp. 102-106. Employee voluntary turnover as a negative measure of organizational success, Nica, E. (2016). Psychosociological Issues in Human Resource Management, Volume 4, Number 2, Pages 220-226. Pang, L., Kucukusta, D. and Chan, X. (2015) Analysis of controllable and uncontrolled factors influencing employee turnover intent in travel agencies International Journal of Tourism Research, volume 17, number 6, pages 577-590. Puni, A., C. B. Agyemang, and E. S. Asamoah (2016). "Leadership styles, employee turnover intentions, and counterproductive work behaviors." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, volume 5, issue 1, pages 1-7. Exploring determinants of employee turnover intention: Evidence from China's hotel business, Qiu, H., et al., 2015 11(1), pages 53-66, Journal of China Tourism Research. High commitment compensation methods and employee turnover intention: the mediation impact of job satisfaction, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(6-S4), pages 321 and 322. Impact of human resource management methods on employee turnover intentions, Santhanam, N., et al., 2017. Journal of Indian Business Research, volume nine, number three, pages 212-228. Sun, R., and Wang, W. (2017). "Transformational leadership, employee turnover intention, and voluntary employee turnover in public organizations." Public Management Review, volume 19, issue 8, pages 1124-1141. Vardaman, J. M. et al. (2015). "Translating Intentions to Behavior: The Interaction of Network Structure and Behavioral Intentions for Understanding Employee Turnover." Organization Science, volume 26, number 4, pages 1177-1191. Zhang, Y. (2016). "A review of employee turnover influence factors and countermeasure." Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 4(2), 85-91.

[supanova question]

Ford Motor Company: Strategic Marketing And Way Forward History Essay Help


Marketing is a simple idea that just requires the marketer to comprehend and satisfy the wants and wishes of the customer. To achieve this simple concept, however, requires complicated thoughts and interrelated components. This is due to the fact that these elements are created against the backdrop of various market-defining shifts (Ford, 2002). A further issue arises from the fact that managers frequently encounter partial information due to insufficient data availability and ever-changing market conditions. Typically, adjustments result from the dynamic client demand and the conduct of competitors in order to conform to this overall notion (Drummond & Ensor, 2001; Kotler, 2002). This is what ultimately compels marketers to rely on strategic marketing as the final marketing component that determines the success of their organization (Drummond & Ensor, 2001). In other words, a properly aligned strategic marketing plan followed by efficient implementation should result in the achievement of a company's overall marketing objective.

Ford Motor Company has been one of America's premier automakers for several decades. In an effort to extend the "made in the U.S.A." slogan's representation of the American brand image, Ford was the first firm to produce hybrid sport utility vehicles for a niche market (Mitchell, 2002, p. 99). Due to its successful 'Ford Escape' model, the SUV product performed well on the international market and changed Ford's global marketing approach. It breathed new life into the company as it relaunched itself as a more competitive automaker. Due to this growth, the company has undertaken a number of initiatives to expand into new areas, such as those that utilize alternative fuels, in order to increase its global market appeal and assure sustainable production. This type of strategy can only be successful if new worldwide marketing techniques are implemented. This study provides a critical analysis of Ford Motor Company and its global product sales. Ford Motor Company's future was discussed in light of a critical evaluation of a strategic marketing analysis.

Ford Motor Company Merchandise

Ford Motor Company, with its headquarters in Michigan, is one of the nation's leading automakers. The corporation is involved in designing, developing, producing, and supplying automobile services worldwide. The business operates on two fronts: the automobile sector and the financial services market. However, its primary business is in automobile services, where it offers Ford-branded vehicles. Additionally, the corporation markets its goods through the Volvo, Mercury, and Lincoln brand names. This division helps the corporation advertise its automobiles, trucks, and automotive components internationally. It has a substantial share of the global market with more than 100 locations. Ford has created numerous vehicle types in an effort to cater to a broad spectrum of worldwide customers and strengthen its market niche throughout time (Mitchell, 2002). The Ford Escape is its first hybrid product aimed for the general population. It is a gaseous electric product. This strategy is primarily focused on fleet service production. The company's other line of manufacture is the Ford Focus, which is a fuel cell product.

Global Marketing Mix

Ford Motor Company distributes its products in over 200 markets worldwide. The company employs approximately 3000 employees. Its long-term strategy has been to focus on its core business and strengthen its ties to other brands. Currently, Ford offers 52 goods under 8 distinct names (Mitchell, 2002). Ford's global activities are located in a number of global regions, including Europe, North America, South and Central America, Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. In addition to the 52 models of automobiles that the firm manufactures and sells in the United States, its European, Asian, and African operations sell approximately 47 models. In its strategy to serve each market group, the design and production of vehicles are tailored to each market's specific characteristics and expectations. Which is. After doing exhaustive market research, the characteristics of each vehicle type designed for each region define the market need of that region solely. The names and designs of the features vary according to the geographical market need.

The Balanced Scorecard Method for Strategic Marketing

The marketing concept is based on the method by which firms identify the customer's value, seek to give it, convey it, and deliver it at the optimal time and location (ReVelle & Frigon, 1994; McCarthy, 1994). In this regard, it is feasible to assert that the most important notion in marketing is the necessity to identify and focus on customer values. To achieve this, it is essential to prioritize the product, exchange process, communication, and connections between the company and its partners and customers (Hambrick & Fredrickson, 2001, p.49). Marketing is essentially a strategic method to achieving the long-term strategic objectives of a firm. This also contributes to the firms' market share competitive advantage. Therefore, the business is able to adapt its resources to the changing environment in order to meet customer demand and expectations, while also continuing to meet the needs and expectations of its stakeholders (Vithala & Joel, 1998; Sutton & Klein, 2003).

Nonetheless, as the business environment changes and is continuously defined by new strategies, it is essential to establish proper business development metrics. Instead of depending just on financial metrics, a specific strategy is required to provide a holistic view of the organization. This is why Kaplan and Norton (1992), as mentioned by Drummond and Ensor (2001, p.8), established the 'balanced scorecard' method, which combines financial and non-financial metrics to determine the overall business status. In accordance with this methodology, a company scorecard depends on the following four sets of metrics:

Incorporate an analysis of how investors and stakeholders view the organization's difficulties while calculating financial metrics. Customer-centricity; what views has the organization cultivated in the eyes of its customers? Innovative and learning initiatives; in order to cut survival tactics and develop prosperity in the business initiatives, organizations will need to develop improvement mechanisms (Drummond & Ensor, 2001).

Through these metrics, organizations are able to establish performance standards. This allows them to conduct objective evaluations. According to Drummond & Ensor (2001, p.8), a successful strategy should be able to address the aforementioned areas and provide relevant efforts for future applications.

Has Ford Motor Company adopted comprehensive strategic marketing activities based on the aforementioned criteria? In order to fully comprehend Ford Motor Company's situation, it is necessary to comment on the significance of its strengths and weaknesses in terms of its potential to penetrate the worldwide market, as opposed to the United States market alone.

SWOT Analysis


Ford Company has been characterized as having a number of strengths that enable it build its position in this highly competitive business, taking into account its status in the automobile industry on the international market. The Ford brand enjoys widespread recognition and esteem throughout the world. Its large capital base affords it greater economies of scale than many of its competitors, allowing it to manage production and administrative challenges with relative ease. The company has three primary subsidiaries that strengthen its position on the worldwide market by diversifying its product line. In other words, the company's extensive product line has enabled it to penetrate all market categories. They also utilize in-house suppliers, a technique that allows them to decrease inventory costs and save money to invest in other areas of the product life cycle. However, the company's size may also be one of its most significant vulnerabilities. This is due to the risk of bureaucratic growth in the company's management, which creates a challenging environment when change is required (Grant, 1991). In addition, due to its magnitude, it is not always possible to make adjustments in a timely manner, as may be required on occasion.

As stated previously, Ford's brand recognition is highly strong and successful. This is due to the fact that the corporation is sold using well-known brand names on the global market, including Ford, Mazda, Jaguar, Volvo, and Land Rover, among others. Through these brands, the firm has established a reputation for its innovative approach to design and manufacture, allowing it to provide consumers with fuel-efficient vehicles. The company's conviction is that its integrated worldwide market strategy would enable it to survive in a continuously dynamic market. In addition, the corporation has established itself as an environmentally conscientious institution, as seen by its clean production and recyclable goods. This is evidenced by the fact that it was the first corporation to implement ISO 14001 in all of its global sites (Schmidt & Wright, 2006, p.129).

Additionally, Ford Company is renowned for its success in launching new efforts to manufacture new items for the US market. Currently, it offers the most popular brands of trucks, SUVs, and vans. Over the past decade, the corporation has endeavored to introduce numerous highly successful new cars in Europe, including the Ford Focus and Mondeo. In addition to the older models, the company has successfully launched new items to different regional markets.

Ford has developed itself as a financially and commercially robust network of financing and marketing. Its enormous financial strength helps the corporation manage its brand expansion initiatives and expand its consumer offerings. Ford owns more than 30 percent of Mazda Motor Corporation, granting them easy access to the wider Asian market (Schmidt & Wright, 2006, p.131). Through these approaches, Ford has cultivated strong customer loyalty across a vast array of market groups.


Ford has not been able to fully penetrate the European market despite its vast financial resources and extensive product lineup. For example, the company's Scorpio model, which was targeted for the bottom end of the market, has not performed well. Its inability to develop vehicles appealing to the burgeoning mini- and medium-sized MPV market makes it a weaker worldwide market partner (Schmidt & Wright, 2006, p.131). This is in contrast to Toyota, which has been successful in this market area. Additionally, the company's footprint on the Asian market is limited. Mazda has its sole substantial presence in the larger and more lucrative Asian market. In the densely populated country of India, the company's brand has seen major failure. Its foreign strategies were not aided by its decision to abandon its initial ambition to join the Korean market through Daewoo Motor Company at the beginning of the twenty-first century.


Recent years have witnessed numerous developments on the worldwide market, particularly in the Asian region. Following China's accession to the World Trade Organization, China has become one of the top destinations for foreign investors in this industry, and it is progressively becoming one of the most dynamic marketplaces (WTO). Foreign investors have had limited prospects in prior years due to the country's tight trade barrier. Additionally, there was a "thirty percent cap on foreign ownership of any Chinese enterprise" (Schmidt & Wright, 2006, p.132). China's entrance into the WTO is enticing more foreign corporations to invest heavily in its markets. Currently, the Chinese government supports direct agreements between domestic automakers and foreign firms. The formerly extremely bureaucratic nation has modified its strategy and is now more streamlined than ever before in order to expedite corporate transactions.

Ford has the financial and technological means to penetrate this market as part of its global operations. This presents an opportunity for the company. The company's capacity to accomplish this project is a result of its broad use of technology and innovation, which enables the development of numerous vehicle brands and therefore the company's capacity to implement this initiative. Internet and e-commerce also present a chance for Ford to grow its strategic market share.


In its global market endeavors, Ford faces a number of dangers. It is becoming increasingly difficult for the corporation to reach various viable market groups due to the growing sophistication of consumers. The desire for low-cost, high-quality products on the worldwide market has altered how automakers approach their market segments. The company's competitors, including GM and Honda, have very strong brand recognition and market share. This is despite its substantial financial resources.

The most worrisome trend is the global market decline in automobile sales and the declining American economy as a result of the recent economic slump. Considering its position on the worldwide market, Ford has become extremely protective of the American market. However, the recent high-profile cases in which some of the company's models were recalled by court order have misrepresented its goods. Ford was found to have "inappropriately installed ignition modules that were prone to stalling," per the court's verdict (Prahalad, & Hamel, 1999). This recall affected automobiles manufactured between 1983 and 1995 and is estimated to have cost Ford a staggering $125 million (Prahalad, & Hamel, 1999).


Customers, both current and prospective, must be Ford's primary consideration. It must examine what types of clients comprise each market category. The ideal way to approach this strategic marketing framework is to familiarize oneself with the global rivals within the desired market segment (Peteraf, 1993). Second, the organization must strike a balance between internal corporate responsibilities and customer needs, as shown in Diagram 1. The proper management of these projects should allow Ford to strengthen its worldwide market position and retain it.

Through this technique, businesses would also be able to adapt to demand and supply fluctuations. For instance, soaring gasoline prices have raised the desire for high-performance vehicles. This can be accomplished by segmentation of the global market that enables concentrated attention on each market segment. Moore, 1993). This would assist the corporation produce more hybrid brands rather than gasoline-powered automobiles, which are less popular on American and international markets.

The foundation of marketing strategy

The second goal is to design more affordable sticker pricing for its products, which are among the highest in comparison to its global competitors. The price strategy is reportedly one of the greatest obstacles to Ford's diverse product line. It is often necessary to reduce prices so that they are affordable to low-income consumers (Kline, 1999). It would be engaging in penetration pricing in order to get a competitive advantage in the market. In Japan, for instance, Toyota and Honda have penetrated the market with their low-end, inexpensive, and smaller vehicles (Bradley, 1995). Given its vast technological prowess and financial resources, Ford can also build smaller automobiles.


Bradley, F., International Marketing Strategy, Prentice Hall, New York, 1995.

Drummond, G., and J. Ensor, Strategic Marketing: Planning and Control (2001). New York. Butterworth- Heinemann.

Business Marketing Course: Managing in Complex Networks, Ford, D.

Chichester. William Wiley

The resource-based theory of competitive advantage: implications for strategy creation, by M. Grant, California Management Review, Spring 1991, p. 118.

Hambrick, C., & Fredrickson, W. (2001). "Are you certain that you have a strategy?" Academy of Management Executive, 15 (4), 48–54.

Hands-on Social Marketing: A Step-by-Step Guide, by N. Kline (1999). Los Angeles Thousand Oaks

Kotler, P. (2002), Marketing Management: Evaluation Planning and Management (8th edn).

Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey Prentice Hall

McCarthy, J., Basic Marketing: a managerial perspective, 1994. Sydney, Burr Ridge, Illinois Irwin.

Mitchell, Colin. "Selling the brand inside." Harvard Business Review.

Moore, J. (1993). "Predators and prey." Harvard Business Review.

Peteraf, M. A. (1993). "The pillars of competitive advantage: a resource-based view." Strategic Management Journal 14:179–91.

The essential skill of the firm. Harvard Business Review.

From concept to customer: Management 2000 integrated product development. ReVelle, B., and L. Frigon. New York City Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Schmidt, A., and H. Wright, Financial elements of marketing, London: Macmillan, 2006.

Enterprise Marketing Management: The New Science of Marketing, Sutton & Klein, 2003. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley Publishers

Vithala, R. & Joel, H. (1998), Analysis for Strategic Marketing. Chicago. Addison Wesley.

[supanova question]

Glazers Lawn Solutions: Organizational Behaviour History Essay Help


Organizational behavior is a prevalent topic in the contemporary business environment. It is one of the means by which businesses or organizations' affairs can be understood. By definition, organizational behavior describes the overall context of an organization (Anderson 2007, pp.22-23). Organizational behavior comprises the leadership structure, the human relationships among the many members of the organization, and the relationship between the organization and other organizations inside and beyond the industry.

In the instance of Glazers Lawn Solutions, the relationships between Mark Lynch, Ellen Harris, Bill Murray, and the other corporate employees provide insight into the business organization of this company.

In this paper, I will discuss significant components of human perception and behavior, as well as how this affects individual behavior and organizational output as a whole. I will also define organizational structure, compare and contrast several organizational structures, explain what the company stands to gain by implementing an effective organizational structure, and investigate how the current organizational structure of Glazers Lawn Solutions relates to the company's overall effectiveness.

In addition to the aforementioned, I will evaluate the critical factor of culture. I will also discuss the numerous organizational cultures that may exist inside an organization, as well as the challenges a firm like Glazers Lawn Solutions may face while attempting to alter its corporate culture. This study will also include a discussion of how changes in Glazers Lawn Solutions' structure and culture may have affected its company performance and organization. Finally, alternative organizational management theories will be studied in light of Glazers Lawn Solutions and suitable recommendations will be offered.

Methodology pertaining to the Report

This paper will utilize theoretical knowledge collected from academic sources. This material will be carefully utilized to describe the recent events at Glazers Lawn Solutions, examine the relevant principles, and determine the best course of action.

Individuals' Perceptions and Behavior and How This Affects Organizational Performance

Not only in business, but in life as a whole, perceptions and behavior are crucial variables. Individuals's behavior toward other persons and locations is influenced by their perceptions of other people and locations. It is therefore potentially damaging when our perceptions of others are inaccurate. Our behavior is significant because it dictates how others treat us. The cycle continues as their behavior determines our responses and behaviors.

When some employees see that other colleagues have betrayed them or do not respect them, they tend to respond defensively in the workplace (Kogut, Urso, and Walker2007, pp.1181-1187). This defensive reaction might take a variety of forms, including attacking the misunderstood employee and attempting to avoid him or her. However, if the other employee understands that his or her coworkers are avoiding him or her, he or she will become fearful and nervous. This will have a negative impact on the company's performance, as neither group of employees will be able to sit calmly in their desks and do their best work.

Not only may a negative perception exist, however. Positive perception can also arise in which employees perceive each other favorably. This will build synergy, and the company's unified purpose will lead to tremendous success. Good behavior is also motivating and has the ability to foster friendships among employees, who will subsequently work together to increase the company's bargaining power. Negative or unpleasant behavior, such as sexual harassment, gossip, and intimidation, will result in fear and anxiety among the victimized employees. This will not motivate them to perform at their best, and as a result, the company's performance will not be its best. In well-managed firms, top management always takes the effort to build a positive image that inspires junior employees to not only behave appropriately but also transmit the appropriate signals to avoid being misunderstood.

Organizational Structure

An organization's organizational structure is the environment in which subordination and task completion are carried out by well-organized branches. Typically, structures contain phases or divisions, and each division has its own attributes. There are numerous organizational systems, and each has a unique level of effectiveness. Some of the structures selected by some organizations are well-suited for high performance, and as a result, once the company begins to operate inside the structure, the outcomes are quite fulfilling. Other structures are stiff, and once adopted and implemented within an organization, they inhibit the organization's growth and development. This implies that anyone who want to adopt a structure for an organization must conduct extensive research on the most successful and efficient structure.

The Varieties of Organizational Structures

There are only a handful of well-known organizational structures prevalent in enterprises around the world today. Pre-bureaucratic, bureaucratic, post-bureaucratic, and divisional organizational structures are described. Other organizational structures include the matrix structure and the functional structure. What do these organizational structures share in common? If so, then what is it? What distinguishes these organizational structures from one another? Which organizational structure is the best?

Comparing and contrasting the Pre Bureaucratic Organizational Structure and the Bureaucratic Organizational Structures

The pre bureaucratic organizational structure is one in which the organization's leadership is not shared. The duties performed are not always repeated, and if given the authority, anyone can make decisions. This organizational structure, like all other organizational structures, is applicable to business settings. The bureaucratic organization, on the other hand, is built on an established chain of command, and each member of the chain performs the tasks that are specified for them. Any member of the chain who does anything he or she is not permitted to is in violation of the operation guidelines.

Both pre-bureaucratic and bureaucratic organizational structures are applicable within a corporate context and allow for delegation. The distinctions include the absence of divisions in the pre-bureaucratic organizational structure and the abundance of divisions in the bureaucratic organizational structure. In addition, the pre-bureaucratic organizational structure is excellent for small organizations, whereas the bureaucratic organizational structure is appropriate for large enterprises. In a pre-bureaucratic organizational structure, there are no clearly defined actions or duties that employees are expected to accomplish, however in a bureaucratic organizational structure, every bureaucrat has well defined responsibilities.

There are also operational differences that have an impact on profitability and effectiveness, wherein decision making in the pre-bureaucratic structure is quick and easy, whereas in the bureaucratic structure, decision making is extremely difficult due to the need for extensive consultations with individuals who are extremely rigid due to the nature of the structure.

Both the Divisional Organizational Structure and the Functional Organizational Structure are organizational structures.

The divisional organizational structure is founded on the concept of organizational divisions. Each division is given the authority to complete its job in the most efficient manner possible, with minimal interference from other divisions. The functional organizational structure is based on the idea that some areas of an organization execute functions that no other section does. Therefore, these sections are granted autonomy to carry out their responsibilities without interference from other areas of the organization, on the condition that their responsibilities are carried out without error.

The divisional organizational structure is nearly autonomous, whereas the functional organizational structure consists of just specialized personnel who work from their own pool but ensure that their piece of the work contributes to the overall production process (Harris 1994, pp.309-315). The divisional or product organization can have all the elements of an organization, whereas the functional structure contains simply the tools required for the performance of the specific job within the larger organization.

Both of these organizational frameworks share comparable characteristics. Both divisional and functional organizational systems are capable of existing independently. In the context of divisional organizational structure, independent existence refers to the division's production of its own goods or provision of its own services. In contrast, for the functional organizational structure, independence indicates that the services provided by the functional pools are contracted by third parties who may have a need for them in the production of goods and services. For instance, a group of editors can band together and begin marketing their editing services to anyone who desires them.

Post-Bureaucratic and Matrix Organizational Structures

Post-bureaucratic organizational structure refers to a decision-making system in a firm that does not employ bureaucratic points. All important and minor decisions are made through debates among the organization's members, and formalities, the defining characteristic of bureaucracies, have no place in a post-bureaucratic organized organization. It is regarded as the most recent structural innovation in the business sector and is responsible for swift investment decisions that result in substantial benefits for firms who employ this structure. Matrix, on the other hand, is a combination of divisional and functional organizational structures.

There are numerous parallels between the matrix and post-bureaucratic organizational models. The first is that neither need the formal environment seen in bureaucratic organizational structures. Decisions can be made informally and swiftly executed, allowing the company to take advantage of possibilities that would have otherwise been lost due to bureaucratic delays. In addition, both the matrix and post-bureaucratic organizational models can be implemented in both small and large organizations. Therefore, the size of the business has no bearing on these two organizational models. The third commonality is that these two organizational structures are regarded as the most advanced business management structures that can facilitate the business entity's maximal growth and development. This is primarily due to the absence of limitations seen in other structures, such as bureaucratic structures.

These two organizational frameworks have both similarities and differences. First, the post-bureaucratic structure does not correspond to any particular characteristic, whereas the matrix has divisional and functional element characteristics. Due to the fact that they are the two organizational structures that comprise the matrix. Additionally, the matrix is simple to comprehend and implement, as all that is required is an understanding of the divisional and functional models or structures, which are then applied in equal proportions to the organization. However, the post-bureaucratic is distinct in that it may have elements of all known organizational forms without a clear understanding of which structure is more prominent.

The Potential Advantages Of An Efficient Organizational Structure

Nothing is more advantageous to a company than an efficient organizational structure (Hughes 2004, pp.67). There are numerous benefits associated with a good organizational structure. Initially, an efficient organizational structure permits quicker decision-making. This simply means that if a firm is to invest, the decision to spend a particular amount of money securing or purchasing the investment will not squander as much time before it is acquired by another buyer. In addition, a good company structure or organizational structure facilitates healthy interactions and, as a result, eliminates organizational conflicts. This is required for a company to attain the most success possible.

Glazers Lawn Solutions Building

The present organization of Glazers Lawn Solutions appears to be bureaucratic. Ellen's position has placed her in a situation where junior staff are unable to freely engage with her, and Billy Murray, who may be attempting to undermine her by resenting the fact that she took his job, is not making things easy for her. This has rendered the organization ineffectual.

Organizational Culture

Culture is the manner of doing things. This applies to both everyday life and business. The manner in which an organization conducts business, including hiring, firing, celebrations, purchases, and sales, is its culture (Deal &Kennedy 1982, pp.99). Other characteristics of an organization's culture include the manner in which authority is distributed, the manner in which individuals interact, and the manner in which they do their duties. An organization's most prevalent cultures are the power culture, the role culture, the task culture, the person culture, the process culture, and ultimately the hard labor culture (Black 2003, pp.78). The power culture refers to organizational situations in which power is concentrated in the hands of a few individuals (Johnson 1988, pp.76-80). These are the individuals who make every decision and expect others to comply without fail (Parker2000.p.19). The role culture places greater focus on the roles played by every organization member. When necessary, there is unambiguous delegation, and the communication mechanism is transparent, allowing for swift action during emergency delegations of duty. In the task culture, organizations are created to do certain tasks. These organizations are notorious for their eagerness to organize smaller task teams within the larger organization. Typically, they die after the mission is completed (Handy 1985, pp.112).

In addition to the foregoing, there is the process culture, which causes businesses to adopt lengthy procedures for completing tasks. This culture is sluggish and always impedes attempts to speed up production. This type of company or organization culture inevitably results in losses (Gummesson2002, pp.266). Then there is the personal culture that focuses excessively on individual members of the organization, a culture that hinders the organization's performance, and the work culture that encourages leaders to avoid risks and instead engage in activities that are certain to generate profits for the company or organization (Hofstede 1980, pp.76-77).

The Issue with Glazers Lawn Services

Mark, the owner of Glazers Lawn Solutions, appears to place more focus on Ellen as an individual than on uniting all employees for the good of the business. The other staff have observed this and are consequently drawing back. Other issues inside the organization include a lack of transparency and the absence of a defined plan for fostering employee unity. Ellen cannot stop thinking about taking a drink.

How Structure Change may have changed the culture of Glazers Lawn Solutions

At the time of acquisition, Glazers Lawn Solutions was an unsuccessful family business. Mark Lynch's purchase of the company transformed it into a sole proprietorship and gave it the structure of a post-bureaucratic organization. This is why Ellen's coworkers have given her the cold shoulder, as they believe she can do whatever she wants on her own as she looks to be gaining more power.

Management Methodologies

Humanistic management styles such as democratic, which is defined by freedom, and dictatorship, which is the reverse of democratic in that there is no freedom, are prevalent in the majority of firms (Montana & Charnov 2008, pp.45-47). There is also scientific management, pioneered by Fredrick Taylor, in which scientific concepts of merit and training are adhered to (Kanigel, 1999, pp. 13-14) and (Hugh & Aitken 1985, pp.23-24). In contrast, the systems approach requires a study of the entire organization as a system in order to comprehend it (Hill & Jones 2001, pp.91). For instance, Glazers Lawn Solutions can only be comprehended when viewed as a system.

Recommendations Regarding the Revival of Glazers Lawn Solutions

The only way to ensure the success of a business is to develop a corporate culture that fosters togetherness. Ellen is accountable for directing this endeavor.


Organizational behavior is comprised of organizational structure and culture. A well-designed structure expedites decision-making and provides benefits. A positive organizational culture fostered harmonious interactions and synergy. Management approach theories are essential since they allow us to comprehend how companies function.


2007 Anderson's The Long Tail Random House Business Publications. Black, Richard J. ,2003. Developing the Influence Necessary for Strategic Success through Organizational Culture. London:Dissertation.com. Deal, T. E., and A. A. Kennedy, 1982. Corporate Cultures: The Rituals and Customs of the Business World. Penguin Books, in Harmondsworth Gummesson, E.,2002. Complete marketing management. New York: Butterworth-Heinemann. C.B. Handy, 1985. Recognizing Organizations (3rd ed.). Penguin Books, Harmondsworth 1994. "Organizational Culture and Individual Sense Making: A Schema-Based Perspective," by Stanley G. Harris. Organization Science.5,(3): pages 309 to 321. Hill, C., and G. Jones, 2001. Strategic Administration. New York: Houghton Mifflin Publishers Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture's Effects: International Variations in Work-Related Values. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications. 2004 for Thomas P. Hughes American Genesis: A Century of Technological Enthusiasm and Invention, 1870-1970. (2nd ed.). University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Hugh G. & Aitken, J., 1985. Taylorism at the Watertown Arsenal, 1908-1915: Scientific Management in Action Princeton University Press, New York. 1988, G. Johnson, "Rethinking Incrementalism," Strategic Management Journal, vol. 9, pp. 75-91. The One Best Way: Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency, by R. Kanigel, 1999. Penguin's New York location, Kogut, B., Urso,P., and Walker,G.,2007. The Emerging Characteristics of a New Financial Market: American Venture Capital Syndication, 1960–2005 Management Science, (53) 7, pp.1181-1198. Montana, P., & Charnov, B. ,2008. Management (4th ed.). Barrons Educational Series, New York. Parker, M., 2000. Organizational Identity and Culture. London: Sage

[supanova question]

Knowledge Management Initiatives And Power In Firms History Essay Help

From the beginning, at the period of Adam and Eve, knowledge has been something that men have coveted. The serpent lured the first people to eat the forbidden fruit from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, and as much as they desired to obey their creator, the urge to gain knowledge was stronger, so they gave in. This resulted in their banishment from the Garden of Eden and a life of torment. As a result of the importance of information, the pursuit of it can motivate people to act in unexpected ways.

This study examines the nature of knowledge and its significance to individuals and organizations. It will describe the relationship between knowledge and power and how efficient and effective knowledge transfer can enhance individual and organizational performance in the pursuit of goals.

The reader will gain a great lot from reading this article, since it illuminates how knowledge must be utilized for the reader's benefit.

Many people have adhered to the adage "Knowledge is Power" as a strategy for attaining personal or professional empowerment and advantage or as a safeguard against the uncertainties and unstable conditions of life's situations. This proverb's wisdom has stood the test of time and the rigors of critical study and evaluation of philosophical investigation and other social sciences.

Francis Bacon is credited with coining the adage "Knowledge is Power." Power refers to the use or use of force, permissive authority, or significant influence over another individual or group of individuals, whereas knowledge refers to the facts or concepts acquired via investigation, observation, or experience.

Today, knowledge and power continue to be of great interest and maintain a high level of relevance and importance in the study and comprehension of the dynamic movement of the sociological environment, behavior, and conduct of humans. The complexity and diversity of human activity and social order contribute to the emergence of challenges that are unique to the structural transformations of modern society. It is therefore vital to understand the numerous aspects and factors that bind human relationships and to determine the factors that have a positive or negative effect on them.

Definition of knowledge in the dictionary:

the fact or condition of knowing something with familiarity gained through experience or association acquaintance with or understanding of a science, art, or technique the fact or condition of being aware of something or, the extent of one's knowledge or comprehension the fact or condition of having knowledge or of being learned.

Among other things, the Miriam-Webster Dictionary describes power as

Possession of control, authority, or influence over other individuals.

Inadvertently, the idiom "knowledge is power" has been misconstrued as synonymous with these two notions, which have often been used interchangeably to refer to one or the other or to some extent as a component of each other. Unlike power, however, not all instances of knowledge imply power.

The question of when knowledge becomes power emerges.

In this regard, Nagel E. (1961) proposes a spectrum that can be used to determine the amount to which the various forms of knowledge empower organizations and, by extension, individuals. This spectrum of knowledge extends from "hard" to "soft"; knowledge that fits the criteria of offering explanations that are systematic and controllable by factual evidence is classified as "hard," whereas knowledge that falls short of this criterion is classified as "soft." A particular form of knowledge is characterized by its application of the scientific method, in which the validity of the methods and procedures used in data collection and the formulation of conclusions are fully supported by empirical evidence. As a source of truth, the precision, quantifiability, and methodical nature of scientific information convey a great deal of persuasive force, and this type of knowledge possesses the ability to create change.

Let us consider the indigenous wisdom of tribal communities as an example. Elders would be stubborn about accepting scientifically proven treatments despite having practiced traditional medicine for centuries with the steadfast belief that the gods are on their side, hence causing their concoctions to heal the afflicted miraculously (soft knowledge) (hard knowledge). In this sense, soft knowledge is highly contestable. Due to the facts acquired to support scientific explanations in medicine, the scientific community may respect the tribe's beliefs but not embrace them as absolute truth. Thus, the weak knowledge of the tribe is insufficient to influence more individuals. On the other hand, the hard information provided by scientific discoveries may have a greater impact on those who embrace the data as proof of the truth, making it a powerful instrument.

On the opposite end of the spectrum are the softer forms of knowledge, or those that Lindblom and Cohen (1979) refer to as "common sense" or "ordinary knowledge." Since this type of knowledge is founded on general explanatory principles, it cannot be anticipated to provide power.

Even while Bernard Loomer (1976) acknowledges that scientific knowledge is necessary and specialized information, he contends that this type of knowledge is only the "primary servant" of unilateral authority. For power, scientific knowledge serves solely as a tool and not an aim. Universities have thus become training grounds for the exercise of this type of power.

Michael Foucault (1977) contends, to the contrary, that the ideas of knowledge and power should be used interchangeably, as he argues that those in power possess specialized knowledge, making power impossible without knowledge. Consequently, "the production of knowledge and the exercise of administrative power are intertwined, and each begins to strengthen the other." This describes the nature of the link between knowledge and power: Power exists within a cacophony of social actions and circumstances. Discourse inside these social forms manifests as a discourse economy. Therefore, according to Foucault, power is directly related to the economy of discourse itself.

Foucault asserts that human cognition exists within a discourse economy. As scholar Barry Allen (1999) explains, knowledge is "the privilege of allowing a proposition to be accepted by others as known or true… Speech acts are intersubjective, dialogical encounters that have reciprocal consequences on several speakers. The object of knowledge is that which is known, and its "other" is the person to whom it is delivered and received as knowledge, bypassing the other as "truth" (Allen, 1999, p. 71). This becomes a "economy" of words, with statements functioning as currency and conversations as a medium of transaction. It is as random and superficial as its premises suggest.

According to Kogan (2005), the power generated by knowledge may be influenced by three sets of qualities. One relates to its persuasiveness and social utility appeal. The second relates to who defines research objectives: academics, government, or industry. Following Whitley (1977) and Weingart (1977), the third argument relates the epistemic style and standing of the research to its effectiveness. Being aware of this enables us to effectively handle and utilize our new knowledge.

A simple example of organizational power is the reality that the majority of managers and supervisors possess information that the majority of their employees lack. Confidential information and technical or specialized knowledge gained through education or experience distinguish them from the rest of the organization's members. This may be associated with Loomer's unilateral view of power.

Organizations must be cognizant of relational power, or the exchange of power and information, in order to be successful when working as a team. Therefore, this would require the transmission of information from those who possess it to others who do not. For various tasks, including product creation (Hansen, 1999) and disseminating best practices throughout the organization (Darr, Argott, & Epple, 1995), it is necessary to transfer and share knowledge between units. It has been demonstrated that firms that are more effective at knowledge transfer have a larger chance of organizational survival and higher levels of production (Dart et al., 1995; Dyer & Nobeoka, 2000; Galbraith, 1990). It merely demonstrates that knowledge is a vital organizational asset.

Consider the hospital environment to highlight the importance of knowledge transmission in the workplace. It is beneficial for specialists to have access to a patient's medical record and medical history, which detail all of the therapy treatments they are receiving. It would be unpleasant to recommend an exercise that would strain wounded muscles or to give a prescription that would cause an allergic reaction, but if the information offered to the workers is insufficient, these things may occur. To thoroughly monitor each patient's situation, it is recommended that there be one chart per patient for diagnostic and therapy purposes, and that all engaged specialists record their observations there. All relevant professionals shall receive a copy of these patient case charts for convenient reference during case review sessions and for their personal files.

Despite an increasing awareness of the significance of knowledge transfer, the exchange of information inside organizations continues to be difficult. According to Burgess (2005), "one barrier to developing successful knowledge transfer initiatives appears to be the tendency of practitioners and researchers to focus on tools (e.g., technology) and tasks (e.g., routines) with less attention to knowledge-transfer among people" (Argote & Ingram, 2000; Cabrera & Cabrera, 2002; Davenport & Prusak, 1998; Huysman & de Wit, 2003). Due to the fact that a substantial quantity of knowledge is ingrained in individual employees, transmission of knowledge between members is a crucial part of knowledge transfer. Furthermore, member-to-member knowledge transfer is especially advantageous to an organization's competitive advantage because it is less susceptible to "external knowledge spillover" than transfer involving tools and tasks, which frequently results in codified knowledge that can be more easily "leaked" to competitors (Argote & Ingram, 2000).

Managers and individuals in positions of authority guard against the leakage of such expectedly exclusive organizational information. Limiting the amount of knowledge communicated from high management to the rest of the company is one strategy. This is part of the management of knowledge.

According to Jones (2006), the strength of knowledge lies in its application. This applies not only to managers and other individuals in supervisory roles, but also to their workers. Employees who acquire a large quantity of knowledge should use it to advance their careers and, more importantly, for the greater good of the community. Examining a particular organizational choice to its conclusion is an illustration. Dedicated staff are able to conduct objective research and communicate their findings with management. In this way, individuals are able to utilize their knowledge to influence those in authority, and when they are regarded, they too share in the organization's authority.

Motivational impediments to knowledge transfer included a lack of extrinsic benefits, higher degrees of group identification as opposed to organizational identification, reciprocity norms, and the perception of knowledge as a path to organizational advancement. (Burgess, 2005). Workers will be more motivated to transfer information to another expert from a different discipline if management rewards this conduct with either external incentives, such as merit or salary increases, or internal measures to promote their self-esteem, such as praise or simple gratitude. A sense of devotion to the organization is also required for employees to be inspired to go above and beyond their basic duties. Typically, above-average personal and professional attributes are required to maintain such firm integrity. This is important to consider as an employee and for management to analyze the type of employee they desire.

"Because sharing knowledge can be a time-consuming task that leaves employees with less time for their own work, it is essential that organizations send clear and consistent messages about the types of knowledge-exchange activities they want to encourage and provide adequate credit, recognition, and time for employees who engage in these activities." (Burgess, 2005)

A further technique for encouraging "intra-firm" knowledge sharing would be to improve employee identification with the organization and foster cooperation between business units. This can be accomplished by focusing on external rather than internal competition.

In some businesses, there may be intercultural concerns that must be addressed for knowledge management to be successful. The definition of culture is "the communal programming of the mind that distinguishes one human group from another… In this perspective, culture encompasses systems of values, and values are among the cultural pillars (Hofstede, 1994). This term reveals the extent to which culture influences individuals. People can gain the cooperation of others if they are compassionate, understand diverse cultures, and make the necessary adjustments to fit the demands of others. The majority of conflicts that arise in a culturally diverse environment are the result of miscommunication and misunderstanding. Ethical factors are susceptible to interpretation. "Different interpretations of a situation account for cultural differences." Practically everyone believes that 'ethics' means doing 'the right thing,' but how to arrive at a 'ethical' conclusion is debatable." (2005) at the Brisbane Institute. Situational elements such as organizational goals, organizational codes of ethics, the legal environment, and the perception of the opposite party influence the final business choice. It is possible to establish organizational objectives, but individuals from various cultures may pursue them in diverse ways (Brisbane Institute, 2005). There will also be cross-cultural variances in the interpretation of codes of ethics based on the familiarity, tradition, or length of codes of ethics inside certain commercial organizations." (2005) at the Brisbane Institute. It is crucial, therefore, that all employees' values correspond with those of the organization. Divergent values generate friction and hamper goal attainment. According to Mishra and Morrissey (1990), the following characteristics foster trust: open communication, greater worker participation in decision-making, exchange of vital information, and genuine sharing of perceptions and emotions.

Management must consistently convey its philosophy, mission, and vision to each employee. Each employee should have the sense that he is a member of a fantastic team that sets and achieves lofty objectives. "Creating the circumstances for knowledge transfer requires significant structural and cultural changes by the organization's senior executives, who must be convinced that the advantages of knowledge transfer outweigh the costs. Absent this commitment, it is unlikely that efforts to promote the flow of knowledge will succeed (Burgess, 2005). Leaders should be wary of publicly extolling the virtues of "knowledge sharing" without a substantial commitment to change, as this may result in the failure of well-intentioned knowledge transfer initiatives, resulting in lower employee morale and the possibility of resistance to future knowledge-transfer initiatives. (Burgess, 2005)


Allen, B. (1999) Power/Knowledge. Essays Critical of Michel Foucault Ed. Karlis Racevskis. New York: G.K. Hall and Company

Argote, L., & Ingram, P. (2000). Knowledge transfer is the foundation for organizations' competitive advantage. 82, 150-169, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. Business Ethics, Brisbane Institute, 2005.

What Motivates Employees to Transfer Knowledge Outside Their Work Unit, Burgess, D., 2005 The Journal of Business Communication.

Cabrera, A., & Cabrera, E. F. (2002). Knowledge-sharing quandaries. Organization Studies, 23, 687-710 references.

Davenport, T., & Prusak, L. (1998). The manner in which corporations handle their knowledge. Harvard Business School Press, Boston.

Darr E., Argote, L., & Epple, D. (1995). Knowledge acquisition, transfer, and depreciation in service organizations: franchise productivity. Management Science, 41, 1750-1762.

Dyer, J. H., & Nobeoka, K. (2000). The Toyota Case: Creating and administering a high-performance knowledge-sharing network. Strategic Management Journal, volume 21, pages 345 to 367.

M. Foucault, Power/Knowledge, 1977. New York City: Pantheon

Transferring key manufacturing technologies in high technology enterprises, C. S. Galbraith, California Management Review 32 (1990), pp. 56-70.

Hansen, M. T. (1999). The search-transfer problem: The role of weak relationships in the transfer of information between organizational subunits. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44 (1), pp. 82–11

Hislop, D. (2005). A Critical Introduction to Knowledge Management in Organizations. Oxford University Press.

London: McGraw-Hill/HarperCollins, 1994. Hofstede, G. Cultures and Organizations: Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for Survival: Software of the Mind.

Huysman, M., & de Wit, D. (2003). A comprehensive analysis of knowledge management strategies. In M. S. Ackerman, V. Pipek, & V. Wulf (Eds.). Expertise sharing: Beyond knowledge management (pp. 27-55). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press

Jones, D.S., "Expanding our Influence," in Professional Safety, vol.

Higher Education (2005) 49: 9-30; Kogan, M. (2005). Modes of Knowledge and Power Patterns.

C.E. Lindblom and D. Cohen (1979). Utilizable Knowledge: Social Science and Solving Social Problems Yale University Press is based out of New Haven.

B. Loomer published Two Conceptions of Power in Criterion in 1976 on pages 12-29.

J. Mishra and M. A. Morrissey (1990). A poll of West Michigan managers on trust in employee-employer interactions. Public Personnel Management, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1990, pp.443-463.

Nagel, E. (1961). The Organization of Science. Difficulties with the Logic of Scientific Explanation Routledge and Kegan Paul have offices in both London and Henley.

Weingart, P. (1977). "Science policy and the development of science," in Perspectives in the Sociology of Science, edited by S. Blume. Chichester: John Wiley & Son.

Whitley, Robert D. (1984). The Social and Intellectual Organization of the Sciences.

[supanova question]

Xerox Corporation: Organization Development History Essay Help


The Xerox Corporation is an industry leader in the production of printers, photocopiers, and multifunction devices. The international corporation also provides consulting services. Additionally, the company "engineers and manufactures various components of personal computing, including the computer mouse and desktop metaphor GUI" (Seipp, Kinsella and Lindberg 229). Xerox is the main provider of high-quality document services at present.

Affiliated Computer Services (ACS) is successful due to Xerox's ownership. Affiliated Computer Services enables Xerox to provide superior HR services and customer support to a variety of clients. The company utilizes the power of research and development (R&D) to create effective goods. However, bad accounting methods, continued competition, and diminishing worldwide markets have impacted its business performance. This article provides an effective organizational development (OD) strategy that can handle the aforementioned difficulties and position Xerox as an industry leader. The focused solution employs effective OD principles to ensure the success of the organization.

Diagnostic Procedure

Evaluation of the Xerox Corporation

It is true that Xerox Corporation "provides high-quality products to a large number of customers in various parts of the world" (McCauley et al. 642). The company's diverse qualities make it a market leader in document outsourcing services (Seipp, Kinsella, and Lindberg 224). The company's headquarters are located in Norwalk, Connecticut. The company has about 147,000 employees in nations all over the world. The company operates in numerous nations worldwide. This strategy has made it a top document management (DM) industry rival. Additionally, Xerox offers powerful technology and specialized knowledge to a diverse clientele. These services make it easier for customers to function efficiently and realize their full potential.

Customers of Xerox consist of "resellers, distributors, and graphic communication businesses" (Seipp et al. 229). This organization operates two distinctive units. Included are Document Technology and Services (Chesbrough and Rosenbloom 536). These units share product, manufacturing, and technology platforms to accomplish the desired results. Numerous competitors negatively impact the company's business performance. Computer Sciences Corporation, Dell, IBM, Canon, Lexmark, and Accenture are some of these competitors. Appropriate is a comprehension of Xerox Corporation's most significant issues and prospects.


Xerox Corporation is successful due to its many strengths. For instance, the company has made substantial investments in research and development (R&D) to meet the changing needs of its customers. The "business designs robust products with technological and environmental benefits" (McCauley et al. 642). The organization also provides customers with the most effective environmental solutions. However, the company faces a number of obstacles that impact its business plan.

The business operates in a highly competitive environment. The global adoption of current technologies has compelled the company to adapt properly. These "market dynamics have exerted increasing pressure on the business strategy of the company" (Scott 3). In order for the business to realize its full potential, it must continually identify new, inventive features and designs. Environmental conservation is a crucial concern in various sectors. Feature advancement (FA) is an additional obstacle for Xerox Corporation. Numerous businesses are "required to become carbon neutral" (Jargosch and Jurich, 51). In light of this, Xerox must invest heavily in R&D to create ecologically friendly products. This strategy contributes to the firm's competitiveness and success.

Additionally, the world economy is facing several recessions. These unpredictability of economic trends is compelling the company to restructure its business operations. These modifications may also have an impact on the bargaining power of many customers. This development may eventually reduce the profitability of the company. Many enterprises in this industry are affected by the presence of diverse environmental responsibilities. Additionally, the company faces numerous financial restraints. To remain competitive, the business "must allocate more funds to research and development, design, and innovation" (Scott 5). When creating a variety of products and services, the subject of recycling should also be taken into account.


Xerox Corporation, on the other hand, has numerous options that could lead to its success. Numerous clients and business partners consider Xerox to be an innovative firm. In order to realize its full potential, the company employs the most effective quality management methods. The corporate brand of the organization draws numerous customers worldwide. This explains why Xerox is the foremost manufacturer and marketer of photocopiers, fax machines, and printers. Additionally, the corporation has been "marketing a variety of software, document equipment, and services" (Seipp et al. 223). Additionally, the company sells recycled papers to its customers. These opportunities facilitate Xerox's ability to realize its corporate potential.

The company has the capability to maintain its competitive advantage. The company's R&D strategy can concentrate on environmental concerns affecting this business. This strategy will make it easier for the company to provide its clients with high-quality goods and services. Additionally, the company has been assisting more businesses with their environmental issues (Jargosch and Jurich 54). Xerox's goods, for instance, support the concept of environmental protection. The approach highlights why an increasing number of businesses will be willing to partner with Xerox Corporation in the future. Xerox has also purchased new businesses, including ACS. This circumstance explains why the company will be able to meet the wants of a greater number of clients in the future.

Analysis of Socio-Technical Systems

Using the best organizational development (OD) approaches, Xerox Corporation is capable of addressing the aforementioned difficulties. Organizational development is "a potent strategy that enables diverse groups and teams to adopt new ways of doing things" (Daft, 43). Xerox has intense competition from other companies. Additionally, the company is unable to successfully manage diverse economic and financial limitations. Numerous buyers demand eco-friendly products. For Xerox to become an industry leader, an effective marketing plan is also essential. Consequently, Xerox must design new procedures and structures in order to attain the desired results. The key objective is to expand this organization.

Implementing Six Sigma is the most effective strategy for addressing the issues listed above. Xerox is currently promoting a diverse selection of products to numerous clients. However, the corporation faces several challenges that have a negative impact on its business results. Existing environmental regulations also have an impact on its commercial success. The Six Sigma methodology can bring several opportunities. This method aims to eliminate various errors in an effort to get the desired results (Daft 67). Xerox will be able to decrease business expenses, maximize earnings, raise customer satisfaction, and enhance its competitiveness.

This method utilizes multiple Organization Development ideas (OD). The initial notion is action research. This procedure involves conducting study to comprehend the issues facing the organization. This concept is essential since it facilitates managers' ability to solve existing issues. Xerox's study can "identify the most effective guidelines for practice" (Seipp et al. 229). The second principle is group dynamics. This idea focuses on several approaches that can encourage the greatest methods. This strategy is essential because Xerox Corporation is composed of numerous people and groups. These two strategies will facilitate Xerox's ability to realize its full potential.

The second potent concept is that of a change agent. Every strategy for organizational development should include a qualified change agent. This individual must possess the necessary behavioral abilities. He or she should be familiar with the most effective decision-making procedures. The individual must utilize a variety of intervention skills to promote specific practices. The OD strategy will view Xerox as an integrated system. This "strategy will concentrate on all the cliques, values, individuals, norms, and products that comprise the organization" (McCauley et al. 635). The change agent will "promote the best ideas to enhance the organization's ability to manage its functions and relationships" (Daft 73).

Plans, Strategies, and Tactics for Action

Numerous steps will ensure the success of this strategy. The change model of Kurt Lewin can be used to assist Xerox's objectives. The three steps are "thawing, altering, and freezing again" (Daft 87). This transformation model has the potential to provide effective procedures that will make Xerox a formidable competitor in its industry. Additionally, action research should be done to collect the necessary facts and information. This approach will facilitate the adoption of action planning by the intended managers. The second step will guarantee that every employee comprehends the company's vision. Leaders and managers will urge more people to solve all company-wide problems.

Xerox Corporation should also employ the most effective Six Design Drivers (SDDs) to address its organizational difficulties. The SDDs described here will enable the company's managers to maximize all activities. The company's operations will prioritize optimal outcomes. This organizational development approach will support the best practices. It will also generate formidable teams capable of achieving the desired outcomes (Daft 89). These SDDs will be included in the proposed OD remedy.

Figure 1 depicts the six design drivers.

Management Attention The company's CEO and managers should hire qualified team leaders.

Utilized Resources Xerox should also enhance its products' competitiveness and quality. These items will have the ability to attract more clients.

Integration and Coordination Additionally, the company should develop new organizational teams. Modern plans for research and development (R&D) will also handle the company's issues.

Specialization Different personnel at Xerox Corporation should have specialized responsibilities.

Accountability and Management Every employee at the company should assume responsibility. Leaders of an organization should successfully handle every practice.

Motivation and Instruction A potent motivational method will guarantee that every employee is innovative.

This change model will promote new behaviors like effective communication, intergroup cooperation, and trust. These positive habits will facilitate Xerox's ability to realize its potential. A proper planning strategy will guarantee the suggested change is efficiently implemented (Tripon and Dodu 4). This move will also foster an environment in which every employee concentrates on achieving the best results. The final step is refreezing, whereby the executed change is incorporated into the organization. The strategy will enhance the company's performance and efficacy.

Plans for Intervention Evaluation and Disengagement

The key objective is to ensure the prosperity of Xerox Corporation. The company will be capable of producing creative goods. Xerox employees will develop high-quality goods using the most advanced R&D methods. Additionally, each employee will prioritize excellent practices. The marketing staff will examine the fluctuating requirements of various international customers. Moreover, the company will lower its budgets. The development of a collaborative team will handle the company's budgetary constraints. Additionally, the R&D team will create items that meet the needs of a variety of consumers (Tripon and Dodu 6). Problem-solving and decision-making will become commonplace in this organization.

Multiple parties should be involved in the suggested solution. The implementation of the planned Six Sigma requires a change agent. This agent of change will discover the most effective interpersonal behaviors for addressing the existing challenges. The HR manager will also be responsible for addressing the difficulties faced by various employees (Jargosch and Jurich 65). Employees should be encouraged to form a variety of teams. This new adjustment will also involve the CEO and management. These folks should establish the optimal conditions for growth. Every client and consumer must participate in this procedure. These folks will provide Xerox with valuable talents and suggestions that will contribute to its success.


This solution will provide numerous benefits and solutions to the organization. Xerox will acquire new business processes that can be enhanced and regulated, for instance. The company will encourage continual efforts that can yield the best outcomes. The focus of the most senior management will be on quality enhancement. Employees will always be committed to achieving the greatest results (Scott 7). Depending on the specified organizational functions, new teams will form. Essentially, the aforesaid OD techniques will provide effective solutions that will enable Xerox to meet all company objectives.

Sources Cited

The Role of the Business Model in Capturing Value from Innovation: Evidence from Xerox Corporation's Technology Spin-off Companies, by Henry Chesbrough and Richard Rosenbloom. Industrial and Corporate Change 11.3 (2002): 529-555.

Daft, Richard. Organizational Design and Theory 2012, Cengage Brain, New York, NY. Print.

Jargosch, Reiner, and Joseph Jurich. Analysis of the Xerox Corporation patent landscape IPGenix LLC published in New York in 2014.

Cynthia McCauley, Wilfred Drath, Charles Palus, Patricia O'Connor, and Rebecca Baker The application of constructive-developmental theory to increase leadership knowledge. The Leadership Quarterly, 17.1 (2006), pp. 634-653, in print.

Organization Development Primer: Theory and Practice of Large Group Interventions, by Brenda Scott. IRC 1.1 (2009): 1-8 (Print version).

Issues in Accounting Education 26.1 (2011): 219-240 Seipp, Edward, Sean Kinsella, and Deborah Lindberg, "Xerox, Inc." Print.

Tripon, Ciprian and Marius Dodu 2012, Change Management and Organization Development. Web.

[supanova question]

International Human Resource Management History Essay Help


According to Dawson, human resources are crucial components of any corporate organization (2003, p. 147). Human resource managers have traditionally helmed the human resource departments of various corporate organizations and business entities in order to improve human resource performance. Human resource managers are responsible for all matters pertaining to the well-being of the company's employees, as well as the recruitment of new human resources.

Many commercial entities and corporate organizations have gone global as a result of globalization; in this case, so many corporations have extended and continue to spread their activities to different regions of the world (Khosrowpour, 1996). This has demanded worldwide human resource managers. The international human resources managers are tasked with managing human resources matters pertaining to the overseas operations of corporations or businesses. International human resource management is a crucial aspect of a company's international expansion, as it requires preparing employees to carry out their jobs in a variety of foreign operations. International human resource management also requires the interpretation or translation of international customs and culture in relation to executing international economic activities.

In order to operate internationally, international human resources managers must have knowledge of international business communications; this implies that for a company to consider operating internationally, it must implement all the strategies that will allow it to operate and interact effectively and efficiently with the international business community; these may include familiarity with expatriate programs, international latitude and longitude, and international latitude and longitude. In order to strengthen the operations of their international human resources management process, corporate organizations must have appropriate financial resources.

Australia's Peanut Producer (PCA)

The Peanut Company of Australia is one of the most prominent suppliers of peanut goods in all of Australia. The company was founded in 1924 with the purpose of developing peanut products for Australian consumers. In addition to producing peanut products, the company is also involved in the research and development of new peanut planting seeds of superior quality. Moreover, the organization supplies peanut growers with various pertinent pieces of advise regarding harvesting, shell removal, seed grading, roasting, and finally the addition of value to the finished products (Bryceson 2006).

The Peanut Company of Australia is involved in the food business. Moreover, as a result of globalization, the corporation has expanded into numerous overseas markets. It has expanding exports to the United States, Japan, and the United Kingdom, among other countries. Currently, the company intends to expand its activities into Indonesia, where it is anticipated that new marketing opportunities will present themselves. The business's management structure is comprised of six members of the board of directors and directors of sales and supply, sales and marketing, as well as the chief financial officer and company secretary (Bryceson 2006).

The Peanut Company of Australia has a diverse pool of human resources. At the harvesting stage, when groundnuts are plucked using machines but with human involvement, the significance of human resources is clear. Other sectors where human resources are essential include planting, roasting, sorting, value addition, and the distribution of completed goods to both domestic and foreign markets.

PEST Analysis

Indonesia is one of the fastest-growing worldwide markets, particularly for peanut goods. In Indonesia, peanut oil is the most widely used cooking oil; the oil is extracted from peanuts. Indonesia gives a stronger possibility for Peanut Company of Australia to grow its existing foreign businesses, given its various uses for peanut goods (Henry 2008).


The tax policy in Indonesia allows the corporation to operate profitably in Indonesia. In reality, Indonesia has more favorable tax policies for international company than Australia. Moreover, based on Indonesia's employment rules, it is easy and possible to recruit skilled workers from both the place of origin and overseas; this indicates that there are no restrictions on the nationality of employees permitted to work in Indonesia. In addition, the company's products do not have significant environmental impacts, and the company's environmental practices currently comply with Indonesia's environmental regulations. Moreover, the country's environmental rules are simple to comply with.

Indonesia's political environment is conducive to international investment because of the country's considerable political stability. Due to the fact that the government relies heavily on foreign direct investment, political elites are compelled to provide a conducive climate for international investors to conduct business within the nation.

The Indonesian government has assured that tariffs and all other forms of trade barriers do not deter international investors. In Indonesia, trade restrictions and tariffs are lower than in Australia, and the establishment of a business does not need adhering to a stringent bureaucracy; in other words, commercial activities in Indonesia are more liberalized than in Australia and other nations.


For the Peanut Company of Australia to contemplate investing in Indonesia, economic issues are crucial. Indonesia's economy is expanding quickly, and the government has encouraged the formation of businesses that will contribute to this expansion. The Indonesian government has provided a number of economic incentives to entice international investment. In comparison to other global markets, the interest rates charged in Indonesia are manageable; they are relatively modest and affordable for the majority of foreign commercial operations.

The exchange rate between the Indonesian rupiah and the major foreign currencies is another factor that makes investing in the country advantageous. In addition, it is essential to highlight that Indonesia has not seen severe inflation in recent years. Since the value of the currency has been constant for some time, it is not risky for the corporation to invest in Indonesia.

Social aspects

Social elements will be one of the most important criteria for the company's efficient and successful operation. The social elements consist of those variables that affect the needs of customers and the extent of prospective market openings. Social factors have both demographic and cultural implications.

Health consciousness is one of the most essential social aspects. In Indonesia, potential consumers of the company's peanut goods are well-informed about health issues and would only consume foods that encourage a healthy lifestyle. In this instance, the government has mandated that firms engaged in the food industry adhere to certain regulations. Peanut Company of Australia's safety procedures are geared toward ensuring that the company's products pose no sort of health danger to consumers.

Even if the population growth rate in Indonesia is moderate, there is promise for a market expansion. This is supported by the fact that Indonesians utilize peanut oil for cooking on a big scale. It therefore means that the increasing population will likely result in a greater need for peanut oil, thereby expanding the market for peanut products. Additionally, peanut goods can be utilized by folks of all ages. This facilitates the company's ability to concentrate on the market as a whole rather than investing resources on market segmentation.

The safety of its citizens is a top priority for the Indonesian government; therefore, Peanut Company of Australia will easily be able to comply with the food safety policies that the Indonesian government has enacted, as the company has food safety policies that meet international standards and requirements. In general, the Indonesian government has the responsibility to protect its inhabitants from dangerous products.


Technology is one of globalization's most essential components. Foreign activities are conducted by multinational firms employing technology expertise. The government of Indonesia has fostered an atmosphere in which both domestic and international businesses can embrace the use of cutting-edge technologies to improve the production of goods and services. There are policies that encourage research and development, which are crucial for innovation and new inventions during the production process.

High rates of technological change in Indonesia indicate that new technologies enter the market rapidly and are adopted virtually instantly by company operators. This encourages quality output. It is also vital to mention that the Indonesian government has a plan to provide corporate organizations with technology incentives, so making technological innovation through study and implementation of new technological recommendations profitable. Transport is an integral component of the production process. The transport infrastructure in Indonesia is highly developed and conducive to the efficient production and distribution of products and services. This will be of significant benefit to Australia's Peanut Company.

In recent years, there have been notable cultural tensions between Australia and Indonesia. This is due to the fact that the cultures and identities of the two nations are distinct. According to Hoftede's research, it is vital to note that both countries are culturally distinct based on individuality versus collectivism and power distance. In many instances, this situation has led to misunderstandings between citizens from both countries who connect through commerce or education. Based on Hoftede's research, Indonesian culture is characterized by low uncertainty avoidance, large power distance, masculinity, and collectivism. Currently, the Australian culture is characterized by a low power distance, a high level of individualism, a low level of uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity.

The implication is that the Indonesians are more likely to avoid conflict due to their collectivist beliefs; this is in contrast to the individualistic culture of the Australians, who are logically engaged in speaking their personal mind and would rather do so than face-save in the presence of a third party. According to Australian culture, it is acceptable to disagree with someone using a logical explanation, and one is not required to take an uncomfortable position if he or she does not like something or an issue. In contrast, in Indonesian society it is regarded ethical to address persons with their formal reference titles, such as "sir" and "madam." This cultural explanation is reinforced by Hoftede's theories (Jacko 2009).

As a result of the relocation of a portion of Peanut Company of Australia's employees to Indonesia, the human resource management process is expected to experience some issues. It is quite likely that there would be a cultural conflict between the Indonesian and Australian personnel in this situation. The cultural factors proposed by Hofstede explain this situation (Borgos, 2008). This will result in sophisticated human resource management techniques to ensure that both cultures are reconciled for the company's benefit and profitability. In light of this, the human resource management process will be required to devise strategies for training employees on the need to comprehend one another based on national cultural background. In addition, the approach will need to teach personnel about foreign cultural customs and how they influence individual behavior and relationships with others.

This may necessitate the hiring of foreign human resource management consultants. As a result, the business will need to invest more in its worldwide resource management. To accommodate the culturally diverse workforce, human resource management will be required to increase its operational costs. It is essential to note, however, that the cross-cultural differences between the two countries will not pose a significant problem for the human resource management department of the company, as both nations have been trading partners, and there are ways to conduct business without necessarily disagreeing on the basis of culture. However, this issue remains delicate.

Selection and Recruiting

In many instances, the recruitment and selection process has been influenced by country culture, ethical institutions, and legal frameworks. This is illustrated by the recruitment case study in Canada (Catano 2009). In many instances, the process has been marred by partiality, bigotry, and corruption due to national culture. Notable is the fact that many multinational corporations recruit and select anybody they deem fit to join their teams; in this situation, they prefer to hire nationals of their home countries to work in their extended foreign commercial operations. The majority of recruitment agents or, more accurately, human resource managers have personal preferences based on ethnicity, culture, and predilection. Human resource managers may be concerned that diverse cultural practices and beliefs would disrupt the organization's basic operations. In addition, recruitment and selection based on culture may be problematic due to the belief that recruiting from a desired national culture will make operations inside the company smooth, productive, and efficient; this is bolstered by the lack of cultural disputes between employees. In this instance, numerous nations and multinational corporations have implemented policies that guide recruiting and selection, particularly on the worldwide labor market.

The legal basis for recruiting and selection varies from country to country. When it comes to hiring and selecting new staff, organizations aiming to expand operations abroad frequently confront a number of regulatory obstacles. It is essential to recognize that state recruitment and labor rules vary, with some being more stringent than others. Companies and other business organizations contemplating international expansion must be prepared to meet legal obstacles that may impede their ability to operate profitably. For example, the minimum wage regulations in one nation may differ from those in another nation of the same parent nation. This may prompt human resource recruiters to explore relocating to nations with lower minimum salary requirements. In addition, it is important to note that international human resource management is governed by rules that inform the recruitment and selection process.

The recruitment and selection procedure requires ethics as well. In this instance, ethics may entail conducting recruiting without corruption, bribery, favoritism, or racism; this necessitates that the process adhere to a set of ethical norms and, in the majority of cases, fulfill international recruitment and selection criteria.

Performance Administration

The extent to which human resource management methods and practices can be transmitted from one nation to another.

Corporate Restructuring And Strategic Management History Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Discourse Conclusion Suggestions Sources Cited


The effectiveness and efficiency with which an organization coordinates its human resource and other resources may determine the organization's success or failure. As a result, management, which encompasses essential elements such as planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling, is a crucial facet of operating enterprises.

It is essential to recognize that there are numerous management styles (from which organizational leadership can choose). Strategic management is one of the most often accepted management styles/concepts. The issue of strategic management is not only an important area of study for researchers and academic analysts, but also a useful resource for organizational leaders who desire to improve the coordination of resources to achieve a certain objective.

The strategic management concept is a revolutionary innovation that has transformed management.

This research study intends to analyze significant concerns regarding the concept of strategic management by focusing on key variables such as its history/and evolution, what the concept comprises, its significance and/or impacts, and applicable legislation.


The concept of strategic management cannot be understood or addressed in its entirety without reference to its origin and development. As such, it is essential to comprehend the origins of the terms.

First, it is essential to comprehend the meaning of the term'strategy' and its application to management. According to Athapaththu, "the word'strategy' has so many different meanings, and all of these meanings are useful, significant, and pertinent to those who are responsible for formulating strategy for organizations and corporations" (p. 124).

The term "strategy" dates back to the pre-modern era, when it was employed by the military. The Greeks employed the term "strategos" in the military with the connotation of marshaling and successfully employing weapons and soldiers, as well as plotting to defeat opponents (Athapaththu 124-127).

In contrast, management has a pretty lengthy history dating back to 5000 BCE. However, the management science did not mature until the early 20th century, when theorists such as Frederick Taylor and Max Weber altered the perception of management.

The history of strategic management dates back to World War II, when business leaders sought to transition their enterprises from a relatively stable to a dynamic and competitive environment (Athapaththu 124-127). It is also important to note that strategic management was once considered a component of strategic planning.

According to pundits, strategic management is a relatively young profession that has evolved over the last few decades by incorporating contributions from a variety of disciplines, especially the social sciences (Guerras-Martn, Madhok, and Montoro-Sánchez).

Strategic management entails, essentially, continual planning, monitoring, analysis, and assessment with the intention of achieving and meeting goals and objectives effectively (Athapaththu 124-127).

Athapaththu argued that strategic management is a complete and substantially bigger discipline that encompasses crucial areas such as the analysis of the organizational environment "for strategy formulation and the plan of strategy implementation and controlling" (p. 126). In addition, it is essential to view strategic management as an ongoing collection of strategic analysis, strategic design, implementation, and monitoring (Athapaththu 124-127).

Therefore, the management technique arranges all of an organization's resources in accordance with its vision, mission, and strategy. Exceptionally, the role of strategic management in preparing an organization for future forecasts and providing precise procedural direction should not be mistaken with prediction, which does not require strategic management.

Nonetheless, strategic management is an essential aspect of management, since it entails directing courses of action with the objective of developing and retaining a competitive advantage while considering the internal and external contexts.

Dima presented a five-step model that can be utilized to elaborate on the fundamental parts and principles of strategic management.

First phase: defining the firm and developing its strategic objective. Phase 2: Establishing strategic objectives and performance targets Stage 3: Formulating the strategy to attain the given objectives and desired performance. Phase four: Implementation and execution of the strategy plan Phase 5: Performance evaluation, formulation and revision of the strategic plan, and/or execution

After step 5, stages 1 through 4 may be reviewed if applicable or required (Dima 167).

Strategic management can be implemented in various industries. For example, healthcare delivery leaders have used strategic management to address managerial difficulties. It is important to note that numerous management and political challenges have affected the health care business, particularly the passage of the Affordable Care Act (AFA), sometimes known as Obamacare (Kim 1-7). Moreover, the success of health care is essential, making the selection of the most suitable management strategy crucial.

The frequent fluctuations and unpredictability of the health care industry's environment have prompted care providers to strategize their policies by becoming more proactive as opposed to merely planning and regulating.

Therefore, businesses in the health care industry utilize essential principles of strategic management, such as strategic planning, to capitalize on internal and external environment changes and increase their likelihood of success.

This is accomplished through having defined intentions, relevant assistance, resource planning, and a commitment to achieving hospitals' goals and objectives in response to environmental changes.

Automobile manufacturing is another business sector that has adopted strategic management (Dima). It is essential to recognize that production is key and plays a crucial role in the automobile manufacturing business. Consequently, the product portfolios require the application of suitable management techniques.

Material, resources, labor, money, and informational resources are some of the most important production inputs in the automobile manufacturing business. They are regarded as crucial contributors and must thus be effectively handled to ensure the success of industrial processes.

Strategic management is implemented in the automobile manufacturing industry's production aspects through the alignment of key inputs and resources with predicted demand and environmental changes (Dima).

In addition to examining the implementation of the concept of strategic management at an industrial level, it is essential to emphasize strategic management in specific enterprises.

Samsung Electronics is a prime example of a corporation that has implemented the strategic management philosophy (Jung). Samsung manages its resources strategically, including its people, technological, and other resources, while strengthening its marketing/manufacturing/design departments in order to increase its competitiveness in the dynamic global market.

Since roughly 20 years ago, Samsung has incorporated Western business processes into its mostly Japanese methods, resulting in relatively low-cost production without sacrificing quality but rather assuring optimal production levels.

As a result, Samsung’s products are of reasonably good quality and satisfy a crucial demand in the worldwide electronics market, resulting in a dramatic transition from a poor OEM producer to a global brand.

In particular, Samsung employs the notion of strategic management via the generic value chain model (Jung 133-142). The value chain, which is a component of strategic management, represents a set of operations within an organization that are meant to increase the customer's and/or end-value. user's The model configures and executes its operations with the sole intention of lowering production costs while increasing output.

Adopting strategic management through the value chain model has propelled Samsung production to become a global leader in research and development, marketing tactics, and branding in nearly two decades, surpassing brands such as Pepsi, Nike, and American Express.

If Samsung implements strategic variety and strategic decentralization, it is anticipated that the company will continuously go upwards (Jung 133-142). The picture below, based from (Jung 138), depicts Samsung's transformation through the adoption of strategic management by utilizing the value chain model and studying the global electronics market environment.

Customary Japanese Methods Samsung Hybrid The western commercial practices

Diversification technique Diversifying while focusing more Focus method

Dependence on Japanese (domestic) capital markets Utilizing the Japanese and international capital markets Reliance on external (global) capital markets

Prioritize continual operational improvement while taking pricing and price rivalry into account Concentrate on ongoing improvement while prioritizing R&D, innovation, marketing, and design Concentrate on innovation, marketing, and design to strengthen a brand, while stressing optimal price mechanisms.

Internal competition Internal competition, long-term supplier connections, and substantial competition Relationship with suppliers that is contingent on demand and supply pricing mechanisms

Internal employment market Combining Japanese and international labor for market-based compensation External labor with compensation dependent on the market

Annually constrained entry-level recruitment Annual hiring for entry-level positions and open hiring for specialists Open recruitment for the top applicants when slots are vacant

Compensation and promotions based on seniority Interlacing promotions and rewards based on seniority and merit Promotion and remuneration depending on

Toyota Motors Corporation is another corporation that has implemented strategic management to improve manufacturing, branding, marketing, and customer happiness (Loyd 15-30; Rahman, Ho and Jamian 35-43; Chan, Pollard and Piboon 7-17).

Toyota Motors Corporation has implemented strategic management in several critical areas, including production, information transfer among stakeholders, innovation and cost reduction, and human resources, among others. It is also important to note that Toyota Motor Corporation uses the same value chain concept as Samsung.

Toyota’s success has been clear, but recent events have placed the company in a dire situation. Analysts have attributed Toyota's current crisis to a lack of managerial sensitivity to consumer complaints, a crucial part of strategic management (Heller and Darling 4-13).

There are clear connections between strategic management and a variety of good factors, including the company's competitive advantage, efficient use of resources, increased brand production, and enhanced marketing tactics, among others (Guerras-Martn, Madhok, and Montoro-Sánchez).

The financial benefit is an excellent benefit of strategic management (Efendioglu and Karabulut 3-12; Dauda, Akingbade and Akinlabi). Dauda, Akingbade, and Akinlabi studied small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Lagos, Nigeria, and discovered that adopting strategic management correlates positively with market share and organizational profitability.

Using a longitudinal study, Efendioglu and Karabulut evaluated strategic planning, a fundamental part of strategic management, in a transitional economy (Turkey). The study analyzed a group of firms to identify potential variations in performance over a specified time period when they implement strategic tools in a market deemed to be relatively competitive and dynamic.

Clearly, there were significant increases in the utilization of strategic management tools. However, neither positive nor negative financial correlations between the adoption of strategic tools and financial success were found.

However, the use of strategic management concepts was influenced by globalization and increased competitive constraints imposed by western corporations operating in the Turkish economy. Therefore, strategic management provides a competitive edge in a free market.

Government laws for businesses operating in economies with varying economic structures vary. Consequently, government laws play crucial roles in managing company techniques and tactics, such as strategic management.

The Indonesian regulatory authority has in the past introduced regulatory frameworks governing corporate strategic management, such as the Regulation no. 108/200 of 1998 and the most recent Medium Term Development Planning, which aims to regulate the corporate environment and the government's functions (Nurmandi 65-77).

According to studies, government laws in the U.S. economy are concerned with crucial concerns such as corporate governance, social responsibility, and commercial ethics (Tayşir and Pazarck 294-303). Consequently, it is evident that there are direct or indirect legal frameworks that govern corporate strategic management.


The argument of this study is that the strategic management concept is a significant innovation that has transformed management. It is essential to highlight that while the science of management dates back to 5,000 B.C., strategy developed in the military of the ancient Greek civilisation.

Nevertheless, the art of strategic management is rather recent, having only been cultivated for around half a century.

Strategic management is a technique that entails continual planning, monitoring, analysis, and evaluation with the aim of achieving and attaining goals and objectives effectively while taking environmental implications into account.

Notably, strategic management does not anticipate the future, but rather gives the measures to be taken in an unpredictable and dynamic future. Strategic management includes components such as strategic analysis, strategic creation, execution, and monitoring.

As evidenced by the automobile manufacturing industry, the healthcare industry, the Samsung Company, and the Toyota Motor Corporation, the concept can be implemented in a variety of industries and/or businesses.

Companies and industries that use strategic management are likely to see greater benefits than those who utilize other management approaches. Among the probable benefits include rapid growth and expansion, as in the case of Samsung, financial gains, enhanced brand recognition, enhanced marketing techniques, and competitive advantages. Consequently, businesses should consider adopting strategic management strategies to reap the numerous benefits.

It is essential to emphasize, however, that the execution of strategic management must adhere to government regulations. As a result, corporations should evaluate the legislative frameworks that guide and provide for essential features such as corporate governance, social responsibility, and business ethics.


In their efforts to adopt the notion of strategic management, businesses must take into account essential factors such as corporate governance, social responsibility, and commercial ethics. More research should be conducted on strategic management in small enterprises, particularly in developing and third-world countries. It is necessary to conduct research on the regulatory frameworks and their impact on business strategy management. It is necessary to do an empirical study to determine the relationship between financial advantages and strategic management, particularly in transitional economies like Turkey.

Sources Cited

Athapaththu, Hanasini. An Overview of Strategic Management: A Conceptual and Importance Analysis of Strategic Management. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 6, Number 2 (2016): 124-127. Print.

The authors are Chan, Peng, Dennis Pollard, and Puriveth Ramkhamhaeng Piboon. Implementing Knowledge Management. Journal of Business & Economics Research, vol.

Dauda, Yunus Adeleke, Waidi Adeniyi Akingbade and Hamed Babatunde Akinlabi. Strategic Management Practices and the Corporate Performance of Selected Small Business Enterprises in Lagos. International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 5.11, Number 11 (2010), pp. 97-105. Print.

Dima, Ioan Constantin. Examples of Systemic Approaches to Strategic Management in the Automotive Industry Print edition of Ioan Constantin Dima, 2014.

Efendioglu, Alev M., and A. Tuba Karabulut. "Impact of Strategic Planning on the Financial Performance of Turkish Companies."

International Journal of Business and Management, Volume 5.4 (2010). Print.

Guerras-Martín, Luis Ángel, Anoop Madhok and Ángeles Montoro-Sánchez. Recent trends and present directions in the advancement of strategic management research BRQ Business Research Quarterly 17.2 (2015 edition): 69–76. Print.

Victor L. Heller and John R. Darling. Toyota in crisis: denial and mismanagement. Journal of Business Strategy 32, no. 5 (2011): 4-13.

Jung, Sang Chul. 8.12 (2014): 133-142. Print.

Kim, Rachel. The United States Hospital Management from a Strategic Management Perspective. The Journal of Hospital and Medical Management 2.12 (December 2016): 1-7. Print.

Loyd, Nicholas. Good to Great Framework: An Empirical Analysis of Toyota Motor Corporation Management Research, 8.3 (2016), pp. 15-30 (print).

Nurmandi, Achmad. Strategic Management in Indonesian Central Government: A Case Study of the Model and Practice of Strategic Policy Process in Indonesia (2009-2012). Journal of Management and Strategy, Volume 3, Issue 4 (2012): 65-77. Print.

Overview of the Comparative Study of Manufacturing Strategy between Japanese and Western Approaches by Mohd Nizam Ab Rahman et al.

” Jurnal Kejuruteraan 24.2012 (2012): 35-43. Print.

Tayşir, Eyüp Aygün and Yener Pazarcık. Does the field of strategic management truly care about business ethics, social responsibility, and corporate governance? ” Procedia Print version: Social and Behavioral Sciences 99.6 (2013): 294-303.

[supanova question]

Tassal Group’s Working Capital Management History Essay Help

Table of Contents
Working Capital Management External Financing and Income Statement Compilation Home and Budget Cash Collection for Alternative Product Removal References on Special Order from Candles Plus

Working Capital Management

Working capital management is a method undertaken by firms to maintain sufficient liquidity to cover their short-term operating expenses (Tuovila, 2020). Working capital management involves constant monitoring of current assets and current liabilities to guarantee operation efficiency (Tuovila, 2020). Several ratios are used to evaluate working capital, including the current ratio, which indicates whether the company has sufficient funds to cover its current debt, the acid-test ratio, days of inventory outstanding (DIO), days of sales outstanding (DSO), days payables outstanding, and the cash conversion cycle (CCC). The ratio trends of the Tassal Group are shown in Table 1 below.

Trends in Tassal Group's working capital management are seen in Table 1.

Ratio 2018 2019 2020

Existing Ratio: 3.53 4.03 3.44

Ratio acid-test 3 3.56 2.98

DIO 81.28 70.15 85.55

DSO 14.03 10.17 20.68

DPO 106.26 103.20 135.29

CCC -10.95 -22.88 -29.05

The current ratio is essential for determining if a company's current assets are sufficient to cover its current liabilities. The acid-test ratio measures essentially the same thing without accounting for inventories. As the ratio is greater than 1, the study of these two ratios indicates that the Tassal Group has sufficient current assets to meet its current liabilities. However, according to Tuovila (2020), a current ratio greater than 2 may indicate poor asset utilization. Thus, Tassal Group may be inefficiently utilizing its current assets to enhance its income.

The CCC is a metric used to determine a company's ability to convert its investments in inventories and other resources into cash (Hays, 2020). Using the DIO and DSO ratios, this indicator considers the time required to convert inventory and receivables into cash. Using the DPO ratio, it also considers the time required to pay the payments without incurring penalties. CCC was negative throughout the three-year measurement period, indicating that the company requires shorter time to sell its inventory and collect cash from its consumers than to pay its suppliers. This suggests that the Tassal Group is highly liquid. In conclusion, the company can swiftly convert inventories and receivables, but it may not be utilizing its current assets to build the business.

External Investment

Large corporations and SMBs frequently require external financing to cover many types of expenses. In three primary scenarios, external money is predominantly used. First, external funding may be utilized to acquire big assets, such as buildings, machinery, or land. Second, it may be necessary to obtain external money to supplement insufficient working capital. Thankfully, this is not the case with Tassal Group, as both its current and acid-test ratios are extremely high. Lastly, external capital may be required to expand business activities. Therefore, external funding is an essential source of capital for all businesses.

External financing includes asset-based lending, leasing and hire purchases, business loans, debt funds, export finance, startup loans, and overdrafts. According to Tassal Group's annual report for FY2020, the company's principal external capital sources are bank loans as short-term borrowings and cash advances as long-term borrowings (Tassal, 2020). Cash advances are secured by mortgages over the consolidated entity's assets and undertakings, freehold land, and buildings, the current market value of which exceeds the value of the mortgages. The business no longer leases as a source of capital. Thus, the diversity of external funding sources is limited.

When utilizing a combination of short-term and long-term finance arrangements, Tassal Group must consider various factors. When employing any form of external funding, the cost of debt must be considered first. The cost of debt may increase the minimum rate of return required to satisfy shareholders (Chen, 2020). Consequently, it is essential that the cost of debt does not increase the cost of capital above the present return rate. Second, the corporation should guarantee that its existing assets are sufficient to cover the present value of its long-term and short-term debt. Fortunately, Tassal Group has sufficient liquid assets to pay its new current commitments. To preserve stability, it is crucial that the company's debt-to-equity (D/E) ratio does not exceed the industry average (Chen, 2020). The current D/E ratio is 0.92, which is deemed satisfactory (Tassal, 2020).

Home and Gather Income Budget Statement

Total for January February March April May June

Operating Income

Budgeted net sales $685,000 $731,500 $681,750 $703,500 $621,500 $599,500 $4,022,750


Variable Operating Expenses

Direct supplies $350,330 $375,336 $349,522 $360,779 $316,121 $304,278 $2,056,366

$144,500 for direct labor $153,500 for direct labor $143,250 for direct labor $147,750 for direct labor $132,250 $128,000 $849,250

overheads in manufacturing $21,770 $23,264 $21,678 $22,371 $19,729 $19,022 $127,834

Total variable operating expenses $494,830 $528,836 $492,772 $508,529 $448,371 $432,278 $2,905,616


Constant Operating Costs

Rent $7,500.00 $7,500.00 $7,500.00 $7,500.00 $7,500.00 $7,500.00 $45,000

Utilities $4,500.00 $4,500.00 $4,500.00 $4,250.00 $4,250.00 $4,250.00 $26,250

Administrative salaries $25,000.00 $25,000.00 $25,000.00 $26,250.00 $26,250.00 $26,250.00 $153,750

General office expenses $12,000.00 $12,000.00 $12,000.00 $12,000.00 $12,000.00 $12,000.00 $12,000.00 $12,000.00 $12,000.00 $12,000.00 $12,000.00 $12,000.00 $12,000.00 $12,000.00 $12,000.00 $12,000.

Suppliers involved in indirect expenses $0.00 $15,000.00 $0.00 $15,000.00 $0.00 $15,000.00 $45,000

$9,166.67 $9,166.67 $9,166.67 $9,166.67 $9,166.67 $9,166.67 $9,166.67 $9,166.67 $9,166.67 $9,166.67 $55,000

Insurance $9,000.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $9,000

Depreciation $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $300.00 $300.00 $300.00 $900

Maintaining fixed assets $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $450.00 $450

$73,167 in total fixed operating expenses $58,167 $74,467 $60,667 $76,117 $409,750

Income from Operations $123,003 $129,497 $130,811 $120,504 $112,462 $91,105 $707,384

Home and Collect Budget Cash

January February March April May November December

Beginning balance of cash was $15,000.00 $142,181.83 $277,279.37 $368,762.90 $470,606.13 $574,818.87.

Cash receipts

$137,000.00 $146.00 $136.350.00 $140.700.00 $124.00 $119.900.00

$668,160.00 in collected receivables $605,560.00 in $565,820.00 in $558,580.00 in $539,640.00 in $505,040.00

$805,160.00 in total cash inflows $751,860.00 $702,170.00 $699,280.00 $663,940.00 $624,940.00

Funds outflows

$453,541.50 for direct supplies $357,831.80 $367,591.80 $352,899.10 $347,381.60 $312,568.10

$144,500.00 $153,500.00 $143,250.00 $147,750.00 $132,250.00 $128,000.00 Direct labor

Production Expenses $21,770 $23,264 $21,678 $22,371 $19,729 $19,022

Rent $7,500.00 $7,500.00 $7,500.00 $7,500.00 $7,500.00 $7,500.00

Utilities $4,500.00 $4,500.00 $4,500.00 $4,500.00 $4,250.00 $4,250.00

Administrative salaries $25,000.00 $25,000.00 $25,000.00 $26,250.00 $26,250.00 $26,250.00

General administrative costs $12,000.00 $12,000.00 $12,000.00 $12,000.00 $13,200.00 $13,200.00

Suppliers involved in indirect expenses $0.00 $15,000.00 $0.00 $15,000.00 $0.00 $15,000.00

Production supervisor salary $9,166.67 $9,166.67 $9,166.67 $9,166.67 $9,166.67 $9,166.67 $9,166.67 $9,166.67 $9,166.67 $9,166.67 $9,166.67 $9

Insurance $0.00 $9,000.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00

Acquisitions of assets $0.00 $0.00 $20,000.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00

Maintaining fixed assets $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $450.00

The total outflow of cash was $677,978.17 $616,762.47 $610,686.47 $597,436.77 $559,727.27 $535,406.77

Cash excess totaling $127,181.83 $135,097.53 $91,483.53 $101,843.23 $104,212.73 $89,533.23

End-of-period cash balance of $142,181.83 $277,279.37 $368,762.90 $470,606.13 $574,818.87 $664,3510.

Considering Elimination

When a company eliminates an item from its product line, not all costs are eliminated. While variable manufacturing costs are consistently decreased, fixed production costs stay same. Home and Gather's Reed Diffuser will minimize direct material, direct labor, manufacturing overhead, administration costs, and general office expenses. Costs related with rent, utilities, the production supervisor's salary, the acquisition and maintenance of machinery, insurance, and indirect manufacturing expenses would not be affected. These expenses are either allocated to the business as a whole or to the manufacturing of the primary product (soy-based candles).

Different Product

A corporation may opt to switch suppliers if the new provider offers substantial financial or other benefits. The corporation may view compliance with corporate goals, regulatory rules, or prestige as non-monetary rewards. However, switching suppliers is frequently accompanied by a number of uncertainties, such as product quality, payment stability, and supply chain-related transformations. In the instance of the electric oil diffusers sold by Home and Gather, the contribution margin and breakeven points of the two alternatives are negligible. Consequently, the first alternative is deemed superior, as it eliminates the risks connected with switching suppliers. Nonetheless, if the local provider offers non-monetary benefits, the second choice may also be suitable.

Order Specially from Candles Plus

Candles Plus, one of Home and Gather's largest clients, has placed a special order for 10,000 candles, requesting a $5 per-unit discount. The current pricing of soy-based candles is $25 per unit, hence Candles Plus wishes to purchase 10,000 candles at $20 per unit. Home and Gather now has excess capacity to fulfill the order; however, it is unclear whether the order is still profitable when the discount has been applied. The golden rule dictates that a corporation should only accept a special order if the advantages outweigh the costs. Therefore, it is essential to analyze both advantages and expenses for the Candle Plus custom order.

The first step is estimating expected sales. Assuming the unit price is $20 and the quantity ordered is 10,000, the anticipated revenue may be computed as follows:

The second component of the study is to estimate the order's total price. Utilizing the work costing approach, the costs involved with fulfilling the order are determined. According to the technique, the total cost formula is as follows:

Calculate the costs associated with direct materials by multiplying the variable material cost per unit by the quantity of units. Thus:

It was projected that five employees would work for approximately nine weeks at a 40-hour workweek and $25 per hour. Therefore:

Since the total annual overhead was anticipated to be $300,000 per 180,000 working hours, the applied overhead can be determined as follows:

After calculating each component of the formula, it is possible to determine the total cost of the project:

The associated expenses of $180,000 are less than the anticipated income of $200,000. Home and Gather should therefore accept the order from Candles Plus under the particular circumstances. However, Home and Gather must make it clear that the discount is a one-time offer, as Candles Plus may wish for the discount to be permanent for future deals. Such a consequence may diminish the profitability of Home and Gather.


Chen, J. (2020). The Investopedia entry for debt finance.

Hayes, A. (2020). The Cash Conversion Cycle, Investopedia Online.

Annual report 2020 for Tassal. Web.

Tassal (2018). 2018 annual report online.

Tuovila, A. (2020). Investopedia's entry on working capital management.

[supanova question]

Reverse Mergers & Initial Public Offering (IPO) History Essay Help

The dynamics of the financial market can motivate a business to go public in order to raise funds for expansion. Companies can go public through reverse mergers or initial public offerings (Initial Public Offering). Reverse mergers are widespread among private companies and involve a defunct public or shell corporation using a stock transfer to acquire a private company (Feldman 2010, p. 16). A reverse merger has no effect on a company's ability to obtain funds, but only on its ability to go public. A reverse merger permits shareholders to elect a new board of directors and even change the company's name after the acquisition is finalized. There are three primary methods for implementing a reverse merger. Initially, a public business can exchange the majority of its shares, typically 51 percent, for a portion of a private company's assets (Feldman 2010, p. 16). A stock swap can be used to merge a private firm with a public corporation if the public company is controlled by a private company (Feldman 2010, p. 17). A private firm can become a subsidiary of a public corporation if the public company awards it the majority of its shares.

A reverse merger offers numerous advantages over alternative means of going public (DePamphilis 2011, p. 112). Depending on the type of public firm with whom a private company merges, reverse mergers may take up to three months to accomplish. A public offering of stock can take up to nine months, which is quite a long time. The second benefit of a reverse merger is that it facilitates a company's entry into the market because it eliminates the need to fulfill the initial listing requirements (DePamphilis 2011, p. 112). This is the most significant benefit, as meeting all listing standards is a formidable undertaking for many businesses. Reverse mergers are viewed by financial consultants as a means of entering the stock market through the back door (DePamphilis 2011, p. 118).

Before deciding to use reverse mergers as a strategy of going public, corporations must weigh a number of disadvantages (Feldman 2010, p. 68). Initially, it is possible for a private firm to engage in a reverse merger with a non-clean shell. Public corporations may have liabilities, such as outstanding lawsuits and damaged financial statements, that might impact a company's operations following a merger (Feldman 2010, p. 68). Therefore, it is extremely risky for a private corporation to engage in a reverse merger with an unclean public company. The second disadvantage of reverse mergers is dealing with existing shareholders. Shell business shareholders typically purchase the fraction of shares left by private corporations, some of whom may not be real (Feldman 2010, p. 85). Therefore, it is required to conduct an audit in order to get an accurate list of the old shareholders. Since the shareholders of a shell business are the ones left with the acquired shares, it is prudent to conduct an audit of the shareholders' list (Gaughan 2010, p. 135).

A reverse merger merely helps a firm become publicly traded; it does not allow the company to obtain new money (Gaughan 2010, p. 135). This flaw makes it challenging for private enterprises to issue equity. Private or public equity placement is the sole means for a private firm to issue equity in a reverse merger (Gaughan 2010, p. 136). Since listing requirements are evaded, reverse mergers are viewed as a technique for accessing the market via the back door. As much as this may be viewed as a benefit, a company's reputation is always at risk because reverse mergers are viewed as a backdoor technique to enter the market (Gaughan 2010, p. 152). Using reverse mergers to go public can harm a company's reputation and consequently hinder its success. Before opting to employ a certain technique of going public, it is advisable for businesses to evaluate its potential consequences. The company's state dictates the method adopted when going public (Gaughan 2010, p. 152).

A private firm may choose to become public through a reverse merger under specific conditions. Initially, organizations unable to meet the initial listing requirements seek to employ a reverse merger to enter the market without meeting the initial listing requirements (Feldman 2010, p. 152). This method is only effective for a limited time, as the company may continue to face listing requirements in the future (Carpentier 2009, p. 222). Typically, companies that do not meet listing requirements are delisted from the market. In a reverse merger, it is detrimental to a company's reputation to have a brief market presence followed by delisting. All quality companies that do not need to generate funds will choose a reverse merger over an initial public offering (Carpentier 2009, p. 222).

Initial public offering (IPO) is another way for private enterprises to become publicly traded (Carpentier 2009, p. 222). An initial public offering involves the first sale of shares to the general public on a securities exchange. An IPO transforms a private firm into a public company in order to raise funds for expansion. Old private investors' capital can only be monetized through an IPO. With the assistance of an investment bank, a firm that is ready to sell its stock to the public does so (Lipman 2008, p. 68). A private corporation enters into an agreement with an investment bank to sell its shares to the public on its behalf. Investment banks are responsible for finding investors to purchase a company's shares. The pricing and allocation of shares in an initial public offering (IPO) take happen in several forms, including firm commitment contracts, best efforts contracts, purchased transactions, and all-or-nothing contracts (Lipman 2008, p. 92). The investment bank usually known as the underwriter is entitled to a percentage of the investment revenues as compensation for the services done in selling shares. The underwriting spread is comprised of the underwriting fee, management charge, and concession fee paid to stock brokers (Lipman 2008, p. 98).

An IPO is the ideal way of public offering since it allows companies to raise expansion-critical capital (Lipman 2008, p. 98). Another advantage of initial public offerings is that private companies can monetize the assets of former investors. An initial public offering facilitates the exchange of funds between public investors. Due to the lengthy process involved in conducting an IPO, IPOs have a variety of disadvantages. The first drawback of an IPO is the cost of finishing the procedure (Gaughan 2010, p. 113). Marketing, accounting, and legal expenses are among the several expenses associated with conducting an IPO. A company seeking to go public through an IPO is required to disclose all business and financial information. The management of a company must also devote a substantial amount of effort to arranging an IPO. The IPO process might take up to nine months to complete (Gaughan 2010, p. 115).

Noting that going public through an IPO is not a guarantee that a firm will raise the anticipated capital is crucial (Gaughan 2010, p. 156). Using an IPO to go public with the intention of raising funds is therefore extremely risky. The other disadvantage of IPOs is that the information given to the public can be exploited to the advantage of a company's competitors (Capentier 2009, p. 144). In the event that the underwriter is dishonest, a company can lose its investment through an IPO. Prior to being listed, companies that intend to go public via IPOs must satisfy all listing requirements. Planning in advance is crucial for the success of an initial public offering (Carpentier 2009, p.144). One of the circumstances that can prompt a private firm to choose for an IPO is the requirement to raise funds. Investment-capable companies are always in a strong position to be listed through an IPO.

Several corporations prefer a reverse merger versus an initial public offering (IPO). First, a reverse merger offers cheaper expenses than an initial public offering (Carpentier 2009, p. 166). The additional managerial, accounting, legal, and concession costs connected with an IPO make the process significantly more expensive than a reverse merger. Time is another reason why some companies prefer a reverse merger to an IPO. A reverse merger can be completed within three months, but an initial public offering (IPO) requires a minimum of six months (DePamphilis 2011, p. 130). In an initial public offering, legal and accounting procedures consume considerable time. Companies favor reverse mergers over initial public offerings because they can bypass listing requirements. Public offering of shares (IPO) companies must meet all listing requirements. A reverse merger does not include the public disclosure of financial and company information that can be accessed by rivals (DePamphilis 2011, p. 130). The requirement to disclose all financial and commercial information in order to be listed dissuades some corporations from pursuing an IPO. Although a reverse merger cannot be used to raise cash, a company's capital is always secure and has a high likelihood of generating future profits (DePamphilis 2011, p.152).

In the process of going public, companies incur expenses (Lipman 2008, p. 87). Compared to the reverse merger, an initial public offering is more expensive for a variety of reasons. First, it is essential to understand that stock financing is not permitted in a reverse merger (Lipman 2008, p. 87). A reverse merger permits listing without the need to seek capital. In the absence of seasoned equity offering, an IPO is more expensive than a reverse merger. A firm that intends to go public through a reverse merger typically incurs the expense of a seasoned equity offering (Lipman 2008, p.87). The cost of a seasoned equity issue in a reverse merger is projected to vary between 6.5% and 7% of the total amount of funds raised. The cost of a reverse merger that includes an established equity offering is consequently comparable to that of an initial public offering. The price of a reverse merger depends significantly on the initial status of the shell firm (Feldman 2010, p. 255). The expected cost of an IPO is around 7% of the amount raised, which is comparable to the cost of a reverse merger that includes a seasoned stock issue.

A reverse merger can only be less expensive than an IPO if there is no seasoned stock offering involved (Feldman 2010, p. 255). Leverage buyouts are more expensive than reverse mergers and initial public offerings because the money used to finance the acquisition is typically borrowed (Carpentier 2009, p. 79). Funding for leveraged buyouts comes from loans and bonds with high interest rates, which makes the process extremely expensive. If a firm fails to repay the loan, its valuable assets may be seized. Leverage buyouts are hazardous since the purchased business can fail (Carpentier 2009, p. 80).

In conclusion, reverse mergers and initial public offerings are the favored strategies for private enterprises to become public. The way a firm selects to go public is determined by its likelihood of successfully funding future investment projects (Lipman 2008, p. 169). To raise funds for expansion, high-quality companies seek to go public through an IPO. When a corporation lacks the ability to satisfy listing criteria, reverse mergers are preferred. Some corporations prefer reverse mergers versus initial public offerings (IPOs) because reverse mergers are cheaper and faster to accomplish (Lipman 2008, p.169). If a seasoned equity offering is included in the cost of a reverse merger, the cost of an IPO is comparable to that of a reverse merger. Before comparing the cost of a reverse merger to that of an IPO, it is crucial to consider the price of a seasoned equity issue in a reverse merger (Feldman 2010, p. 256). The high interest rates on loans and bonds make leverage buyouts and initial public offerings more expensive than reverse mergers and initial public offerings.


The benefit of capital market regulation: initial public offerings versus reverse mergers, CIRANO, New York, NY, 2009.

Mergers, acquisitions, and other restructuring activities: An integrated…, Academic Press, New York, NY, 2011.

Reverse mergers: And other alternatives to conventional IPOs. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 2010.

Mergers, acquisitions, and corporate restructuring. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York, 2010.

Lipman, F. (2008). International and US IPO planning: A business strategy guide. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

[supanova question]

Organizational Behavior And Culture In Emirates Airline History Essay Help

Executive Synopsis

Scientists have been able to demonstrate a connection between firm success and organizational behavior and culture due to advances in computer technology, psychology, and statistical approaches. This article examines Emirates Airline in the context of organizational behavior and explains how leadership tactics, staff motivation, and customer-centricity have enabled the company to expand and become one of the industry's leaders. During the course of the investigation, it was determined that Emirates Airline uses transformational leadership strategies to enhance the professional competence of its employees. This same factor functions as a motivator since when employees feel cared for, they are more dedicated to completing organizational tasks. Emirates prioritizes sustainability and environmental concerns in terms of corporate social responsibility. The company is committed to decreasing greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the possibility of illegal wildlife trade on its routes. Employee job satisfaction is high since the airline offers its employees with the necessary amenities. For instance, the corporation provides free lodging, meals, and transportation to its overseas employees. There are no major workplace issues noted, and employee feedback frequently focuses on minor improvements to labor conditions.

Organizational behavior relates to the functioning of teams and individuals within an organization. It determines how employees are motivated, how teams are organized, and how tasks are completed. Frequently, a company's success is predetermined by its attitude to culture and conduct. In the framework of corporate culture and behavior, this study presents an overview of Emirates Airline. Consideration is given to the company's structure, workplace diversity, leadership style, and corporate social responsibility. Emirates has risen to the top of the commercial airline business because to a mix of effective motivating techniques, organizational culture, and managerial structure.

Regarding Emirates Airline

Dubai-based Emirates Airline is one of the world's major airlines. It was established in 1985 by the top leadership of the Emirate of Dubai for the promotion of tourism and infrastructure development in the United Arab Emirates (Emirates, 2020). It is the largest airline in the Middle East and a subsidiary of The Emirates Group (Emirates, 2020). The company runs more than 3,600 flights every week to more than 150 locations in 80 countries across six continents, according to its official website (Emirates, 2020). The company is one of the few airlines that flies just wide-body Airbus and Boeing aircraft. With 115 aircraft of this kind, Emirates is the largest Airbus A380 operator as of January 2019. (Emirates, 2020). The Airbus A380 has been a key part of the Emirates fleet, which operates on long-haul routes with a high passenger load, since its beginnings. The airline also operates the most Boeing 777 aircraft in the world, with 174 in service (Emirates, 2020). As of 2020, the fleet consists of almost 270 aircraft in total.

Due to the worldwide nature of the workforce, the company is appealing in terms of organizational culture and conduct. As of March 31, 2020, 59 519 personnel representing 172 nationalities are employed by the airline (Emirates, 2020). Emirates asserts that it is committed to continuously enhancing its employees' working circumstances (Emirates, 2020). Corporate responsibility, the pursuit of more beneficial ecological outcomes, and community involvement are other priorities (Emirates, 2020). Because the firm has been successful since its inception and is presently one of the most popular airlines in the world, it is advantageous to examine how organizational behavior and culture contributed to this success. Some individuals feel the airline has a financial edge because it is state-sponsored (Sadik, 2018). However, despite the importance of financial capital, it does not necessarily guarantee success. Inter-team contact and company leadership are frequently more important organizational management factors.

Organizational Structure

As technology and innovation continue to propel businesses forward, they are contemplating new methods of workplace organization. Even though people may be separated by great distances, it is simple for them to communicate and share ideas (Driskill, 2018). Incorporated into current organizational systems is the concept of a global community. Traditional organizational structures may be viewed as enormous hierarchies, and communication lines between management and regular staff are not streamlined (Driskill, 2018). However, contemporary organizational structure departs greatly from this model. Emirates Airline's corporate structure has not seen substantial modifications since its founding (Emirates, 2020). The top management team has been quite steady, with few changes (Emirates, 2020). Since its start, a small handful of executives have controlled the corporation. Due to the fact that one CEO was accountable for the majority of Emirates' operations, bloated bureaucracy was reduced. This flat organizational form has improved clear communication between management and staff, hence facilitating the effective achievement of corporate goals.

In the present business world, the ability to make quick decisions is crucial. Uhl-Bien, Piccolo, and Schermerhorn (2020) assert that efficient communication between teams and supervisors is one of the most essential components of this skill. Because it is not necessary to adhere to rigorous communication standards, as it is in the majority of businesses, messages are shared considerably more quickly in the Emirates workplace. This advantage allows the organization to complete activities more quickly without spending time and resources on unnecessary overhead. Another crucial aspect of Emirates Airline's organizational structure is how it addresses problems (Emirates, 2020). The organization employs a team-based strategy in which each issue is assigned to a specific team.

Organizational Culture

A company's organizational culture can be viewed as its members' common set of beliefs. It is an organization's own culture that dictates which acts and behaviors are acceptable in the workplace (Driskill, 2018). Often, a company’s culture determines its success, and Emirates’s success is partially attributable to its culture (Driskill, 2018). To comprehend how organizational culture has contributed to the prosperity of Emirates, it is necessary to examine the prevalent culture types.

There are four basic types of organizational culture, and the majority of businesses employ a combination of these models. Hierarchical organization is the traditional strategy to both structuring a corporation and developing its culture (Driskill, 2018). This culture places a premium on formal structure and authority (Driskill, 2018). Institutional processes govern all employee communications and interactions, therefore it can be challenging to implement change in such firms (Driskill, 2018). By establishing uniform monitoring, one of the key goals of the hierarchical culture is to improve the efficiency of individual activities. Unpredictable endeavors are frequently disregarded due to the possibility of undesirable effects.

The market culture entails focusing on the requirements of modern marketplaces and basing all standards on market expectations. In such a culture, employees and management are not constrained by the hierarchical structure so long as their efforts are geared toward accomplishing market goals. This strategy is frequently effective because persistent pursuit of market dominance can result in the acquisition of a competitive advantage (Driskill, 2018). When completing a task, each team may choose their own set of structural elements. As stated previously, the fundamental objective is to satisfy market demands.

The adhocracy culture promotes originality, decisiveness, and a willingness to take risks. Within this culture, employees are encouraged to discuss their thoughts and make judgments as necessary (Driskill, 2018). It is the exact antithesis of a hierarchical culture in which only managers make decisions (Driskill, 2018). In firms with adhocracy, it is significantly simpler to implement change because the company was designed from the start to be agile.

Clan culture is the fourth form of organizational culture. The name may imply that these organizations are owned by a single family. However, the term relates only to the interactions between employees (Driskill, 2018). In organizations with a clan culture, the organizational structure is familial (Driskill, 2018). In other words, culture is founded on common objectives, values, and teamwork (Driskill, 2018). The clan culture ensures that all members are satisfied with their work and that mentorship is consistent.

Emirates' organizational culture is a combination of ad hocracy and clan culture. Employees are encouraged to contribute input and produce suggestions to improve customer service and working environment (Emirates, 2020). Due to the flat organizational structure, executives actively mentor and support regular employees (Emirates, 2020). This culture of teamwork and common principles enabled Emirates to become one of the world's most successful airlines.

Leadership Methods and Motivational Strategies

Additionally, organizational culture impacts the style of leadership that exists within a corporation. The management team of Emirates prioritizes its employees due to the clan culture. According to the company's website, the company has always placed consumers first and strived to be customer-centric continuously (Emirates, 2020). This combination of putting the client first and investing in workers defines the leadership strategy of the corporation (Uhl-Bien, Piccolo, & Schermerhorn, 2020). The management of the company recognizes that it is not only responsible for achieving organizational goals, but also for ensuring that employees are content with their working conditions and compensation (Emirates, 2020). It is essential to have a streamlined communication channel in order to comprehend the challenges that exist within the workplace. Therefore, Emirates uses a phone center for its feedback system (Emirates, 2020). Any employee may phone the company's management to voice their concerns.

A feeling of concern for an employee might serve as a motivational approach. These employees are typically more productive and dedicated to accomplishing company goals (Uhl-Bien, Piccolo, & Schermerhorn, 2020). The clan culture ensures that an employee can seek help. A mentor may provide assistance on an individual basis to determine what problems exist and what solutions are accessible. This method is referred to as transformative leadership, and Emirates constantly implements it.

Cultural Difference

As stated previously, Emirates recruits employees from around the globe. This method dramatically increases cultural diversity in the workplace. Additionally, Emirates does not believe that ethnic and racial background affects professional capability. Therefore, international professionals are recruited in all firm departments, such as cabin crew, pilots, administrative staff, and customer service (Emirates, 2020). The corporation picked this strategy for a number of worthy reasons. First, Emirates intends to serve the diverse ethnicities, races, and cultures of the worldwide population (Emirates, 2020). Having a diverse team enables the organization to properly service this population (Uhl-Bien, Piccolo, & Schermerhorn, 2020). The second argument relates to organizational behavior theory. Companies have realized that recruiting a diverse workforce increases the probability of creating innovative ideas that can lead to competitive advantage (Uhl-Bien, Piccolo, & Schermerhorn, 2020). In addition, evaluating a problem from a different cultural perspective may generate significantly different outcomes.

Since more than a decade ago, the ratio of foreign workers in the UAE has been continuously increasing. Nearly half of the workforce in the 1970s consisted of non-Emiratis (Warner & Moonesar, 2019). Today, this percentage is about 90 percent and rising steadily (Warner & Moonesar, 2019). This trend is encouraged by the government of the UAE due to its social and political goals (Warner & Moonesar, 2019). One of the country's key goals is to become an intelligent nation (Warner & Moonesar, 2019). This objective cannot be accomplished without proper diversity management. The third reason for cultural variety in the work of Emirates may be alignment with national objectives.

Workplace Concerns

No serious concerns were uncovered during the course of this research. However, there are some concerns about the workforce's diversity. Communication obstacles are the most common problem that can occur in such a team. However, the corporation intends to resolve this issue by imposing stringent language requirements for recruitment (Emirates, 2020). All staff are needed to speak English proficiently, as it is the predominant language in the company's internal and external communication channels (Emirates, 2020). Cultural misunderstandings may sometimes occur, but team-building exercises and strengthening the cultural awareness of employees are effective in resolving them.

Personality and Job Satisfaction of Employees

The personality of an Emirates employee is determined by the function and job requirements. For example, cabin crew recruits are required to take personality tests to verify they meet the requirements of the position. Because Emirates strives to be customer-centric at all times, all Emirates personnel possess outstanding communication skills and are customer-focused (Emirates, 2020). They are patient, tolerant, polite, and amiable — essential qualities for anyone who communicates with consumers (Emirates, 2020). In terms of communication in the workplace, Emirates employees are receptive to fresh proposals and recommendations. Therefore, they have no reluctance when it comes to discussing working circumstances.

Employees frequently phone and provide comments regarding current worker musings on job happiness. Although there are no statistics data on employee perceptions of work circumstances, the requests made by employees can provide valuable insight. Cabin crew workers have recently approached the company's management to request longer rest periods between flights (Emirates, 2020). Clearly, this issue is not as significant as low pay or poor housing conditions. It indicates that job satisfaction is strong, but the organization is always receptive to new ideas.

Corporate Social obligation

Emirates, conscious of its impact on the environment, continues to engage in ecologically beneficial practices. The airline presented information on the environmental policy outcomes in the Emirates Group's annual report for the 2019-2020 fiscal year, providing a comprehensive picture and context for its initiatives. Protection of animals and habitats is essential for Emirates (2020). The airline is committed to fighting illegal wildlife trafficking (Emirates, 2020). Poachers continue to utilize them as pets or for their skins, tusks, and other components to create food, medicine, and jewelry. Emirates is actively involved in industrial and international activities and supports United for Wildlife and ROUTES, among others (Emirates, 2020). Emirates (2020) prohibits the movement of restricted animal species, hunting trophies, and other merchandise related with the unlawful trade in wild animals. The ground services personnel of an airline researches the International Air Transport Association's live animal transportation regulations and domestic wildlife ordinances.

The second component of the company's policy on sustainability and environmental preservation is the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. Emirates (2020) asserts that it considerably contributes to environmental protection because its aircraft utilize less fuel per passenger-kilometer. The primary contributor is a modern, environmentally responsible fleet with an average service life of 6 to 8 years (Emirates, 2020). Emirates' extensive fuel efficiency program, in which the airline develops and implements methods to reduce fuel consumption and emissions where technically viable, made it possible to boost fuel efficiency by 1.9% in the previous year (Emirates, 2020). Taking into account safety and operational functioning, the airline's efforts for route optimization and efficient fuel usage lowered fuel consumption by 38 000 tons and carbon dioxide emissions by 120 000 tons (Emirates, 2020). Methodologies based on data and pilot training programs also contributed to these results.


Emirates has built a strong and diverse organizational culture based on the ideals of clan culture and adhocracy. In this setting, few advice can be made, but the lack of official polls on job satisfaction is cause for concern. The corporation is currently taking a passive stance towards detecting workplace issues and employee requests. Instead of waiting for employees to express their opinions, the management of the company should conduct regular surveys to determine which aspects of the workplace may be improved. This strategy will provide the organization with quantitative data that can be used to generate new methods for workplace management and employee motivation.


Emirates receives little serious negative feedback from its employees since it is consistently devoted to improving working conditions. Because they are the ones who give services to clients, Emirates considers their employees to be the backbone of their organization. A combination of adhocracy and clan culture has provided the organization with the freedom to remain innovative while ensuring that its personnel are motivated and eager to achieve its goals. There are only minor concerns in the workplace, and none of them involve remuneration or housing.


Driskill, G. W. (2018). Organizational culture in action: A guide to cultural analysis Routledge, New York, NY

Emirates (2020). About us. Web.

Sadik, R. M. (2018). Airline implementation of complete quality management (case study Emirates Airline). 7(5), 22-25. International Journal of Advances in Computer Science and Technology.

Uhl-Bien, M., Piccolo, R. F., & Schermerhorn Jr, J. R. (2020). Organizational conduct. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.

Warner, R., and I. A. Moonesar (2019). Case study of diversity management in the United Arab Emirates. Web.

[supanova question]

International Business Machines History Essay Help

Background material

International Business Machines (IBM) is a worldwide public limited business that operates in the computer system industry's diverse technological sector. The company works globally from its headquarters in Armonk, New York, in the United States. The company has become the global leader in supplying numerous information technologies through its operations. The organization's human resource base consists of 388,000 employees. The company focuses in manufacturing and developing a variety of information technology products, and its operations are segmented with each section specialized in distinct activities (Palmisano, 2008, p. 4).

The global technology services segment of the companies focuses on the delivery of diverse business process and information technology services. Among these services are integrated technology, maintenance, outsourcing, and outsourcing for business transformation. The Global Business Segment (GBS) works with the supply of a variety of professional and outsourcing services, including consulting, application management, and system integration. The System and Technology division, on the other hand, specializes in the production and development of various storage and computer devices. Disks, tape storage systems, software, servers, semiconductor technologies, and packaging solutions are examples of storage devices. In addition, this section specializes in retail store solutions as well as technology and engineering services. The software division focuses on the creation of many operating systems and middleware technologies. This segment's most important software includes software for information management, web-enabled applications, content management, business intelligence, and WebSphere (Palmisano, 2008, p. 7).

Through its financial services section, the company also offers a variety of commercial lending options. IBM's commercial financing offerings are tailored for resellers and distributors of information technology goods. Additionally, the division offers lease and loan services to other customers. Individual and institutional consumers are served by the company. The company's performance over the years has been exemplary. During the fiscal year ending 30 June 2009, the company's net income averaged $5,4 billion, an increase from its prior level of $5,1 billion in 2008. In 2009, the company's earnings per share (diluted) climbed by 11%, from $3.61 in 2008 to $4.02 in 2009. In 2009, the firm's activities were negatively impacted by the recession, resulting in a decline in financial performance. In 2009, the company's sales revenue decreased from $51.3 billion in 2008 to $45.2 billion. This is a reduction of 12 percent. This paper includes a report on IBM's operations (Palmisano, 2008, p. 9).


The purpose of this research is to assess IBM's optimal operation techniques, with a focus on its pricing and resource usage tactics, which determine the firm's value.


The research analyzes and identifies IBM's organizational and management paradigms. Sales and distribution, intellectual property, research and development, and integrated operations comprise the firm's organizational structure. Management models, on the other hand, consist of demand and business models. Consideration is given to the company's most significant competitors while conducting a competitive analysis. The Competitor Profile Matrix is incorporated into competitor analysis (CPM). Additionally, certain crucial success variables are evaluated. The SWOT analysis approach is used to identify and evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats during market study. Additionally, the amount of industry regulation is assessed. Identified are IBM's pricing, capital structure, budgeting, and risk management techniques. The report concludes with a conclusion and some recommendations.

Organizational and managerial model of IBM

It is crucial for businesses functioning on a worldwide scale to ensure that their operations are organized effectively. This will contribute to the company's ideal positioning in the market. IBM's management team has been able to do this in its operations. According to IBM management discussion: worldwide organizations (2008, p.1), IBM's operations are organized into three core organizations that have significantly contributed to the company's global market success. Through these groups, the company has been able to provide clients with exceptional value. Included among these are integrated operations, sales and distribution, intellectual property, and research and development.

Promotion and distribution

According to Chhatwal, Raj, and Nair (2003, p.20), effective distribution plays a crucial part in a company's ability to maximize profits. This is because distribution helps a company to reach a big market. According to Mao (2003, p. 1), effective distribution plays a crucial part in the company's pursuit of profit maximization. This is due to the improvement of the company's supply chain. IBM has been able to efficiently reach 170 nations in the worldwide market with this organization. This has been accomplished by establishing units in each country in which the company operates. All of the units are committed to delivering client value. This has been made feasible by the units' efficient manning. For example, the units consist of personnel who collaborate with product specialists, delivery fulfillment teams, and advisors. In their operations, these groups guarantee that they first comprehend their clients' needs. Consequently, the teams are able to collaborate to develop a solution for their clients by combining their global expertise with their local knowledge. According to IBM management discussion: worldwide organizations (2008, p.1), the company has adopted a geographical structure that allows it to concentrate on local clients. Geographic concentration enables the company to seek and exploit new market possibilities proactively. IBM aligns its resource use with the needs of its clients in order to maintain a high degree of operational efficiency. This has contributed to the company's resource utilization efficiency.

Property rights, research and development

IBM has managed to differentiate its goods from those of its competitors through research and development. This has been accomplished by integrating ongoing research and development into its operations. The company's outstanding human capital facilitates effective resource utilization decisions in its research and development process. The company invests over $6 billion each year in research and development. Its research and development are consistent with its business approach since 2005. (that is circa 2005 model). The concept calls for strategic investments in high-growth, high-value market opportunities. Its multiple inventions allow the company to patent its products with relative ease. As a result of investments in research and development, IBM generates an annual intellectual property income of $1 billion.

Combined operations

IBM has managed to adopt the concept of integration into its global operations. This has allowed the company to position itself advantageously on the market by utilizing enhanced skills and economics. Additionally, global integration has enabled the company to minimize redundancies established throughout its growth phase. Integrating its operations has been accomplished by ensuring that all of its operations are based on the accurate determination of cost, skills, and the establishment of a positive working environment. In addition, the company has established positive relationships with its business partners, including suppliers and customers. IBM has linked all of its worldwide service delivery operations through Integrated Technology Delivery (ITD) to achieve cost-effectiveness in its strategic outsourcing.

IBM's administration employs a variety of models. These models combine a variety of elements, including business, industry, computing, and the market (IBM Corporation: case analysis, 2005, P.20). The business plan of the company includes a commitment to its employees and the community in which it works. In addition, the firm's business model includes a demand model that enables it to respond to changes in labor, demand and supply, price, and competition. The model also enables the company to be adaptable by allowing variable cost structures to be modified. The firm's 2005 on-demand business model is an improvement over its 2003 on-demand electronic commerce approach. Flexibility has also been included into the organization's productivity, capital, and financial management (IBM Corporation: case analysis, 2005, p.20).

Analysis of competitors and markets

Due to an increase in the level of competition, the business environment has become increasingly difficult over the years. According to Salvatore (2006, p. 400), market structure is one of the factors that determines industry-wide competitiveness. The industry of information technology has a monopolistic market structure. This is due to the fact that a big number of manufacturers produce similar but distinct items (Collins, 2009, p.56). As a result, rivalry among businesses is relatively intense. According to Varian (2001, Paragraph 5), high-tech sectors such as information technology might include price discrimination into their operations. This is a result of their ability to create and develop customized goods and services.

IBM confronts intense rivalry from Microsoft Corporation, Hewlett-Packard Company, and Accenture public limited company in its business operations. The table below depicts a competitor analysis in terms of financial standing.

IBM Accenture plc Hewlett-Packard and Microsoft are included as an item.

Revenue($ billion) 95.76 22.45 114.55 58.69

Growth in quarterly revenue (percent) 0.80 -11.20 -7.90 14.40

Margin of sales 45.72 30.01 23.59 79.78

before interest and tax earnings 23.26 3.32 15.80 24.43

Operating margin (%). 19.00 12.59 9.62 37.64

Profit net 13,42 1.55 7.66 16.62

Profit per share 10,008 2,375 3,143 1,815

price to earnings ratio 12,36 16,96 15.47 15.49

The number of mergers and acquisitions in the information technology business is increasing, hence intensifying the competitiveness in this sector. Consequently, enterprises are striving for a large market share. Gartner identified IBM as the industry leader in Information Technology (IT) services, with a 7.2% market share. Accenture, Microsoft, and Hewlett-Packard held market shares of 2.8%, 3.8%, and 2.3%, respectively (Wagner, 2008, Para. 5). IBM's industry success is attributable to its effective integration of important success criteria, such as high-quality goods, product customisation, financial strength, global coverage, and human resources. The following table ranks the important success elements.

important success element IBM Accenture Plc Microsoft Corporation Hewlett-Packard are four of the world's largest information technology companies.

Investigation and development 5 3 4 3

Excellent quality 5 3 5 4

Product customization 4 2 4 4

Financial base 5 4 4 3

Human capital 5 4 5 5

Geographical extent 4 5 3 4

Total rating 28 21 25 23

With a rating of 28 compared to Microsoft's rating of 25, it is apparent from the table above that IBM is well-positioned in the market. The following table depicts IBM's SWOT analysis.

Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities and dangers

The company has a competent management and technical staff. The workforce is well educated (IBM Corporation: case analysis, 2005, p.84). Decrease in the number of developers with mainframe expertise (IBM Corporation: case analysis, 2005, p.35).

-Difficulty structuring mergers and acquisitions due to managerial style differences. Emerging market segments such as healthcare, consumer products, travel and transportation, and small and medium-sized businesses have a high likelihood of driving market expansion (Watson, 1998, Para. 6). Increased rivalry as a result of mergers and acquisitions, startup development, and the resurgence of information technology venture capitalists. This will lead to a decline in the company's market share.

Global integration approach incorporated into all of its businesses. This has enabled the company to establish a unified global system. The company has created global delivery facilities in the most populous nations, including China, India, Russia, and Brazil. Refusal to recognize international agreements and standards mandated by numerous international organizations like as the United Nations, ISO CSR, and Inco Terms. Innovations in data security technology have a high growth potential. Probability of terrorist strikes targeting big institutions.

High operational efficiency has helped the company to cut operating expenses and expedite procurement. Intellectual property and copyright infringement In 2004, IBM offered 500 pieces of software to individuals who worked on its open-source initiatives. High possibility of success if the company shifts from a product-based to a solution-based business. The dollar's value fluctuates as a result of the financial crisis. This will have the impact of raising the firm's research and development expenditures.

Pricing methods for products and services

According to Mao (2003, p. 6), the establishment of an effective pricing plan can significantly contribute to a company's success. The pricing plans set by the firm's management teams should deliver the targeted value. This can be accomplished by establishing prices that represent the impact of price changes on both the company and its customers. According to Portal (Anon., 2009), pricing methods are a hurdle for the management teams of companies that offer IT services. In establishing prices for their products and services, the management teams of IT services companies aim to meet a variety of goals. These include achieving the target profits, remaining competitive, and covering production costs. IBM has used multiple pricing models, such as business value pricing and cost-plus pricing, into its product and service pricing. Cost-plus pricing permits the company to incorporate both the cost of production and the desired profit margin. Consequently, the firm's products and services have optimal pricing. In contrast, business value pricing enables the company to base its costs on a specified, quantified, and operationally significant criteria. This strategy allows the company to easily adjust prices to reflect market fluctuations (Westcott & Goransson, 2006, p. 24). Through effective pricing, the company has been able to survive in a highly competitive market.

Deregulation of the IT sector

The acceleration of globalization is resulting in a rise in the rate at which nations deregulate diverse industries. Information technology is one of the industries experiencing heightened liberalization (Carmel, 2000, Para. 3). Consequently, more investors are able to enter diverse industries. Increased economic liberalization is resulting in a rise in foreign direct investments in the United States' information technology sector. However, the US government has expanded its oversight of the quality of the corporations' information technology goods.

Risk management

Companies encounter a variety of operational hazards that affect their financial standing. Market risk, like as swings in interest and exchange rates, is one of the most significant dangers to operations organizations (Management discussion; market risk, 2007, Para. 5). Risk management must be an integral part of a company's strategic management process if it is to overcome this obstacle. IBM's management team undertakes constant risk assessment and develops policies and strategies targeted at protecting the company from the negative effects of risk. IBM uses a variety of financial instruments, particularly derivatives, to manage the risk associated with interest rate and current rate fluctuations.

Due to IBM's operation in many currencies and reliance on debt finance as a primary source of funding, the company is exposed to high-risk interest and liquidity issues.

Impact Of CoronaVirus On The Aviation Sector: Emirates Airline History Essay Help


Emirates Airline is one of the most profitable and largest airlines in the world. Since more than a decade ago, the company's fleet size and sales have increased on a steady basis. However, the recent outbreak of COVID-19, commonly referred to as the coronavirus, has had enormous effects on the aviation industry. As health professionals continue to discourage non-essential travel, the number of individuals utilizing air travel has been steadily declining. Some provinces are under lockdown in nations such as Italy and China, putting further burden on the aviation sector.

Many companies in this field did not anticipate such an occurrence, and many are now trying to assure their continued viability. The focus of the study was on how Emirates Airline can overcome this issue. The research relies on secondary sources, such as books, papers, and reputable web resources. The data indicate that this company needs use a novel approach to resolving the issue. It is impossible to estimate when the virus will be completely confined, but the healthcare industry has taken amazing measures to combat its spread. In the interim, it is the job of Emirates Airline's management to devise solutions to the problem.

The study proposes that this company should select a specific market group that still utilizes air transportation and then develop distinctive products for that area. To attract more passengers, the management may consider reducing the price of airline tickets.

Due to the necessity to quickly and safely transport people from one area of the globe to another in a comfortable manner, the aviation sector has undergone tremendous expansion throughout the years. Wheelen, Hunger, and Hoffman (2015) assert that the industry has remained highly volatile and susceptible to socioeconomic and political shifts on a national and international scale. In this market, competition is also intense, and businesses must devise novel strategies for achieving continuous growth. It is essential to recognize that the increasing size of the middle class and the need for intercontinental travel have provided a significant boost to industry players.

Due to expanding market prospects, numerous airlines around the globe have experienced tremendous expansion over the years. Emirates Airline and Etihad Airways are the dominant local market leaders in the United Arab Emirates. Other smaller firms and major overseas airlines compete with the local industry giants for the same market share. Recent Corona Virus (COVID-19) epidemic has had extraordinary effects on the aviation industry. Several airlines have been put out of business as a result of a massive lockdown at some of the world's most popular travel destinations, while many others struggle to address the issue. The study aims to determine how Emirates Airline can mitigate the impact of the corona virus to ensure its continued viability. The following are the study's objectives:

Determine the global impact of Corona virus on the aviation industry. To devise techniques that will allow Emirates Airline to overcome obstacles provided by the corona virus.

Theoretical Structure and Subject Statement

Emirates Airline has been one of the world's most successful and quickly developing airlines. It is currently one of the world's top five largest airlines in terms of the number of passengers carried and income generated (Hitt, Ireland, & Hoskisson, 2017). It is the leading actor in the Middle East and North Africa region on a regional scale. As a means of achieving sustainable growth, the management of this business has adopted a variety of client acquisition and retention techniques.

However, the recent coronavirus outbreak poses a significant threat to its expansion. Numerous governments throughout the globe have now prohibited direct flights to China, the epicenter of the virus but also the most crucial market for aviation companies due to its enormous population of 1.3 billion. Italy is another big destination that is currently under quarantine as the government works to contain the virus's spread. Individuals have opted not to travel for non-essential purposes out of fear of getting the illness. Numerous airlines feel the pressure of declining sales.

As a cost-control measure, Emirates Airline must decide whether to cease operating some routes that have become unprofitable or to continue normal operations. Stopping some of the flights will help reduce expenses, but it may result in dissatisfied customers.

On the other side, continuing normal operations could have catastrophic results, especially if the majority of flights must be operated with few passengers. This is a strategic management issue that necessitates an in-depth review of the current problem prior to a decision on the next steps. It must decide whether or not to alter its routine operations, keeping in mind the necessity to retain its clients while avoiding incurring losses.


It is essential to detail the strategies utilized to obtain data from the appropriate sources and how those data were processed to inform the study. The corona virus outbreak is a relatively new phenomena that has touched nearly every sector of the global economy. Consequently, it was essential to acquire recent data that focuses on the topic. Newspapers and government publications were the most dependable and efficient information sources for this endeavor.

It was simple to obtain information regarding the responses of countries like as China and the United States to the outbreak. The majority of these contemporary sources are accessible via the internet platform. The research was based on books and scholarly journals. Although the books and articles do not include information regarding the corona virus outbreak, they provide valuable insight into models that businesses may use to respond to potential emergencies. These publications also assisted in gaining an awareness of the aviation industry's instability and how businesses might overcome it.

The next crucial step, according to Kivunja and Kuyini (2017), is to analyze the data in a way that answers the research questions and achieves the study purpose. The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of coronavirus on the aviation industry, focusing on how Emirates Airline has been affected and how its management may take the appropriate measures to address the issue. The study utilized numerous models to achieve its objectives.

Understanding the external influences in the aviation business, both locally in the United Arab Emirates and worldwide, was the starting point of the investigation. The examination was then limited to the aviation industry in order to comprehend the difficulties that all airlines must solve. The study then concentrated on Emirates Airline and how it might deal with the emergence of corona virus to secure the sustainability of its operations.


The aviation industry has faced numerous market forces, including unpredictable oil prices, terrorism, and cyberattacks. Nonetheless, the latest COVID-19 epidemic has had enormous effects on the sector. The epidemic began in China's Wuhan Province in late December 2019 (Newey & Gulland, 2020). The Chinese government and the World Health Organization did not anticipate it would become a global catastrophe. The rate at which the sickness was spreading and the subsequent loss of life became frightening. The mortality caused by the disease in China during the first month of the outbreak are depicted in Figure 1. It became evident that the contagious sickness is transmitted through the air and direct touch with an afflicted person (Yeung, 2020).

The parties involved in the prevention and management of this disease, such as the World Health Organization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and various governments, have suggested that the best way to deal with the disaster is to quarantine those who are infected to prevent them from interacting with those who are virus-free. It became evident that people should avoid large gatherings, and many people began avoiding non-essential travel at this point. At this point, the aviation industry began to suffer the full impact of the epidemic, as the number of their customers dropped dramatically.

Figure 1: Deaths caused by the Corona virus in China (Gelles & Chokshi, 2020, p. 4). STEEP Analysis

When analyzing the external environment, it is essential to employ the STEEP Model to comprehend the market dynamics with which Emirates Airline must contend. From a social perspective, many individuals embrace the ethos of avoiding sickness rather than treating it (Taylor, 2020). It explains why many individuals have chosen to avoid non-essential travel due to the disease's outbreak. From a technological standpoint, it is essential to note that COVID-19 is a relatively understudied virus, and as a result it has neither a treatment nor a vaccine.

Medical professionals have indicated that avoiding touch with an infected person is the most effective solution to the problem. Due to insufficient technological understanding of the virus, the aviation industry is unable to guarantee the safety of its customers and staff. Some airlines have really advised its employees to take unpaid leave.

The economic impact of the corona virus outbreak is enormous. Many businesses are now recommending their staff to work from home in order to protect them from the virus. It indicates that the number of air travelers is anticipated to decrease much further. The pandemic has damaged the world's most major markets, including East and SouthEast Asia, Europe, and North America (Yeung, 2020). Environmentally, the pandemic has had limited effects on the aviation industry.

However, the progression of the disease is exerting political pressure on some world leaders. In North America, the president of the United States has proposed restricting direct flights to some regions of the globe. About half of the Italian populace is under lockdown. These acts have immediate detrimental effects on the aviation industry. Some of the enterprises are already incurring losses, but they are compelled to continue operations, and others are contemplating price reductions to remain attractive to the market's limited clients.

Analysis of the Five Forces

The industry can also be analyzed using Porter's five forces model to understand how Emirates Airlie can handle the market's obstacles. Existing competitors in this industry engage in a fierce level of competition (Lasserre, 2018). It implies that when the number of customers declines, many businesses will employ techniques such as price reductions to entice customers. In this moment of crisis, the threat of new entrants is quite modest, thus the company's management should not be too concerned about it. However, the negotiating power of purchasers (travelers) has increased as individuals undertaking critical trips now have multiple airline options from which to choose.

As a result of the corona virus outbreak, the bargaining power of suppliers has diminished significantly, thus the management of this organization should not be frightened. Cruise ships, which may be an alternative for travelers traveling from one region of the world to another, are most severely impacted by the outbreak, thus the threat of substitute items remains low (Taylor, 2020). Figure 2 summarizes the five market forces that management can utilize to comprehend the current market state.

Figure 2 illustrates Porter's Five Forces (Ocvirk, 2018). SWOT Analysis

This analysis tool assists in comprehending the internal forces within a corporation that might aid or impede its ability to deal with external market forces. The longevity of this company's financial performance is its greatest asset. As depicted in Figure 3, a financial examination of this airline since 2006 reveals that it has experienced remarkable growth. From 2010 to 2016, Emirates' revenues increased by 99 percent (Bolland, 2017). It indicates that this company can continue to operate for the next few months as it monitors the outbreak's progression.

Figure 3: The revenue rise of Emirates (Lynch, 2018, p. 45).

Due to its immense size, this company's lack of adaptability is its greatest flaw. This company may need some time to reorganize its operations if the corona virus outbreak necessitates it. As it is obvious that the global health community is attempting to combat the virus, the market offers new opportunities. In China, it is obvious that the rate of new infections is falling dramatically, indicating that the government's strategy is effective (Lasserre, 2018). However, Emirates's management should be prepared for a similar outbreak in the future. It should implement actions that can aid in addressing the issue.

Strategic Planning

Emirates Airline's management must find a solution to combat the current corona breakout pandemic. The issue may soon be fixed, but as long as it persists, it is essential to find an effective solution. Prior to the resumption of normalcy in the aviation industry, it is vital to adopt a number of short- and medium-term plans that will secure revenue streams for the next several months. In this section of the article, the focus will be on discussing how these methods might be implemented to achieve the specified objectives.

Comparing Methodologies

It is vital to compare the company's market strategy for achieving specified objectives. As previously said, the company's present problem is the precipitous decline in the number of travelers caused by the corona virus outbreak. The proposed strategies should enable this company to weather the current storm and continue operations until the pandemic is eradicated. The corporation may employ the marketing mix strategy, segmentation, targeting and positioning model, and Porter's generic tactics to overcome the short-term issues. The four Ps of marketing mix strategy are product, pricing, place, and promotion (Dhir & Sushil, 2019).

Due to its current difficulties, this company must concentrate on price and promotion in order to increase its sales. Given its market dominance, it can afford to reduce ticket prices in order to attract more people. In this moment of crisis, Ozman (2017) suggests that a company consider promoting its products and brand in order to maintain its market relevance. The last two alternate tactics are described in the sections that follow. These alternative techniques have the ability to prevent substantial disruptions to Emirates Airline's operations.

Proposed General-Strategic Framework

The external and internal analysis conducted above has clearly outlined the challenge that this company faces and at this stage, the focus is

Dettol Brand Loyalty History Essay Help


Competitive commercialisation and efficient marketing in the modern world have guaranteed that consumers have a vast selection of items from which to choose. Nonetheless, each individual has a distinct preference based on characteristics such as taste, requirements, and economic standing. In fact, marketing specialists who comprehend the product decision-making process of individuals design and provide profitable products and services to various individuals and market segments. In this regard, the purpose of this study is to assess how individuals make product selections, recognizing that different persons choose a product for various reasons, including aesthetic value, perceived benefits, and price, among others.

Notably, identifying how individuals make product selections is crucial in the context of consumer behavior, since it gives light on an individual's purchasing decision-making process. This information is then utilized to determine the numerous elements that influence consumer behavior.

In addition, consumer behaviour knowledge describes the psychological, economical, cultural, and personal reasons why individuals prefer different products, become loyal consumers, or abandon certain items. Indeed, understanding how individuals make product-purchasing decisions is crucial for influencing consumer behavior, as it enables organizations to package and explain things in a way that appeals to individuals. This paper analyzes Dettol brand loyalty via qualitative and quantitative marketing elements.

Literature Review

Numerous journal papers elaborate on the various aspects that influence how individuals select products and engage in specific consumer behaviors. Goods participation refers to the amount to which consumers are interested in purchasing a specific sort of product and committed to purchasing a particular brand (Ghafelehbashi, Asadollahi and Nikfar 493). Product involvement is crucial for determining how consumers make product selections because it illuminates the relationship between a person and the product. High participation indicates that an individual has a strong interest and connection to a product and may be brand loyal, whereas low involvement indicates that an individual has a limited interest in the product and is capable of purchasing other items or brands.

Purchase engagement is another key topic to this investigation. Purchase participation refers to a consumer's level of interest in acquiring a certain product. Purchase engagement is closely tied to personality and character and transcends an individual's situational circumstance (Zhang 59). It is a key notion that marketers use to categorize consumers into low, moderate, and high participation segments, since it describes how individuals make product decisions and display particular consumer behaviors (Keshari and Narendra 58). High purchase engagement is associated with brand loyalty, whereas low purchase involvement is associated with a lack of brand loyalty.

Due to the fact that customers have varied likes and preferences, brand participation provides a means of determining how they select products. Brand involvement is the amount of interest a buyer or consumer has in a specific brand. It is a stimulant for understanding a consumer's attitude about a product or brand, and it reveals the customers' or individuals' purchasing decision-making process. Brand participation is an individual's unique relationship with a brand (Zhang 60). In essence, brand engagement is crucial since it impacts sales volume (Guthrie and Kim 115). It is essential to appreciate the perceived personal relevance of a brand from the consumer's perspective in order to comprehend the consumer.

The concept of purchasing intent is equally crucial for comprehending how individuals make product selections. Purchase intention refers to an individual's or consumer's intent to buy a particular product at a particular time (Liu 21). The data gathered from purchase intention reveal the varying intervals between consumer purchases of a specific product or brand. Purchase intent contributes to the comprehension of customer purchasing behavior, assists marketers in market segmentation, and promotes advertising (Chi, Yeh, and Tsai 1). For instance, numerous consumers or individuals purchase a variety of things on a daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly basis.

The environmental friendliness of items influences customer behavior. A variety of beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, demography, and values contribute to consumers' preference for environmentally friendly items. Those who value environmental protection will be motivated to purchase ecologically friendly products (Haryanto 85). However, such products will not appeal to consumers who do not recognize the importance of environmental conservation. Thus, marketers' focus on the need of environmental protection might influence how individuals choose products and engage in particular consumer behaviors (Peattie 130).

Similar to many other individual behaviors, green purchasing behavior is strongly impacted by numerous social influences (Crane 280). This indicates that purchasing behaviors and decisions of individuals are closely tied to the social environment, which includes peer networks and families.

Society must have environmental values in order to cultivate a lasting interest in environmentally friendly items and engage in green shopping. Environmental values are the monetary worth that a society, group, or community places on environmental goods (Haryanto 92). Environmental values result from product knowledge, in which individuals are aware of the consequences a product has on the environment through formal education or various awareness campaigns (Petcu, Miron, and David-Sobolevschi 131).

Notably, establishing awareness and increasing the amount of environmental knowledge within a culture may not necessarily result in a change in behavior; nonetheless, understanding of environmental difficulties and concerns increases the level of concern among individuals within a society. Therefore, a marketer should not be shocked by a society's unfavorable reaction to an environmentally friendly product (Haryanto 83). The acceptance of a product has a direct effect on how individuals select products.

Research Plan

This study was conducted using a combined quantitative and qualitative research methodology. Interviews and a survey consisting of a self-administered questionnaire were used to obtain data from a range of consumers. Students and members of the faculty participated in the research. Both interviews and surveys were performed on March 14, 2015, a Saturday. Participants were requested to complete out a self-administered questionnaire over the Internet via an online survey platform. Each customer required around four minutes to complete the questionnaire.

Due to the restricted amount of time available to perform the research, the online self-administered questionnaire was used. In addition, it is quite simple to run a survey over the Internet because there are so many willing participants. As a result, several members of the university community were interviewed, and their responses were later recorded. This study employed a mixed-method, descriptive research design that focuses on describing the features of a certain individual or group (Kothari 36).

A descriptive layout is suitable for explaining and illustrating the qualities of an event, a situation, a group of people, a community, or a population. It involves the development of a scenario or a group of people by obtaining complete and perhaps correct information via questionnaires and interviews between investigators and informants (DeVaus 23). The purpose of the study was to evaluate how individuals make product selections by examining Dettol brand loyalty and determining how people react to changes in the prices of Dettol products, what types of Dettol products are most commonly used, and the factors that influence the purchase of Dettol products.


Qualitative Results

Various themes and patterns arise from the responses to the interview questions. The majority of responders picked Dettol as the most dependable brand. In addition, the majority of respondents were pleased with the present segments given by the Dettol Company, as they all buy the product at least twice each month. In fact, the majority of these respondents would strongly suggest Dettol to others. However, the majority of respondents indicated they would switch to a different brand if Dettol increased its prices. Only one person deviated from this pattern and theme, citing Lifebuoy as their preferred brand.

The most intriguing pattern that emerges from the interview transcripts is that, despite a high level of brand loyalty, the majority of respondents would be extremely disappointed and switch brands if Dettol raised its prices. Clearly, customer pleasure has a greater impact in this situation than brand loyalty. As a result, the price of the products has a significant effect on customer happiness, as the majority of Dettol users associate discontent with price increases. A pleased customer will create a favorable opinion of a product and continue to purchase it indefinitely. In many instances, customer happiness is contingent on integral factors, such as a consumer's user experience.

Cost-based brand loyalty describes how Dettol users place a high value on the price of the product alongside the user experience. This type of devotion indicates that consumers are aware of an alternative product that would provide the same level of satisfaction as Dettol. It may also indicate that Dettol delivers the most affordable goods on the market because to its popularity.

This study's finding of cost-based brand loyalty is reinforced by data from other studies. During the repurchase process, the strength of brand loyalty has been called into question. Notably, marketers achieve brand loyalty using a variety of company-wide techniques. An example of such a strategy is the pricing strategy that marketers adopt to get a competitive advantage over other market competitors. According to research on detergent usage, brand loyalty is subject to price changes. The research revealed that when the cost of their favored brands change, people migrate to alternative brands. The findings of this study indicate that each increase in product price is accompanied with a reduction in product sales.

For the vast majority of buyers, pricing is a crucial consideration. In actuality, the price of a product has a greater impact on an individual's purchasing decisions than the product's quality, packaging, or brand. Nonetheless, it is inappropriate to generalize consumer reactions to price increases, as these reactions depend on the price's marginal change and the brand, and may differ by market sector (Indrayani, Siringoringo, and Saptariani 1). However, based on the outcomes of this study, it can be concluded that a company's price strategy is crucial for developing and maintaining brand loyalty.

Quantitative Findings

The study distributed online questionnaires and received 99 replies. In response to the vast amount of surveys, this study chose and analyzed 20 surveys at random. Thirteen of the twenty surveyed respondents were female, while seven were male. 11 respondents were between the ages of 15 and 20, 6 respondents were between the ages of 21 and 25, and 3 respondents were over the age of 31. In terms of product loyalty, the majority of respondents (13 respondents, 8 women and 5 men) declared allegiance to Dettol, while 3 respondents (2 women and 1 man) demonstrated commitment to Lifebuoy and 4 respondents (3 women and 1 man) indicated allegiance to Dove. Overall, more individuals were loyal to Dettol than any other brand.

Figure 1 is a pie chart illustrating the percentage of brand loyalty.

Regarding the frequency of purchase, 6 respondents, representing the majority, buy Dettol goods at least once per month, 3 respondents buy the product 2-3 times per month, 1 respondent buys it once per week, and 1 respondent was confused about the frequency of purchase. Wipes, hand wash, surface cleaning, sanitizer, and bar soap are the most often utilized Dettol products. Dettol wipes are the most popular Dettol product, since 50% of respondents use them.

Eight respondents indicated that they use hand sanitizers and surface cleaners, placing these goods in the second position. The bar soap is the least popular Dettol product, with only five respondents claiming to use it. All thirteen respondents who are devoted to Dettol claimed that they prefer the brand because of its quality. Three respondents also appreciate the brand due of its packaging, while only one stated that the design is appealing.

The majority of respondents (8) purchase Dettol products due to their accessibility, whereas only three respondents do so due to their competitive pricing. 7 respondents cited the brand as the primary reason for purchasing Dettol goods, 5 cited the quality of Dettol products, and 3 cited the packaging as the reason for purchasing Dettol products.

Figure 2: Purchasing Conduct.

All thirteen responders (dedicated Dettol users) would suggest the product to others. However, 5 respondents did not indicate whether there was anything about the Dettol product that needed to be changed, while 3 responded that the Dettol brand was extremely excellent and nothing needed to be altered. In addition, one responder said that Dettol should modify its branding, while two others suggested that the company should cut its prices and two others suggested that it should change its packaging. Regarding safety, four respondents did not specify why they believed Dettol to be a safe product, but only one respondent believes Dettol to be safe since doctors suggest it.

In contrast, 2 respondents believe that Dettol is safe due to the brand's reputation, 1 respondent believes that Dettol is a quality product, 2 respondents believe that Dettol actually kills germs, 2 others believe that the products are safe, and only one respondent believes that the product is safe due to effective advertising. 13 respondents would consider purchasing a hands-free automated sensor dispenser, whereas 6 respondents would not purchase one.

The ramifications of the study's findings for the marketing of Dettol products are numerous. Clearly, consumers purchase Dettol products frequently due to their quality and reputation. Consequently, folks decide to purchase Dettol goods due to its accessibility. However, this means that consumers can switch to alternative products if Dettol goods disappear from the market, even temporarily. The packaging of Dettol products is also a major consideration for consumers. In accordance with this concept, it is necessary for marketers to package things to appeal to and attract consumers. Consumers particularly esteem Dettol goods due of their superior quality.

Application and Summary

The outcomes of this study are extremely beneficial to marketers. First, the study is quite beneficial for the development of an efficient marketing strategy. This study demonstrates that demographic factors impact the sales of Dettol, since more women than males purchase the product and the majority of consumers are between the ages of 15 and 20. Thus, marketers can construct flawless marketing programs aimed at ladies between 15 and 20 years of age, or they might attempt to create efficient marketing campaigns that appeal to the elderly.

Secondly, marketers can use information from this study in relationship marketing. Relationship marketing refers to various actions performed by a company to develop and maintain a long-term relationship with consumers (Yaghobi, Ahmadi, and

Accounting Policies For Reporting Income History Essay Help

Table of Contents
Comprehensive income data from trustworthy sources Net income comparison Comprehensive income comparison References

The FASB is a nonprofit organization whose primary mission is to produce the codification standard, a collection of rules governing the reporting of financial statements. Literature identifies the FASB accounting standards codification as the foundation of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), which govern the presentation of financial information by nonprofit organizations (FASB 105-10-05, 2009). In addition, the codification literature lists additional authoritative sources of accounting policies, such as the Securities and Exchange Commission, whose rules, releases, and practices qualify as authoritative sources of accounting policies. In addition to authoritative sources of accounting policy, the codification identifies non-authoritative sources as industry-wide practices, FASB concept statements, AICPA issue papers, IFRS reporting standards or the IAS board, professional pronouncements, and technical information service inquiries. According to the literature, the presented regulation governs the reporting of financial statements by nonprofit organizations and stipulates that all of these organizations must comply with GAAP rules (FASB 105-10-05, 2009). Therefore, the accounting rules established by the codification are official sources of accounting principles that must be adhered to by all businesses and organizations that are not subject to government oversight.

Comprehensive income data from trustworthy sources

Comprehensive income, as defined by the FASB accounting standards codification, is the overall change in a company's net assets over a fiscal period attributable to non-owner resources (FASB 220-10-20, 2011). The objective of reporting comprehensive income is obvious from the objectives of the codification: to report changes in equity arising from operations and economic activities that do not include operations with main shareholders in their position as shareholders. Literature also indicates that consideration for comprehensive income affects all businesses that disclose financial position, activities, and cash position changes on their financial statements.

However, comprehensive income does not apply to businesses that have no other comprehensive income. Other comprehensive income refers to the changes in a company's financial situation that are not reflected in net income. This is because the FASB codification defines comprehensive income as the total of net income and other comprehensive income, necessitating the separation of all income into two components (FASB, 220-10-05, 2011). The two components of comprehensive income, net income and other comprehensive income, are calculated by the change in a company's financial position that is directly related to operations that do not include transactions carried out by the owners in their capacity as owners. The two components of comprehensive income, net income and other comprehensive income, are comprised of income from normal transactions and unusual business operations, respectively. Unusual business operations refer to activities that a corporation is not ordinarily authorized to do.

Net income comparison

According to the preceding definition of comprehensive income, net income is the measure of an organization's profitability that results from the addition of all revenues and the subtraction of all expenses and losses, if the revenues, gains, expenses, and losses are not included in other comprehensive income. Consequently, the FASB code lists three items that are included in net income: income from operations, income from discontinued activities, and income from extraordinary items, which are not included in other comprehensive income (FASB 220-10-45-7, 2011). From the aforementioned classes of net income, it can be determined that incomes from operations include the income gained (lost) from normal business operations, income from discontinued operations includes the income realized when an organization disposes of or sells operations, and incomes from extraordinary items refer to the income earned by an organization from operations that are not part of normal operations. For instance, in order to determine net income, an entity will calculate its revenues from operations, deduct its expenses, add profits or losses from the sale of securities, add other gains or expenses, and deduct income taxes and interest charges.

Comprehensive income comparison

Another comprehensive revenue is the organization's income that cannot be attributed to its typical business operations, including activity that the organization anticipates but cannot describe as normal (FASB 220-10-45-10A, 2011). This means that operations that a business is authorized to perform can be reported under net income; other income is reported as a component of other comprehensive income, which is included in net income. Foreign currency translation losses or gains, profits and losses on foreign currency transactions between entities and hedge funds, and gains and losses on securities held for sale are examples of other comprehensive income. In the financial statements, other sources of other comprehensive income include foreign currency adjustments, unrealized gains on securities, defined pension plans, and gains or losses from overseas transactions. Therefore, other comprehensive income is computed by taking into account the changes (gains or losses) from the constituents of other comprehensive income outlined above, and the resulting net figure is added to net income to get total comprehensive income.


FASB, 105-10-05. (2009). Accounting principles generally accepted Codification of Accounting Principles Web.

FASB, 220-10-05-01. (2011). Overview and Context. Web-based Accounting Standards Codification.

FASB, 220-10-20. (2011). Glossary. Web-based Accounting Standards Codification.

FASB, 220-10-45-7. (2011). Categories inside Net Income. Codification of Accounting Principles Web.

FASB, 220-10-45-10A. (2011). Comprehensive Earnings. Codification of Accounting Principles Web.

[supanova question]

Financial Management Textbook By Brigham & Ehrhardt History Essay Help


Students can rely on numerous textbooks during their education, but not every source is credible and engaging. The purpose of this paper is to assess one source utilized for a specific course grade; the textbook Financial Management: Theory and Practice by Eugene Brigham and Michael Ehrhardt will be evaluated. With the aid of four distinct evaluations, it will be possible to determine whether or not the chosen source is adequate.

Fry Reading Ease Formula

The readability level of each of three separate sections from this textbook will be determined through a series of stages. Using Fry's formula, the grade level of the textbook can be determined. The chosen assessment system is a trustworthy source of information that enables the alignment of student interests and abilities with teacher expectations. The selection of the grade level assists in defining the objectives and next stages for students.

Passage One

"The market price is the price of a stock as observed on the financial markets. The information available to investors is reflected in a company's market price. We will describe in greater detail how stock prices are established in the future. If the marker price incorporates all pertinent data, then the observed price is also the fundamental or intrinsic price. However, investors rarely have access to all pertinent data. For instance, firms reveal the majority of significant decisions, but they occasionally suppress vital information to prevent rivals from acquiring strategic benefits. Sadly, some managers intentionally mislead investors through their activities…" (Brigham & Ehrhardt, 2008, p. 8)

The number of words is 100.

Total number of sentences: 6

There are 197.00 syllables in all.

1.97 is the mean number of syllables per word.

16.67 average amount of words per sentence

Paragraph Two

"Companies that are expanding must purchase land, buildings, equipment, inventories, and other operating assets. The debt markets are a significant source of financing for such acquisitions. Therefore, every manager should have a working knowledge of the types of bonds that corporations and government agencies issue, the terms contained in bond contracts, the types of risks to which bond investors and issuers are exposed, and the methods for determining the values and rates of return on bonds. A bond is a long-term contract in which the borrower undertakes to make principle and interest payments to the bondholders on certain dates. (Brigham & Ehrhardt, 2008, p. 157)

The number of words is 100.

Number of phrases: 4

Total syllable count: 164

1.64 is the mean number of syllables per word.

25.25 is the average number of words per sentence.

Section Three

"Although it would be ideal to resolve these challenges and evaluate project risk on an absolute scale, the most we can do in practice is estimate project risk in a vague, relative sense. In general, we can state with a fair degree of certainty whether a practical project has more or less risk than the usual project for the company. Assuming that stand-alone risk and corporate risk are substantially associated, the stand-alone risk of the project will be a good indicator of its corporate risk. Lastly, assuming a strong correlation between market risk and business risk, a project with" (Brigham & Ehrhardt, 2008, p. 440)

The number of words is 100.

Number of phrases: 4

159 in number of syllables

1.59 is the mean number of syllables per word.

25.50 words are used on average each sentence.

After evaluating the three passages individually, it is time to compute the average rate of the texts and determine the grade level of the selected textbook based on the Fry graph.

The average number of sentences per paragraph is 4.6

173.3 is the mean number of syllables per word.

The grade level is determined using the Fry Method and three randomly selected sections from the textbook Financial Management: Theory and Practice (15). The results are determined by the long words used by the book's author; therefore, this book is for university students who are experts in the subject matter of the textbook.

Cloze Procedure

Unique to the Cloze Procedure is the ability to determine whether the selected material is appropriate for the student group. With the use of this test, it is feasible to engage students in what they are required to read, have them make predictions about their future work, and encourage them to think and analyze information critically. These assessments also assist teachers in determining if they've selected acceptable material for students. The aptitudes of the two sophomores are being assessed.

The text consists of the following:

When the pension asset is less than the pension liability, it is said that a defined benefit plan is underfunded. When a firm with a 401(k) pension plan goes bankrupt, the 401(k) liabilities are absorbed by the 401(k) Benefit Guarantee Corporation, a 401(k) agency implicitly backed by the U.S. government, which is synonymous with taxpayers. When numerous ___ are underfunded, it is quite likely that you, as a taxpayer, will be required to ___ the system. There are limits on how much can be paid to each employee, so if you are not paid and your firm goes bankrupt, you will also lose. How does time value of money fit into the picture? To illustrate the connection, assume that a pension fund's assets and liabilities are originally equal; subsequently, interest rates would . As you shall see, _____ interest rates cause _____ liabilities to increase in _____ value. Concurrently, the future earnings of the pension assets would likely decrease, and unless the employer increases its payments, the plan will be underfunded. This is precisely what occurred in the early years of . Interest rates decreased, pensions went unfunded, companies with operational difficulties were unable to pay their funding obligations, and as a result, _____ companies failed. This is one of many examples of the time value of money, but keep the pension example in mind as you read through the chapter." (Brigham & Ehrhardt, 2008, p. 38-39)

On pages 38 and 39 of the selected textbook by Brigham and Ehrhardt, you will find the relevant terms to use in this chapter.

Due to the previously utilized Fry model, the test findings were quite predictable. The first student earned a score of 50%, while the second earned a score of 56%. It indicates that both pupils are at their Instructional level and require tutoring that is both explicit and illustrative. As the level of the selected textbook is advanced and requires considerable effort from students and tutors, the results of the Cloze process are comparable to those of Fry's evaluation.

The differences in the outcomes of Fry and Cloze can be explained. The key is that both pupils have an extensive background and are familiar with certain facts and materials. Nonetheless, the readability level of the book is 15 (Fry's results), therefore it is not always able to comprehend the book's main ideas. Nonetheless, the accomplishments of both students demonstrate that it is only viable to utilize this textbook with the assistance of a tutor.

General Checklist for Textbook Readability

It is possible to use the evaluation method based on the results of the General Textbook Readability Checklist and compare the results obtained with those obtained from the two aforementioned evaluations in order to comprehend how the analyzed text may be accepted and understood by students and utilized by teachers. The selected checklist is a popular modification of the Readability Checklists provided by Irwin and Davis in the early 1980s.

This review has determined that the text under consideration is thoughtful. It implies that the authors of the book attempt to examine a variety of aspects in order to meet the reader's expectations: the authors' intention is fulfilled in the book, and each section appears to be an integral part of the overall project. Despite this, experiential backgrounds are not given much consideration; instead, the authors focus on theoretical fundamentals because the Fry graph indicates that the level is sufficiently high.

The text is thoughtful because it accommodates pupils' past knowledge and facilitates the acquisition of new information with minimal cognitive effort. In terms of text interest, the selected textbook contains a variety of relevant and engaging tables, images, and formulas that aid students in comprehending the necessary material.

In general, the selected textbook receives high marks for understability, usability, and interest. The sole drawback of the book under consideration is that the authors deem it acceptable to utilize a lot of difficult terms whose meanings are not always evident to pupils with the necessary background knowledge. However, the outcomes of the Cloze Procedure and Fry graph evaluations are comparable to those of the Readability Checklist.

FLIP Strategy

The term FLIP represents four fundamental concepts: friendliness, language, interest, and prior knowledge. The chosen strategy's primary objective is to engage the reader in the textbook and assess the source's level of difficulty. To pass this type of evaluation, a sentence from page 44 of the book Financial Management: Theory and Practice is chosen. Multiple questions were provided to three students; their responses were assessed, and the outcomes are presented in the table.



How approachable is Financial Management: Theory & Practice?

Do you find the table of contents to be satisfactory? There are two types of table of contents permitted by 1ststudent: concise and detailed. The 2dn student is intrigued by the obvious separation of chapters and linkages to e-sources, as well as the identification of chapter objectives. The third-grade pupils find the book's examples and evaluations of real-world situations to be quite engaging and effective.


How many new terms can you find between pages 44 and 45? How challenging does the author's writing appear to you? Not too many (cash flow or spreadsheet technique, for example);

2ndstudent: many of;

Three-year-old: one or two.

Although all students agree that the writing style is not challenging, several phrases and words are foreign to them due to inexperience.


How does the textbook appear intriguing to you? It is still not the most difficult English I have ever encountered;

The book is filled with illustrations and graphs that make the content more understandable.

It is possible to assess one's own level of knowledge with the aid of the book, which contains engaging assignments for third-year students.

Prior Experience:

Examine the book titles and subheadings on pages 44 and 45. What prior knowledge do you have regarding these topics? There are numerous activities in the field of financial management;

The financial sector must be managed effectively;

Graphics may be used by a third-year student to examine the financial compounding process.

During this type of review, it is crucial to inform students that their responses will not affect their grades, as the primary objective is to determine the text's readability. The selected paragraph contains fewer unfamiliar complex terms than those selected for the Fry and Cloze tests, but it nevertheless provides the reader with new information.

Analysis of the Outcomes

All of the aforementioned evaluations are regarded as effective methods for determining whether Financial Management: Theory and Practice is suitable for students. The scale satisfies the great majority of the specified requirements. It was revealed that students are capable of evaluating the information provided; however, lack of experience and inadequate theoretical backgrounds prevent certain students from immediately grasping the topic. The teacher benefits greatly from the activities undertaken: it becomes clear how students may treat assignments when no grades are assigned; it is possible to understand the material to rely on; and finally, the needs and expectations of some students are defined, allowing this knowledge to be applied in practice.


In reality, the book under evaluation is trustworthy enough to serve as the course textbook. Principally, a tutor must participate in the explanations of the content and assess the students' abilities in relation to the chosen field. Financial Management: Theory and Practice is a valuable resource for future evaluation, and despite the authors' occasional use of complex terminology, students are able to comprehend and apply the content during their study. The illustrative examples, tables, formulas with explanations, and a number of practical assignments provided should become a helpful means for students to grasp the basics of financial managements and its role in everyday life.


Brigham, EF & Ehrhardt, MC (2008). Financial Management: Theoretical and Practical Aspects. Ohio: Thomson Higher Education, Mason

[supanova question]

Eastvaco Corporation Company Analysis History Essay Help


The Eastvaco Corporation Limited Since its incorporation in 1899, West Virginia Pulp & Paper Company has produced papers and paperboards in the United States. It is involved in the transformation of paper and paperboard into a variety of other end products. In addition, the company produces lumber, sells timber from its own land, and engages in land development. As part of its expansion strategy, the corporation operates a number of international subsidiaries.

Brazil and Czech Republic are two of the countries where the corporation operates factories. In reality, both vertical and horizontal marketing integration tactics have been applied effectively by this company's management. It is vertically integrated in the sense that it grows its own timber, transforms it into final products, and handles its own marketing and distribution. It is also horizontally integrated because its operations are dispersed across multiple regions of the world, hence lowering risks. One of the primary goals of this company is to preserve its solid financial position and enhance its operations to achieve the best feasible earnings (Camelia & Laura, 2002).

Performance Measurement Using the Balanced Scorecard

In assessing the performance of a corporation, two methods are generally preferred. Intelligent economists support using both financial and non-financial criteria to evaluate the performance of a company. However, some businesses tend to disregard non-financial measurements that are equally significant from an economist's perspective. The most common financial measurements include profit margins, markups, Internal Rate of Return (IRR), and Return on Equity (ROE). Non- financial metrics include customer happiness, production efficiency, environmental compliance etc.

The balanced scorecard is the key link between a company's actions and its objectives and plans. This is a crucial tool for measuring a company's performance (Kaplan & Norton, 2008). Any organization utilizing a balanced scorecard must contain non-financial performance measures. The balanced scorecard can be examined from four distinct angles. These include financial, internal business, client, training, and development.

Economic Perspective

It is crucial for managers to have access to dependable, sufficient, and accurate financial data that can be utilized to assess the performance of a firm (Kaplan and Norton 2008). Any financial information must be accurate, and if originality is required, it must be strictly adhered to. A minor inaccuracy in any financial data will lead to a misinterpretation of the results, resulting in inaccurate financial statements. Return on Assets (ROA) percentage is one of the financial metrics that Eastvaco might utilize. This is the most important profitability metric. It is calculated by dividing net profit after taxes by net sales. A smaller proportion of this is recommended.

Client/Customer Viewpoint

Profit maximization and client satisfaction are the driving forces behind virtually every firm. Without the customer, there would be no production, hence he is an essential element of any commercial activity. Eastvaco should provide high-quality goods to satisfy the needs of existing consumers and keep them, as well as to attract new customers. Considering that this is an international corporation, this must be the case if this business wishes to capture a substantial market share.

Internal Business

This perspective highlights production processes occurring within the organization. Here, two performance metrics are applicable: supplier retention and process improvement. The corporation Eastvaco should have the most efficient management possible. In this instance, the company will acquire the supplier's trust, as material suppliers are hesitant to do business with enterprises whose futures are unknown (Camelia & Laura, 2002). In addition, the production procedures should be more efficient in order to provide items of superior quality.

Education and Progress

This perspective focuses on the expansion and enhancement of the quality of the workforce. Eastvaco can do this by providing training programs and facilities to enhance the quality of its workforce.

Case 2: Cost and Financial Measures Management

As stated previously, both financial and non-financial measurements are crucial when evaluating the performance of a company and managing expenditures. In the instance of the Charlotte facility, three goods manufactured from recycled materials are in doubt. Since there is a heated disagreement amongst the three managers, some non-financial performance measurements, such as customer satisfaction, should be considered by examining the demand side.

Due to a lack of raw materials, historical data and market research should indicate which product, among cups, envelopes, and packing materials, appears to be in high demand so that production can be concentrated on that item. Each product's production efficiency should also be assessed, and only the product that appears to be manufactured successfully should be considered. These two will help reduce the company's expenses to an acceptable level.

In the event that Charlotte's manager depends solely on financial metrics, the results would not accurately portray the organization. The corporation may not be able to control costs since financial measures alone are insufficient and cannot be relied upon.

Case 3: Variance Examination

Variance is the difference between a process's budgeted, anticipated outcome and its actual outcome. Analyzing the difference between the standard and actual costs, variance analysis is a budgetary control instrument. In the case of Charlotte Company, four distinct deviations were identified.

Material Price Variance (MPV)

Material cost overruns occur when the actual cost of the material exceeds the projected cost. Since the Charlotte, North Carolina factory demonstrates a positive variance, it is evident that the cost of procuring raw materials was less than anticipated. This may have occurred because the corporation received a quantity discount or because there was a decrease in material costs at the time of purchase.

Variation in Quantity of Material (MQV)

It occurs when the actual quantity of material utilized differs from the quantity budgeted for at the standard cost. The variable appears to be unfavorable at Charlotte's factory, indicating that more material was utilized than anticipated. This could be due to misappropriation of the required units or material waste during manufacture.

Variation in Work Rates (LRV)

This is the discrepancy between the actual number of hours worked and the expected number of hours worked. This is a strong sign that the actual cost of the hours worked was greater than planned at Charlotte's factory. This could be due to overtime pay or overpayment.

Labor Productivity Variation (LEV)

It is the gap between the number of hours actually worked and the number of hours that should have been worked based on the standard rate per hour. This may be the result of increased labor productivity or the adoption of labor-saving machines.

Scrap materials: They dropped due to the procurement of high-quality materials or the enhancement of production efficiency. This could result in a beneficial Material Quantity Variance, as the actual quantity of material utilized was less than the budgeted quantity.

Return Orders: This may have occurred as a result of the manufacture of subpar goods or the emergence of a new competitor in the industry supplying comparable items. This is evidence of a negative Labor Efficiency Variance

Rework time decreased due to the deployment of labor-saving machines or improved product quality. This obviously results in a positive Labor Efficiency Variance

The increase in average unit cost was attributed to inefficient production procedures, inexperienced workers operating production machines, or inferior raw materials. Consequently, Labor Efficiency Variance and Material Quantity Variance were negative.

Unanticipated downtime: The increase was due to incompetent and substandard labor given by workers. This resulted in negative Labor Efficiency Variance.

Sales were below budget due to a decline in demand for the final product as a result of poor quality. This may have been the result of poor labor efficiency.

This was less than anticipated as a result of a decline in sales, which could be attributed to poor product quality. This was due to the negative Labor Efficiency of the company's other similar items.

Costing, budgeting, and internal reporting for Case 4

Variable Cost budget

Contribution margin (CM) = Sales minus Variable Sales; CM weight = % of sales divided by 100.

WACM = CMe.We + CMc.Wc + CMp.Wp = (2.7 x 0.42) +(2.3 x 0.26) + (3.3 x 0.09) = 1,134 + 0.598 + 0.297 = $2.02 million

2007 Breakeven = Fixed Cost divided by the P/V ratio

$ 6.5 million/$8.3 million * $36.2 million = $28.3 million

How the company's profits might grow in response to a rise in revenue.

New total sales equals $40 million (19 + 13 + 8)

Variable Costs account for 77% of sales

Variable expenses = 0.77*40 = $30.8 million.

Contribution margin = 40-30.8 = $9.2 million

Marginal CM = $ 0.9 (9.2-8.3) million

The marginal fixed cost is $0.2 (3.8-3.6 million) million

Incremental earnings = 0.9-0.2 = $ 0.7 million

Other methods of assigning manufacturing fixed costs

In addition to absorption-costing (product costing), there is another method for assigning fixed production expenses. The technique is known as marginal costing.

Case 5 Investing Choices

When making investment decisions, specific criteria are applied to the analysis of mutually exclusive projects. Payback Period (PB), Accounting Rate of Return (ARR), Net Present Value (NPV), and Internal Rate of Return are some of these methodologies (IRR). Typically, the favored projects have the highest ARR, NPV, and IRR. The project with the shortest PBP is selected since it can pay itself back the quickest (Kaplan and Norton 2008).

Payback duration

Envelopes Cups


year Cumulative cash flow (CF) Cumulative cash flow (CF) Cumulative cash flow (CF)

0 $ (30,000) $ (30,000) $ (28,000) $ (28,000) $(26,000) $ (26,000)

1 5,500 (24,500) 9,000 (19,000) 6,200 (19,800)

2 6,500 (18,000) 6,500 (12,500) 6,200 (13,600)

3 5,500 (12,500) 6,300 (6,200) 6,200 (7,400)

4 3,800 (8,700) 4,500 (1,700) 6,200 (1,200)

5 8,200 (500) 4,300 2,600 6,200 5,000

6 8,300 7,800 3,800 6,400 6,200 11,200

PBP (Years)



PBP calculations = Envelopes 5 years plus 500/8300, Cups 4 years plus 1700/4300, and Packaging 3 years plus 1200/6200

Since the envelopes have a short payback period, packaging materials would be desirable.

Note: the above computations can be found in the attached Excel spreadsheet.

When comparing more than two mutually exclusive projects, the one with the largest NPV is typically chosen. The packaging has the highest NPV in this instance. The IRR demands that the present value of the cash inflows and cash outflows be equal. If the internal rate of return exceeds the cost of capital, the project is worthwhile. However, while the IRR for all projects exceeds 6%, which is the cost of capital, the packaging is approved because it has the highest IRR.

Again, packaging has the shortest PBP, thus it will take the corporation the least amount of time to recoup its initial investment. ARR estimates the expected accounting rate of return for the project. Typically, a target rate of return is established, and it is permissible for projects to surpass this rate. In this instance, though, the package has the highest ARR, making it the most suitable option.

Case 6: Comparative Analysis of Businesses

Comparing and evaluating businesses is facilitated by financial ratio analysis. Businesses apply ratio analysis to financial accounts to evaluate the success, advancement, or failure of a corporate entity. Ratio analysis enables financial managers to compare the performance and financial status of their businesses with those of other businesses in the same industry (Camelia and Laura 2002).

Ratios Eastvaco MeadWestvaco Industry Average

Rapid Ratio: 0.9:1.2:0.9

Existing Ratio: 2 1.7 1.5

Current Liabilities to Value (5) 49% 20% 39%

Current Liabilities/Inventories, 133.3% vs 171% versus 184%

Total Liabilities to Net Worth

Fixed Assets to Net Worth of 76.5

Sales/stock 10,1 11,3 8,7

Assets/Sales 63.5% 175% 142%

Gross revenue/net working capital 6.5 9.0 9.7

Sales/Accounts Payable 76.5% 13% 9%

Profit on Sales 3% 4% 4%

4.2% 2% 3.0% Profit on Assets

Return on Net Worth 9.8 percent 5 percent 8 percent

Note: Please see the above calculations on the accompanying sheet.

According to the estimates above, Eastvaco is more liquid than MeadWestvaco. This is due to the fact that its Quick and Current ratios are the greatest, indicating that it can meet its current liabilities with readily convertible assets. However, MeadWestvaco appears to have a greater return on assets, which is an indication of its financial health and good management.

Case Seven: Organizational Structure and Inter-Business Transfers

The Charlotte factory serves as an investment hub. This is because it controls its own revenue, expenses, and investment capital directly. Moreover, the unit maintains its own budget. The plant manager is responsible for planning production and facilitating sales.

The benefits and drawbacks of a decentralized system

Decentralized organization is one in which decision-making is distributed throughout multiple organizational levels, as opposed to being centralized at the top (Kaplan and Norton 2008). The lowest level and subordinate employees are part in the company's decision-making process. Some of the benefits of a decentralized organizational structure include transparency in the management of the organization, the organization's final decision reflecting the opinions of all of its members, and the ability to conduct much more accurate performance evaluations because the responsibility and authority of managers are clear.

This type of organizational structure has the disadvantages of a decision-making conflict between the top-level and lower-level employees, as well as the possibility that the lower-level employees lack the expertise to make certain strategic decisions.

The Charlotte facility should purchase the material from North Carolina for $120. Due to the fact that the Carolina Firm has already decided to provide its goods at this price, it is preferable to purchase it directly from the company in accordance with the inter-company transfer principle. Another reason for this is because after this material has been exposed to the open market, it may incur additional expenses, such as taxes, and become relatively expensive.

Case 8: International Trade

In order for the report to be approved, it must contain sufficient information. The target market should be thoroughly examined to determine if there are ready markets for the newly manufactured goods. In order to avoid manufacturing delays, the president should also provide information regarding the availability of necessary raw materials. Also should be included in the report is the ease with which a factory's support necessities, such as water, energy, and transportation, can be obtained. The political and economic structure of Asia should be thoroughly examined to see whether the new initiative may be successfully implemented in the region.

In comparison to other corporations such as MeadWestvaco, the big company's strengths include strong liquidity, the ability to generate large sales volume, production efficiency, and a solid asset base. Its shortcomings include a low return on assets, a low return on net worth, and a below-average degree of profitability. If the report's findings are favorable, the corporation can proceed with the anticipated growth.


Managerial communication. Romain Journals 7172(23):1-12. Camelia, S., & Laura, P. (2008).

Kaplan, S.R., and D.P. Norton (2002).

The symmetrical scorecard. Harvard Business School Press, New York.

[supanova question]

Servicescape Design Analysis History Essay Help

A Brief Summary of the Expanded Container

The festival in question will be included into the design of the cargo container. The expandable container is a clever work of art and technology that opens from the interior when required and shows its contents in accordance with the manufacturer's vision. As we deliver our services to customers, we will primarily examine the design or strategy outlined in the following section. The container is a standard-sized, 7.8 4.5 2.23-meter shipping container with its interior and surrounding design outlined in the next section. Consideration has been given to the container since it can carry both dry meals and foods that require long-term refrigeration. This is necessary in order to maximize the project's returns.

Description of the expanded container in general

The sort of container being used is referred to as "expanded" because it will be utilized for purposes other than storage. One wing that comprises a portion of the container's length and height will be opened and will function as the counter, similar to that of a restaurant or bar. From this location, consumers will also place orders for an extension area where they will wait pleasantly to be served. Because it has collapsible sides, the container to be utilized is a Flatrack Collapsible Container (SR International logistics, 1). It is a 2400-kilogram container with a maximum capacity of 21,000 kg.

A portion of the container is fitted with refrigeration equipment. A portion of the container consists of a temperature-controlled compartment that utilizes a "ThermoSafe," a box that regulates the temperature of all items placed within it. After 24 hours, approximately 5 to 10 pounds of dry ice are utilized to maintain food and beverage temperatures (R.N.C. Industries, 1).

Additionally, the container will incorporate a dried-in food compartment where goods that require low moisture content can be stored properly. This will be the largest of the two parts, occupying approximately two-thirds of the container's storage space. Behind the container's display point, there will be a dedicated storage and display area for alcoholic beverages such as wines and whisky. For the sake of elegance, the exhibition space will consist of a cabinet-like section with a glass door that slides open and closed. The display area of the container will be a 5 m by 1.5 m area in the center of the open end of the container, and directly next to it will be a temporary passageway, which will function somewhat like a door. Attached to the entrance is a little protrusion from which the waiting staff will serve clients their food. A portion of it will also serve as a tiny bar from which drinks will be efficiently served.

The container's working area will consist of the end that has been modified. It will use approximately half of the kitchen space that the container has. This is because preparing the ordered meals requires a great deal of space and a great deal of motion. Owing to the fact that the majority of the food is ready-to-eat, it will take less time to serve the meals, but due to customer satisfaction, the kitchen should be large enough to allow for quick and efficient service. Regarding customer service, this topic will be elaborated upon in the future. The room will feature a relatively large seating area that may accommodate forty persons seated simultaneously. To accomplish this, an umbrella-shaped tent with seats for four individuals per tent will be utilized.

Figure 1. Service area

The container's interior (Service area).

The majority of the container's service area consists of a miniature kitchen equipped to prepare three-course meals three times per day. To accomplish this, the kitchen must be fully equipped with a variety of modern hotel kitchen appliances. The facility will be run and supervised by a qualified chef, who will be aided by five to six other cooks who undertake high-quality hygienic activities in the kitchen (Walker, p. 49). When one enters the kitchen, one can expect to see SS Square Tandoor cookers, which are low-powered gas/electric cookers that operate silently and provide precise performance. A Pot Rack will also be useful. This effectively stores a portion of the kitchen's tools. In addition to grinders, blenders, frying pans, hotplates, and stirrers, the interior of the kitchen will also contain other essential appliances (IndiaMart, p. 1).

In addition, a salamander will be installed in the kitchen. This is a common kitchen item used for toasting and browning that is heated by infrared radiation from above. Additionally, it is frequently used for melting cheese and creating sandwiches. In addition to being useful for supporting the available cooker, a gas stove will also be useful. Even if we will have a cold room for food storage, we may need a much smaller deep freezer that can manage the temperature of a specific food item according to the chef's specifications. Other smaller appliances such as garlic peelers, toasters, and water-heating devices such as kettles and boilers will also be included (IndiaMart, p. 1).

We cannot have a kitchen without the cutlery required to complete the kitchen's design. Serving customers requires an abundance of heavy glassware and silverware as part of the flatware. Taking into account the nature of the event, it is anticipated that the attendees would be elegant and sophisticated individuals with a keen sense of fashion and quality. In the kitchen, however, we may require spoodles, skewers, cooking forks for raw meat, and steak weights for high heat scrapers. Depending on the preferences of the chef, we may also require skimmers and various types of tongs. Important are cooking forks and a variety of kitchen knives, bowls, saucers, and plates. As well as serving utensils and hot pots, kitchen trays and plates are required (Ace Mart Restaurant Supply, p. 3).

Outside, more refined silverware is utilized to serve customers. From the variety of forks to the assortment of spoons, plates, saucers, glasses, and cups, the needed level of elegance cannot be compromised in any way. The silverware and glassware should be of a quality that encourages clients to return. In addition, consideration should be given to table alignment, as it is the minor aspects that matter in hotel administration and service.

Outside, we may also like to include a selection of roasted meats that the hotel wishes to provide. To do so, we will require a lot of outdoor grills to prepare barbecues and roast some of the meat that our clients are seeking.

Figure 2. Main kitchen

To do this, we will incorporate a variety of barbecues, including gas grills, electric grills, and charcoal grills (Giving Gallery holidays, 1).

The reason for this is because the grills produce different results depending on the customer's preferences. A variety of meals and wines will be provided, and the chef, in partnership with the hotel management team, will determine the menus. Finally, we will examine the kitchen's cleanliness standards. There must be sinks with running water 24 hours a day. The lighting system inside and outside the container must conform to the authority's specifications and be in excellent condition. To improve safety, it is necessary to install firefighting equipment such as extinguishers.

Description of Immediate Neighborhood

When it comes to the exterior, where the client is being served, the level of opulence cannot be sacrificed. As previously indicated, customers will be sitting under one of ten umbrella-style shelters to protect them from the sun. The total capacity of the facility is forty individuals. That implies one shelter will be able to accommodate four people. The ideal sort of shelter indicated is the 47.2-inch lead umbrella (Wing, 2), which includes a table and four chairs. Each chair will have its own dressing. These trimmings must coordinate with the umbrella's fabric. Color is of vital importance. For a special occasion such as the one at hand, it would be ideal to incorporate art into the dining room. As a result, the adornment will be ornamented with a golden brown accent that represents theater art, with artwork done around the umbrella peaks.

We will have a low-level lighting system consisting of around 1.5-meter-tall bulbs with custom-designed stands. Carvings that represent art would be an excellent choice. In order to complement the event's concept, the optimal hue will be dark brown. The lights used will be incandescent pure white bulbs with a glamorously adorned exterior that emit a sparkling effect both during the day and at night (Kremer, 1).

For additional entertainment, a stage with a complete musical ensemble, its equipment, and a sound system will be installed. This platform shall be erected to a height of 0.5 meters, with 3m by 3m square sides. This platform will be positioned in the heart of the service area, where live entertainment will occur both during the day and at night. Live performance is seen as superior and more enticing than audio or karaoke (Speer, 1).

Other decorative elements will consist of twisted white and brown fabric that runs from corner to corner of the area. Even though the location is outside, the fabric exudes a mixture of refinement and elegance.

Aerial View of the Container's Surrounding Area

Figure 3. Aerial View of the Container's Surroundings


The restaurant supply store Ace Mart. Cooking implements. Giving Gallery holidays in 2009. Choosing a grill or barbeque. Kitchen Equipment, IndiaMart, 2010. 2010. Web. Kremer, Jonathan. Types and Applications of Light Bulbs: megavolt. 2010. Web. R.N.C Industries. Delivery of refrigerated or frozen goods. [Online]. 2010. Speer, Bob. What Happened to the CD Mastering Services of Dynamic Music? SR International logistics in 2010. Standardized Packaging. 2010: Food in the Arts: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cooking, edited by H. Walker. England: Prospect Books. 1999. Print. Wung. Sujuan. Shangyu Haojie Umbrella Co. 2010.

[supanova question]

Lee Greenwood And John Newton, Composers History Essay Help

Lee Greenwood and John Newton are two composers that have written great works of art. Lee Greenwood is famous for the song “God Bless the USA” while John Newton wrote “Amazing Grace”. When choosing a composer to research I picked these two men because of what they songs they composed mean to me and make me feel. I have grown up with knowing the song “Amazing Grace” but did not know anything about the man who composed it or why he was compelled to write this hymn. The same for “God Bless the USA”, Lee Greenwood will always be remembered for this song but I always wanted to know why he wrote it.

Lee Greenwood is a California native born in October 27, 1947.Lee Greenwood has always had music in his life. He was in the band in high school that played pop, jazz, rhythm and Blues but eventually made his way to Nashville playing country music. Lee plays the drums, piano, saxophone, trumpet, banjo, timpani and vocals. Lee did not attend college for technical musical training, he played many different places including Nevada eventually moving his way to Nashville. Lee writes mostly country at this time but has in the past used his pop, jazz and rhythm and blues background to write songs. Many songs have been written by Lee Greenwood including: ” I.O.U.”, ” Somebody’s Gonna Love You” and ” Dixie Road”. Lee comes from a farming family and still helps out on the farm but his main source of income is music. The married the love of his life Kim and they had two boys Dalton and Parker. He is a “conservative Christian”. Lee has some significant honors in country music including Male Vocalist in 1983 & 1984 from the Country Music Association, Grammy for top Male Performance of “I.O.U.”. and in 2001 one about 18 years after he wrote “God Bless the USA” the song went number one on the pop charts (http://www.leegreenwood.com/biography).

John Newton was born in London England on July 24, 1725. John composed hymns later in life while he was ships in his younger years. John self taught himself after he left boarding school. John was also a preacher in the evangelical church. He married Mary, a women he had loved since he was a young man. While they did not have children of their own they raised their nieces. John wrote ” Glorious Things of Thee are Spoken”, ” Sinner Art thou still secure?” and ” Saved by Blood I Live to Tell” just to name a few. John was a strong advocate to abolish slavery in his later years while he did run a slave ship when he was younger.

Lee Greenwood and John Newton have several similarities. Both men have a sing relationship with their faith in God. John became an evangelical preacher and Lee is a Baptist. Lee and John have ties to the military. Lee Greenwood’s father was in the merchant Marines and Navy, this could be one of the reasons he felts so compelled to write “God Bless the USA”. Johns was in the British Navy as a young man. Throughout his stay in the Navy John has seen many different circumstances. Both men married women that were and are the loves of their lives, Lee married Kim and John married Mary.

With as many similarities that the two man had with each other they also has many differences. John was in the era of slavery. He was one of the front runners supporting to abolish slavery. Lee Greenwood was not around during this time. John Newton was a writer of hundreds of hymns while Lee Greenwood stuck with country and pop songs. John Newton’s mother died and his father remarried while Lee’s parents were divorced. Lee Greenwood also has a sister while John was an only child.


The limitations of the Chit Acts free college essay help


The financial system assumes strategically a very important role in channelling the funds from surplus units to deficit units. The financial system here refers to the group of institutions, markets and instruments which helps in formation of capital and thus accelerates to the pace of economic development.

The base of this study stems from the fact that there exists a gap between gross capital formation and gross domestic savings in India. So, there exists the need to augment the growth rate of voluntary domestic savings. This goal can be realized by widening and strengthening the working of different financial intermediaries which will result in mobilizing savings from various income level categories. .It is in this context that the role of the Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries like Chit Finance should be appreciated in supplementing the functions of the Banking Institutions.

Chit funds are Chit funds are the Indian equivalent of the Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCA). ROSCAs are famous in many parts of the world and is seen as an instrument to ‘save and borrow’ simultaneously. ROSCAs basically started as a way to help in fulfilling the needs of the low-income households as it enables the people to convert their small savings into lump sums. The concept of chit funds originated more than 1000 years ago. Initially it was in the form of an informal association of traders and households within communities, wherein the members contributed some money in return for an accumulated sum at the end of the tenure. Participation in Chit funds was mainly for the purpose of purchasing some property or, in other words, for ‘consumption’ purposes. However, in recent times, there have been tremendous alterations in the constitution and functioning of Chit funds. A significant difference between Chit Funds and ROSCAs are that in most places ROSCAs are user-owned and organized informally, but chit funds have been formally institutionalized in India. (Chit Funds-An innovative access to finance for low income households, 2009)


Chit fund is a savings-cum-borrowing instrument. The basic aim of this instrument is to pool small amount of savings by all the members which is then managed by a foreman. The foreman has the responsibility to act as a trustee-cum-supervisors for the process of collection and allotment of the pooled amount.

Chit funds represent a traditional form of saving-cum-credit institution evolved before the bank system was introduced in rural India. There are many who avail themselves of this avenue for saving for a reasonable return.


Despite the growth of a wide range of savings avenues and the widespread network of banks and other financial institutions, it has been found that Chit scheme still forms an important part in the asset portfolio of many households and firms in India and especially in South India including Karnataka. Also, the review of literature shows that there are only a few studies on Chit Finance. Therefore, the need to conduct the study stems from the requirement to understand Chit Funds in Bangalore.


The research titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study tries to point out the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests feasible recommendations for improving the working of such institutions.


‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’.


1. Age

2. Occupation

3. Monthly income

4. Gender

5. Bank loan

6. Regular participation in chit fund

7. Membership in multiple chit schemes

8. Cause for participating in multiple schemes

9. Preferred avenue of saving

10. Preferred source of finance

11. Safety

12. Better service

13. Flexibility

14. Timely Payment

15. Low commission

16. Personal contact

17. Unregistered chit funds membership

18. Cause for participating in unregistered chit funds

19. Cause for not participating in unregistered chit fund



1. To understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members.

2. To identify the important predictors behind chit fund participation


1. To estimate interest rates in registered chit funds.

2. To compare the relative ratings of Chit subscribers towards registered and unregistered chit funds on

3. To estimate the return on Chit Funds.


There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

1. Null hypothesis

2. Alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.



Members of four registered chit fund companies in Bangalore. The four registered chit fund companies were selected due to the large size of their subscriber base.


150 respondents



Questions relating to behaviour and financial pattern will be found out through questionnares


‘ Reports on chit fund industry



According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on 31st December, 2013:

Volume of registered chit companies: 5412

Volume of chit companies in Karnataka: 703

Number of chit fund companies in Bangalore: 315


Although unregistered chits are an informal source of finance but still they are a significant part of the chit fund industry. Though they are more easily accessible as compared to registered chit funds.


The study titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ attempt in The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study also examines the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests suitable recommendations for improving the functioning of such institutions.


‘ Unwillingness of the members to share their income and financial details made the task of data collection somewhat difficult.

‘ Collecting data became difficult since I don’t know the regional languages.


The analysis is done on the primary data collected from 150 chit funds members in Bangalore


5.4.1 Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.070a 16 .013

Likelihood Ratio 35.945 16 .003

Linear-by-Linear Association 8.809 1 .003

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .455 .013

Cramer’s V .228 .013

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.


The value of chi-square=31.070 was p=.013, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (Phi and Cramer’s V -0.455).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. This means that different age groups of the chit fund members have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As can be seen from the table above that those who belong to ’36-45 years’ have saving as the predominant reason to participate whereas members of other age groups do not have any dominant reason to participate.

5.4.2 Hypothesis 2:

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

. Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 10.018a 4 .040

Likelihood Ratio 10.478 4 .033

Linear-by-Linear Association 6.876 1 .009

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .258 .040

Cramer’s V .258 .040

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.


The value of chi-square=10.018 was p=.040, less than 0.05.

.We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (0.258)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis. This means that males and females have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As it can be seen that males participate in chit funds for business and personal consumption purposes apart from saving whereas women predominantly participate to save.


Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 82.176a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 97.665 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 15.696 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .740 .000

Cramer’s V .427 .000

N of Valid Cases 150


We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (0.740)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the self-employed members mainly participate to avail for business reasons whereas salaried employee participate mainly for personal consumption purposes.

Hypothesis 5:

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 66.691a 20 .000

Likelihood Ratio 43.579 20 .002

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.804 1 .028

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .667 .000

Cramer’s V .333 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.


The (chi-square=66.691) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong (0.667)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the members of age group’36-45 years’ are more interested in bidding for business related purposes where members of other age groups bid mainly for emergency needs.

5.4.6 Hypothesis 6:

. Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.167a 5 .209

Likelihood Ratio 7.885 5 .163

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.120 1 .290

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .219 .209

Cramer’s V .219 .209

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.


The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.167) was p=.209, more than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.7 Hypothesis 7:

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 180.915a 15 .000

Likelihood Ratio 160.460 15 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 28.379 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.098 .000

Cramer’s V .634 .000

N of Valid Cases 150


The (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that self-employed people bid in chit scheme mostly for business purposes, salaried people for emergency needs and housewives for household purposes.

5.4.8 Hypothesis 8:

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 123.331a 35 .000

Likelihood Ratio 106.298 35 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.957 1 .026

N of Valid Cases 150


The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=123.331) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.907)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that low income members bid mostly for consumption reasons whereas higher income members bid for business related and emergency purposes.


Reason to bid in chit fund has the strongest association with the occupation of the chit fund members as the probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000 and the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098).


Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 21.702a 16 .153

Likelihood Ratio 23.775 16 .095

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.397 1 .122

N of Valid Cases 150


The chi-square=123.331) was p=.153, more than 0.05. Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.10 Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 20.510a 4 .000

Likelihood Ratio 29.038 4 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 7.062 1 .008

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .370 .000

Cramer’s V .370 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.


The chi-square=20.510) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (.370).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis.

5.4.11 Hypothesis 11:

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 67.261a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 60.380 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.507 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .670 .000

Cramer’s V .387 .000

N of Valid Cases 150


The chi-square=67.261 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong(.670).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to cause in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. Salaried people save their money in chit fund with no particular purpose. But self-employed people are equally interested in saving for house purchase as well as for general purpose.


chit fund is most closely associated with occupation of the chit fund members as it has the highest value of chi-square statistic and Phi coefficient.

5.4.12 Hypothesis 12:

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 56.697a 3 .000

Likelihood Ratio 67.900 3 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 36.400 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150


The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=56.697) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (.615).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘membership in multiple chit schemes are related to differences in ‘having currently bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that those members currently having bank loan have invested in only one chit scheme whereas those members who do not have availed bank loan have invested in more than one chit schemes.

5.4.13 Hypothesis 13:

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds


Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 96.660a 7 .000

Likelihood Ratio 85.378 7 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 59.577 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell(10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.08.


The chi-square=96.660 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.803).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘participation in unregistered chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that mostly low- income members have participated in unregistered funds. This is because the registered funds have become expensive due to the increase in their operational cost as a result of stringent regulations.

5.2.14 Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 28.049a 5 .000

Likelihood Ratio 31.806 5 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.967 1 .085

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 2 cells (15.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.79.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .432 .000

Cramer’s V .432 .000

N of Valid Cases 150


The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=28.049) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (.432).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to prefer chit fund over bank’ are related to differences in ‘having bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that members who have bank loan have preferred chit fund over bank mainly due to better dividends. But those who do not have bank loan prefer chit fund over bank mainly due to better service in terms of more personalized service.)

5.2..15 Hypothesis 15: To identify significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds using Binary Logistic Regression

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 0 Constant -1.046 .186 31.574 1 .000 .351

Model Summary

Step -2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R Square Nagelkerke R Square

1 37.170a .533 .576

a. Estimation terminated at iteration number 6 because parameter estimates changed by less than .001.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a bank_loan(1) 1.068 1.265 14.715 1 .000 11.720

reason_2 2.286 4 .683

reason_2(1) 1.336 1.077 1.540 1 .215 3.805

reason_2(2) .134 2.239 .004 1 .952 1.143

reason_2(3) -.559 1.896 .087 1 .768 .572

reason_2(4) .731 1.347 .294 1 .588 2.076

reason_3 4.874 5 .431

reason_3(1) 1.188 .924 1.652 1 .199 3.279

reason_3(2) 1.661 2.048 .658 1 .417 5.263

reason_3(3) -1.654 1.228 1.813 1 .178 .191

reason_3(4) .404 1.192 .115 1 .735 1.497

reason_3(5) -17.379 20.722 .000 1 .700 .000

reason_4 .355 4 .986

reason_4(1) -1.047 1.850 .320 1 .571 .351

reason_4(2) -.839 1.979 .180 1 .672 .432

reason_4(3) -.932 1.637 .324 1 .569 .394

reason_4(4) 3.519 4.199 .000 1 .600 3.746

reason_5 8.553 5 .128

reason_5(1) -.254 1.768 .021 1 .886 .776

reason_5(2) -19.245 9.890 .000 1 .999 .000

reason_5(3) 1.420 1.338 1.126 1 .289 4.136

reason_5(4) -.747 1.306 .327 1 .567 .474

reason_5(5) .561 1.342 .174 1 .676 1.752

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a Safety -.075 .320 4.377 1 .011 0.928

Flexi -.178 .426 3.337 1 .021 0.837

commision -.185 .188 1.868 1 .026 0.831

payment -.267 .178 1.657 1 .097 0.766

service -.859 .412 1.348 1 .083 0.424

personal -1.122 .163 .996 1 .079 0.329

Constant 3.058 2.440 1.571 1 .010 21.291

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: : bank_loan, reason_2, reason_3, reason_4, reason_5.imp1, imp2, imp3, imp4, imp5, imp6.


‘ -2 Log Likelihood statistic is 37.170. This statistic how poorly the model predicts the decisions — the smaller the statistic the better the model. Since, 37.170 is a relatively small number therefore, this model is able to predict the decisions in a better way.

‘ Here Cox & Snell R Square statistic indicates that 53.3% of the variation in the regular participation in chit funds is explained by the logistic model.

‘ In our case Nagelkerke R Square is 0.576, indicating a moderate relationship of 57.6 % between the predictors and the prediction.

‘ If it is less than .05 then, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

‘ In this case, we can see that bank loan, safety, flexibility and low commission have contributed signi’cantly to the prediction of regular participation in chit funds but other variables are not significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds.

‘ Since only bank loan has p=.000, therefore we can say that bank loan is the most significant predictor

among other significant predictors. This is followed by safety (p=.011), flexibility (p=.021) and low commission (p=.026).

‘ Here, the EXP (B) bank loan is 11.727. Hence when bank loan is availed by one unit (one person) the odds ratio is 11 times as large and therefore people are 11 more times likely not to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) with safety is .928. Hence when safety is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .928 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) flexibility is 837. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .837 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) low commission is .831. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .831 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.


Bank loan is the most significant predictor of regular participation in chit funds. This is followed by safety, flexibility and low commission.

Instalment no No of months remaining Monthly subscription Prize amount PV of monthly subscription(PV of outlow at 10%) PV of Prize amount(PV of inflow at 10%) Net Present Value(PV of inflow – PV of outflow)

1 24 2000 50000 2000 50000 10444.9

2 23 1500 35000 1488.1 34723.1 -4832.0

3 22 1500 35000 1476.4 34448.4 -5106.7

4 21 1500 35000 1464.7 34175.9 -5379.2

5 20 1500 35000 1453.1 33905.5 -5649.6

6 19 1500 35000 1441.6 33637.3 -5917.8

7 18 1500 35000 1430.2 33371.2 -6183.9

8 17 1500 35000 1418.9 33107.2 -6447.9

9 16 1620 38000 1520.3 35660.6 -3894.5

10 15 1620 38000 1508.2 35378.5 -4176.6

11 14 1700 40000 1570.2 36945.9 -2609.2

12 13 1700 40000 1557.8 36653.6 -2901.5

13 12 1780 42000 1618.2 38181.8 -1373.3

14 11 1780 42000 1605.4 37879.8 -1675.3

15 10 1780 42000 1592.7 37580.1 -1975.0

16 9 1860 44000 1651.1 39058.2 -496.9

17 8 1860 44000 1638.0 38749.2 -805.9

18 7 1860 44000 1625.1 38442.6 -1112.5

19 6 1940 46000 1681.6 39872.1 317.0

20 5 1940 46000 1668.3 39556.6 1.5

21 4 1940 46000 1655.1 39243.7 -311.4

22 3 1940 46000 1642.0 38933.2 -621.8

23 2 1940 46000 1629.0 38625.2 -929.8

24 1 1940 46000 1616.1 38319.7 -1235.4

25 0 1940 46000 1603.3 38016.5 -1538.6

39555.1 934465.9 -54411.4


Merit goods best college essay help

Merit goods are goods which will be under-provided by the market, therefore they will be under-consumed. They are thought by the governments to be good for the populations and so the governments want them to be consumed to a great extent. They increase the private and social benefits and cause the social benefit be higher than the private one. The best examples of them, apart from all the public goods, can be the education, health care, sports facilities and the opera.

Although the majority of the merit goods is provided by the private sectors, not all the people can afford buying them, therefore they will be under-consumed. That is why the government is needed to destroy the market failure increasing the supply and consequently raising the consumption.

To explain the reasons for government to provide the merit goods, I need to apply some examples of them. The first one can be the education. It is significant for the governments to provide it so that the society would be well-educated. Governments determine the period of education required for people (the compulsory education) to maintain the proper level of education of the society. The governments find education an important aspect that should be available for everyone as it cause the whole country to have better both economic growth and economic development.

Considering another example such as health care, the situation is quite similar. The governments want to provide the population with it because they care about the high states of health of society in their country. To gain these, the countries need to have high quality of health care. Governments often offer people unpaid programs consisting of preventative medical examination which contribute to maintain the high number of healthy people. This is also connected with the problems of the labour market. The healthier people are, the more efficient their work is, the greater revenue firms have and countries are more developed because of taxations.

Other examples like sport facilities or the opera are meant for people to become physically and culturally developed but their availability is not as important as in the case of the previous examples. That is why they are not as much provided by the governments as the rest of the merit goods.

Although most of the merit goods provided by the governments are free, the fact is that they are paid through the taxes that the societies pay. The number of the merit goods of particular types that the governments provide or subsidize depends on the necessity of them. If they are provided, the societies’ benefits get higher and so is the public treasury of the countries.


Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father college essay help service

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.


Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks college application essay help online

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.


WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation essay help site:edu

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.


Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) instant essay help

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.


Respondeat Superior extended essay help biology

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.