Etihad Airways’ Employment And Wages Factors Law Essay Help

Background

Etihad Airways was founded in July 2003 and was headquartered at Abu Dhabi International Airport. This company's fleet consists of 107 aircraft that go to over 120 destinations worldwide. Emirates Airlines is the primary rival. The firm was founded by royal decree in an effort to represent a cohesive region of the United Arab Emirates. The airline operates about 1,000 flights every week, making it the second-largest in the region. Today, the company has about 13,535 people that operate in various divisions.

Current Economic Conditions and Their Effects on Employment and Wages

The United Arab Emirates is a rapidly expanding economic center in the Middle East because to the enormous need for manpower and technology. The flood of foreigners from Africa and Asia poses a significant danger to the region's unemployment crisis. Clearly, this region lacked sufficient manpower, particularly in fields requiring experienced and qualified personnel. Numerous professionals, particularly from Africa and Asia, sought employment in the Middle East (Hanieh, 2013). The region need a quick fix for the unanticipated demand for professional services. The government, however, failed to limit the amount of immigrants seeking employment in this region. Currently, the majority of residents are unemployed, which increases the likelihood that they will continue to live in poverty if the government does not alter its job allocation rules. There is no assurance that locals will be given preference, as the majority lack the necessary skills. However, this region should explore establishing opportunities for locals to obtain occupations commensurate with their education and expertise.

Second, the wages and salaries provided to locals are insufficient. This organization wants highly trained employees in order to serve its clients with competitive services. However, this does not preclude the employment of locals. The unfortunate aspect of this issue is that locals are given temporary and untrained positions. As a result, their incomes are low, as their occupational categories do not qualify them to earn a substantial salary (Hanieh, 2013). Manual jobs are underpaid because people believe that those who perform them have limited academic training and that no one can perform them. Etihad Airways operates beyond the limits of the United Arab Emirates; therefore, its employees must have a comprehensive understanding of international concerns. Therefore, the management of this corporation recruited worldwide experts to assist in shaping the public's opinions of its activities (Herb, 2014). This company believes that it should not be seen as a service provider for Arabs solely. Therefore, it was essential to hire foreigners in order to enhance its public image.

Thirdly, the employment sector in the UAE has a distinctive twist. Most global corporations, such as Etihad Airways, have acknowledged the importance of hiring locals for executive roles. This decision was driven by a desire to create a "homey atmosphere" and entice locals who travel abroad for business or academic purposes (Hanieh, 2013). The scenario generated employment opportunities for locals in positions such as pilots and flight attendants. It is true that the majority of residents do not speak English but rather Arabic. Therefore, it was vital to hire bilingual natives fluent in Arabic and English. The language barrier is a significant obstacle to economic success in the United Arab Emirates. Therefore, employment chances for foreigners and natives differ at this company.

In addition, the practice of Emiratisation has been misunderstood by foreigners who control a substantial portion of the economy. The government enacted this strategy to ensure the employment of locals in various public and commercial organizations (Herb, 2014). This region's leadership recognized that the majority of its employees were foreigners, which constituted a grave danger to its economic future. Therefore, they instituted Emiratisation, a procedure that encourages natives to seek work in all areas. In addition, it required foreigners to hire natives regardless of their academic credentials or work experience. This approach has been viewed as a malicious means of discouraging foreigners from conducting business in this region. Therefore, the majority of foreigners are uncertain about the future viability of their operations in China (Herb, 2014). The locals who dominate the majority of industries disregard international standards for salary and working conditions. Some foreigners believe they were the focus of Emiratisation, and as a result, they are pessimistic about the future of this region.

Lastly, the United States' onslaught on Iran and other Arab countries has fostered animosity between natives and outsiders. Most locals believe that all outsiders are Americans who are there to drain their natural resources (Herb, 2014). This view has been fostered by political ideologic divisions and has impacted the relationships between locals and visitors. In addition, attempts to discourage the use of environmentally harmful energy sources have reduced the demand for oil and its derivatives (Hanieh, 2013). The depletion of petroleum reserves raises the competition for the few available jobs. Foreigners repatriate profits to their home countries, which reduces investments and employment prospects.

References

Hanieh, 2013, Issues of Contemporary Capitalism in the Middle East: Lineages of Revolt, Haymarket Books, Chicago.

New York: Cornell University Press, 2014. Herb, M., The Wages of Oil: Parliaments and Economic Development in Kuwait and the UAE.

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Effect Of Equity On The Value Of The Loyalty Program Law Essay Help

Introduction

There is a significant discrepancy between the quantity of research on the impact of loyalty programs on businesses and the amount of consumer value that is acknowledged. Despite the fact that the primary objective of loyalty programs is client retention for the business, it is essential to comprehend the benefits they provide for participants (Mimouni-Chaabane & Volle, 2011). Nowadays, the majority of businesses offer customer loyalty incentives, which makes this area extremely competitive and reduces its profitability for businesses, as customers tend to migrate to a different brand owing to more value memberships (Shulga & Tanford, 2017). However, this strategy demands careful evaluation, as its improper application might be detrimental to the organization. According to Steinhoff and Palmatier (2016), the sheer fact that some customers receive more than others generates feelings of distributive unfairness (p. 94). To avoid being misled, businesses must pitch their client loyalty programs as fair, economical, just, and advantageous.

Modern loyalty programs are centered on allowing companies to reward consumers for making larger purchases. This perception is heightened by their perceived social status, the staff's attitude, and the company's exploration chances (Demoulin & Zidda, n.d.). Depending on the sort of consumer and the industry in which a business works, the significance of each perk may vary. The connection between dependent and independent variables reveals the structure of an effective loyalty program. It is essential to remember that views of each benefit vary on the individual, but they connect with organizational expectations. The precise implications of each type of equity on the perceived advantages of loyalty program participation are detailed below.

Dependent Variables

Utilitarian Benefits

Functionality is the primary source of attraction for many brands around the world. This sort of incentives offers additional value for loyalty program participants and consists of functional items or services (Mimouni-Chaabane & Volle, 2011). When selecting a favorite firm based on loyalty program offerings, utilitarian benefits are of the biggest importance to the majority of customers (Kyguoliene et al., 2017). The impact of utilitarian benefits is greater on loyalty programs operated by low-end companies (Stathopoulou & Balabanis, 2016). These are typically "hard" bonuses, such as monetary returns, increased discounts, or complimentary products.

Hedonic Advantages

The majority of hedonic benefits are non-instrumental, experiential, emotional, and individually rewarding, according to Corbishley (2017). These benefits include experiences with innovative items and customized treatment (p. 59). In exchange for brand loyalty, this form of rewards allows customers to discover new hobbies, seek excitement, and experience pleasure (Mimouni-Chaabane & Volle, 2011). This advantage is the most consistent of the three when comparing all outcomes between high-end and low-end retailers (Stathopoulou & Balabanis, 2016). These advantages are valued for their stress alleviation, entertainment, social contacts, and enough free time.

Symbolic Advantages

Symbolic benefits are derived through rewards such as company or community recognition. According to Corbishley (2017), symbolic advantages are associated with the desire for personal expression, self-esteem, and social approbation (p. 60). Through the symbolic benefits afforded by brands, individuals can express themselves, define and represent the social groupings to which they feel they belong (Jeon, 2017). Eventually, a brand establishes a certain reputation and connotation, which are tied to its logo (Jeon, 2017). Symbolic benefits are of great significance to companies whose products are deemed opulent (Stathopoulou & Balabanis, 2016). These benefits may be both "soft" and "hard," but they are infrequently utilitarian.

Independent Variables

Distributional Fairness

Distributive equity is the equilibrium between reward and contribution. It is crucial for a consumer to think that they are receiving a commensurate reward for their efforts (Lacey & Sneath, 2006). According to Lacey and Sneath (2006), "customers' criteria for assessing distributive equity are derived from observing how other customers are treated" (p. 460). Despite the fact that loyalty programs naturally favor regular customers who spend more than occasional ones, it is essential for both groups to understand the incentive distribution process.

Interactional Fairness

Interactional equity refers to the transparency, politeness, and completeness of the dialogue process between loyalty program participants and the business. Personal connection quality has a greater impact on consumer happiness than loyalty program quality, according to Vesel and Zabkar (2009). (p. 403). According to Ou et al. (2017), the loyalty program's offers are intended to reassure customers that retailers understand their demands (p. 343). Even though both procedural and distributive equity are present and obvious to the consumer, he or she may feel mistreated owing to ineffective staff communication (Lacey & Sneath, 2006). It is essential to remember that loyalty programs cannot be developed without two-way communication between a business and its clients.

Procedure Fairness

Procedural equity refers to the fairness and equitability of the means through which a given award was acquired. According to De Wulf et al. (2003), people compare the ratios of their perceived outcomes to inputs with the comparable ratios of others (p. 81). Lacey and Sneath (2006) note that 'it is essential for procedural fairness that incentive allocation decisions be based on accurate customer information' (p. 460). It is unwise to develop a loyalty program that could be confusing, requires sophisticated interactions, or has regulations that are contradictory (Lacey & Sneath, 2006). The effort required to achieve the same hierarchical position must be comparable. This does not imply that each customer must meet the same requirements in order to earn better bonuses from the loyalty program, but it does imply that the effort required to achieve the same hierarchical position must be comparable.

Hypotheses

H1a: Distributive equality positively influences customers' perceptions of the utilitarian benefits of loyalty programs.

This aspect of the perceived value of the loyalty program is directly tied to the customer's financial gains. The key reason for this significance is that customers can simply calculate the monetary value they receive from these types of bonuses (Steyn et al., 2010). Moreover, Lacey and Sneath (2006) believe that both concepts are intrinsically linked, as "customers' perceptions of distributive equity can be strengthened by enhanced value propositions made available through such programs" (p. 463). Therefore, distributive equality influences the perceived utilitarian advantages of the loyalty program positively.

H1b: Distributive equality positively influences consumers' perceptions of the hedonic benefits of loyalty programs.

This form of benefit's distributive equity may involve both increased access to exclusive offers and preferential treatment for clients based on their membership rank. The early distribution of a product to higher-ranking individuals is an excellent illustration of hedonic attraction. While these encounters may not give a customer with a tangible advantage, they promote customer happiness, brand loyalty, and trust (Kim et al., 2013). The customer’s reception of the loyalty program is significantly affected by tying the opportunity to discover new products and services to the customer’s input.

H1c: Distributive equality positively influences consumers' perceptions of the symbolic benefits of loyalty programs.

Merchandise and brands According to research conducted by Stathopoulou and Balabanis (2016) on the perceived value of each form of benefit, "symbolic benefits can positively impact customers' satisfaction with the LP for the high-end fashion department store" (p. 5807). Furthermore, symbolic benefits had a little effect on brand loyalty for low-fashion retailers (Stathopoulou & Balabanis, 2016). The luxury of a firm determines the effectiveness of distributive equality on loyalty programs in terms of perceived symbolic benefits.

H2a: Interactional equality has a positive effect on consumers' perceptions of the loyalty program's utilitarian advantages.

In terms of practical benefits, this type of equity can be interpreted as the dependability and accuracy of the loyalty program's information. To maintain relevance and credibility, a company's interpersonal treatment of customers must take their interests into account and be truthful (Lacey & Sneath, 2006). According to this perspective, the utilitarian value of interactional justice is the effectiveness of conversation between the customer and the business, which has a direct positive effect on the customer's experience.

H2b: Interactional equality positively influences consumers' perceptions of the hedonic benefits of the loyalty program.

As with distributive fairness, the perceived hedonic benefits of interactional equity stem from the ability of customers to experience pleasure. The hedonic effect of a loyalty program could be enhanced employee attentiveness to higher-ranking clients. Social purchasing involves the anticipation of a personalized shopping encounter (Arnold & Reynolds, 2003). Consumers who shop to socialize or try new things are more likely to return to a store where they perceive the employees to be communicative (Arnold & Reynolds, 2003). (Garca Gómez et al., 2006) A high level of commitment elicits an emotional response from the customer. Consequently, the positive effect of this benefit can be realized by enhancing the quality of interactions with loyalty program members.

H2c: Interactional equity positively influences consumers' perceptions of the symbolic benefits of the loyalty program.

The relationship between interactional equity and perceived symbolic benefits is a distinction in customer care delivered to higher-ranking loyalty program members. According to Bahri-Ammari and Bilgihan (2017), "interactional justice with a loyalty program refers to the provider's efforts to communicate and explain contractual obligations and to treat customers with respect and courtesy without discrimination" (p. 91). Therefore, it can be demonstrated by prioritizing the demands of consumers who engage in the loyalty program and paying greater attention to their concerns (Bahri-Ammari & Bilgihan, 2017). By demonstrating the company's positive attitude toward these members, consumers can see this treatment as a potential social status boost.

H3a: The influence of procedural equity on consumers' perceptions of the utilitarian benefits of a loyalty program is favorable.

The perceived utility of a loyalty program is reflected in its convenience. Loyalty programs that are extremely complex and unclear to the customer can be detrimental to the company's reputation and have negative consequences on client retention (Shugan, 2005). In addition, both onlookers and participants in a loyalty program should be informed of its regulations, which must be easily available and comprehendible (Steinhoff & Palmatier, 2016). The customer's confidence is bolstered by the perception of the loyalty program's benefits as being impartial.

H3b: The influence of procedural equity on consumers' perceptions of the hedonic advantages of loyalty programs is favorable.

The process of earning rewards within the loyalty program must not only be effortless, but also appealing to the customer. When the procedure itself produces an emotional imprint on the customer, it fosters more loyalty and ensures that the customer will not avoid future involvement in loyalty programs, so enhancing their trust (Pallas et al., 2014). In addition, when the procedure is not trivial and the customers must exert effort to achieve more benefits, they exhibit more hedonic behavior (Kivetz & Simonson, 2002). Therefore, procedural equality has a favorable effect on this type of perceived advantages when properly implemented.

H3c: The effect of procedural equity on consumers' perceptions of the symbolic benefits of a loyalty program is favorable.

The significance of earning more incentives for loyal consumers must be communicated by the organization by recognizing their accomplishments. The perceived symbolic benefits of fairness in the process of achieving milestones might range from public announcements to the publication of a clear set of criteria and awards that can be obtained within a specific program. Displaying one's relationship with a brand, especially if it's a genuinely earned luxury reward, can act as a representation of one's social status (Hoffmann, 2013). However, it is essential to maintain rewards accessible to the typical customer. The difficulty of a method necessary to acquire compensation connects with the brand's reputation and the customers' willingness to make an effort to obtain it. A proper display of status that represents the effort required to obtain it has a beneficial impact on the perception of this type of benefit.

The exact worth of each perceived advantage is contingent upon the company's market position and market share. Regarding equities, Vesel and Zabkar (2009) write that "all of them must be considered to achieve positive customer perceptions of the loyalty program" (p. 398). However, it is essential to comprehend which advantage should be prioritized. According to Shugan (2005), a genuine loyalty program should attempt to generate an asset rather than a liability (p. 191). To reach this outcome, the corporation must be able to develop a membership program that is relevant to its client base and addresses all equity concerns.

The secret to success lies in the integration of functional, psychological, and social benefits inside a single loyalty program (Morgan et al., 2015). While some clients are primarily driven by utilitarian benefits and others by hedonic ones, all programs contain varying quantities of each (Arnold & Reynolds, 2003). It is also important to note that cultural values have a substantial impact on perceived benefits and should be considered when designing a loyalty program (Morgan et al., 2015). Thus, the perfect loyalty program demonstrates all sorts of equity and strikes a balance between the perceived benefits by customers in relation to its market, target audience, and scope of reach. While attempting to earn consumers' trust and loyalty, businesses must consider how they are perceived by customers.

Bibliography

Arnold, M. J., and K. E. Reynolds (2003). Hedonistic shopping motives 79(2) Journal of Retailing: 77–95. Web.

Bahri-Ammari, N., & Bilgihan, A. (2017). An empirical assessment of the impacts of distributive, procedural, and interactional fairness on customer retention in the Tunisian mobile telecom sector. 37, pp. 89-100, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. Web.

The author Corbishley, K.M. (2017). Retail loyalty programmes in South Africa: relationship quality and consumer loyalty between cardholder and retailer. Thesis for the Doctorate, Durban University of Technology, Durban. Web.

De Wulf, K., Odekerken, G., Canniére, M., & Oppen, C. (2003). What motivates consumers to enroll in loyalty programs? Relationship Marketing Journal, 2, 69-83. Web.

Demoulin, N. T. M., & Zidda, P. (n.d.) Do customers' perceptions of loyalty program benefits affect their store loyalty? Hierarchical loyalty programs: a case study IÉSEG – Management School. Web.

García Gómez, B., Gutiérrez Arranz, A., & Gutiérrez Cillán, J. (2006). The impact of loyalty programs on both behavioral and emotional loyalty. 23(7) Journal of Consumer Marketing: 387–396. Web.

N. Hoffmann (2013). A comparison of stand-alone and multi-partner retail loyalty programs, Forschungsergebnisse der Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien, 61. Web.

Jeon, Jae-Eun (2017). The brand concept's effect on brand equity. 11, 233-245. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship. Web.

Kim, H.-Y., Lee, J. Y., Choi, D., Wu, J., & Johnson, K. K. P. (2013). The influence of perceived retail loyalty program benefits on program and consumer loyalty. 12(2), 95–113. Journal of Relationship Marketing. Web.

Kivetz, R., & Simonson, I. (2002). Effort as a factor of customer preferences for frequency program rewards. 39(2) Journal of Marketing Research, 155–170 Web.

Kyguoliene, A., Zikiene, K., & Grigaliunaite, V. (2017). The relationship between perceived benefits and loyalty program satisfaction. Engineering Economics, number 28 on the World Wide Web.

Lacey, R., & Sneath, J.Z. 23(7) Journal of Consumer Marketing: 458-464. Web.

Mimouni-Chaabane, A., & Volle, P. (2010). Perceived benefits of loyalty programs: scale construction and implications for relational tactics 63(1) Journal of Business Research, 32-37. Web.

Morgan, R., Turner Parish, J., & Deitz, G. (2015). Handbook on relationship marketing research. The Edward Elgar Publishing Company.

Ou, Y., Verhoef, P.C., & Wiesel, T. (2017). The influence of customer equity drivers on the loyalty of service organizations and industries. 45, 336–355 in Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Web.

Pallas, F., C. Groening, and V. Mittal (2014). Allocation of resources based on utilitarian and hedonic benefits to consumer pleasure and delight. Journal of Marketing Research, 2, 106-112. Web.

Shugan, S. M. (2005). Are brand loyalty programs a sham? Marketing Science, 24(2), pages 185–194. Web.

Shulga, L., & Tanford, S. (2017). Measuring the attitudes of loyalty program members about fairness. 27(3), 346–365. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management. Web.

A. Stathopoulou and G. Balabanis (2016). The influence of customer loyalty programs on customer satisfaction, trust, and loyalty toward high-end and low-end fashion retailers. 69(12), 5801–5808 in Journal of Business Research Web.

Steinhoff, L., & Palmatier, R.W. (2016). Understanding the efficiency of loyalty programs: controlling target and bystander effects 44, 88–107, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Web.

Steyn, P., Pitt, L., Strasheim, A., Boshoff, C., & Abratt, R. (2010). A cross-cultural investigation into the perceived advantages of a merchant loyalty program in Asia. 17(5), p. 355–373, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. Web.

Vesel, P., & Zabkar, V. (2009). Managing customer loyalty through the mediating role of satisfaction in the DIY retail loyalty program. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 16(5), 396–406. Web.

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McDonald’s And Wendy’s International Inc.: Financial Performance Law Essay Help

Introduction

The stakeholders of public corporations include shareholders, bondholders, lenders, suppliers, employees, and management. All of these parties must monitor the organization to verify that their interests are being served. They rely on the financial accounts of the company to give the necessary information. Financial analysts rely heavily on their analytical tools to provide detailed analyses of any organization's financial performance. Ratio analysis is such a common metric that it provides a greater insight of a company's financial state and performance than examination of its financial data alone.

This study's financial ratio analysis covers two sorts of comparisons. In the first section of the study, the financial performance of McDonald's, U.S. and Wendy's International, Inc. is compared. In this comparison, McDonald's and Wendy's recent performance since 2002 has been compared to their historical performance. McDonald’s and Wendy’s International Inc., two companies in the same industry, will be compared in the second section of this study. This comparison will provide light on the respective financial conditions and performances of the two businesses.

Internal company evaluation

Assessing McDonald's Financial Health

McDonald's financial filings often feature an abundance of information. To assess such data, it is preferable to concentrate on a handful of critical financial ratios. Accordingly, McDonald's financial data has been condensed into important financial ratios as indicated in Table No. 1 below. This will shed light on the following critical aspects about McDonald's performance during the past five years:

McDonald's key financial ratios are presented in Table 1.

Financial Leverage

When McDonald's takes out a loan, it agrees to make a series of fixed payments. The debt is considered to create financial leverage because the company's shareholders receive just what is left over after debt holders are paid. If exceptional circumstances arise, a business may be unable to pay its debts. Financial leverage is measured by the ratio of long-term debt to long-term capital. In 2006, McDonald's Debt Ratio was 0.35. This has decreased significantly since 2002, when it was 0.49. Since 2002, the debt-to-equity ratio has also improved significantly. In 2006, debts represent only 54% of equity, compared to 94% of equity in 2002. Over the course of five years, the ratio between loans and equity decreased continuously. With such a drop in the debt-to-equity ratio, the confidence of equity holders is bolstered, since the reduction of debt servicing costs will inevitably increase profit margins.

Liquidity

When it comes to liquidity, bankers and suppliers must use extreme caution. They are aware that illiquid companies are more prone to fail and default on their obligations. Another reason analysts concentrate on liquid assets is that the numbers are typically more dependable. McDonald’s Current Ratio has significantly increased from 0.71 in 2002 to 1.21 in 2006, however 2005 was a particularly prosperous year with a ratio of 1.45. Most bankers believe a current ratio of 1.25 to 1.33 to be healthy, despite the absence of a standard ratio. From 2002 to 2004, McDonald's was not in a particularly healthy liquidity position. The liquidity position in 2005 and 2006 is unquestionably indicative of a healthy business. The ‘Quick ratio’ more accurately describes cash than other ratios. Inventory may not sell for anything over fire-sale prices when trouble strikes. Similar to the Current ratio, McDonald's Quick Ratio experienced significant gains from 2002 to 2006, and it performed very well in 2005. Regarding ‘Cash Ratio,’ McDonald's is functioning as well as other liquid ratios indicate. McDonald&&amp The corporation has solid liquidity.

The Productivity of Assets

This test evaluates the efficiency of fixed and current asset investments. The ratio of sales to assets reveals the extent to which a company's assets are utilized. Observe that every dollar invested in McDonald's creates $0.74 in revenue. In 2002, this ratio was 0.64. Throughout the years, McDonald has made improvements, but its assets remain unused. The correct picture can only be obtained by comparing these ratios to the industry norm. However, it appears McDonald's assets continue to be underutilized. The corporation may utilize its assets very efficiently, but its capacity is not being utilized to its fullest extent.

The number of days it takes to make and sell a product is used to calculate the turnover rate of an organization's inventory. The ratio of days in inventory expresses inventories as a multiple of the daily cost of goods sold. It appears that McDonald's has maintained its inventory utilization benchmark of 3.7 days over the years.

McDonald's does not offer credit to consumers, but franchisees, wholesalers, and other chain members may be waiting too long to pay their debts. In this perspective, the inventory turnover ratio is an excellent measure. McDonald's performance has greatly improved from 20.58 days in 2002 to 14.37 days in 2006. The corporation adheres to a strict credit policy, as seen by its vastly improved performance over the past five years.

Profitability

The ‘Net profit margin’ is the greatest metric for determining the proportion of sales that are converted into profits. McDonald’s sales have significantly increased from 0.6% in 2002 to 13% in 2005 and 2006. Depending on this profit margin are various tax ramifications. Increasing performance must also satisfy other stakeholders, although there is always opportunity for improvement. Bankers and other investors are interested in return on investments (ROI) and return on assets (ROA), which are natural measures of asset performance. McDonald’s average investment in total assets returns 10% in 2006. This is by far the best investment return (after taxes, of course) in any field. This performance was inevitable given the substantial increase in net profit margins.

Return on Equity is an additional metric of interest to common stockholders. McDonald's owners are fortunate, as their investment yields a 23% return in 2006. This compares to a mere 9 percent return on equity in 2002.

Investors are mostly interested with dividend payments. In 2006, McDonald's payout ratio indicates that stockholders received 35% of their earnings as dividends. Since 2003, McDonald's has nearly maintained the same strategy. McDonald's demonstrates concern for its shareholders.

Assessing Wendy's International, Inc.'s Financial Health

McDonald's performance and financial situation over the past five years have been examined using the same criteria as Wendy's. The data from five years of public financial statements have been transformed into the ratios displayed in Table II so that analysis can be conducted using the globally accepted ratios.

McDonald's key financial ratios are presented in Table 2.

Financial Leverages

Wendy’s debt-to-equity ratios fluctuate from 34% of equity in 2002 to 38% of equity in 2006. In 2005, the debt ratio also decreased to 25%. According to standard financial terminology, a corporation is not deemed overloaded even though its debts are double the amount of capital employed so long as it can comfortably service its loans. Wendy’s is not performing well after debt service, since their 2006 Net Profit margins are only 2% of sales. In reality, the profit margin has fallen from 8% in 2002 to 2% in 2006, its lowest level. Any indebtedness exceeding the equity position of 38 percent in 2006 could place Wendy’s in a financial crisis unless the corporation finds alternative ways to increase profit margins.

Liquidity

Even though its networking capital was negative relative to total assets from 2002 to 2004, Wendy's maintained positive liquidity as seen by its current ratios from 2002 to 2006. In fact, Wendy's Current, Quick, and Cash ratios have all improved over time. This demonstrates that Wendy's is effectively managing its liquid resources and gives creditors the idea that their obligations will be satisfied regardless of the situation of its profit margins. This credibility is surely aiding Wendy's in light of the industry's intense competitiveness. Wendy's trade creditors are more than happy to cooperate.

Efficiency of assets

Since 2002, the sales-to-assets ratio has been normal. The assets are contributing to sales growth from 1.02 times their value in 2002 to 1.18 times in 2006. In 2005, assets were only exploitable to the amount of 71% of their total worth due to a rough patch. However, a five-year average of 1.01 times has been maintained. Here, two types of references might be made. Either the assets are not of high quality or they are not being utilized properly in production. In order to put a corporation in a profitable position, its assets must generate a turnover multiplied by their value.

Profitability

Wendy’s is barely maintaining its afloat status. 2006 net margins are a meager 2% of revenues. In fact, net margins fell from 8% of sales in 2002 to 6% in 2008. Similarly, return on assets has declined from 9 percent in 2002 to 1 percent in 2006. The situation is quite dire. Regarding equity investments, the corporation is performing roughly adequately. Despite all of this, shareholders must be pleased, as 71% of earnings on equity were distributed to them as dividends in 2006, despite a fairly low ROE in 2006 relative to previous years.

Inter-firm analysis

In terms of volume, Wendy's trails McDonald's by a significant margin. Despite this paradox, it is possible to do a comparative financial analysis utilizing ratios as an analytical tool. This comparison sheds light on the respective financial conditions and performances of each company. Under this study, McDonald’s and Wendy’s financial analyses and comparisons were again limited to the areas of Financial Leverages, Liquidity, Assets’ Productivity, and Profitability.

Profitability

There are two ways to measure a company's profitability: profitability in proportion to sales and profitability in relation to investment. Since 2002, McDonald’s five-year average net profit margin is 10.6%, whereas Wendy’s is 4.2%. McDonald’s average return on assets (ROA) for the past five years is 7.6%, while Wendy’s is 4.6%. These numbers indicate that McDonald’s is the industry leader not just in terms of sales margin but also in terms of asset utilization. In a competitive market, only when purchases and direct expenses are cost-effective can the profit margin be increased. McDonald may be utilizing the age-old principle of bulk purchasing to reduce costs.

In comparison to McDonald's, Wendy's performance falls short of expectations. Either Wendy's is maintaining low profit margins in the face of intense competition, or it is not cutting costs on purchasing and other expenses. Likewise, Wendy's return on assets is unsatisfactory.

The Productivity of Assets

Wendy's 2006 revenues had exceeded its typical total asset investments by 18%. McDonald's sales in 2006 were not even sufficient to cover the average cost of its assets. The cost of generating sales is only 74% of the average cost of total assets. This is an extremely common occurrence. McDonald’s net margins are 13% due to its low sales, while Wendy’s are only 2% due to its significantly larger sales generation. This demonstrates that McDonald's sales policies differ from standard sales policies. McDonald's is creating high-quality sales to increase profits, and its assets are not overworked. Wendy’s is working overtime with its assets to achieve more sales, which can reduce the useful life of such assets. Otherwise, Wendy's will need to boost maintenance costs to maintain productive assets. These policies may be harmful for Wendy's. From McDonald's perspective, their assets are underutilized. Underutilized assets contribute to the overall cost because finance costs are inevitable regardless of asset utilization.

Liquidity

A company's ability to satisfy its short-term obligations is determined by its liquidity position. Liquidity ratios provide insight into a company's current solvency and its ability to maintain solvency in the face of adversity. The purpose of this comparison is to contrast short-term duties with the short-term resources available to fulfill these obligations. McDonald’s and Wendy’s 2006 Comparative Current Ratios are 1.21:1 and 1.6:1, respectively. Supposedly, the larger the current ratio, the stronger the firm's ability to pay its payments. This suggests that Wendy's is in a better position in 2006 than McDonald's. Similarity exists between Quick ratios and Cash ratios. However, a forecast of Wendy's ratios for 2005 indicates that the corporation will face some liquidity issues this year. Current, Quick, and Cash ratios of 1.30, 0.50, and 0.40 respectively allowed it to recover. Despite having a healthy current ratio, Wendy's would have had trouble completing its obligations on short notice. Cash and other liquid assets were insignificant compared to other Current assets. It would have taken time to generate sufficient funds to pay immediate obligations.

Leverages

Debt ratios are used to evaluate the firm's long-term liquidity. The debt-to-equity ratio indicates a company's capacity to meet long-term obligations. McDonald’s debt-to-equity ratio in 2006 was 0.35, compared to 0.38 for Wendy’s. The debt-to-equity ratio varies based on the nature and volatility of the business. McDonald’s and Wendy’s are in the same business and have very low debt-to-equity and debt-to-asset ratios on a five-year average. Both businesses have manageable levels of long-term debt. There is another technique to assess this industry characteristic. Franchisees are the backbone of the industry's business. Accordingly, franchisees finance or arrange the majority of the assets required to operate franchised stores. In light of this distribution of sources for capital investments, corporations do not feel the need to organize financing from sources other than franchisees. Consequently, the primary characteristic of this industry is the absence of long-term debt obligations.

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Poor Issues Management Case Study             Law Essay Help

Issues are incidents that are beyond the organization's control. It may have some effect on the organization, and the company must manage the concerns in a timely manner. The organization's challenges will naturally have an impact on its vision, mission, and values, as well as its clients and shareholders. It also impacts the organization's management, finances, and organizational structure.

Issue management is a crucial responsibility for every firm. It is the most important component of the strategic management objectives. An organization's issue management covers three key functions. The issue managers must first gather and monitor all relevant information, analyze and classify the issues involved, and then take the necessary steps to prevent the issue from recurring. The outcomes must be examined at a later time. (Hogan & Rettie, 2002).

The issue management approach will aid the company in appropriately identifying and documenting issues. The detected issues are adequately documented, and the consequences of each issue are established individually. The concerns are then prioritized and their respective statuses are reported. All issues are being reviewed, solutions are being identified, and the next steps are being taken swiftly. Using the issue management method, actions can be allocated to staff members so that the detected issues can be resolved in a timely manner by performing the necessary steps.

The most prevalent examples of issue management involve a lack of cash, strict deadlines, and inadequate resources. Regardless of the conditions, the issue management method assists management in obtaining consent and taking prompt action to resolve the problem. (Issue management process, 2003).

Following the identification of an issue, it is classified and ranked. The problems could be external or internal to the organization. These isses are recognized by the issue management personnel and reported to management in a timely manner in order to mitigate their impact. The organization's issue management team collects and evaluates new information and ensures that all relevant data is accessible for formulating solutions and taking remedial action.

The issue manager oversees the issue management and serves as a liaison between the lower level and higher level workers. Principal responsibilities of the issue manager include gathering information from outside the organization and providing a summary to management. Additionally, it collects information from the organization's employees and shareholders. The issue manager advises the employees on how to capture the conveyance of vital information and collaborates with the staff to process the data before forwarding it to the management team.

In addition, it provides a monthly problem assessment to the management committee and analyzes the issue logs and reports. It also collaborates with the employees of information technology to manage and distribute information in a timely manner. There are various phases within the issue development procedure. If the public is dissatisfied with the organization's performance, the problem will occur when the public's expectations differ from the organization's actual performance. This consists of the new concerns.

Toyota Motor Corporation is the fourth largest vehicle manufacturer in the world and the largest in Japan. It was a late entrant into the automobile manufacturing industry. Prior to its entry into the market, General Motors and Ford were both well-established manufacturers in the automobile industry. Sakichi Toyoda founded the Toyoto Corporation, and his son Kiichiro managed the company in subsequent years.

The first item produced by the father was an automatic loom, which his son copyrighted in England while studying automobiles there. In 1933, the Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, Ltd., which was then known as the Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, added an automobile division. The company's iconic emblem was designed in 1936, and Toyota Motor Co Ltd was founded in 1937. In 1938, the corporation introduced the globally renowned and widely imitated just in time system.

Toyota began operations in the United States in 1956 and has never retreated from any of its markets since then. In 1982, Toyota Motor Co. Ltd. and Toyota Motor Sales Co. In 2002, the business also participated in Formula 1 (F1) racing. (2008). History of Toyota.

In its early beginnings as well as during its growth, it encountered a number of challenges relating to finances, human resources, and intense competition from rivals. It had a negative influence on the organization's sales and profitability. Due to regulatory concerns, severe rivalry, a change in the value of the Japanese yen and other currencies with which Tokyo did business, and a rise in research and development costs, Toyota's earnings decreased. During its establishment phase, the corporation made substantial investments in technology and manpower.

It has taken several steps to enhance its manufacturing, production, and people resources. This has caused an initial stage of crisis. Due to globalization, it faced intense competition from Ford and General Motors, among others. The company's efforts to enhance its production were hampered by the globalization-induced shortage of manpower. In the process of enhancing the product's quality, the price rose dramatically. In order to increase quality and reduce costs while simultaneously increasing the organization's efficiency, both employees and management were subjected to unprecedented levels of pressure.

All of these issues have been identified, and efforts have been made to mitigate them. In order to improve the board's decision-making process, the number of board members in the present management was lowered as a first step in this initiative. By lowering the number of board members, the interchange of ideas between board members is facilitated, resulting in better decision making. In addition, the corporation created a new position for a managing officer to manage the middle-level and lower-level managers and assist them in managing the day-to-day operations, thereby relieving the excess burden on them.

The management also selects locals to serve as senior executives so that they are familiar with the pulse of the area and the tastes and preferences of the locals. This helps the firm expand its business in each sector and achieve more profits. Additionally, they encourage foreign employers to manage. The Japanese behemoth must face internal hurdles in 2004 (Mighty Toyota's Growing Pains)

It has implemented new rules and procedures in manufacturing, product development, human resource management, and other areas. In order to resolve the crisis scenario caused by the intense competition on the market, Toyota's management decided to build automobiles based on local tastes, and the business began manufacturing vehicles based on the desires of consumers in certain regions. This has brought them immense success. Toyota was successful in achieving the top spot in the vehicle business. In comparison to its competitors, Toyota's technology was more advanced, and it received high awards for customer service.

Product development is an extremely capital-intensive undertaking for Toyota Manufacturing. However, Toyota endeavored to introduce new automobile models in a timely manner, taking into account regional preferences and requirements. Their products were standardized under their brand name. It is the Toyota brand name that has brought them enormous commerce. It has devised a Lean product development strategy to combat the astronomical expenses associated with product manufacture. In addition, a product planning division employing a matrix structure and multiple functional specialists was established.

Toyota's Matrix structure combines the characteristics of divisional and functional organizations. This contributed to the success of the Toyoto's production strategy. They were also faced with regional hazards as a result of changes in laws and regulations and other government initiatives. This also harmed the Toyoto's operations' profitability. In turn, these restrictions regarding car safety, fuel economy, and emissions have affected the price of vehicles. Toyota has implemented an environmental risk management method as part of its environmental management system. Toyoto developed such a management system in order to address difficulties relating to negative environmental repercussions. Additionally, a system for incident management was designed to reduce risks and other events.

Due of variations in foreign exchange rates and local interest rates, Toyoto encountered numerous financial difficulties. To manage the financial challenges caused by the fluctuation of interest rates, the Toyota manufacturing corporation began issuing derivative products. (Enterprise risk management at Toyota, 2008).

References

Enterprise risk management at Toyota (2008). Web site of the ICMR Center for Management Research

Toyota's rich past (2008). The Toyota Motor Company. Web.

Hogan, Mike., & Rettie, Claire (2002). Issue management. Web.

Issue management process. (2003). (2003). Method123: Facilitating the Success of Managers. Web.

Growing troubles for Toyota: The Japanese behemoth must tackle internal obstacles. (2004). Web Executive Officer.

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Waterloo Regional Police Service: The Common Information Management Systems Project Law Essay Help

The Common Information Management Systems (CIMS) project reached a turning point when the system's vendor, ITG, and one of the project's partners, Waterloo Regional Police Service (WRPS), could not agree on numerous functional features. After a thorough examination of the issue and the available alternatives, it was suggested that the contract with ITG be maintained, with a revision of the management processes and the contentious problems.

Waterloo Regional Police Service (WRPS) is one of the investors in Common Information Management Systems (CIMS), an information system project that is currently in its fourth year of development. The CIMS was meant to be an expansion of the WRPS's prior information system, with the goals of increasing the efficiency of WMPS operations, integrating all services, and resolving the police department's primary challenge, which is the lack of information exchange. Disputes between the project's vendor, Integrated Technologies Group (ITG), and the project partners, including the WRPS, led by Chief Larry Gravel, have halted the project at present.

The following issues have been recognized as leading to disagreements on the CIMS project:

Poor Project Management

Several points can be made under this factor, including the following:

The Canadianization argument was predicated on the fact that the company had previously worked on the PRIDE project; therefore, it was expected that the requirements would be comparable. Poor estimation of the deadline, when various facts, such as the fact that "only 9-16% of IT projects are completed on time and on budget" (MONOCHRISTOU, 2005), should have been considered. Poor correlation between schedule milestones and payment, as just two functional design specifications (FDS) have been authorized by the time fifty percent of the money has been made. Poor communication without set vocabulary conventions.

The Process of Requesting Proposals

This element involves establishing the initial project needs. The following points can be made regarding such factors:

Integration requirements that were too stringent to attract bids. Failure to change the requirements at two crucial junctures, namely when only one bid was submitted and when additional project members quit. Lengthy RFP window

The Vendor's Obligation

In the context of this project, where the following represent the most significant errors, the vendor's obligation cannot be minimized:

Without communication, terms not stated in the specification were implemented. The choice of a life-cycle model is inappropriate for this project, where models such as spiral or prototyping cycles should have been favored over the waterfall model due to the repetition of numerous stages of development and client interaction.

Criteria

WRPS should establish a number of criteria to guide the process of selecting options and deciding what steps to take when determining the next step. The following factors were discovered in this regard:

Time and Material Limitations

The selected activity should match to the partners' time availability and their financial and/or human resources. It should be emphasized that, as a result of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) abandoning the project, there is a chance that additional partners will also leave. In financial terms, it is important to examine not only future expenditures but also past investments.

The Dependence of the Partners on the Anticipated Capabilities

The selected action should take into account the partners' short- and long-term goals, as well as their dependency on the CIMS's anticipated capability. Taking CIMS out of the equation, the criteria might be rephrased as the degree to which WRPS and other partners are short- and long-term dependent on these functions.

The Danger Factor

Each of the possible action plans would have a set of risk factors that may be measured and ranked accordingly. The list of risk factors could consist of the following:

Technology evolves, rendering it obsolete before implementation. Separation of partners. The current system will become obsolete. Funding issues. Modifications to the internal or external environment.

Communication

Such a criterion is related with the project team's and development team's capacity to reach a solution that is satisfactory to all stakeholders. In this regard, the communication criterion can be understood as the capacity to reach a consensus among all stakeholders on the selected alternative plan.

Governance

Governance as a criterion is closely associated with the term effective, which refers to project management. Such a criterion signifies the team's capacity to represent the partners' demands in terms of predetermined objectives, flexibility, quality, etc.

Alternatives

Based on the previously mentioned issues and the given set of criteria, the following possibilities were discernible:

Continue the project using enhanced project management procedures. Drop the ITG contract and negotiate a new agreement with a different vendor.

The initial choice is to proceed with the project using revised project processes.

This solution entails continuing the ITG cooperation and developing a new strategy to address the existing issue.

The Benefits:

The structure is already in place. The majority of objectives and needs have been agreed upon. Developed partnerships with other police departments. Several milestones have already been reached. It requires less time to complete the project than to redo it. The financial problems are resolved, and partial payments have been made.

The Contraverse:

Existing conflicts. The possibility of delays and missed deadlines. Possibility of losing some system functionality. The budget for the project exceeds the initial costs.

The second option is to terminate the ITG contract and negotiate new terms with a new vendor.

This signifies that the contract with ITG will be terminated, a new RFP will be generated, and a new contract will be signed with a new vendor.

The Benefits:

The acquired experience will permit a more precise articulation of aims and objectives, which will be: Aligned with the WRPS's approach. Conform precisely to the requirements of the systems. Formulated in a manner devoid of interpretation. Effective IT governance based on the ITG partnership's lessons learnt. The emergence of new technology that could better fulfill WRPS's demands. The expenses, timeline, and resources are more likely to be anticipated realistically, hence improving the likelihood of expectations being met.

The Contraverse:

Investment and time losses. Due of the significant probability of partners departing the project for individual alternatives, there are funding issues (see RCMP). The option of sacrificing certain functionality in order to discover new vendors. Before the implementation of the new system, the current system may become unusable.

Recommendations

Considering the pros and disadvantages of both possibilities, as well as the original set of problems in the current scenario, it can be concluded that the best option is to remain with the current contract, attempting to resolve the current issue and jointly formulating a strategy to overcome it. The guiding premise for selecting the alternative is that being halfway through the project is preferable to starting from scratch, as the risks associated with the latter option are high. Consequently, the second alternative can be viewed as an attempt to avoid the issue rather than a solution to it.

Implementation Plan

A two-way review board should be established to examine the project management procedure. From the perspective of the CIMS partners' team, the review should focus on the following:

Prioritizing modifications to functionality based on the likelihood that they may be compromised. Establishing a group of experts to regulate the project management, with set procedures, involvement authority, and knowledge.

From the ITG's perspective, the allocated points will pertain to the proposal to alter the project's life-cycle model by mandating repeated processes.

With the aforementioned goals in mind, a meeting to settle these concerns should be convened, with representatives from each side presenting their proposals. The primary objective of the discussion should be to negotiate a settlement, specify the new terms, and establish the deadline.

The newly formed team of project management governance will be tasked with reviewing the project during its set phases, during which new processes will be included, i.e. testing and evaluation, and passing which will result in the achievement of a certain milestone.

By the completion of each module in the project, the review board will reconvene to assess the project's progress and, if required, alter the objectives, timeframe, and budget.

The same techniques will be performed until the testing phase for every component of the CIMS is complete.

Plan B

In the case the plan did not work out in its first steps, an independent group of consultants and mediators will be assigned, in which the penalty of not following the contract will be discussed with the option of selling the project as-is. In this regard, the alternative will consist of transferring the project’s unfinished rights and submitting a new bid based on continuing the project’s development, as opposed to creating a new project from scratch.

References

MONOCHRISTOU, V., VLACHOPOULOU, M., & MANTHOU, V. (2005). Methodologies for AGILE SOFTWARE PROJECT MANAGEMENT. PROSPECTS OF THE GREEK IT MARKET. Web.

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Coffee Shop Preferences Among Consumers Research Law Essay Help

Introduction

An event is notable if it occurs once or repeatedly within a short period of time and leaves a lasting impact. This occasion could include festivities or performances, speeches, and ceremonies. The majority of events are arranged to commemorate cultural, political, or cooperative goals.

Recent years have witnessed substantial expansion in the event packaging business. The government's attention has been brought to the significance of this industry to the economies of various nations as a result of its expansion. The development of events supported by state governments has prompted the establishment of units. The purpose of which is to connect the success of tourism to the outcomes of these events. According to a number of academics, the success of an event has a good association, first with the visiting tourist and then as a method of conducting business. Providing quality beverage and food services, as well as the perception of authenticity, are agreed-upon factors that influence the happiness of event attendees.

In today's service-driven economy, corporations bundle their goods and services with an experience in order to increase sales. To reap the full benefits of experience staging, firms must embrace a fee-commanding, experience-engaging design. The transformation of promoting or selling an experience has not been simple for established businesses to execute.

The progression of economic history can be retraced through the many evolutionary stages experienced by birthday cakes. As proof of the agrarian economy, women baked birthday cakes from the very beginning. Combining farm products, such as sugar, butter, eggs, and flour. All of these together are inexpensive or free. At Betty Croker, women spent a dollar or more for pre-mixed components as the economy of the industrial period developed. At the beginning of this service-based economy, busy parents ordered cakes from bakery shops that, if purchased for $15 or $20, would have cost significantly more than the packed ingredients. In the 1990s, parents did not celebrate birthdays with cakes or celebrations. Instead, substantial sums were spent to completely outsource an event. From exploration zone to Chuck E. Cheeses, other event-promoting companies were noteworthy for children. Recently, free cakes have become the norm at festivals. Thus, this is the beginning of an economy of experience. Despite the fact that economists have grouped services and experience together, experience is a distinct economic gift that is distinct from services and goods. This economic gift is acknowledged and articulated today since experience is indisputably what people want, and more businesses are planning and implementing accordingly. From now on, leading firms will learn that experience staging is the new competitive frontier.

Literature Review

design and execution of services

There is a line of distinction between experience and service; to comprehend this divide, recollect an episode of the old television show Taxi. In it, Iggy, a poor and hilarious driver, decided to become the greatest taxi driver this planet has ever seen. He offered beverages and sandwiches to his passengers while providing city excursions. Frequently, he sung Frank Sinatra songs. He transformed an average taxi ride into an unforgettable experience that his clients will never forget. Iggy presented an altogether new economic contribution. The experience of riding in Iggy's taxi was significantly more important to his passengers than the service of being driven around the city. The response was that his consumers paid him more money. One of his customers had to pay far more than the statutory sum since poor service prolonged his experience. Iggy supplied services – taxi driving – as a front for selling an experience, which was in fact what he was doing. If businesses use their services as a stage and their products as props to engage with clients on an individual level, they will create a memorable experience. Thus, commodities are said to be fungible, while goods are said to be tangible, services are said to be intangible, and experiences are said to be memorable. Following Walt Disney, the pioneer of the experience economy, we will refer to experience purchasers as guests. This customer prefers to value firms' revelations over time. While pecuniary contributions, such as services and presents, are secondary to the guest. Experiences are personal, dwelling in the mind of an individual, including emotional, intellectual, and bodily components. Thus, the experiences of two individuals will always be distinct. This is because an experience consists of the fundamental interactions between an individual's mental state and the stage show. Walt Disney and his enterprises have cleverly utilized the concept that experience is the essence of show business. Today, marketing experience is valued in industries far from parks and theaters. The development of innovative technologies has altered the nature of experience. From online chat rooms to interactive video games, new types of entertainment have emerged. According to new schools of thought, business is more than the manufacture and sale of new things; it also involves information distribution and interactive life connection experiences.

At Planet Hollywood and Hard Rock Café, food serves as a prop for the entertainment that is the primary focus. Cabalas', Nike town, attracts clients by presenting them with amusing activities and attractive displays. Often commonly termed entertailing. However, experiences cannot be considered solely entertaining. Businesses stage experiences when they want to engage customers in a personal way that will be remembered for eternity. Sir Collin Marshal, the former chairman of British Airways, remarked that in the field of business travel, the commodity mentality is the belief that a business is only executing a function — in our instance, carrying people from point A to point B on time and at the lowest possible price. The airways compete with others on the level of offering an experience, going above and beyond just functionality. Experiences are not limited to companies that manufacture consumer items.

The attributes of experiences

Before collecting an admittance fee, a business must plan and implement an experience that customers deem to be worth the cost. Experiences, like goods or services, will require a flawless plan from conception through marketing and delivery. Inventiveness and uniqueness will always precede income growth. Experiences, like goods and services, include unique characteristics and face significant design challenges. One method to consider experiences is from a two-dimensional perspective.

Participation of the visitor

At one end of the spectrum is inactive involvement, in which customers have no effect on performance. Attendees of symphonies are a fantastic illustration of this type of participant. During an event, they gain experience by observing and listening. On the opposite end are active players. Here, clients contribute to the formation of the experience. Skiers are a fantastic illustration of this type of participation. Even ski race spectators cannot be considered as passive participants. By participating in the ski race, they contribute to the visual experience of people at the event.

The affiliation of the visitor

This is often referred to as the customer's or guest's ability to interact effectively with the environment. Connection unites the client or attendee with the event's performance. At one angle of connection range, absorption occurs, but at the other, immersion occurs. Guests seated in the grandstand and seeing the Kentucky Derby tend to focus on the action occurring beneath and in front of them. While those infield are immersed in the noises, sights, and smells of their surroundings. In physics class, frantically scribbling notes on a notepad can be far more engaging than reading a book. However, seeing a film in a theater with others, stereophonic sound, and a large screen is more immersive than watching the same film on a home video player.

The classification of experiences

Attending a live performance or watching television are examples of entertainment experiences in which the involvement or participation of consumers or guests is more passive than active. In this instance, the connection at the event is one of absorption rather than immersion. Educational events, such as taking a ski lesson or attending a class, engage people actively. However, students are typically more detached from the event than absorbed in it. Escapist experiences can educate in the same manner that educational ones do, or they can be funny as entertainment, but with a greater client immersion. Participating in an orchestra or acting in a play involves active and immersive experiential participation. Active guest participation must be lowered for an escapist experience to become ecstatic, the fourth type of experience. Here, visitors are immersed in the atmosphere, yet they have no effect, such as a gallery visitor. All experiences of depth, such as a trip to Disney World, embrace all dimensions of experience. The most essential question for those in positions of authority to ask themselves is, "How unique and distinct is the experience my company provides?" The quality of the experience provided will significantly impact the business of the firm. Experience must meet the customer's demand or expectation, just as goods or services do. Experiences are the product of a process of examination, scripting, and execution, whereas services are the outcome of a process of examination, blueprint construction, and enhancements.

Creating an exceptional experience

It is anticipated that developing experiences will become a business in the future, similar to product and process design. Design principles are undeniably evident from the actions and outcomes of organizations already in the industry. Below are the experience design principles.

The experience must have a theme

When one hears the names of entertainment-oriented restaurants, he or she forms an impression of what to expect from such an establishment. For instance, the rain forest café and the Hard Rock café, to name a couple. The first and most crucial step that owners must take when attempting experience staging is to create a memorable theme. A badly sculpted topic prevents prospective customers from imagining what to anticipate. And the memories from such locations are frequently fleeting. Such is the case with Gertrude Stein's Oakland. The guidelines are frequently violated by retailers. The motif created does not correspond with the retail experience that is to be performed, despite the fact that they trumpet the shopping experience. When it comes to theme creation, home appliance stores are especially lacking in originality. Considering that a Las Vegas-based mall features the notion of a "ancient Roman marketplace," this motif has been realized in every way through architectural elements. These features include pristine white columns, marble floors, an outdoor café, running fountains, living trees, and completion during a thunderstorm.

Impression complemented with positive cues

While the topic lays the groundwork, it is of utmost importance that the experience leave an unforgettable mark on the audience. The impression is what a guest takes away from an encounter, signifying that the theme has been accomplished. Companies must introduce clues that confirm the nature of the experience to the client or guest in order to establish the desired impression. Each cue must provide support for the theme. Harob George, the creator of a Washington, D.C.-based coffee business, conceived the company's mission statement (the marriage of Old world Italian espresso bars with fast paced American living). Customers are able to create queues without the need for signage, which would have deviated from the theme's objective, due to the interior design's representation of the ancient world. There is a feeling of quick service in a pleasant environment. Additionally, the franchise owner encourages his employees to recall the faces of regular customers in order to serve them without prompting. The cue, regardless of its size, contributes to the creation of a memorable experience. When a restaurant host informs you that your table is ready, he or she has given you no indication. However, the proclamation by a Rainforest Café host to her visitor to be on the lookout for an upcoming adventure tends to generate the impression of a unique encounter. Cues produce impressions, and impressions generate client experiences that are memorable. An unpleasant experience could be the result of an undervalued, ignored, or disorganized architectural feature. A customer may be left perplexed if an unintended visual signal is applied. After receiving information on the direction, it may be difficult to locate one's hotel room. The client's experience would be enhanced by clearer and more comprehensible indications on the walkway.

Remove unmotivated cues

Positive indicators alone are insufficient to preserve the authenticity of the guest or client experience. Everything that conflicts with the concept must be eliminated. Experienced stagers must adhere to this rule tenaciously. In offices, shopping malls, and airplanes, trivial massages are common. Despite the fact that customers occasionally require guidance, service providers frequently employ improper massage forms. For example, trash cans at fast food restaurants may feature a "thank you" sign. Instead, stagers of experience may transform the trash can into a talking, garbage-eating character that expresses gratitude when the lid is opened. A good massage is conveyed to the customer without any negative cues. The simplest way to transform a service into an experience is to deliver subpar services. This creates an interaction that is memorable, but of a negative one. Excessive service can ruin an experience.

The five senses must be stimulated.

The sensory stimuli accompanying an encounter must advance its topic. The more senses involved in an encounter, the more unforgettable that experience will be. Smart operators of shoeshine shops enhance the aroma of polish using fragile material fragments. Aroma and sounds that do not contribute to the shoe but improve the whole experience. During the blending of produce, grocery stores, channel bakeries, and others employ sound and light to resemble a thunderstorm. The Cloud Forest

Coffee Shop Preferences Among Consumers Research Law Essay Help

Introduction

When an incident occurs once or again in a short period of time and leaves a lasting impression, we describe it as exceptional. This occasion may include festivities or performances, speeches, and ceremonies. The majority of events are arranged to honor cultural, political, or business purposes.

In recent years, the event packaging business has experienced substantial expansion. As a result of the expansion, the government has become aware of the value of this business to the economies of a number of nations. The development of state-sponsored events has been facilitated by the establishment of units. The purpose of which is to link the success of tourism to the outcomes of these events. According to the opinions of a number of academics, the success of an event has a beneficial relationship, firstly with the visiting tourist and secondly as a company management strategy. Providing quality beverage and food services, as well as the perception of authenticity, are agreed-upon factors that affect the happiness of event attendees.

In today's service-driven economy, corporations bundle their products and services with an experience in order to sell them more effectively. Businesses must adopt a fee-commanding, experience-engaging design in order to fully benefit from experience staging. Transitioning from promoting or selling an experience to a service has not been simple for established businesses.

The evolution of birthday cakes illustrates the economic history's growth. As proof of the rural economy, mothers made the first birthday cakes. Combining agricultural products, such as sugar, butter, eggs, and flour. All of these items combined cost little to nothing. At Betty Croker, women spent a dollar or more for premixed materials as the economy of the industrial period developed. At the onset of this service-based economy, busy parents ordered cakes from bakery shops that, if purchased for $15 or $20, would have cost significantly more than the packed ingredients. In the 1990s, neither birthday cakes nor celebrations were thrown by parents. Instead, substantial sums were spent to outsource a complete event. Other event promoting companies, such as discovery zone and Chuck E. Cheese's, were memorable for children. Recently, most of the time, cakes at celebrations are given away for free. Therefore, this is an entry point into an economy of experience. Despite the fact that economists have grouped services and experience together, experience is a distinct economic gift that is distinct from services. Experience is undoubtedly what people expect, and more businesses are planning and implementing accordingly. In the future, leading organizations will find that experience staging is the next competitive frontier.

Literature Review

Service planning and execution

In order to comprehend the differences between experience and service, consider an episode of the old television series Taxi. In it, Iggy, a poor and hilarious driver, decides to become the best taxi driver in the history of the planet. He provided his passengers with beverages and sandwiches while performing city excursions. Frequently, he sung songs by Frank Sinatra. He turned a mundane taxi ride into an unforgettable experience for his passengers. Iggy presented a completely novel economic gift. The experience of riding in Iggy's cab was significantly more valuable to his passengers than the service of transporting them about the city. Customers responded by paying him larger amounts of money. One of his customers had to pay far more than the needed cost due to subpar treatment that extended the duration of his encounter. Iggy offered services – taxi driving – as a front for selling an experience, which was in fact what he was doing. If businesses utilize their services as a stage and their products as props to engage with clients on an individual level, thereby producing a memorable event, they will create an experience-based occurrence. Thus, commodities are fungible, but things are physical, services are intangible, and experiences are regarded as unforgettable. Following Walt Disney, the pioneer of the experience economy, we will refer to experience purchasers as visitors. Typically, this visitor values businesses' revelations over time. While the initial pecuniary offering, such as services and presents, is secondary to the guest. Experiences are private, residing in the mind of an individual and involving them on an emotional, intellectual, and bodily level. Consequently, the experiences of two people will always differ. This is because an experience consists of the fundamental interactions between a person's state of mind and the stage performance. Walt Disney and his enterprises have cleverly utilized the idea that experience is the foundation of the entertainment industry. Today, marketing experience has a position in the commercial world beyond from parks and theaters. New technologies have altered the nature of experience. Internet chat rooms and interactive games are examples of the emergence of new forms of entertainment. According to new schools of thought, business is more than the manufacture and sale of new things; it also involves the conveyance of knowledge and the facilitation of interactive life-link experiences.

At Planet Hollywood and the Hard Rock Cafe, food serves as a prop for the entertainment that is the primary focus. Cabalas', Nike town, attracts customers with amusing activities and amazing exhibits. Often commonly termed entertailing. However, experiences cannot be solely classified as entertainment. Businesses create experiences when they want to engage customers in a way that will be remembered forever. Sir Collin Marshal, the former chairman of British Airways, remarked that, in the realm of business travel, the commodity mentality is the belief that a business is only fulfilling a function — in our instance, carrying people from point A to point B on time and at the lowest possible cost. What the airways do is compete with others on the level of experience provision, which is a step beyond function. Businesses that generate consumer items are not the only ones who may benefit from experiences.

The features of encounters

Before collecting an admittance fee, a business must plan and implement a customer-perceived value-for-money experience. Experiences, like products and services, will require a flawless plan from conception to delivery. Always preceding revenue growth will be creativity and inventiveness. Experiences, like things and services, have unique characteristics and bring unique obstacles during the design process. A two-dimensional perspective is one way of considering experiences.

The contribution of the visitor

At one end of the spectrum is inactive involvement, which occurs when customers have no impact on performance. Concertgoers are an example of this type of participant. During an event, they gain experience through observation and attentiveness. On the opposite end of the spectrum are active participants. The clients contribute to the building of the experience in our establishment. Skiers are an excellent example of this category of participants. Even spectators in ski races cannot be considered entirely idle participants. By attending the ski race, they contribute to the visual impact of the event for others.

The guest's connection.

This is often referred to as the ability of a customer or attendee at an event to effectively interact with the surrounding environment. The connection binds the client or guest to the event's performance. At one angle of connection range, absorption occurs, whereas at the other, immersion occurs. Guests seated in the grandstand and seeing the Kentucky Derby have a tendency to focus on the action just beneath and in front of them. While those in right infield become engaged in the sounds, sights, and scents that surround them, those in the outfield are largely oblivious to their surroundings. Compared to reading a book, frantically scribbling notes on a notepad during physics class can be significantly more engaging. In contrast, seeing a film in a theater with others, stereophonic sound, and a large screen is more immersive than watching the same film on a home video player.

Classification of life events

Experiences that people define as entertainment, such as attending a live concert or watching television, are those in which customers or guests are more passive than active participants. The connection during the event is one of absorption rather than immersion in this instance. Participation is required for instructional events, such as taking a ski lesson or attending a class. However, students tend to observe the event rather than participate in it. Escapist experiences can teach or amuse in the same manner that instructional ones do, but with a higher degree of client immersion. Participating in an orchestra or playing in a play requires active and immersive participation in the experience. Active participant reduction transforms an escapist experience into an euphoric one, the fourth type of experience. Here, visitors are engaged in the atmosphere, but they have no effect, like a gallery visitor. All experiences of great depth, such as a trip to Disney World, encompass all dimensions of experience. The most crucial question decision-makers should ask themselves is, "How unique and distinct is the experience my company provides?" The supplied experience will have a significant impact on the business of the firm. Experience will need to match the customer's needs or expectations in the same way that goods or services do. Experiences are the product of a process of inspection, scripting, and execution, whereas services are the outcome of a process of study, blueprint building, and enhancements.

Creating a memorable experience

In the future, developing experiences is anticipated to become a business, similar to product and process design. Existing organizations' actions and outcomes unquestionably reveal design principles. Listed below are the tenets of experience design.

The experience should have a motif

When hearing the names of entertainment-oriented restaurants, a mental image of what to expect from such a place is formed. Examples include the rain forest café and the Hard Rock café. The first and most significant step that owners must take in order to stage an experience is to create a memorable theme. A badly crafted theme leaves a prospective client with little idea of what to anticipate. Moreover, the memories from such locations are typically fleeting. Gertrude Stein's Oakland is one such example. Frequently, retailers violate ethical standards. They trumpet a shopping experience, but the theme created does not correspond to the shopping experience that will be produced. When it comes to theme creation, home appliance merchants demonstrate the least creativity. Regarding a Las Vegas mall with the subject of a "ancient Roman marketplace," this motif has been realized in every way through architectural design. These features include pristine white pillars, marble floors, an outdoor café, running fountains, living trees, and completion during a thunderstorm.

Adding positive hints to the impression

While the topic forms the basis of the experience, leaving a permanent mark should be regarded as the most important aspect. The impression is what a guest takes away from an encounter, signifying that the subject has been realized. Companies must add cues that affirm to the client or guest the nature of the encounter in order to make the desired impression. Each cue must reinforce the subject. Harob George, the founder of a Washington, D.C.-based coffee chain, conceived of the company's mission as "the best coffee in the world" (the marriage of Old world Italian espresso bars with fast paced American living). Customers are able to create queues without the need for signage, which would have deviated from the theme's ideal, due to the interior design's emphasis on the ancient world. This establishment gives the appearance of providing quick service in a pleasant atmosphere. In addition, the franchise owner encourages his employees to recall the faces of frequent customers in order to serve them without prompting. No matter how minor, the cue contributes to a memorable encounter. When a restaurant host informs you that your table is ready, he or she has not provided you with any additional information. In the Rainforest Café, however, a host's warning to her guests to be on the lookout for an upcoming adventure tends to create the sense of a unique encounter. Cues build impressions, and impressions provide experiences that are memorable to customers. An unpleasant experience could be the result of an architectural aspect being undervalued, neglected, or disorganized. Unintentional visual cues may leave a customer bewildered. After being given directions, it may be difficult to find one's hotel room. The client's experience would be enhanced if the walkway were marked with clearer and more effective indicators.

Eliminate unmotivated stimuli.

Positive indicators alone are not enough to preserve the integrity of the guest or client experience. Anything that goes against the theme must be eliminated. Experienced stagers should adhere steadfastly to this. Offices, malls, and airplanes are common locations for trivial massages. Despite the fact that consumers occasionally require guidance, providers of massage services frequently employ incorrect formats. For example, trash cans at fast food restaurants may bear a sign that reads "thank you." In lieu of this, stagers of experience may transform the trash can into a talking, garbage-eating persona that expresses gratitude when the lid is opened. The customer is informed of a good massage without any negative cues. Providing subpar services is the quickest method to transform a service into an experience. Thus, a memorable but terrible meeting is produced. Overservice can destroy an experience.

Engaging the five senses is essential.

The sensory stimuli that accompany an encounter must carry its topic forward. An experience is more remembered the more senses it engages. Smart operators of shoe shine establishments enhance the aroma of polish by using material fragments that are fragile. Aroma and sounds that contribute nothing to the shoe but improve the overall experience. During the blending of produce, grocery stores, channel bakeries, and others simulate a thunderstorm with sound and light. The Jungle

Supervision And Management: Design And Implementation Of Performance Management Systems And Job Satisfaction Law Essay Help

Introduction

This article addresses specific difficulties in the subject of management and supervision. Particularly, several facets of the interaction between Performance Management Systems and employee job satisfaction are investigated. In addition, the issue is examined within the context of the Hospitality Industry in the current business environment. Prior to continue, it is essential to examine the ideas of supervision and management and have a thorough comprehension of them.

Supervision and management are fundamentally distinct ideas. Supervision is the act of leading or inspiring the members of an organization's workforce, whereas management is the process of planning, coordinating, and monitoring the work progression. A person may serve as a supervisor, i.e., direct the workforce, without taking on the responsibilities of a manager. Similarly, a person may assume the job of a manager, i.e., plan and monitor the evolution of work, without supervising the activities of the workforce. Nevertheless, in most realistic situations, many supervisors do some managerial duties, and the majority of managers are tasked with supervision. Here, it is crucial to recognize that supervision and management are two distinct activities requiring two quite different skill sets. (Hales, 2005)

Technically speaking, monitoring and management permeate all aspect of our lives outside of immediate family matters. It is also essential to recognize that this behavior is learned and not innate. Management and supervision provide a more efficient framework for achieving work objectives. This method to working technique has a profound effect on all aspects of human life.

Supervision – Guidance of the labor force

The supervision of employee activities is one of the most complex tasks in any firm. Supervision requires continuous work in an unstable and uncertain environment, and few individuals find satisfaction in their supervisory roles. The goal of bringing up this topic is to highlight the fact that many new supervisors, when confronted repeatedly with problems involving their employees, hunt for a flaw in the system. This shifting and unstable status quo is a frequent occurrence in supervision, and success is measured in percentages rather than absolutes. (Svernssen, 2003)

All sectors of action require coordinated effort. This is accomplished by assigning people to specified tasks and establishing a deadline for their completion. However, providing instructions alone is insufficient. It is of the utmost importance to provide precise, specific instructions for working procedures, monitor the efforts of employees, and hold them accountable for definite outcomes. The supervisory process is based on these three fundamentals: explicit instructions regarding movements, periodic performance evaluations to guarantee that productive work is being done, and holding employees accountable for the outcomes. The supervisor is responsible for ensuring that these objectives are met. Employees who are not provided with a proper and direct course of work, who are permitted to continue functioning incorrectly without correction, and who are not evaluated on their performance are not appropriately supervised and, as a result, are not permitted to carry out their instructions properly. (Aryee, 2008)

Additionally, supervisors must be aware of their obligations as outlined by the system. A significant number of untrained supervisors view supervision as a "ranked prize." Supervisors are just as responsible for consequences as they are for holding subordinates accountable for their behavior and for defining the organization as a whole. The responsibility of supervisors is to make employment more resourceful, and they serve as a resource for subordinate employees. This perspective on supervision is the most accepted, with the supervisor standing behind the employees to increase job productivity.

Management – Planning and observing work flow

Each mission needs planning for the future to ease the accomplishment of mission objectives while maximizing the use of time and resources. An iterative quadrilateral approach is the main mechanism for managing the task flow. Managerial work begins with the formation of a mission's purpose or the formulation of its objectives. The next step is the creation of an operational plan. At this step, management determine the division of labor, distribution of assets, allocation of timetables, procedures to be followed, and expenditure of resources. The next stage is to monitor the implementation and execution of the preset plan and to confirm that all segments are operating as intended. The final phase in the managerial work control technique is analyzing the results of the preceding step and taking remedial action on issues that are deviating from the intended course. (Neck, 2002)

This iterative quadrilateral process must be remembered because it is ubiquitous and relevant to all managerial control situations. A manager may be actively involved in only a small portion of the overall process, but regardless of his function, familiarity with the four core phases of Goal, Plan, Monitor, and Correct is essential for managerial success.

System of Performance Management and Job Satisfaction

Given that it integrates company objectives with employee interests and successes, Performance Management is one of the most essential tools for achieving business objectives. It focuses on improving performance by evaluating results against individual, team, and organizational objectives, and it considers the training and development needs of human resources regardless of their organizational level. Managers that successfully implement performance management are typically more concerned with performance planning and development than with retrospective performance review. It is a well-established management practice within firms because it can be a significant technique for both the employees and the owners. It permits both recognition of productive work and early identification of performance that falls short of expectations, allowing quick implementation of corrective measures. (Bellizzi-Tom, 2006)

Performance Management is a continuous and recurrent management process that includes designing performance variables, evaluating performance, overseeing performance, reviewing performance, recognizing and awarding performance, and enhancing performance.

The relationship between worker and employee job satisfaction and performance at all times plays a crucial role in organizational behavior and human resource management. A highly satisfied employee may not necessarily be a top performer. Nonetheless, a dissatisfied employee might cause irreparable harm to the company effectiveness. A performance management system should be based on an ideologically supportive framework and a holistic setting, with a persistent emphasis on the interrelationships between key elements such as performance planning, performance execution, performance evaluation, recognition and compensation, and performance development. Diverse studies highlight the significance of three subsystems of the performance management system: performance planning and improvement, employee attachment and empowerment, and the organization-employee connection. Physical, social, and emotional aspects that are encouraging and friendly at a workplace have the ability to increase employee job satisfaction. (Fenwick, 2006)

A good policy for evaluating an employee's performance has a significant effect on the employee's mindset. Different managers and supervisors address performance-related variables in different ways. However, there are a few good management methods that lead to an increase in employee morale, which in turn increases job satisfaction. When building performance evaluation systems, the amount of employee motivation should be evaluated first. To accomplish this, a manager must first determine an employee's needs. In this situation, Maslow's "hierarchy of needs" may serve as a guidance. It states that after a person's basic bodily needs have been met, he seeks psychological security. After these needs are met, every individual demands social connection and respect. A person can only achieve self-actualization once all of these prerequisites have been met. As previously said, managers must ensure that the work environment supplied to employees is conducive to productivity once the employee's needs have been determined. However, according to Fredrick Herzberg's two-factor theory of hygiene and motivation, only having a clean workplace is insufficient to encourage an employee. His labor should be appropriately acknowledged and appreciated, and he should be given sufficient authority to make him feel accountable. Such a strategy meets the employee's previously identified needs. Management should recognize that employee-focused administration is more advantageous than task-focused administration.

Simply said, the more a job is administered, the less productive the workforce becomes. Rensis Likert, an American organizational psychologist, emphasizes in his writings the importance of a participative group system in which management has entire faith in subordinates. He thinks that a supportive environment produced by mutual regard promotes employee motivation. In Theory X and Theory Y, Douglas McGregor examines the basic assumptions managers make about their subordinates. Theory X identifies the assumptions that assume the employee requires direction and security above all else, necessitating the employment of adequate control and threat to address them. Clearly, this is the incorrect way of thinking. In Theory Y, McGregor emphasizes the importance of job satisfaction in fostering employee loyalty to the firm. He thinks that proper recognition of an employee's cognitive talents results in improved performance and enhanced dedication.

There are numerous benefits to implementing a disciplined procedure for boosting staff performance. A effective Performance Management System results in higher organizational profitability, increased employee accountability, equitable treatment of employees, and enhanced quality of work life. Moreover, these factors result in increased job satisfaction for the employee.

As the manager of this process, I've devised a complete performance management plan that maximizes employee retention. The design in question is displayed as follows:

The aims the system is designed to serve and its fundamental beliefs are clearly explained in terms of possible returns to the firm, its employees, and its customers. Guidelines are comprehensible and unambiguous.

The system is consistent with the organization's objectives, key priorities, and policies: The system is congruent with the organization's aims and priorities and is integrated with business and corporate policies and plans. Performance and achievements that support corporate ideology are appropriately recognized and rewarded by the system, which demonstrates a potent tactical emphasis. Because its implementation must be recognised and practicable at all organizational levels, the participation of the worker representation in creating the system is guaranteed.

The system is impartial: It is fair, receptive to suggestions, free of gender, racial, and other biases, and administered properly and uniformly.

The organization focuses on performance development and growth: The organization supports performance acknowledgment and recognition of an employee's potential by keeping a constructive stance toward cultural changes and focusing on outcomes, continuous development, and training. Ideologically, performance management is not a disciplinary tool for addressing inadequate performance or dealing with punitive concerns.

Dedication and process ownership are demonstrated: Managers and supervisors acknowledge performance management as a fundamental and enduring management process and a significant planning and evaluation tool. Instead of being a prerogative of managers or human resource authorities, the business takes a holistic approach to performance management method ownership.

Comprehensive instruction is provided: Training and learning needs of employees are determined, and all employees, regardless of organizational rank, are required to receive enough training. Follow-up maintenance and foundational instruction is offered. Managers and supervisors must also possess the interpersonal and soft skills necessary for offering valuable feedback.

Clearly described in work regulations, performance metrics and norms are goal-oriented, associated with job profiles, and based on performance standards over which the group or person can exert control. Individual, group, or team accomplishments have quantitative repercussions, and objectives are difficult but attainable.

Employees are confident in the system's ability to provide secrecy, privacy, and appropriate protection against bias. Conformity is achieved with regard to credentials and the retention parameters to be provided.

Utilization of generated data is appropriate: When making judgments on organizational development policies and training and development ideas, performance data is analyzed. It is guaranteed that inappropriate generation and use of performance records does not occur.

The system has an efficient grievance handling procedure: The performance management system incorporates a tool for registering complaints or establishes a connection with the organization's existing grievance and annoyance management methods and procedures.

Evaluation mechanisms are in place to ensure that the system is effective, relevant, and aligned with organizational goals and objectives. To determine the effectiveness of the system, it is compared to other performance indicators (such as non-attendance, yields, and efficiency levels). Using outlook surveys to measure levels of excitement, commitment, and work satisfaction. (Cheng, 2008)

The design of this performance management program was guided by employee-centric techniques. The policy's suggested measures would enhance the retention of critical personnel and recruit new ones.

In all sectors, performance management is one of the most crucial factors. In light of the problems that exist in the hospitality business, performance management is of the utmost importance. The hospitality sector is primarily focused on client happiness. The quantity and quality of customer services have a substantial impact on a company's success. In this scenario, Performance Management is quite important. It examines situations from a root-cause perspective. Increasing employee job satisfaction boosts their passion and commitment to the company's objectives, which in turn enables them to give higher-quality customer service, resulting in more profitability. On the other hand, it also evaluates the performance of its staff based on client feedback. (Petty, 2008)

In recent years, managers in the hospitality business have been confronted with a significant challenge: employee turnover. The reassignment of personnel between departments and the replacement of personnel resulted in diminished service quality, which significantly hindered corporate operations. Managers have increasingly resorted to the performance management tools of Counseling, Coaching, and Mentoring in order to overcome this issue. Historically, only senior managers and administrative staff had access to this type of performance management facilities. This incentive was recently made available to any employees who required such measures, regardless of organizational status. The hiring of specialized and trained coaches to assist employees in resolving their issues. Senior personnel were urged to assist their colleagues in navigating complex situations. These initiatives contributed to a substantial decrease in employee turnover. Trump International Hotel's staff turnover decreased by 23% as a result of implementing these tactics.

Various options are available to organizations in the current market scenario about the performance management initiatives. In addition to the in-house performance management strategies, hotels and tourism organization outsource the process to third party firms who specialize in the process

Management Accounting. Background Of Business Law Essay Help

Introduction

London will host the Olympic Games in 2012, which will take place in 2012. The Olympic Games, one of the oldest and most successful and well-known sporting events in the world, mix multiple sports into a single competition. Spectators from all over the world would gladly attend the events, bringing with them several commercial opportunities and the potential for quick profit. This report would cover a new firm that was established with these considerations and the Olympic Games in mind.

The company is concentrating on stationary and food products. People who are likely to attend the activities will likely engage in some form of purchasing and will also purchase food to consume while attending. In addition to these food products, the company will also provide beverages and stationary supplies. There are numerous grocery stores, eateries, and stationery businesses in London. During the Olympic Games, however, the demand will be so great that the likelihood of this business generating a healthy profit margin will grow. The culinary items may include Pizzas, Burgers, Hot Dogs, Pastries, and Sandwiches, among others. The beverages may include sodas such as Pepsi, Coca-Cola, 7-Up, and others, beer, fruit juices, tea, and coffee. Stationary things may consist of sandals, an umbrella, or any other necessary item.

Cafe Olympia is the suggested name for the proposed store. This name was chosen to honor the ancient heritage of the Olympic games and the important customer relationship with the term "Olympia," given that the very first Olympic games were held in the ancient Greek city of "Olympia."

About the Poll

To forecast the demand of potential customers, a market study has been conducted. The survey method was employed since it is the most efficient approach to get accurate client feedback. This survey was conducted using a questionnaire as the survey instrument. The respondents were selected at random, and their responses to the questions were recorded in a database. There were numerous respondents to the survey, and 20 of them were chosen. They are randomly selected from the passing street population.

In this instance, the survey method is advantageous. Initially, the respondent became aware of the introduction of new stores throughout the Olympic period and will discover the store "Café Olympia" while attending the events. Second, the survey will reveal customer expectations as well as areas where they believe the business can improve. Thirdly, the survey will also assist in determining the demographics of potential clients. If there are any demographic tendencies, such as preferences for a particular dish by age group, the firm might be structured accordingly. Lastly, the survey will help evaluate the market, the spending power of potential clients, and the consumption habits of customers in relation to the products that "Café Olympia" will offer.

Preparing Questionnaire

As the survey instrument, a well-designed questionnaire was utilized. The questionnaire contains a variety of question types from which the respondent must select the most pertinent responses. There are also some free-response questions. The demographic section of the questionnaire was aligned at the outset. This section contains the age parameters of clients and other demographic information that will influence the consumption behavior. There are three distinct sections for food, beverages, and stationary. Each section begins with a common question designed to determine which Olympic events respondents would want to witness. Then, two further questions are asked to determine the pattern of amount and cost spent on events. The next two questions pertain to client preferences about in-home purchase and service delivery.

Results of a Public Opinion Survey

Various sorts of experience, information, and opinion are gathered utilizing the questionnaire as the survey instrument. The experiences were pretty favorable, and the attitude of the respondents towards the questionnaire and survey was cordial. Numerous respondents were contacted, but only 20 questions were chosen. Here, the survey results are given in table format.

The second question of section A concerned the respondents' ages. The outcomes are:

Age range Quantity of respondents

0-10 (Child) 0

11-19 (Teenage) 7

20-30 (Young) 4

31- 40 (Younger) 2

41-50 (Youngest) 7

51-60 (Aged) 0

60 years or older (Old) 0

Total 20

The next inquiry concerns the gender of the responses.

Male 10

Female 10

The first question in section B seeks to determine whether or not the responder will attend the Olympic events. The survey only examines questionnaire responses affirmative to this item.

The next inquiry asks, "How many days would you prefer to visit?"

Day range Quantity of respondents

a) 1-7

b) 8-14

c) 15 – 21

d) 22-28

e) 29-35

f) 36-42 1

2

9

6

0

2

Total 20

The following question was, "Which week of the six-week Olympic Games will you most likely attend?"

Price range Quantity of responses

a) 1st week

c) 2nd week

c) 3rd week

fourth week

fifth week

g) Sixth week

5

1

1

2

5

Total 20

Then, the section on questions of interest began. The first section contained food items. The first question asked, "Would you consider purchasing a slice of pizza/sandwich/hot dogs/burger/pastry/popcorn/chicken fries when attending the London 2012 Olympics? Twenty respondents to the street survey provided responses for various sorts of foods, yielding the following results:

Names of foods Quantity of respondents

a) Slice of pizza

b) Sandwich

c) Hot dogs

d) Burger

e) Pastry

f) Corn Kernels

g) Fried chicken 5

3

2

6

1

1

2

Total 20

And with the addition of this question, the supplemental question "How frequently/frequently?

This question was asked to determine the required quantities of these foods. The responses received were:

Quantity range Quantity of respondents

a) 1- 5

b) 6-10

c) 11-15

d) 16-20

e) Over twenty seven

8

3

1

1

Total 20

Then followed the query, "Where have you purchased before to the London Olympics?

Price range Quantity of responses

a) From retail stores

b) From restaurants

b) From renowned eateries 11

6

3

Total 20

In addition to this question, respondents were asked, "What is the most expensive purchase?"

Price range Quantity of responses

a) £ 1- 5

c) £ 6-10

d) £ 11-15

d) £ 16-20

f) Greater than £20 6

8

3

2

1

Total 20

The third question asked of the responder was, "Are you likely to buy gifts for friends and/or family during the London Olympic Games?"

Responses Quantity of respondents

a) Yes

b) No 18

2

Total 20

The respondents who responded affirmatively are then asked, "How many children and adults?

Responses Quantity of respondents

a) for youngsters

b) for adult 16

2

Total 18

The response to the query how many:

Quantity range Quantity of respondents

a) 1- 5

b) 6-10

c) 11-15

d) 16-20

e) Over twenty seven

6

3

2

2

Total 20

Then, the fourth question was posed, which read, "Describe your favorite (taste, color, size, etc.)" According to this question, respondents provided responses based on their preferences.

Preferences Quantity of agreeing respondents

a) Flavor

b) Coloring

c) Size 8

5

7

Total 20

The additional questions then requested some feedback. The respondents remark on their selection, and the resulting table is as follows:

Regarding taste

Preferences Quantity of agreeing respondents

a) Sour

b) Spicy

c) Sweet 4

2

1

Total 8

In the event of Color

Preferences Quantity of the selected respondent

a) Red

b) green 4

1

Total 5

Regarding size

Preferences Quantity of agreeing respondents

a) Big

c) Medium

c) Small 4

2

1

Total 7

The sixth question was regarding the importance of an item and asked, "What aspects of an item are significant to you when making a purchase?

Preferences Quantity of agreeing respondents

a) Convenience

c) Availability

d) Times of operation

d) Fast service 4

4

3

9

Total 20

The same questions were then asked based on the order of the beverages.

The initial question about beverages was, "Would you consider purchasing when attending the 2012 London Olympics?

Beverages Quantity of agreeing respondents

a) Soft drinks

b) Caffeine

b) Fruit juice

d) Beer 7

1

5

7

Total 20

The additional question that includes "How frequently/frequently?

Quantity range Quantity of respondents

a) 1- 5

b) 6-10

c) 11-15

d) 16-20

f) Over twenty 11

3

3

2

1

Total 20

The second question was, "Where have you purchased previously to the Olympic Games in London?

Price range Quantity of responses

a) From retail stores

b) From restaurants

b) From renowned eateries 16

2

2

Total 20

The reply was then asked, "And what is the most expensive purchase you have ever made?

Price range Quantity of responses

a) £ 1- 5

c) £ 6-10

d) £ 11-15

d) £ 16-20

f) Greater than £20 10

8

1

1

0

Total 20

The third question asked of the responder was, "Are you likely to buy gifts for friends and/or family during the London Olympic Games?"

Responses Quantity of respondents

a) Yes

b) No 17

3

Total 20

The respondents who responded affirmatively are then asked, "How many children and adults?

Responses Quantity of respondents

a) for youngsters

b) for adult 16

1

Total 17

The fourth question said, "Describe your favorite (flavor, color, size, etc.)?

" Those who chose soft drinks responded:

Preferences Quantity of agreeing respondents

a) Cola

c) Lemon lime

c) Extra 3

2

1

Total 7

Respondents who chose fruit juices responded:

Preferences Quantity of agreeing respondents

a) Orange

b) Mango

c) Other two

2

1

Total 5

The final question for the beverage segment was, "What purchase factors are most important to you?

Preferences Quantity of agreeing respondents

a) Convenience

c) Availability

d) Times of operation

d) Fast service 4

10

3

3

Total 20

The questions then turned to stationery.

"Would you consider making a purchase while attending the 2012 London Olympics?

Stationery Number of respondents who agreed

a) Umbrella

b) Hats

c) Sandals

d) Extra 3

5

9

3

Total 20

After "How frequently/frequently?

" was asked:

Quantity range Quantity of respondents

a) 1- 5

b) 6-10

c) 11-15

d) 16-20

d) Over twenty 16

1

1

1

1

Total 20

The inquiry then questioned, "Where have you made purchases previous to the London Olympic Games?

Price range Quantity of responses

a) From retail stores

c) From hawkers

b) From renowned stationery retailers 14

3

3

Total 20

The respondents were then asked, "What is the most costly purchase?

Price range Quantity of responses

a) £ 1- 5

c) £ 6-10

d) £ 11-15

d) £ 16-20

f) Greater than £20 5

1

12

1

1

Total 20

The respondent was then asked, "Are you likely to purchase gifts for friends and family during the London Olympic?"

Responses Quantity of respondents

a) Yes

b) No 7

13

Total 20

The respondents who responded affirmatively are then asked, "How many children and adults?

Responses Quantity of respondents

a) for youngsters

b) for adult 6

1

Total 7

The final question for the stationary portion asked, "What factors are most essential to you while purchasing?

Preferences Quantity of agreeing respondents

a) Convenience

c) Availability

d) Times of operation

d) Fast service 3

11

3

3

Total 20

Examination of Survey Results

The collected information can be analyzed based on the above outcomes. The study is based on observation and natural intuition in order to choose some precise and unambiguous facts about consumer preferences and to determine how customers perceive the products offered by "Café Olympia." Based on the analysis, the survey makes the following assumptions:

Young individuals and adolescents are more likely to watch Olympic events. Customers will participate in the events for an average number of days. That is, they are unattended for eight to twenty-eight days. In the first two weeks and the last week, the demand for the products will be significant. The most popular foods were pizzas, hamburgers, and sandwiches. Most favorite beverage item is soft drinks and beer. The majority of clients favor sandals, caps, and umbrellas. While watching Olympic activities, refreshments and stationery are preferred by the majority of customers. The majority of customers are willing to pay between 6 and 10 pounds for food, 1 and 5 pounds for beverages, and 11 to 15 pounds for stationery. Customers are most willing to purchase these items from street vendors. The majority of them favor the accessibility of these things. The majority of buyers purchase these products not just for immediate use, but also for consumption at home. The majority are willing to provide these items for the youngsters.

These assumptions are useful because they indicate the possible client segment, the product and offer range that customers desire, and the price range that customers are willing to pay for potential offerings.

Master Budget

The master budget is the complete budget of an organization, which includes sales, purchases, labor, and other direct costs. Using the following table in this report, the master budget for this business will be formulated.

Table: Cafe Olympia Master Budget in Six Weeks

Description/ Week 1 2 3 4 5 6

Total Sales £538000 £336000 £299700 £167000 £223000 £358400

Total Purchase £290500 £290500 £290500 £290500 £290500 £290500

Total Labor Expenses £3000 £3000 £3000 £3000 £3000 £3000 £3000 £3000 £3000

Other Direct Costs Total: £7500 £7500 £7500 £7500 £7500 £7500 £7500

= Cash Flow (Total Sales – Purchases + Labor + Other Direct Expenses) £243750 £5450 £(127250) £(71250) £64150

Initial Cash Balance £600000 £356250 £314500 $309050 $380300 $21225

Cash Balance at Closing (Opening Cash Balance – Cash Flow): £356250 £314500 $309050 $436300 $507550 £443400

Note:

This is a purchasing and selling firm, not a producing one. Therefore, overhead costs are unnecessary. This business is launched with a cash balance of £600,000. The annual cash flow costs are determined by total sales minus purchase, labor, and other direct expenses.

Sales Budget

Budget for sales is the foundation of the Master Budget, which is used to forecast sales by multiplying by unit. In this business related to the 2012 Olympic Games, it is believed that the following items would sell in London:

Foodstuffs:

Sandwich Hot dog Burger Pastry Popcorn Chicken fries

Beverages:

Soft drinks Cola Lemon lime Orange Flavoured Coffee Cappuccino Black Fruit juice Orange Mango Lemon Seasonal

Management Accounting. Background Of Business Law Essay Help

Introduction

London will host the Olympic Games in 2012, which will take place in 2012. The Olympic Games, one of the oldest and most successful and well-known sporting events in the world, mix multiple sports into a single competition. Spectators from all over the world would gladly attend the events, bringing with them several commercial opportunities and the potential for quick profit. This report would cover a new firm that was established with these considerations and the Olympic Games in mind.

The company is concentrating on stationary and food products. People who are likely to attend the activities will likely engage in some form of purchasing and will also purchase food to consume while attending. In addition to these food products, the company will also provide beverages and stationary supplies. There are numerous grocery stores, eateries, and stationery businesses in London. During the Olympic Games, however, the demand will be so great that the likelihood of this business generating a healthy profit margin will grow. The culinary items may include Pizzas, Burgers, Hot Dogs, Pastries, and Sandwiches, among others. The beverages may include sodas such as Pepsi, Coca-Cola, 7-Up, and others, beer, fruit juices, tea, and coffee. Stationary things may consist of sandals, an umbrella, or any other necessary item.

Cafe Olympia is the suggested name for the proposed store. This name was chosen to honor the ancient heritage of the Olympic games and the important customer relationship with the term "Olympia," given that the very first Olympic games were held in the ancient Greek city of "Olympia."

About the Poll

To forecast the demand of potential customers, a market study has been conducted. The survey method was employed since it is the most efficient approach to get accurate client feedback. This survey was conducted using a questionnaire as the survey instrument. The respondents were selected at random, and their responses to the questions were recorded in a database. There were numerous respondents to the survey, and 20 of them were chosen. They are randomly selected from the passing street population.

In this instance, the survey method is advantageous. Initially, the respondent became aware of the introduction of new stores throughout the Olympic period and will discover the store "Café Olympia" while attending the events. Second, the survey will reveal customer expectations as well as areas where they believe the business can improve. Thirdly, the survey will also assist in determining the demographics of potential clients. If there are any demographic tendencies, such as preferences for a particular dish by age group, the firm might be structured accordingly. Lastly, the survey will help evaluate the market, the spending power of potential clients, and the consumption habits of customers in relation to the products that "Café Olympia" will offer.

Preparing Questionnaire

As the survey instrument, a well-designed questionnaire was utilized. The questionnaire contains a variety of question types from which the respondent must select the most pertinent responses. There are also some free-response questions. The demographic section of the questionnaire was aligned at the outset. This section contains the age parameters of clients and other demographic information that will influence the consumption behavior. There are three distinct sections for food, beverages, and stationary. Each section begins with a common question designed to determine which Olympic events respondents would want to witness. Then, two further questions are asked to determine the pattern of amount and cost spent on events. The next two questions pertain to client preferences about in-home purchase and service delivery.

Results of a Public Opinion Survey

Various sorts of experience, information, and opinion are gathered utilizing the questionnaire as the survey instrument. The experiences were pretty favorable, and the attitude of the respondents towards the questionnaire and survey was cordial. Numerous respondents were contacted, but only 20 questions were chosen. Here, the survey results are given in table format.

The second question of section A concerned the respondents' ages. The outcomes are:

Age range Quantity of respondents

0-10 (Child) 0

11-19 (Teenage) 7

20-30 (Young) 4

31- 40 (Younger) 2

41-50 (Youngest) 7

51-60 (Aged) 0

60 years or older (Old) 0

Total 20

The next inquiry concerns the gender of the responses.

Male 10

Female 10

The first question in section B seeks to determine whether or not the responder will attend the Olympic events. The survey only examines questionnaire responses affirmative to this item.

The next inquiry asks, "How many days would you prefer to visit?"

Day range Quantity of respondents

a) 1-7

b) 8-14

c) 15 – 21

d) 22-28

e) 29-35

f) 36-42 1

2

9

6

0

2

Total 20

The following question was, "Which week of the six-week Olympic Games will you most likely attend?"

Price range Quantity of responses

a) 1st week

c) 2nd week

c) 3rd week

fourth week

fifth week

g) Sixth week

5

1

1

2

5

Total 20

Then, the section on questions of interest began. The first section contained food items. The first question asked, "Would you consider purchasing a slice of pizza/sandwich/hot dogs/burger/pastry/popcorn/chicken fries when attending the London 2012 Olympics? Twenty respondents to the street survey provided responses for various sorts of foods, yielding the following results:

Names of foods Quantity of respondents

a) Slice of pizza

b) Sandwich

c) Hot dogs

d) Burger

e) Pastry

f) Corn Kernels

g) Fried chicken 5

3

2

6

1

1

2

Total 20

And with the addition of this question, the supplemental question "How frequently/frequently?

This question was asked to determine the required quantities of these foods. The responses received were:

Quantity range Quantity of respondents

a) 1- 5

b) 6-10

c) 11-15

d) 16-20

e) Over twenty seven

8

3

1

1

Total 20

Then followed the query, "Where have you purchased before to the London Olympics?

Price range Quantity of responses

a) From retail stores

b) From restaurants

b) From renowned eateries 11

6

3

Total 20

In addition to this question, respondents were asked, "What is the most expensive purchase?"

Price range Quantity of responses

a) £ 1- 5

c) £ 6-10

d) £ 11-15

d) £ 16-20

f) Greater than £20 6

8

3

2

1

Total 20

The third question asked of the responder was, "Are you likely to buy gifts for friends and/or family during the London Olympic Games?"

Responses Quantity of respondents

a) Yes

b) No 18

2

Total 20

The respondents who responded affirmatively are then asked, "How many children and adults?

Responses Quantity of respondents

a) for youngsters

b) for adult 16

2

Total 18

The response to the query how many:

Quantity range Quantity of respondents

a) 1- 5

b) 6-10

c) 11-15

d) 16-20

e) Over twenty seven

6

3

2

2

Total 20

Then, the fourth question was posed, which read, "Describe your favorite (taste, color, size, etc.)" According to this question, respondents provided responses based on their preferences.

Preferences Quantity of agreeing respondents

a) Flavor

b) Coloring

c) Size 8

5

7

Total 20

The additional questions then requested some feedback. The respondents remark on their selection, and the resulting table is as follows:

Regarding taste

Preferences Quantity of agreeing respondents

a) Sour

b) Spicy

c) Sweet 4

2

1

Total 8

In the event of Color

Preferences Quantity of the selected respondent

a) Red

b) green 4

1

Total 5

Regarding size

Preferences Quantity of agreeing respondents

a) Big

c) Medium

c) Small 4

2

1

Total 7

The sixth question was regarding the importance of an item and asked, "What aspects of an item are significant to you when making a purchase?

Preferences Quantity of agreeing respondents

a) Convenience

c) Availability

d) Times of operation

d) Fast service 4

4

3

9

Total 20

The same questions were then asked based on the order of the beverages.

The initial question about beverages was, "Would you consider purchasing when attending the 2012 London Olympics?

Beverages Quantity of agreeing respondents

a) Soft drinks

b) Caffeine

b) Fruit juice

d) Beer 7

1

5

7

Total 20

The additional question that includes "How frequently/frequently?

Quantity range Quantity of respondents

a) 1- 5

b) 6-10

c) 11-15

d) 16-20

f) Over twenty 11

3

3

2

1

Total 20

The second question was, "Where have you purchased previously to the Olympic Games in London?

Price range Quantity of responses

a) From retail stores

b) From restaurants

b) From renowned eateries 16

2

2

Total 20

The reply was then asked, "And what is the most expensive purchase you have ever made?

Price range Quantity of responses

a) £ 1- 5

c) £ 6-10

d) £ 11-15

d) £ 16-20

f) Greater than £20 10

8

1

1

0

Total 20

The third question asked of the responder was, "Are you likely to buy gifts for friends and/or family during the London Olympic Games?"

Responses Quantity of respondents

a) Yes

b) No 17

3

Total 20

The respondents who responded affirmatively are then asked, "How many children and adults?

Responses Quantity of respondents

a) for youngsters

b) for adult 16

1

Total 17

The fourth question said, "Describe your favorite (flavor, color, size, etc.)?

" Those who chose soft drinks responded:

Preferences Quantity of agreeing respondents

a) Cola

c) Lemon lime

c) Extra 3

2

1

Total 7

Respondents who chose fruit juices responded:

Preferences Quantity of agreeing respondents

a) Orange

b) Mango

c) Other two

2

1

Total 5

The final question for the beverage segment was, "What purchase factors are most important to you?

Preferences Quantity of agreeing respondents

a) Convenience

c) Availability

d) Times of operation

d) Fast service 4

10

3

3

Total 20

The questions then turned to stationery.

"Would you consider making a purchase while attending the 2012 London Olympics?

Stationery Number of respondents who agreed

a) Umbrella

b) Hats

c) Sandals

d) Extra 3

5

9

3

Total 20

After "How frequently/frequently?

" was asked:

Quantity range Quantity of respondents

a) 1- 5

b) 6-10

c) 11-15

d) 16-20

d) Over twenty 16

1

1

1

1

Total 20

The inquiry then questioned, "Where have you made purchases previous to the London Olympic Games?

Price range Quantity of responses

a) From retail stores

c) From hawkers

b) From renowned stationery retailers 14

3

3

Total 20

The respondents were then asked, "What is the most costly purchase?

Price range Quantity of responses

a) £ 1- 5

c) £ 6-10

d) £ 11-15

d) £ 16-20

f) Greater than £20 5

1

12

1

1

Total 20

The respondent was then asked, "Are you likely to purchase gifts for friends and family during the London Olympic?"

Responses Quantity of respondents

a) Yes

b) No 7

13

Total 20

The respondents who responded affirmatively are then asked, "How many children and adults?

Responses Quantity of respondents

a) for youngsters

b) for adult 6

1

Total 7

The final question for the stationary portion asked, "What factors are most essential to you while purchasing?

Preferences Quantity of agreeing respondents

a) Convenience

c) Availability

d) Times of operation

d) Fast service 3

11

3

3

Total 20

Examination of Survey Results

The collected information can be analyzed based on the above outcomes. The study is based on observation and natural intuition in order to choose some precise and unambiguous facts about consumer preferences and to determine how customers perceive the products offered by "Café Olympia." Based on the analysis, the survey makes the following assumptions:

Young individuals and adolescents are more likely to watch Olympic events. Customers will participate in the events for an average number of days. That is, they are unattended for eight to twenty-eight days. In the first two weeks and the last week, the demand for the products will be significant. The most popular foods were pizzas, hamburgers, and sandwiches. Most favorite beverage item is soft drinks and beer. The majority of clients favor sandals, caps, and umbrellas. While watching Olympic activities, refreshments and stationery are preferred by the majority of customers. The majority of customers are willing to pay between 6 and 10 pounds for food, 1 and 5 pounds for beverages, and 11 to 15 pounds for stationery. Customers are most willing to purchase these items from street vendors. The majority of them favor the accessibility of these things. The majority of buyers purchase these products not just for immediate use, but also for consumption at home. The majority are willing to provide these items for the youngsters.

These assumptions are useful because they indicate the possible client segment, the product and offer range that customers desire, and the price range that customers are willing to pay for potential offerings.

Master Budget

The master budget is the complete budget of an organization, which includes sales, purchases, labor, and other direct costs. Using the following table in this report, the master budget for this business will be formulated.

Table: Cafe Olympia Master Budget in Six Weeks

Description/ Week 1 2 3 4 5 6

Total Sales £538000 £336000 £299700 £167000 £223000 £358400

Total Purchase £290500 £290500 £290500 £290500 £290500 £290500

Total Labor Expenses £3000 £3000 £3000 £3000 £3000 £3000 £3000 £3000 £3000

Other Direct Costs Total: £7500 £7500 £7500 £7500 £7500 £7500 £7500

= Cash Flow (Total Sales – Purchases + Labor + Other Direct Expenses) £243750 £5450 £(127250) £(71250) £64150

Initial Cash Balance £600000 £356250 £314500 $309050 $380300 $21225

Cash Balance at Closing (Opening Cash Balance – Cash Flow): £356250 £314500 $309050 $436300 $507550 £443400

Note:

This is a purchasing and selling firm, not a producing one. Therefore, overhead costs are unnecessary. This business is launched with a cash balance of £600,000. The annual cash flow costs are determined by total sales minus purchase, labor, and other direct expenses.

Sales Budget

Budget for sales is the foundation of the Master Budget, which is used to forecast sales by multiplying by unit. In this business related to the 2012 Olympic Games, it is believed that the following items would sell in London:

Foodstuffs:

Sandwich Hot dog Burger Pastry Popcorn Chicken fries

Beverages:

Soft drinks Cola Lemon lime Orange Flavoured Coffee Cappuccino Black Fruit juice Orange Mango Lemon Seasonal

Accounting Industry In Canada And Its Future Law Essay Help

In Canada, the accounting profession has followed the same structure for decades, with no significant changes to its framework during this time. However, the shifting global economic and financial landscape, spurred by intense globalization forces, has persuaded Canadian accounting leaders to reconsider the profession's organizational structure. The accounting profession in Canada is currently through a period of significant transformation. There is now a merger taking place between the three accounting professional organizations in Canada. These organizations include the Chartered Accountants of Canada (CA), the Certified Management Accountants of Canada (CMA), and the Certified General Accountants (CGA). The government of Quebec established the possibility of a merger between accounting professional groups by removing all restrictions and distinctions that had long divided accounting professionals and firms with different affiliations (McMahon). These accounting professional organizations have mutually agreed to consolidate under the Chartered Professional Accountants (CPA) designation (May 9, 2013: BC's Accountants Unite under Chartered Professional Accountant Designation, para. 2). This article examines the future of the accounting profession in Canada. In addition, it provides a personal comment on my learning and goals in light of the evolving Canadian accounting industry.

International convergence of accounting and auditing standards was one of the primary impetuses for the proposed reform in the Canadian accounting profession. With the elimination of trade barriers, the mobility of accounting professionals has expanded, and it is now crucial for them to be able to apply and understand varied accounting standards and practices. Accounting experts may only build strategic alliances with their clients and deliver accounting services on a worldwide scale if they do so. Despite participating in the global convergence of accounting and auditing standards, Canada's accounting profession structure remained fragmented (Guo 2). Historically, many regulatory frameworks governed and regulated the Canadian accounting profession. In an effort to reach an agreement over the ongoing change, members of CMA and CA engaged in a series of discussions regarding the planned merger of the three accounting professional groups. They believe that this transformation is inevitable. The consensus has formed that the unification of accounting bodies will increase the profession's efficiency and effectiveness. It is anticipated to serve the public interest and provide enhanced support to CPA members (Uniting the Canadian Accounting Profession 3).

In recent years, the distinction between three accounting classifications has become less obvious. Historically, chartered accountants typically sought employment in accounting and auditing firms (McMahon). CMAs and CGAs worked in distinct fields. Over time, however, an increasing number of chartered accountants began working in areas other than accounting. In addition, CMAs and CGAs are increasingly employed in public accounting firms. In addition, there was a duplication of services provided by persons and companies affiliated with three accounting bodies (Richardson and Jones 136). It was impossible to distinguish between the advertisements and messages distributed by these individuals and companies. The proposed combination is anticipated to increase service efficiencies and reduce the price of accounting and auditing services (Uniting the Canadian Accounting Profession 7). Accountants having CPA credentials would be able to work in all Canadian territories, to the benefit of all practitioners. The ease of transferability would increase the circulation of human capital, and enterprises utilizing the services of professional accountants would be able to form strong strategic relationships with accounting firms regardless of their physical location.

In addition, the Canadian government was under increasing pressure to reform the accounting profession. These measures are anticipated to aid the government in advancing its policy agendas, enhance trade commitments, and reduce the perceived bureaucratic nature of regulatory agencies. The potential merging of the accounting profession in Canada could be advantageous for attracting talent and increasing labor mobility. Similar attempts have been proposed in the United Kingdom, which is similarly regarded as having a disorganized accounting framework (Uniting the Canadian Accounting Profession 5). Therefore, it may be argued that the planned merger in Canada is not conducted in a vacuum and that lessons have been learned from other nations.

Diverse parties have criticized Canada's proposed plan to combine three accounting professional associations. Chartered accountants in Canada believe the proposed merger could affect their professional identities, as they perceive themselves as superior to Certified Management Accountants and Certified General Accountants (Uniting the Canadian Accounting Profession para 1). The proposed merger is regarded to be unjust, and the leadership has been attacked for ignoring the concerns of certified public accountants (Guo 1). The criticism was based on the CAs' loss of professional identity and perceived brand value degradation. Many CAs felt that the governing body's role in this merger process was insufficient. Instead of representing the interests and opinions of all CA members, the organization decided to proceed with the merger. In addition, they maintained that CMA and CGA would enjoy an unfair advantage if they were permitted to utilize the same classification. However, CPA has permitted all existing members to continue using their former designations for the next decade.

It would aid in bridging the gap between people with various classifications. CGA opposed the use of the former designation by existing members for the following 10 years (Ruth). In a similar fashion, CGA and CMA offered recommendations to ensure that their members receive the same privileges under the new structure (Ruth page). Some say that a similar merger proposal was made in 2004, but it was never implemented. Members of accounting professional organizations are still unsure of the outcome of the current merger (Guo 2). In recent years, globalization appears to have had a significant impact on the character of the accounting profession. All accounting firms have seen organic expansion and converging accounting and auditing standards. In contrast to 2004, the worldwide professional environment has altered dramatically. In addition, after the merger, CPA will be one of the largest accounting bodies and will be able to play a significant role in bringing about reform in the worldwide accounting framework (Uniting the Canadian Accounting Profession – FAQs, paragraph 4).

CA and CMA, two national organizations, initially agreed to merge. However, chartered accountants oppose the merger's inclusion of CGA. There is an ongoing effort by CAs to convince the public that they are superior professionals than those with other accounting certifications (McMahon para 5). Despite efforts by CA to boost its membership and to allow unemployed CA students to submit certified reports using CKE, UFE, and SOA, the organization's popularity is declining. In contrast, CGA membership has increased in every region of Canada. CGA's flexibility in allowing its members ample time to complete the qualification has attracted many individuals who are already employed by their respective organizations and wanted CGA as an additional qualification. CPA offers a two-year degree, but CGA members often take between five and six years to finish their study. In addition, in order to facilitate the merger, it is agreed that no rights will be expanded or withdrawn as a result of the merger.

The planned changes to the Canadian accounting profession are, in my opinion, perplexing for all individuals who aspire to follow an accounting career. After the anticipated unification of three Canadian accounting bodies, efforts are being made to provide students with Chartered Professional Accountant (CPA) education. Students' educational options would so become more accessible. All CPA students would follow the same curriculum, with any past variances in curriculum content eliminated. In addition, I believe that university-level accounting education is less likely to be harmed by this combination. I believe that the curriculum now followed by universities in Canada adequately prepares students for the highest professional qualifications. The reform will level the playing field for accounting professionals seeking employment in other businesses.

This, in my opinion, will give students like myself a fantastic opportunity to obtain the highest qualification and find a good job in Canada or abroad. The merger would reduce distinctions in designations, which would help those pursuing a professional accounting credential. Nevertheless, the prestige associated with CA certification would decline (Uniting the Canadian Accounting Profession – FAQs para 7). In addition, it is understood that the path to CPA will not be straightforward, as it will have the same admission standards as CA. In addition, there are no intentions to boost membership. The restricted number of available positions would intensify competition among pupils. This would present me with a challenge, requiring me to work harder to achieve my objective. After becoming a CPA, I would have the option to obtain further professional credentials that would advance my career.

The preceding discussion suggests that the planned merger, which is still in the planning stages, would have a significant impact on the future of the accounting profession in Canada. It would result in sales efficiencies, cost savings, and service efficiency. This would attract human capital to Canada and improve prospects for Canadian accountants by allowing them to work in all Canadian territories and other nations. There are currently issues with CAs' acceptance of the merger. Nevertheless, efforts are undertaken to eliminate any doubts and concerns associated with the merger. The commitment of the presidents of three accounting bodies was the key factor behind the merger's approval.

Sources Cited

Understanding Why and How Certain Chartered Accountants Oppose the Proposed Merger of Canada's Three Accounting Professions. 2012. Web.

Accountants in British Columbia Unite under the Chartered Professional Accountant Designation. 2013. Web.

Accounting designations get together. Web. 2013. McMahon, Tamsin.

Ruth, Gordon. 2014. Web. CGA Position on Possible Accountancy Merger.

Alan J. Richardson and D.G. Brian Jones. Professional "brand," personal identity, and reluctance to change in the accounting industry in Canada. Accounting History 12.2 (2007), pages 135-164.

Uniting the Canadian Accounting Profession, Web site, 2011.

Uniting the Canadian Accounting Profession – Frequently Asked Questions. 2014. Web.

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Key Financial Indicators Of Express Scripts, Inc Law Essay Help

Introduction

The following is a case study of Express Scripts, Inc. It focuses on the analysis of key financial ratios for the previous five years, current accounting and finance concepts in financial decision-making, a financial problem and current reporting requirements, as well as the ethical and cross-cultural components of contemporary accounting and financial issues as required by the practice of financial economics. The report concludes with suggestions for the board based on the findings of the analysis.

The examination of financial ratios

Express Script, Inc. financial ratio study is based on annual statements from 2009 to 2013.

Gross Profit Margin Ratios of Profitability

= Gross Profit / Net Sales (Revenue) =

2009

2,424.0 / 24,722.3= 0.098

2010

2,958.2 /44,973.2= 0.0658

2011

3,209.9 /46,128.3= 0.0696

2012

7,311.9 /93,714.3 = 0.078

2013

8,132.4 / 104,098.8 = 0.078

Express Scripts, Inc.'s gross profit margins indicate that it effectively manages its inventory expenses and can therefore pass on low prices to its customers.

Profit Margin Net

= Net Income/Net Sales =

2009

826.6/ 24,722.3= 0.033

2010

1,181.2 /44,973.2= 0.027

2011

1,278.5 /46,128.3= 0.0277

2012

1,330.1 / 93,714.3 = 0.0144

2013

1,898.2 / 104,098.8 = 0.01823

After deducting all expenses, the business turns a profit on every dollar. The margin varies between one and three percent. This is the profit made by Express Scripts, Inc. per dollar, in cents. Nonetheless, the company's profitability has begun to decrease.

The ratio of Cash Flow Margin

= Cash flow from operating cash flows divided by Net sales =

2009

1,752 / 24,722.3= 0.071

2010

2,105 /44,973.2= 0.0468

2011

2,192.0 /46,128.3= 0.0475

2012

4,751.1 / 93,714.3 = 0.051

2013

4,768.9 / 104,098.8 = 0.046

One can determine how Express Scripts, Inc. has generated cash from its customers through sales and other services based on the outcomes. These extremely high ratios indicate that Express Scripts, Inc. has healthy cash flows. Therefore, the company faces no dangers from its suppliers and investors, nor does it have any solvency issues.

The ratio of Return on Assets

Gross Income/Total Assets =

2009

826.6/ 11,931.2 = 0.069

2010

1,204.6 /10,557.8 = 0.1141

2011

1,275.8 / 15,607.0 = 0.0817

2012

1,345.2 / 58,111.2 = 0.0231

2013

1,898.2 / 53,548.2 = 0.035

The ROA demonstrates Express Scripts, Inc.'s profitability relative to its assets. One might assume, based on the ratios, that the corporation can utilize its assets to generate revenues and profits.

Moreover, Express Scripts, Inc. can utilize its assets to control its indebtedness in order to optimize shareholder returns. In the past two years, the corporation has aggressively maximized its assets.

The ratio of Return on Equity

= Net Income/Shareholders' Equity = .

2009

826.6 / 3,551.8 = 0.2327

2010

1,204.6 /3,606.6 = 0.3339

2011

1,275.8 / 2,473.7 = 0.516

2012

1,345.2 / 23,395.7 = 0.057

2013

1,898.2 / 21,844.8 = 0.087

From 2009 to 2011, Express Scripts, Inc. had a REO of up to 51%, resulting in good profits for shareholders. However, this has changed. Due to the growth in equity, the company's REO fell below 10% between the 2012 and 2013 fiscal years. This circumstance has affected the returns of stockholders.

The current status of Express Scripts, Inc. could be damaging to investors. This suggests that the business has failed to maintain profitability. This demonstrates that Express Scripts, Inc. depends on shareholder ownership for growth.

Cash Flow from Assets

= Cash flow from operating activities divided by Total Assets =

2009

1,752.0 / 11,931.2 = 0.147

2010

2,105.1 /10,557.8 = 0.199

2011

2,193.1 / 15,607.0 = 0.1405

2012

4,751.1 / 58,111.2 = 0.0817

2013

4,768.9 / 53,548.2 = 0.089

Cash Flow from Assets Ratio is essential for assessing the company's ability to maximize its investments and create income from its assets (Kieso, Weygandt, & Warfield, 2013). Recent data over the past two years indicate that the company's performance has begun to deteriorate.

Equity to Shareholders Ratio

= Total Equity of Shareholders/Total Assets

2009

3,551.8 / 11,931.2 = 0.297

2010

3,606.6 /10,557.8 = 0.199

2011

2,475.3 / 15,607.0 = 0.342

2012

23,395.7 / 58,111.2 = 0.403

2013

21,844.8 / 53,548.2 = 0.408

The corporation has borrowed money to fund its operations over the years, resulting in a steady increase in shareholders' equity. In the event of a company-wide liquidation, investors would thereby receive favorable returns on their investments. These are high ratios, indicating that the company is supported by shareholder capital.

Liquidity

= current assets/current liabilities

2009

11,931.2 / 8,379.4 = 1.424

2010

10,557.8 / 6,951.2 = 1.519

2011

15,607.0 / 13,133.3 = 1.188

2012

58,111.2 / 34,715.5 = 1.674

2013

53,548.2 / 31,703.4 = 1.69

Less-than-one liquidity ratios indicate that the corporation may have difficulty meeting its short-term obligations. Therefore, Express Scripts, Inc. can satisfy its near-term obligations due to its excellent liquidity ratios. The company's present assets are sufficient to satisfy its obligations (current ratio). This is significant because Express Scripts, Inc. can quickly convert its short-term assets into cash to pay off its debt. Therefore, it may not be bankrupt. These statistics indicate that the company can continue as a going concern.

Accounting and financial concepts essential for the practice of financial economics in financial decision-making

Accounting and finance ideas are necessary to enable financial decision-making in management accounting. Decision-making enables managers to select the optimal solution from the available possibilities. If there are no options, no decision is required, although this is not always the case in a business.

The fundamental premise is that the optimal solution will maximize revenues and shareholder returns while minimizing costs. In order to support financial decision-making, the management team must identify the optimal alternatives. Financial decision-making remains the most important component of management accounting, despite its complexity.

The organization should acknowledge that accounting and financial ideas in financial decision-making support management accounting with the objective of making not necessarily the best but rather a good decision. The complexity of decision-supporting financial instruments makes it difficult to identify the optimal choice. Consequently, financial decision-making is a subjective, highly complex process. The organization will outline its management objectives in order to determine the appropriateness of the selected decision. Consequently, the most important responsibility of financial management decision-makers is to establish the company's objectives and goals.

Express Scripts, Inc., for instance, has both strategic aims and tactical judgments. As it develops goals and objectives, the organization prioritizes the quality of its services, risks in new initiatives, and price, among other factors. Strategic decisions are expansive and may reflect the company's tactical actions. These decisions tend to be subjective because the management team formulates them to support the company's aims and objectives.

Management accounting should clearly distinguish between strategic and tactical objectives. Financial decisions derived from management accounting typically rely on tactical techniques. For instance, cash management must be guided by financial decision-making. Express Scripts, Inc., for instance, may manage a minimum cash level with low investor risk based on strategic management accounting decisions. The terms for tactical decisions are specified by tactical decisions.

Accounting and finance ideas facilitate decision-making by providing quantitative firm information. Any management team decision must be supported by quantifiable information from financial records. The corporation may make either short-term or long-term decisions. Express Scripts, Inc. must choose between long-term and short-term options in this process. Today, the organization manages its short-term decisions quarterly. This is essential for the company's profitability objectives.

Even if not all firms seek the same objectives, Express Scripts, Inc. must generate profitability to meet the expectations of investors and stakeholders. In this instance, accounting and financial principles must serve as guidance for achieving profitability goals. To fulfill its strategic objectives, Express Scripts, Inc. may concentrate on net income or profit, sales or cash flow, return on total assets, return on total equity, and earnings per share. During decision-making processes, management accounting must include profitability targets as well as long-term and short-term goals. To protect earnings, the corporation must minimize expenses in this aspect.

Due to opposing interests, making short-term decisions inside an organization is challenging. Managers may prioritize profit maximization. Decision-makers require information from all available financial decision-making tools. Therefore, the management accountant should provide precise data to aid in decision-making. This implies that the required data must be gathered from a variety of sources, including the company's financial records.

The management account must give decision-making-facilitating information based on accounting principles and concepts. Information should reflect the financial, service, and market standing of the company. The accountant must collect all associated charges from diverse sources and accurately report them. Such information would ultimately aid in the preparation of financial statements. The financial accounts of a connected company should include both historical financial data and descriptive features to aid in decision-making. All components on the financial statement should support a certain financial decision. Accounting and finance concepts support the management team's financial decision-making procedures for every choice.

A financial issue and current reporting standards as required by financial economics practice.

The cash flow statement is a key accounting and financial instrument that provides the necessary financial data (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2005). Analysts and investors rely on "the statement of cash flows for information regarding the company's net income" (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2005, p. 1). Regarding this, the significance of effective classification and presentation of pertinent information in the consolidated statement of cash flows cannot be overstated.

Consequently, management accountants or financial officers should pay close attention to the preparation of their "consolidated statement of cash flows" to ensure that it accurately presents their actual cash receipts and cash payments based on their various activities (operating, investing, and financing) (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2005, p. 1). This, in turn, assists analysts, investors, and readers in determining the company's ability to satisfy its financial obligations, pay dividends, and produce sufficient cash flows for business expansion (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2005; Whisenant & Fairfield, 2000).

According to Whisenant and Fairfield (2000), companies with weak financial records experience a decline in financial performance in later years. Effective study of financial records can assist in identifying operational issues with accounting methods (Whisenant & Fairfield, 2000). The statement of cash flows and other financial tools are utilized for fundamental studies to aid auditors in identifying firm issues.

While some argue that a direct manner of presenting a statement of cash flows provides appropriate financial information for decision-making, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has observed that many companies continue to use an indirect method of reporting (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2005). In light of this, it is crucial for the company to use direct reporting methods in the statement of cash flows, offer supporting information in footnotes, and verify the integrity of the report.

When reporting financial performance, the classification of cash receipts from inventory sales presents complications. The corporation can finance the sale of its merchandise in a variety of ways. The SEC mandates that cash receipts from the sale of products or services be categorized as operating cash flows (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2005, p.1).

Cash flows must be categorized regardless of their sources, i.e., the collection of receivables, the sale of client receivables, receivables from notes or accounts, and regardless of the duration of collection (short-term or long-term) (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2005). It is essential to note that the FASB 102 criterion does not affect the classification of the statement of cash flows (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2005).

Cash flows should be presented in accordance with GAAP standards. For instance, the corporation should not present cash flows if none of its consolidated subsidiaries' cash flows are dependent on inventory sales. Likewise, it should not report cash receipts from receivables based on inventory sales (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2005).

The corporation must list all cash flow sources in the footnote disclosure. In addition, the nature of receivables and materials included in the consolidated statements should be explained. Likewise, each item's description should be consistent with that of the consolidated statement and the statement of cash flows (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2005).

In 2012, Express Scripts, Inc. merged with Medco Health (Express Scripts Inc, 2014). A merger could result in new accountants (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2005). Former ESI investors controlled around 59% of Express Scripts, while former Medco stockholders owned approximately 41% of Express Scripts, the firm said (Express Scripts, Inc., 2014, p. 48). All financial transactions after the merger's conclusion with references to "amounts for periods after the merger's closing on April 2, 2012 pertain to Express Scripts" (Express Scripts, Inc., 2014, p. 48).

The business did not specify whether Medco would continue to operate independently and file separate financial reports. In addition, Express Scripts, Inc. did not provide any explanations for any existing or potential merger-related difficulties. If Medco continues to operate as a subsidiary, the holding company will need to clear any auditing and reporting difficulties.

The organization must additionally monitor further compliance issues. For example, Express Scripts, Inc. must continue to identify all of its services and products as well as the source of income for each reported segment. Additionally, the business must declare all income from other external sources for all products and services (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2005). When reporting, the corporation should disaggregate any products and services that are not primarily similar. It must elaborate on what should be classified as similar items or services and may provide additional information when disaggregating such products or services.

It must contain geographic-related information (Roberts, Weetman, & Gordon, 2008). This must encompass all countries, even those with which it conducts international business. A distinct geographical disclosure is required for each country depending on the revenue segments and sources. It may help analysts and readers comprehend the financial performance of various nations (Ogiedu & Okafor, 2013).

The financial statement must have a reconciliation of all segments with detailed explanations of what defines each item included. All segment discrepancies must be explained, while segment allocations must be tracked and described (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2005).

The ethical and cross-cultural aspects of contemporary accounting and financial difficulties as they pertain to the practice of financial economics.

It is crucial for businesses to encourage personnel to adopt strong ethical and cultural standards when dealing with contemporary accounting and financial difficulties.

Training Program For Adult Employees Law Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Definition of a Need Related to Safety Design of the Training Resources and Materials for Training Course Delivery Course Evaluation Conclusion References

Introduction

The establishment of an efficient workplace training and safety program is a top responsibility for modern businesses. To guarantee that personnel have the skills and knowledge necessary to respond to emergencies, this program should target their unique needs while taking into account a variety of conditions. Consequently, the proposed training plan takes into account the safety-related psychological demands of personnel.

Definition of a Need Related to Safety

The effectiveness of a safety-training program for adults in the workplace is contingent upon the implementation's focus on a specific need. For the purposes of this program, equipment safety is one of the most important aspects of corporate operations (Smith, 2017). The significance of this need is determined by the need to ensure that the skills and knowledge of the company's personnel adhere to the rules governing the usage of specialized equipment.

The proposed program encompasses all aspects of the ABCD paradigm. Consequently, the intended audience is comprised of employees, and the desired behavior is the completion of group activities and the exchange of results amongst groups ("ABCD method," 2020). The primary requirement is the time limit (fifty minutes) for participants to study the information and express their perspective; the grade will be based on the speed with which employees complete the assignments and their comprehension of equipment safety.

In this manner, the primary purpose of the training program is to assess the workers' competence to handle daily operations, particularly in emergency situations, in order to assure their safe equipment-related activities. The second purpose is to foster interdepartmental cooperation, which will subsequently increase interdepartmental safety. The resources utilized in the training to determine the demand are tied to the company's equipment and qualification information.

Design of the Instruction

The approach toward adult workers necessitates psychological evaluation. In this situation, it is crucial to address their refusal to learn (Smith, 2017). The most effective way is to educate them on how the new resources can support self-development and advance them (Smith, 2017).

In this case, this might be accomplished by offering bonuses to employees who comply with the training requirements and demonstrate the benefits of cooperation for personal safety outside the workplace. Therefore, the activity-based learning ideas utilizing the indicated ways for generating motivation will contain two tasks: developing and sharing new mechanisms for enhancing group safety.

Materials & Resources for the Training

For the preparation of the training materials, the above-mentioned resources will be utilized. The first and second resources are the pre-training surveys for employees to assess their grasp of workplace safety, and the primary tasks assigned to each department. The final resource is a PowerPoint presentation detailing events that could lead to a violation of the company's equipment safety rules.

The presentation will be followed by a brief quiz to check the audience's comprehension. The final resource is the feedback forms given around the departments to evaluate the contribution of their colleagues to the demand. These materials will assist the two goals by giving thorough knowledge on the role of collaboration in maintaining the safety of equipment and the capacity to respond to emergencies.

Presentation of the Course

The proposed course will be taught utilizing certain physical and pedagogical resources. The former features a training room large enough to accommodate staff from various departments, as well as projectors and laptops. The latter pertains to the information presented in the preceding section. The program will include both theoretical and practical components. In the first twenty minutes of the course, the theory will be taught in the form of a presentation. Twenty-five and five minutes will be devoted, respectively, to group activities and feedback forms. The teacher will provide feedback by correcting participants' faults on the quiz and supporting them with group assignments.

Assessment of the Course

The final phase of the training is the evaluation, and the proposed technique is an additional feedback form addressing the most important issues. There will be five questions, including: How would you rank the preparation prior to training? How would you rank the order and flow of the course? How would you rank the substance of the course? How would you rate the delivery of the course? Did you meet the learning objectives? Thus, the feedback will comprise the pre-training phases, process, content, and delivery of materials, as well as the equipment safety information acquired. This information will not only aid in ensuring the course's effectiveness, but also in enhancing it in the future.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the proposed training program is an outstanding organizational tool for promoting equipment safety. It is founded on the ideals of cooperation and personal accountability for one's actions in times of crisis. In addition, the program’s design entails the examination of actual events that may occur in a particular firm and the development of a plan for employees to follow in each case. Thus, the training effectively addresses the given objectives.

References

ABCD technique (2020). The College of Maryland. Web.

The name Smith, S. P. (2017). Methods for training adults that are effective The Journal of Professional Safety, 62(12), 22-25.

[supanova question]

Training Program For Adult Employees Law Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Definition of a Need Related to Safety Design of the Training Resources and Materials for Training Course Delivery Course Evaluation Conclusion References

Introduction

The establishment of an efficient workplace training and safety program is a top responsibility for modern businesses. To guarantee that personnel have the skills and knowledge necessary to respond to emergencies, this program should target their unique needs while taking into account a variety of conditions. Consequently, the proposed training plan takes into account the safety-related psychological demands of personnel.

Definition of a Need Related to Safety

The effectiveness of a safety-training program for adults in the workplace is contingent upon the implementation's focus on a specific need. For the purposes of this program, equipment safety is one of the most important aspects of corporate operations (Smith, 2017). The significance of this need is determined by the need to ensure that the skills and knowledge of the company's personnel adhere to the rules governing the usage of specialized equipment.

The proposed program encompasses all aspects of the ABCD paradigm. Consequently, the intended audience is comprised of employees, and the desired behavior is the completion of group activities and the exchange of results amongst groups ("ABCD method," 2020). The primary requirement is the time limit (fifty minutes) for participants to study the information and express their perspective; the grade will be based on the speed with which employees complete the assignments and their comprehension of equipment safety.

In this manner, the primary purpose of the training program is to assess the workers' competence to handle daily operations, particularly in emergency situations, in order to assure their safe equipment-related activities. The second purpose is to foster interdepartmental cooperation, which will subsequently increase interdepartmental safety. The resources utilized in the training to determine the demand are tied to the company's equipment and qualification information.

Design of the Instruction

The approach toward adult workers necessitates psychological evaluation. In this situation, it is crucial to address their refusal to learn (Smith, 2017). The most effective way is to educate them on how the new resources can support self-development and advance them (Smith, 2017).

In this case, this might be accomplished by offering bonuses to employees who comply with the training requirements and demonstrate the benefits of cooperation for personal safety outside the workplace. Therefore, the activity-based learning ideas utilizing the indicated ways for generating motivation will contain two tasks: developing and sharing new mechanisms for enhancing group safety.

Materials & Resources for the Training

For the preparation of the training materials, the above-mentioned resources will be utilized. The first and second resources are the pre-training surveys for employees to assess their grasp of workplace safety, and the primary tasks assigned to each department. The final resource is a PowerPoint presentation detailing events that could lead to a violation of the company's equipment safety rules.

The presentation will be followed by a brief quiz to check the audience's comprehension. The final resource is the feedback forms given around the departments to evaluate the contribution of their colleagues to the demand. These materials will assist the two goals by giving thorough knowledge on the role of collaboration in maintaining the safety of equipment and the capacity to respond to emergencies.

Presentation of the Course

The proposed course will be taught utilizing certain physical and pedagogical resources. The former features a training room large enough to accommodate staff from various departments, as well as projectors and laptops. The latter pertains to the information presented in the preceding section. The program will include both theoretical and practical components. In the first twenty minutes of the course, the theory will be taught in the form of a presentation. Twenty-five and five minutes will be devoted, respectively, to group activities and feedback forms. The teacher will provide feedback by correcting participants' faults on the quiz and supporting them with group assignments.

Assessment of the Course

The final phase of the training is the evaluation, and the proposed technique is an additional feedback form addressing the most important issues. There will be five questions, including: How would you rank the preparation prior to training? How would you rank the order and flow of the course? How would you rank the substance of the course? How would you rate the delivery of the course? Did you meet the learning objectives? Thus, the feedback will comprise the pre-training phases, process, content, and delivery of materials, as well as the equipment safety information acquired. This information will not only aid in ensuring the course's effectiveness, but also in enhancing it in the future.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the proposed training program is an outstanding organizational tool for promoting equipment safety. It is founded on the ideals of cooperation and personal accountability for one's actions in times of crisis. In addition, the program’s design entails the examination of actual events that may occur in a particular firm and the development of a plan for employees to follow in each case. Thus, the training effectively addresses the given objectives.

References

ABCD technique (2020). The College of Maryland. Web.

The name Smith, S. P. (2017). Methods for training adults that are effective The Journal of Professional Safety, 62(12), 22-25.

[supanova question]

Dubizzle Company’s Marketing Mix And Strategy Law Essay Help

Table of Contents
Executive Synopsis History of Marketing Mix The Marketing Strategy Obstacles Confronted How Dubizzle Conquered Obstacles Recommendations References

Executive Synopsis

Information technology has without a doubt had a great impact on the world. Currently, no sector of society can survive or grow without the usage of a variety of information and communication tools that are commercially available. In this context, Sim Whatley and JC Butler discovered a business potential in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and established Dubizzle, a successful online social networking company. Dubizzle was formed in 2005 to meet the demands of Dubai's enormous expat community for quick, comprehensive, and user-friendly information about jobs, housing, events, and other needs.

The company began on a small scale by utilizing the 4Ps of the marketing mix, namely product, price, promotion, and place, as well as a strategic marketing plan comprised of market segmentation, market positioning, and word-of-mouth as opposed to media advertising. Consequently, a few years later, Dubizzle became a market leader and a brand to be reckoned with while experiencing severe financial restrictions. Consequently, this paper is a full account of an interview performed with the founders of Dubizzle regarding how they flawlessly implemented an effective marketing mix and strategy to build their firm despite any obstacles encountered along the way.

Background

The website's name, Dubizzle, is an acronym for "Dubai Business, Lifestyle, and Entertainment," which describes the information it provides (Dubizzle, 2015). The company began as a small website in the United Arab Emirates and has since expanded to become the largest classified advertisements website in the Middle East and North Africa, with a presence in eleven countries. Consequently, the monthly unique visitor count has increased dramatically to approximately six million (Wigglesworth, 2011). J.C. Butler and Sim Whatley founded the company when they emigrated from the United States to the United Arab Emirates in quest of lucrative employment opportunities in the prosperous Middle Eastern nation. Butler holds degrees in International Economics and Spanish from the University of California, Los Angeles, whilst Whatley is a graduate of Louisiana State University's finance program.

Because they were seeking employment when they originally arrived in the United Arab Emirates, Butler and Whitley had no intention of becoming businesses. Problems such as seeking employment, a lack of accommodation, inadequate furniture, and other obstacles served as motivation for their business startup (Dubizzle, 2015). The United Arab Emirates was a flourishing economic powerhouse in 2005, but it lacked a comprehensive website for online-classified advertising (Mendoza, 2007). Notably, both Butler and Whitley had previously benefited from various social networking websites functioning in the United States; therefore, they realized the value of such a platform in the Emirati market. Practically, it was quite difficult to quickly find housing, jobs, or friends by perusing the classifieds in Gulf News, the local daily newspaper. Therefore, Butler and Whitley recognized the issue and chose to address it by developing a website for online classified advertising.

Marketing Mix

Dubizzle grew their business using the 4Ps marketing mix strategy of product, pricing, promotion, and location. Singh (2012) describes the marketing mix as a combination of variable components that a company can utilize to sell its goods and services and impact client responses and reactions. Dubizzle developed a superior product that was in high demand on the market. Butler and Whitley assert that successful businesses thrive by addressing a market issue. An entrepreneur who starts a business based on an idea will fail, but one who starts a firm based on a problem and its solution will undoubtedly thrive. In their job search in Dubai, the co-founders saw there was a market need for a comprehensive online platform for the expatriate market and set out to solve this issue. In the end, they built a brand with the appropriate market-driven characteristics.

As a result, Dubizzle was able to sell its goods at a very low price by charging only a nominal cost for the placement of advertisements on the website. On the other side, there is no fee for visitors to view the website. The pricing is the entire amount that the client is anticipated to pay and is influenced by a number of elements and variables, including costs, customer perception, and market share (Singh, 2012).

Even though there were no actual competitors on the market when the company was founded, Butler and Whitley knew that they needed to set prices that would attract customers. Despite the difficulty of this endeavor, the corporation was able to produce a substantial amount of income from advertising. The co-founders began by establishing a price that enabled the company to attract a large number of clients and capture a substantial market share. The corporation then regularly changed the pricing to reflect the increasing market share and demand for the product.

Promotion, which is the aspect of marketing that deals with advertising and sales, is another essential factor in Dubizzle's success. According to Smith and Taylor (2004), advertising enables individuals to comprehend the function of a certain product inside a particular market. Butler and Whitley utilized the approach of word-of-mouth promotion. Apparently due to financial constraints, the co-founders of Dubizzle could not afford any form of media advertising.

Butler (2014) asserts that he and his business partner would have taken other decisions if they had had access to additional capital during the company's infancy. Apparently, this was the catalyst for their success. Their limited resources were invested immediately in expanding the business; hence, they had to exert additional effort in the promotion process. Within a short period of time, all expatriates in Dubai were discussing Dubizzle and helping to spread the word. Undoubtedly, word-of-mouth is only effective when clients are happy and satisfied; hence, Dubizzle's rise was evidence of its superior services.

Perhaps the greatest contributor to Dubizzle's success is the final part of its marketing mix: place. Singh (2012) emphasizes that location is the distribution mechanism that enterprises employ to move their products to customers. Dubizzle employed a direct sales method by addressing prospective advertisers for their website. According to Butler and Whitley, the corporation had to exert a great deal of effort to market and sell its products to prospective customers. As a result of the company's increased popularity, earning sales today requires less effort, as a vast number of clients are eager to advertise on Dubizzle.

The Marketing Methodology

The co-founders of Dubizzle, Butler and Whitley, recognize the significance of the marketing mix. In addition, they attest to the worth of the marketing plan. Each community, according to Butler and Whitley, deserves a complete and integrated web platform that can give vital information on a variety of topics at the click of a mouse. As expatriates residing in the United Arab Emirates, they realized this from personal experience. Therefore, they employed market positioning as their initial marketing strategy. Market position refers to the establishment of a brand inside a certain market in order to meet unmet demands (Lacourbe, Loch & Kavadias, 2009).

The ease of life in the United States had unquestionably not prepared Butler and Whitley for the hardships they would confront in a foreign country. While it is now feasible to obtain services and products online in the United States, Butler and Whitley struggled to organize their everyday life in the United Arab Emirates. Consequently, they realized that there is a commercial demand that must be satisfied.

Consequently, a market segmentation approach was implemented. Market segmentation is dividing the market into distinct customer groups with distinct requirements and features (Zolfagharian & Cortes, 2010). In the beginning, Butler and Whitley formed a market segment consisting of the UAE-based expatriate community. As expatriates, they recognized the requirements, traits, and behaviors of other foreigners residing in the nation, and they set out to develop a product that would appeal to this demographic (Butler, 2014). However, the organization has expanded to accommodate numerous other groups with varying requirements and characteristics.

Difficulties Faced

Indeed, Dubizzle achieved success by employing an excellent marketing mix and marketing strategy. Nonetheless, the business encountered numerous obstacles along the road. Butler and Whitley, the company's co-founders, say that their greatest hurdle in the early phases of launching their business was insufficient financial resources. Both men traveled to Dubai in search of employment, but neither intended to create a business. However, when they realized they might fulfill a particular market demand, they pooled their resources and came up with $12,000 in startup cash. This amount was barely sufficient to cover all of their obligations; as a result, they had to be creative in how they conducted business. They were unable to afford any type of media promotion, so they had to settle for alternative promotion strategies, such as the word-of-mouth strategy, due to financial constraints.

How Dubizzle Conquered Obstacles

Fortunately, Dubizzle was able to overcome its obstacles and hurdles. Butler and Whitley stated that in order to save enough money for their firm, they had to adopt a very modest lifestyle. They used their home as an office rather than renting an office space and shared a bunk bed at a friend's residence rather than renting an apartment. Given the high housing prices in the UAE, such a move let them save a substantial amount of money. In addition, they subsisted on meager resources and avoided spending money on a variety of unnecessary indulgences. Whitley attributed the company's success to their resolve and self-control, as they were able to put practically all of their resources and savings in the enterprise. Unquestionably, their sacrifices and efforts were not in vain, as the company expanded from zero to a multimillion-dollar enterprise.

Recommendations

Butler and Whitley's narrative offers valuable lessons in entrepreneurship, success, and marketing. The key to corporate success is unquestionably an efficient marketing strategy. Successful entrepreneurship, according to Butler and Whitley, is not about having the best concept, but rather the best solution to a problem. Therefore, everyone who want to launch a business must first identify an issue requiring a solution. Indeed, a successful firm should not prioritize "what" above "why," because Butler and Whitley could readily demonstrate why their solution was vital, and their product would consequently sell itself. Regardless of a startup's financial resources, Dubizzle and its co-founders have provided a valuable perspective about the significance of an efficient marketing approach.

Butler and Whitley were financially constrained, yet this did not prevent them from developing an almost perfect marketing approach for their products. They did not have a lot of money to invest in typical marketing methods, but they nonetheless found other solutions to their challenge and achieved success. Thus, the most important lesson from the history of Dubizzle and its co-founders, Butler and Whitley, is the importance of hard work, determination, and smart marketing.

References

Butler, J. C. (2014). The founder of Dubizzle tells how he achieved success. Arabian Business. Web.

Dubizzle: About Us. 2015. Web.

P. Lacourbe, H. Loch, and S. Kavadias (2009). Positioning a product in a two-dimensional market space. 18(3), 315-332 Production and Operations Management Web.

Mendoza, M. (2007). Dubai's Ascent to the Top. Management Currently. Web.

Singh, M. (2012). Four Ps Marketing Mix for Competitive Advantage Business and Management Journal, 3(6), 40-45. Web.

Smith, R., and J. Taylor (2004). A Integrated Approach to Marketing Communications Web: London: Kogan Publishers.

R. Wigglesworth (2011). Men who were the most wanted in the Gulf. Financial Times. Web.

A. Zolfagharian and A. Cortes (2010). Integrating market orientation with strategy via segmentation complexities. 8(9), 79-91, Journal of Business & Economics Research. Web.

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Google Company Marketing Strategy Analysis Law Essay Help

Executive Synopsis

Google Company is an American multinational corporation that provides a variety of internet-related goods and services. It began by providing web search services. After its IPO, the company focused on developing Gmail, Google Maps, and Google Docs, among other products. Google's primary source of revenue is Ad Word. Appendix 1 compares its performance to those of corporations such as Microsoft and Yahoo. Through this application, the business generates revenue on a pay-per-click basis. The company's marketing strategy is centered on expanding its base of profit generating. However, it recognizes that achieving success with some items necessitates the loss of others.

This understanding focuses its direct marketing strategy on the "power of less" technique. This study analyzes the marketing methods of Google Inc. In an effort to go forward, the paper suggests that the corporation maintain its current marketing techniques, since they have proven to be beneficial. Google controls more than 60 percent of the global search industry, where its apps, such as "paid listing" and "Ad Word," have continued to perform well.

Company Analysis: Google

Introduction

Google Company began its operations by introducing search engine products in an effort to compete with Yahoo Company, which was the major competitor in the search market at the time. Search engines enable consumers to get knowledge more quickly by eliminating the need to browse pages, as in the case of books. This accessibility has resulted in the Internet being an essential medium for the distribution of printed academic resources like eBooks and eMagazines. Comparable to the evolution of the World Wide Web is the quick adoption of the internet as the most popular medium of communication.

It offers the benefit of supplying high-speed services while also supporting a plan for two-way communication. During the infancy of the World Wide Web, Yahoo! had already established their search engine. Google Company emerged to capture a portion of the web search market. This accomplishment can be credited to the company's strong marketing techniques and its good market positioning. This paper performs a market study for Google, Inc.

Introduction to the Company

Midway through 1998, the dot-com boom had already begun to burst. The explosion caused the demise of some of the early built web browsers. During this turn of events, two Stanford University Ph.D. candidates began working on techniques to increase the accessibility of world knowledge in order to make it more beneficial to global communities. From their idea, a multibillion-dollar company, notably Google, arose. The corporation is currently worth over USD360 billion. It has employed almost 53,000 individuals. Google's company began when it entered the internet market to provide web search services. After its IPO, the firm focused on building, among other products, Gmail, Google Maps, Docs, Checkouts, Google Books, finance, and calendar. This remark shows that in addition to competing with Yahoo.com and MSN, the company also competed with Amazon and eBay in the online sales industry.

Products such as paid listings and adverts contributed to Google's expansion. The company's operations have also been tremendously supported by its corporate ideals and governance. In reality, Edenlman and Eisenmann (2011) find that the organization's 2008 economic performance was superior to that of its competitors. Yahoo Company in 2012 requested the assistance of Marissa Mayer, a former Google CEO, to bring her leadership knowledge to Yahoo Company in an effort to revitalize its performance in the web search industry in response to this success. However, Yahoo has not yet reclaimed its position as the market leader in web search from Google. The firm now controls sixty percent of the global search industry.

Marketing Analysis

Google, like all other businesses, must place their products on the market. This action forces Google to implement its marketing strategy, which is one of the most admirable things a corporation can do to promote its products and services. A key view of an organization's marketing function is that it entails the art of selling. However, selling is only a minor portion of marketing's priorities. In a broader context, marketing include market research, market segmentation, the formulation of marketing strategies, an analysis of the marketing environment, and even market positioning tactics (Kotler et al. 2009).

Organizations must undertake a marketing analysis in order to plan and implement these marketing concerns effectively. This section explores and analyzes Google's marketing strategy since its start, as one of the essential components of any organization's effective product marketing.

The character of Google's marketing strategies since their inception.

Organizations may focus their marketing efforts on brand positioning strategies that are formed around the products, service characteristics, or even the customers' experiences with the merchandise and services. Since its inception, Google Company has focused on simple marketing rules to strategically position its brand and/or generate brand loyalty. It combines little factors to find those that increase their sales. In an effort to create a brand that people can admire, the organization combines disparate elements, recognizing that no two individuals are identical. This plan explains why the corporation offers numerous products, including Ad Words, Google Earth, Google Books, Web Search, and Google Maps.

Google's marketing strategy focuses on combining numerous intelligent ideas, which are evaluated for their efficacy prior to being targeted at their targets. This objective is reached by employing the "power of the less" technique, which entails providing customers with clean, yet basic, interference-free products and services. On the Google homepage, for instance, only the company's logo and a search bar, which could download quickly, were visible. Therefore, the marketing approach centered on the business's products and services. Developing a marketing plan that is based on the characteristics of products and services can, in fact, aid in expanding client preferences.

Fields (2010) defines service and product features as the characteristics of a service or product that a company desires its customers to understand in order to construct a brand image. Google markets its web search products extraordinarily by providing ease of use and quick access to what users are seeking. The Google search products ensure speed on the search page, which is accessible 24 hours per day, 365 days per year.

During the early years of Google, the search bar and the company's logo were the only elements that appeared when users performed a search. Slow Internet connection speeds were then used to justify this method for enhancing the user experience. Since the company's beginnings, speed has been an essential component of Google's products. Employing the 'power of less' technique means that the organization can avoid providing users with pages that are filled with confusing advertising material and other features that users may deem unnecessary based on the content they are viewing.

Google expanded its companies through the introduction of new goods, followed by the examination and monitoring of their success. For instance, to encourage users to spend more on their favored products, the corporation offers them the chance to assess the effectiveness of their business-related expenditures on Google products. Using Google Analytics, for instance, advertisers can track advertising terms that can generate sales (Edenlman & Eisenmann, 2011). This accessibility enables them to spend more on terms, hence enhancing Google's market penetration. In 2005, advertiser optimization tools enabled Google to earn 38 percent more per search than its nearest competitor, Yahoo (Edenlman & Eisenmann, 2011). By December 2005, this number was twice as high as Yahoo's.

In brand marketing, firms focus on boosting the recognition of their products and services. This method involves conveying the business in which a company engages and how it provides value to its consumers (Hill & Ettenson 2005). Consequently, brand marketing is all about communicating the quality of products available on the market. Direct marketing is "a channel-agnostic form of advertising that enables businesses to communicate directly with customers using advertising techniques, such as email, interactive consumer websites, and online display ads, among others" (Ayyadurai 2013, p.78).

Google Company has attracted the attention of thousands of businesses that use the company as a platform for conveying their brands through direct marketing. Google uses the psychological thinking processes of individuals to improve their revenues. People choose superior products regardless of the disparity between any two products. To this degree, Google focuses on innovation and creativity to enhance the user experience of its products.

Currently, Google Company controls 60% of the global search industry, making it the dominant force in web search. This observation shows that its direct marketing tactics are effective at expanding its market share, the primary goal of any marketing campaign. The organization maintains a risk-free philosophy by offering free services to customers. This strategy allows it to compete with other firms. When Google introduced the Gmail platform, it provided 1GB of free storage space. The opposing organizations imposed postage fees. In order to use Google's variety of products, users must also possess Gmail. The idea is that the corporation markets its products in a complementary manner to increase sales of all of them.

Google's Strategic Marketing Options Moving Forward

Google's marketing efforts can only be comprehended with a thorough understanding of the company's business model. The company employs a pay-per-click approach in which website owners are charged when consumers click on their sites. Ad Word has been the major source of revenue for the business, despite its inherent risk. As a result, the company's focus is on advertising directly to website owners and potentially boosting the number of websites hosted on its platform.

While the firm may not be able to increase revenue from products such as Google Earth, Google Maps, Gmail, and even Google Video, it understands that it must incur losses in order to develop other extremely successful products such as Ad Word. Appendix 2 illustrates the trend in AdWords income collection as the US exposes it in comparison to other corporations.

The business has the option to increase revenue by charging for mail holding space. However, this move is incorrect given that its success has been built on the "power of less" marketing technique. Given that Google is the most popular search engine, direct marketing is an effective marketing method both now and in the future. Its pay-per-click approach will be effective in the future, given that marketers are guaranteed access to global customers through free Google services, hence increasing the possibility of using Google's search engine. In contrast to Google's competitors, marketers will continue to utilize Google's advertising services.

Google should try harder to increase brand loyalty as part of its process of progression. This strategy may necessitate that it engage in both direct marketing and experience marketing. Rather than focusing on raising earnings, the corporation should prioritize maintaining its marketing strategy for recruiting more customers. The plan is effective for the organization. Since its initial public offering, it has been listed on the American stock exchange, which is one of its primary strengths.

Conclusion

Google, a multinational company headquartered in the United States, began its business by selling web search goods as its primary product. The company has established a strong global brand image and brand loyalty by focusing exclusively on web browsing. Given that the web browsing business has reached maturity, the most significant long-term problem is how to maintain sustained supremacy in the market. To solve the issue, the corporation investigates direct marketing as a strategy for marketing its many items. The Ad Word is their primary revenue generator. Utilizing the "power of the less" marketing strategy and providing risk-free items are essential for the company's current and future sales growth.

References

The Email Revolution: Unleashing the Power to Connect was published by Allworth Press in New York, New York, in 2013.

Edelman, B., & Eisenmann, T., Google, Inc., Harvard Business School, Harvard, 2011.

Web.

E. Fields, "A Unique Twitter Use for Reference Services," Library Hi Tech News, vol. 6, no. 7, pages 14-15, 2010.

Web.

Sloan Management Review, volume 2, number 1, pages 85-100, 2005. Hill, S., and T. Ettenson. "Achieving the Ideal Brand Portfolio."

Web.

2009, Principles of Marketing, Prentice-Hall, Australia. Web. Kotler, P., S. Adam, S. Denize, and G. Armstrong.

Appendix

Share of paid search advertising expenditures.

The source: (Edenlman & Eisenmann 2011)

Ad Revenues by Business.

The source: (Edenlman & Eisenmann 2011)

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Tucker Company Worldwide: Delivering Value In Logistics Services Law Essay Help

Executive Synopsis

This report's objective is to discover the most advisable mode of transport for Bell Oil to use in order to transfer its three particular demands from numerous origins to multiple destinations. Cost, transit time, dependability, damage rate, and insurance are analyzed in relation to the refinery's three requirements. Option two and the team's high-value air flight with security guards were picked as the recommended travel options following a rigorous examination.

Introduction

This paper makes a persuasive recommendation for shipping Bell Oil's products, taking into account their nature and location. Tucker Company Worldwide (TWC) is a multinational, third-generation, family-owned business renowned for its logistical expertise and service (Tucker Company Worldwide: Delivering value in logistics services, 2019). Therefore, TWC has the financial and human resources necessary to meet Bell Oil's specialized transportation requirements. However, it is difficult to produce an offer that conveys TWC's principles, covers all of Bell Oil's practical choices, and is consistent with the company's core practice.

This is due to the fact that while producing a recommendation in the 3PL industry, numerous elements must be considered. Other distinctive selling propositions include the availability of a robust communication channel and feasibility analysis from the trucking firm and driver, as well as the practice of forensic dispatching.

Based on the aforementioned considerations, the most appropriate recommendation will be one with a distinct competitive edge, since most organizations would present Bell Oil with the lowest-priced offerings that are desirable. In the case of TWC, the recommended proposal would emphasize TWC's robust communication channel and forensic dispatch process in addition to the low-priced offer.

This research is intended to identify and support the most appropriate logistical recommendations and alternatives for Bell Oil. The study opens with an overview of TWC to familiarize the reader with the company's experience and service quality. The next section analyzes the expenses associated with transporting Bell Oil's three distinct products.

The report consists of four sections:

Examine Alternatives Recommendation and plan for implementation Conclusion

Exhibit 1 illustrates the possibilities for delivering a 67-kilogram gasket from Houston, Texas to Reading, Pennsylvania. Exhibit 2 depicts a tank weighing 102,058 kilograms on a 19-axle vehicle. The alternatives for transporting a 102,058-kilogram tank from Houston, Texas to Wilmington, Delaware are shown in Exhibit 3. The choices for transporting a 90-kilogram computer server from coast to coast are presented in Exhibit 4.

Analysis

TWC faced the challenge of coming up with a solution that effectively addresses all the aspects required to a successful bid — namely, affordability, speed, and simplicity — while maximizing reliability and customer happiness. To aid in the identification and selection of the most appropriate recommendation, it is vital to examine the financial implications connected with Bell Oil's three unique requirements.

Transport a 67-kilogram gasket between Houston, Texas, to Reading, Pennsylvania.

Bell Oil want to transport a 67-kilogram gasket that is essential for the refinery's normal operations; hence, even a one-day delay might cost the corporation millions of dollars. Exhibit 1 provides an evaluation of the different shipping choices. Taking into account the fact that Bell Oil has a number of elements to consider, the best suited solution for this case is accessible for the same day, transit time, and reliability. This is because they will minimize delays most effectively, so saving the organization from incurring significant losses. It is crucial to highlight that in this scenario, the transportation fee would be null and meaningless.

Transport a tank weighing 102,058 kilograms from Houston, Texas to Wilmington, Delaware.

Without additional considerations, Bell Oil desires to carry a 102,058-kilogram tank from Houston to Wilmington. The corporation cares only that the tank has been relocated from one location to another. There are four available options for transporting the tank that TWC can utilize (see Exhibit 2). In light of the established parameters (cost, insurance, damage rate, dependability, and transit time), the most advantageous alternative will be the one with the lowest cost implications.

Transport a 90-kilogram computer server from coast to coast.

Bell Oil plans to transport from coast to coast a compact, 90-kilogram computer server containing critical company information. Exhibit 4 provides a listing of viable possibilities. Regarding the specified characteristics, the most viable option will be one with a low rate of damage, high dependability, and insurance. The volume of coverage is also important. According to the course concept, insurance coverage is predetermined by the costs connected with a disaster; therefore, it is advisable to choose coverage that is equivalent to a product's price. It is important to note that in this instance, considerations such as the required time to schedule, the influence of weight and dimensions on cost, and the transit time are considered null and invalid.

Alternatives

Transport a 67-kilogram gasket between Houston, Texas, to Reading, Pennsylvania.

The greatest solution would be to charter an airplane. This is because it is very reliable (99.00%), takes the fewest number of transit days (0.2 days), and is 100 percent available on the same day. Transporting a gasket that is crucial to the refinery's operation requires these conditions.

Transport a tank weighing 102,058 kilograms from Houston, Texas to Wilmington, Delaware.

Option 2 is the greatest option because it has the lowest cost of $135,000, whereas Option 1 has a cost of $140,000. It involves collecting the tank from the manufacturer and transporting it OTR to the Houston port, where it is then transloaded and barged to the New Castle port in Delaware. It is then transloaded onto a 19-axle trailer before being transported OTR to Wilmington. In addition, the route is straightforward, with a low probability of freight damage, additional expenses, and police involvement.

Transport a 90-kilogram computer server from coast to coast.

Using the team's high-value air ride accompanied by security personnel will be the best approach. This is due to the fact that its insurance coverage is equal to the server's worth, $48,600. Moreover, it is highly reliable (98%) and has a low likelihood of damage (1.25%) that decreases the likelihood of the delicate computer server being harmed. Finally, the presence of security personnel helps protect important firm information.

Recommendation and Plan for Implementation

TWC can employ the airplane charter, option two, or the team high-value air travel with security guards to fulfill Bell Oil's logistics requirements. Moreover, the prices for the team's high-value air flight with security guards are not influenced by changes in weight or dimensions; same mode of transport may also be utilized to carry the 67-kilogram gasket from Houston, Texas, to Reading, Pennsylvania. Bell Oil has permitted the combination of transportation options; hence, by combining the choice for products 1 and 3, prices can be reduced. Regarding the 67-kilogram gasket and the 90-kilogram server, Bell Oil will be obliged to:

Ensure schedules are created within 24 to 48 hours. Consider a three-day advance period when arranging orders for logistics.

Bell Point will be required to do the following when moving the 102,058-kilogram tank:

Consider a lead time of 1-2 months. Consider four months before placing a purchase.

Transporting Bell Oil's requirements

Duration of Accountable Behavior Cost Effects on Other Areas of the Business Problems and Contingency Plans

Option 2 for Transport

Transporting the 102,058-kilogram tank from the factory to the Houston rail ramp. Truck service companies Permanent $135,000 Facilitate the timely and cost-effective delivery of the tank. This is due to the limited potential for occurrence of issues.

Low added expense Limited police participation Low likelihood of transit delay Low probability of freight damage.

Transporting it via train to the customer's location Rail service providers on a permanent basis

A 19-axle trailer was used for delivery to the destination. Long-term truck service suppliers

Combine a luxurious air ride with security guards.

Scheduling deliveries Bell Oil Long-term $6,500

Guaranteed the prompt and secure delivery of freight. Comprehensive insurance protection against damage

Each is over 98% dependable and has a damage risk of less than 1.25 percent. Consequently, there are few potential issues to tackle.

Transporting the computer server and 67-kilogram gasket Long-term trucking companies

Conclusion

Bell Oil, as the customer, and TWC, as the logistics provider, must have access to a low-cost, quick, and simple transport option that is reliable and of good quality. Option 2 for the 102,058-kilogram tank and the team high-value air ride with security guards for the 67-kilogram gasket and the 90-kilogram computer server is the most recommended solution, taking into account the unique peculiarities of the refinery's requirements. This is due to the fact that these implementations are cost- and time-effective, dependable, and of high quality. The effective application of these ideas will result in Bell Oil obtaining timely service, entering new markets, receiving volume discounts, and having lower overhead costs.

Reference

Tucker Company Worldwide: Providing logistical services of value (2019). Newfoundland, United Kingdom: Ivey Publishing.

Exhibits

Options for moving a 67-kilogram gasket from Houston, Texas to Reading, Pennsylvania are shown in Exhibit 1. Illustration of a 102,058-kilogram tank on a 19-axle trailer (Exhibit 2). Exhibit 3: Transport options for shipping a 102,058-kilogram tank from Houston, Texas, to Wilmington, Delaware. Exhibit 4: Transport options for moving a 90-kilogram computer server coast to coast. [supanova question]

Apple Company System Strategy Analysis Law Essay Help

Apple Inc. is an established international firm that specializes in personal computers, software, and consumer goods (Apple Incorporation, 2010). This company was established in 1977. Apple presently holds an uncontested reputation in the consumer electronics business, particularly in the United States. Apple Inc. is supported by a variety of informational systems. Included in these systems are the following:

Office automation systems (OAS)

This entails the numerous computer-related systems, such as computers and accompanying software, used to generate, transmit, collect, and store all office information necessary to accomplish basic office operations and objectives. Typical subsystems of this office automation system will comprise data storage systems for capturing all office data and information necessary for generating required reports and other paperwork helping office administration. Digital or electronic transfer systems are a subsystem of the office automation system required to distribute data and information to the most important place. Email systems and pagers are examples of such technology currently in use at Apple Company.

Systems for enterprise resource planning (ERP)

Even Apple Company is increasingly dependent on enterprise resource planning tools, which are required to combine external and internal information management procedures. Apple's ERP system is comprised of several subsystems, which typically include:

Apple's finance and accounting system manages financial and accounting processes. In addition, the accounting information system (AIS) is provided. Apple's manufacturing system manages all manufacturing operations, including the production of consumer electronic goods and personal computers. Apple Company's creative concepts are handled through the manufacturing system. System for sales and services that performs order processing and customer support on a global scale. This system coordinates all processing involved with marketing and advertising at Apple Company. The billing process is also discussed here.

Data warehouse systems

Apple Company is currently the top in sales of consumer electronics in the United States and internationally. The Apple Company must store, organize, and provide access to a vast amount of information pertaining to these items, for both existing and future designs and inventive products, based on user-generated queries and market segmentation plans. Such operations will operate efficiently on a well-established data warehouse, such as the one utilized by Apple Company. This system works in tandem with the expert system to provide the management with the analytical data required to maintain competitiveness in the consumer electronics industry.

Expert systems (ES)

Since 2008, Apple Company has been voted the best-managed corporation in the United States.

Apple Company's management places a high value on performance-related data, and estimates derived from such data have helped the company remain competitive in the consumer electronics industry. Expert systems play a crucial role in providing management with well-formatted data based on submitted queries about the company's current operating capabilities and future profit estimates. Using such technologies, Apple Company's management has been able to find cost-cutting opportunities, consequently enhancing profitability.

External information consumers of Apple Company

Principal external consumers of Apple Company data include:

Suppliers who provide Apple Company with components and materials utilized in the production of its products. Apple Company information is utilized by Macromedia, Quick Time Intel, Western Digital, and Seagate, among other companies. The data would comprise the component specifications Apple Company requests for the production of their consumer electronic goods. Apple Company is a publicly traded company on the NASDAQ stock exchange; hence, its shareholders and investors will want information regarding its financial state and profitability. Additionally, the government seeks details regarding Apple's current tax obligations.

Apple Company uses the enterprise resource planning system today. The accounting information system (AIS) is a component of the enterprise resource planning (ERP). Investors, Apple management, and Apple Company creditors utilize this method. This technology generates data that assists Apple Company management in making strategic decisions (Laudon & Laudon, 2009). The AIS offers multiple outputs, including the balance sheet and profit-and-loss statements. The balance sheet account typically consists of accounts for assets, liabilities, and shareholder equity. All information regarding the value of Apple Company's assets may be found on the balance sheet account. This output from the balance sheet account can assist management in making investment decisions, as it reveals the company's financial strength. Creditor (how much Apple owes) and debtor (how much Apple owes) information, tax payable, value of held property, vehicles, equipment, and buildings will be submitted into the system. This data is input into company-defined balance sheet account templates in order to construct the required balance sheet account for a specific fiscal year. The accounting information system at Apple Company is reliable, and as a result, the company's balance sheet will be effectively generated at the end of each fiscal period. As a result of this output, projections can be produced even before the end of the year, allowing management to make timely decisions. As another output of the accounting information system, the profit and loss account includes the revenue, costs, and cost of goods sold accounts. The output allows the management to rapidly determine how much the company spends and how much it earns from sales. Annual profit margins can be used to determine whether or not a company is expanding. On the basis of these findings, Apple Company management can proceed with the necessary adjustments to boost profitability.

AIS's involvement in Apple Company's strategy

Apple Company was initially a manufacturer of personal computers. To capture the expanding consumer electronics industry, they reformulated their strategy to include consumer electronics items. This was consistent with their aesthetic design philosophy, which attempted to attract consumers. As Apple Company has expanded into consumer electronics, the AIS has been able to assist management in establishing sales growth, allowing them to spend more on innovation and research as well as consumer electronics.

Apple remains a global leader in consumer electronics, having carved out a niche with innovative products that have drawn a loyal customer base. Profit statements created from the output of the AIS have assisted management in making the essential decisions to maintain their competitiveness.

Apple Company's transactional cycles

As a manufacturer, Apple Company has three primary transaction cycles. The revenue cycle that normally encompasses the selling of computers and consumer electronics; the production cycle that handles the manufacturing and storage of products; and the purchasing cycle that encompasses Apple's payables and payments.

Apple's financial income cycle

This cycle's most significant trades would include

The sales procedure for personal computers and consumer gadgets. Once a consumer chooses a product on the company's website or at an Apple-affiliated retail location, they have the option of paying for the product in advance if they are purchasing from outside the United States. These customers will be required to pay with credit cards through recognized ecommerce platforms on the web. Upon completion of payment, the system will generate the relevant paperwork, and the sales order will be sealed. The consumer may take their proof of purchase to any Apple-approved retail location locally or overseas to acquire their product. Other procedures related to this revenue cycle have been linked into the accounting information system (AIS) in order to consolidate all inputs. The online order form allows the consumer to designate their location, allowing Apple Company to contact the various regional dealers to confirm the availability of the ordered goods. If the goods is unavailable, shipping is launched at the consumer's request, and the system calculates and bills the consumer for additional freight expenses. eBay and Amazon have cooperated with Apple Company on this platform to process Apple Company's receivables and collections.

During each transaction, the accounting information system generates the relevant order form and all accompanying documents, facilitating audit trails with minimal effort (Romney, 2008; Gelinas & Dull, 2011). The system maintains a database for all transactions, transaction status, receivables, and collections.

Apple's purchasing cycle

These are the most significant trades included in this cycle:

The purchasing procedure for all Apple Company's purchases from their vendors. Once a purchase has been made in response to a prompt from the company's inventory system for a reorder, the corresponding personnel will access and complete the purchase form. The supplier's information is extracted from the database, and the order is sent to the supplier. The system maintains the required paperwork in a digital format from which hard copies can be printed. The system also handles payables, wherein all supplier bills are retrieved and handled via online funds transfer.

The AIS at Apple Company produces a quarterly revenue report. If the company is not performing as predicted as compared to the same time last year, the management can utilize this data to make modifications to sales or alter their sales strategy.

Additionally, the system can provide a payables report so that Apple Company management can prioritize payment based on purchases. The majority of these reports can be prepared on demand, however Apple Company's normal reporting time is quarterly.

As one of the leading firms in the United States, Apple Company has a well-defined financial and accounting structure that matches their reputation. The company's chart of accounts is accessible to the public on their website and in hard copy via their California-based physical offices (Google Finance, 2010). This means that all parties involved can base their decisions on this knowledge. Since Apple Company is an international organization, its website is the most appropriate location to disclose their financial information. This makes these documents accessible to the greatest number of individuals possible.

Looking at the business cycle for sales order processing, we observe that the sales team is directly involved in this process. In this example, we assume that users have access to the Apple Company's website, where they may place online orders and ultimately acquire the desired products. The data flow diagrams displayed below illustrate this online operation.

Apple Company has a CEO and many department heads reporting to him. The order processing system is managed by the sales manager who oversees the sales and marketing staff.

The diagram below depicts a portion of Apple's organizational structure. Apple Company is one of the top organizations that has established a corporate culture that undermines the hierarchical management structure.

As a consumer electronics corporation, Apple Company handles sales and orders. This explanation presupposes that the ordering procedure takes place online. Consumers who enter the Apple website peruse a catalog of available products. The consumer selects the product they wish to add to the shopping cart, control is transferred to the billing system, the customer inputs the necessary information to complete the transaction, and the information is uploaded to the database file for the consumer. Using internet online money transfer modules, the details are validated for their validity. This field requires a credit card number. If the information is valid, the system selects the consumer's location based on the information provided.

This is required to accommodate any shipment needs that may incur additional freight rates.

The data flow diagrams that follow depict this procedure.

 

Zero Level Apple Company Data Flow Diagram 1 Level Apple Company Data Flow Diagram Sales Order Processing 2-Level Data Flow for Sales Order Processing at Apple

Included among the system's utilized documents are the following:

Sales order document displaying consumer order particulars Credit worthiness evidence, such as a consumer credit card receipt demonstrating successful payment for a goods.

The flowchart below depicts the documents utilized by Apple Company's sales order processing system.

The following table lists the files utilized by the accounting information system of Apple Company.

File name Update

Order After every sales order transaction

Consumer details Yearly

Supplier Per Annum

After each and every purchasing transaction

Inventory Following each purchasing transaction

Employee Annual

A system flowchart illustrating the inputs, processes, and outputs of Apple Company's sales order processing system.

Other instruments used to design and document the system include:

Report generators, which are fourth-generation tools for generating reports, are also known as report generators. During system development, test data generators are utilized to create relevant test data for system testing. Instruments for documenting the system during development. Application generators that produce apps based on specified parameters.

Apple Company has explored integrating innovation in order to create appealing products in order to interact effectively with members of the computer and IT industries. Object oriented application development is becoming one of the most inventive software development platforms of the present day. The development of databases is becoming object-oriented. To ensure easy connection with other applications, an object-oriented development methodology was utilized. Object-oriented is the sort of logical model utilized by the database management system. Oracle continues to be one of the most esteemed database management systems available today. Oracle 12i continues to be the most recent object-oriented relational database management system utilized by numerous businesses. Oracle supports the most contemporary object-oriented application development techniques. This is one of the most dependable and adequate database management systems capable of providing backend database support for busy web applications and dynamic website transactions. These qualities prompted Apple to form a collaboration with Oracle for the development and support of applications on their products, with Oracle as one of the alternatives for backend and database support.

Using a phased, department-by-department pilot migration method, the data was transferred to the new system. The company has benefited from utilizing a DBMS in the following ways:

Increased capacity, as a genuine DBMS is capable of supporting a vast quantity of data. The DBMS is capable of supporting several concurrent users and processing. The DBMS features more sophisticated security enforcement processes to prevent unauthorized data access and modification. The DBMS is able to support database transactions that are more complicated.

The implementation procedure was not devoid of obstacles. Resistance from users owing to mistrust was one such issue. It was resolved through user training that emphasized the implementation's significance and benefits to the organization.

Incompatibility of the various subsystems as a result of products from different vendors. This issue was resolved by streamlining the vendor selection policy and instituting selection criteria.

When it was the time of the department of finance and accounting to install the system, accountants were heavily involved. This was due to the fact that the implementation occurred in phases.

References

The corporation Apple (2010). Web-based iPhone 4.

Gelinas, U.J., & Dull, R.B. (2011). Informational accounting systems South Western College Publishers, Boston, MA.

Google Finance (2010). Web-based financial disclosures for Apple Inc.

Laudon, K., & Laudon, J. (2009). Information management systems (11th ed.). Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Romney, M.B. (2008). Accounting information systems (11th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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Money Markets Law Essay Help

Money market refers to the investment in short term because the assets which are bought and sold with maturities within a year. Normally, they can be converted into cash easily. The examples of money market’s instruments are bank deposits, certificates of deposit, interbank loans, money market mutual funds, commercial paper, treasury bills, and securities lending and repurchase agreements (repos). (Dodd, R., 2012). Interbank loans are loans between banks which are not secured by collateral. Commercial paper is a promissory note as an unsecured debt that issued by highly rated banks and some large non-financial corporations. Some safer investments in the money market are treasury bills and repurchase agreements (repos). T-bills are securities issued by the government with maturities of less than a year as it is covered by securities laws while Repos are usually less than two weeks and often overnight. Besides that, money market mutual fund (MMMFs) is another instrument in money market which are securities offered by companies that invest in other money market instruments. Furthermore, asset-backed commercial paper (ABCP) is another money market instrument which is safer compare to the ordinary commercial papers because it is secured by the underlying assets. During financial crisis, these money market instruments are greatly affected and show a big downturn. They are helped by the country treasury and the federal reserved. These agencies created special lending for them to overcome the crisis. Today, some of the money market like ABCP and REPO has shrunk dramatically. (Dodd, R., 2012).

The interest rates and calendar-time effects do affect both the MMFs and bank deposits cash flow for either the institutional or retail investors. (Kotomin,V., et al., 2014) The research found out that institutional money fund investors appear to take advantage of arbitrage opportunities created by the MMFs using the amortized cost valuation technique. A key test variable is used which call ‘Spread’. It is used to measure the direction and magnitude of changes in short-term interest rates and thus capture potential arbitrage opportunities in the money markets arising due to recent changes in interest rates. When Spread is positive, investors would earn a higher rate of return in the alternative investment but when Spread is negative, investors will earn a higher return in MMFs. This shows Spread and MMF flows have a negative relation. (Kotomin,V., et al., 2014) The research on calendar-time effect found out that calendar time effects make money market investors are willing to forego some return to strategically time their cash flows to meet calendar-based cash obligations. Both retail and institutional MMFs moved cash out of MMFs before calendar break points associated with cash obligations and move back into MMFs following the break points. The cash which taken out from the MMFs tend to flow into bank demand deposits. (Kotomin,V., et al., 2014).

The average maturity of the fund will be shortened in order to increase the yield faster if the interest rates are expected to increase and vice versa. Therefore, managers who possessed this ability to anticipate forthcoming movements in the market are able to address the adverse impact and exploit the opportunities available. (Mansur, I., Odusami, B., & Nasseh, A, 2011) The data being used in this study are weekly 90-day T-bill yields and weekly one-month AA financial CP rates. Besides that, they also obtained the weekly weighted average maturity (WAM) on all taxable MMMFs. The results show that weekly changes in WAM have a negative correlation with changes in CP yields and there is no relationship between changes in WAM and changes in T-bill yields. Then, further investigation is made to find out the relationship between interest rates and WAM by applying Granger causality tests. The results showed that the T-bill market is highly efficient. This is because investors cannot gain any deeper understanding by analyzing the maturity structure of MMMFs for information that is not reflected in the T-bill rates.(Mansur, I., Odusami, B., &Nasseh, A, 2011).

There are two theories for bank run their subject of academic and regulatory which are Diamond and Dybvig and the second theory is run in rationally driven by information. The prime money fund is category to give the explanation about covariates of the money fund run, because this category is by far and is most effective by the money fund crisis. The institutional investor moved their money in the same time or later one day in or out of prime money market, especially in the complex within same fund. Besides that, we also find that investment is sensitive no easy to liquidity the money fund holding; correlated flow less happen money fund with greater level of security mutual period is short ‘term. In the other hand, the money fund runs at ‘deep pocket backing’ ,this is indicate with investor infer the fund is guaranteed by their management company and the institution investor, for the most part, moved their money into the U.S government .

According to Fecht, Gr??ner and Hartmann (2007) banks contribute to inter-regional risk sharing. They recommend that the risk sharing depends on the size of the interbank market through secured and unsecured interbank trading. Using LIBOR for some currencies, Kotomin et al. (2008) mentioned the liquidity preference at the end of the year or trimester is the main factor that drives the interest rates’ behavior on short term. Cerrato et al. (2010) discovered that the Euro zone monetary policy is transmitted into CEE interest rates by the framework of the influence of global monetary shocks. Besides, they discovered the presence of structural breaks at the beginning of financial crisis for almost all rates which present long memory. The long run equilibrium relationship between the overnight rates and the corresponding 1 month and 3 month rate was found. From Gregory-Hansen test, these are valid in the presence of a structural break in integrating relationship between the interbank money markets.

The risk-taking behaviour of money market funds during the financial crisis of 2007-2010 was examined by Kacperczyk, M. and Schnabl, P. (December 2012). Starting at August 2007, money funds experienced an extension in their risk-taking opportunities. The analysis shows that ‘fund flows are extremely responsive to past returned and one-standard-deviation increase in fund returns raises annualized fund assets by 46%.’ which makes money market funds had strong incentives to take on risk. (Kacperczyk, M. and Schnabl, P.) The characteristic that predicts risk taking is if fund sponsors has interests in businesses (business concerns) who will reduce risk and a fund sponsor’s financial strength who found that greater financial strength increases risk taking. Other (unobserved) sponsor characteristics, like quality of risk management, risk aversion, investment style, or access to private information would directly affect risk taking. In September 2008, the government introduced unlimited deposit insurance, which effectively replaced the sponsors’ role in providing support that makes the differences in risk taking become smaller. Money market funds lack safety relative to other safe instruments because when the opportunity increases the incentives to take on risk is high but they are vulnerable to runs once the risk materializes.

The demand deposit contracts in open-end mutual fund are same with the bank which can cause the investor withdraw the money from time to time. The higher return was provided by evidence that pursuit to motivate the investors reacting to bad by withdrawing the money. The fund can outperform from the other fund as long as liquidity in the higher market by investing illiquid asset. When investing less liquid asset, the narrow structure of money market fund and make them weak to run. The study also included the risks which involve in investment in illiquid assets when the open-ended structure is involved. Besides that, it was present the run are possible in the money market. The financial intermediaries were given to reform the regulation of the money market fund in U.S and Europe to archive the target for stability the money market fund. Before financial crisis, there only have limited information about asset composition of German money market fund was able to the public and not standardized. The insurance provide with a fund issuer might play on the important role in the stability of money market fund. Money market also is a set large remain stable in the U.S where an implicit insurance is provided.

The sterling overnight money market is important to implement the monetary policy. The development of sterling overnight markets can be sum up into an increased sensitivity of bank liquidity risk and credit risk, introduction of the ‘floor’ system; reduced volatility in overnight interest rates after introducing floor’ system, a drop and growth in unsecured and secured money market activity respectively, introduction of international prudential liquidity regulations andchanging incentives to arbitrage overnight interest rates.(Jackson, C., &Sim, M, 2013). The Bank has introduced a ‘floor system, whereby all reserves account balances were recompense at Bank Rate. Banks preferred to transact among themselves instead of using the money market to manage liquidity which shows that they are more sensitive to credit and liquidity risk. The unsecured interbank trading has dropped drastically after the introduction of the floor system and increase in reserves. After the reinforcement of prudential liquidity regulation, banks have dramatically reduced their use of wholesale unsecured market. They use a longer-term funding combine and hold reserves at the central bank to manage liquidity needs (Jackson, C., &Sim, M, 2013).

The markets for federal funds and Eurodollars are the two core components of the dollar money market which relate for both financial analysis and the execution of monetary policy. The degree of integration of the federal funds and the Eurodollar markets is also important for the implement and transmission of monetary policy. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the extent of integration of the markets for federal funds and for Eurodollar deposit by using a new set of transactional-level data which gained from one of the largest U.S based dollar markets brokers and detailed empirical modelling of the daily and intra-day behaviour of federal fund and Eurodollar interest spread. Besides that, this paper also significant the liquidity effects of money market. The higher money market trading volume lowers the volatility of spreads which keeping federal funds and Eurodollar yields more close. Furthermore, daily news on money market conditions as captured by results of morning Federal Reserve open market auctions are absorbed quickly within a couple of hours into yield spreads was shown. Close integration of federal funds and Eurodollar trading has two immediate implications which are from the standpoint of financial analysis and the standpoint of policy design and analysis of the transmission of monetary policy.

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Literature review: Defining services my assignment essay help london

LITERATURE REVIEW – Defining services. The services marketing literature contains many definitions of services.

Christian Gr??nroos (2000, p. 46) defines a service as ‘ a process consisting of a series of more or less intangible activities that normally, but not necessarily always, take place in interactions between the customer and the service employees and/or physical resources or goods and/or systems of the service provider, which are provided as solutions to customer problems’.

Philip Kotler (1991) defines services as: ‘any act or performance that one party can offer to another one that is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything. It’s production may or may not be tied to a physical product.

However, there are some common features in all of these definitions. At first, these commonalities refer to the fact that services deal with something that is intangible. This means that it is difficult to hold or to stock services.

Services are originally intangibles and relatively quickly perishables activities whose buying, which does not lead to material possession, takes place in an interactive process aimed at creating customer satisfaction.

The nature of service

In general, services are intangibles. The intangibility feature is most dominant when defining services. It determines the other characteristics of services; simultaneous production and consumption, heterogeneity and perishability. Given the lack of material possession, the inability to own a service is also considered to be a characteristics of services. Consequently, creating a service usually requires the presence and participation of the customer during the production and consumption of the service. This two-sided human influence on the service often leads to a fluctuating quality of the service. Thus, controlling service quality, motivating employee to deliver service quality and the introduction of technology (especially ICT) are some of the important ways to avoid heterogeneity in service quality.

These characteristics of services are frequently referred to as the five I’s of services. Berkowitz et al. (1986, pp.608-610) discussed the four I’s which are intangibility, inseparability, inconsistency, inventory and the fifth I, the inability to own based on the 2004 Lovelock and Gummesson article. Each of these characteristics are considered to be relative and exist in all services, but some will be more important than others depending on the service.

‘ Intangibility : as a degree of intangibility

‘ Inseperability :as a degree of simultaneous production and consumption

‘ Inconsistency : as a degree of heterogeneity

‘ Inventory : as a degree of perishability; and

‘ Inability : as a degree of the lack of ownership

What is quality

The application of quality to the management of services is very important and the way that it has been achieved is to drawn upon and adapt a number of approaches already in use in other contexts. Before we can investigate service quality specifically, we need to understand the various definitions and approaches to quality that exist in the wider social and business environment. This will allow some understanding of where current issues in the application of quality to services have arisen. We know that quality can be viewed from many different points of view. Garvin (1988) presented five different approaches quality is viewed as well as providing a framework for appreciating some of the problems associated with service quality. These different ways of looking at quality are :

‘ Transcendent-based

‘ Attribute-based

‘ User-based

‘ Manufacturing-based

‘ Value-based

Transcendent-based quality

According to this approach quality cannot always be defined and is partly the result of individual rather than shared experienced. This ability to understand what something is but not be able to describe it is characteristic of something known as an ‘ epiphenomenon ‘. The way we get around this problem is to use either comparators or attributes.

Attribute-based quality

Quality is zero defects ‘ doing it right the first time (Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry, 1985).

The attribute-based approach maintains that quality is a direct outcome of the number of features or attributes of a product. The product with more attractive attributes is higher quality. This approach suggests that quality is an objective and absolute terms and therefore measurable. The problem is that is the characteristics of services prevent ‘ side by side ‘ comparison. Similarly, even if you could identify all the attributes of the services you were assessing, your assessment wouldn’t be completed until the service ended, or the service benefit is reveal.

User-based quality

Quality is the fitness for use, the extent to which the product successfully serves the purpose of the user during usage (Juran, 1974).

The problem of course is that this approach to quality is highly subjective because every user has a different view of quality. In reality we are dealing with perceived quality, which is not a totally reliable indicator of actual quality.

Manufacturing-based quality

Quality is conformance to requirements (Crosby, 1983).

Quality following this approach is considered entirely in terms of conformance to a previously set standards.

Value-based quality

Quality is exceeding what customers expect from the service (Zeithaml, Parasuraman and Berry, 1990).

The value based approach sees quality simply as a function of customer benefit relative to price or cost.

DIMENSIONS OF SERVICE QUALITY

Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985) identified ten determinants of service that may relate to any service : reliability, responsiveness, competence, access, courtesy, communication, credibility, security, understanding/Knowing the customer, and tangibles.

Later, in 1988 these ten determinants were boiled down to five by the same authors : tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and emphathy

Gr??nross (1988) has suggested six criteria, five of which is the same as those previously cited, and whereas the sixth adds an essential dimension which is recovery.

Reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy are business values that foster patronage and profitability. Likewise, corporate branding or imaging is increasingly becoming a vital point of success for companies. As such, the company that recognises the value of service quality not only ensures customer loyalty but also stands out in an increasingly competitive business environment.

THE IMPORTANCE AND IMPACT OF SERVICE QUALITY

Customers will always look for quality. Quality is one of the main drives of customer satisfaction. Therefore quality is a natural pursue for any organisation seeking a source of competitive advantage. However when you think about it a bit more, you start to realise that this oversimplifies what is a complex issue. For example, what is quality? Can every customer see it? If so, is it the same for every customer? How does it relate to the price paid or the value extracted from the service? In the case of physical goods which have a degree of standardisation and are able to be compare, these issues are complicated enough. When applied to service, where the product is heterogeneous, intangible, inseparable, perishable, and difficult to own, quality become very difficult to comprehend and even more difficult to implement and manage.

For any organisation, improving the quality of their service costs money and so they need to know where to focus resource to make the best impact. They need to understand the relationship between investment in service quality and the return on that investment, through profitability or loyalty for example. Put simply, most organisations are seeking to deliver the highest quality of service to the largest number of customers over the longest period of time at the lowest unit cost. For the customer, quality is perception and like most perceptions differs in subtle ways from objective reality. Before consumption, it is generally understood that customer perception is a function of their prior experience with the service or similar services, their individual opinion, reaction to other people’s opinions and communications such as advertising. Taken together these combine to generate expectation about the service performance. During consumption, customers react to service delivery events, such as the attitude of sales staff, the environment where the service is delivered, the involvement in service delivery, or the behaviour of other customers. Finally after consumption there is a process of reflection on the outcome, and assessment of the service, such as education or health services, in respect of its enduring value. These are just some of the issues which make the study and implementation of service quality intellectually and managerially challenging.

Given the problems of pursuing quality for a service organisation one might question whether it is worth the effort but service quality is not pursued as an outcome in its own right but because of its association with satisfaction and through this to profitability and customer retention. Current research has expanded the range of potential benefit from a high quality service to include:

‘ Creating competitive advantage by insulating customers from competitors. This is due to customer inertia. If the service delivered is perceived to be of equal or higher quality than that of competitors then there is no motivation for customers to defect regardless of poaching tactics.

‘ Lowering customer recruitment costs occurs due to positive word of mouth from existing customer who provide a free recruitment service for the organisations fortunate enough to have satisfied customers. Equally, by spending less on attracting new customers marketing expenditure can be directed at ensuring existing customers are happy.

‘ Promoting positive word of mouth and reputation occurs as customers talk the service to others. Customers regularly poll other people in their work and social networks about consumption experiences looking for re-assurance that their provider is as good as everyone else’s, looking for status associated with having found a better provider than others and looking for alternative suppliers if current businesses are not providing satisfaction.

‘ Improved financial performance is a natural corollary of increase customer loyalty, reduce customer recruitment spend and positive word of mouth.

‘ Reduced staff turnover although widely canvassed as only limited empirical support. However, the argument goes that as customer are more satisfied and less likely to complaint they also exhibit ‘helping’ behaviour and are more forgiving of service failure, and the extended time available through higher loyalty rates allows for more enduring service relationship.

These benefits represent substantial advantage to an organisation that can provide a service of quality. The problem of course is how to do it.

MODELS FOR UNDERSTANDING AND MEASURING SERVICE QUALITY

Various approaches have been developed for understanding and measuring service quality. Some examples are :

‘ The disconfirmation model (Oliver, 1980)

‘ The perceived quality model (Gr??nroos, 1982a, 1982b)

‘ The SERVQUAL model (Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry, 1988)

‘ The SixSigma designed by Motorola

While it would be desirable to review all the approaches to service quality we will focus upon those which have the greatest applicability and widest uses in business and academic circles. The models the researcher has chosen are:

‘ The disconfirmation model (Oliver, 1980)

‘ The SERVQUAL model (Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry, 1988)

The disconfirmation model (Oliver, 1980)

It is important to recognise that customers approach events, including purchases, with some expectation of what will occur. For example, if someone invites you to a party, you may not know what will happen precisely, but you will have some expectations of what will happen.

When we actually experience an event or service transaction, we understand it through our perception of what happened and we assess the situation. The service is relative to what we expected. We experience Positive Disconfirmation if what we experienced was better than expected, Confirmation if same as expected and Negative Disconfirmation if worse than expected. Because of the emphasis on differences between expectations and perceptions, this type of model is often referred to as a Disconfirmation Model.

The SERVQUAL model (Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry, 1988)

The SERVQUAL approach to service quality engineered the most profound shift in our understanding of both consumer and organisational responses to the problem of managing service quality. A consistent theme in the field of service quality is the problem of identifying what comprises a service in order to determine the dimensions of the service which customers used to assess quality. The SERVQUAL started by trying to develop a more comprehensive understanding of service quality dimensions. The original qualitative interviews produced a set of ten dimensions:

‘ Tangibles ‘ the appearance of physical facilities, equipment, personnel, etc.

‘ Reliability ‘ ability to perform the service dependably and accurately

‘ Responsiveness ‘ willingness to help customers

‘ Competence ‘ possession of the require skill/ knowledge to perform the service

‘ Courtesy ‘ politeness, respect, consideration and friendliness

‘ Credibility ‘ trustworthiness, believability and honesty

‘ Security ‘ freedom from danger

‘ Access ‘ approachability and ease of contact

‘ Communication ‘ keeping customers informed

‘ Understanding ‘ Making an effort to know customers

Later the ten dimensions were collapse into five. They are often referred to as the RATER dimensions :

Reliability ‘ dependability of service provider, accuracy of performance.

Assurance ‘ knowledge & courtesy of employees, ability to inspire trust & confidence.

Tangibles ??- including physical components of the service, e.g, seating, lighting and so on.

Empathy – caring, individualised attention the firm gives to its customers.

Responsiveness – promptness and helpfulness.

The SERVQUAL instrument is made up of 22 items that measure customer’s expectations and a corresponding set that measure customer’s perceptions of a service. It is based on the premise that service quality is the variance that arises by comparing customer’s expectation with what they perceive they got from a specific service provider in that sector (Parasuraman et al. 1988). They developed SERVQUAL with purpose of measuring customer’s perceptions of service quality along the five dimensions.

The Gap model of Service quality

The figure below shows the “GAP” model of service quality from Parasuraman et al. (Zeithaml & Bitner 1996). This model offers an integrated view of the consumer-company relationship. It is based on substantial research amongst a number of service providers. In common with the Gr??nroos model it shows the perception gap (Gap 5) and outlines contributory factors. In this case expected service is a function of word of mouth communication, personal need and past experience, and perceived service is a product of service delivery and external communications to consumers.

‘ Parasuraman et al. GAP model (Zeithaml 1996)

LIMITATION OF THE SERQUAL MODEL

Clearly, the SERVQUAL instrument has been extensively adopted by several academic researchers and practitioners worldwide to measure service quality. The previously mentioned academic research studies are examples of this. However, regardless of its extensive use, numerous theoretical, operational, conceptual, and empirical criticisms of the measurement instrument have been identified and mentioned (Buttle, 1996; Van Dyke et al., 1997, 1999; Ladhari, 2008).

Buttle (1996) identified several theoretical and operational criticisms of SERVQUAL. He argued that theoretically SERVQUAL is founded on the basis of an expectation-disconfirmation model instead of an attitudinal model. Moreover, it is not based on a well-known established economic, statistical, psychological theory or background. In terms of the gap analysis, there are a few supports that customers evaluate service quality on the basis of perception-minus-expectation scores. Furthermore, SERVQUAL stress and emphasise the process of service delivery rather than the endings and the outcomes of the service encounter. From an operational perspective, he stated that consumers evaluate service quality on the basis of standards other than expectations. Also, he argued that it is not possible to capture the changeability of each service quality dimension by four or five items.

Van Dyke et al. (1997, 1999) recognised a number of conceptual and empirical criticisms of SERVQUAL. Conceptually, they criticised using two different instruments for measuring two different concepts (perceptions and expectations) to measure a third concept (perceived service quality). Instead, they argued that direct measurement of perceived service quality is more reliable. Moreover, they argued on the uncertainty of the expectations construct as different definitions and views of the concept resulted from uncertainly defined concept. Empirically, they argued that SERVQUAL has a number of empirical problems including low reliability and unstable dimensionality.

Ladhari (2008) summarised a list of theoretical and empirical criticisms of the model. First, he argued that the use of gap scores is not the right method because of the lack of the support in literature to consumers evaluating service quality in terms of perception-minus-expectation. He stated that it has been recommended that service quality is more precisely and correctly evaluated by measuring only perceptions of quality. On the other hand, he mentioned that the concept expectation is not well defined and can be interpreted from different perspectives; as a result, the operationalisation of SERVQUAL may have different interpretations as well. In addition, he pointed out that previous research suggested using perception-only scores rather than gap scores for the overall assessment of service quality. Last but not least, he emphasised that previous research studies criticise SERVQUAL for its focus on the process of service delivery instead of the result and the outcome of service encounters.

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Performance essay help writing

Those who ever performed on stage could never forget their first time, as it is memorable for varied and numerous reasons, regardless of its being a successful or an embarrassing experience. However, for me, as a former dancer, the most memorable and powerful moment occurred before the actual performance. It was rather when I first entered the rehearsal room full of girls and boys of my age, evidently sharing the same feeling of excitement and anticipation of something new and compelling. From the very first moment, when our instructor made us sit in a circle on the floor and started to teach us a beautiful song from the hundreds of years old Hungarian village of M??ra to ease the tension and comfort us with his soft and calming voice, I knew that this was the group I belonged to with my whole heart. The steps, the motifs and other elements of movement we started to learn later that night along with the traditional folk music accompaniment made this feeling even deeper, and I knew that this room with the old wooden floor and the mirrors all around would be my second home. From that night on I have always felt that without the knowledge of this ethnic tradition in music and dance and the actual practicing of it, my ‘Hungarianness’ would not be round. Besides our unique language that can hardly be related to any other language in the world, this heritage makes me feel truly Hungarian.

I was drawn to this present project by my personal experience and the interest towards the ways in which the ethnic identity of cultural groups other than mine is articulated and formed through the preservation and recreation of traditional movement patterns. This paper is also inspired by the fascination I feel about dance, let it be ethnic, modern, concert, folk or classic. In addition, dances that combine elements from different genres, thereby representing various human categories, always bring great awe and provide the richest field of research in historic, social and aesthetic sense, and this is another reason why I chose to research into how Black tradition in dance ‘ African and Afro-Caribbean – contributed to the formation of African-American ethnic identity in the 20th century.

The universality of dance has long been recognized by scholars and artists, however for long dance was only considered from a theatrical and entertainment point of view. The comparative analysis of its different forms and its significance historically, sociologically, biologically and psychologically only emerged in the mid 20th century when it became the subject of interest to anthropologists, ethnologists and psychologists. This essay wishes to contribute to the field of dance research within the discipline of cultural studies by pointing to the social and artistic significance of dancer-anthropologist, Katherine Dunham’s Caribbean research.

Both the original recordings of Dunham’s fieldwork and her choreographies demonstrate the ways in which the elements of movement patterns produce cultural differences that contribute to the articulation and construction of Black ‘diaspora’ identity in dance. On the one hand, these dance pieces are a presentation of her fieldwork findings as a trained anthropologist and the preservation of a rich heritage; on the other hand, they are fascinating pieces of visual art by which, along with her own dance technique, she contributed to the Modern Dance idiom in the United States. Besides the fact that Katherine Dunham’s talent as dancer and choreographer was outstanding, her work seems to be the perfect choice to serve as primary source for my research, because between 1937 and 1945 Dunham established a ‘research-to-performance’ method to which her first dance company was exposed. She used this method of scholarly inquiry as a means to recreate the memory of regional dances among her dancers and a variety of audiences in North America and abroad.

As Anthea Kraut asserts Dunham’s work helps to illuminate how dancing bodies participate in historical change. It has widely been accepted that the body is the primary locus for construction of identity, thus dance studies has become a highly valued academic discipline. Placing dance forms and practices center of investigation of changing formulations of racial identity has historicized dance as a cultural practice.

In this thesis I read the Caribbean bodily movements and the choreographic pieces as social text to understand how social identities are signaled, formed and negotiated through dance, as well as to analyze how these social identities are codified in dance styles. My approach is based on Jane Desmond’s theory on movement style as an important mode of distinction between social groups.

In the first chapter I give a brief overview of the history of Dance Studies as a separate arena along with its main approaches and research methodology. I will argue that this palette can be extended to different methods that were established to serve analysis in Cultural Studies. I will indicate to what extent Erwin Panofsky’s three-tiered analysis is appropriate to close read dacne, as it was originally developed to analyze static pieces of art.

Chapter two discusses the problem of African-American dance in the framework of expressing black identity. Based on Desmond’s claim that movement and performance styles are denotative of social/ethnic relations by tracing the history of dance styles and their spread from one group to another, we can uncover ideologies attached to movement patterns.

Chapter three will put the theory in chapter one into practice. I will look at Katherine Dunham’s choreography, L’Ag’Ya to isolate elements of black tradition ‘ African and Afro-Caribbean – and to explore how Black ‘diaspora’ identity is articulated through this choreography based on the Caribbean tradition. I adopt the analytical approach developed by Erwin Panofsky; specifically, his three-tiered method of analysis (iconology), in order to understand how certain movement patterns negotiate and construct African-American ethnic identity in L’Ag’Ya. The first stage is the ‘pre-iconographic’ interpretation , which is the perception of the work’s pure form without any added cultural knowledge. The secondary or ‘iconographical’ interpretation connects artistic motifs or groups of motifs identified generically in the pre-iconographic analysis with traditional themes and concepts. Finally, the tertiary level or ‘iconological’ interpretation considers social and cultural history. Knowing cultural history and background of different social groups and their distinctions is crucial for understanding the dance expression. I look at this piece not as isolated incidents but as evidence of a historical, cultural environment.

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Placement free essay help

The Placement I chose was with The Garden Team, Sunbeam House Services (S.H.S), which is based off the Veveay Road, Bray, Co Wicklow .This location is a day service which provides a day centre facility to a number of adults with intellectual disabilities.

The S.H.S ethos and philosophy aim to empower people within their care with the necessary skills to live full and satisfying lives as equal citizens of their local communities. The Garden Team day service focus is on the individual, their growth, development and care. The individual is encouraged and empowered to pursue their goals, dreams and aspirations on an ongoing basis. The Sunbeam organisation, via The Garden Team, in partnership with the individual implement supports to facilitate realisation of their service users goals and aspirations.

A quality system known within the organisation as personal outcomes ensures that the organisation provides service to and for its service users based on the principles of basic assurances, shared values, responsive services and community life. The main role of this system is that the individual???s personal preferences are supported and their personal choices facilitated. S.H.S is also committed to forging links with other organisations in order to ensure their service users goals and aspirations are met.

My Role within this placement was to shadow existing staff, assist them with whatever activities they undertook with the service users attending the day service and interact with the same said service users as and when they attended this day service. This interaction required communication skills such as active listening and non-verbal communication. Social care practice requires me to participate in reinforcing daily social skills such as interpersonal greeting and adherence to social norms. This practice involved daily rituals around breakfast in the day service involving everyone attending the service, such as staff, students and service users greeting each other appropriately, catching up on what each other had done the previous night /weekend .This is an idea opportunity for the staff to touch base with some of the service users who come from troubled backgrounds and also to judge the mood of the service users and through this they can detect when there is an issue that may need to be resolved.

The Garden Team placement ethos is based on the work ethic, social norms and personal outcomes of the individual service user. This is to ensure that the service users both individually and as a group have daily, weekly and long term goals to work towards .The service users have a keyworker within The Garden Team their role is to assist the service user and support them to achieve their personal outcomes.

A long term goal for a service user might be their wish to live independently as they may currently be living in the family home or in a residential service, this long term goal would be broken up into shorter term goals such as budgeting, social skills, personal hygiene and personal shopping this would all take place of a period of time and with each new skill

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Universal healthcare free college essay help

Universal healthcare it is a primary right or a privilege, It has many flaws in various countries and limited access to outrages expenses in MRI’s, long awaiting periods for surgical procedures. Many people have their care delayed and their medical condition gets much worse and can no longer receive treatment. In Germany healthcare is higher in taxes and have no problems receiving medical care. The French claim their salary is way lower as an employer and are required to pay in order to have national healthcare system and their care needed is always available. The American Journal of Public health confirms that 45,000 people die each year in the United States because of no Health Insurance. Yes, we have a right to healthcare.

Universal healthcare goal is to have people live in better health and protect from over charged care for medical hardships with billing. The uninsured are the main ones, who need Universal healthcare. People who make too, much money from working don’t qualify for Medicaid and end up with financial hardship and aren’t able to get the care needed for their health. The common issue for all universal healthcare programs is they need some form of government connection. The law determines what type of care is available and how the coverage will be paid. Many people choose to support the system known as a single payer health insurance. It’s when the government funds the healthcare and does not supply the care, Just like Medicare and Medicaid.

The poor people can’t afford healthcare and live in much worse environments and have more medical problems. We as Citizens of the United States have rights to Healthcare and our health is jeopardized by not being able to pay for insurance. People who work are struggling to pay for healthcare and have health conditions that need medical attention. Due to lack of work for health issue some people lose their jobs and are forced to file bankruptcy. This is why poor people are struggling in the economy and are forced to live in bad health. The right to healthcare should be a civil right. People should not be categorized by their illness and have financial problems paying for their medical treatments. Americans that are poor have bad health and one doctor visit can diagnose their condition before it leads to death.

Therefore, I am for our rights to have universal healthcare for people who need it and can’t afford insurance. This coverage will not only save peoples life and help us get out of debt with medical bills over charging major countries. It is funded through taxation and every day, we people could use this form of coverage I support the government in helping us as the economy to live healthier and longer with better care from universal healthcare coverage.

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Implementing Swifinet personal essay help

ABSTRACT

Use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) has resulted in many revolutionary changes in human life. WSN has gain significant concentration from scientist and end users. ‘SWiFiNet’ is task distributed reusable system architecture. In this architecture complex functionality has been transfer to the second tire devices of the system. Second tire devices are provided with more resources. ‘SWiFiNet’ satisfy the desire architecture of the WSN. This paper aims to analyze various reusable wireless sensor networks and concept related to ‘SWiFiNet’. And it provides the existing architecture of ‘SWiFiNet’ and also the functionality of the component of the reusable network architecture. This paper also provides idea about the proposed ‘SWiFiNet’ which will be developed on IEEE 802.15.4 MAC/PHY layer which will be having more advantages over its counterparts.

Keywords:- WSN, SWiFiNet, Reusable architecture.

I. INTRODUCTION:

Use of wireless network is increasing in every field, day by day. WSN is extensively use where wired network cannot be deployed or is expensive to deploy. WSN opens many ways for research community to further enhance wireless communication efficiency and productivity. Many protocols and algorithms has been developed to addressed many kind of issues related to WSN. But most of these protocols and algorithms concentrate on routing, energy efficiency, reliability and congestion control.

No more research is done on creating some integrated network architecture that will make the implementation of any WSN application easy. It means to make the components of the WSN system reusable. The main focus of WSN is on creating more and more efficient wireless interfaces. The wireless sensor network generally developed for specific work. These work include climate reporting, military applications, fuel level indicator and many more. While creating such system one has to start from the scratch and it becomes burdensome.

So, for all these difficulties, one solution is to create reusable WSN framework. This kind of framework is developed in ‘SWiFiNet’. It is a task distributed System Architecture for WSN.

This paper provides overview of ‘SWiFiNet’ and reusable architecture for WSN. In first section provided introduction about WSN and ‘SWiFiNet’. Second section provides related work regarding task distributed network architecture. Third section provides design goals of reusable architecture. Fourth section provides WSN architecture along with ‘SWiFiNet’ architecture comparison. Fifth and last part concludes the paper.

II. RELATED WORK

There has been attempts to make hierarchical task distributed reusable wireless sensor network architecture. Most of such proposals were developed using 802.11. The different applications related to reusable WSN architecture is as follows:-

ART wise gateway architecture was presented by Leel et al [4]. The architecture is two tire architecture. Tier one uses IEEE 802.15.4 and tire two uses 802.11. Linfeng develop Environmental adaptive Architecture model for wireless sensor network [5]. It was two tire architecture. The second tire was capable of adding number of nodes without affecting two tire architecture. ANGLE [5] architecture was develop for the health care applications. In this application authors claims that it can be reused for any other application.

Open and reconfigurable wireless sensor network has been proposed by Triantafyllidis. It was developed for pervasive health monitoring. Its main emphasis was on easy extension with additional sensor functionality. ZUMA [6] was developed for centralize smart phone platform which will interconnects all kinds of smart phone devices.

The ReWINS [3] research initiative is an attempt to advance such an end-to-end solution with support for incremental arrangement through a transparent lower layer implementation and control architecture and a user-friendly application interface.

Wireless Integrated Network Sensors or the WINS [7] project and NIMS project at University of California, Los Angeles is about ad-hoc wireless sensor network research dealing mainly with constructing micro-electronic mechanical sensors (MEMS) [8], effective circuit design, and design of self-organizing wireless network architecture. Though these projects have been successful in demonstrating a network of self-organized sensor wireless nodes, they seem to have a bias towards environmental and military applications. Also they use proprietary RF communication technology and hence the solutions are limiting for wide scale deployments in industries.

Motes and Smart Dust project [9] at University of California, Berkeley involved creating particularly low-cost micro-sensors, which can be suspended in air, buoyed by currents. Crossbow Inc. has commercialized the conclusion of this project. Here again the solution is limiting, as exclusive communication technologies have been used to achieve inter-device communication. Further, the focus has been on development of sensors and their communication rather than how the sensors will be integrated to form systems. This is generally termed as the ‘bottom-up’ approach, which may not be suitable for building complex systems.

Pico-Radio [10] ‘ A group headed by Jan Rabaey at University of California, Berkeley is trying to build an integrated wireless application interface called Sensor Network Service Platform. An attempt is to develop an interface that will abstract the sensor network and make it transparent to the application layer. A introductory draft describing the application interface has been recently released. They believe in a ‘top down approach’ (from control to sensor nodes) for building sensor networks which is probably more suitable for building complex systems.

Recently, there have been several work initiatives like TinyDB [11], Cornell’s Cougar etc. to develop a declarative SQL-like language to query sensors and define certain standard query services. Here the employment is sensor-interface specific and not a general or abstracted sensor networking platform. These query services can be implemented with ease on top of our (developed) wireless interface and sensor networking platform and can be made generic by extending them for other sensors.

Other research initiatives in this field include MIT’s ??AMPS, Columbia University’s INSIGNIA, Rice University’s Monarch. Though there have been a lot of research efforts in developing ad-hoc wireless networks, the focus has been on developing smart wireless sensor interfaces and not much attention has been paid to the actual application integration. Typical approach has been to develop powerful smart wireless interfaces, which supports the important features/requirements for a particular class of applications (like military, environment sensing or more focused applications like fuel-level control in automobiles). The result is a number of wireless interfaces appropriate for a certain class of application; but almost no interoperability between them. We believe that the deployment of wireless infrastructure in industries will occur in incremental stages and thus interoperability (between different sensor-networks) and extendibility (according to application needs) will form the basic requirements of any prospective solution. A prospective good solution would be an end-to-end solution, which is modular and extendable.

All of the above applications were the forward steps towards the making of reusable network architecture. From the comparison of the above all network architecture, it is clear that user of hierarchical network give advantage over flat network. And three tire architecture is also better for reusable WSN architecture.

EXISTING SYSTEM:-

‘SWiFiNet’ [1] is task distributed and reusable component architecture. The task layer hierarchical model of ‘SWiFiNet’ is as shown in the given figure. It follows hierarchical architecture comprising of Master node, router node and sensor node. The base layer is 802.15.4 MAC/PHY layer.

Table 1. Comparison between different reusable wireless sensor network applications

Sr. No Application/Project Purpose of Application/Project Limitations

1 ART gateway architecture To develop Hierarchical two tire architecture each tire having different base MAC/PHY The system is more complex due to different protocol in each layer.

2 EAWNA To develop tire two in such a way that adding more sensor dose no affect the architecture The focus is given more on second tire of architecture.

3 ANGEL For health care application. Claimed to be reusable Reusable for specific health care application

4 ReWins To develop such an end-to-end solution The main focus is given on industrial scenarios.

5 Wireless Integrated Network Sensor Building efficient circuit design, and design of self-organizing wireless network architecture These project seems to have bias towards environmental and military application

6 Motes and smart dust project Creating low cost micro sensor which can suspended in air The focus is on sensors rather how they will be integrated

7 Pico-Radio To make sensor network transparent to application layer Suitable for building complex systems only

8 TinyDB To develop declarative SQL-like language to query sensor Not a generic or abstracted sensor networking platform

.

The upper layer to this layer is DLL task layer. All the network communication is controlled by this layer. The functionality of different device component of the architecture is as given below:

Sensor node: The task of sensor node is restricted to sensing background and connecting the neighboring nodes or the master node. When the packet is handed over to any parent node, then it is the responsibility of the parent node to transfer the packet to the master node. In this node’s layer architecture, the network layer will have the addresses of the parent devices. It will be stored in the table. Two types of addresses are present in the table. First one is primary parent address and the other is secondary parent address. If primary address parent is not available then secondary parent address will be try by the node.

If network layer don’t contain any table then a ‘Hello’ packet request is broadcast into the network. Then the neighboring device will issue the join request. The join request will be accepted if the device meets LQI threshold criteria.

Router Node: – Router nodes are come in use when sensor nodes are not in the range of Master Node. Clustering is also possible using router node. In ‘SWiFiNet’ distributed architecture the functionality of the router node increased remarkably. The complex implementation of any application or protocol will be deployed on the second tire devices. The router node network layer also maintains the table containing entries of the parent devices to the router node. It can be router node again or router will send the information directly to the master node. Router nodes will generate join request if they receive hello packet request from any sensor node.

Master node: The complete topology information of the network is maintain by the master node. When there is queried transmission model, master node will generate query and send it in the network. Whenever the routing tables are updated in end nodes or router nodes will send the information to the master node.

Sensor node Router Node Master Node

Fig 1. Distributed architecture of ‘SWiFiNet’

III. PROPOSED MODEL:

The ‘SWiFiNet’ model developed [1] is successfully implemented on the hardware as the architecture of the ‘SWiFiNet’ is defined. But ns-2 simulation of ‘SWiFiNet’ is based on 802.11a. As the basic idea of MAC/PHY layer is to have 802.15.4 which will work more efficiently on the ‘SWiFiNet’ architecture. The architectural diagram [1] is as shown below:-

In many of the sensor network architecture the sensor nodes are based on the 802.11a, but in ‘SWiFiNet’ MAC/PHY layer is based on 802.15.4. It is having low bandwidth comparative to the 802.11a. As the ns-2 modulation of the architecture is done using 802.11a, we cannot compare the exact result of hardware simulation and the software simulation.

Dynamic source routing (DSR) has similar characteristics as of ‘SWiFiNet’. After comparing the hardware results [1] with DSR it is found that ‘SWiFiNet’ is having better performance against many parameters. Implementation of ‘SWiFiNet’ using ns-2 on 802.15.4 IEEE is not yet checked against other protocols and hardware results.

The software architecture [2] of the ‘SWiFiNet’ agent is as shown in figure 2. This diagram shows the network component simulation in ns-2. The devices can be identified by the variable passed from TCL script. 1 value represent master node. 2 value represent router node and 3 value represent sensor node.

Fig 2: Component simulation in ns-2

IV. Conclusion:-

The survey paper provides a detailed comparison and description of the well-known projects and applications which are developed from reusable architecture point of view. ‘SWiFiNet’ is basically a task distributed generic reusable architecture for WSN. The functionality of sensor node is reduced and has been transferred to the second tire devices like router node. By doing so sensor nodes are restricted to gather information and connecting to neighboring nodes. As time synchronization overhead is not present the lifetime of the network increase.

This reusable architecture can be used for various range of applications and can be configured accordingly. This paper gives proposed ‘SWiFiNet’ system which will be based on 802.15.4 IEEE standard and will be useful for researchers in many ways.

V. REFERENCES:

[1] A. H. Willig, J. H. Karowski, N. Baldus, H. Huebner, A., “The ANGEL WSN Architecture,” in Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 2007. ICECS 2007. 14th IEEE International Conference on, 2007, pp. 633-636.

[2] A. W. Rohankar, Mrinal K. Naskar, Amitava Mukharjee, ‘SWiFiNet’: Task Distributed System Architecture for WSN’ in IJACSA Special Issue on Selected Papers from International Conference & Workshop On Advance Computing 2013.

[3] A. W. Rohankar, Mrinal K. Naskar, Amitava Mukharjee, ‘A step towards reusable WSN architecture’, International Journal of Research and Reviews in Wireless Sensor Networks (IJRRWSN) vol. Vol. 2, 2012.

[4] B. S. P. Harish Ramamurthy, Rajit Gadh, “Reconfigurable Wireless Interface for Networking Sensors (ReWINS),” in proceeding of the 9th IFIP International Conference on Personal Wireless Communications (PWC 2004), 2004.

[5] J. C. Leal, A. Alves, M. Koubaa, A., “On a IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee to IEEE 802.11 gateway for the ART-WiSe architecture,” in Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 2007. ETFA. IEEE Conference on, 2007, pp. 1388-1391.

[6] L. Linfeng, “Research on Environment-Adaptive Architecture Model of Wireless Sensor Networks,” in Networks Security Wireless Communications and Trusted Computing (NSWCTC), 2010 Second International Conference on, 2010, pp. 130-133.

[7] M. N. K. V. G. Soini, J. Rabaey, J. M. Sydanheimo, L. T., “Beyond Sensor Networks: ZUMA Middleware,” in Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2007.WCNC 2007. IEEE, 2007, pp. 4318-4323.

[8] Micro-Adaptive Multi-domain Power-aware Sensors (??AMPS) project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://www-mtl.mit.edu/research/icsystems/uamps/

[9] Pico-Radio project at University of California, Berkeley,URL:http://bwrc.eecs.berkeley.edu/Research/Pico_Radio/

[10] Smart Dust and motes project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/~pister/SmartDust/

[11] ] TinyDB project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://telegraph.cs.berkeley.edu/tinydb

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The Relationship between Manager Assertiveness and having to tell Employees Exactly What to Do global history essay help

Not only is it important to tell workers exactly what to do by being direct, but it is of an equal importance to be assertive with them. If a manager is too passive with his or her employees, it may lead to a managerial mess, as many workers constantly try to test managers’ boundaries.

One of the main reasons as to why employees end up misbehaving in the workplace is primarily because they are not managed correctly, and those who are in authority allow them to get that way. When it comes to being a manager, you shouldn’t expect employees to respect you on a personal level, but you should expect them to respect your authority on a professional level.

Managers should not only be consistently setting up new boundaries, but they should also be enforcing them. Without enforcing them, if an employee overpasses it and nothing is advised to him or her, they will think it is okay to continue to do so. How will they know that it is wrong unless you tell them? It is of an utmost importance to also advise them that you can’t tolerate it.

As a manager, to do their job they have the innate obligation to do only the things that is right for the company that he or she works for. This includes of setting the appropriate boundaries, and not exercising too much sympathy and empathy as it may cause the manager to get too involved with their personal lives. Otherwise, he or she may promote favoritism thereby causing other employees to be jealous. Although this may be true, there is no need to be overly rude and cold towards employees. Being assertive and setting boundaries doesn’t always mean one has to be disrespectful or even rude to their employees. The difference between an authoritarian manager who respects their employees and for managers who don’t differentiates the results of whether or not employees comply or commit themselves to work. In order to have them commit rather than only comply, it is important to be respectful while being assertive. When employees are willing to commit, they are more than likely to deliver work that exceeds a manager’s expectations. (Alexander Hamilton Institute, 2012)

The Importance for Managers to Be a Leader

When it comes to capabilities to effectively communicate with employees, good managers are able to sustain and encourage self-assurance, enthusiasm, and emotional stability while pursuing their day-to-day activities. The position of being a manager can, at times, be quite stressful and overwhelming, so the ideal manager should not let it get to them.

Why is this important when it comes to effectively advising employees as to what has to be done?

If managers aren’t able to maintain self-control of their emotions, then it is likely that they won’t be able to do well at leading employees. Managers are commonly seen as a workplace role model, so if their employees see them as unable to maintain control, it is likely the employees won’t either, thereby leading to decreased amounts of productivity.

Why Communication Is a Key Aspect for Managers

In order to ensure efficient productivity among employees, it is important for them to be able to effectively communicate with them. Moreover, they must also be able to report to higher managers regarding productivity statistics and the like. Not only will great managers be able to communicate well with employees to advise them what they have to do, but they will also be active listeners. Without being able to listen to an employee when he or she has questions about their job or what they have to do, it is likely that they won’t end up doing what they are supposed to do. Another important trait for managers is being able to get a message across without having to overly emphasize it verbally. They know how to implement non-verbal communication techniques such as body language in order to get an important message across to employees. (Melinda Hill Mendoza, n.d).

Common Traits of a Good Employee’ Where You Don’t Have to Be As Specific

There are various indicators that strongly determine whether or not if you have to be overly specific when trying to get an employee to do something. Here I’ve included some of the top traits when it comes to being an effective listener as an employee.

‘ Action Oriented: When you tell an employee to do something, and if he or she is action-oriented, you will see them do it right away’ no questions asked. Although sometimes their work may not be sufficient, most of the time they will provide great work with high levels of productivity. Also, when it comes to productivity, they usually get things done a lot sooner than employees who are stagnant.

‘ Intelligent: Intelligence is important for an employee to thoroughly understand what you want them to do without you having to be too specific with them. Not only that, but when you tell an intelligent employee what to do, most of the time they will do it perfectly correct. It is very rare for an employee who has high levels of intelligence to ask too many questions for additional specificity.

‘ Ambitious: Having an employee with ambition is important because they are well-known to come up with creative ideas that can bring the productivity of any company to the next level. So rather than spending extra time telling them exactly what they have to do, they will work right away, and by the time they are done they will provide you with a genius idea to do things quicker, and you may want to consider forwarding it to your boss.

‘ Autonomous: Employees with an autonomous trait are known to begin working on a project the second you explain to them what needs to be done. They are extremely independent and they require no ‘hand-holding’ whatsoever. This is an important trait, because as a manager, they have a lot of tasks on hand and they don’t want to be wasting it answering a hundred questions about completing a simple task.

‘ Confidence: It is more likely for an unconfident employee to ask questions about exactly what they need to do than a confident employee. This is primarily due to the fact that employees who are confident will trust there instinct on what they’ve heard from the manager, and they won’t second guess their initial impression. On the other hand, unconfident employees will lack their confidence in trusting their understanding, causing them to ask a lot of unnecessary questions.

‘ Leadership: After confidence comes leadership. When you are explaining a task to an employee with leadership skills, you will be confident that they will over-deliver on your expectations. They have the experience to not only deliver the job promptly without any questions ask, but they can set the bar higher in terms of quality and productivity.

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Learning Theory Behaviorism (Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme) cheap mba definition essay help

2.0 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme

Teori Behaviorisme merupakan satu pendekatan pemikiran yang menekankan peranan pengalaman dalam mengawal tingkah laku. Pengasas teori ini adalah J.B Watson yang popular dengan teori Little Albert. Namun, selain daripada J.B Watson terdapat tokoh lain yang turut mengkaji tentang teori ini. Mereka adalah Skinner, Thondike dan Pavlov. Teori pemerolehan bahasa Behavioris pada zaman sebelum ini lebih menekankan tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat sahaja. Bagi mereka perkara yang berlaku dalam otak manusia tidak dapat dikenalpasti. Mereka membuat analogi otak manusia sama seperti sebuah kotak hitam yang gelap. Oleh itu mereka tidak mementingkan peranan otak dalam pemerolehan bahasa.

Golongan mazhab ini menolak pendapat yang menghubungkan operasi kognitif dengan pemerolehan bahasa. Seseorang dianggap telah belajar sesuatu jika dia dapat menunjukkan perubahan perilakunya. Menurut teori ini dalam belajar yang penting adalah input yang berupa stimulus dan output yang berupa reaksi (respond). Stimulus adalah apa saja yang diberikan guru kepada pelajar, sedangkan respon berupa reaksi atau tanggapan pelajar terhadap stimulus yang diberikan oleh guru tersebut. Proses yang terjadi antara stimulus dan respon tidak penting untuk diperhatikan kerana tidak dapat diamati dan tidak dapat diukur. Yang dapat diamati adalah stimulus dan respon. Oleh sebab itu, apa yang diberikan oleh guru iaitu stimulus dan apa yang diterima oleh pelajar iaitu respon harus dapat diamati dan diukur. Teori ini mengutamakan pengukuran kerana pengukuran merupakan perkara yang penting untuk melihat terjadi atau tidak perubahan tingkah laku tersebut.

2.1 Teori Behaviorisme menurut J.B Watson

J.B Watson (1878-1958), seorang ahli psikologi di Amerika Syarikat, merupakan orang pertama mencipta istilah behaviorisme untuk menghuraikan tingkah laku manusia. Kajian banyak dipengaruhi oleh Teori Pelaziman Klasik Pavlov. Kajian beliau, yang terkenal ialah mengenai emosi kanak-kanak dengan menggunakan Model Pelaziman Klasik. Mengikut Watson, tingkah laku manusia merupakan reflex terlazim iaitu suatu gerak balas yang dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman klasik. Dengan kata lain, semua pembelajaran adalah pelaziman klasik Watson berpendapat gerakan-gerakan refleks yang mudah misalnya berkelip mata, bersin apabila hidung gatal dan sebarang tindakan yang dilakukan secara semulajadi adalah tingkah laku yang diwarisi dan tidak perlu dipelajari. Selain daripada tingkah laku, Watson pula menjalankan kajian tentang pembelajaran emosi semula jadi iaitu takut, marah, dan kasih saying. Emosi manusia atau perubahan dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman.

2.1.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran J.B Watson

Menurut beliau, semua tingkah laku boleh dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman. Tingkah laku positif boleh diajarkan melalui ransangan yang sesuai. Seterusnya, untuk menguasai kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah, pelajar perlu belajar cara perhubungan gerak balas secara sistematik. Selain itu, teori ini memberi implikasi untuk mengukuhkan apa yang telah dipelajari dalam ingatan, latihan- latihan hendaklah dijalankan secara kerap. Dalam proses pengajaran,guru hendaklah menggunakan rasangan yang boleh memotivasikan murid untuk minat belajar dan mengelakkan pengunaan ransangan yang membawa kepada kesan negatif.

2.2 Teori Behaviorisme menurut Thorndike

Menurut Thorndike, belajar adalah proses interaksi antara stimulus dan respon. Stimulus adalah apa yang merangsang terjadinya aktiviti belajar seperti fikiran, perasaan, atau hal-hal lain yang dapat dikesan melalui pancaindera. Manakala, respon adalah reaksi yang muncul apabila peserta dididik ketika belajar, dan yang dapat pula adalah berupa fikiran, perasaan, gerakan atau tindakan. Jadi, perubahan tingkah laku akibat kegiatan belajar dapat dikategorikan sebagai konkrit, iaitu yang dapat diamati, atau tidak konkrit iaitu yang tidak dapat diamati. Meskipun aliran behaviorisme sangat mengutamakan pengukuran, tetapi tidak dapat menjelaskan bagaimana cara mengukur tingkah laku yang tidak dapat diamati. Teori Thorndike ini disebut pula dengan teori koneksionisme. Thorndike berjaya membentuk tiga hokum iaitu Hukum kesediaan, Hukum latihan, Hukum kesan. Hukum kesediaan merupakan keupayaan persiapan seseorang individu di dalam kendirinya untuk memulakan sesuatu aktiviti pembelajaran. Manakala hokum latihan pula menyatakan bahawa semakin byak latihan yang dijalankan semakin bertambah kukuh ikatan gerak balas yang tertentu dengan ransangan yang berkaitan. Hukum kesan menyatakan bahawa ikatan ransangan dengan gerak balas akan bertambah kukuh sekiranya individu memperolehi kesan yang memuaskan selepas gerak balasnya dihasilkan.

2.1.2 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike

Antara implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike ialah untuk meningkatkan tahap kesediaan belajar, guru harus menggunakan motivasi yang sesuai. Selain itu, ia juga dapat mengukuhkan pertalian antara ransangan dengan gerak balas pelajar dengan memperbanyak aktiviti latihan, ulangkaji, aplikasi serta pengukuhan dalam keadaan yang menyeronokkan. Seterusnya memberikan ganjaran atau peneguhan untuk respon antau gerak balas yang betul daripada pelajar. Memberi peluang kepada pelajar untuk menikmati kejayaan dalam pembelajaran mereka.

2.3 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Pavlov merupakan salah seorang daripada ahli teori Behavioris selain daripada Skinner, Thondike dan Watson. Beliau dilahirkan pada 14 September 1849 di Ryazan, Rusia Tengah. Beliau telah meninggal dunia pada 27 Februari 1936 di Leningrad Rusia ketika berusia 86 tahun. Ivan Pavlov merupakan ahli fisiologi, psikologi dan ahli fizik berbangsa Rusia. Sebagai seorang yang sangat mencintai bidang fisiologi beliau telah meminta seorang pelajar duduk di sebelah katilnya dan merekodkan perihal kematiannya. Beliau terkenal dengan orang pertama yang mendeskripsikan fonomena pelaziman klasik atau pelaziman responden. Teori pelaziman klasik adalah tentang tingkah laku pembelajaran yang telah dipelopori oleh Ivan Pavlov ( 1849-1936). Pada tahun 1980-an. Pavlov mengkaji fungsi pencernaan pada anjing dengan melakukan pemerhatian pada kelenjar air liur. Dengan cara itu, beliau dapat mengumpulkan, menyukat dan menganalisis air liur haiwan itu dan bagaimana ia dapat diberikan makanan pada keadaan yang berbeza. Beliau sedar anjing akan mengeluarkan air liur sebelum makanan sampai ke mulutnya dan mencari hubungan timbal balik antara air liur dengan aktiviti perut. Pavlov hendak melihat rangsangan luar dapat mempengaruhi proses ini. Oleh itu contoh paling awal dan terkenal bagi pelaziman klasik melibatkan pelaziman air liur pada anjing kajian Pavlov.

2.4 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme B.F Skinner

Manakala menerusi B.F Skinner pula, beliau mengutarakan teori behaviorisme adalah teori. Menurut Nana Sudjana, 1990 pendekatan Skinner adalah operant conditioning, yang merupakan penerusan dan perluasan secara tepat dari hokum Thorndike. Ia mengakui adanya fenomena conditioning yang klasik dari Pavlov dalam perilaku manusia dan binatang, tetapi itu tidak dianggap terlalu penting.

2.4.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran B.F Skinner

Sesuatu kemahiran atau teknik yang baru dipelajari hendaklah diberi peneguhan secara berterusan dan diikuti secara berkala supaya kemahiran atau teknik itu dapat dikukuhkan dan dikekalkan. Selain itu, penggunaan peneguhan positif yang membawa keseronokan adalah lebih berkesan daripada peneguhan negative yang membawa kesakitan. Seterusnya, prinsip penghapusan melalui proses pelaziman operan adalah sesuai digunakan untuk memodifikasikan tingkah laku pelajar yangtidak diingini, misalnya menghentikan peneguhan yang diberikan dahulu sama ada peneguhan positif atau negatif

2.5 Kelebihan teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Kelebihan yang pertama yang kami perolehi melalui teori ini adalah teori ini sangat sesuai untuk melatih atau mendidik kanak-kanak yang masih memerlukan bantuan daripada orang dewasa di sekeliling mereka. Sebagai contoh kanak-kanak tadika memerlukan bimbingan dan perhatian yang khusus daripada orang di persekitarannya terutamanya guru-guru mereka kerana mereka mudah mengikuti apa yang diajar dan disuruh selain suka meniru perlakuan orang di sekelilingnya. Selain itu, mereka juga suka dengan bentuk-bentuk penghargaan yang diberi kepadanya seperti pujian dan melalui bentuk penghargaan tersebut ianya dapat membangkitkan semangat ingin belajar dalam diri mereka.

Kelebihan yang kedua adalah guru tidak perlu mengambil masa yang lama untuk memberi penerangan yang panjang tentang pembelajaran kepada murid-murid. Hal ini kerana murid-murid akan dibiasakan belajar dengan sendiri kecuali sekiranya murid menghadapi sesuatu masalah dan memerlukan penjelasan yang lebih daripada guru. Dalam hal ini guru perlu memberikan penerangan dengan jelas.

Selain daripada itu, teori ini juga menekankan kemahiran lisan berbanding kemahiran membaca dan menulis. Melalui aspek kemahiran lisan yang ditekankan dapat memberikan kelebihan kepada murid kerana aspek lisan iaitu mendengar dan bertutur penting dalam situasi harian murid. Boleh dikatakan bahawa kemahiran ini adalah kemahiran terkerap yang digunakan manusia untuk berkomunikasi antara satu sama lain.

2.6 Kelemahan Teori Behaviorisme

Dari segi kelemahan pula, penerapan teori behavioris yang kurang tepat dalam sesuatu situasi pembelajaran boleh mangakibatkan berlakunya proses pembelajaran yang tidak kondusif bagi murid-murid kerana pembelajaran berlaku dalam keadaan sehala dimana ianya berpusatkan kepada guru sahaja. Guru hanya mengajar dan melatih murid manakala murid hanya menerima apa yang diajar oleh guru mereka tanpa memberi sebarang maklum balas. Malah dalam teori pembelajaran ini murid berperanan sebagai pendengar dan mereka menghafal apa yang didengar dan dipandang sebagai cara belajar yang efektif. Penggunaan hukuman merupakan salah satu cara untuk guru mendisiplinkan murid dan hal ini akan mendatangkan akibat buruk kepada murid.

Kelemahan yang kedua ialah proses pembelajaran dikatakan kurang memberikan gerak balas yang bebas bagi pelajar untuk berinteraksi serta untuk mengembangkan idea. Hal ini kerana sistem pembelajaran tersebut lebih tertumpu kepada rangsangan dan gerak balas yang ditunjukkan. Sekiranya tiada rangsangan maka tindak balas tidak akan berlaku. Sebagai contoh, guru akan memberi rangsangan dalam bentuk hadiah dan daripada situ barulah murid akan memberikan jawapan yang dikehendaki oleh guru. Sekiranya perkara ini berlaku secara berterusan dikhuatiri murid akan terlalu bergantung terhadap rangsangan dari luar sedangkan murid harus memiliki rangsangan dari dalam diri mereka sendiri sebagai satu cara pembelajaran.

Kelemahan yang ketiga menurut teori ini adalah penambahan ilmu pengetahuan lebih tertumpu kepada buku teks. Hal ini kerana mereka belajar mengikut urutan kurikulum yang sangat ketat sehinggakan buku teks merupakan buku wajib dalam pembelajaran mereka malah mereka juga perlu dikehendaki memahami dan mempersembahkan kembali isi pembelajaran di dalam buku teks tersebut dengan baik. Hal ini boleh mendatangkan kesan buruk kepada pelajar kerana ilmu pengetahuan yang mereka peroleh tidak begitu berkembangan dengan hanya tertumpu kepada satu buah buku sahaja.

2.7 Implikasi teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Yang pertama ialah guru perlu sedar bahawa kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balas boleh dilazimkan iaitu dipelajari. Sebagai contoh apabila guru ingin menyuruh murid-murid beratur ketika waktu rehat di kantin sekolah guru boleh mengaitkannya dengan cara untuk berjaya dalam kehidupan. Implikasi yang seterusnya ialah kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balasdapat dikukuhkan melalui latihan. Semakin kerap rangsangan itu dikaitkan dengan sesuatu gerak balas, semakin kukuh gerak balas terlazim itu. Sebagai contoh guru ingin murid-murid supaya tidak mengaitkan mata pelajaran matematik dengan kesukaran, dengan memberi mereka latihan- latihan yang mudah dan apabila mereka beransur mahir menyelesaikan masalah yang sukar maka guru bolehlah menukar aras pembelajaran kepada tahap yang sederhana sukar dan seterusnya ke aras pembelajaran yang sukar.

Di samping itu, dalam proses pembelajaran, generalisasi boleh berlaku. Ini bermakna perkara yang dipelajari dalam situasi A boleh dipindahkan ke situasi B. Sebagai contoh guru mata pelajaran sains mengaitkan kejadian pencemaran alam sekitar yang mengakibatkan kemusnahan alam semula jadi dengan kemusnahan alam yang berlaku seperti tsunami yang melanda Bandar Acheh.

faktor motivasi memainkan peranan yang penting bagi menghasilkan gerak balas yang diinginkan. Dalam hal ini pemberian ganjaran perlu diberi perhatian. Sebagai contoh ketika murid menjawab soalan yang diberikan oleh guru dengan betul maka guru boleh memberikan pujian kepadanya atau dengan memberikannya hadiah supaya pada waktu pembelajaran yang seterusnya pelajar tersebut akan lebih menumpukan perhatian di dalam kelas untuk memperoleh pujian yang diingini. Namun sekiranya pelajar tersebut tidak dapat menjawab soalan yang diberi maka guru perlulah membimbing pelajar tersebut supaya mereka tidak berasa terpinggir dan seterusnya dapat bersama-sama memahami tajuk pembelajaran pada ketika itu.

Selain itu juga, dalam proses pembelajaran tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat, diamati, diukur dan dikawal hendaklah diberi perhatian. Hal ini kerana melalui perubahan tingkah laku yang ditunjukkan oleh murid guru boleh mengambil sebarang tindakan sekiranya ianya di kesan lebih awal. Sebagai contoh sekiranya seseorang murid menunjukkan tingkah laku yang negatif seperti tidak faham tentang apa yang diajar oleh guru maka guru boleh membuat pemulihan terhadap dirinya. Dalam pembelajaran, penghapusan boleh berlaku jika peneguhan tidak diberikan. Ini bermakna, sekiranya sesuatu tingkahlaku tidak diperkukuhkan melalui ganjaran, tingkahlaku itu mungkin akan terhapus begitu sahaja. Konsep pemulihan serta-merta juga dapat membantu seseorang guru meningkatkan keberkesanan pembelajaran

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Research design aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

2.7 RESEARCH DESIGN USED :

The conception of research design plan is the critical step in the research process. The design ,of the study constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. In other words the research design is a conceptual structure with in which,h research is conducted.

2.8 DATA COLLECTION METHODS :

Primary Data: – Primary data are those data which are collected for the first time, and thus hap,pen to be original in character. It is extracted with the help of discussions co,nducted with senior managers with respect to factors affecting the performance.,

Secondary Data: – Secondary data are those data which are already collected by someone else ,and which have already passed through the statistical process. These data are g,athered by Books, Lectures, Notes, and Official Websites etc.

The study make,s extensive use of secondary data. ‘Secondary data are those which have already,y been passed through the statistical process’. The data which is pre-essential for ,this study relating to comparative analysis of Balance Sheet and PROFIT AND L,OSS A/c was based on secondary source of data. This data will be collected fro,m materials provided by Rakshitas Pvt. Ltd., discussions conducted with store m,anagers and some essential

Financial Accounts books.

2.9 LIMITATIONS :,

‘ Data provided is very limited due to the subjectivity of it being highly confidential.,

‘ The data taken for interpretation is for a limited period.

‘ Assumptions, are to be taken into consideration while doing analysis and interpretation, of data.

‘ Due to limited, information, depth analysis could not be made.

2.10 RESEARCH MEASURE TOOLS :

Various financial techniques and statistical tools are used to measure the data used in the study. Column graphs, pie chart etc. is used to highlight the statistical inference,s. The study cannot be completed without balance sheet and profit and loss a/c. ,Therefore three years balance sheet and profit & loss a/c has been taken out for ma,king proper research.

2.11 ANALYSIS OF DATA :

The data collected is secondary, and it’s compiled, classified, tabulated and then analyzed u,sing financial techniques and statistical tools. Graphs and charts are used to hig,hlight the statistics. Based on this data and analysis, inferences are drawn accor,dingly.

2.12 OVER VIEW OF THE CHAPTER :

The Project I,s Presented in the following chapter :-

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

This chapter includes introduction to finance, theorectical back ground for the study of the ,various performance, introduction to finance, definition of retail industry and di,fferent type of industry.

CHAPTER 2 : DESIGN OF THE STUDY

This chapter I,ncludes the projects introduction of the subject background, statement of the, problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, need and purpose of study,, research methodology, research design, data collection method primary and seco,ndary data, limitations, research measure tools and analysis of data.,

CHA,PTER 3 : PROFILE OF THE COMPANY

This c,hapter contains the profile of the company, its origin and background, board of directors, number of branches and organization structure.

CHAP,TER 4 : DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This ch,apter consists of Table, Graphs, Analysis and Interpretation based on the question,nairies.

CHAPT,ER 5 : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCULSIONS AND RECOM,MENDATIONS

This chap,ter includes findings based on objectives of the study, conclusion drawn from the f,indings and recommendations given from the analysis.

Chapter:-3

PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION

COMPANY PROFILE

RAKSHITAS PVT.LTD.

Rakshitas business con,cept is to offer a broad and varied range of apparels that allows customers to fin,d their own personal style to choose from more than 150 remiums national and int,ernational brands.

Rakshitas is aimed at everyone in the family with an interest in modern basics, fashion, quality and affo,rdable pricing. Customers should always be able to find clothes and accessories ,at Rakshitas for every occasion. The collections are extensive and new arrivals, being launched week after week in each of the 4 floors spread across 20,000 s,q. ft. for Men, Women, Kids and Teen’s casual wear, formal wear, denim wea,r, ethnic and Kancheevaram silks etc. The range and collections are supplemen,ted by matching costume jewellery, premium international watches, perfumes, ,lingerie’s.

Mission

Our mission is to achieve excelle,nce in the products and services we offer, in the methods we employ and in the res,ult we produce.

Products

Menswear: menswear,r means clothing for men. Rakshitas provide various brands for menswear which ,includes formal shirts, casual shirts, trousers, jeans etc. of several variety of int,ernational as well as national brands, for example: -levis, pepe jeans, killer, lee, w,rangler etc.

Women’s wear: Women’s wear means ,clothing for women. Rakshitas provides the best options for women’s apparel rang,ing from skirts to ethnic, casuals as well as formals.

Kids wear: Kids wear are meant only for kids or children ranging below age of 12 years. Rakshitas provides awesome collection for kids which include children formal wear, kurtas, shirt,s etc.

Party wear: Party wear dresses are meant for wearing in parties, functions, special occasions etc. Rakshitas provides variety ranges of party wear which includes lehngas, wedding dresses, traditional indian dress etc.

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Control and organisational behaviour (pengendalian dan perilaku organisasi) melbourne essay help

PENGENDALIAN DAN PERILAKU ORGANISASI

PERILAKU ORGANISASI

Untuk membuat dasar yang nantinya dapat digunakan manajemen dalam menyusun system pengendalian manajemen, maka kita perlu mengetahui lebih dalam mengenai perilaku organisasi. Berikut ini adalah beberapa penjelasan mengenai teori akuntansi sebagai bentuk pemahaman terhadap organisasi.

Definisi Organisasi

Secara umum, organisasi diartikan sebagai sekumpulan orang yang melakukan kerjasama demi mencapai tujuan ‘ tujuan yang telah ditentukan bersama. Organisasi tercipta ketika orang ‘ orang bergabung dan melakukan sesuatu untuk berbagai tujuan dan organisasi dapat mencakup segala aspek dalam kehidupan. Organisasi dapat bersifat formal dan informal. Pekerjaan di dalam suatu organisasi dapat dibagi ‘ bagi dan dikoordinasi sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan keahlian tiap ‘tiap anggota organisasinya untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi tersebut. Suatu organisasi haruslah going concern, dalam arti organisasi tersebut diasumsikan akan hidup selamanya.

Teori Perilaku Organisasi (Theory of Organization Behaviour)

Ada beberapa teori yang menjelaskan mengenai mengapa dan bagaimana orang ‘ orang berperilaku dalam organisasi. Berikut ada dua penjelasan mengenai teori tersebut :

1. Teori jenjang kebutuhan

Teori ini menjelaskan bahwa setiap manusia memiliki kebutuhan yang banyak dan harus dipenuhi dan kebutuhan serta keinginan tersebut tersusun secara rapih, sehingga apabila ada satu kebutuhan terpenuhi maka setelah itu ia akan berusaha memenuhi kebutuhannnya yang lebih tinggi. Dalam teori ini tersirat bahwa system pengendalian manajemen juga didasarkan pada kebutuhan manusia yang terkoordinasi dan dilakukan sesuai dengan tujuan organisasi.

2. Teori motivasi pencapaian

Teori ini lebih mengacu pada perilaku atasan atau manajer dalam perannya saat berorganisasi. Untuk mencapai keberhasilan dan mendapat sebuah kekuasaan, maka manajer tersebut juga perlu memiliki keinginan yang kuat agar dapat menghasilkan prestasi dalam organisasi.

TEORI ORGANISASI

Pengetahuan yang dalam mengenai organisasi sangatlah diperlukan oleh para pelaku organisasi dalam pelaksanaan system pengendalian manajemen organisasi tersebut. Para pelaku organisasi harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui semua poin dalam organisasi termasuk sejarah organisasi, tujuan organisasi, bagaimana perilaku para pelakunya hingga reaksi organisasi tersebut terhadap lingkungan.

Tak berbeda dengan teori perilaku akuntansi, dalam teori organisasi juga terdapat banyak teori yang membahas mengenai organisasi. Dan disini akan dibahas mengenai dua teori juga tentang organisasi, yaitu :

1. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Dalam

Banyak organisasi dianggap indepen dan tidak terlalu memperhatikan lingkungan luar oleh beberapa teori. Teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam ini banyak dijadikan dasar oleh sebagian besar system pengendalian manajemen dalam suatu organisasi hal tersebut didasarkan karena dalam teori ini mencakup tanggung jawab dalam pengambilan keputusan yang berlaku menurut proyek ‘ proyek, program ‘ program serta komponen ‘ komponen fungsionalnya.

2. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Luar

Teori ini adalah teori kebalikan dari teori sebelumnya yaitu teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam. Teori ini beranggapan bahwa suatu organisasi selalu berhubungan dengan lingkungan di sekitarnya. Ada dua jenis organisasi yang menganut teori organisasi yang berorientasi keluar ini, yaitu :

– Organisasi system umum terbuka

– Organisasi system manajemen

TIPE ORGANISASI

Ada tiga jenis atau tipe organisasi, yaitu :

1. Organisasi Fungsional

Dalam tipe organisasi ini, penekanan lebih ditujukan kepada manajer yang sangat harus bertanggung jawab terhadap suatu fungsi tertentu, seperti fungsi produksi, fungsi pemasaran dan fungsi lainnya yang diterapkan dalam organisasi tersebut. Fungsi ‘ fungsi tersebut dapat dihimpun oleh fungsi yang lebih tinggi dalam organisasi itu juga. Organisasi ini berpotensi membuat efisiensi perusahaan yang lebih baik karena menggunakan masukan ‘ masukan dari manajerial yang lebih tinggi.

2. Organisasi Divisi

Dalam organisasi ini, semua manajer harus bertanggung jawab terhadap hamper keseluruhan fungsi dalam proses produksi serta distribusi lini pada organisasi tersebut. Orientasi organisasi divisi lebih terbuka yang berarti lebih menekankan bahwa para manajer harus peka terhadap pengaruh ‘ pengaruh yang dating dari luar yang mungkin dapat mempengaruhi kinerja organisasi.

3. Organisasi Matriks

Ada dua struktur organisasi dalam organisasi matriks, yaitu ditata berdasarkan fungsi dan ditata berdasarkan program. Pada organisasi matriks, para manajer bertanggung jawab penuh atas profitabilitas dari lini produk organisasi tersebut dimana proses produksi dilakukan oleh unit ‘ unit organisasi fungsional.

Teori Kemungkinan (Contingency Theory)

Untuk mengendalikan suatu manajemen menggunakan tiga macam pendekatan, antara lain :

1. Pendekatan tradisional

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada perencanaan, pendekatan dan pengendalian.

2. Pendekatan system

Pendekatan ini menekankan padapenggunaan sumber daya manusia sebagai pertimbangan dalam pengambilan keputusan.

3. Pendekatan perilaku

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada pengendalian manusia termasuk di dalamnya motivasi dan prediksi.

PERILAKU MANAJEMEN

Organisasi dan sistemnya yang rumit akan mempengaruhi perilaku manusia menjadi rumit pula.

Konsep Fundamental

Agar suatu organisasi ‘terkendali’ maka para anggota organisasi harus mengetahui dengan baik apa sebenarnya yang diinginkan oleh manajemen. Untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut, dapat menggunakan banyak informasi yang telah disediakan oleh manajemen organisasi seperti anggaran hingga kebijakan organisasi. Tujuan organisasi dibuat oleh para manajer senior dan dilaksanakan oleh manajer operasional untuk selanjutnya para manajer senior menerapkan system pengendalian manajemen untuk mengontrol organisasi tersebut.

Persepsi Tujuan

Para manajer operasional harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui apa tujuan organisasi. Para manajer operasional tersebut dapat secara mudah mendapatkan informasi ‘ informasi yang mereka butuhkan dari berbagai sumber baik dari dokumen maupun percakapan informal saja. System pengendalian manajemen yang efektif dapat menguatkan kepastian suatu perusahaan.

Organisasi Informal

Adanya organisasi informal di dalam organisasi formal sering menyebabkan adanya salah persepsi mengenai tindakan yang diharapkan. Hubungan pada organisasi informal tidak tercantum di dalam bagan organisasi, padahal hal tersebut cukup penting untuk pemahaman system pengendalian organisasi tersebut.

Motivasi

Reaksi pada pelaku organisasi terutama manajemen terhadap organisasi dapat berbeda tergantung pada motivasinya. Motivasi dapat bermacam ‘ macam, misalnya kenaikan gaji, promosi, pujian dan lain ‘ lain. Motivasi timbul dari dalam pribadi masing ‘ masing, tetapi motivasi dapat dipengaruhi oleh rangsangan dari lingkungan sekitarnya.

Keselarasan Tujuan (Goal Congruence)

Setiap manusia memiliki tujuan pribadi, begitu juga dengan organisasi yang juga memiliki tujuan bersama. Salah satu tugas penting system pengendalian adalah menyelaraskan kedua tujuan tersebut serta mencapainya demi mendapatkan kepuasan bersama. Semakin kuat hubungan antara tujuan pribadi dan tujuan organisasi, maka ssistem pengendalian organisasi tersebut akan semakin kuat juga.

Kerjasama dan Konflik

Suatu organisasi tidak akan berjalan dengan baik apabila para anggotanya tidak bekerjasama dengan baik secara terkoordinasi, untuk itu di dalam organisasi sangat dibutuhkan kerjasama yang terkoordinir dan selaras. Selain itu, organisasi juga harus menjaga koordinasi dan keselarasan tersebut agar tidak terjadi konflik yang dapat mengganggu kinerja organisasi. Konflik tersebut dapat terjadi karena berbagai alasan, salah satunya adalah dengan adanya persaingan didalam organisasi tersebut.

Iklim Organisasi (Organizational Climate)

Secara singkat, iklim organisasi dapat diartikan sebagai hasil kombinasi dari struktur formal dan struktur informal pada suatu organisasi. Dan menurut pemahaman saya iklim organisasi merupakan suasana di dalam organisasi dimana tiap pelaku organisasi di dalam organisasi saling membantu, saling menilai, dan memahami antara satu dengan yang lain. Iklim organisasi ikut mengambil bagian penting dalam organisasi. Keduanya saling mempengaruhi satu sama lain.

Tipe Pengendalian

Pelaku pengendalian Sumber arah pengendalian Macam ‘ macam Pengendalian

Ukuran prestasi dan tingkah laku Isyarat untuk tindak koreksi Imbalan untuk prestasi Hukuman untuk kegagalan

Organisasi formal Rencana organisasi, strategi, tanggapan atas persaingan Anggaran, biaya standar, target penjualan penyimpangan Penghargaan manajemen, insentif uang, promosi Minta penjelasan

Kelompok informal Keterikatan bersama cita’cita kelompok Norma-norma kelompok penyimpangan Pengakuan rekan, keanggotaan, kepemimpinan Ejekan, pengasingan, permusuhan

Perorangan Tujuan pribadi, aspirasi Harapan pribadi, target antara Dugaan akan kegagalan di masa yang akan dating, target tak tercapai Kepuasan karena ‘terkendali’ kegembiraan Merasa gagal

Sumber : Disarikan dari Gene W. Dalton dan Paul R. Lawrence, Motivation and Control in Organizations (Homewood, III. : Richard D. Irwin, 1971). Hak Cipta 1971 oleh Richard D. Irwin Inc.

Variasi dalam Pengendalian

Hakekat system pengendalian manajemen dibedakan menurut sifat pekerjaan, macam organisasi, lingkungan daan peran manajer. Berikut adalah tiga dimensi yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penggunaan dan pengembangan system pengendalian manajemen :

1. Besar keleluasaan manajemen

2. Besar interdependensi

3. Rentang waktu pelaksanaan

FUNGSI KONTROLER

Kontroler dapat diartikan sebagai petinggi atau pejabat yang bertanggung jawab atas apa yang telah direncanakan oleh organisasi dan bagaimana pengoperasiannya. Tanggung jawab para kontroler berbeda ‘ beda di tiap organisasi bahkan di tiap divisinya. Tanggung jawab kontroler didasarkan pada posisinya masing ‘ masing. Tanggung jawab tersebut dilaksanakan secara langsung. Selain tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian tersebut, berikut ini adalah fungsi lain dari kontroler :

a. Menyiapkan laporan kepada pihak pemerintah serta pihak ‘ pihak luar lainnya.

b. Mempersiapkan pengembalian pajak.

c. Mempersiapkan dan melakukan analisa terhadap laporan prestasi keuangan.

d. Membantu para manajer dengan cara melakukan analisa sertab menafsirkan laporan ‘ laporan tersebut.

e. Menggunakan prosedur pemeriksaan intern dan pengendalian akuntansi, memastikan validitas informasi, menetapkan usaha perlindungan yangcukup terhadap berbagai penyimpangan serta melakukan pemeriksaan operasional.

f. Melakukan pengembangan kepada orang ‘ orang yang ia pimpin serta berperan langsung dalam penambahan pengetahuan mengenai fungsi kontroler

g. Mengadakan manajemen kas, asuransi serta kegiatan ‘ kegiatan lainnya demi pengamanan kekayaan perusahaan.

Hubungan dengan Organisasi Lini

Kontroler juga memiliki hak untuk membuat kebijakan ‘ kebijakan dalam organisasi. Namun keputusan ‘ keputusan tersebut merupakan realisasi pelaksanaan kebijakan ‘ kebijakan yang telah dibuat oleh manajer lini. Dengan kata lain, terdapat keselarasan antara kedua belah pihak. Hal tersebut tentunya sangat baik untuk menjaga kelancaran jalannya organisasi tersebut.

Kontroler Divisi

Kebanyakan perusahaan atau organisasi membagi organisasinya tersebut menjadi beberapa divisi yang dikepalai oleh seorang manajer. Manajer divisi tentu juga memiliki kontroler divisi. Dalam hal ini, kontroler divisi harus patuh kepada manajer divisi dan juga kontroler perusahaan yang terkadang beda kepentingannya. Penilaian prestasi terhadap kontroler divisi dapat dilakukan dengan menilai beberapa poin, antara lain :

– Laporan akuntansi dan keuangan

– Pengetahuan mengenai operasi divisi

– Sasaran dan pelaksanaan kepatuhan terhadap kebijakan

– Kontribusi manajemen

– Pengetahuan terhadap akuntansi

– Kejujuran dan profesionalisme

– Kemauan bekerjasama

– Organisasi dan staf

– Inisiatif dan semangat

HUBUNGAN LINI-STAF

Seorang manajer divisi dapat dikatakan tidak memiliki staf maupun asisten pribadi. Manajer tersebut mendapatkan bantuan dari :

1. Tenaga yang ditugaskan untuk membantunya dari staf umum, insinyur serta petugas pembelian

2. Staf pusat yang dapat dimintai bantuan kapan saja sebanyak mungkin.

HUBUNGAN MANAJER DIVISI ‘ KONTROLER

Untuk mencapai kesuksesan organisasi dalam hubungannya dengan manajer divisi, maka organisasi perlu membina kerjasama yang baik dan solid di tiap ‘ tiap manajemen. Berikut merupakan beberapa factor yang dapat mempengaruhi hubungan baik adalah :

1. System akuntansi yang seragam dan terpusat

2. Sasaran ‘ saasaran keuangan yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya untuk tiap ‘ tiap divisi.

(Pertumbuhan penjualan serta besar laba penjualan)

3. Pembagian laba antara kontroler dan manajer

SISTEM AKUNTANSI

Selain memiliki tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian organisasi, divisi kontroler juga memiliki kewenangan atas system akuntansi yang akan digunakan oleh organisasi tersebut termasuk di dalamnya menetapkan cara dan jenis pos ‘ pos yang harus mereka awasi. Sistem akuntansi dijadikan dasar dalam penyusunan laporan keuangan beserta analisisnya.

SASARAN ‘ SASARAN DIVISI

Seperti yang telah disebutkan pada bagian sebelumnya, perusahaan atau organisasi memiliki sasaran keuangan, yaitu pertumbuhan penjualan dan tingkat laba. Tingkat laba dalam organisasi atau perusahaan ditetapkan sebaga persentase penjualan. Berikut ini adalah beberapa factor penentu target laba penjualan :

1. Kemungkinan pematenan produk

2. Besar laba atas investasi yang diinginkan

3. Besar laba industry bersangkutan

4. Besar laba investasi bersangkutan

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Business notes: Creative problem solving aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

1 Unit 1 – Creative problem solving

1.1 Introduction

A business leader is expected to identify problems, implement solutions and find business opportunities. To do so, they must learn to plan, analyse situations, identify and solve problems (or potential problems), make decisions, and set realistic and attainable goals for the business/unit. These are the fundamental thinking/creative requirements for leadership, and these set direction to a successful future. Without this critical competence, you will have to rely on others to do your thinking for you, or you will simply have to learn to nurture your creative thinking skills which will help you on your journey towards successful business.

Creative thinking forms part of this continuous problem solving process, and is the fundamental basis for facilitating in the development of solutions, new initiatives, products or services. In an entrepreneurial context, the end result of this process should be directly linked to a feasible opportunity in the market environment.

Quote – What lies behind us and what lies before us, are tiny matters, compared to what lies within us. – William Morrow

The creative problem solving process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Problem analysis

‘ Solution analysis

‘ Decision analysis

‘ Solution implementation

1.2 The process

The creative problem solving process consists of an important core process, namely the idea generation process see figure 1. This is an important step, especially if you need to come up with creative ideas for products, services, and processes, to solve a consumer problem. The idea generation process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Step 1 – Generating ideas

‘ Step 2 – Developing ideas into a concept

‘ Step 3 – Converting a concept into a tangible or intangible product

‘ Step 4 – Finally protecting the tangible or intangible product

Figure 1 – The process of creative thinking (idea generation)

Initially you need to understand the problem and find the root cause of the problem. Many techniques are available to find the causes of problems, you can use the 5 Why technique in this case, if you are familiar with it. The more advanced courses will describe how to use the major problem identification techniques, but this course will focus on the idea generation process.

1.3 Where to start

In the entrepreneurial phase, the best way to start the idea generation process is when you are required to come up with a new product or service, to identify a potential consumer problem. Initially, focus on identifying problems in the area of your expertise (your knowledge base).

If you have no knowledge of the problem, the product development stage could be a challenge for you.

You will learn in the next section that not all problems are opportunities, and entrepreneurs should be careful as to how they approach this stage, when generating ideas in trying to identify a new product or service.

1.4 Problem versus opportunity

In most cases, the idea-generation phase in the creative problem solving process is neglected. Individuals normally identify a problem or an opportunity (which may seem like an opportunity, but is actually just an idea), and then develop a new product in line with the new assumed idea or opportunity. It is therefore important to distinguish between an idea and an opportunity. Resources may be wasted if a mere idea is incorrectly perceived as an opportunity.

Any opportunity is initially problem based (e.g. a coffee shop in a destination where there is a lack thereof, this creates several problem situations and potentially feasible opportunities for the entrepreneur). The creative thinking (idea generation process) involved, is the means to solving these problems, and bring forth solutions to the market problems, which create further opportunities.

1.4.1 Difference between problem and opportunity

There is, however, a critical difference between a problem and opportunity. Consider the following:

‘ Is it an idea or an opportunity to develop a high speed train between two major cities which are not far from each other? Some may say it is a great idea, but when you need to pay R200 a day to make use of it, it is simply not an opportunity. Only a few people would make use of the service, resulting in a negative impact on the market.

‘ If it is possible to transport people between the two cities for a lower cost, say R10, it would possibly be a more feasible opportunity.

Here is a good example of an opportunity – Around the turn of the twentieth century, a shoe manufacturer sent a representative to Africa, to open up a market in the undeveloped area in that continent. After exploring the culture for a month, the rep sent a telegram to the home office shouting,

‘Disaster! Disaster! These people do not wear shoes. Bring me home immediately!’

A short time later, another shoe company sent their agent to Africa for the same purpose. A month later his home office also received a telegram:

‘Opportunity! Opportunity! These people do not wear shoes! Triple production immediately!’

Quote – Every situation contains the potential for disastrous problems or unprecedented success. The event is what we perceive it to be. Unknown

Now the question arises: How do I distinguish between an idea and an opportunity? Looking at above examples, every problem is not an opportunity, and it really depends at how you are looking at the problem. If you see a viable opportunity in a problem then you are looking at the problem with a different perception than most people (the glass is half full or half empty). From a business perspective all opportunities are not necessarily a viable opportunity, the market determines the available opportunities. Without the knowledge to interpret the market conditions, you could miss it totally in terms of your opportunity analysis.

Table 1 shows the different industries in South Africa, the level of entrepreneurial activity, and how the same opportunity differs in each of these market areas.

1.4.2 The global entrepreneurship monitor

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor ‘ specifically identified the entrepreneurial activity in the various industries of South Africa. It can be generalized to state that an industry with a high level of entrepreneurial activity, gives away more business opportunities (e.g. manufacturing, retail, hotel, restaurant and business services), while one with a lower level will indicate far less opportunities (e.g. agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing, finance, insurance, real estate and health, education and social services).

If we analyse just one ‘high-opportunity’ industry, for instance manufacturing, it may be an opportunity today to manufacture a final product, and export it to an international market. A ‘low-opportunity’ industry, for instance insurance (especially in the market entry phase), may be negative as having an extremely high crime rate and insurance companies have to pay out claims at an alarming rate. It is also evident that low-opportunity industries may create feasible opportunities.

An entrepreneur should therefore be wary of following a fad, (latest trend) and exploiting assumed opportunities in a ‘popular’ industry.

Percentage of Entrepreneurs

ISIC Category Start-ups New Firms Total

Agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing 1,3 2,6 1,6

Mining, construction 9,7 5,0 4,1

Manufacturing 14,3 19,1 13,8

Transport, communications, utilities 9,8 0,7 8,0

Wholesale, motor vehicle sales, repairs 6,0 6,5 6,3

Retail, hotel, restaurant 40,8 47,7 43,5

Finance, insurance, real estate 0,3 5,2 1,4

Business services 10,1 7,9 9,4

Health, education, social services 2,6 0,7 2,3

Consumer services 11,0 3,5 9,7

Source: Driver. Wood, Segal & Herrington, 2001

Table 1 – The percentage of entrepreneurs in the different industries in South-Africa

1.4.3 What is an opportunity?

What exactly is an opportunity and how does an entrepreneur exploit a feasible opportunity? According to Hesrich & Peters (2002), an opportunity is the process whereby the entrepreneur assesses whether a certain product, service or process, will yield the necessary earnings based on the resource inputs that are required to manufacture and market it.

The nature of opportunities needs to be assessed – thus, what leads to the existence of an opportunity? The following factors may result in an opportunity:

‘ General and specific problems faced by consumers

‘ Market shifts

‘ Government regulations

‘ Competition

There are two equally important criteria in the assessment of an opportunity. Firstly, the size of the market – will the number of customers reward the input and energy required, to create and deliver the product?

Secondly, the length in terms of the frame of the opportunity (window of opportunity). For example, is the demand for this product only a short fashionable phenomenon or is it based on sustainable business, or how long will it take before someone else (a competitor), to grab the opportunity?

These two aspects should also link directly to the personal skills and competence of the entrepreneur. For example, entrepreneurs with no skills or interest in information technology will not necessarily achieve their personal goals. They should rather venture into an opportunity which suits their experience and personality.

1.4.4 Transform opportunity into a business

Table 2 shows how the development of a business plan links to the identification and evaluation of opportunities, the determination of the resources required and the eventual management of the enterprise. All of these factors play a significant role in the correct assessment of the business opportunity.

This means that the business plan must explain in sufficient detail how the business will exploit the situation, to transform the opportunity, into solving a problem for the consumer, which generates extraordinary profits for the people involved.

Identify and evaluate the opportunity Develop the business plan Determine the resources needed Manage the enterprise

Creation and length of opportunity

Real and perceived value of opportunity

Risk and returns of opportunity

Opportunity versus skills and goals

Competitive situation Title page

Table of contents

Executive summary

Description of business

Description of industry

Marketing plan

Financial plan

Production plan

Organisational plan

Operational plan

Summary

Appendices Existing resources of the entrepreneur

Resource gap and available supplies

Access to needed resources Management style

Key variables for success

Identification of problems and potential problems

Implementation of control systems

Source: Hisrich, R.D. & Peters, M.P. 2002: 40. Entrepreneurship. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Table 2 – Link between Opportunity and business plan

1.5 Instruction

Exit and resume to your current page.

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The importance of employee engagement in an organization college essay help online free

1.4 Literature Review

Mark Kilsby and Stephen Beyer (1996) ‘ Engagement and Interaction : A comparison between supported employment and acts’. This research study was conducted with the help of interaction and commitment patterns of 13 supported employees and 38 regular adult training center attainders of the organization. Direct observation was used as method of data collection, within the 13 employment sites and a representative sample of ATC organized activities. Because of the higher level of task specific dialogue between individuals and the service of the organization it is found that there is more of social interaction in ACT. Interaction of employees with public within office hours was the cause for this as per the study conducted.

Douglas R. May, Richard L, Gilson and Lynn M . Harter (2004) ‘The Psychological Conditions Of Meaningfulness ,Safety And Availability And The Engagement Of The Human Spirit At Work’. This shows the study about a U.S western company which explored the determinants and mediated the effects of tree psychological conditions they are meaningful, safe and available. The above studies shoes that all the three factors (meaningfulness, safety and availability) have a positive relation with the engagement of an employee in the organization. In other words they are completely associated with the psychological safety where as loyalty to co worker norms and self- consciousness are negatively related.

Despoina Xanthopaolou, Arnold B, Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti and Wilmar B.Schaufeli (2009) ‘Work Engagement And Financial Returns : A Diary Study On The Role Of The Job And Personal Resources’. The above study shows that how daily fluctuations in job can affect the level of personal resource , financial returns and work engagement. Different level of analysis revealed that day level job resources had an effect on work engagement through the day level personal resources. When there was a control for the general level of personal resources and organizational engagement Day level work engagement showed a positive way towards day level training, which in turn showed the financial returns.

Dan-Shang Wang and Chia ‘Chun Hsieh (2013) ‘The Effect Of Authentic Leadership On Employee Trust And Employee Engagement’ they have examined the genuine leadership on employee engagement through employee trust. They have collected data from 386 employees from top 1000 manufacturing companies and top 500 service companies in Taiwan. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis on the employees. Later on the results shows that the consistency between the supervisors , words and actions as well as their moral perceptions are optimistically related to employee engagement , when only supervisors are consist between the words and actions in positively related employment trust. The study shows how employee engagement had a positive trust on employee. Employee trust has a partial link between authentic leadership and employee engagement.

Benjamin J.C, Yuan and Michael B.H. Lin (2012) ‘Transforming Employee Engagement Into Long-Term Customer Relationships: Evidence From Information Technology Salespeople In Taiwan’. This article shows that when information sales people in Taiwan have perceived more transformational leadership and they were more expected to show increased development in work engagement. Over a period of time it was found that increased development in work engagement influenced the increased customer relationship. It showed how employee engagement is indirectly co related with customer relationship.

Xander M.Bezuijen, Karen Van Dam, Peter T . Van Den Berg and Henk Thierry (2010) ‘How Leaders Stimulate Employee Learning : A Leader ‘ Member Exchange Approach’. This study investigated how the three factors as such as leader member exchange, goal setting, and feedback are related to employee engagement in the learning activities. Here, two different mechanisms were proposed , first one a mediating mechanism telling that leader member exchange shows specific leader behavior. The second one is it as a moderating mechanism , holding that leader member exchange will strengthen the effect of leader behavior from 7 organizations a sample of 1112 employees was taken , to measure the leader member exchange approach. 233 of the direct leaders answered that they find difficulty in rating employee engagement in learning activities.

Maureen F.Dollard and Arnold B. Bakker (2010) ‘Psychosocial Safety Climate As A Precursor To Conducive Work Environment , Psychological Health Problems , And Employee Engagement’. This article shows the gap between work psychology and psychosocial working condition. Where we construct a psychosocial working condition PSC. It explains how PSC influences the senior management in psychological working conditions and in psychological health and engagement. They use the job demand and resources as a frame work and uses a multi level thinking into their explanation

James R.Jones (2009) ‘Comparative Effects On Race/Ethnicity And Employee Engagement On Withdrawal Behavior’. This study have added knowledge on the basis of effects on employee attachment. In addition to that it provides more evidence on looking at all types of employees as a single entity which can lead to false results.

Shane Crabb ( 2011) ‘The Use Of Coaching Principles To Foster Employee Engagement’. The above article focuses on the human condition that leads to the happiness of fulfillment and flourishing of employee engagement. Where positive psychology results in so many questions from traditional psychological approaches .Which have mean to focus on a different model of human functioning with healing people fail. In another way positive psychology takes additional holistic approach to human life. Seeing the positive and negative aspects of context when establishing what is right , working and good of people.

Roberta A . Neault and Deidre A .Pickerel (2011) ‘Career Engagement : Bridging Career Counseling And Employee engagement’ . this article is showing that employee counselors helps individuals in maximizing their career engagement at any career stage of an individual. When you facilitate career engagement it contributes to employee engagement which employee are looking for. They even encourages others to use the career engagement and employee engagement models as vehicles to combine the employers to interest in engagement counselors to create interest in supporting the development of employee an motivate them to work.

2.1 Title: A Cross Sectional Study Of Employee Engagement In Apollo Hospitals.

2.2 Objectives:

1. To determine the level of Employee Engagement in Apollo Hospitals.

2. To identify the factors of Employee Engagement.

3. To analyze and suggest strategies for improvement.

2.3 Research Methodology:

I had adopted descriptive research design for the purpose of this

Survey on employee engagement. The primary data was collected from the 100 employees conveniently selected from Apollo Hospitals Bangalore, through structured questionnaire.

2.4 Limitations:

1) The survey was carried out for a sample sized of 100 working staff only.

2) Findings and suggestion of this research are applicable only to Apollo Hospitals.

3) As an fact finding study advanced statistical tools or analysis are not used.

Table 1.1 Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

X 1 2 3 4 5

I have adequate opportunities for professional growth in this organization. (X1) 10 20 32 19 19

I receive the training I need to do my job well.(X2) 2 52 22 16 08

My manager is actively interested in my professional development and advancement.(X3) 32 21 12 18 17

My manager encourages and supports my development (X4) 08 10 40 18 24

I am encouraged to learn from my mistakes (X5) 52 23 16 04 05

My work is challenging, stimulating, and rewarding(X6) 28 14 33 16 09

X1 ?? XI X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5 X6 ?? X6

10 50 2 10 32 160 08 40 52 260 28 140

20 80 52 208 21 84 10 40 23 92 14 56

32 96 22 66 12 36 40 120 16 48 33 99

19 38 16 32 18 36 18 36 04 08 16 32

19 19 08 08 17 17 24 24 05 05 09 09

TOTAL 283 TOTAL 324 TOTAL 333 TOTAL 260 TOTAL 413 TOTAL 336

Table 1.2 Calculation Of Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

283/100 2.83 324/100 3.24 333/100 3.33 260/100 2.60 413/100 4.13 336/100 3.36

RANKED 6 RANKED 4 RANKED 3 RANKED 5 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.3 Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Opportunities for growth

INFERENCE

The above table shows that the employees are encouraged to learn from their mistakes that is 4.15 out of 5.the work is stimulating rewarding and challenging is ranked 2nd.the manager is actively interested in employees professional growth is

ranked 3rd.the level of opportunity for professional growth shows the least ranking.

Table 1.4: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 20 32 19 19 100

Chart 1.1: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

Interpretation:

32% of the employees from the given population says that they have a neutral opportunity to grow where as 10 % stands in the outstanding category and 20% of them in good category. An equal no of employees disagree to the fact in the other hand that is 19% of the given population.

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 52 22 16 8 100

Table 1.5: Showing Training

Chart 1.2: Showing Training

Interpretation:

In the given sample 52% of the employees agrees to the fact that they receive good training in order to do their job efficiently and 2% strongly agrees. where 22 % is neutral to the situation given.16 % of them do not get proper training they required to do their jobs and 8 % strongly disagree to it. It is clear that the organization is giving a proper training to employees to make their work effective.

Table 1.6: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 21 12 18 17 100

Chart 1.3: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

Interpretation:

Most of the employees agree that their manager takes attention in their professional development steps. 32 % to 25 of the employees from the given sample have strongly agreed and agreed to it respectively. whereas 12 % is neutral to it . but 18% to 17% disagrees and says that they are not taken care in respective of their advancement in profession.

Table 1.7: Showing Encouragement And Support

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 10 40 18 24 100

Chart 1.4: Showing Encouragement And Support

Interpretation:

From the above graph its clear that 40% of the employees neither agree or disagree that management encourage them or support them. 8% to 10% agrees that they have been supported by the management . but 18 % to 24 % disagree to the fact that management supports them .

Table 1.8: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

52 23 16 4 5 100

Chart 1.5: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

Interpretation:

More than half , 52% of the employees states that they have a challenging stimulating and rewarding work. A very few of them disagree to it 4 % to 5% . and 23 % of them agrees t it there is a majority of people agreeing to it.

Table 1.9: Showing Encouragement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

28 14 33 16 9 100

Chart 1.6: Showing Encouragement

Interpretation:

There is a 28% of people agreeing to it. And 16 % to 9 % disagreeing to the fact that they are not encouraged to learn from their mistakes .

Table 1.10: Showing Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

X 1 2 3 4 5

My manager understands the benefits of maintaining a balance between work and personal life. (X1) 02 13 08 48 29

My job does not cause unreasonable amounts of stress in my life. (X2) 30 13 08 48 29

The amount of work I am asked to do is reasonable. (X3) 40 20 12 14 14

I am able to satisfy both my job and family/personal responsibilities. (X4) 27 12 08 09 44

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4

02 10 30 150 40 200 27 135

13 52 13 52 20 80 12 48

08 24 08 24 12 48 08 24

48 96 48 96 14 28 09 18

29 29 29 29 14 14 44 44

TOTAL 211 TOTAL 351 TOTAL 370 TOTAL 269

Table 1.11: Showing Calculation Of Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

Table 1.12: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace

211/100 2.11 351/100 3.51 370/100 3.7 269/100 2.69

RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2 RANKED 3

INFERRENCE

By analysing the given data using weighted average method that the level of stress reduced in the employees is 3.51 out of 4 , and the amount of work the employee is asked to do is 3.7. the employee is able to balance between family and personal responsibility is 2.69 . the managers understanding in the benefits and maintaining balance between work and personal life should be taken care because it is got only 2.11 which have least rank

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 13 8 48 29 100

Table 1.13: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Chart 1.7: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Interpretation:

Only 2% of the employees says that there is a balance between work life and personal life. 13% of them agrees to it and 8% is neutral to it.but 48% of the sample disagrees and 29 % of them strongly disagrees to it.

Table 1.14: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

30 13 8 48 29 100

Chart 1.8: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

Interpretation:

30% of the employees strongly agrees that the job doesn’t cause much stress where 13% of them agrees and 8% is neutral to it. But 48%of them disagree nd 29% strongly disagrees and states that job causes stress in their life.

Table 1.15: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.9: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

Interpretation:

40% of them strongly agrees that they have sufficient amount of work and they do not feel any stress where 20 % of them agrees. 12% of the sample is neutral.14% of them disagrees they don’t have suffient amount of work or they are overloaded with the work given.

Table 1.16: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.10: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

Interpretation:

44% of them strongly disagree that they are not able to complete their job, family and personal responsibilities. 27 % to 12 % agrees to it and 8% is neutral to that. It shows that employees are not satisfied with the amount of work given to them.

Table 1.17: Showing Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X 1 2 3 4 5

My ideas and opinions count at work. (X1) 03 18 19 32 28

I am comfortable sharing my opinions at work. (X2) 10 08 28 42 12

We work to attract, develop, and retain people with diverse backgrounds. (X3) 10 13 09 56 12

Senior management is genuinely interested in employee opinions and ideas. (X4) 24 23 36 07 10

People with different ideas are valued in this organization. (X5) 20 18 40 13 09

Table 1.18: Calculation Of Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

3 15 10 50 10 50 24 120 20 100

18 72 08 32 13 52 23 92 18 72

19 57 28 84 09 27 36 108 40 120

32 64 42 84 56 112 07 14 13 26

28 26 12 12 12 12 10 10 09 09

TOTAL 234 TOTAL 262 TOTAL 253 TOTAL 344 TOTAL 327

234/100 2.34 262/100 2.62 253/100 2.53 344/100 3.44 327/100 3.27

RANKED 5 RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.19: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Personal Expression / Diversity

INFERRENCE

By analysing the above table it shows that senior management is interested in personal opinions which shows the rank 1. And people with different ideas are valued in the organisation are considered 3.27 out of 5. Employees are free to share their ideas 2.62. the employees work in such a manner to attract and retain others 2.53 ,which has got the 4th rank. Ideas counted at work has got the least rank where they have to work on that part.

Table 1.20: Showing Idea And Opinion Count

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

3 18 19 32 28 100

Chart 1.11: : Showing Idea And Opinion Count

Interpretation:

Only 3% of the employees agree that the management listens to their ideas and opinions. 18% of them agree to it as well. 19 % is neutral to the situation. Whereas there is a huge no of the sample size that is32% to 28% who is disagreeing to it. Their opinions and ideas are not taken seriously by the management.

Table 1.21: Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 8 28 42 12 100

Chart 1.12 : Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

Interpretation:

The conducted shows that onl10% to 8% employees are comfortable in sharing their problems with the upper management. Rest of the sample that is 42% is disagreeing that they are not comfortable in sharing their ideas or problems.12% of them strongly disagrees.

Table 1.22: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 13 9 56 12 100

Chart 1.13: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

Interpretation:

56% of the employees disagrees that they don’t work to attract ,develop or retain customers. Where 10% to 13% agrees to the statement . a little sample size of 12% strongly disagrees to the statement .

Table 1.23: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

24 23 26 7 10 100

Chart 1.14: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

Interpretation

The management shows interest in taking employees ideas and opinions.24% of them agrees and 23% of the strongly agrees to the statement. A huge sample ,36% id neutral to the statement. But a little sample, 7% to 10% disagrees to the statement.

Table 1.24: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

20 18 40 13 9 100

Chart 1.15: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

Interpretation:

20% to 18% of the employees agree that people with different ideas are well accepted in the organization. 40% to the employees are neutral to the statement. 13 % to 9% of the sample disagrees to the statement on the other hand.

Table 1.25: Showing Weighted Average On Compensation

X 1 2 3 4 5

I am paid fairly for the work I do. (X1) 19 42 12 25 2

My salary is competitive with similar jobs I might find elsewhere.(X2) 32 12 28 23 5

My benefits are comparable to those offered by other organizations.(X3) 8 29 28 32 3

I understand my benefit plan. (X4) 42 15 19 9 15

I am satisfied with my benefit package. (X5) 58 12 11 6 13

Table 1.26: Calculation Of Weighted Average On Compensation

X1 vX1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

19 95 32 160 08 40 42 210 58 290

42 168 12 48 29 116 15 60 12 48

12 36 28 84 28 84 19 57 11 33

25 50 23 46 32 64 09 18 06 12

02 02 05 05 03 03 15 15 13 13

TOTAL 351 TOTAL 343 TOTAL 307 TOTAL 360 TOTAL 396

Table 1.27: Showing The Rank Of Each Component Of Compensation

351/100 3.51 343/100 3.43 307/100 3.07 360/100 3.60 396/100 3.96

RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 5 RANKED 2 RANKED 1

INFERENCES

The above table shows that the employees are satisfied with the benefit package they are given 3.96 out of 5.the employees understand their plan is 3.60. the fair pay is ranked 3rd.the employees salary is competitive with others is ranked 4th. The salary is not comparable with salary with others which has been ranked the least, rank 5.

Table 1.28: showing Fair Pay

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

19 42 12 25 2 100

Chart 1.16: Showing Fair Pay

Interpretation:

19% to 42% of the Employees agree that they are paid fairly according to the amount of work they do. But 25% to 2% of the sample size disagrees to the statement. And 12% is neutral to it.

Table 1.29: Showing Salary Competitiveness

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 12 28 23 5 100

Chart 1.17: Showing Salary Competitiveness

Interpretation:

32% of the employees agrees that they get a competitive salary when compared to other organizations with same designation. 12% of them strongly agrees to it .28% of them are neutral to the statement. 23% to 5% is disagrees to the statement in the other hand.

Table 1.30: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 29 28 32 3 100

Chart 1.18: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

Interpretation:

There is balance, 29% of the employees agrees and 32 % of them strongly disagrees that they have a comparable benefits.28% of them are neutral in the other hand.

Table 1.31: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

42 15 19 9 15 100

Chart 1.19: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

Interpretation:

42% of the employees agrees that they understand their benefit plan. 15% strongly agrees ,where 19% is neutral.9% to 15% disagrees to the fact and says they don’t understand the benefit plans they are given.

Table 1.32: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

58 12 11 6 13 100

Chart 1.20: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

Interpretation:

58% of them are satisfied with their benefit package. 12% strongly agrees. Whereas little sample of 6% to 13% disagrees to the statement. Or they are not happy with their benefit package.11% is neutral to it.

Summary of Findings

‘ Most of the employee’s ability state the opinion firmly and positively is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability in exercising the professional duties without assistance is better than acceptable standard.

‘ The Emotional Stamina of the majority of the employees is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the Employee’s Ability to work co-operatively and collaboratively to achieve common goal is better than acceptable.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to effectively guide a group through an appropriate process to help to achieve their desired outcomes is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to clarify and establish with a group roles and responsibilities, common goal and plan to achieve them and group behavioural is outstanding.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to deal with multiple issues and details, alertness and learning capacity is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to see and think beyond the obvious and formulate original solution is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to present ideas, concept, plan and procedure clearly to the target group is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Concern for excellence of the majority of the employee’s is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s Aware of what is going on in the workplace and responds in a suitable manner to situations as they is better than acceptable.

‘ The understanding between the top level and employees are in good terms.

‘ Employees do understand their benefits and opportunities given by the organisation.

‘ The employees are paid fairly according to the work done.

‘ Freedom of sharing new ideas and opinions are welcomed in the organisation.

‘ The employees are able to make a balance between personnel and work life. which reduces the amount of stress in them.

‘ The organisation encourages the employee to learn from their mistakes.

‘ Recommendations

‘ In this organization employee engagement study must be regularly done in order to check the level of employee effectiveness.

‘ Since many of the employees are performing different jobs to what they were doing at the time of their joining they need training to perform the new work allotted them.

‘ Different sources of employee engagement tactics must be encouraged in employees.

‘ The top management should support the lower level employees since it is considered a major hurdle in effective employee engagement and the employees must also be made aware of importance of engagement at work system

‘ The employees should be then and there motivated for work.

‘ The understanding between management and employees should be increased.

‘ Level of stress in work should be reduced.

‘ Better benefit package should be given to the employees.

Conclusion

In the report we have discussed the importance of employee engagement in an organization and how it affects the efficiency of work and productivity. Employment counselors should help individuals to maximize their career engagement at any stage of their career. Basically employee engagement should be a buzz word for the employee engagement and a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization. Employee engagement is gaining its importance and popularity in work places and its impact in many ways. It emphasis on the importance of employee engagement in a organization, an organization should thus give more importance for its employees than any other variable as they are the powerful contributors to a company’s competitiveness. Thus it shows that employee engagement should be a continues process for learning, improvement, measurement and action of an employee.

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The limitations of the Chit Acts free college essay help

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The financial system assumes strategically a very important role in channelling the funds from surplus units to deficit units. The financial system here refers to the group of institutions, markets and instruments which helps in formation of capital and thus accelerates to the pace of economic development.

The base of this study stems from the fact that there exists a gap between gross capital formation and gross domestic savings in India. So, there exists the need to augment the growth rate of voluntary domestic savings. This goal can be realized by widening and strengthening the working of different financial intermediaries which will result in mobilizing savings from various income level categories. .It is in this context that the role of the Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries like Chit Finance should be appreciated in supplementing the functions of the Banking Institutions.

Chit funds are Chit funds are the Indian equivalent of the Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCA). ROSCAs are famous in many parts of the world and is seen as an instrument to ‘save and borrow’ simultaneously. ROSCAs basically started as a way to help in fulfilling the needs of the low-income households as it enables the people to convert their small savings into lump sums. The concept of chit funds originated more than 1000 years ago. Initially it was in the form of an informal association of traders and households within communities, wherein the members contributed some money in return for an accumulated sum at the end of the tenure. Participation in Chit funds was mainly for the purpose of purchasing some property or, in other words, for ‘consumption’ purposes. However, in recent times, there have been tremendous alterations in the constitution and functioning of Chit funds. A significant difference between Chit Funds and ROSCAs are that in most places ROSCAs are user-owned and organized informally, but chit funds have been formally institutionalized in India. (Chit Funds-An innovative access to finance for low income households, 2009)

1.1.1 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY CHIT FUNDS?

Chit fund is a savings-cum-borrowing instrument. The basic aim of this instrument is to pool small amount of savings by all the members which is then managed by a foreman. The foreman has the responsibility to act as a trustee-cum-supervisors for the process of collection and allotment of the pooled amount.

Chit funds represent a traditional form of saving-cum-credit institution evolved before the bank system was introduced in rural India. There are many who avail themselves of this avenue for saving for a reasonable return.

1.1 NEED AND RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Despite the growth of a wide range of savings avenues and the widespread network of banks and other financial institutions, it has been found that Chit scheme still forms an important part in the asset portfolio of many households and firms in India and especially in South India including Karnataka. Also, the review of literature shows that there are only a few studies on Chit Finance. Therefore, the need to conduct the study stems from the requirement to understand Chit Funds in Bangalore.

1.2 NEED TO CONDUCT THE STUDY

The research titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study tries to point out the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests feasible recommendations for improving the working of such institutions.

.3.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’.

VARIABLES UNDER INVESTIGATION

1. Age

2. Occupation

3. Monthly income

4. Gender

5. Bank loan

6. Regular participation in chit fund

7. Membership in multiple chit schemes

8. Cause for participating in multiple schemes

9. Preferred avenue of saving

10. Preferred source of finance

11. Safety

12. Better service

13. Flexibility

14. Timely Payment

15. Low commission

16. Personal contact

17. Unregistered chit funds membership

18. Cause for participating in unregistered chit funds

19. Cause for not participating in unregistered chit fund

3.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

3.5.1 OBJECTIVE(PRIMARY)

1. To understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members.

2. To identify the important predictors behind chit fund participation

3.5.2 OHER OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

1. To estimate interest rates in registered chit funds.

2. To compare the relative ratings of Chit subscribers towards registered and unregistered chit funds on

3. To estimate the return on Chit Funds.

3.6 HYPOTHESIS

There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

1. Null hypothesis

2. Alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

.

3.8 SAMPLING METHOD

Members of four registered chit fund companies in Bangalore. The four registered chit fund companies were selected due to the large size of their subscriber base.

3.8.3 SIZE OF SAMPLE

150 respondents

3.9 MECHANISM OF STUDY

3.9.1 PRIMARY RESEARCH

Questions relating to behaviour and financial pattern will be found out through questionnares

3.9.2 SECONDARY RESEARCH

‘ Reports on chit fund industry

OVERVIEW OF INDIAN CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

4.1.1 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CHIT FUND COMPANIES:

According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on 31st December, 2013:

Volume of registered chit companies: 5412

Volume of chit companies in Karnataka: 703

Number of chit fund companies in Bangalore: 315

UNREGISTERED CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

Although unregistered chits are an informal source of finance but still they are a significant part of the chit fund industry. Though they are more easily accessible as compared to registered chit funds.

4.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ attempt in The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study also examines the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests suitable recommendations for improving the functioning of such institutions.

4.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY

‘ Unwillingness of the members to share their income and financial details made the task of data collection somewhat difficult.

‘ Collecting data became difficult since I don’t know the regional languages.

5.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis is done on the primary data collected from 150 chit funds members in Bangalore

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

5.4.1 Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.070a 16 .013

Likelihood Ratio 35.945 16 .003

Linear-by-Linear Association 8.809 1 .003

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .455 .013

Cramer’s V .228 .013

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=31.070 was p=.013, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (Phi and Cramer’s V -0.455).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. This means that different age groups of the chit fund members have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As can be seen from the table above that those who belong to ’36-45 years’ have saving as the predominant reason to participate whereas members of other age groups do not have any dominant reason to participate.

5.4.2 Hypothesis 2:

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

. Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 10.018a 4 .040

Likelihood Ratio 10.478 4 .033

Linear-by-Linear Association 6.876 1 .009

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .258 .040

Cramer’s V .258 .040

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=10.018 was p=.040, less than 0.05.

.We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (0.258)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis. This means that males and females have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As it can be seen that males participate in chit funds for business and personal consumption purposes apart from saving whereas women predominantly participate to save.

5.4

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 82.176a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 97.665 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 15.696 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .740 .000

Cramer’s V .427 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (0.740)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the self-employed members mainly participate to avail for business reasons whereas salaried employee participate mainly for personal consumption purposes.

Hypothesis 5:

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 66.691a 20 .000

Likelihood Ratio 43.579 20 .002

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.804 1 .028

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .667 .000

Cramer’s V .333 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=66.691) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong (0.667)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the members of age group’36-45 years’ are more interested in bidding for business related purposes where members of other age groups bid mainly for emergency needs.

5.4.6 Hypothesis 6:

. Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.167a 5 .209

Likelihood Ratio 7.885 5 .163

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.120 1 .290

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .219 .209

Cramer’s V .219 .209

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.167) was p=.209, more than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.7 Hypothesis 7:

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 180.915a 15 .000

Likelihood Ratio 160.460 15 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 28.379 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.098 .000

Cramer’s V .634 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that self-employed people bid in chit scheme mostly for business purposes, salaried people for emergency needs and housewives for household purposes.

5.4.8 Hypothesis 8:

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 123.331a 35 .000

Likelihood Ratio 106.298 35 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.957 1 .026

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=123.331) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.907)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that low income members bid mostly for consumption reasons whereas higher income members bid for business related and emergency purposes.

SUMMARY:

Reason to bid in chit fund has the strongest association with the occupation of the chit fund members as the probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000 and the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098).

5.4.

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 21.702a 16 .153

Likelihood Ratio 23.775 16 .095

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.397 1 .122

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=123.331) was p=.153, more than 0.05. Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.10 Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 20.510a 4 .000

Likelihood Ratio 29.038 4 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 7.062 1 .008

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .370 .000

Cramer’s V .370 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=20.510) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (.370).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis.

5.4.11 Hypothesis 11:

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 67.261a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 60.380 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.507 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .670 .000

Cramer’s V .387 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=67.261 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong(.670).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to cause in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. Salaried people save their money in chit fund with no particular purpose. But self-employed people are equally interested in saving for house purchase as well as for general purpose.

SUMMARY:

chit fund is most closely associated with occupation of the chit fund members as it has the highest value of chi-square statistic and Phi coefficient.

5.4.12 Hypothesis 12:

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 56.697a 3 .000

Likelihood Ratio 67.900 3 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 36.400 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=56.697) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (.615).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘membership in multiple chit schemes are related to differences in ‘having currently bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that those members currently having bank loan have invested in only one chit scheme whereas those members who do not have availed bank loan have invested in more than one chit schemes.

5.4.13 Hypothesis 13:

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 96.660a 7 .000

Likelihood Ratio 85.378 7 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 59.577 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell(10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.08.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=96.660 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.803).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘participation in unregistered chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that mostly low- income members have participated in unregistered funds. This is because the registered funds have become expensive due to the increase in their operational cost as a result of stringent regulations.

5.2.14 Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 28.049a 5 .000

Likelihood Ratio 31.806 5 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.967 1 .085

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 2 cells (15.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.79.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .432 .000

Cramer’s V .432 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=28.049) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (.432).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to prefer chit fund over bank’ are related to differences in ‘having bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that members who have bank loan have preferred chit fund over bank mainly due to better dividends. But those who do not have bank loan prefer chit fund over bank mainly due to better service in terms of more personalized service.)

5.2..15 Hypothesis 15: To identify significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds using Binary Logistic Regression

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 0 Constant -1.046 .186 31.574 1 .000 .351

Model Summary

Step -2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R Square Nagelkerke R Square

1 37.170a .533 .576

a. Estimation terminated at iteration number 6 because parameter estimates changed by less than .001.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a bank_loan(1) 1.068 1.265 14.715 1 .000 11.720

reason_2 2.286 4 .683

reason_2(1) 1.336 1.077 1.540 1 .215 3.805

reason_2(2) .134 2.239 .004 1 .952 1.143

reason_2(3) -.559 1.896 .087 1 .768 .572

reason_2(4) .731 1.347 .294 1 .588 2.076

reason_3 4.874 5 .431

reason_3(1) 1.188 .924 1.652 1 .199 3.279

reason_3(2) 1.661 2.048 .658 1 .417 5.263

reason_3(3) -1.654 1.228 1.813 1 .178 .191

reason_3(4) .404 1.192 .115 1 .735 1.497

reason_3(5) -17.379 20.722 .000 1 .700 .000

reason_4 .355 4 .986

reason_4(1) -1.047 1.850 .320 1 .571 .351

reason_4(2) -.839 1.979 .180 1 .672 .432

reason_4(3) -.932 1.637 .324 1 .569 .394

reason_4(4) 3.519 4.199 .000 1 .600 3.746

reason_5 8.553 5 .128

reason_5(1) -.254 1.768 .021 1 .886 .776

reason_5(2) -19.245 9.890 .000 1 .999 .000

reason_5(3) 1.420 1.338 1.126 1 .289 4.136

reason_5(4) -.747 1.306 .327 1 .567 .474

reason_5(5) .561 1.342 .174 1 .676 1.752

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a Safety -.075 .320 4.377 1 .011 0.928

Flexi -.178 .426 3.337 1 .021 0.837

commision -.185 .188 1.868 1 .026 0.831

payment -.267 .178 1.657 1 .097 0.766

service -.859 .412 1.348 1 .083 0.424

personal -1.122 .163 .996 1 .079 0.329

Constant 3.058 2.440 1.571 1 .010 21.291

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: : bank_loan, reason_2, reason_3, reason_4, reason_5.imp1, imp2, imp3, imp4, imp5, imp6.

INTERPRETATION:

‘ -2 Log Likelihood statistic is 37.170. This statistic how poorly the model predicts the decisions — the smaller the statistic the better the model. Since, 37.170 is a relatively small number therefore, this model is able to predict the decisions in a better way.

‘ Here Cox & Snell R Square statistic indicates that 53.3% of the variation in the regular participation in chit funds is explained by the logistic model.

‘ In our case Nagelkerke R Square is 0.576, indicating a moderate relationship of 57.6 % between the predictors and the prediction.

‘ If it is less than .05 then, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

‘ In this case, we can see that bank loan, safety, flexibility and low commission have contributed signi’cantly to the prediction of regular participation in chit funds but other variables are not significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds.

‘ Since only bank loan has p=.000, therefore we can say that bank loan is the most significant predictor

among other significant predictors. This is followed by safety (p=.011), flexibility (p=.021) and low commission (p=.026).

‘ Here, the EXP (B) bank loan is 11.727. Hence when bank loan is availed by one unit (one person) the odds ratio is 11 times as large and therefore people are 11 more times likely not to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) with safety is .928. Hence when safety is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .928 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) flexibility is 837. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .837 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) low commission is .831. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .831 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

SUMMARY

Bank loan is the most significant predictor of regular participation in chit funds. This is followed by safety, flexibility and low commission.

Instalment no No of months remaining Monthly subscription Prize amount PV of monthly subscription(PV of outlow at 10%) PV of Prize amount(PV of inflow at 10%) Net Present Value(PV of inflow – PV of outflow)

1 24 2000 50000 2000 50000 10444.9

2 23 1500 35000 1488.1 34723.1 -4832.0

3 22 1500 35000 1476.4 34448.4 -5106.7

4 21 1500 35000 1464.7 34175.9 -5379.2

5 20 1500 35000 1453.1 33905.5 -5649.6

6 19 1500 35000 1441.6 33637.3 -5917.8

7 18 1500 35000 1430.2 33371.2 -6183.9

8 17 1500 35000 1418.9 33107.2 -6447.9

9 16 1620 38000 1520.3 35660.6 -3894.5

10 15 1620 38000 1508.2 35378.5 -4176.6

11 14 1700 40000 1570.2 36945.9 -2609.2

12 13 1700 40000 1557.8 36653.6 -2901.5

13 12 1780 42000 1618.2 38181.8 -1373.3

14 11 1780 42000 1605.4 37879.8 -1675.3

15 10 1780 42000 1592.7 37580.1 -1975.0

16 9 1860 44000 1651.1 39058.2 -496.9

17 8 1860 44000 1638.0 38749.2 -805.9

18 7 1860 44000 1625.1 38442.6 -1112.5

19 6 1940 46000 1681.6 39872.1 317.0

20 5 1940 46000 1668.3 39556.6 1.5

21 4 1940 46000 1655.1 39243.7 -311.4

22 3 1940 46000 1642.0 38933.2 -621.8

23 2 1940 46000 1629.0 38625.2 -929.8

24 1 1940 46000 1616.1 38319.7 -1235.4

25 0 1940 46000 1603.3 38016.5 -1538.6

39555.1 934465.9 -54411.4

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Merit goods best college essay help

Merit goods are goods which will be under-provided by the market, therefore they will be under-consumed. They are thought by the governments to be good for the populations and so the governments want them to be consumed to a great extent. They increase the private and social benefits and cause the social benefit be higher than the private one. The best examples of them, apart from all the public goods, can be the education, health care, sports facilities and the opera.

Although the majority of the merit goods is provided by the private sectors, not all the people can afford buying them, therefore they will be under-consumed. That is why the government is needed to destroy the market failure increasing the supply and consequently raising the consumption.

To explain the reasons for government to provide the merit goods, I need to apply some examples of them. The first one can be the education. It is significant for the governments to provide it so that the society would be well-educated. Governments determine the period of education required for people (the compulsory education) to maintain the proper level of education of the society. The governments find education an important aspect that should be available for everyone as it cause the whole country to have better both economic growth and economic development.

Considering another example such as health care, the situation is quite similar. The governments want to provide the population with it because they care about the high states of health of society in their country. To gain these, the countries need to have high quality of health care. Governments often offer people unpaid programs consisting of preventative medical examination which contribute to maintain the high number of healthy people. This is also connected with the problems of the labour market. The healthier people are, the more efficient their work is, the greater revenue firms have and countries are more developed because of taxations.

Other examples like sport facilities or the opera are meant for people to become physically and culturally developed but their availability is not as important as in the case of the previous examples. That is why they are not as much provided by the governments as the rest of the merit goods.

Although most of the merit goods provided by the governments are free, the fact is that they are paid through the taxes that the societies pay. The number of the merit goods of particular types that the governments provide or subsidize depends on the necessity of them. If they are provided, the societies’ benefits get higher and so is the public treasury of the countries.

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Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father college essay help service

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.

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Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks college application essay help online

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

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WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation essay help site:edu

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) instant essay help

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior extended essay help biology

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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Book Report Essay: The Last Song Law Essay Help

Ronnie is a girl that lives in New York, together with her mother and little brother.

She hasn’t had any contact with her dad for the last three years. This summer, everything will be different. Together with her little brother, Ronnie will spend the summer in Wilmington, North Caroline, by her dad.

At the start of the summer, Ronnie is a rebellious girl who is being annoyed that she is being forced to spend the summer with her father. She ignores everybody.

On her first day in Wilmington, Ronnie decided to go to the beach. While walking on the beach, Will, a handsome beach volleyball player, ran into her. She was not into him. But he’s into her, and he’s not giving up. He tried to make her being into him.

While walking on the beach, Ronnie found endangered turtle eggs laying on the sand. Ronnie tried to protect them so the turtle eggs won’t be eaten by the raccoons. Ronnie fell asleep on the beach. Will later sees her sleeping on the beach protecting the turtle eggs, and decided to sleep next to her on the beach. At this point, they were falling in love with each other.

Later on, Ronnie found out that her dad has cancer. He had kept it a secret to everybody.

When the church burned down, Ronnie’s brother and her dad tried to repair the church window. They were working on it the whole summer, but the dad couldn’t finish the job because of his sickness. He was too sick to finish the job. That’s when Will decided to help the family and finished the job together with Ronnie’s brother.

When Ronnie’s mother arrived to pick up Ronnie and her little brother, Ronnie’s thoughts about her dad had totally changed. Ronnie has fought for her dad the whole summer and now decided to stay with him. Besides that, she had fallen in love with Will.

The book ends when Ronnie’s dad passed out because of the cancer. During the funeral Ronnie played a song on the piano that her father had written for her. He had never finished the song so Ronnie did finish it for him.

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Learning Theory Behaviorism (Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme) cheap mba definition essay help

2.0 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme

Teori Behaviorisme merupakan satu pendekatan pemikiran yang menekankan peranan pengalaman dalam mengawal tingkah laku. Pengasas teori ini adalah J.B Watson yang popular dengan teori Little Albert. Namun, selain daripada J.B Watson terdapat tokoh lain yang turut mengkaji tentang teori ini. Mereka adalah Skinner, Thondike dan Pavlov. Teori pemerolehan bahasa Behavioris pada zaman sebelum ini lebih menekankan tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat sahaja. Bagi mereka perkara yang berlaku dalam otak manusia tidak dapat dikenalpasti. Mereka membuat analogi otak manusia sama seperti sebuah kotak hitam yang gelap. Oleh itu mereka tidak mementingkan peranan otak dalam pemerolehan bahasa.

Golongan mazhab ini menolak pendapat yang menghubungkan operasi kognitif dengan pemerolehan bahasa. Seseorang dianggap telah belajar sesuatu jika dia dapat menunjukkan perubahan perilakunya. Menurut teori ini dalam belajar yang penting adalah input yang berupa stimulus dan output yang berupa reaksi (respond). Stimulus adalah apa saja yang diberikan guru kepada pelajar, sedangkan respon berupa reaksi atau tanggapan pelajar terhadap stimulus yang diberikan oleh guru tersebut. Proses yang terjadi antara stimulus dan respon tidak penting untuk diperhatikan kerana tidak dapat diamati dan tidak dapat diukur. Yang dapat diamati adalah stimulus dan respon. Oleh sebab itu, apa yang diberikan oleh guru iaitu stimulus dan apa yang diterima oleh pelajar iaitu respon harus dapat diamati dan diukur. Teori ini mengutamakan pengukuran kerana pengukuran merupakan perkara yang penting untuk melihat terjadi atau tidak perubahan tingkah laku tersebut.

2.1 Teori Behaviorisme menurut J.B Watson

J.B Watson (1878-1958), seorang ahli psikologi di Amerika Syarikat, merupakan orang pertama mencipta istilah behaviorisme untuk menghuraikan tingkah laku manusia. Kajian banyak dipengaruhi oleh Teori Pelaziman Klasik Pavlov. Kajian beliau, yang terkenal ialah mengenai emosi kanak-kanak dengan menggunakan Model Pelaziman Klasik. Mengikut Watson, tingkah laku manusia merupakan reflex terlazim iaitu suatu gerak balas yang dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman klasik. Dengan kata lain, semua pembelajaran adalah pelaziman klasik Watson berpendapat gerakan-gerakan refleks yang mudah misalnya berkelip mata, bersin apabila hidung gatal dan sebarang tindakan yang dilakukan secara semulajadi adalah tingkah laku yang diwarisi dan tidak perlu dipelajari. Selain daripada tingkah laku, Watson pula menjalankan kajian tentang pembelajaran emosi semula jadi iaitu takut, marah, dan kasih saying. Emosi manusia atau perubahan dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman.

2.1.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran J.B Watson

Menurut beliau, semua tingkah laku boleh dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman. Tingkah laku positif boleh diajarkan melalui ransangan yang sesuai. Seterusnya, untuk menguasai kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah, pelajar perlu belajar cara perhubungan gerak balas secara sistematik. Selain itu, teori ini memberi implikasi untuk mengukuhkan apa yang telah dipelajari dalam ingatan, latihan- latihan hendaklah dijalankan secara kerap. Dalam proses pengajaran,guru hendaklah menggunakan rasangan yang boleh memotivasikan murid untuk minat belajar dan mengelakkan pengunaan ransangan yang membawa kepada kesan negatif.

2.2 Teori Behaviorisme menurut Thorndike

Menurut Thorndike, belajar adalah proses interaksi antara stimulus dan respon. Stimulus adalah apa yang merangsang terjadinya aktiviti belajar seperti fikiran, perasaan, atau hal-hal lain yang dapat dikesan melalui pancaindera. Manakala, respon adalah reaksi yang muncul apabila peserta dididik ketika belajar, dan yang dapat pula adalah berupa fikiran, perasaan, gerakan atau tindakan. Jadi, perubahan tingkah laku akibat kegiatan belajar dapat dikategorikan sebagai konkrit, iaitu yang dapat diamati, atau tidak konkrit iaitu yang tidak dapat diamati. Meskipun aliran behaviorisme sangat mengutamakan pengukuran, tetapi tidak dapat menjelaskan bagaimana cara mengukur tingkah laku yang tidak dapat diamati. Teori Thorndike ini disebut pula dengan teori koneksionisme. Thorndike berjaya membentuk tiga hokum iaitu Hukum kesediaan, Hukum latihan, Hukum kesan. Hukum kesediaan merupakan keupayaan persiapan seseorang individu di dalam kendirinya untuk memulakan sesuatu aktiviti pembelajaran. Manakala hokum latihan pula menyatakan bahawa semakin byak latihan yang dijalankan semakin bertambah kukuh ikatan gerak balas yang tertentu dengan ransangan yang berkaitan. Hukum kesan menyatakan bahawa ikatan ransangan dengan gerak balas akan bertambah kukuh sekiranya individu memperolehi kesan yang memuaskan selepas gerak balasnya dihasilkan.

2.1.2 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike

Antara implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike ialah untuk meningkatkan tahap kesediaan belajar, guru harus menggunakan motivasi yang sesuai. Selain itu, ia juga dapat mengukuhkan pertalian antara ransangan dengan gerak balas pelajar dengan memperbanyak aktiviti latihan, ulangkaji, aplikasi serta pengukuhan dalam keadaan yang menyeronokkan. Seterusnya memberikan ganjaran atau peneguhan untuk respon antau gerak balas yang betul daripada pelajar. Memberi peluang kepada pelajar untuk menikmati kejayaan dalam pembelajaran mereka.

2.3 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Pavlov merupakan salah seorang daripada ahli teori Behavioris selain daripada Skinner, Thondike dan Watson. Beliau dilahirkan pada 14 September 1849 di Ryazan, Rusia Tengah. Beliau telah meninggal dunia pada 27 Februari 1936 di Leningrad Rusia ketika berusia 86 tahun. Ivan Pavlov merupakan ahli fisiologi, psikologi dan ahli fizik berbangsa Rusia. Sebagai seorang yang sangat mencintai bidang fisiologi beliau telah meminta seorang pelajar duduk di sebelah katilnya dan merekodkan perihal kematiannya. Beliau terkenal dengan orang pertama yang mendeskripsikan fonomena pelaziman klasik atau pelaziman responden. Teori pelaziman klasik adalah tentang tingkah laku pembelajaran yang telah dipelopori oleh Ivan Pavlov ( 1849-1936). Pada tahun 1980-an. Pavlov mengkaji fungsi pencernaan pada anjing dengan melakukan pemerhatian pada kelenjar air liur. Dengan cara itu, beliau dapat mengumpulkan, menyukat dan menganalisis air liur haiwan itu dan bagaimana ia dapat diberikan makanan pada keadaan yang berbeza. Beliau sedar anjing akan mengeluarkan air liur sebelum makanan sampai ke mulutnya dan mencari hubungan timbal balik antara air liur dengan aktiviti perut. Pavlov hendak melihat rangsangan luar dapat mempengaruhi proses ini. Oleh itu contoh paling awal dan terkenal bagi pelaziman klasik melibatkan pelaziman air liur pada anjing kajian Pavlov.

2.4 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme B.F Skinner

Manakala menerusi B.F Skinner pula, beliau mengutarakan teori behaviorisme adalah teori. Menurut Nana Sudjana, 1990 pendekatan Skinner adalah operant conditioning, yang merupakan penerusan dan perluasan secara tepat dari hokum Thorndike. Ia mengakui adanya fenomena conditioning yang klasik dari Pavlov dalam perilaku manusia dan binatang, tetapi itu tidak dianggap terlalu penting.

2.4.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran B.F Skinner

Sesuatu kemahiran atau teknik yang baru dipelajari hendaklah diberi peneguhan secara berterusan dan diikuti secara berkala supaya kemahiran atau teknik itu dapat dikukuhkan dan dikekalkan. Selain itu, penggunaan peneguhan positif yang membawa keseronokan adalah lebih berkesan daripada peneguhan negative yang membawa kesakitan. Seterusnya, prinsip penghapusan melalui proses pelaziman operan adalah sesuai digunakan untuk memodifikasikan tingkah laku pelajar yangtidak diingini, misalnya menghentikan peneguhan yang diberikan dahulu sama ada peneguhan positif atau negatif

2.5 Kelebihan teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Kelebihan yang pertama yang kami perolehi melalui teori ini adalah teori ini sangat sesuai untuk melatih atau mendidik kanak-kanak yang masih memerlukan bantuan daripada orang dewasa di sekeliling mereka. Sebagai contoh kanak-kanak tadika memerlukan bimbingan dan perhatian yang khusus daripada orang di persekitarannya terutamanya guru-guru mereka kerana mereka mudah mengikuti apa yang diajar dan disuruh selain suka meniru perlakuan orang di sekelilingnya. Selain itu, mereka juga suka dengan bentuk-bentuk penghargaan yang diberi kepadanya seperti pujian dan melalui bentuk penghargaan tersebut ianya dapat membangkitkan semangat ingin belajar dalam diri mereka.

Kelebihan yang kedua adalah guru tidak perlu mengambil masa yang lama untuk memberi penerangan yang panjang tentang pembelajaran kepada murid-murid. Hal ini kerana murid-murid akan dibiasakan belajar dengan sendiri kecuali sekiranya murid menghadapi sesuatu masalah dan memerlukan penjelasan yang lebih daripada guru. Dalam hal ini guru perlu memberikan penerangan dengan jelas.

Selain daripada itu, teori ini juga menekankan kemahiran lisan berbanding kemahiran membaca dan menulis. Melalui aspek kemahiran lisan yang ditekankan dapat memberikan kelebihan kepada murid kerana aspek lisan iaitu mendengar dan bertutur penting dalam situasi harian murid. Boleh dikatakan bahawa kemahiran ini adalah kemahiran terkerap yang digunakan manusia untuk berkomunikasi antara satu sama lain.

2.6 Kelemahan Teori Behaviorisme

Dari segi kelemahan pula, penerapan teori behavioris yang kurang tepat dalam sesuatu situasi pembelajaran boleh mangakibatkan berlakunya proses pembelajaran yang tidak kondusif bagi murid-murid kerana pembelajaran berlaku dalam keadaan sehala dimana ianya berpusatkan kepada guru sahaja. Guru hanya mengajar dan melatih murid manakala murid hanya menerima apa yang diajar oleh guru mereka tanpa memberi sebarang maklum balas. Malah dalam teori pembelajaran ini murid berperanan sebagai pendengar dan mereka menghafal apa yang didengar dan dipandang sebagai cara belajar yang efektif. Penggunaan hukuman merupakan salah satu cara untuk guru mendisiplinkan murid dan hal ini akan mendatangkan akibat buruk kepada murid.

Kelemahan yang kedua ialah proses pembelajaran dikatakan kurang memberikan gerak balas yang bebas bagi pelajar untuk berinteraksi serta untuk mengembangkan idea. Hal ini kerana sistem pembelajaran tersebut lebih tertumpu kepada rangsangan dan gerak balas yang ditunjukkan. Sekiranya tiada rangsangan maka tindak balas tidak akan berlaku. Sebagai contoh, guru akan memberi rangsangan dalam bentuk hadiah dan daripada situ barulah murid akan memberikan jawapan yang dikehendaki oleh guru. Sekiranya perkara ini berlaku secara berterusan dikhuatiri murid akan terlalu bergantung terhadap rangsangan dari luar sedangkan murid harus memiliki rangsangan dari dalam diri mereka sendiri sebagai satu cara pembelajaran.

Kelemahan yang ketiga menurut teori ini adalah penambahan ilmu pengetahuan lebih tertumpu kepada buku teks. Hal ini kerana mereka belajar mengikut urutan kurikulum yang sangat ketat sehinggakan buku teks merupakan buku wajib dalam pembelajaran mereka malah mereka juga perlu dikehendaki memahami dan mempersembahkan kembali isi pembelajaran di dalam buku teks tersebut dengan baik. Hal ini boleh mendatangkan kesan buruk kepada pelajar kerana ilmu pengetahuan yang mereka peroleh tidak begitu berkembangan dengan hanya tertumpu kepada satu buah buku sahaja.

2.7 Implikasi teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Yang pertama ialah guru perlu sedar bahawa kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balas boleh dilazimkan iaitu dipelajari. Sebagai contoh apabila guru ingin menyuruh murid-murid beratur ketika waktu rehat di kantin sekolah guru boleh mengaitkannya dengan cara untuk berjaya dalam kehidupan. Implikasi yang seterusnya ialah kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balasdapat dikukuhkan melalui latihan. Semakin kerap rangsangan itu dikaitkan dengan sesuatu gerak balas, semakin kukuh gerak balas terlazim itu. Sebagai contoh guru ingin murid-murid supaya tidak mengaitkan mata pelajaran matematik dengan kesukaran, dengan memberi mereka latihan- latihan yang mudah dan apabila mereka beransur mahir menyelesaikan masalah yang sukar maka guru bolehlah menukar aras pembelajaran kepada tahap yang sederhana sukar dan seterusnya ke aras pembelajaran yang sukar.

Di samping itu, dalam proses pembelajaran, generalisasi boleh berlaku. Ini bermakna perkara yang dipelajari dalam situasi A boleh dipindahkan ke situasi B. Sebagai contoh guru mata pelajaran sains mengaitkan kejadian pencemaran alam sekitar yang mengakibatkan kemusnahan alam semula jadi dengan kemusnahan alam yang berlaku seperti tsunami yang melanda Bandar Acheh.

faktor motivasi memainkan peranan yang penting bagi menghasilkan gerak balas yang diinginkan. Dalam hal ini pemberian ganjaran perlu diberi perhatian. Sebagai contoh ketika murid menjawab soalan yang diberikan oleh guru dengan betul maka guru boleh memberikan pujian kepadanya atau dengan memberikannya hadiah supaya pada waktu pembelajaran yang seterusnya pelajar tersebut akan lebih menumpukan perhatian di dalam kelas untuk memperoleh pujian yang diingini. Namun sekiranya pelajar tersebut tidak dapat menjawab soalan yang diberi maka guru perlulah membimbing pelajar tersebut supaya mereka tidak berasa terpinggir dan seterusnya dapat bersama-sama memahami tajuk pembelajaran pada ketika itu.

Selain itu juga, dalam proses pembelajaran tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat, diamati, diukur dan dikawal hendaklah diberi perhatian. Hal ini kerana melalui perubahan tingkah laku yang ditunjukkan oleh murid guru boleh mengambil sebarang tindakan sekiranya ianya di kesan lebih awal. Sebagai contoh sekiranya seseorang murid menunjukkan tingkah laku yang negatif seperti tidak faham tentang apa yang diajar oleh guru maka guru boleh membuat pemulihan terhadap dirinya. Dalam pembelajaran, penghapusan boleh berlaku jika peneguhan tidak diberikan. Ini bermakna, sekiranya sesuatu tingkahlaku tidak diperkukuhkan melalui ganjaran, tingkahlaku itu mungkin akan terhapus begitu sahaja. Konsep pemulihan serta-merta juga dapat membantu seseorang guru meningkatkan keberkesanan pembelajaran

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Research design aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

2.7 RESEARCH DESIGN USED :

The conception of research design plan is the critical step in the research process. The design ,of the study constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. In other words the research design is a conceptual structure with in which,h research is conducted.

2.8 DATA COLLECTION METHODS :

Primary Data: – Primary data are those data which are collected for the first time, and thus hap,pen to be original in character. It is extracted with the help of discussions co,nducted with senior managers with respect to factors affecting the performance.,

Secondary Data: – Secondary data are those data which are already collected by someone else ,and which have already passed through the statistical process. These data are g,athered by Books, Lectures, Notes, and Official Websites etc.

The study make,s extensive use of secondary data. ‘Secondary data are those which have already,y been passed through the statistical process’. The data which is pre-essential for ,this study relating to comparative analysis of Balance Sheet and PROFIT AND L,OSS A/c was based on secondary source of data. This data will be collected fro,m materials provided by Rakshitas Pvt. Ltd., discussions conducted with store m,anagers and some essential

Financial Accounts books.

2.9 LIMITATIONS :,

‘ Data provided is very limited due to the subjectivity of it being highly confidential.,

‘ The data taken for interpretation is for a limited period.

‘ Assumptions, are to be taken into consideration while doing analysis and interpretation, of data.

‘ Due to limited, information, depth analysis could not be made.

2.10 RESEARCH MEASURE TOOLS :

Various financial techniques and statistical tools are used to measure the data used in the study. Column graphs, pie chart etc. is used to highlight the statistical inference,s. The study cannot be completed without balance sheet and profit and loss a/c. ,Therefore three years balance sheet and profit & loss a/c has been taken out for ma,king proper research.

2.11 ANALYSIS OF DATA :

The data collected is secondary, and it’s compiled, classified, tabulated and then analyzed u,sing financial techniques and statistical tools. Graphs and charts are used to hig,hlight the statistics. Based on this data and analysis, inferences are drawn accor,dingly.

2.12 OVER VIEW OF THE CHAPTER :

The Project I,s Presented in the following chapter :-

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

This chapter includes introduction to finance, theorectical back ground for the study of the ,various performance, introduction to finance, definition of retail industry and di,fferent type of industry.

CHAPTER 2 : DESIGN OF THE STUDY

This chapter I,ncludes the projects introduction of the subject background, statement of the, problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, need and purpose of study,, research methodology, research design, data collection method primary and seco,ndary data, limitations, research measure tools and analysis of data.,

CHA,PTER 3 : PROFILE OF THE COMPANY

This c,hapter contains the profile of the company, its origin and background, board of directors, number of branches and organization structure.

CHAP,TER 4 : DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This ch,apter consists of Table, Graphs, Analysis and Interpretation based on the question,nairies.

CHAPT,ER 5 : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCULSIONS AND RECOM,MENDATIONS

This chap,ter includes findings based on objectives of the study, conclusion drawn from the f,indings and recommendations given from the analysis.

Chapter:-3

PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION

COMPANY PROFILE

RAKSHITAS PVT.LTD.

Rakshitas business con,cept is to offer a broad and varied range of apparels that allows customers to fin,d their own personal style to choose from more than 150 remiums national and int,ernational brands.

Rakshitas is aimed at everyone in the family with an interest in modern basics, fashion, quality and affo,rdable pricing. Customers should always be able to find clothes and accessories ,at Rakshitas for every occasion. The collections are extensive and new arrivals, being launched week after week in each of the 4 floors spread across 20,000 s,q. ft. for Men, Women, Kids and Teen’s casual wear, formal wear, denim wea,r, ethnic and Kancheevaram silks etc. The range and collections are supplemen,ted by matching costume jewellery, premium international watches, perfumes, ,lingerie’s.

Mission

Our mission is to achieve excelle,nce in the products and services we offer, in the methods we employ and in the res,ult we produce.

Products

Menswear: menswear,r means clothing for men. Rakshitas provide various brands for menswear which ,includes formal shirts, casual shirts, trousers, jeans etc. of several variety of int,ernational as well as national brands, for example: -levis, pepe jeans, killer, lee, w,rangler etc.

Women’s wear: Women’s wear means ,clothing for women. Rakshitas provides the best options for women’s apparel rang,ing from skirts to ethnic, casuals as well as formals.

Kids wear: Kids wear are meant only for kids or children ranging below age of 12 years. Rakshitas provides awesome collection for kids which include children formal wear, kurtas, shirt,s etc.

Party wear: Party wear dresses are meant for wearing in parties, functions, special occasions etc. Rakshitas provides variety ranges of party wear which includes lehngas, wedding dresses, traditional indian dress etc.

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Control and organisational behaviour (pengendalian dan perilaku organisasi) melbourne essay help

PENGENDALIAN DAN PERILAKU ORGANISASI

PERILAKU ORGANISASI

Untuk membuat dasar yang nantinya dapat digunakan manajemen dalam menyusun system pengendalian manajemen, maka kita perlu mengetahui lebih dalam mengenai perilaku organisasi. Berikut ini adalah beberapa penjelasan mengenai teori akuntansi sebagai bentuk pemahaman terhadap organisasi.

Definisi Organisasi

Secara umum, organisasi diartikan sebagai sekumpulan orang yang melakukan kerjasama demi mencapai tujuan ‘ tujuan yang telah ditentukan bersama. Organisasi tercipta ketika orang ‘ orang bergabung dan melakukan sesuatu untuk berbagai tujuan dan organisasi dapat mencakup segala aspek dalam kehidupan. Organisasi dapat bersifat formal dan informal. Pekerjaan di dalam suatu organisasi dapat dibagi ‘ bagi dan dikoordinasi sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan keahlian tiap ‘tiap anggota organisasinya untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi tersebut. Suatu organisasi haruslah going concern, dalam arti organisasi tersebut diasumsikan akan hidup selamanya.

Teori Perilaku Organisasi (Theory of Organization Behaviour)

Ada beberapa teori yang menjelaskan mengenai mengapa dan bagaimana orang ‘ orang berperilaku dalam organisasi. Berikut ada dua penjelasan mengenai teori tersebut :

1. Teori jenjang kebutuhan

Teori ini menjelaskan bahwa setiap manusia memiliki kebutuhan yang banyak dan harus dipenuhi dan kebutuhan serta keinginan tersebut tersusun secara rapih, sehingga apabila ada satu kebutuhan terpenuhi maka setelah itu ia akan berusaha memenuhi kebutuhannnya yang lebih tinggi. Dalam teori ini tersirat bahwa system pengendalian manajemen juga didasarkan pada kebutuhan manusia yang terkoordinasi dan dilakukan sesuai dengan tujuan organisasi.

2. Teori motivasi pencapaian

Teori ini lebih mengacu pada perilaku atasan atau manajer dalam perannya saat berorganisasi. Untuk mencapai keberhasilan dan mendapat sebuah kekuasaan, maka manajer tersebut juga perlu memiliki keinginan yang kuat agar dapat menghasilkan prestasi dalam organisasi.

TEORI ORGANISASI

Pengetahuan yang dalam mengenai organisasi sangatlah diperlukan oleh para pelaku organisasi dalam pelaksanaan system pengendalian manajemen organisasi tersebut. Para pelaku organisasi harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui semua poin dalam organisasi termasuk sejarah organisasi, tujuan organisasi, bagaimana perilaku para pelakunya hingga reaksi organisasi tersebut terhadap lingkungan.

Tak berbeda dengan teori perilaku akuntansi, dalam teori organisasi juga terdapat banyak teori yang membahas mengenai organisasi. Dan disini akan dibahas mengenai dua teori juga tentang organisasi, yaitu :

1. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Dalam

Banyak organisasi dianggap indepen dan tidak terlalu memperhatikan lingkungan luar oleh beberapa teori. Teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam ini banyak dijadikan dasar oleh sebagian besar system pengendalian manajemen dalam suatu organisasi hal tersebut didasarkan karena dalam teori ini mencakup tanggung jawab dalam pengambilan keputusan yang berlaku menurut proyek ‘ proyek, program ‘ program serta komponen ‘ komponen fungsionalnya.

2. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Luar

Teori ini adalah teori kebalikan dari teori sebelumnya yaitu teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam. Teori ini beranggapan bahwa suatu organisasi selalu berhubungan dengan lingkungan di sekitarnya. Ada dua jenis organisasi yang menganut teori organisasi yang berorientasi keluar ini, yaitu :

– Organisasi system umum terbuka

– Organisasi system manajemen

TIPE ORGANISASI

Ada tiga jenis atau tipe organisasi, yaitu :

1. Organisasi Fungsional

Dalam tipe organisasi ini, penekanan lebih ditujukan kepada manajer yang sangat harus bertanggung jawab terhadap suatu fungsi tertentu, seperti fungsi produksi, fungsi pemasaran dan fungsi lainnya yang diterapkan dalam organisasi tersebut. Fungsi ‘ fungsi tersebut dapat dihimpun oleh fungsi yang lebih tinggi dalam organisasi itu juga. Organisasi ini berpotensi membuat efisiensi perusahaan yang lebih baik karena menggunakan masukan ‘ masukan dari manajerial yang lebih tinggi.

2. Organisasi Divisi

Dalam organisasi ini, semua manajer harus bertanggung jawab terhadap hamper keseluruhan fungsi dalam proses produksi serta distribusi lini pada organisasi tersebut. Orientasi organisasi divisi lebih terbuka yang berarti lebih menekankan bahwa para manajer harus peka terhadap pengaruh ‘ pengaruh yang dating dari luar yang mungkin dapat mempengaruhi kinerja organisasi.

3. Organisasi Matriks

Ada dua struktur organisasi dalam organisasi matriks, yaitu ditata berdasarkan fungsi dan ditata berdasarkan program. Pada organisasi matriks, para manajer bertanggung jawab penuh atas profitabilitas dari lini produk organisasi tersebut dimana proses produksi dilakukan oleh unit ‘ unit organisasi fungsional.

Teori Kemungkinan (Contingency Theory)

Untuk mengendalikan suatu manajemen menggunakan tiga macam pendekatan, antara lain :

1. Pendekatan tradisional

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada perencanaan, pendekatan dan pengendalian.

2. Pendekatan system

Pendekatan ini menekankan padapenggunaan sumber daya manusia sebagai pertimbangan dalam pengambilan keputusan.

3. Pendekatan perilaku

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada pengendalian manusia termasuk di dalamnya motivasi dan prediksi.

PERILAKU MANAJEMEN

Organisasi dan sistemnya yang rumit akan mempengaruhi perilaku manusia menjadi rumit pula.

Konsep Fundamental

Agar suatu organisasi ‘terkendali’ maka para anggota organisasi harus mengetahui dengan baik apa sebenarnya yang diinginkan oleh manajemen. Untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut, dapat menggunakan banyak informasi yang telah disediakan oleh manajemen organisasi seperti anggaran hingga kebijakan organisasi. Tujuan organisasi dibuat oleh para manajer senior dan dilaksanakan oleh manajer operasional untuk selanjutnya para manajer senior menerapkan system pengendalian manajemen untuk mengontrol organisasi tersebut.

Persepsi Tujuan

Para manajer operasional harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui apa tujuan organisasi. Para manajer operasional tersebut dapat secara mudah mendapatkan informasi ‘ informasi yang mereka butuhkan dari berbagai sumber baik dari dokumen maupun percakapan informal saja. System pengendalian manajemen yang efektif dapat menguatkan kepastian suatu perusahaan.

Organisasi Informal

Adanya organisasi informal di dalam organisasi formal sering menyebabkan adanya salah persepsi mengenai tindakan yang diharapkan. Hubungan pada organisasi informal tidak tercantum di dalam bagan organisasi, padahal hal tersebut cukup penting untuk pemahaman system pengendalian organisasi tersebut.

Motivasi

Reaksi pada pelaku organisasi terutama manajemen terhadap organisasi dapat berbeda tergantung pada motivasinya. Motivasi dapat bermacam ‘ macam, misalnya kenaikan gaji, promosi, pujian dan lain ‘ lain. Motivasi timbul dari dalam pribadi masing ‘ masing, tetapi motivasi dapat dipengaruhi oleh rangsangan dari lingkungan sekitarnya.

Keselarasan Tujuan (Goal Congruence)

Setiap manusia memiliki tujuan pribadi, begitu juga dengan organisasi yang juga memiliki tujuan bersama. Salah satu tugas penting system pengendalian adalah menyelaraskan kedua tujuan tersebut serta mencapainya demi mendapatkan kepuasan bersama. Semakin kuat hubungan antara tujuan pribadi dan tujuan organisasi, maka ssistem pengendalian organisasi tersebut akan semakin kuat juga.

Kerjasama dan Konflik

Suatu organisasi tidak akan berjalan dengan baik apabila para anggotanya tidak bekerjasama dengan baik secara terkoordinasi, untuk itu di dalam organisasi sangat dibutuhkan kerjasama yang terkoordinir dan selaras. Selain itu, organisasi juga harus menjaga koordinasi dan keselarasan tersebut agar tidak terjadi konflik yang dapat mengganggu kinerja organisasi. Konflik tersebut dapat terjadi karena berbagai alasan, salah satunya adalah dengan adanya persaingan didalam organisasi tersebut.

Iklim Organisasi (Organizational Climate)

Secara singkat, iklim organisasi dapat diartikan sebagai hasil kombinasi dari struktur formal dan struktur informal pada suatu organisasi. Dan menurut pemahaman saya iklim organisasi merupakan suasana di dalam organisasi dimana tiap pelaku organisasi di dalam organisasi saling membantu, saling menilai, dan memahami antara satu dengan yang lain. Iklim organisasi ikut mengambil bagian penting dalam organisasi. Keduanya saling mempengaruhi satu sama lain.

Tipe Pengendalian

Pelaku pengendalian Sumber arah pengendalian Macam ‘ macam Pengendalian

Ukuran prestasi dan tingkah laku Isyarat untuk tindak koreksi Imbalan untuk prestasi Hukuman untuk kegagalan

Organisasi formal Rencana organisasi, strategi, tanggapan atas persaingan Anggaran, biaya standar, target penjualan penyimpangan Penghargaan manajemen, insentif uang, promosi Minta penjelasan

Kelompok informal Keterikatan bersama cita’cita kelompok Norma-norma kelompok penyimpangan Pengakuan rekan, keanggotaan, kepemimpinan Ejekan, pengasingan, permusuhan

Perorangan Tujuan pribadi, aspirasi Harapan pribadi, target antara Dugaan akan kegagalan di masa yang akan dating, target tak tercapai Kepuasan karena ‘terkendali’ kegembiraan Merasa gagal

Sumber : Disarikan dari Gene W. Dalton dan Paul R. Lawrence, Motivation and Control in Organizations (Homewood, III. : Richard D. Irwin, 1971). Hak Cipta 1971 oleh Richard D. Irwin Inc.

Variasi dalam Pengendalian

Hakekat system pengendalian manajemen dibedakan menurut sifat pekerjaan, macam organisasi, lingkungan daan peran manajer. Berikut adalah tiga dimensi yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penggunaan dan pengembangan system pengendalian manajemen :

1. Besar keleluasaan manajemen

2. Besar interdependensi

3. Rentang waktu pelaksanaan

FUNGSI KONTROLER

Kontroler dapat diartikan sebagai petinggi atau pejabat yang bertanggung jawab atas apa yang telah direncanakan oleh organisasi dan bagaimana pengoperasiannya. Tanggung jawab para kontroler berbeda ‘ beda di tiap organisasi bahkan di tiap divisinya. Tanggung jawab kontroler didasarkan pada posisinya masing ‘ masing. Tanggung jawab tersebut dilaksanakan secara langsung. Selain tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian tersebut, berikut ini adalah fungsi lain dari kontroler :

a. Menyiapkan laporan kepada pihak pemerintah serta pihak ‘ pihak luar lainnya.

b. Mempersiapkan pengembalian pajak.

c. Mempersiapkan dan melakukan analisa terhadap laporan prestasi keuangan.

d. Membantu para manajer dengan cara melakukan analisa sertab menafsirkan laporan ‘ laporan tersebut.

e. Menggunakan prosedur pemeriksaan intern dan pengendalian akuntansi, memastikan validitas informasi, menetapkan usaha perlindungan yangcukup terhadap berbagai penyimpangan serta melakukan pemeriksaan operasional.

f. Melakukan pengembangan kepada orang ‘ orang yang ia pimpin serta berperan langsung dalam penambahan pengetahuan mengenai fungsi kontroler

g. Mengadakan manajemen kas, asuransi serta kegiatan ‘ kegiatan lainnya demi pengamanan kekayaan perusahaan.

Hubungan dengan Organisasi Lini

Kontroler juga memiliki hak untuk membuat kebijakan ‘ kebijakan dalam organisasi. Namun keputusan ‘ keputusan tersebut merupakan realisasi pelaksanaan kebijakan ‘ kebijakan yang telah dibuat oleh manajer lini. Dengan kata lain, terdapat keselarasan antara kedua belah pihak. Hal tersebut tentunya sangat baik untuk menjaga kelancaran jalannya organisasi tersebut.

Kontroler Divisi

Kebanyakan perusahaan atau organisasi membagi organisasinya tersebut menjadi beberapa divisi yang dikepalai oleh seorang manajer. Manajer divisi tentu juga memiliki kontroler divisi. Dalam hal ini, kontroler divisi harus patuh kepada manajer divisi dan juga kontroler perusahaan yang terkadang beda kepentingannya. Penilaian prestasi terhadap kontroler divisi dapat dilakukan dengan menilai beberapa poin, antara lain :

– Laporan akuntansi dan keuangan

– Pengetahuan mengenai operasi divisi

– Sasaran dan pelaksanaan kepatuhan terhadap kebijakan

– Kontribusi manajemen

– Pengetahuan terhadap akuntansi

– Kejujuran dan profesionalisme

– Kemauan bekerjasama

– Organisasi dan staf

– Inisiatif dan semangat

HUBUNGAN LINI-STAF

Seorang manajer divisi dapat dikatakan tidak memiliki staf maupun asisten pribadi. Manajer tersebut mendapatkan bantuan dari :

1. Tenaga yang ditugaskan untuk membantunya dari staf umum, insinyur serta petugas pembelian

2. Staf pusat yang dapat dimintai bantuan kapan saja sebanyak mungkin.

HUBUNGAN MANAJER DIVISI ‘ KONTROLER

Untuk mencapai kesuksesan organisasi dalam hubungannya dengan manajer divisi, maka organisasi perlu membina kerjasama yang baik dan solid di tiap ‘ tiap manajemen. Berikut merupakan beberapa factor yang dapat mempengaruhi hubungan baik adalah :

1. System akuntansi yang seragam dan terpusat

2. Sasaran ‘ saasaran keuangan yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya untuk tiap ‘ tiap divisi.

(Pertumbuhan penjualan serta besar laba penjualan)

3. Pembagian laba antara kontroler dan manajer

SISTEM AKUNTANSI

Selain memiliki tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian organisasi, divisi kontroler juga memiliki kewenangan atas system akuntansi yang akan digunakan oleh organisasi tersebut termasuk di dalamnya menetapkan cara dan jenis pos ‘ pos yang harus mereka awasi. Sistem akuntansi dijadikan dasar dalam penyusunan laporan keuangan beserta analisisnya.

SASARAN ‘ SASARAN DIVISI

Seperti yang telah disebutkan pada bagian sebelumnya, perusahaan atau organisasi memiliki sasaran keuangan, yaitu pertumbuhan penjualan dan tingkat laba. Tingkat laba dalam organisasi atau perusahaan ditetapkan sebaga persentase penjualan. Berikut ini adalah beberapa factor penentu target laba penjualan :

1. Kemungkinan pematenan produk

2. Besar laba atas investasi yang diinginkan

3. Besar laba industry bersangkutan

4. Besar laba investasi bersangkutan

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Business notes: Creative problem solving aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

1 Unit 1 – Creative problem solving

1.1 Introduction

A business leader is expected to identify problems, implement solutions and find business opportunities. To do so, they must learn to plan, analyse situations, identify and solve problems (or potential problems), make decisions, and set realistic and attainable goals for the business/unit. These are the fundamental thinking/creative requirements for leadership, and these set direction to a successful future. Without this critical competence, you will have to rely on others to do your thinking for you, or you will simply have to learn to nurture your creative thinking skills which will help you on your journey towards successful business.

Creative thinking forms part of this continuous problem solving process, and is the fundamental basis for facilitating in the development of solutions, new initiatives, products or services. In an entrepreneurial context, the end result of this process should be directly linked to a feasible opportunity in the market environment.

Quote – What lies behind us and what lies before us, are tiny matters, compared to what lies within us. – William Morrow

The creative problem solving process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Problem analysis

‘ Solution analysis

‘ Decision analysis

‘ Solution implementation

1.2 The process

The creative problem solving process consists of an important core process, namely the idea generation process see figure 1. This is an important step, especially if you need to come up with creative ideas for products, services, and processes, to solve a consumer problem. The idea generation process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Step 1 – Generating ideas

‘ Step 2 – Developing ideas into a concept

‘ Step 3 – Converting a concept into a tangible or intangible product

‘ Step 4 – Finally protecting the tangible or intangible product

Figure 1 – The process of creative thinking (idea generation)

Initially you need to understand the problem and find the root cause of the problem. Many techniques are available to find the causes of problems, you can use the 5 Why technique in this case, if you are familiar with it. The more advanced courses will describe how to use the major problem identification techniques, but this course will focus on the idea generation process.

1.3 Where to start

In the entrepreneurial phase, the best way to start the idea generation process is when you are required to come up with a new product or service, to identify a potential consumer problem. Initially, focus on identifying problems in the area of your expertise (your knowledge base).

If you have no knowledge of the problem, the product development stage could be a challenge for you.

You will learn in the next section that not all problems are opportunities, and entrepreneurs should be careful as to how they approach this stage, when generating ideas in trying to identify a new product or service.

1.4 Problem versus opportunity

In most cases, the idea-generation phase in the creative problem solving process is neglected. Individuals normally identify a problem or an opportunity (which may seem like an opportunity, but is actually just an idea), and then develop a new product in line with the new assumed idea or opportunity. It is therefore important to distinguish between an idea and an opportunity. Resources may be wasted if a mere idea is incorrectly perceived as an opportunity.

Any opportunity is initially problem based (e.g. a coffee shop in a destination where there is a lack thereof, this creates several problem situations and potentially feasible opportunities for the entrepreneur). The creative thinking (idea generation process) involved, is the means to solving these problems, and bring forth solutions to the market problems, which create further opportunities.

1.4.1 Difference between problem and opportunity

There is, however, a critical difference between a problem and opportunity. Consider the following:

‘ Is it an idea or an opportunity to develop a high speed train between two major cities which are not far from each other? Some may say it is a great idea, but when you need to pay R200 a day to make use of it, it is simply not an opportunity. Only a few people would make use of the service, resulting in a negative impact on the market.

‘ If it is possible to transport people between the two cities for a lower cost, say R10, it would possibly be a more feasible opportunity.

Here is a good example of an opportunity – Around the turn of the twentieth century, a shoe manufacturer sent a representative to Africa, to open up a market in the undeveloped area in that continent. After exploring the culture for a month, the rep sent a telegram to the home office shouting,

‘Disaster! Disaster! These people do not wear shoes. Bring me home immediately!’

A short time later, another shoe company sent their agent to Africa for the same purpose. A month later his home office also received a telegram:

‘Opportunity! Opportunity! These people do not wear shoes! Triple production immediately!’

Quote – Every situation contains the potential for disastrous problems or unprecedented success. The event is what we perceive it to be. Unknown

Now the question arises: How do I distinguish between an idea and an opportunity? Looking at above examples, every problem is not an opportunity, and it really depends at how you are looking at the problem. If you see a viable opportunity in a problem then you are looking at the problem with a different perception than most people (the glass is half full or half empty). From a business perspective all opportunities are not necessarily a viable opportunity, the market determines the available opportunities. Without the knowledge to interpret the market conditions, you could miss it totally in terms of your opportunity analysis.

Table 1 shows the different industries in South Africa, the level of entrepreneurial activity, and how the same opportunity differs in each of these market areas.

1.4.2 The global entrepreneurship monitor

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor ‘ specifically identified the entrepreneurial activity in the various industries of South Africa. It can be generalized to state that an industry with a high level of entrepreneurial activity, gives away more business opportunities (e.g. manufacturing, retail, hotel, restaurant and business services), while one with a lower level will indicate far less opportunities (e.g. agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing, finance, insurance, real estate and health, education and social services).

If we analyse just one ‘high-opportunity’ industry, for instance manufacturing, it may be an opportunity today to manufacture a final product, and export it to an international market. A ‘low-opportunity’ industry, for instance insurance (especially in the market entry phase), may be negative as having an extremely high crime rate and insurance companies have to pay out claims at an alarming rate. It is also evident that low-opportunity industries may create feasible opportunities.

An entrepreneur should therefore be wary of following a fad, (latest trend) and exploiting assumed opportunities in a ‘popular’ industry.

Percentage of Entrepreneurs

ISIC Category Start-ups New Firms Total

Agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing 1,3 2,6 1,6

Mining, construction 9,7 5,0 4,1

Manufacturing 14,3 19,1 13,8

Transport, communications, utilities 9,8 0,7 8,0

Wholesale, motor vehicle sales, repairs 6,0 6,5 6,3

Retail, hotel, restaurant 40,8 47,7 43,5

Finance, insurance, real estate 0,3 5,2 1,4

Business services 10,1 7,9 9,4

Health, education, social services 2,6 0,7 2,3

Consumer services 11,0 3,5 9,7

Source: Driver. Wood, Segal & Herrington, 2001

Table 1 – The percentage of entrepreneurs in the different industries in South-Africa

1.4.3 What is an opportunity?

What exactly is an opportunity and how does an entrepreneur exploit a feasible opportunity? According to Hesrich & Peters (2002), an opportunity is the process whereby the entrepreneur assesses whether a certain product, service or process, will yield the necessary earnings based on the resource inputs that are required to manufacture and market it.

The nature of opportunities needs to be assessed – thus, what leads to the existence of an opportunity? The following factors may result in an opportunity:

‘ General and specific problems faced by consumers

‘ Market shifts

‘ Government regulations

‘ Competition

There are two equally important criteria in the assessment of an opportunity. Firstly, the size of the market – will the number of customers reward the input and energy required, to create and deliver the product?

Secondly, the length in terms of the frame of the opportunity (window of opportunity). For example, is the demand for this product only a short fashionable phenomenon or is it based on sustainable business, or how long will it take before someone else (a competitor), to grab the opportunity?

These two aspects should also link directly to the personal skills and competence of the entrepreneur. For example, entrepreneurs with no skills or interest in information technology will not necessarily achieve their personal goals. They should rather venture into an opportunity which suits their experience and personality.

1.4.4 Transform opportunity into a business

Table 2 shows how the development of a business plan links to the identification and evaluation of opportunities, the determination of the resources required and the eventual management of the enterprise. All of these factors play a significant role in the correct assessment of the business opportunity.

This means that the business plan must explain in sufficient detail how the business will exploit the situation, to transform the opportunity, into solving a problem for the consumer, which generates extraordinary profits for the people involved.

Identify and evaluate the opportunity Develop the business plan Determine the resources needed Manage the enterprise

Creation and length of opportunity

Real and perceived value of opportunity

Risk and returns of opportunity

Opportunity versus skills and goals

Competitive situation Title page

Table of contents

Executive summary

Description of business

Description of industry

Marketing plan

Financial plan

Production plan

Organisational plan

Operational plan

Summary

Appendices Existing resources of the entrepreneur

Resource gap and available supplies

Access to needed resources Management style

Key variables for success

Identification of problems and potential problems

Implementation of control systems

Source: Hisrich, R.D. & Peters, M.P. 2002: 40. Entrepreneurship. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Table 2 – Link between Opportunity and business plan

1.5 Instruction

Exit and resume to your current page.

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The importance of employee engagement in an organization college essay help online free

1.4 Literature Review

Mark Kilsby and Stephen Beyer (1996) ‘ Engagement and Interaction : A comparison between supported employment and acts’. This research study was conducted with the help of interaction and commitment patterns of 13 supported employees and 38 regular adult training center attainders of the organization. Direct observation was used as method of data collection, within the 13 employment sites and a representative sample of ATC organized activities. Because of the higher level of task specific dialogue between individuals and the service of the organization it is found that there is more of social interaction in ACT. Interaction of employees with public within office hours was the cause for this as per the study conducted.

Douglas R. May, Richard L, Gilson and Lynn M . Harter (2004) ‘The Psychological Conditions Of Meaningfulness ,Safety And Availability And The Engagement Of The Human Spirit At Work’. This shows the study about a U.S western company which explored the determinants and mediated the effects of tree psychological conditions they are meaningful, safe and available. The above studies shoes that all the three factors (meaningfulness, safety and availability) have a positive relation with the engagement of an employee in the organization. In other words they are completely associated with the psychological safety where as loyalty to co worker norms and self- consciousness are negatively related.

Despoina Xanthopaolou, Arnold B, Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti and Wilmar B.Schaufeli (2009) ‘Work Engagement And Financial Returns : A Diary Study On The Role Of The Job And Personal Resources’. The above study shows that how daily fluctuations in job can affect the level of personal resource , financial returns and work engagement. Different level of analysis revealed that day level job resources had an effect on work engagement through the day level personal resources. When there was a control for the general level of personal resources and organizational engagement Day level work engagement showed a positive way towards day level training, which in turn showed the financial returns.

Dan-Shang Wang and Chia ‘Chun Hsieh (2013) ‘The Effect Of Authentic Leadership On Employee Trust And Employee Engagement’ they have examined the genuine leadership on employee engagement through employee trust. They have collected data from 386 employees from top 1000 manufacturing companies and top 500 service companies in Taiwan. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis on the employees. Later on the results shows that the consistency between the supervisors , words and actions as well as their moral perceptions are optimistically related to employee engagement , when only supervisors are consist between the words and actions in positively related employment trust. The study shows how employee engagement had a positive trust on employee. Employee trust has a partial link between authentic leadership and employee engagement.

Benjamin J.C, Yuan and Michael B.H. Lin (2012) ‘Transforming Employee Engagement Into Long-Term Customer Relationships: Evidence From Information Technology Salespeople In Taiwan’. This article shows that when information sales people in Taiwan have perceived more transformational leadership and they were more expected to show increased development in work engagement. Over a period of time it was found that increased development in work engagement influenced the increased customer relationship. It showed how employee engagement is indirectly co related with customer relationship.

Xander M.Bezuijen, Karen Van Dam, Peter T . Van Den Berg and Henk Thierry (2010) ‘How Leaders Stimulate Employee Learning : A Leader ‘ Member Exchange Approach’. This study investigated how the three factors as such as leader member exchange, goal setting, and feedback are related to employee engagement in the learning activities. Here, two different mechanisms were proposed , first one a mediating mechanism telling that leader member exchange shows specific leader behavior. The second one is it as a moderating mechanism , holding that leader member exchange will strengthen the effect of leader behavior from 7 organizations a sample of 1112 employees was taken , to measure the leader member exchange approach. 233 of the direct leaders answered that they find difficulty in rating employee engagement in learning activities.

Maureen F.Dollard and Arnold B. Bakker (2010) ‘Psychosocial Safety Climate As A Precursor To Conducive Work Environment , Psychological Health Problems , And Employee Engagement’. This article shows the gap between work psychology and psychosocial working condition. Where we construct a psychosocial working condition PSC. It explains how PSC influences the senior management in psychological working conditions and in psychological health and engagement. They use the job demand and resources as a frame work and uses a multi level thinking into their explanation

James R.Jones (2009) ‘Comparative Effects On Race/Ethnicity And Employee Engagement On Withdrawal Behavior’. This study have added knowledge on the basis of effects on employee attachment. In addition to that it provides more evidence on looking at all types of employees as a single entity which can lead to false results.

Shane Crabb ( 2011) ‘The Use Of Coaching Principles To Foster Employee Engagement’. The above article focuses on the human condition that leads to the happiness of fulfillment and flourishing of employee engagement. Where positive psychology results in so many questions from traditional psychological approaches .Which have mean to focus on a different model of human functioning with healing people fail. In another way positive psychology takes additional holistic approach to human life. Seeing the positive and negative aspects of context when establishing what is right , working and good of people.

Roberta A . Neault and Deidre A .Pickerel (2011) ‘Career Engagement : Bridging Career Counseling And Employee engagement’ . this article is showing that employee counselors helps individuals in maximizing their career engagement at any career stage of an individual. When you facilitate career engagement it contributes to employee engagement which employee are looking for. They even encourages others to use the career engagement and employee engagement models as vehicles to combine the employers to interest in engagement counselors to create interest in supporting the development of employee an motivate them to work.

2.1 Title: A Cross Sectional Study Of Employee Engagement In Apollo Hospitals.

2.2 Objectives:

1. To determine the level of Employee Engagement in Apollo Hospitals.

2. To identify the factors of Employee Engagement.

3. To analyze and suggest strategies for improvement.

2.3 Research Methodology:

I had adopted descriptive research design for the purpose of this

Survey on employee engagement. The primary data was collected from the 100 employees conveniently selected from Apollo Hospitals Bangalore, through structured questionnaire.

2.4 Limitations:

1) The survey was carried out for a sample sized of 100 working staff only.

2) Findings and suggestion of this research are applicable only to Apollo Hospitals.

3) As an fact finding study advanced statistical tools or analysis are not used.

Table 1.1 Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

X 1 2 3 4 5

I have adequate opportunities for professional growth in this organization. (X1) 10 20 32 19 19

I receive the training I need to do my job well.(X2) 2 52 22 16 08

My manager is actively interested in my professional development and advancement.(X3) 32 21 12 18 17

My manager encourages and supports my development (X4) 08 10 40 18 24

I am encouraged to learn from my mistakes (X5) 52 23 16 04 05

My work is challenging, stimulating, and rewarding(X6) 28 14 33 16 09

X1 ?? XI X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5 X6 ?? X6

10 50 2 10 32 160 08 40 52 260 28 140

20 80 52 208 21 84 10 40 23 92 14 56

32 96 22 66 12 36 40 120 16 48 33 99

19 38 16 32 18 36 18 36 04 08 16 32

19 19 08 08 17 17 24 24 05 05 09 09

TOTAL 283 TOTAL 324 TOTAL 333 TOTAL 260 TOTAL 413 TOTAL 336

Table 1.2 Calculation Of Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

283/100 2.83 324/100 3.24 333/100 3.33 260/100 2.60 413/100 4.13 336/100 3.36

RANKED 6 RANKED 4 RANKED 3 RANKED 5 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.3 Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Opportunities for growth

INFERENCE

The above table shows that the employees are encouraged to learn from their mistakes that is 4.15 out of 5.the work is stimulating rewarding and challenging is ranked 2nd.the manager is actively interested in employees professional growth is

ranked 3rd.the level of opportunity for professional growth shows the least ranking.

Table 1.4: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 20 32 19 19 100

Chart 1.1: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

Interpretation:

32% of the employees from the given population says that they have a neutral opportunity to grow where as 10 % stands in the outstanding category and 20% of them in good category. An equal no of employees disagree to the fact in the other hand that is 19% of the given population.

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 52 22 16 8 100

Table 1.5: Showing Training

Chart 1.2: Showing Training

Interpretation:

In the given sample 52% of the employees agrees to the fact that they receive good training in order to do their job efficiently and 2% strongly agrees. where 22 % is neutral to the situation given.16 % of them do not get proper training they required to do their jobs and 8 % strongly disagree to it. It is clear that the organization is giving a proper training to employees to make their work effective.

Table 1.6: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 21 12 18 17 100

Chart 1.3: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

Interpretation:

Most of the employees agree that their manager takes attention in their professional development steps. 32 % to 25 of the employees from the given sample have strongly agreed and agreed to it respectively. whereas 12 % is neutral to it . but 18% to 17% disagrees and says that they are not taken care in respective of their advancement in profession.

Table 1.7: Showing Encouragement And Support

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 10 40 18 24 100

Chart 1.4: Showing Encouragement And Support

Interpretation:

From the above graph its clear that 40% of the employees neither agree or disagree that management encourage them or support them. 8% to 10% agrees that they have been supported by the management . but 18 % to 24 % disagree to the fact that management supports them .

Table 1.8: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

52 23 16 4 5 100

Chart 1.5: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

Interpretation:

More than half , 52% of the employees states that they have a challenging stimulating and rewarding work. A very few of them disagree to it 4 % to 5% . and 23 % of them agrees t it there is a majority of people agreeing to it.

Table 1.9: Showing Encouragement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

28 14 33 16 9 100

Chart 1.6: Showing Encouragement

Interpretation:

There is a 28% of people agreeing to it. And 16 % to 9 % disagreeing to the fact that they are not encouraged to learn from their mistakes .

Table 1.10: Showing Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

X 1 2 3 4 5

My manager understands the benefits of maintaining a balance between work and personal life. (X1) 02 13 08 48 29

My job does not cause unreasonable amounts of stress in my life. (X2) 30 13 08 48 29

The amount of work I am asked to do is reasonable. (X3) 40 20 12 14 14

I am able to satisfy both my job and family/personal responsibilities. (X4) 27 12 08 09 44

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4

02 10 30 150 40 200 27 135

13 52 13 52 20 80 12 48

08 24 08 24 12 48 08 24

48 96 48 96 14 28 09 18

29 29 29 29 14 14 44 44

TOTAL 211 TOTAL 351 TOTAL 370 TOTAL 269

Table 1.11: Showing Calculation Of Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

Table 1.12: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace

211/100 2.11 351/100 3.51 370/100 3.7 269/100 2.69

RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2 RANKED 3

INFERRENCE

By analysing the given data using weighted average method that the level of stress reduced in the employees is 3.51 out of 4 , and the amount of work the employee is asked to do is 3.7. the employee is able to balance between family and personal responsibility is 2.69 . the managers understanding in the benefits and maintaining balance between work and personal life should be taken care because it is got only 2.11 which have least rank

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 13 8 48 29 100

Table 1.13: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Chart 1.7: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Interpretation:

Only 2% of the employees says that there is a balance between work life and personal life. 13% of them agrees to it and 8% is neutral to it.but 48% of the sample disagrees and 29 % of them strongly disagrees to it.

Table 1.14: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

30 13 8 48 29 100

Chart 1.8: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

Interpretation:

30% of the employees strongly agrees that the job doesn’t cause much stress where 13% of them agrees and 8% is neutral to it. But 48%of them disagree nd 29% strongly disagrees and states that job causes stress in their life.

Table 1.15: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.9: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

Interpretation:

40% of them strongly agrees that they have sufficient amount of work and they do not feel any stress where 20 % of them agrees. 12% of the sample is neutral.14% of them disagrees they don’t have suffient amount of work or they are overloaded with the work given.

Table 1.16: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.10: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

Interpretation:

44% of them strongly disagree that they are not able to complete their job, family and personal responsibilities. 27 % to 12 % agrees to it and 8% is neutral to that. It shows that employees are not satisfied with the amount of work given to them.

Table 1.17: Showing Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X 1 2 3 4 5

My ideas and opinions count at work. (X1) 03 18 19 32 28

I am comfortable sharing my opinions at work. (X2) 10 08 28 42 12

We work to attract, develop, and retain people with diverse backgrounds. (X3) 10 13 09 56 12

Senior management is genuinely interested in employee opinions and ideas. (X4) 24 23 36 07 10

People with different ideas are valued in this organization. (X5) 20 18 40 13 09

Table 1.18: Calculation Of Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

3 15 10 50 10 50 24 120 20 100

18 72 08 32 13 52 23 92 18 72

19 57 28 84 09 27 36 108 40 120

32 64 42 84 56 112 07 14 13 26

28 26 12 12 12 12 10 10 09 09

TOTAL 234 TOTAL 262 TOTAL 253 TOTAL 344 TOTAL 327

234/100 2.34 262/100 2.62 253/100 2.53 344/100 3.44 327/100 3.27

RANKED 5 RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.19: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Personal Expression / Diversity

INFERRENCE

By analysing the above table it shows that senior management is interested in personal opinions which shows the rank 1. And people with different ideas are valued in the organisation are considered 3.27 out of 5. Employees are free to share their ideas 2.62. the employees work in such a manner to attract and retain others 2.53 ,which has got the 4th rank. Ideas counted at work has got the least rank where they have to work on that part.

Table 1.20: Showing Idea And Opinion Count

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

3 18 19 32 28 100

Chart 1.11: : Showing Idea And Opinion Count

Interpretation:

Only 3% of the employees agree that the management listens to their ideas and opinions. 18% of them agree to it as well. 19 % is neutral to the situation. Whereas there is a huge no of the sample size that is32% to 28% who is disagreeing to it. Their opinions and ideas are not taken seriously by the management.

Table 1.21: Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 8 28 42 12 100

Chart 1.12 : Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

Interpretation:

The conducted shows that onl10% to 8% employees are comfortable in sharing their problems with the upper management. Rest of the sample that is 42% is disagreeing that they are not comfortable in sharing their ideas or problems.12% of them strongly disagrees.

Table 1.22: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 13 9 56 12 100

Chart 1.13: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

Interpretation:

56% of the employees disagrees that they don’t work to attract ,develop or retain customers. Where 10% to 13% agrees to the statement . a little sample size of 12% strongly disagrees to the statement .

Table 1.23: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

24 23 26 7 10 100

Chart 1.14: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

Interpretation

The management shows interest in taking employees ideas and opinions.24% of them agrees and 23% of the strongly agrees to the statement. A huge sample ,36% id neutral to the statement. But a little sample, 7% to 10% disagrees to the statement.

Table 1.24: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

20 18 40 13 9 100

Chart 1.15: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

Interpretation:

20% to 18% of the employees agree that people with different ideas are well accepted in the organization. 40% to the employees are neutral to the statement. 13 % to 9% of the sample disagrees to the statement on the other hand.

Table 1.25: Showing Weighted Average On Compensation

X 1 2 3 4 5

I am paid fairly for the work I do. (X1) 19 42 12 25 2

My salary is competitive with similar jobs I might find elsewhere.(X2) 32 12 28 23 5

My benefits are comparable to those offered by other organizations.(X3) 8 29 28 32 3

I understand my benefit plan. (X4) 42 15 19 9 15

I am satisfied with my benefit package. (X5) 58 12 11 6 13

Table 1.26: Calculation Of Weighted Average On Compensation

X1 vX1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

19 95 32 160 08 40 42 210 58 290

42 168 12 48 29 116 15 60 12 48

12 36 28 84 28 84 19 57 11 33

25 50 23 46 32 64 09 18 06 12

02 02 05 05 03 03 15 15 13 13

TOTAL 351 TOTAL 343 TOTAL 307 TOTAL 360 TOTAL 396

Table 1.27: Showing The Rank Of Each Component Of Compensation

351/100 3.51 343/100 3.43 307/100 3.07 360/100 3.60 396/100 3.96

RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 5 RANKED 2 RANKED 1

INFERENCES

The above table shows that the employees are satisfied with the benefit package they are given 3.96 out of 5.the employees understand their plan is 3.60. the fair pay is ranked 3rd.the employees salary is competitive with others is ranked 4th. The salary is not comparable with salary with others which has been ranked the least, rank 5.

Table 1.28: showing Fair Pay

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

19 42 12 25 2 100

Chart 1.16: Showing Fair Pay

Interpretation:

19% to 42% of the Employees agree that they are paid fairly according to the amount of work they do. But 25% to 2% of the sample size disagrees to the statement. And 12% is neutral to it.

Table 1.29: Showing Salary Competitiveness

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 12 28 23 5 100

Chart 1.17: Showing Salary Competitiveness

Interpretation:

32% of the employees agrees that they get a competitive salary when compared to other organizations with same designation. 12% of them strongly agrees to it .28% of them are neutral to the statement. 23% to 5% is disagrees to the statement in the other hand.

Table 1.30: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 29 28 32 3 100

Chart 1.18: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

Interpretation:

There is balance, 29% of the employees agrees and 32 % of them strongly disagrees that they have a comparable benefits.28% of them are neutral in the other hand.

Table 1.31: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

42 15 19 9 15 100

Chart 1.19: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

Interpretation:

42% of the employees agrees that they understand their benefit plan. 15% strongly agrees ,where 19% is neutral.9% to 15% disagrees to the fact and says they don’t understand the benefit plans they are given.

Table 1.32: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

58 12 11 6 13 100

Chart 1.20: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

Interpretation:

58% of them are satisfied with their benefit package. 12% strongly agrees. Whereas little sample of 6% to 13% disagrees to the statement. Or they are not happy with their benefit package.11% is neutral to it.

Summary of Findings

‘ Most of the employee’s ability state the opinion firmly and positively is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability in exercising the professional duties without assistance is better than acceptable standard.

‘ The Emotional Stamina of the majority of the employees is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the Employee’s Ability to work co-operatively and collaboratively to achieve common goal is better than acceptable.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to effectively guide a group through an appropriate process to help to achieve their desired outcomes is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to clarify and establish with a group roles and responsibilities, common goal and plan to achieve them and group behavioural is outstanding.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to deal with multiple issues and details, alertness and learning capacity is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to see and think beyond the obvious and formulate original solution is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to present ideas, concept, plan and procedure clearly to the target group is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Concern for excellence of the majority of the employee’s is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s Aware of what is going on in the workplace and responds in a suitable manner to situations as they is better than acceptable.

‘ The understanding between the top level and employees are in good terms.

‘ Employees do understand their benefits and opportunities given by the organisation.

‘ The employees are paid fairly according to the work done.

‘ Freedom of sharing new ideas and opinions are welcomed in the organisation.

‘ The employees are able to make a balance between personnel and work life. which reduces the amount of stress in them.

‘ The organisation encourages the employee to learn from their mistakes.

‘ Recommendations

‘ In this organization employee engagement study must be regularly done in order to check the level of employee effectiveness.

‘ Since many of the employees are performing different jobs to what they were doing at the time of their joining they need training to perform the new work allotted them.

‘ Different sources of employee engagement tactics must be encouraged in employees.

‘ The top management should support the lower level employees since it is considered a major hurdle in effective employee engagement and the employees must also be made aware of importance of engagement at work system

‘ The employees should be then and there motivated for work.

‘ The understanding between management and employees should be increased.

‘ Level of stress in work should be reduced.

‘ Better benefit package should be given to the employees.

Conclusion

In the report we have discussed the importance of employee engagement in an organization and how it affects the efficiency of work and productivity. Employment counselors should help individuals to maximize their career engagement at any stage of their career. Basically employee engagement should be a buzz word for the employee engagement and a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization. Employee engagement is gaining its importance and popularity in work places and its impact in many ways. It emphasis on the importance of employee engagement in a organization, an organization should thus give more importance for its employees than any other variable as they are the powerful contributors to a company’s competitiveness. Thus it shows that employee engagement should be a continues process for learning, improvement, measurement and action of an employee.

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The limitations of the Chit Acts free college essay help

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The financial system assumes strategically a very important role in channelling the funds from surplus units to deficit units. The financial system here refers to the group of institutions, markets and instruments which helps in formation of capital and thus accelerates to the pace of economic development.

The base of this study stems from the fact that there exists a gap between gross capital formation and gross domestic savings in India. So, there exists the need to augment the growth rate of voluntary domestic savings. This goal can be realized by widening and strengthening the working of different financial intermediaries which will result in mobilizing savings from various income level categories. .It is in this context that the role of the Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries like Chit Finance should be appreciated in supplementing the functions of the Banking Institutions.

Chit funds are Chit funds are the Indian equivalent of the Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCA). ROSCAs are famous in many parts of the world and is seen as an instrument to ‘save and borrow’ simultaneously. ROSCAs basically started as a way to help in fulfilling the needs of the low-income households as it enables the people to convert their small savings into lump sums. The concept of chit funds originated more than 1000 years ago. Initially it was in the form of an informal association of traders and households within communities, wherein the members contributed some money in return for an accumulated sum at the end of the tenure. Participation in Chit funds was mainly for the purpose of purchasing some property or, in other words, for ‘consumption’ purposes. However, in recent times, there have been tremendous alterations in the constitution and functioning of Chit funds. A significant difference between Chit Funds and ROSCAs are that in most places ROSCAs are user-owned and organized informally, but chit funds have been formally institutionalized in India. (Chit Funds-An innovative access to finance for low income households, 2009)

1.1.1 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY CHIT FUNDS?

Chit fund is a savings-cum-borrowing instrument. The basic aim of this instrument is to pool small amount of savings by all the members which is then managed by a foreman. The foreman has the responsibility to act as a trustee-cum-supervisors for the process of collection and allotment of the pooled amount.

Chit funds represent a traditional form of saving-cum-credit institution evolved before the bank system was introduced in rural India. There are many who avail themselves of this avenue for saving for a reasonable return.

1.1 NEED AND RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Despite the growth of a wide range of savings avenues and the widespread network of banks and other financial institutions, it has been found that Chit scheme still forms an important part in the asset portfolio of many households and firms in India and especially in South India including Karnataka. Also, the review of literature shows that there are only a few studies on Chit Finance. Therefore, the need to conduct the study stems from the requirement to understand Chit Funds in Bangalore.

1.2 NEED TO CONDUCT THE STUDY

The research titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study tries to point out the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests feasible recommendations for improving the working of such institutions.

.3.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’.

VARIABLES UNDER INVESTIGATION

1. Age

2. Occupation

3. Monthly income

4. Gender

5. Bank loan

6. Regular participation in chit fund

7. Membership in multiple chit schemes

8. Cause for participating in multiple schemes

9. Preferred avenue of saving

10. Preferred source of finance

11. Safety

12. Better service

13. Flexibility

14. Timely Payment

15. Low commission

16. Personal contact

17. Unregistered chit funds membership

18. Cause for participating in unregistered chit funds

19. Cause for not participating in unregistered chit fund

3.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

3.5.1 OBJECTIVE(PRIMARY)

1. To understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members.

2. To identify the important predictors behind chit fund participation

3.5.2 OHER OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

1. To estimate interest rates in registered chit funds.

2. To compare the relative ratings of Chit subscribers towards registered and unregistered chit funds on

3. To estimate the return on Chit Funds.

3.6 HYPOTHESIS

There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

1. Null hypothesis

2. Alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

.

3.8 SAMPLING METHOD

Members of four registered chit fund companies in Bangalore. The four registered chit fund companies were selected due to the large size of their subscriber base.

3.8.3 SIZE OF SAMPLE

150 respondents

3.9 MECHANISM OF STUDY

3.9.1 PRIMARY RESEARCH

Questions relating to behaviour and financial pattern will be found out through questionnares

3.9.2 SECONDARY RESEARCH

‘ Reports on chit fund industry

OVERVIEW OF INDIAN CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

4.1.1 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CHIT FUND COMPANIES:

According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on 31st December, 2013:

Volume of registered chit companies: 5412

Volume of chit companies in Karnataka: 703

Number of chit fund companies in Bangalore: 315

UNREGISTERED CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

Although unregistered chits are an informal source of finance but still they are a significant part of the chit fund industry. Though they are more easily accessible as compared to registered chit funds.

4.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ attempt in The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study also examines the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests suitable recommendations for improving the functioning of such institutions.

4.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY

‘ Unwillingness of the members to share their income and financial details made the task of data collection somewhat difficult.

‘ Collecting data became difficult since I don’t know the regional languages.

5.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis is done on the primary data collected from 150 chit funds members in Bangalore

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

5.4.1 Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.070a 16 .013

Likelihood Ratio 35.945 16 .003

Linear-by-Linear Association 8.809 1 .003

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .455 .013

Cramer’s V .228 .013

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=31.070 was p=.013, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (Phi and Cramer’s V -0.455).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. This means that different age groups of the chit fund members have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As can be seen from the table above that those who belong to ’36-45 years’ have saving as the predominant reason to participate whereas members of other age groups do not have any dominant reason to participate.

5.4.2 Hypothesis 2:

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

. Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 10.018a 4 .040

Likelihood Ratio 10.478 4 .033

Linear-by-Linear Association 6.876 1 .009

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .258 .040

Cramer’s V .258 .040

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=10.018 was p=.040, less than 0.05.

.We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (0.258)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis. This means that males and females have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As it can be seen that males participate in chit funds for business and personal consumption purposes apart from saving whereas women predominantly participate to save.

5.4

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 82.176a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 97.665 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 15.696 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .740 .000

Cramer’s V .427 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (0.740)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the self-employed members mainly participate to avail for business reasons whereas salaried employee participate mainly for personal consumption purposes.

Hypothesis 5:

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 66.691a 20 .000

Likelihood Ratio 43.579 20 .002

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.804 1 .028

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .667 .000

Cramer’s V .333 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=66.691) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong (0.667)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the members of age group’36-45 years’ are more interested in bidding for business related purposes where members of other age groups bid mainly for emergency needs.

5.4.6 Hypothesis 6:

. Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.167a 5 .209

Likelihood Ratio 7.885 5 .163

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.120 1 .290

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .219 .209

Cramer’s V .219 .209

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.167) was p=.209, more than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.7 Hypothesis 7:

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 180.915a 15 .000

Likelihood Ratio 160.460 15 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 28.379 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.098 .000

Cramer’s V .634 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that self-employed people bid in chit scheme mostly for business purposes, salaried people for emergency needs and housewives for household purposes.

5.4.8 Hypothesis 8:

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 123.331a 35 .000

Likelihood Ratio 106.298 35 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.957 1 .026

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=123.331) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.907)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that low income members bid mostly for consumption reasons whereas higher income members bid for business related and emergency purposes.

SUMMARY:

Reason to bid in chit fund has the strongest association with the occupation of the chit fund members as the probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000 and the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098).

5.4.

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 21.702a 16 .153

Likelihood Ratio 23.775 16 .095

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.397 1 .122

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=123.331) was p=.153, more than 0.05. Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.10 Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 20.510a 4 .000

Likelihood Ratio 29.038 4 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 7.062 1 .008

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .370 .000

Cramer’s V .370 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=20.510) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (.370).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis.

5.4.11 Hypothesis 11:

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 67.261a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 60.380 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.507 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .670 .000

Cramer’s V .387 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=67.261 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong(.670).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to cause in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. Salaried people save their money in chit fund with no particular purpose. But self-employed people are equally interested in saving for house purchase as well as for general purpose.

SUMMARY:

chit fund is most closely associated with occupation of the chit fund members as it has the highest value of chi-square statistic and Phi coefficient.

5.4.12 Hypothesis 12:

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 56.697a 3 .000

Likelihood Ratio 67.900 3 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 36.400 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=56.697) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (.615).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘membership in multiple chit schemes are related to differences in ‘having currently bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that those members currently having bank loan have invested in only one chit scheme whereas those members who do not have availed bank loan have invested in more than one chit schemes.

5.4.13 Hypothesis 13:

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 96.660a 7 .000

Likelihood Ratio 85.378 7 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 59.577 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell(10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.08.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=96.660 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.803).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘participation in unregistered chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that mostly low- income members have participated in unregistered funds. This is because the registered funds have become expensive due to the increase in their operational cost as a result of stringent regulations.

5.2.14 Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 28.049a 5 .000

Likelihood Ratio 31.806 5 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.967 1 .085

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 2 cells (15.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.79.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .432 .000

Cramer’s V .432 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=28.049) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (.432).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to prefer chit fund over bank’ are related to differences in ‘having bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that members who have bank loan have preferred chit fund over bank mainly due to better dividends. But those who do not have bank loan prefer chit fund over bank mainly due to better service in terms of more personalized service.)

5.2..15 Hypothesis 15: To identify significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds using Binary Logistic Regression

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 0 Constant -1.046 .186 31.574 1 .000 .351

Model Summary

Step -2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R Square Nagelkerke R Square

1 37.170a .533 .576

a. Estimation terminated at iteration number 6 because parameter estimates changed by less than .001.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a bank_loan(1) 1.068 1.265 14.715 1 .000 11.720

reason_2 2.286 4 .683

reason_2(1) 1.336 1.077 1.540 1 .215 3.805

reason_2(2) .134 2.239 .004 1 .952 1.143

reason_2(3) -.559 1.896 .087 1 .768 .572

reason_2(4) .731 1.347 .294 1 .588 2.076

reason_3 4.874 5 .431

reason_3(1) 1.188 .924 1.652 1 .199 3.279

reason_3(2) 1.661 2.048 .658 1 .417 5.263

reason_3(3) -1.654 1.228 1.813 1 .178 .191

reason_3(4) .404 1.192 .115 1 .735 1.497

reason_3(5) -17.379 20.722 .000 1 .700 .000

reason_4 .355 4 .986

reason_4(1) -1.047 1.850 .320 1 .571 .351

reason_4(2) -.839 1.979 .180 1 .672 .432

reason_4(3) -.932 1.637 .324 1 .569 .394

reason_4(4) 3.519 4.199 .000 1 .600 3.746

reason_5 8.553 5 .128

reason_5(1) -.254 1.768 .021 1 .886 .776

reason_5(2) -19.245 9.890 .000 1 .999 .000

reason_5(3) 1.420 1.338 1.126 1 .289 4.136

reason_5(4) -.747 1.306 .327 1 .567 .474

reason_5(5) .561 1.342 .174 1 .676 1.752

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a Safety -.075 .320 4.377 1 .011 0.928

Flexi -.178 .426 3.337 1 .021 0.837

commision -.185 .188 1.868 1 .026 0.831

payment -.267 .178 1.657 1 .097 0.766

service -.859 .412 1.348 1 .083 0.424

personal -1.122 .163 .996 1 .079 0.329

Constant 3.058 2.440 1.571 1 .010 21.291

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: : bank_loan, reason_2, reason_3, reason_4, reason_5.imp1, imp2, imp3, imp4, imp5, imp6.

INTERPRETATION:

‘ -2 Log Likelihood statistic is 37.170. This statistic how poorly the model predicts the decisions — the smaller the statistic the better the model. Since, 37.170 is a relatively small number therefore, this model is able to predict the decisions in a better way.

‘ Here Cox & Snell R Square statistic indicates that 53.3% of the variation in the regular participation in chit funds is explained by the logistic model.

‘ In our case Nagelkerke R Square is 0.576, indicating a moderate relationship of 57.6 % between the predictors and the prediction.

‘ If it is less than .05 then, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

‘ In this case, we can see that bank loan, safety, flexibility and low commission have contributed signi’cantly to the prediction of regular participation in chit funds but other variables are not significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds.

‘ Since only bank loan has p=.000, therefore we can say that bank loan is the most significant predictor

among other significant predictors. This is followed by safety (p=.011), flexibility (p=.021) and low commission (p=.026).

‘ Here, the EXP (B) bank loan is 11.727. Hence when bank loan is availed by one unit (one person) the odds ratio is 11 times as large and therefore people are 11 more times likely not to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) with safety is .928. Hence when safety is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .928 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) flexibility is 837. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .837 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) low commission is .831. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .831 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

SUMMARY

Bank loan is the most significant predictor of regular participation in chit funds. This is followed by safety, flexibility and low commission.

Instalment no No of months remaining Monthly subscription Prize amount PV of monthly subscription(PV of outlow at 10%) PV of Prize amount(PV of inflow at 10%) Net Present Value(PV of inflow – PV of outflow)

1 24 2000 50000 2000 50000 10444.9

2 23 1500 35000 1488.1 34723.1 -4832.0

3 22 1500 35000 1476.4 34448.4 -5106.7

4 21 1500 35000 1464.7 34175.9 -5379.2

5 20 1500 35000 1453.1 33905.5 -5649.6

6 19 1500 35000 1441.6 33637.3 -5917.8

7 18 1500 35000 1430.2 33371.2 -6183.9

8 17 1500 35000 1418.9 33107.2 -6447.9

9 16 1620 38000 1520.3 35660.6 -3894.5

10 15 1620 38000 1508.2 35378.5 -4176.6

11 14 1700 40000 1570.2 36945.9 -2609.2

12 13 1700 40000 1557.8 36653.6 -2901.5

13 12 1780 42000 1618.2 38181.8 -1373.3

14 11 1780 42000 1605.4 37879.8 -1675.3

15 10 1780 42000 1592.7 37580.1 -1975.0

16 9 1860 44000 1651.1 39058.2 -496.9

17 8 1860 44000 1638.0 38749.2 -805.9

18 7 1860 44000 1625.1 38442.6 -1112.5

19 6 1940 46000 1681.6 39872.1 317.0

20 5 1940 46000 1668.3 39556.6 1.5

21 4 1940 46000 1655.1 39243.7 -311.4

22 3 1940 46000 1642.0 38933.2 -621.8

23 2 1940 46000 1629.0 38625.2 -929.8

24 1 1940 46000 1616.1 38319.7 -1235.4

25 0 1940 46000 1603.3 38016.5 -1538.6

39555.1 934465.9 -54411.4

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Merit goods best college essay help

Merit goods are goods which will be under-provided by the market, therefore they will be under-consumed. They are thought by the governments to be good for the populations and so the governments want them to be consumed to a great extent. They increase the private and social benefits and cause the social benefit be higher than the private one. The best examples of them, apart from all the public goods, can be the education, health care, sports facilities and the opera.

Although the majority of the merit goods is provided by the private sectors, not all the people can afford buying them, therefore they will be under-consumed. That is why the government is needed to destroy the market failure increasing the supply and consequently raising the consumption.

To explain the reasons for government to provide the merit goods, I need to apply some examples of them. The first one can be the education. It is significant for the governments to provide it so that the society would be well-educated. Governments determine the period of education required for people (the compulsory education) to maintain the proper level of education of the society. The governments find education an important aspect that should be available for everyone as it cause the whole country to have better both economic growth and economic development.

Considering another example such as health care, the situation is quite similar. The governments want to provide the population with it because they care about the high states of health of society in their country. To gain these, the countries need to have high quality of health care. Governments often offer people unpaid programs consisting of preventative medical examination which contribute to maintain the high number of healthy people. This is also connected with the problems of the labour market. The healthier people are, the more efficient their work is, the greater revenue firms have and countries are more developed because of taxations.

Other examples like sport facilities or the opera are meant for people to become physically and culturally developed but their availability is not as important as in the case of the previous examples. That is why they are not as much provided by the governments as the rest of the merit goods.

Although most of the merit goods provided by the governments are free, the fact is that they are paid through the taxes that the societies pay. The number of the merit goods of particular types that the governments provide or subsidize depends on the necessity of them. If they are provided, the societies’ benefits get higher and so is the public treasury of the countries.

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Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father college essay help service

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.

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Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks college application essay help online

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

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WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation essay help site:edu

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) instant essay help

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior extended essay help biology

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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