Business Ethics And Managers’ Responsibilities Need Essay Help

Introduction

Seven publications pertaining to concerns of ethics in management have been reviewed in this work. The focus of the study is on the moral responsibilities of managers, moral conundrums, the concepts of absolutism and relativism, and the ethics of reflective action research. It is argued that managers are under increasing pressure to ensure the ethical quality of their behavior in all facets of their work, including research, but that they can gain from this necessity.

Review of the Literature: Managers as Moral and Ethical Agents

Accountabilities and Obligations

The notion that power corrupts is not new, but it is contestable. Badaracco (1992), for instance, defines such an insight as "grim" and "unrealistic" (p.64). The author illustrates that managers are frequently confronted with moral quandaries, indicating that, to be effective, they must have an understanding of ethics. Badaracco (1992) does not deny the existence of immoral business practices, but he insists that morality is necessary for a businessperson because he or she is expected to be ethical and committed on four levels: as a person, economic agent (serving the stakeholder), company leader (given authority over employees), and global citizen. Similarly, Holt (2006) disputes the notion that managers' ethical conduct is not their responsibility nor their obligation so long as their conduct is legal. Instead, Holt (2006) asserts that moral conduct is "integral to good managerial practice" (p. 1659). Holt (2006) suggests that phronesis (an Aristotelian term, the “practical wisdom,” the ability to sense the limits set by society) is an important quality for business practice and can significantly improve its results by providing the “user” with public acclaim and useful insight into the most effective means of communication.

Lovegrove (2014) argues that managers may and should adhere to ethical conduct, and that it would be beneficial for them to study ethical theory and philosophy and train to apply it in practice. Lovegrove (2014) evaluates a book by Joseph Gilbert and illustrates that the tools it provides can enhance a manager's capacity to overcome ethical challenges.

The years of the articles' production suggest that the demand for managers' ethical duty has been increasing. This is the conclusion reached by Ibrahim, Angelidis, and Tomic (2009). Their study reveals that managers believe that ethics is essential for a firm and that codes of ethics can and should be produced to aid the resolution of significant ethical challenges (Ibrahim et al., 2009, pp. 348-349). In conclusion, ethical behavior is currently viewed as the responsibility of managers, who accept this perspective and design instruments to assist them in carrying out this responsibility.

Differences and Decision-Making Justifications

The challenges are moral conundrums for which the solution is not evident. In the corporate world, ethical dilemmas can include terminating a buddy or a single mother, or paying a bribe to allow your employees to stay their jobs (Badaracco, 1992; McDonald, 2010). Controversial moral concerns have a propensity to be addressed differently in various circumstances. For example, it is unethical to fire a single mother of five children. However, dismissal may be necessary if she causes disputes, refuses to respect her coworkers, and is unwilling to halt her hostile behavior and begin cooperating. This scenario exemplifies the concept of situational relativity, in which the moral problem relies on the surrounding circumstances (McDonald, 2010).

Toward a more relativist viewpoint

Holt (2006) explores Aristotle's observation that people avoid simply adhering to moral principles and critiques the idea that the particulars of an action have no bearing on its moral value, i.e., he rejects absolutism. McDonald (2010), on the other hand, contends that absolutism does not require the eradication or disregard of various moral perspectives and practices. According to his view, there must be certain universal norms, but they should be founded on the needs of human nature and survival. However, it is unclear who is expected to judge human nature.

Relativism calls attention to the reality that moral standards vary among cultures, circumstances, and eras and encourages us to consider them equivalent. Relativism is tolerant of difference and advises evaluating the moral worth of an action within its context. For instance, bribery is prohibited everywhere, yet strangely, "facilitation payments" to those in authority are sometimes regarded as a need in some nations (McDonald, 2010, p. 448). It is obvious that relativism can lead to unethical decision-making, however it is worth noting that this risk can be mitigated by defining the issue and area of ethics application (for example, industry) (McDonald, 2010). For instance, a government institution is more concerned about information security than a grocery store. General considerations are more likely to gain from relativism, but they are scarcely applicable in practice, and it may be more rational to construct recommendations for specific recurring difficulties (Ibrahim et al., 2009). Consequently, relativism can and should be viewed as a philosophy that encourages learning about your business partner's socio-cultural group, but it is not as important to commit crimes in the eyes of one's nation.

Action-Reflexive Research

Action research (AR) requires the mix of action with study, which is conducted as "insider research" (McKay & Marshall, 2001). Consequently, it is a procedure that is immediately applicable and focuses on implementing, testing, and enhancing diverse solutions. An example of an AR would be a self-conducted study of the communication issues between managers and employees (perhaps with assistance and guidance from an outside source). To make the research reflective, the participants must examine seriously the assumptions underpinning their behaviors, the consequences of those actions, and, from a broader viewpoint, what constitutes excellent management practice (Cunliffe, 2004, p. 407). Obviously, AR highlights the question of objectivity, which is why an outsider, who should be an active research specialist, is recommended to strengthen the study. The questions of ownership, rewards, and responsibility must be settled through talks and meetings if the study is a team effort. Ethical behavior is essential for managers in all fields, including research.

Conclusion

Modern managers appear to be under increased pressure to ensure ethical behavior in all of their actions (including research), and immoral corporate practices find less support in contemporary management philosophy. However, the relative nature of ethics and morality endures, and it may be argued that the guiding principles vary depending on sociocultural and contextual factors. Theorists seek to give managers with the appropriate tools and training to aid them in comprehending moral norms and resolving ethical challenges.

References

Badaracco, J.L. (1992). California Management Review, 34(3), 64-79, "Business ethics: Four spheres of executive responsibility"

Cunliffe, A. L. (2004). On becoming a practitioner with critical reflexivity. 28(4) Journal of Management Education: 407-426

Holt, R. (2006). Principals and practice: Managerial rhetoric and moral character The Journal of Human Relations, 59(12), 1659-1680.

Ibrahim, N., Angelidis, J., & Tomic, I. (2009). Exist Gender Differences in Managerial Attitudes Towards Ethical Codes? Journal Of Business Ethics, 90(S3), pages 343-353 Web.

Lovegrove, I. (2014). The philosophical foundations and business reality of business ethics for managers. 11(1), 113-118, Action Learning: Research And Practice. Web.

McDonald, G. (2010). Ethical relativism versus absolute ethics: research implications. European Business Review, 22(4), pp. 446–464.

J. McKay and P. Marshall (2001). Information Technology & People, 14(1), 46-59, 2014, The twin imperatives of action research.

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Optical Advertising For The Esports Industry Need Essay Help

Campaign Summary

Visual communication is one of the oldest and most effective methods of reaching the audience, despite the fact that the modern advertising sector frequently embraces new customer interaction strategies and methods. 91% of purchasers choose interactive and visual material over traditional media, demonstrating the supremacy of visual communication over static communication (McCoy, 2017). The Esports business is one of the fastest-growing internet markets, but it must engage a more age-diverse audience to succeed. People of middle age and older view cybersports with pessimism, considering them to be addicted and worthless. Considering the significance of optical advertising, this article will focus on the visual interaction-based creation of a marketing campaign for the Esports (also known as electronic sports) industry.

A Problem Facing Esports

The rapid creation of Esports and even quicker rise in popularity of the industry created a new advertising potential for businesses. Esports is the term for competitive online gaming, in which players compete in front of a live audience in online tournaments. For a number of years, electronic sports have enthralled millions of fans and generated multimillion-dollar prize pools at competitions. To paint a clearer picture, worldwide esports earnings reached $1.1 billion in 2020, an increase of 15.7% from the previous year (NewZoo, 2020). Despite the popularity and profitability of gaming tournaments, the younger demographic is the most prevalent and accepting.

Generally, older people who are familiar with electronic sports do not support or take them seriously (Parker, 2019). However, the majority of adults have never investigated the benefits of Esports or even attempted to play. The majority of adults prefer to believe that Esports are not a serious pastime because they are primarily responsible for retaining today's young through internet use. In addition, regardless of professional level or gender, the video game audience is predominantly young. According to Pew Research Center's results, 28% of middle-aged Americans play videogames, compared to 55% of children (Parker, 2019). Consequently, the issue of older people's poor participation in the electronic sports business is clear and may present numerous prospects for growth.

Visual communication campaigns would be the most effective tool for interacting with seniors. A concise, straightforward, yet informative advertisement will pique the industry's curiosity, which they can then examine further. The communication will occur via multiple social media outlets. The primary objective of the campaign is to convey the notion that Esports is a business with great potential, in which anyone with any set of physical or technological capabilities may develop and even profit.

Sponsor

Company Description

Several prominent corporations in the gaming industry continually demonstrate their participation in cyber tournaments. Riot Games is a company with 15 years of business expertise, founded by roommates at the University of Southern California (Riot Games, n.d.). Their primary objective was to form a partnership that will continue enhancing already-existing games rather than developing new ones. However, the company evolved swiftly and today has three primary development lines – videogame production, publication, and online-tournament organizing – with 24 locations globally (Riot Games, n.d.). This broad reach is the reason for the global success of the Riot Games.

With the release of their debut game, the company's creators received immediate global recognition. Their debut work, League of Legends, was a huge hit and became the most popular PC game in the world (Riot Games, n.d.). League of Legends is one of the most popular games, on which the company hosts major tournaments with millions of participants and viewers across the globe. In addition to the League of Legends World Championship, Riot Games has organized the Championship Series, the European Championship, and the Mid-Season Invitational since 2011. (Riot Games, n.d.). By arranging the tournaments, the company has become one of the most prominent video game firms.

Riot Games' current goal statement reads: "We aspire to be the world's most player-centric game company" (Riot Games, n.d.). Multiple honors and accolades won by Riot Games during the course of its existence demonstrate the successful execution of their mission. Fortune ranked the company as one of the "100 Best Companies to Work For," "25 Best Companies to Work in Technology," "100 Best Workplaces for Millennials," and "50 Best Workplaces for Flexibility" (Riot Games, n.d.). Consequently, the organization is not just a successful corporation in terms of revenue and product monetization, but also an employer that provides a pleasant work environment for its employees.

The company's current global reach consists primarily of a younger demographic. Expanding the company's clientele to include more older customers would be a viable method for dramatically increasing its revenue. Riot Games' next natural step would be to extend its demographics to include older clients, given that it has already gained the favor and notice of young gamers. Riot Games might become the undisputed market leader if it develops support, new games, and tournaments exclusively for an older demographic.

Relevance of Riot Games to the Problem

Considering Riot Games' mission statement, in which they emphasize being completely player-focused, the firm may be very interested in the offer. The primary objective of the campaign is to recruit a larger proportion of the elderly population to the gaming business and to promote the concept of Esports through co-organizing competitions. 77% of older persons, according to Pew Research, would need assistance setting up a new device (Wakefield, 2015). Due to their limited familiarity with technology, the target audience will require assistance and direction throughout the essential processes, which is where Riot Games will be most effective.

The corporation's focus on its players aligns well with the campaign's primary objective. Through Riot Games’ video games and guided lessons, elder folks may learn about Esports and become dedicated clients of the brand. The following stage would be to convince the targeted group to participate in the events, which may create an altogether new league for older people. Participating in tournaments may become a profitable pastime for a large number of adults.

Numerous senior citizens love acquiring and learning new skills, as well as pursuing new interests and hobbies, especially those associated with technology. Studies demonstrate that continual involvement with technology promotes health, reduces depression, and increases access to social support, government services, and health resources (Ben & Peddel, 2017). Even though competition needs a specific set of talents, Riot Games offers numerous programs for learning and developing esports skills that are accessible to novice gamers. Therefore, the company benefits by acquiring a unique group of consumers, Esports acquires a substantial number of new competitors, and the industry as a whole generates more income.

Target Audience

The target demographic for the visual ad campaign is the middle-aged population, specifically those between the ages of 30 and 50 who are financially secure yet unfamiliar with the Esports sector. Due to the difficulties of insufficient awareness of electronic sports and its expanding popularity around the world, this audience was selected. In addition, the backgrounds, levels of technical experience, and levels of knowledge of older persons might vary substantially, causing many problems in the contemporary technologically advanced society. Even if studies have revealed a lack of confidence in the use of technology, they also indicate that the adoption of digital devices enhances the desire to learn more about a passion, which esports fits nicely, making it the primary driver in the use of technology among older individuals (Ben & Peddel, 2017). Therefore, despite the target audience's lack of technological knowledge, esports may be a useful tool for technical education.

The selected population encompasses a multimillion-person reach that, if the campaign is successful, will establish an entirely new tone for the video game tournaments industry. Today's older folks are more goal-oriented and have been shown to return to their earlier ambitions, but with greater financial resources (Drolet & Yoon, 2020). Curiosity may become the key motivator for learning about the esports sector, which may be bolstered by the visual campaign as individuals want to discover new activities. The ultimate objective of the visual campaign is to develop “Senior League” tournaments with participants of all racial groups aged 30 and older. Thus, the intended audience is pertinent to the objective. This audience segment is exceedingly difficult to convert owing to the potential that they have developed a negative opinion about video games and Esports in general. However, Riot Games has one of the strongest player retention rates due to the coaching programs designed to support the players. Therefore, the visual campaign must include aspects of communication that will ensure the population's response and promote interest in electronic sports.

According to the research undertaken, no campaigns targeting individuals aged 35 and older were detected. However, numerous teams and players aged 60 and older are recognized. Our campaign is tangentially tied to the esports center that debuted in Japan exclusively for sixty-year-old gamers. In July of 2020, a center will operate in Kobe; Japan allows only older adults, both experienced and inexperienced (Gaming instead of retiring, 2020). The new location provides tutorials to individuals who have never participated before, thereby extending the number of experienced esports players.

Senior esports is a community founded by a German project that aims to unite persons aged 35 and over to form a formidable playing league. They offer cups, tournaments, and leagues on a regular basis and develop a community with similar talents and abilities (Senior eSports, n.d.). Even though this project is slightly related to this campaign, it delivers a fundamentally distinct message than hosting tournaments for older players.

Behavior

The final objective of the visual communication campaign is to transform the elder audience's perception of the Esports sector and, more crucially, to convince them to experience it. It is crucial to open up electronic sports to all population groups and begin dispelling the myth that only adolescents can be successful in tournaments. The average age of the industry's players is 16 to 17 years old; consequently, it is time to present older participants not only as novices but also as qualified opponents for the seasoned gamers.

Riot Games is one of the most renowned tournament organizers, with multimillion-dollar prize pools. Every year, gamers from all around the world participate in the tournaments, gaining exclusive experience, a networking foundation, and a chance to be recognized in the Esports. If the visual communication campaign reaches its potential and persuades adults aged 30 and older to participate in video gaming, the chances for growth are endless.

The sponsors should have a strong interest in this endeavor. It is an exceptional opportunity to recruit new client groups and create more games, promotions, and tournaments aimed at this population segment. Organization of specific contests for the 30-50 age groups, which may be referred to as “Senior League,” would demonstrate that all ages have the opportunity to excel in Esports and that the business is inclusive.

This segment has far greater financial stability than the average Esports player, who is 18 years old on average. Therefore, the development of specific products directed primarily at their target demographic would be an opportunity for Riot Games to increase their revenue. Including extra services for newcomers, the co-organization of tournaments with Riot Games would be highly profitable in the event of client conversion through the visual campaign. Coaching, video instructions, and new equipment – the options for generating income from those aged 30 and older who are just entering the electronic sports business are virtually limitless.

Message Concept

There are numerous advantages for the target audience of the visual campaign. First, the project brings older persons closer to young people. It's no secret that everyone desires to remain youthful for as long as possible; therefore, older folks usually attempt to adopt the newest fashions. A lifetime theory asserts that adults tend to want to blend in with their surroundings or alter it in order to exert control over it (Drolet & Yoon, 2020). In order to easily function and continue pursuing their goals, people's model for adapting to the current environment is an interest in cutting-edge technology. The advertising campaign will reassure the target population that Esports is the newest fad, which, by experiencing, will allow them to become trendsetters among their peers and help their cognitive function of adjusting to the contemporary environment.

Second, people aged 30 and older frequently encounter what is generally known as the "midlife crisis."

”Fear of stagnation may precipitate the crisis, in which the reality of mortality and recollections of the past drive an individual to develop this state (Therapy for Midlife Crisis, Therapist for Midlife Crisis, 2015). Gaining a new passion in the form of Esports can be not only a means of relieving stress, but also a source of revenue and a means of regaining a sense of youth and promise. The visual communication campaign has a high likelihood of converting pessimistic middle-aged people into avid gamers, despite the fact that electronic sports may be something that this audience would never normally consider.

By converting customers to the electronic sports business, middle-aged people may be able to extend their careers or escape workplace discontent. Numerous individuals are known to isolate themselves at their place of employment for a variety of reasons. Esports may evolve from a pastime into a new career path that will boost the mental health and happiness of its participants. In electronic sports, numerous coaching packages are available, and Riot Games is one organization that provides this service.

Channels

The primary distinction between older and younger players is channel outreach, which can be utilized for these categories. It has been demonstrated that people over the age of 30 use Facebook as their primary or only social media platform. Pew Research Center performed a study revealing that 87 percent and 79 percent of persons aged 30 to 49 use YouTube and Facebook, respectively, and roughly half of them are active on Instagram (Perrin & Anderson, 2019). Consequently, it is natural to conclude that Facebook and YouTube must serve as the principal platform for the execution of the esports campaign.

YouTube is a medium that is suitable for all ages, from infants to the elderly. With the variety of content it provides, it is simple to advertise specific products to a particular age range. Additionally, the site offers hundreds of gaming channels that may be utilized for effective event promotion. Lenovo's YouTube campaign, which targeted elderly gamers in particular, was a tremendous hit (Cooke, 2019). Such a method could help reach the desired audience if the channels' predominant viewers are accurately analyzed. In addition, it is possible to include advertisements into the selected movie by configuring certain settings.

The Facebook platform is a popular social media with a variety of sophisticated advertising solutions. The capacity to develop highly targeted and segmented advertising that helps advertisers reach specific individuals opens up vast opportunities for advertisers. Generating innovative material and interesting teasers can ensure a quick conversion and attract the desired demographic, in this case, those between the ages of 30 and 50 who have no particular interest in gaming. In addition, Facebook's vast user base will assist the campaign reach a larger portion of the target population, resulting in improved campaign outcomes.

Sample Image (Lenovo, 2017).

This graphic may be used to demonstrate that all ages are capable of dominating Esports. In this image, an adult is playing Esports, indicating that he is proficient in the videogame industry and demonstrating that this pastime is not limited to adolescents. This fact enhances the likelihood of persuading the intended audience to give Esports a chance and alter their perception of this business. This image also depicts the emotion of the material as well as a concentration on the process, which indicates a high level of engagement with the process and pleasure of Esports. Therefore, the image corresponds to the messaging concepts intended to be communicated: to improve the mental condition and pleasure of these individuals by persuading our target audience to begin participating in the Esports sector. They may extend their careers or leave dissatisfactory jobs.

References

Ben, J., & Peddel, S. (2017). The link between motivation, well-being, and the acquisition of technological skills by older persons. Melbourne Design4Health proceedings.

Cooke, S. (2019). The top advertising campaigns for esports in 2019. Esports Insider. Web.

Drolet, A. L., and C. Yoon (2020). The aging consumer: psychological and marketing considerations Routledge.

Gaming as an alternative to retirement: the first esports center for seniors. (2020). EarlyGame.com.

McCoy, Edward (2017). Post from the Council: Visual communication is altering marketing. Are you current? Forbes. Web.

Lenovo (2017). The Silver Snipers engage in training. Web.

NewZoo (2020). Global Esports Market Report for 2020 from Newzoo. Newzoo. Web.

Parker, L. (2019). The following generation of competitive gamers is… older than sixty? This is the Wall Street Journal. Web.

Perrin, A., & Anderson, M. (2019). Since 2018, the proportion of U.S. adults using social media, including Facebook, has remained largely stable. Research firm Pew. Web.

Riot Games (n.d.). Values. Web.

Senior esports – treten sie ein in die world von esports für erwachsene (n.d.). Senior ESports web content.

Midlife crisis therapy, midlife crisis therapist (2015). Goodtherapy.com

Wakefield, J. (2015). The generation that tech forgot. BBC News. Web.

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Interactive, Direct And Digital Marketing Need Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction The Work's Main Objective and Ideas Critical Analysis of Customer Intelligence and Social Media Conclusion References

Introduction

Globalization has impacted nearly every aspect of human activity, bringing individuals and continents closer together. Customers now have the ability to purchase things directly from the country in which they were created. Everything is accessible with a single click. Technological advancement and considerable improvement in the field of innovations have affected the manner in which individuals do business; consequently, the marketing field has already changed and evolved. Digital marketing gathers momentum. To gain a greater grasp of the topic, the article should be taken into account. The paper under review is titled "Interactive, direct, and digital marketing." Merlin David Stone and Neil David Woodcock have prepared a paper titled "A future dependent on improved business intelligence utilization." This paper's major objective is to provide a critical examination of the aforementioned work.

The Work's Main Objective and Ideas

The primary objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between business information and consumer insight, as well as the function of these two components in interactive marketing. First and foremost, it is important to note that the authors assert that the customer image has already shifted. Customers used to be a passive public; however, with the advent of digital technologies, they now want to actively participate in the process of product development, manufacturing, and marketing through the use of digital sources and social media platforms. The Internet helped to the formation of client-business communication (Kotler & Keller, 2016). The authors note that both the working environment within the companies and the mode of communication between the organization and the client changed. Bring Your Own Device has become the dominant strategy for a number of businesses (Kotler & Keller, 2016). Companies understand how clients want to receive information (online, by email, by phone), but the key is what information they require. What are their inclinations? The basic issue is that firms must not only collect data, but also evaluate, understand, and determine which knowledge will improve their business and benefit their customers.

Social Media and Customer Intelligence

According to the concepts offered in the article, it can be concluded that the researchers are confident that business intelligence is the driving force of contemporary marketing and has a promising future. However, this is not the only term that has become fundamental to a number of businesses. Customer intelligence is another often used concept (Stone & Woodcock, 2014). This word has superseded its predecessor, marketing intelligence. Due to social media, businesses have the possibility to engage in real-time marketing; nevertheless, the environment of business intelligence has obstacles in dealing with customers' insights and intelligence due to the deluge of unstructured data (Kotler & Keller, 2016). Social media offer a vast array of opportunities, but they also present hurdles and obstacles, as the social media deluge must be structured and organized for the business's benefit.

Critical Evaluation

Despite the fact that the benefit of applying business intelligence to the modern business process is clear, it is important to note that a lot of specialists dispute this position. According to the study, the most significant downside of business intelligence deployment is exorbitant expenses and an enormous amount of wasted time and money if the system was implemented improperly (Kotler & Keller, 2016). The costs include a variety of components, including the following:

Costs of hardware, software, personnel, implementation, and maintenance.

Despite the fact that the use of business intelligence may be advantageous, small and medium-sized businesses cannot afford to implement this strategy due to the associated costs. The writers of the article under review emphasize the benefits of business intelligence for contemporary digital marketing. Although the benefits of business intelligence are undeniable, it is of the utmost importance to highlight an additional constraint that was not discussed in the paper. Complexity of data implementation and interpretation is reportedly another weakness of this approach (Stone & Woodcock, 2014). The limited application of business intelligence can be attributed to the fact that this unique approach was designed for large, successful businesses to evaluate their purchasing potential.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is important to highlight that the article examines a topic of current relevance connected to the incorporation of business information into the working processes of firms in order to increase productivity and efficiency. The analysts note that digital marketing and business intelligence should be seen as interactive marketing's future. Despite the numerous arguments presented by the writers in support of this thesis, it is important not to overlook the system's limits. Undoubtedly, modern marketing is evolving, and the use of social media, digital technologies, and business analytics can be advantageous for businesses. However, given the current state of affairs, the system should be modified such that it is applicable not only to wealthy and successful firms.

References

Kotler, P., & Keller, K. (2016). A framework for marketing management (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Stone, M., and N. Woodcock (2014). Direct, interactive, and digital marketing. A future dependent on improved utilization of corporate intelligence. 8(1) of the Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing.

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Integrated Marketing Communication In Business Need Essay Help

General Studies

Integrated marketing communication is an indispensable management idea. The topic is intended to cover the various characteristics of the nook and cranny of integrated communication in marketing, which includes advertising uses and benefits, sales promotion, the how's and why's in them, public relations and campaigning – which exert as a cohesive force – while allowing each to engage in the activity independently. "Product marketing requires a marketing mix, generally known as the four P's: product, price, promotion, and location. Four additional Ps are introduced to social marketing: Public, Partnership, Policy, and Purse String [5]. The first four Ps offer the atmosphere in which people can act; the remaining four Ps provide the strength and support necessary for the program to operate efficiently and effectively. (Considering a Marketing and Communications Strategy for an Institutional Repository: The marketing mix in social marketing, 2006, paragraph 15)

Relations and publicity

Public relations/publicity entails fostering positive relationships with the media and the firm's end consumers, as well as enhancing the public's perception of the company. It covers actions such as sponsorships and charitable programs, among others. The primary purpose of public relations is to generate product awareness, interest, product knowledge, and brand reinforcement. "Public relations are frequently performed through the media, such as newspapers, television, and magazines. As stated previously, public relations is frequently considered one of the most important promotional tasks (McNamara, n.d, para.5).

Advantages of public relations

The primary benefit of public relations is that it is one of the ways for gaining product visibility among the competition. Especially for an innovative product, public relations facilitates the dissemination of information and raises public awareness. Public relations has greater third-party credibility and longevity than other promotional techniques.

The people will accord greater credence to media news and reports than to advertisements. A well-structured public relations strategy will offer more information than other types of advertising. The least expensive approach for connecting with the public is public relations.

Negative aspects of public relations

The primary disadvantage of public relations is that marketers lack direct control over the messages and their distribution. If there are more important stories at that moment, the media will disregard the product's news.

Personnel selling

"Personnel selling is conversational communication with prospective purchasers of a product with the purpose to make a sale. The staff selling may first concentrate on creating relationships with prospective buyers, but it will always conclude with an effort to close the deal (Promotion: Personal selling, n.d, para.1).

Advantage and drawback of personnel selling

Personnel selling is one of the best strategies for attracting the attention of personnel. This allows the consumer and salesperson to communicate and clarify any questions. In personal selling, the salesperson can tailor the message to the needs of the buyer. The demonstration of the product increases attention and curiosity, and the salesperson can demonstrate the product's technical aspects. It is the most effective method for establishing and maintaining a positive relationship with clients.

Disadvantages of personnel selling

It is not a cost-effective strategy, since it necessitates transportation fees, hotel or other lodging fees, and so on. This one is time-consuming. A salesperson can only contact one consumer at a time, whereas marketers can reach a huge audience through different promotional tactics.

Advertising

Advertising is the non-personal delivery of information about products, services, or ideas by acknowledged sponsors through various media (Taflinger, 1996, para.1).

Marketing is heavily dependent on advertising. Currently, every product is sold by means of forceful yet strategic advertising. Hot Noodles Company advertises its product's characteristics, color, packaging style, and pricing. The Hot Noodles Company has a vast client base in the marketplace. Their product is advertised in newspapers and on television. Typically, advertising promotes a product, service, or event to consumers. "Advertising is a significant aspect of product or service creation and management as a whole. Advertising is a specific component of "outbound" marketing activities, or activities designed to communicate with the target market (e.g., advertising, promotions, public relations, etc). (McNamara, n.d, para.2).

The Hot Noodles Company gives accurate information at the appropriate moment and is able to establish a positive relationship with both the client and the advertiser. And their primary objective is to enhance Hot Noodles sales.

Benefits of advertising

The primary benefits of advertising Hot Noodles Company are its increased sales and profit maximization. Advertising is based on consumer demands and desires Advertising helps to improve the value of Hot Noodles products on the market Customers are able to comprehend the product's characteristics and market value of Hot Noodles Company. Compared to other firm items, The Hot Noodles Company's product is priced affordably.

Cons of marketing

The corporation faces intense competition from other businesses. The price of the product is excessively expensive, thus the marketer may raise worries about the product's quality in order to boost the price. The Hot Noodles Company increases its advertising budget.

Direct advertising

"This type of advertising campaign seeks to elicit an action (such as an order, a visit to a store or website, or a request for more information) from a targeted group of consumers in response to a message from the marketer" (Direct marketing, 2010, para.1).

Direct Marketing signifies that the company makes the goods and sells them directly to consumers. Door-to-door marketing is another name for direct marketing. Direct marketing has expanded roles in marketing nowadays. Direct marketing emphasizes face-to-face interaction between the seller and the consumer. For instance, the Hot Noodles Company uses direct marketing to sell their products.

Advantages of Direct Marketing

The client can quickly comprehend the product's characteristics and quality. The manufacturer can retain a positive relationship with the marketer and consumer if the customer is able to inspect the product's quality upon delivery. The business delivers the product at the correct moment, at the correct location, and at the correct time 5. Direct marketing maintains a positive relationship between the marketer and the customer. The client may raise product-related questions at the time of shipment.

Negative aspects of direct marketing

The corporately high price of the product will have an impact on the demand for Hot Noodles. The direct marketing marketer is subject to client haggling. Direct marketing will impact the marketer of fixed locations.

Relevance to the product

Product/Specific Features

The examined product is Hot Noodle noodles, which are rich in nutrients, protein, and health benefits. The product was created as a consequence of brainstorming sessions, and the new product was introduced to the market after extensive study on the product and the market, and at an affordable price.

During the product's introduction, the emphasis was on the product's unique characteristics and originality. The shape of the noodles, which is created in a 'C' rather than the typical 'S,' is one of the elements that makes this product innovative. The fact that these noodles are in broken form is advantageous. The broken structure of Hot Noodles makes cooking considerably simpler. The product was packaged in sturdy plastic containers that can be reused for different purposes. The product information, including the site page and mailing address, is provided for consumer feedback, and any recommendations are welcome.

The free sauce packages and ketchup were provided to enhance the product's flavor and appeal. The sauces, as an extra flavor enhancer, have not been used earlier; consequently, this is a novel product that offers consumers choice.

Integrated marketing facilitates the maintenance of positive client relationships, which in turn increases earnings. Communication in marketing is a minor aspect of marketing activity. Integrated marketing communication ensures that all communications are sent to clients in a unified manner. Integrated marketing communication contributes to increased sales and profitability, as well as time and cost savings.

Among the primary goals of marketing communication are:

To have a deeper understanding of the promotion policy and marketing communication management process. To develop a creative and financially sound rationale for marketing communication. To comprehend the specifications for developing marketing communication To apply the marketing communication policy in a proper and official manner.

The rational method to selecting elements is highly complementary, and it is utilized to produce exact selections that result in goods that are highly advantageous to the individual.

The selection of the product is constrained by a number of factors, the most important of which are demographic characteristics, financial restraints, and psychological considerations. The product decision is mostly based on the product's attributes, the design's usability, and the additional benefits acquired by purchasing the product. The Hot Noodle product is developed to accommodate a wide range of consumer requirements, tastes, and preferences.

The primary cause for the product's rejection is the belief that the food and its constituents lack any nutritional value and are harmful to health.

The research is conducted using a questionnaire and the survey method, and the analysis reveals that the majority of respondents liked the product. However, they have occasionally complained about the lack of the desired flavor on the market and about the need to enhance the taste of the noodles by adding a complementary agent. The price of the product was also identified as a significant element in the poll.

The logic behind the product Hot Noodle is created in a way that satisfies the most important consumer needs and creates a personalised product.

As the product matures, as in the stage of the product life cycle, numerous innovations must be implemented to prevent the decline stage. In essence, the product must be novel. And that we may add bright vegetables to make them more visually appealing. The product can also be expanded to include soupy noodles with the 2-in-1 system added. It may also enrich the product with certain flavors. The product can be added to containers by providing a scoop. The Hot Noodle can also be marketed with potato chips dubbed "hot chip" that can be served as a side dish.

Describe the message you intend to convey in light of your fundamental strategy. Explain the reasoning behind the message. Determine how you will communicate with your intended audience. Be specific. How will the internet be incorporated into your IMC strategy?

The business and marketing strategies are the product's core strategy, and their various strategies include communicating the idea based on the core strategy, which focuses primarily on the product launch in the market, product development process, operational excellence, customer relationship, and the product's market leadership.

Emphasis must be placed on the firm's strengths, and direct and face-to-face selling must be made effective, so that the marketing of its products produces positive outcomes. The messages communicated should be clear and concise.

Internet and print media, which are regarded as effective forms of communication, are used to reach the target audience. The internet is a valuable instrument for marketing communication, which may be carried out through the use of email, direct mail, and web advertising.

Select and describe the most appropriate method for measuring the efficacy of advertising or promotion. Your decision must incorporate research to support the chosen strategy. Be sure to explain why this is the best way to gauge the success of your marketing campaign:

Advertising is essential to product marketing. It plays a crucial function in expanding the marketing opportunities for the products.

Advertising efficacy is a complicated procedure. Advertising's purpose is to persuade consumers to purchase products that meet their requirements and desires. A successful advertisement identifies and cultivates human need, and motivates consumers to acquire the advertised goods. An organization's advertising effectiveness can be determined by performing a survey and sales analysis. The sales analysis can provide a detailed picture of actual sales, and the inquiry reports of the same can provide a wealth of information regarding the efficiency of operations. Today, telemarketing is a common practice. The toll-free numbers allow us to determine the quantity of product inquiries. Web access and direct mail can be utilized to measure the client response to a product that was created by an advertisement.

The toll-free number and sales report are the most effective methods for measuring the efficacy of an advertisement since they are the sole means by which the concept of the product is communicated to the public and which functions as a catalyst to increase the product's purchasing behavior. By examining the firm's sales and revenue, as well as inquiries for the product, it is possible to determine the product's effectiveness, which would be of great assistance in developing promotional strategies.

Bibliography

The marketing mix in social marketing, while contemplating a marketing and communications strategy for an institutional repository (2006). Ariadne. Web.

Direct advertising (2010). Explore CRm.com. Web.

McNamara, C. (n.d.). Internet advertising and marketing.

McNamara, C. (n.d.). Advertising, marketing, promotion, public relations and publicity, and sales are basic terms. Web.

Promotion: Personal selling. (n.d.). Tutor 2u. Web.

Taflinger, R. F. (1996). A description of marketing. Web.

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Dena’s Salon: Marketing Plan Need Essay Help

Executive Synopsis

Dena's salon is a professional beauty salon committed to providing each and every customer with a high level of satisfaction through the provision of exceptional service, organic and herbal products, and the delivery of a pleasant impression at a reasonable cost, while ensuring a homey atmosphere rather than artificial elegance. Dina has incorporated her original thinking at Dena's salon, which maintains a pleasant, reasonable, and inventive employment environment that respects diversity via unique ideas and hard effort. Dena's salon began as a home-based service and is now seeking to expand its market by earning a potential market share of the Melbourne beauty salon market. With this opportunity in mind, a marketing plan has been devised.

Introduction

This paper will focus on the external aspects of the Salon market, important market trends, the company's strengths, limitations, and target clients in order to develop a marketing plan for Dena's Salon. This research will focus on Dena's Salon's positioning and pricing strategy, marketing mix (4Ps), major success drivers, and financial performance.

Histories of the Firm

The owner of Dena's Salon, Ms. Dena, began his career as a sales assistant in a rigid, low-paying, and unsatisfying position. The employment severely exploited her and disrupted her ordinary family life, while the pay was quite low. All of this stress and exploitation inspired Dena to become an entrepreneur, and she founded Dena's Salon via her own efforts.

Mission

Dena's Salon would support the Melbourne beauty salon market by approaching the limits of industry innovation under the full personal care of professional beautician Dena, who is eager to introduce a training course for local housewives, thereby sustaining the salon's ability to capture a market share.

Vision

Dena's Salon was founded with the purpose of assembling the most outstanding roster of beauty talents from the local and national level. With cutting-edge styles derived from upcoming local fashion trends, Dena's Salon would provide an unrivaled chance to lead a salon business in Melbourne. However, the actual objective of Dena's Salon is to creatively exhibit rare live looks that combine fashion, science, and inspiration of human beauty.

Market Trend

Melbourne is the most promising market for beauty salons in Australia, where the largest local and international players of the beauty industry are active with their spectacular service and products in the most affluent region of the city at the highest price. Women in Melbourne who are concerned with their appearance are interested in herbal beauty products and organic or green beauty treatments. Dena's Salon is Melbourne's ultimate event for beauty salon with professional touch to delivering the leading brands beauty products with hottest new treatments in nail, hand, and face beautification conveying mutually the excellent Australian stylish services with herbal treatment in order to meet these needs.

Target markets

The primary target market for Dena's salon consists of female customers between the ages of 15 and 50, housewives, affluent and middle-income working women, students, and adolescents who have a great deal of free time and a desire in spending money and time on beauty programmes.

Competition

As a tiny salon, Dena's Salon does not have any foreign opponents, but it does have some direct local competitors in Melbourne, such as Wabi Sabi Salon, Auburn Village Beauty Therapy, Orchid Day Spa, Mien Salon Spa, Sens Amore, and Aix Café Creperie Salon.

Dena's Salon: A SWOT Analysis

Figure 1: Dena's Salon's S.W.O.T. study.

It provides relatively inexpensive services, hence it has a large customer base; Environment of the company; Dena recruited innovative and effective beauticians; despite the economic downturn, monthly income has climbed; clients are becoming increasingly beauty-conscious. Finally, the company's location is its greatest benefit.

Weakness

Dena fell short of its monthly income goal; There are cost obstacles to introducing new services. High operational expenses; It is not a technologically advanced business; It lacks a webpage for marketing

Opportunity

In addition to its usual services, Dena's Salon has enough chance to sell its beauty goods; to merge with a similar company; and to sell franchises if it can establish brand awareness.

Threats

Dean's Salon is threatened by a large number of local competitors; the services are not affordable to all. According to Mintel (2009), the global financial crisis has a detrimental impact on company. It is not a technologically advanced corporation; it has no promotional website.

Positioning

Positioning map

The Dena's Salon brand positioning map relative to other competitors is depicted in the following diagram:

The Dena's Salon brand positioning map is shown in Figure 2. Brand placement

Dena's Salon must position its products and services in a more effective manner in order to place them in the consumer's mind; nonetheless, the figure below illustrates its positioning strategy:

Possible brand positioning shown in graph 3.

Selecting a placement technique

As Dena's Salon's brand name is not particularly well-known among customers, it should not position the "more for more" strategy. However, the "more for less" choice will be effective for Dena's Salon because it is a strong strategy for creating loyal clients. The following diagram illustrates its positioning strategy:

Figure 4 depicts the potential value proposition for Dena's Salon.

The secrets to success

Dina, the proprietor of this company, has extensive expertise working as a sales assistant for Breville, which will help enhance Dena's Salon's sales. Dena's personal home was designed for the company, thus the cozy atmosphere of this venue is ideal for attracting its target market. Professionalism of the estheticians, individualized care for each client; a growing reputation for customer satisfaction yields productive results; a rise in the number of repeat clients for unique services. Dena's Salon actively values customer feedback and implements projects based on their preferences.

Marketing strategy

The initial strategy of Dena's Salon was to specialize in nail technology and introduce new services such as gel nails, manicures, pedicures, and hair removal to increase customer patronage; Dena was always eager to increase its profit margin, so the inclusion of Spray Tanning services to earn $210 per hour was an effective marketing strategy; retaining new customers for an extended period of time. Intended to build Dena's Salon's brand by giving customers a new look (Bplan, 2010) Other important methods include reduced pre-paid tanning packs and a Christmas gift ticket for ten dollars.

The 4Ps of the Dena's Salon marketing mix.

Merchandise and Services

The Dena's Salon provides two packages (5 Sessions Voucher and 10 Sessions Voucher), facial services (eyebrows, upper and lower lip, chin), mini pedicures, etc. However, it offers a vast array of services, including –

Acrylic and Gel Nails are Nails (Full Set sculptured Nails and French or Natural, Acrylic Overlay Nails, Refills, Repairs, Removal, Buff & Polish) Hand: deluxe pedicure, French polish nail painting, full arm wax, buff & polish Bikini: G-String, Brazilian, etc.

Price

Dena’s Salon uses cost-based pricing techniques for its products and services, as Dena first evaluates all relevant costs incurred to deliver its services and then adds a profit margin to the accumulated costs in order to set prices for its products or services. The reason for choosing this technique is to offer a fair or competitive pricing, for example, its service prices range from $5 to $280 so that customers with lesser incomes may afford them.

Place

Dena's Salon is located in Melbourne, which is convenient for the salon's owner because she began the business from home to economize on rent and spend more time with her family.

Promotion

Dena's Salon utilizes sales marketing strategies, such as offering a unique discount price model for holidays and long-term service facilities, etc. However, it advertises using a small number of pornographic images, which has a negative impact on society; therefore, it should not include these in its advertising policy to demonstrate corporate social responsibility. Recently, it has utilized few advertising tactics, such as –

It advertises in local newspapers, on the internet, and in other publications; it plans to use social networking sites and television channels for advertising (Bplan, 2010) It is meant to increase the number of linkages between Google, Yahoo, MSN, and YouTube.

Marketing research

As many customers originate from diverse cultural and traditional backgrounds, market research plays a critical role in understanding customer behavior. Dena's salon must increase its operating costs by 12% in order to gain an understanding of the consumer decision-making process, to analyze the market condition during the global financial crisis, and to track the movements of competitors.

Financial Summary

According to the data sheets, Dena's Salon's sales revenue is gradually increasing; for instance, it only made $355 in its first month of operation, whereas in June 2008, its total profits were approximately $9,910, and this figure doubles within a year as its total revenue in June 2009 was approximately $18,880. Nonetheless, the following graphs illustrate the company's financial growth:

Summary of Dena's Salon's financial performance from July 2007 to June 2008. Dena's Salon's sales revenue from July 2008 to June 2009. Dena's Salon's sales revenue from July 2009 to March 2010.

Recommendation

Dena's Salon should enhance its marketing spend to expand its profit margins. It should create a fresh advertising campaign to complement its positioning plan. It should create an e-commerce website to sell cosmetics; In addition to serving female clients, it should also serve male customers. It should broaden its product range by pursuing a differentiation strategy, for instance by targeting the hair segment in order to attract additional clients.

Bibliography

Bplan. (2010). Pamperzhou Day Spa Business Plan. Web.

Bplan. (2010). Trend Setters Hair Studio: Hair and Beauty Salon Business Plan.

Dena Salon 2007-08-.xls (The customer uploads this file with no accompanying metadata.)

Dena Salon 2008-09-.xls (The customer uploads this file with no accompanying metadata.)

Dena Salon 2009-10-.xls (Customer uploads this file without any information)

Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., and Hoskisson, R. E. (2001). South-Western Thomson Learning's fourth edition of Strategic Management.

Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (2006). Marketing Principles. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, 16th edition.

Kotler, P., and Keller, K. L., 2006. Marketing management, 12th edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

(2009) Salons and Spas, Mintel. Web.

Pearce II, J. A., and Robinson, R. B., Strategic Management, 8th edition, McGraw-Hill, London, 2006.

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Balanced Scorecard In Strategic Performance Measurement Need Essay Help

Table of Contents Overview Key Learning Objectives Relevant Statement Critical Evaluation Relevant Implications Academic Reflections

Summary

A financial performance metric is intended to provide the organization with tangible assets. Without intangible assets, a corporation cannot maintain a lasting competitive edge. It is better to have a performance measurement that is not limited to financial performance results but may also examine nonfinancial performance outcomes. Typical nonfinancial performance indicators include worker satisfaction, product quality, and innovation. For this type of metric to be very effective, it must align with the business plan of the organization. A strong performance metric should be focused and should contribute to the business's success.

A balanced scorecard includes both standard performance measurements and non-financial performance indicators. Consequences of the financial performance measure are always placed in context. A company can maintain a sustainable competitive advantage with a balanced scorecard. Balanced scorecards focus not only on the creation of tangible assets, but also on the growth of intellectual capital for intangible assets.

The proponents of balanced scorecards address non-financial performance measurements with three additional criteria. Customer satisfaction is viewed as one of the nonfinancial metrics. They claim that internal company procedures, innovation, and personnel training should also be taken into account.

Key Learning Objectives

There are a variety of performance metrics that an organization can employ to determine its performance. Financial performance measurement limits The function of balanced scorecards as strategic performance indicators. The array of strategic performance measures used to achieve balance.

Relevant Statement

Long ago, proponents of the balanced scorecard advocated for the use of nonfinancial performance measurements through other viewpoints, such as customer, internal business process, and learning and innovation.

Critical Evaluation

There have been numerous investigations into the performance of the strategic performance metric. One of the surveys conducted was directed at the senior executives and managers of 83 electronic enterprises. The results of this survey suggested that businesses who applied strategic performance metrics in accordance with their business strategic plans had superior business performance.

The vast majority of sampled firms had implemented the Total Quality Management Program (TQM). This management philosophy seeks to continuously enhance the quality of products and company processes. To attain the targeted level of customer satisfaction, the Total Quality Management Program integrated the company's suppliers, customers, employees, and management. It was suggested that by incorporating customers in the Total Quality Management Program, a business can better understand their expectations.

Involving the suppliers guarantees that they can provide high-quality raw materials that contribute to the production of customer-satisfying products. For instance, a company exporting French beans should collaborate with farmers to ensure that they produce beans of the quality sought by its clients. This company should go the extra mile to give farmers with high-quality seeds.

Additionally, the corporation should hire extension officers who can advise farmers on better farming techniques for their crops. It was discovered that other businesses have implemented the Just-in-Time (JIT) Program. Just in Time program systems are intended to reduce inventory expenses. To implement the program effectively, a corporation must comprehend the effects of multiple aspects, such as organizational behavior change.

The survey found a direct correlation between increased customer satisfaction and the deployment of the Total Quality Management and Just In Time programs. Research revealed that equipping employees with skills and knowledge through ongoing training will save operational expenses by shortening the production cycle of goods. During the production process, workers should be inventive and efficient. This would result in a shorter manufacturing cycle for commodities. A corporation might develop various training programs for its personnel.

Some training programs should include workplace employee interactions, workplace problems, dispute resolution, and time management. The objective of such programs should be to equip staff with technical abilities. Team building is also essential since it helps staff to function as a unit. Some companies organize employee-only clubs in an effort to enhance team development in the workplace. Some of these clubs participate in outdoor sports such as soccer. The purpose of the clubs is to foster healthy competition among employees of a certain organization.

However, some caution should be given in regards to personnel training. Giving too much information to employees may cause them to experience "information overload."

Relevant Implications

There have been numerous investigations into the performance of the strategic performance metric. One of the surveys conducted was directed at the senior executives and managers of 83 electronic enterprises. The results of this survey suggested that businesses who applied strategic performance metrics in accordance with their business strategic plans had superior business performance.

The vast majority of sampled firms had implemented the Total Quality Management Program (TQM). This management philosophy seeks to continuously enhance the quality of products and company processes. To attain the targeted level of customer satisfaction, the Total Quality Management Program integrated the company's suppliers, customers, employees, and management. It was suggested that by incorporating customers in the Total Quality Management Program, a business can better understand their expectations. Involving the suppliers guarantees that they can provide high-quality raw materials that contribute to the production of customer-satisfying products.

For instance, a company exporting French beans should collaborate with farmers to ensure that they produce beans of the quality sought by its clients. This company should go the extra mile to give farmers with high-quality seeds. Additionally, the corporation should hire extension officers who can advise farmers on better farming techniques for their crops. It was discovered that other businesses have implemented the Just-in-Time (JIT) Program.

Just in Time program systems are intended to reduce inventory expenses. To implement the program effectively, a corporation must comprehend the effects of multiple aspects, such as organizational behavior change. The survey found a direct correlation between increased customer satisfaction and the deployment of the Total Quality Management and Just In Time programs. Research revealed that equipping employees with skills and knowledge through ongoing training will save operational expenses by shortening the production cycle of goods. During the production process, workers should be inventive and efficient.

This would result in a shorter manufacturing cycle for commodities. A corporation might develop various training programs for its personnel. Some training programs should include workplace employee interactions, workplace problems, dispute resolution, and time management. The objective of such programs should be to equip staff with technical abilities. Team building is also essential since it helps staff to function as a unit. Some companies organize employee-only clubs in an effort to enhance team development in the workplace. Some of these clubs participate in outdoor sports such as soccer. The purpose of the clubs is to foster healthy competition among employees of a certain organization.

However, some caution should be given in regards to personnel training. Giving too much information to employees may cause them to experience "information overload."

In order to acquire a sustainable competitive edge and secure its long-term survival in the market, a company must address the added value of its products. A company that manufactures copper cables, for instance, is likely to be supplanted over time by competitors that use alternative materials. Copper is a well-known insulator; therefore, the corporation may add value to it through innovations such as copper cladding.

Here, copper is employed as an insulating coating on top of other metals. In another instance, a yogurt manufacturer could add value to its product by experimenting with flavors that other yogurt manufacturers may not have discovered.

To attract new clients and find new markets for its products, it is vital for a business to frequently examine the market. For instance, a national radio broadcasting firm that uses just one language, the national language, may investigate its market to see if some of its listeners would prefer vernacular or foreign language radio programming. This is an excellent method for spotting new markets.

With today's rapidly evolving technological breakthroughs, present employee skills are frequently put to the test and can eventually be replaced by events and time. Existing companies may face competition from new entrants to the market, particularly if the new entrants employ new technologies in their business practices. Any company that want to remain in the market and maintain its position must confront the problem given by insufficient staff skills.

To gain the full benefits of strategic performance measures, a corporation must develop a strategic business strategy. In addition, the Total Quality Management Program must be implemented. This program may be difficult to manage, especially if the organization lacks the resources to implement it. Therefore, it is recommended that such a corporation retain the services of an expert consulting firm in this field. If the Total Quality Management Program is not properly executed and administered, it may not produce the anticipated results. Some individuals within the organization should also receive comprehensive training on the administration and implementation of strategic performance measures.

Some businesses are known to engage in strategic performance measurements for a predetermined period of time. After achieving favorable results using strategic performance metrics, businesses have a tendency to abandon them. This can progressively degrade firms to the point where it appears as if they have never had strategic performance strategies.

Academic Reflections

In addition to financial and non-financial performance metrics, a variety of other measures are utilized in strategic performance measurement. Long-term performance is enhanced for companies who use Total Quality Management and Just in Time Management initiatives. Balance scorecards can transform a company that is not profitable into one that is profitable. For a company to create and maintain a competitive advantage its core competence must revolve around innovations and continuous employee training.

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Meeting Stakeholder And Quality Needs Need Essay Help

Managers are essential members of organizations, as they undertake essential duties that determine the performance levels of various business units. They set the standard for success in institutions by providing the necessary support and incentives for obtaining excellent results. As emphasized by academics, managers are required to establish administrative norms that improve relationships with stakeholders. They should also be able to identify all stakeholders associated with the institution and swiftly determine their needs. Variably, they should embrace quality standards that are vital for ensuring the development of flawless goods and services. This paper assumes Novo Nordisk, which remains a leading insulin manufacturer and diabetes treatment company. It is a medium-sized company with a strong commitment to providing its customers and stakeholders with high-quality services.

Stakeholders of an organization and their expectations

As previously stated, stakeholders are the lifeblood of numerous businesses, including Novo Nordisk, because their direct or indirect engagement determines performance levels. Managers should therefore identify all firm stakeholders, determine their needs, and devise realistic strategies for addressing those demands. Employees, employers, consumers, suppliers, distributors, and investors are significant direct and indirect stakeholders of Novo Nordisk Company. These stakeholders have diverse requirements and expectations that must be satisfied in order to gain their trust and ensure that their contributions are of the highest quality. Particularly, employees who are essential partners in service delivery anticipate equitable treatment. They anticipate receiving fair compensation, working under acceptable conditions, being assigned fair responsibilities, and working the necessary number of hours.

In addition, they anticipate recognition, motivation, participation in decision-making, and exposure to established best practices. These requirements must be met to support their exceptional performance and output capability. Customers are important stakeholders because they are the purchasers and consumers of the many things that institutions supply. They anticipate receiving quality, timely, and personalized services at reasonable costs. In addition, they are worried about the consistency of an institution and its efficacy in addressing customer difficulties. In a company setting, suppliers and distributors who ensure the delivery of raw materials and completed goods to appropriate centers are also essential. They anticipate operating under cooperative terms with the management, receiving prompt compensation, and receiving continuous feedback from the management. Moreover, investors are critical stakeholders whose indirect contributions are crucial to a company's ascent. They are the providers or injectors of capital that assists the operations of most organizations. They expect a company to effectively utilize its resources, maintain operational continuity, produce high-quality products, and generate a high return on investment.

Strategies for addressing the needs or expectations of stakeholders

In order to meet employee expectations, managers should implement favorable operating policies that produce pleasant working conditions. They should compensate workers fairly, ensure their safety on the job, inspire them, and include them in decision-making. This will promote staff morale and increase their output levels, which are crucial to the production of high-quality goods. Second, achieving the expectations of customers necessitates the manufacture of high-quality goods and services, efficient delivery, and the implementation of competitive pricing for a variety of items.

A business that wishes to meet the expectations of distributors, suppliers, and investors should implement procedures that promote good communication, payment for services, and financial management. In addition to enhancing or promoting a high return on investment, the measures should ensure continuity in terms of operations or overall performance.

Methods of conveying the needs of stakeholders to team members

Any institution that aims to meet the needs of its stakeholders must ensure effective communication as a crucial component. Communication ensures that organizational strategies and stakeholder needs are effectively conveyed. Therefore, firms such as Novo Nordisk Company should develop both internal and external communication strategies that may provide a quality link between management and diverse stakeholders. Internal notes and the Internet are two likely communication tools that businesses should employ.

Specifically, the usage of memos will guarantee that management is able to deliver important messages on stakeholder demands to staff members for implementation. It allows employees to understand the requirements and expectations of other stakeholders, particularly customers. This ensures that they receive adequate and satisfying services with minimal discrimination. Therefore, the technique has the capacity to facilitate effective dialogue on mutually agreeable terms between employers, managers, and employees over matters pertaining to their working conditions. As evidenced by the Novo Company, it ensures that internal issues that may affect service delivery are resolved peacefully and with little hassles.

Internet utilization is excellent for facilitating both internal and external involvement and the exchange of ideas. It is the most recent approach that delivers an effective and efficient conventional communication assistance system. It connects numerous stakeholders regardless of location or other factors. Indeed, it is the most effective technique for external stakeholders to communicate their requirements and expectations. This has proven successful in the majority of institutions, since managers have been able to obtain information from stakeholders regarding their needs and formulate plans to meet those needs.

Methodologies for updating information on stakeholder needs

Systematically updating information collected from stakeholders or disseminated for execution by pertinent business units is required. This is to guarantee that any change is consistent with organizational values and stakeholder requirements, particularly in the health sector where Novo Nordisk Company conducts business. Clearly, the management of Novo Company is responsible for updating information of any kind. This is due to the fact that they are entrusted with receiving and organizing diverse operations within the institution. They are also responsible for making any necessary updates to ensure the accuracy of the material. The institution's information and public relations department reports to the institution's general manager. The department is able to receive and produce specific communications for various stakeholders, however information dissemination cannot occur without the managers' knowledge.

significance of quality to a company

Quality denotes adherence to predetermined requirements and the capacity to eliminate flaws. In no institution can this element be neglected. This is due to the fact that it establishes performance standards, as the majority of stakeholders link themselves with quality products and institutions that provide quality services. For instance, the Novo Nordisk Company, which offers insulin and Medicare services, must ensure that quality is maintained and operations are governed by clear criteria. Additionally, the institution should ensure that the insulin products it manufactures are consumer-focused and standardized to assure user safety. As a result, the organization must ensure that Medicare services are given under favorable conditions and are effective. Additionally, the services should be efficient, quick, and tailored to patient demands. As stated, managers should conduct exhaustive research on the quality components that diverse stakeholders anticipate a product to possess. This is vital for supporting the creation of quality systems and policies so that stakeholders' expectations are met with little deviation.

Organizational quality assurance policies and practices

The only way to attain quality in all areas and operational units is if management adheres to suitable policies and quality procedures. This is essential because policies and procedures are the guiding principles that direct stakeholders use to deliver quality services. Among the viable policies that managers should take are the creation of efficient operating plans and adherence to operational standards. In addition, they must comply to safety regulations, direct various activities to the appropriate units for execution, and assign tasks depending on an individual's skills. As evidenced by Novo Nordisk Company, these rules are vital to ensuring that quality is not compromised at various operational levels. They are able to ensure that the established production procedures are adhered to, that qualified employees are assigned to relevant tasks, and that lean reduction principles are used to drive production activities. Additionally, organizations such as Novo Nordisk can implement the quality principles and methodologies outlined in the various ISO certifications. The approaches require that key institution stakeholders provide services in accordance with operational best practices. The techniques necessitate that the stakeholders match their actions with the company goals.

Audit the quality and give suggestions for enhancement

The purpose of a quality audit is to determine whether or not an institution follows best practices. It is a crucial factor that has allowed most institutions to enhance their performance, since it enables the comprehension of stakeholder requirements. This explains why officials at Novo Nordisk Company have been conducting continuous audits of the institution's many sections. The managers have always emphasized the importance of providing clients with quality products and services. They are committed to ensuring that the company's stakeholders receive superior services in order to facilitate customer retention and acquisition. The general manager of the company asserts that business audit is a significant factor in the company's current success. He argues that management conducts audits on a variety of levels and systems, including assets.

Specifically, they examine the output levels of staff, their professional capacity, the accessible medical equipment, and the functioning levels of the equipment. In addition, they conduct an audit of the methods utilized throughout the production of insulin, from the beginning stages to the finished product. The audit activities on the highlighted areas are relevant in multiple ways. First, they have enabled the corporation to concentrate its synergies on providing Medicare patients with superior treatment. They have enabled the corporation to build goods that are capable of meeting the needs of its customers. This has been accomplished as a result of the management's ability to cultivate personnel and monitor their performance. The administration has also been able to ensure that personnel provide patients with services that are pertinent, timely, cost-effective, and of high quality.

By adhering to quality standards, the audit process has also helped the company to streamline its insulin production methods. The procedure has proven crucial in guaranteeing the adoption of the lean administration technique. The technique stresses the improvement of quality through the efficient use of resources and the elimination of waste. It guarantees that all production sequence procedures adhere to quality requirements. In other words, it has assured that no process contributing to the creation of high-quality insulin is ignored. This has allowed the company to earn the trust of the majority of people, since its insulin quality meets user expectations.

Auditing quality is recommended since it enables managers to discover an institution's most significant strengths and flaws. This allows them to develop the necessary measures to ensure that the flaws are minimized through continual improvement and the strengths are cultivated. As observed by academics, managers who wish to push their institutions to greater performance heights must conduct an audit of each department. They must inspect the condition of workers and the quality of materials utilized in the production process. They must also confirm that quality standards are adhered to at all operational levels. This is important to ensure that every stakeholder can execute his responsibilities with devotion and that quality is never compromised.

Concept and necessity of constant improvement

Continuous improvement is an effective performance technique, especially in today's competitive environment. The notion created by prominent Japanese business gurus has proven significant in the transformation of operations in a variety of contexts. The objective was to improve performance through structural and policy development. It was also intended to enhance amicable connections and encourage stakeholder engagement through standardized procedures. Thus, it emphasizes enhancing institutional quality through effective communication, teamwork, quality circles, and moral growth. These components are essential for ensuring that stakeholder issues are effectively managed.

Indeed, the concept of continuous improvement has enabled Novo Nordisk Company managers to establish enduring quality operating standards and benchmarks. Evidently, the notion has set the pace for the company's development, as it has enabled the company to run using standard performance methods. In addition, it has ensured the efficient and successful distribution of insulin and other services to patients worldwide. According to academic research, continuous improvement empowers managers with growth-promoting management incentives. The incentives ensure that the intuition runs according to quality standards that assure future performance stability. This is clear given that the notion focuses enhancing operational processes and policies. Thus, it ensures that an organization is able to effectively arrange its activities with the purpose of maximizing production.

Evaluation of work activities and improvement opportunities

The company's reaction management to stakeholder concerns and the increase of the quality of its products are key areas of operation that require further development. This is because the company has been tardy to resolve several issues identified by employees, which threaten to impair its operations. For example, the corporation has been hesitant to meet the compensation and working conditions requests of its employees. This component demands improvement and a change in strategy to guarantee that the issues are resolved peacefully in order to prevent a possible employee boycott of operations. Therefore, the corporation should enhance its insulin production operations, particularly the procurement of raw ingredients. This is essential since the quality of raw materials determines the value and desirability of a product. If the raw materials are of low quality, the final product will also be of low quality, however if they are of high quality, the final product will be of sound quality. Therefore, the management of the organization must ensure that tight processes are implemented to govern the procurement of raw materials.

How to encourage employees to make suggestions for enhancing quality

Improving institutional quality standards needs the engagement of all stakeholders. This has proven effective in the majority of institutions, as stakeholders possess several unique ideas that contribute to the improvement of quality. Indeed, stakeholders in every organization, such as Novo Nordisk Company, play a pivotal role in ensuring the adoption of higher quality standards. Managers should increase their participation in decision-making so that they have more opportunities to offer their innovative ideas. This explains why managers should design relevant and efficient strategies to encourage the participation of all stakeholders in development-oriented initiatives. They should provide key stakeholders, notably employees, with opportunities to participate on various topics. They should also encourage them to submit any new ideas that can be implemented to improve operations or service delivery.

Various methods and action plans can facilitate the active participation of stakeholders in enhancing quality, as mentioned. As evidenced by the Novo Nordisk Company, the techniques include the establishment of quality circles, teamwork, morale enhancement, and participation in decision making. These factors are essential for ensuring that employees and other stakeholders may effectively participate to the development of quality procedures. Since they are directly or indirectly affected by the products, their contribution to quality improvement is essential. Therefore, they are in a better position to provide precise guidance on what must be addressed and practical strategies that may be implemented. They are also in a better position to identify critical areas requiring rapid action. Specifically, quality circle (QC) is an integral component of the notion of continuous improvement that supports the implementation of quality operating approaches. The concept helps managers to gather diverse stakeholders into clearly defined quality circles so that they may set pertinent quality standards. The circles and teamwork settings allow employees to feel valued since they provide them an equal opportunity to contribute to decision making.

In addition, they make people feel like an integral part of the organization whose contributions matter. This results in their acceptance and ownership of the decisions being made. Boosting stakeholders' morale is another factor that helps to their increased participation in the development of quality guidelines. Motivated staff are able to contribute successfully to maintaining the continuity of service delivery, therefore this is crucial. This compels them to provide all necessary help aimed at sustaining their institution's functioning. Evidently, managers may encourage staff participation in the development of quality policies by fostering a climate that encourages participation. Managers should guarantee that communication between stakeholders is improved by employing conventional methods. They must be approachable and able to exchange ideas with various stakeholders.

[supanova question]

Easy Jet E-Business Strategies Need Essay Help

Table of Contents
Differences between Information and Data Legislation on Data and Information Decision Models in the United Kingdom Bibliography Citations

Differences between Information and Data

Raw facts or observations, such as values or measurements, are examples of data. Before being processed and changed into information, data is seen as having little or no value. Examples of data include a series of non-random symbols, numbers, and words, as well as a series of ideas gathered through observation or research and saved for future reference. Likewise, a collection of non-random facts or even records of an event or a fact might be considered data. In contrast, information is processed data that has been rendered meaningful and interpretable. Data that has been processed for a specific purpose, interpreted, and understood by the recipient are examples of information. Before becoming information, data must undergo a transformation process that is constrained by factors such as labor, cost, and transformation abilities. 1 Data is kept in databases, from which it can be extracted through data mining as necessary. Information involves the transformation of data via a predetermined procedure. It also requires arranging data inside a relevant context. 2

The production of information in response to a need for it serves a particular purpose. It helps eliminate uncertainty, hence enhancing the decision-making processes of management. The decisions managers make and the impact they have on their businesses are heavily reliant on the information at hand. Consequently, managing information and knowledge is crucial for businesses. The transformation of data into high-quality information is consequently essential for the effective decision-making of any company. A variety of sources provide data and information to organizations. The sources of management data are either primary or secondary, and they fall into three categories: existing data and information, individuals, photographic records, and observations. Existing data can be gathered through newsletters, academic research reports, theses, statistical reports, technical studies, market research reports, and online sources such as specific government websites and specific research journals that can be accessed via many search engines. 3

This data and information is credible, but it may be pricey because it may need the use of expensive internet data and information collection techniques. On the other hand, key informants, focus groups, rivals, sponsors, policymakers, volunteers, and customers are excellent raw data sources. For instance, a corporation may opt to collect data about consumers' perceptions of its products by conducting surveys or distributing questionnaires to willing individuals who would serve as data providers. Such information can aid a corporation in producing products that satisfy consumer demands. However, certain groups may be unwilling to participate in data giving, while others may provide inaccurate information, which may result in poor decision making. Sources of observational data and visual documentation include films, film documentaries, speeches, photographs, meeting minutes, and recorded presentations of various events and programs.

Diverse organizations acquire and filter data so that only relevant data is collected, hence minimizing the possibility of incurring costs during the collection process. There is no correct or incorrect way of data collection and selection because the selection criteria rely on a number of aspects that guarantee the quality and integrity of the collected data for improved decision making. One of them is the evaluation's objective, where an organization will select a certain method for data collection based on the kind of questions it must answer. Another issue that must be considered to ensure the high quality of acquired data is the intended audience. The chosen approach should be able to collect as much pertinent data and information from the intended audience as possible. Because data collection is costly, time-consuming, and hard, a company will select a technique of data selection and collection that is affordable and practical.

United Kingdom Data and Information Law

In the United Kingdom, the Data Protection Act of 1998 (DPA) covers data collection, handling, and usage, as well as sharing and storage. The legislation stipulates that the data controller of any organization must comply with the DPA, and that any violation of the DPA's terms and conditions may result in prosecution of the data controller. Any organization's data and information are in the hands of the data controller, who will be held accountable for any loss. 4 Regarding data acquisition, the act stipulates that data should only be gathered when necessary. The gathering of personal data or unlawful data about specific individuals is strictly prohibited. DPA stipulates that acquired data should be often audited so that irrelevant data can be eliminated. This ensures that in many businesses, only relevant data is stored and no unneeded trash data is kept. In fact, the DPA stipulates that all unnecessary data should be erased.

The Data Protection Act of the United Kingdom stipulates that personal information must be kept private and unavailable to the public. Only authorized individuals should have access to personal data or data from other companies. Concerning the issue of data sharing, an acceptable level of protection should be maintained throughout data sharing to ensure that no information or data is leaked locally or worldwide. In addition to other rights, the act grants individuals specific rights regarding their gathered data, such as the ability to correct inaccurate collected data, the right to prevent the use of personal data for marketing reasons, and the right to see the collected data.

The UK Data Protection Act mandates that companies handle any obtained data with the utmost care. This is because data collection is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and expensive. If the obtained data falls into the wrong hands, costs may be wasted in an attempt to recover it, problems may occur, and this may have to be resolved in court, which is time-consuming and wasteful. As a result, the majority of enterprises adopt database controller-governed data management systems today. Currently, every firm has an IT professional responsible for data management. Database management systems (DMS) offer database security and facilitate effective data mining. These technologies also guarantee the efficient transformation of data into high-quality information for decision-making.

Scenario application of data and information protection occurs inside the Barclays Banking group, which has collected diverse client data and information via surveys. The Barclays banking group has been safeguarded by all laws pertaining to the security of personal client information. In addition, it holds patents for all collected discoveries related to its operations, including banking sector trends.

Models for Making Decisions

Diverse organizations utilize distinct decision-making models for decision-making. The choice of decision model depends on the organization's size, political interference, shareholders, type of available information, timing of decision-making, and expected effect of decision implementation. Today, organizations adopt decision-making models such as the rational-economic model, administrative model, implicit favorite model, and political model.

The rational-economic paradigm focuses mostly on decision-making. Under this approach, the decision maker is assumed to be logical and impartial. The rational-economic model grants the decision maker the authority to make decisions on behalf of the company after weighing all available options, given that he or she possesses all the necessary competencies and resources.

Typically, the decision-making process consists of a number of steps, beginning with the identification of the specific problem, followed by the evaluation of several alternatives, and concluding with the selection of the best alternative and its implementation. This technique is utilized when a portion of an organization's shareholders have a higher investment than the other group as a whole. It is also utilized when a certain competence is required for decision making, resulting in the delegation of decision-making authority to a select group of individuals inside a corporation. Since the total decision-making process is in the hands of a single individual, the rational-economic model is advantageous in that decisions are made as quickly as possible. 6

Administrative decision-making model is a model concerned with the process of decision-making. It entails streamlining the decision-making procedure by concentrating on challenges that the company can tackle in its current state. In contrast to the rational-economic model, decision makers are not totally rational in this model. As a result, decision makers identify only a few options for tackling a particular problem, the majority of which have been demonstrated to work there previously. From such limited options, the best option is selected and subsequently executed.

In the final model of political decision making, the decision maker is neither rational nor impartial. As a result, individuals involved in the decision-making process negotiate and reach a consensus on a single topic, as members of any organization always hold divergent perspectives on how to tackle a given problem. It entails negotiating and arguing the best option. This model is objective, and the picked choice depends on the influence and favors of the participating parties. When influential individuals endorse a particular solution, the rest of the group follows suit. Those involved in decision-making and implementation may not be present during the negotiation process.

A noteworthy example of the implementation of decision-making is the Barclays Bank, where the administrative model for decision-making has been adopted. The management of the banking group in the bank makes decisions that are partially rational and administrative. The model was chosen by the company because it encounters scenarios in which the timing of a choice is more important than its conclusion; therefore, a subset of all the members involved in decision-making is selected to make a decision within a specified time frame. However, the model has the effect of sluggish decision-making since decision-makers lack a full mandate in the decision-making process and must adhere to a number of hierarchies and protocols.

Bibliography

1998. Web. Data Protection Act, Changes to United Kingdom Legislation.

Powell, T & S Steel, ‘Collection Evaluation of Data: An overview of sources and methods’, Program Development and Evaluation, 1996. Web.

Zhibin, W., and Jiuping, X., "A consistency and consensus-based decision support model for group decision making with multiplicative preference relations," Decision Support Systems, vol. 52, pp. 757–767, 2012.

Zins, C., "Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge," Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, volume 58, issue 4, pages 479–493, 2007.

Footnotes

Program Development and Evaluation, 1996, T Powell and S Steel, "Data Collection Evaluation: An Overview of Sources and Methods." Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, vol. 58, no. 4, 2007, p. 483. Ibid. p. 490. 1998 Amendments to the Data Protection Act, United Kingdom Legislation. Web. Ibid. p. 2. W Zhibin and X Jiuping, "A consistency and consensus based decision support model for group decision making with multiplicative preference relations," in Decision Support Systems, vol. 52, pp. 757–767, 2012.

[supanova question]

Easy Jet E-Business Strategies Need Essay Help

Table of Contents
Differences between Information and Data Legislation on Data and Information Decision Models in the United Kingdom Bibliography Citations

Differences between Information and Data

Raw facts or observations, such as values or measurements, are examples of data. Before being processed and changed into information, data is seen as having little or no value. Examples of data include a series of non-random symbols, numbers, and words, as well as a series of ideas gathered through observation or research and saved for future reference. Likewise, a collection of non-random facts or even records of an event or a fact might be considered data. In contrast, information is processed data that has been rendered meaningful and interpretable. Data that has been processed for a specific purpose, interpreted, and understood by the recipient are examples of information. Before becoming information, data must undergo a transformation process that is constrained by factors such as labor, cost, and transformation abilities. 1 Data is kept in databases, from which it can be extracted through data mining as necessary. Information involves the transformation of data via a predetermined procedure. It also requires arranging data inside a relevant context. 2

The production of information in response to a need for it serves a particular purpose. It helps eliminate uncertainty, hence enhancing the decision-making processes of management. The decisions managers make and the impact they have on their businesses are heavily reliant on the information at hand. Consequently, managing information and knowledge is crucial for businesses. The transformation of data into high-quality information is consequently essential for the effective decision-making of any company. A variety of sources provide data and information to organizations. The sources of management data are either primary or secondary, and they fall into three categories: existing data and information, individuals, photographic records, and observations. Existing data can be gathered through newsletters, academic research reports, theses, statistical reports, technical studies, market research reports, and online sources such as specific government websites and specific research journals that can be accessed via many search engines. 3

This data and information is credible, but it may be pricey because it may need the use of expensive internet data and information collection techniques. On the other hand, key informants, focus groups, rivals, sponsors, policymakers, volunteers, and customers are excellent raw data sources. For instance, a corporation may opt to collect data about consumers' perceptions of its products by conducting surveys or distributing questionnaires to willing individuals who would serve as data providers. Such information can aid a corporation in producing products that satisfy consumer demands. However, certain groups may be unwilling to participate in data giving, while others may provide inaccurate information, which may result in poor decision making. Sources of observational data and visual documentation include films, film documentaries, speeches, photographs, meeting minutes, and recorded presentations of various events and programs.

Diverse organizations acquire and filter data so that only relevant data is collected, hence minimizing the possibility of incurring costs during the collection process. There is no correct or incorrect way of data collection and selection because the selection criteria rely on a number of aspects that guarantee the quality and integrity of the collected data for improved decision making. One of them is the evaluation's objective, where an organization will select a certain method for data collection based on the kind of questions it must answer. Another issue that must be considered to ensure the high quality of acquired data is the intended audience. The chosen approach should be able to collect as much pertinent data and information from the intended audience as possible. Because data collection is costly, time-consuming, and hard, a company will select a technique of data selection and collection that is affordable and practical.

United Kingdom Data and Information Law

In the United Kingdom, the Data Protection Act of 1998 (DPA) covers data collection, handling, and usage, as well as sharing and storage. The legislation stipulates that the data controller of any organization must comply with the DPA, and that any violation of the DPA's terms and conditions may result in prosecution of the data controller. Any organization's data and information are in the hands of the data controller, who will be held accountable for any loss. 4 Regarding data acquisition, the act stipulates that data should only be gathered when necessary. The gathering of personal data or unlawful data about specific individuals is strictly prohibited. DPA stipulates that acquired data should be often audited so that irrelevant data can be eliminated. This ensures that in many businesses, only relevant data is stored and no unneeded trash data is kept. In fact, the DPA stipulates that all unnecessary data should be erased.

The Data Protection Act of the United Kingdom stipulates that personal information must be kept private and unavailable to the public. Only authorized individuals should have access to personal data or data from other companies. Concerning the issue of data sharing, an acceptable level of protection should be maintained throughout data sharing to ensure that no information or data is leaked locally or worldwide. In addition to other rights, the act grants individuals specific rights regarding their gathered data, such as the ability to correct inaccurate collected data, the right to prevent the use of personal data for marketing reasons, and the right to see the collected data.

The UK Data Protection Act mandates that companies handle any obtained data with the utmost care. This is because data collection is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and expensive. If the obtained data falls into the wrong hands, costs may be wasted in an attempt to recover it, problems may occur, and this may have to be resolved in court, which is time-consuming and wasteful. As a result, the majority of enterprises adopt database controller-governed data management systems today. Currently, every firm has an IT professional responsible for data management. Database management systems (DMS) offer database security and facilitate effective data mining. These technologies also guarantee the efficient transformation of data into high-quality information for decision-making.

Scenario application of data and information protection occurs inside the Barclays Banking group, which has collected diverse client data and information via surveys. The Barclays banking group has been safeguarded by all laws pertaining to the security of personal client information. In addition, it holds patents for all collected discoveries related to its operations, including banking sector trends.

Models for Making Decisions

Diverse organizations utilize distinct decision-making models for decision-making. The choice of decision model depends on the organization's size, political interference, shareholders, type of available information, timing of decision-making, and expected effect of decision implementation. Today, organizations adopt decision-making models such as the rational-economic model, administrative model, implicit favorite model, and political model.

The rational-economic paradigm focuses mostly on decision-making. Under this approach, the decision maker is assumed to be logical and impartial. The rational-economic model grants the decision maker the authority to make decisions on behalf of the company after weighing all available options, given that he or she possesses all the necessary competencies and resources.

Typically, the decision-making process consists of a number of steps, beginning with the identification of the specific problem, followed by the evaluation of several alternatives, and concluding with the selection of the best alternative and its implementation. This technique is utilized when a portion of an organization's shareholders have a higher investment than the other group as a whole. It is also utilized when a certain competence is required for decision making, resulting in the delegation of decision-making authority to a select group of individuals inside a corporation. Since the total decision-making process is in the hands of a single individual, the rational-economic model is advantageous in that decisions are made as quickly as possible. 6

Administrative decision-making model is a model concerned with the process of decision-making. It entails streamlining the decision-making procedure by concentrating on challenges that the company can tackle in its current state. In contrast to the rational-economic model, decision makers are not totally rational in this model. As a result, decision makers identify only a few options for tackling a particular problem, the majority of which have been demonstrated to work there previously. From such limited options, the best option is selected and subsequently executed.

In the final model of political decision making, the decision maker is neither rational nor impartial. As a result, individuals involved in the decision-making process negotiate and reach a consensus on a single topic, as members of any organization always hold divergent perspectives on how to tackle a given problem. It entails negotiating and arguing the best option. This model is objective, and the picked choice depends on the influence and favors of the participating parties. When influential individuals endorse a particular solution, the rest of the group follows suit. Those involved in decision-making and implementation may not be present during the negotiation process.

A noteworthy example of the implementation of decision-making is the Barclays Bank, where the administrative model for decision-making has been adopted. The management of the banking group in the bank makes decisions that are partially rational and administrative. The model was chosen by the company because it encounters scenarios in which the timing of a choice is more important than its conclusion; therefore, a subset of all the members involved in decision-making is selected to make a decision within a specified time frame. However, the model has the effect of sluggish decision-making since decision-makers lack a full mandate in the decision-making process and must adhere to a number of hierarchies and protocols.

Bibliography

1998. Web. Data Protection Act, Changes to United Kingdom Legislation.

Powell, T & S Steel, ‘Collection Evaluation of Data: An overview of sources and methods’, Program Development and Evaluation, 1996. Web.

Zhibin, W., and Jiuping, X., "A consistency and consensus-based decision support model for group decision making with multiplicative preference relations," Decision Support Systems, vol. 52, pp. 757–767, 2012.

Zins, C., "Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge," Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, volume 58, issue 4, pages 479–493, 2007.

Footnotes

Program Development and Evaluation, 1996, T Powell and S Steel, "Data Collection Evaluation: An Overview of Sources and Methods." Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, vol. 58, no. 4, 2007, p. 483. Ibid. p. 490. 1998 Amendments to the Data Protection Act, United Kingdom Legislation. Web. Ibid. p. 2. W Zhibin and X Jiuping, "A consistency and consensus based decision support model for group decision making with multiplicative preference relations," in Decision Support Systems, vol. 52, pp. 757–767, 2012.

[supanova question]

How Managers Perform A Simple Scenario Analysis Need Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Scenario Analysis Industry Opportunities FedEx Threats Two Scenarios Conclusion References

Introduction

When a corporation tries to endure change – whether external or internal – it must comprehend the changes that occur in the firm's environment. In other words, it becomes essential to comprehend the industry's driving forces. The technique of scenario analysis enables a corporation to consider and communicate about the future business environment.

There are two forms of scenario analysis: qualitative and quantitative. Using simulations, quantitative analysis identifies "distinct and probable outcomes." A qualitative analysis comprises the description and interpretation of the numerous aspects that may influence the company's environment. In this article, we will do a qualitative scenario analysis in order to comprehend the industry's distinctive history and current trends.

In this essay, a scenario analysis of FedEx in the United States will be conducted. FedEx is a leading overnight courier and freight service, provider of logistical solutions and provider of business support services. It works largely in the United States and in 220 countries worldwide. It made $ 35,497 million in sales for the 2009 fiscal year, a 2.1% increase over 2007. The company's three primary business segments are FedEx Express, FedEx Services, FedEx Freight, and FedEx Ground. The company's growth rate decreased from 7.8% in 2008 to 2.1% in 2009. The subsequent parts will cover the industry's environmental condition and growth pattern, as well as other economic and non-economic aspects that may impact the company's operations.

Scenario Analysis

Companies utilize scenario analysis to comprehend the evolution of industries in order to comprehend the markets. Understanding the challenges and possibilities that organizations may face in a particular industry and how they give managers with flexibility is beneficial. In the following section of the article, a scenario analysis of FedEx will be presented. FedEx engages in the market for expedited logistics and freight transit. The scenario analysis will highlight the environment's most significant threats and possibilities for the firm.

Possibilities for the Industry

Since 2007, the logistics market in the United States is anticipated to increase by 18.6 percent, reaching $271,2 billion in 2010. According to the forecast, the logistics market in the United States would expand by 3.5% per year between 2007 and 2012. Consequently, the market for express logistics on the U.S. logistics sector is anticipated to expand significantly. As one of the top market participants, FedEx is anticipated to see a rapid pace of growth, which will aid the company's expansion.

Population Growth: In 2009, the United States' population was 307,982,386 and was expanding at a pace of 0.90 percent. A increasing population signifies an expanding market for the company, a trend that is anticipated to generate future opportunities for the company.

The US economy experienced a 3.5% gain in real gross domestic product (GDP) in the third quarter of 2009. The company's annual gross domestic product was $14,441,4 billion. Thus, the economy has experienced consistent expansion. Thus, it is anticipated that enterprises working inside the economy will profit from the expansion of the economy.

Inflation: The country's inflation has been declining and seeing negative growth for quite some time. Since 2006, there has been a consistent decline in inflation, with a maximum decrease of 16.4% in 2007. A low inflation rate is advantageous for the company, since it will aid in its operations.

The US interest rate has been cut to 0.13 percentage points. In order to increase money flow in the economy, it has decreased from 0.38% previous year to this rate. The decrease in interest rates was intended to increase consumer demand for goods and services, which had dropped significantly in the economy due to a low consumer confidence index.

Foreign Currency: The US dollar had significant volatility in 2009, which negatively impacted the company's operational earnings. In contrast, foreign currency movements had a beneficial impact on the company's profit in 2008. The variations are anticipated to stabilize in the near future and to have a favorable impact on the company. However, volatility in foreign exchange are anticipated to stabilize and the US dollar will strengthen in the near future.

Fuel Prices: The trend of rising fuel prices is anticipated to continue, as it did throughout 2008-2009. FedEx's profit and revenue are anticipated to be impacted by fuel price fluctuations. FedEx's stock price has been affected by the anticipation that fuel costs will stabilize in the future. Consequently, this presents a potential for the organization to flourish in the future.

Emerging Markets: As a result of globalization, the company's market has expanded. The expanding market in nations such as China offers FedEx and its operations great possibilities. In 2012, developing market sales are estimated to reach $13 billion, according to a forecast by DuPont. The company's entry into this industry presents enormous opportunities.

Dangers confronting FedEx

In this section, we will analyze the hazards posed by the company's near surroundings. This research will demonstrate the economic issues that inhibited the company's growth.

The US economy was negatively impacted by the worldwide recession, which decimated enterprises in different industries. FedEx was also affected by the recession. As both the transportation and business services markets are extremely competitive, market demand is highly elastic, showing a high degree of price sensitivity. The non-macroeconomic growth phase of the economy had bolstered this tendency toward elastic demand. Consequently, pricing in the market must be exceedingly competitive, and service dependability must be enhanced. A pricing war is anticipated in the future as a result of the competitive pressure. FedEx's expansion possibilities will be severely impacted in such a scenario.

Unionization of Labor: Labor unions have traditionally attempted to unionize FedEx employees. A proactive shift in labor legislation may heighten the threat posed by unions. It is anticipated that the United States government will amend its labor regulations, making it simpler for unions to organize the company's labor force. This may increase the company's operating expenses and decrease its operational flexibility.

Internet's expanding prominence and acceptance represents one of the greatest challenges to the company. Trends in the expansion of email have substantially supplanted the mailing sector throughout time. Traditional mail service has been negatively affected by technological improvements such as SMS, broadband, and email. The situation has worsened in metropolitan areas. For instance, prior to the introduction of the electronic banking system, banks used to mail bank statements to customers. Those practices have now been replaced by electronic banking. Additionally, various electronic technologies such as fax, telephone, scanners, etc. have reduced the volume of traditional mailing. Thus, advancements in communications technology have had a detrimental impact on FedEx's revenue, which is projected to continue.

Fuel prices have been steadily rising, resulting in a rise in transportation costs. The most significant price rises have been witnessed in gasoline, refined fuel, etc. It is anticipated that the price of crude oil will boost the cost of all petroleum products. Aviation fuel prices are anticipated to increase due to the increase in oil prices. The 30% increase in fuel prices over the past year is projected to have an impact on the company's bottom line.

Two Situations

The US recession and technological advancement are the two factors that are most likely to effect the company's growth. The recession has had a significant impact on the economy, with the country's growth rate falling by 45 percent in 2009 as a result. The rate of inflation and unemployment has increased. There were enormous layoffs and consumer demand declines. All of this contributed to a poor economic climate for all industries. Therefore, this has a significant impact on the economy. Recession is anticipated to lessen in the future, boosting the likelihood of improved market circumstances. With the end of the recession and regained market demand, we may anticipate this best-case scenario.

The evolution of technology will continue. Continuously, research and development have been employed to further the development of the internet and other devices. FedEx's future prospects will worsen as technology develops. This is the worst-case scenario the corporation may face.

Conclusion

The scenario study demonstrates that environmental pressure on FedEx's operations has intensified. Strong economic conditions, low inflation, a strong currency, and the company's expansion into emerging economies all present prospects for the business. However, the corporation confronts dangers from various environmental factors, including new technologies, labor unions, the recession, and variable fuel prices. Recession and technology are two of the risks that may have the greatest impact on the operations of the organization. The technological danger is anticipated to intensify in the future, although the recession, as a transient phase, will end in the near future, restoring economic vitality.

References

Bloomberg. (2009). Market Data. Web.

Economic Analysis Bureau (2009). Web site for National Economic Accounts.

Web. Datamonitor. (2008). FedEx Corporation. Company Profile. New York.

Datamonitor (2008). The logistics industry in the United States. New York, online.

FedEx (2009). Web-based FedEx Annual Report.

Grant, R. M. (2005). Modern strategy evaluation. Oxford, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell.

MarketWatch (2009). Updates, cautions and surprises. Web.

U.S. Census Bureau (2009). U.S. and World Population. Web.

Zieminski, N. (2009). FedEx shares jump on improved outlook. Web.

[supanova question]

The Case Of The Adidas And Nike Sneakers Market Need Essay Help

Abstract

Different businesses have placed a significant emphasis on sustainable practices over the past two decades. In 2017, fifty percent of the top one hundred fashion firms established a sustainability strategy (McKinsey, 2017). Sustainability is emphasized within the fashion industry's social and environmental movements. In contrast, emphasis on sustainability from the consumer's standpoint has become a subject of general concern. Constantly, consumers are drawn to businesses with transparently sustainable methods and products. Yet, corporations have persistently failed to maintain their socially responsible image in the public eye.

Widespread social worry that businesses are broadcasting false or confusing environmental information has resulted in an increase in customer skepticism regarding the environmental performance and advantages of green products. Previous study has contemplated how skepticism may negatively impact consumer responses (Annamma, Sherry, Venkatesh, Wang, & Chan, 2012). Other research have identified a number of obstacles that consumers may encounter when purchasing sustainable items. Therefore, a greater understanding of how skepticism influences green purchasing behavior is required (Wunker, 2017).

This study will identify consumer perception barriers to green purchasing behavior and investigate the impact of these barriers on corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. Moreover, customer perception influences the purchase attitudes of consumers. This study focuses on consumer perceptions regarding purchasing decisions and intent to spread the word. In order to define the scope of this study, the target population will consist of young consumers (aged 18 to 35) who reside in the Netherlands and purchase Nike and Adidas sneakers. Quantitative questionnaires will be utilized to obtain primary data, which will then be analyzed using SPSS software.

Introduction

Research Background

Over the past two decades, sustainability in business has garnered a great deal of interest from academics and practitioners in industries across the globe (Turker & Altuntas, 2014). Although the topic has generated much controversy, the vast majority of firms consider sustainability crucial to their operations. The three components of sustainability that address social, economic, and environmental challenges are referred to as the Triple-Bottom-Line (Govindan, Khodaverdi, & Jafarian, 2013). Firms must build Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) plans that integrate environmental, social, and ethical rights into company operations in order to produce a more sustainable corporation.

The affiliation of a firm with environmental concerns determines its reputation (Caplan, 2003). As a result, an increasing number of fashion companies are addressing sustainability (Choi & Cheng, 2015). Adidas and Nike, for example, have made significant strides. Adidas has built a cleaner supply chain, eliminated plastic bags, and participated in a variety of environmental initiatives. Their partnership with Parley enables Adidas to manufacture innovative goods from recycled ocean trash and yarn (Ismael, 2018). Nike, on the other hand, is committed to sustainability by lowering the amount of pollutants discharged from their production lines.

Utilizing the Considered Index, designers may monitor the environmental impact of a shoe throughout the design process. Adidas's plan included the introduction of the Better Cotton Initiative (BCI) and Plant-Based Footwear (P-BF), which enhanced their CSR perception. In addition, Nike implemented the Footwear Sustainability Index (FSI) and Air-Sole Innovation (ASI) to measure the environmental impact of every product (Appendix 1).

As a result of their commitment to sustainability, these businesses have attracted a considerable number of devoted customers (McKinsey, 2017). According to CGS studies, brand loyalty is tied to product quality, but sustainable practices are the second-highest reason consumers return to a given brand (Sungchul & Ng, 2011). Thus, fashion companies can compete strongly in their respective markets by incorporating sustainability into their business strategies.

Several obstacles influence the purchasing decisions of sustainable products. Skepticism is one of the obstacles that prevent consumers from purchasing green products (Wunker) (2017). Consumer skepticism is described as "the tendency of consumers to question any aspect of a company's activities" (Morel & Pruyn, 2003, p. 352). When businesses disseminate unclear environmental information regarding their sustainability plan and environmental performance, consumer distrust emerges. A research by Yiridoe, Bonti-Ankomah, and Martin (2005) revealed that mislabeling, misinterpretation, and misrepresentation of green products contribute to consumer distrust. Thus, even if consumers desire to purchase green items, their cynicism over environmental performance may prevent them from doing so.

A crucial part of CSR is avoiding skepticism (Fuentes, 2018). Kwong and Balaji (2016) argue that skepticism negatively affects customer buying intentions. Yet, a greater knowledge of how skepticism affects the green purchase decision is required. Fashion companies must overcome consumer cynicism because it can impact consumers' purchase decisions, putting them at a disadvantage.

Problem Statement

As the level of competition among shoemakers increases (World Trade Organization, 2018), a rising number of businesses implement sustainable methods. Recent research indicates, however, that consumers may not be inclined to purchase green items due to their mistrust (Joshi & Rahman, 2015). According to Bronn and Vrioni (2001), customer distrust is increasing as more companies engage in CSR. When consumers mistrust the greenness of a company's products, they may switch to other brands or disseminate negative word-of-mouth (WOM), so damaging the company's reputation (Shim & Yang, 2016; Zeynep & Atik, 2015).

According to the latter, businesses must alter this "negative attitude" in customer conduct. However, this presents a dilemma for fashion firms, particularly Nike and Adidas, as their procedures must be communicated to consumers without provoking mistrust.

Research Objective

This report aims to investigate how consumers perceive the sustainability practices of Adidas and Nike. This paper seeks to elucidate how customers perceive these tactics to affect their purchase behavior. Insights gained from consumers' "suspicion" can help enhance the CSR efforts of footwear firms such as Adidas and Nike.

Literature Review

Dimensions of Environmental

Sustainability is a crucial factor in modern success (Haanaes, 2016). Several big fashion businesses, notably Adidas and Nike, introduce sustainable efforts (Payseno, 2018). There are three important facets of sustainability, which are known as the triple bottom line (Govindan et al., 2013; Williams & Millington, 2004). According to Dahlsrud's (2008) research, there are numerous definitions of CSR. The term emphasizes social, environmental, and economic imperatives, a strategy known as the triple bottom line.

Impediments to Sustainable Consumption

Today's consumers recognize the significance of sustainability, yet a number of obstacles inhibit purchasing intent (Bonini & Oppenheim, 2008; Wunker, 2017). In addition, Joshi and Rahman's (2015) study revealed that there is a weak relationship between customers' green beliefs and their purchasing behavior, referred to as a "attitude-behavior gap." Morel and Pruyn (2003) characterized consumer skepticism toward CSR programs as the "tendency of consumers to question any aspect of a company's CSR activities" (p. 352). In addition, Webb and Mohr (1998) state that skepticism emerges when consumers doubt and mistrust a company's CSR practices. In order to overcome mistrust as a barrier, it is vital to gain an understanding of how customers view green fashion.

Unfaithfulness and CSR Perception

Since the second half of the 20th century, there has been a lengthy debate on CSR; since then, businesses have always included social responsibility as part of their sustainable practices (Rosenbaum & Wong, 2015). Customers are unable to discern whether organizations pursue sustainability for profit or out of a genuine desire to be sustainable. The source of skepticism is mistrust of advertising claims made by companies about their products (Obermiller & Spangenberg, 2013; Kwong & Balaji, 2016).

According to Morel and Pruyn (2003), mistrust is related to skepticism because, when consumers are doubtful, they doubt the information about the things they intend to buy. In this instance, advertisements by Adidas and Nike are susceptible to mistrust, resulting in "green skepticism" regarding CSR activities. Thus, the theoretical model indicates that customer mistrust is a strong predictor of CSR skepticism.

Perception of CSR and WOM

Customers' perceptions of CSR efforts are influenced by interactions between firms and customers. Effective connection between firms and customers, according to the dialogic theory, generates durable communication channels, reduces mistrust, and promotes the development of good WOM (Uysal, 2018). Therefore, businesses must reduce the amount of mistrust and skepticism among customers to prevent the propagation of bad WOM regarding their CSR operations (Servaes & Tamayo, 2013).

According to Wang, Wang, and Wang (2018), word of mouth consists of both good and negative words shared by customers or potential consumers that influence their view of the products and services given by companies. Prior research indicates that customer skepticism adds to bad WOM because it effects attitudes, purchasing intentions, and brand image (Balaji, Khong, & Chong, 2016; Skarmeas & Leonidou, 2013). In this instance, customer distrust influences the perception of CSR, leading to bad WOM. The consequence was the formulation of the following alternative hypothesis (H1):

Consumer suspicion over CSR practices is a predictor of negative WOM.

Perceptions of CSR and Firm Reputation

In corporations, reputation is crucial since it impacts the effectiveness of marketing strategies. According to the attribution theory, the reputation of an enterprise is influenced by how customers perceive, believe, and trust CSR practices (Chen & Chiu, 2018). According to Kim and Kim (2016), there is a complex relationship between business reputation and the perception of CSR practices. In essence, corporations' reputations in competitive markets depend on the sort of CSR initiatives they advocate. When customers mistrust CSR activities, they create a poor view of businesses and become skeptical.

Previous research has demonstrated that customer skepticism negatively affects how consumers view a company's reputation (Becker-Olsen, Cudmore, & Hill, 2006; Ellen, Webb, & Mohr, 2006; Elving, 2013). Consumers may perceive that businesses utilize CSR initiatives to increase revenues (Kim & Lee, 2009). Corporate reputation declines as a result of skepticism regarding the CSR operations of businesses (Shim & Yang, 2016). The second alternative hypothesis (H2) was therefore developed:

Consumer cynicism regarding CSR initiatives is a negative predictor of corporate reputation, according to Hypothesis 2.

CSR and Purchase Choice

According to Dawson (2006), purchasing behavior consists of attitudes that determine how customers choose things, select brands, and shop. A purchase decision is the outcome of each of these elements; therefore, it is beneficial for businesses to collect information about consumer preferences and use it to enhance their offers. Dewey (2012) determined that the purchasing procedure consists of the five steps listed below (Figure I). Prior to making a purchasing decision, buyers identify the issue, search for pertinent information, and assess available options.

Figure 1 depicts the five steps of the buying procedure (Dewey, 2012).

This study extends the research of Kwong and Balaji (2016) by analyzing if customers are dubious about Adidas and Nike's green footwear offerings (Appendix 2). Consequently, the following alternative hypothesis (H3) was developed:

The cynicism of consumers towards CSR efforts influences their decision to purchase green sneakers.

Conceptual Model

The conceptual model depicted in Figure 2 demonstrates that consumer mistrust influences CSR skepticism, which in turn effects WOM (H1), firms' reputation (H2), and purchase choice (H3) (H3). According to the conceptual model, CSR skepticism is the independent variable associated with customer mistrust. CSR skepticism, as the independent variable, influences WOM, firms' reputation, and buying decisions.

Figure 2: Conceptual model (Kwong & Balaji, 2016). Research Concerns

How does customer mistrust regarding CSR policies (of Adidas & Nike) influence the consumer's buying decision and unfavorable WOM intention in the shoe industry?

The following are specific research questions aligned with hypotheses:

What is the relationship between customer mistrust and their skepticism of the shoes industry's CSR practices? How does customer concern regarding CSR activities affect WOM among shoe buyers? How can consumer mistrust regarding CSR practices impact the reputation of businesses? How does consumer skepticism regarding CSR practices affect the green purchasing behavior of sneaker purchasers?

Methodology

Data Gathering

This quantitative study will examine attitudes, behaviors, and other characteristics among a large sample population (DeFranzo, 2011). In addition, a quantitative method will determine the perceptions of samples on the variable ‘consumer skepticism on CSR practices’, which is related to the barrier “distrust” identified in the literature review. The two shoemakers (Adidas and Nike) and their sustainability lines of green sneakers (‘BCI’, ‘P-BF’, and ‘FSI’, ‘ASI’) will be the primary emphasis.

These lines will be evaluated by consumers in the sneaker segment based on their level of skepticism towards CSR practices and the extent to which these variables influence their purchase choice and WOM intention of green sneakers. Using a cross-sectional survey, these relationships will be determined. The survey questions, which will include multiple-choice questions, will be developed using the online tool "Thesis tools Pro" and distributed via social media and Dutch universities.

The questionnaire will be distributed to participants via social media channels using the internet tool SurveyMonkey, and the collected data can be analyzed using SPSS software (Collis & Hussey, 2014). This study identifies Facebook messaging and WhatsApp as the most popular social media channels in the Netherlands (Statista, 2019). (Appendix 3).

Population and Selection

This survey's target demographic consists of young Dutch customers between the ages of 18 and 35; however, they can be of any country. Between 18 and 35-year-olds are the most adaptable to change and the most enthusiastic about keeping up with the current fashion trends (Farsang, 2014). According to demographics, the population of the Netherlands between the ages of 16 and 35 is around 4 million (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2018), which is too enormous to analyze.

With a population of 4 million, a margin of error of 5 percentage points, and a 95 percent confidence interval, the sample size should be at least 384 respondents (Jani, 2014). The author will attempt to communicate with at least 400 responses. Contact will be made with participants using a random selection technique. Through social media networks, participants will receive a link to the online questionnaire.

Data Analysis

After cleaning data using Excel, the data will be entered into SPSS software to manage the survey results analysis. T-test, one-way ANOVA, and multiple regression are inferential statistics that will be used to evaluate the questionnaire-collected data. The control variables will be the demographic factors. These variables will be studied since prior research indicated that they contribute significantly to purchasing decisions (Joshi & Rahman, 2015). The T-test and one-way ANOVA will be utilized to examine the demographic impact.

Multiple regression will be employed to determine whether the independent factors have an impact on the dependent variables (Mertler & Reinhart, 2017). This will allow the author to determine if customers' skepticism regarding CSR activities in the shoe business effects WOM, firms' reputation, and green purchase decisions.

Validity and Trustworthiness

To ensure validity, the study would employ well-designed questionnaires with pertinent questions and a sufficient breadth. According to Trochim, Donnelly, and Arora (2016), researchers must assure the content, criteria, and construct validity of surveys. In order to attain content validity, the study will seek expert assessment of the research instrument prior to administering it to respondents to verify that it has been thoroughly validated.

The Case Of The Adidas And Nike Sneakers Market Need Essay Help

Abstract

Different businesses have placed a significant emphasis on sustainable practices over the past two decades. In 2017, fifty percent of the top one hundred fashion firms established a sustainability strategy (McKinsey, 2017). Sustainability is emphasized within the fashion industry's social and environmental movements. In contrast, emphasis on sustainability from the consumer's standpoint has become a subject of general concern. Constantly, consumers are drawn to businesses with transparently sustainable methods and products. Yet, corporations have persistently failed to maintain their socially responsible image in the public eye.

Widespread social worry that businesses are broadcasting false or confusing environmental information has resulted in an increase in customer skepticism regarding the environmental performance and advantages of green products. Previous study has contemplated how skepticism may negatively impact consumer responses (Annamma, Sherry, Venkatesh, Wang, & Chan, 2012). Other research have identified a number of obstacles that consumers may encounter when purchasing sustainable items. Therefore, a greater understanding of how skepticism influences green purchasing behavior is required (Wunker, 2017).

This study will identify consumer perception barriers to green purchasing behavior and investigate the impact of these barriers on corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. Moreover, customer perception influences the purchase attitudes of consumers. This study focuses on consumer perceptions regarding purchasing decisions and intent to spread the word. In order to define the scope of this study, the target population will consist of young consumers (aged 18 to 35) who reside in the Netherlands and purchase Nike and Adidas sneakers. Quantitative questionnaires will be utilized to obtain primary data, which will then be analyzed using SPSS software.

Introduction

Research Background

Over the past two decades, sustainability in business has garnered a great deal of interest from academics and practitioners in industries across the globe (Turker & Altuntas, 2014). Although the topic has generated much controversy, the vast majority of firms consider sustainability crucial to their operations. The three components of sustainability that address social, economic, and environmental challenges are referred to as the Triple-Bottom-Line (Govindan, Khodaverdi, & Jafarian, 2013). Firms must build Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) plans that integrate environmental, social, and ethical rights into company operations in order to produce a more sustainable corporation.

The affiliation of a firm with environmental concerns determines its reputation (Caplan, 2003). As a result, an increasing number of fashion companies are addressing sustainability (Choi & Cheng, 2015). Adidas and Nike, for example, have made significant strides. Adidas has built a cleaner supply chain, eliminated plastic bags, and participated in a variety of environmental initiatives. Their partnership with Parley enables Adidas to manufacture innovative goods from recycled ocean trash and yarn (Ismael, 2018). Nike, on the other hand, is committed to sustainability by lowering the amount of pollutants discharged from their production lines.

Utilizing the Considered Index, designers may monitor the environmental impact of a shoe throughout the design process. Adidas's plan included the introduction of the Better Cotton Initiative (BCI) and Plant-Based Footwear (P-BF), which enhanced their CSR perception. In addition, Nike implemented the Footwear Sustainability Index (FSI) and Air-Sole Innovation (ASI) to measure the environmental impact of every product (Appendix 1).

As a result of their commitment to sustainability, these businesses have attracted a considerable number of devoted customers (McKinsey, 2017). According to CGS studies, brand loyalty is tied to product quality, but sustainable practices are the second-highest reason consumers return to a given brand (Sungchul & Ng, 2011). Thus, fashion companies can compete strongly in their respective markets by incorporating sustainability into their business strategies.

Several obstacles influence the purchasing decisions of sustainable products. Skepticism is one of the obstacles that prevent consumers from purchasing green products (Wunker) (2017). Consumer skepticism is described as "the tendency of consumers to question any aspect of a company's activities" (Morel & Pruyn, 2003, p. 352). When businesses disseminate unclear environmental information regarding their sustainability plan and environmental performance, consumer distrust emerges. A research by Yiridoe, Bonti-Ankomah, and Martin (2005) revealed that mislabeling, misinterpretation, and misrepresentation of green products contribute to consumer distrust. Thus, even if consumers desire to purchase green items, their cynicism over environmental performance may prevent them from doing so.

A crucial part of CSR is avoiding skepticism (Fuentes, 2018). Kwong and Balaji (2016) argue that skepticism negatively affects customer buying intentions. Yet, a greater knowledge of how skepticism affects the green purchase decision is required. Fashion companies must overcome consumer cynicism because it can impact consumers' purchase decisions, putting them at a disadvantage.

Problem Statement

As the level of competition among shoemakers increases (World Trade Organization, 2018), a rising number of businesses implement sustainable methods. Recent research indicates, however, that consumers may not be inclined to purchase green items due to their mistrust (Joshi & Rahman, 2015). According to Bronn and Vrioni (2001), customer distrust is increasing as more companies engage in CSR. When consumers mistrust the greenness of a company's products, they may switch to other brands or disseminate negative word-of-mouth (WOM), so damaging the company's reputation (Shim & Yang, 2016; Zeynep & Atik, 2015).

According to the latter, businesses must alter this "negative attitude" in customer conduct. However, this presents a dilemma for fashion firms, particularly Nike and Adidas, as their procedures must be communicated to consumers without provoking mistrust.

Research Objective

This report aims to investigate how consumers perceive the sustainability practices of Adidas and Nike. This paper seeks to elucidate how customers perceive these tactics to affect their purchase behavior. Insights gained from consumers' "suspicion" can help enhance the CSR efforts of footwear firms such as Adidas and Nike.

Literature Review

Dimensions of Environmental

Sustainability is a crucial factor in modern success (Haanaes, 2016). Several big fashion businesses, notably Adidas and Nike, introduce sustainable efforts (Payseno, 2018). There are three important facets of sustainability, which are known as the triple bottom line (Govindan et al., 2013; Williams & Millington, 2004). According to Dahlsrud's (2008) research, there are numerous definitions of CSR. The term emphasizes social, environmental, and economic imperatives, a strategy known as the triple bottom line.

Impediments to Sustainable Consumption

Today's consumers recognize the significance of sustainability, yet a number of obstacles inhibit purchasing intent (Bonini & Oppenheim, 2008; Wunker, 2017). In addition, Joshi and Rahman's (2015) study revealed that there is a weak relationship between customers' green beliefs and their purchasing behavior, referred to as a "attitude-behavior gap." Morel and Pruyn (2003) characterized consumer skepticism toward CSR programs as the "tendency of consumers to question any aspect of a company's CSR activities" (p. 352). In addition, Webb and Mohr (1998) state that skepticism emerges when consumers doubt and mistrust a company's CSR practices. In order to overcome mistrust as a barrier, it is vital to gain an understanding of how customers view green fashion.

Unfaithfulness and CSR Perception

Since the second half of the 20th century, there has been a lengthy debate on CSR; since then, businesses have always included social responsibility as part of their sustainable practices (Rosenbaum & Wong, 2015). Customers are unable to discern whether organizations pursue sustainability for profit or out of a genuine desire to be sustainable. The source of skepticism is mistrust of advertising claims made by companies about their products (Obermiller & Spangenberg, 2013; Kwong & Balaji, 2016).

According to Morel and Pruyn (2003), mistrust is related to skepticism because, when consumers are doubtful, they doubt the information about the things they intend to buy. In this instance, advertisements by Adidas and Nike are susceptible to mistrust, resulting in "green skepticism" regarding CSR activities. Thus, the theoretical model indicates that customer mistrust is a strong predictor of CSR skepticism.

Perception of CSR and WOM

Customers' perceptions of CSR efforts are influenced by interactions between firms and customers. Effective connection between firms and customers, according to the dialogic theory, generates durable communication channels, reduces mistrust, and promotes the development of good WOM (Uysal, 2018). Therefore, businesses must reduce the amount of mistrust and skepticism among customers to prevent the propagation of bad WOM regarding their CSR operations (Servaes & Tamayo, 2013).

According to Wang, Wang, and Wang (2018), word of mouth consists of both good and negative words shared by customers or potential consumers that influence their view of the products and services given by companies. Prior research indicates that customer skepticism adds to bad WOM because it effects attitudes, purchasing intentions, and brand image (Balaji, Khong, & Chong, 2016; Skarmeas & Leonidou, 2013). In this instance, customer distrust influences the perception of CSR, leading to bad WOM. The consequence was the formulation of the following alternative hypothesis (H1):

Consumer suspicion over CSR practices is a predictor of negative WOM.

Perceptions of CSR and Firm Reputation

In corporations, reputation is crucial since it impacts the effectiveness of marketing strategies. According to the attribution theory, the reputation of an enterprise is influenced by how customers perceive, believe, and trust CSR practices (Chen & Chiu, 2018). According to Kim and Kim (2016), there is a complex relationship between business reputation and the perception of CSR practices. In essence, corporations' reputations in competitive markets depend on the sort of CSR initiatives they advocate. When customers mistrust CSR activities, they create a poor view of businesses and become skeptical.

Previous research has demonstrated that customer skepticism negatively affects how consumers view a company's reputation (Becker-Olsen, Cudmore, & Hill, 2006; Ellen, Webb, & Mohr, 2006; Elving, 2013). Consumers may perceive that businesses utilize CSR initiatives to increase revenues (Kim & Lee, 2009). Corporate reputation declines as a result of skepticism regarding the CSR operations of businesses (Shim & Yang, 2016). The second alternative hypothesis (H2) was therefore developed:

Consumer cynicism regarding CSR initiatives is a negative predictor of corporate reputation, according to Hypothesis 2.

CSR and Purchase Choice

According to Dawson (2006), purchasing behavior consists of attitudes that determine how customers choose things, select brands, and shop. A purchase decision is the outcome of each of these elements; therefore, it is beneficial for businesses to collect information about consumer preferences and use it to enhance their offers. Dewey (2012) determined that the purchasing procedure consists of the five steps listed below (Figure I). Prior to making a purchasing decision, buyers identify the issue, search for pertinent information, and assess available options.

Figure 1 depicts the five steps of the buying procedure (Dewey, 2012).

This study extends the research of Kwong and Balaji (2016) by analyzing if customers are dubious about Adidas and Nike's green footwear offerings (Appendix 2). Consequently, the following alternative hypothesis (H3) was developed:

The cynicism of consumers towards CSR efforts influences their decision to purchase green sneakers.

Conceptual Model

The conceptual model depicted in Figure 2 demonstrates that consumer mistrust influences CSR skepticism, which in turn effects WOM (H1), firms' reputation (H2), and purchase choice (H3) (H3). According to the conceptual model, CSR skepticism is the independent variable associated with customer mistrust. CSR skepticism, as the independent variable, influences WOM, firms' reputation, and buying decisions.

Figure 2: Conceptual model (Kwong & Balaji, 2016). Research Concerns

How does customer mistrust regarding CSR policies (of Adidas & Nike) influence the consumer's buying decision and unfavorable WOM intention in the shoe industry?

The following are specific research questions aligned with hypotheses:

What is the relationship between customer mistrust and their skepticism of the shoes industry's CSR practices? How does customer concern regarding CSR activities affect WOM among shoe buyers? How can consumer mistrust regarding CSR practices impact the reputation of businesses? How does consumer skepticism regarding CSR practices affect the green purchasing behavior of sneaker purchasers?

Methodology

Data Gathering

This quantitative study will examine attitudes, behaviors, and other characteristics among a large sample population (DeFranzo, 2011). In addition, a quantitative method will determine the perceptions of samples on the variable ‘consumer skepticism on CSR practices’, which is related to the barrier “distrust” identified in the literature review. The two shoemakers (Adidas and Nike) and their sustainability lines of green sneakers (‘BCI’, ‘P-BF’, and ‘FSI’, ‘ASI’) will be the primary emphasis.

These lines will be evaluated by consumers in the sneaker segment based on their level of skepticism towards CSR practices and the extent to which these variables influence their purchase choice and WOM intention of green sneakers. Using a cross-sectional survey, these relationships will be determined. The survey questions, which will include multiple-choice questions, will be developed using the online tool "Thesis tools Pro" and distributed via social media and Dutch universities.

The questionnaire will be distributed to participants via social media channels using the internet tool SurveyMonkey, and the collected data can be analyzed using SPSS software (Collis & Hussey, 2014). This study identifies Facebook messaging and WhatsApp as the most popular social media channels in the Netherlands (Statista, 2019). (Appendix 3).

Population and Selection

This survey's target demographic consists of young Dutch customers between the ages of 18 and 35; however, they can be of any country. Between 18 and 35-year-olds are the most adaptable to change and the most enthusiastic about keeping up with the current fashion trends (Farsang, 2014). According to demographics, the population of the Netherlands between the ages of 16 and 35 is around 4 million (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2018), which is too enormous to analyze.

With a population of 4 million, a margin of error of 5 percentage points, and a 95 percent confidence interval, the sample size should be at least 384 respondents (Jani, 2014). The author will attempt to communicate with at least 400 responses. Contact will be made with participants using a random selection technique. Through social media networks, participants will receive a link to the online questionnaire.

Data Analysis

After cleaning data using Excel, the data will be entered into SPSS software to manage the survey results analysis. T-test, one-way ANOVA, and multiple regression are inferential statistics that will be used to evaluate the questionnaire-collected data. The control variables will be the demographic factors. These variables will be studied since prior research indicated that they contribute significantly to purchasing decisions (Joshi & Rahman, 2015). The T-test and one-way ANOVA will be utilized to examine the demographic impact.

Multiple regression will be employed to determine whether the independent factors have an impact on the dependent variables (Mertler & Reinhart, 2017). This will allow the author to determine if customers' skepticism regarding CSR activities in the shoe business effects WOM, firms' reputation, and green purchase decisions.

Validity and Trustworthiness

To ensure validity, the study would employ well-designed questionnaires with pertinent questions and a sufficient breadth. According to Trochim, Donnelly, and Arora (2016), researchers must assure the content, criteria, and construct validity of surveys. In order to attain content validity, the study will seek expert assessment of the research instrument prior to administering it to respondents to verify that it has been thoroughly validated.

The Case Of The Adidas And Nike Sneakers Market Need Essay Help

Abstract

Different businesses have placed a significant emphasis on sustainable practices over the past two decades. In 2017, fifty percent of the top one hundred fashion firms established a sustainability strategy (McKinsey, 2017). Sustainability is emphasized within the fashion industry's social and environmental movements. In contrast, emphasis on sustainability from the consumer's standpoint has become a subject of general concern. Constantly, consumers are drawn to businesses with transparently sustainable methods and products. Yet, corporations have persistently failed to maintain their socially responsible image in the public eye.

Widespread social worry that businesses are broadcasting false or confusing environmental information has resulted in an increase in customer skepticism regarding the environmental performance and advantages of green products. Previous study has contemplated how skepticism may negatively impact consumer responses (Annamma, Sherry, Venkatesh, Wang, & Chan, 2012). Other research have identified a number of obstacles that consumers may encounter when purchasing sustainable items. Therefore, a greater understanding of how skepticism influences green purchasing behavior is required (Wunker, 2017).

This study will identify consumer perception barriers to green purchasing behavior and investigate the impact of these barriers on corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. Moreover, customer perception influences the purchase attitudes of consumers. This study focuses on consumer perceptions regarding purchasing decisions and intent to spread the word. In order to define the scope of this study, the target population will consist of young consumers (aged 18 to 35) who reside in the Netherlands and purchase Nike and Adidas sneakers. Quantitative questionnaires will be utilized to obtain primary data, which will then be analyzed using SPSS software.

Introduction

Research Background

Over the past two decades, sustainability in business has garnered a great deal of interest from academics and practitioners in industries across the globe (Turker & Altuntas, 2014). Although the topic has generated much controversy, the vast majority of firms consider sustainability crucial to their operations. The three components of sustainability that address social, economic, and environmental challenges are referred to as the Triple-Bottom-Line (Govindan, Khodaverdi, & Jafarian, 2013). Firms must build Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) plans that integrate environmental, social, and ethical rights into company operations in order to produce a more sustainable corporation.

The affiliation of a firm with environmental concerns determines its reputation (Caplan, 2003). As a result, an increasing number of fashion companies are addressing sustainability (Choi & Cheng, 2015). Adidas and Nike, for example, have made significant strides. Adidas has built a cleaner supply chain, eliminated plastic bags, and participated in a variety of environmental initiatives. Their partnership with Parley enables Adidas to manufacture innovative goods from recycled ocean trash and yarn (Ismael, 2018). Nike, on the other hand, is committed to sustainability by lowering the amount of pollutants discharged from their production lines.

Utilizing the Considered Index, designers may monitor the environmental impact of a shoe throughout the design process. Adidas's plan included the introduction of the Better Cotton Initiative (BCI) and Plant-Based Footwear (P-BF), which enhanced their CSR perception. In addition, Nike implemented the Footwear Sustainability Index (FSI) and Air-Sole Innovation (ASI) to measure the environmental impact of every product (Appendix 1).

As a result of their commitment to sustainability, these businesses have attracted a considerable number of devoted customers (McKinsey, 2017). According to CGS studies, brand loyalty is tied to product quality, but sustainable practices are the second-highest reason consumers return to a given brand (Sungchul & Ng, 2011). Thus, fashion companies can compete strongly in their respective markets by incorporating sustainability into their business strategies.

Several obstacles influence the purchasing decisions of sustainable products. Skepticism is one of the obstacles that prevent consumers from purchasing green products (Wunker) (2017). Consumer skepticism is described as "the tendency of consumers to question any aspect of a company's activities" (Morel & Pruyn, 2003, p. 352). When businesses disseminate unclear environmental information regarding their sustainability plan and environmental performance, consumer distrust emerges. A research by Yiridoe, Bonti-Ankomah, and Martin (2005) revealed that mislabeling, misinterpretation, and misrepresentation of green products contribute to consumer distrust. Thus, even if consumers desire to purchase green items, their cynicism over environmental performance may prevent them from doing so.

A crucial part of CSR is avoiding skepticism (Fuentes, 2018). Kwong and Balaji (2016) argue that skepticism negatively affects customer buying intentions. Yet, a greater knowledge of how skepticism affects the green purchase decision is required. Fashion companies must overcome consumer cynicism because it can impact consumers' purchase decisions, putting them at a disadvantage.

Problem Statement

As the level of competition among shoemakers increases (World Trade Organization, 2018), a rising number of businesses implement sustainable methods. Recent research indicates, however, that consumers may not be inclined to purchase green items due to their mistrust (Joshi & Rahman, 2015). According to Bronn and Vrioni (2001), customer distrust is increasing as more companies engage in CSR. When consumers mistrust the greenness of a company's products, they may switch to other brands or disseminate negative word-of-mouth (WOM), so damaging the company's reputation (Shim & Yang, 2016; Zeynep & Atik, 2015).

According to the latter, businesses must alter this "negative attitude" in customer conduct. However, this presents a dilemma for fashion firms, particularly Nike and Adidas, as their procedures must be communicated to consumers without provoking mistrust.

Research Objective

This report aims to investigate how consumers perceive the sustainability practices of Adidas and Nike. This paper seeks to elucidate how customers perceive these tactics to affect their purchase behavior. Insights gained from consumers' "suspicion" can help enhance the CSR efforts of footwear firms such as Adidas and Nike.

Literature Review

Dimensions of Environmental

Sustainability is a crucial factor in modern success (Haanaes, 2016). Several big fashion businesses, notably Adidas and Nike, introduce sustainable efforts (Payseno, 2018). There are three important facets of sustainability, which are known as the triple bottom line (Govindan et al., 2013; Williams & Millington, 2004). According to Dahlsrud's (2008) research, there are numerous definitions of CSR. The term emphasizes social, environmental, and economic imperatives, a strategy known as the triple bottom line.

Impediments to Sustainable Consumption

Today's consumers recognize the significance of sustainability, yet a number of obstacles inhibit purchasing intent (Bonini & Oppenheim, 2008; Wunker, 2017). In addition, Joshi and Rahman's (2015) study revealed that there is a weak relationship between customers' green beliefs and their purchasing behavior, referred to as a "attitude-behavior gap." Morel and Pruyn (2003) characterized consumer skepticism toward CSR programs as the "tendency of consumers to question any aspect of a company's CSR activities" (p. 352). In addition, Webb and Mohr (1998) state that skepticism emerges when consumers doubt and mistrust a company's CSR practices. In order to overcome mistrust as a barrier, it is vital to gain an understanding of how customers view green fashion.

Unfaithfulness and CSR Perception

Since the second half of the 20th century, there has been a lengthy debate on CSR; since then, businesses have always included social responsibility as part of their sustainable practices (Rosenbaum & Wong, 2015). Customers are unable to discern whether organizations pursue sustainability for profit or out of a genuine desire to be sustainable. The source of skepticism is mistrust of advertising claims made by companies about their products (Obermiller & Spangenberg, 2013; Kwong & Balaji, 2016).

According to Morel and Pruyn (2003), mistrust is related to skepticism because, when consumers are doubtful, they doubt the information about the things they intend to buy. In this instance, advertisements by Adidas and Nike are susceptible to mistrust, resulting in "green skepticism" regarding CSR activities. Thus, the theoretical model indicates that customer mistrust is a strong predictor of CSR skepticism.

Perception of CSR and WOM

Customers' perceptions of CSR efforts are influenced by interactions between firms and customers. Effective connection between firms and customers, according to the dialogic theory, generates durable communication channels, reduces mistrust, and promotes the development of good WOM (Uysal, 2018). Therefore, businesses must reduce the amount of mistrust and skepticism among customers to prevent the propagation of bad WOM regarding their CSR operations (Servaes & Tamayo, 2013).

According to Wang, Wang, and Wang (2018), word of mouth consists of both good and negative words shared by customers or potential consumers that influence their view of the products and services given by companies. Prior research indicates that customer skepticism adds to bad WOM because it effects attitudes, purchasing intentions, and brand image (Balaji, Khong, & Chong, 2016; Skarmeas & Leonidou, 2013). In this instance, customer distrust influences the perception of CSR, leading to bad WOM. The consequence was the formulation of the following alternative hypothesis (H1):

Consumer suspicion over CSR practices is a predictor of negative WOM.

Perceptions of CSR and Firm Reputation

In corporations, reputation is crucial since it impacts the effectiveness of marketing strategies. According to the attribution theory, the reputation of an enterprise is influenced by how customers perceive, believe, and trust CSR practices (Chen & Chiu, 2018). According to Kim and Kim (2016), there is a complex relationship between business reputation and the perception of CSR practices. In essence, corporations' reputations in competitive markets depend on the sort of CSR initiatives they advocate. When customers mistrust CSR activities, they create a poor view of businesses and become skeptical.

Previous research has demonstrated that customer skepticism negatively affects how consumers view a company's reputation (Becker-Olsen, Cudmore, & Hill, 2006; Ellen, Webb, & Mohr, 2006; Elving, 2013). Consumers may perceive that businesses utilize CSR initiatives to increase revenues (Kim & Lee, 2009). Corporate reputation declines as a result of skepticism regarding the CSR operations of businesses (Shim & Yang, 2016). The second alternative hypothesis (H2) was therefore developed:

Consumer cynicism regarding CSR initiatives is a negative predictor of corporate reputation, according to Hypothesis 2.

CSR and Purchase Choice

According to Dawson (2006), purchasing behavior consists of attitudes that determine how customers choose things, select brands, and shop. A purchase decision is the outcome of each of these elements; therefore, it is beneficial for businesses to collect information about consumer preferences and use it to enhance their offers. Dewey (2012) determined that the purchasing procedure consists of the five steps listed below (Figure I). Prior to making a purchasing decision, buyers identify the issue, search for pertinent information, and assess available options.

Figure 1 depicts the five steps of the buying procedure (Dewey, 2012).

This study extends the research of Kwong and Balaji (2016) by analyzing if customers are dubious about Adidas and Nike's green footwear offerings (Appendix 2). Consequently, the following alternative hypothesis (H3) was developed:

The cynicism of consumers towards CSR efforts influences their decision to purchase green sneakers.

Conceptual Model

The conceptual model depicted in Figure 2 demonstrates that consumer mistrust influences CSR skepticism, which in turn effects WOM (H1), firms' reputation (H2), and purchase choice (H3) (H3). According to the conceptual model, CSR skepticism is the independent variable associated with customer mistrust. CSR skepticism, as the independent variable, influences WOM, firms' reputation, and buying decisions.

Figure 2: Conceptual model (Kwong & Balaji, 2016). Research Concerns

How does customer mistrust regarding CSR policies (of Adidas & Nike) influence the consumer's buying decision and unfavorable WOM intention in the shoe industry?

The following are specific research questions aligned with hypotheses:

What is the relationship between customer mistrust and their skepticism of the shoes industry's CSR practices? How does customer concern regarding CSR activities affect WOM among shoe buyers? How can consumer mistrust regarding CSR practices impact the reputation of businesses? How does consumer skepticism regarding CSR practices affect the green purchasing behavior of sneaker purchasers?

Methodology

Data Gathering

This quantitative study will examine attitudes, behaviors, and other characteristics among a large sample population (DeFranzo, 2011). In addition, a quantitative method will determine the perceptions of samples on the variable ‘consumer skepticism on CSR practices’, which is related to the barrier “distrust” identified in the literature review. The two shoemakers (Adidas and Nike) and their sustainability lines of green sneakers (‘BCI’, ‘P-BF’, and ‘FSI’, ‘ASI’) will be the primary emphasis.

These lines will be evaluated by consumers in the sneaker segment based on their level of skepticism towards CSR practices and the extent to which these variables influence their purchase choice and WOM intention of green sneakers. Using a cross-sectional survey, these relationships will be determined. The survey questions, which will include multiple-choice questions, will be developed using the online tool "Thesis tools Pro" and distributed via social media and Dutch universities.

The questionnaire will be distributed to participants via social media channels using the internet tool SurveyMonkey, and the collected data can be analyzed using SPSS software (Collis & Hussey, 2014). This study identifies Facebook messaging and WhatsApp as the most popular social media channels in the Netherlands (Statista, 2019). (Appendix 3).

Population and Selection

This survey's target demographic consists of young Dutch customers between the ages of 18 and 35; however, they can be of any country. Between 18 and 35-year-olds are the most adaptable to change and the most enthusiastic about keeping up with the current fashion trends (Farsang, 2014). According to demographics, the population of the Netherlands between the ages of 16 and 35 is around 4 million (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2018), which is too enormous to analyze.

With a population of 4 million, a margin of error of 5 percentage points, and a 95 percent confidence interval, the sample size should be at least 384 respondents (Jani, 2014). The author will attempt to communicate with at least 400 responses. Contact will be made with participants using a random selection technique. Through social media networks, participants will receive a link to the online questionnaire.

Data Analysis

After cleaning data using Excel, the data will be entered into SPSS software to manage the survey results analysis. T-test, one-way ANOVA, and multiple regression are inferential statistics that will be used to evaluate the questionnaire-collected data. The control variables will be the demographic factors. These variables will be studied since prior research indicated that they contribute significantly to purchasing decisions (Joshi & Rahman, 2015). The T-test and one-way ANOVA will be utilized to examine the demographic impact.

Multiple regression will be employed to determine whether the independent factors have an impact on the dependent variables (Mertler & Reinhart, 2017). This will allow the author to determine if customers' skepticism regarding CSR activities in the shoe business effects WOM, firms' reputation, and green purchase decisions.

Validity and Trustworthiness

To ensure validity, the study would employ well-designed questionnaires with pertinent questions and a sufficient breadth. According to Trochim, Donnelly, and Arora (2016), researchers must assure the content, criteria, and construct validity of surveys. In order to attain content validity, the study will seek expert assessment of the research instrument prior to administering it to respondents to verify that it has been thoroughly validated.

Coffee Shops: Differences In Products And Services Need Essay Help

Object of study

In recent years, coffee consumption has increased, resulting in a rapid expansion of coffee shops within the food service business. In an effort to gain a strong grasp on the market share in the coffee industry, the various industry participants have developed a variety of products and services to offer their clients. In addition, both independent and retail chain coffee establishments have implemented a campaign designed to educate their customers about the available coffee kinds. Consequently, coffee consumers in Australia have become more intelligent (AFP 2008, p. 2), and this has affected their assessment of the products and services offered by retail coffee establishments. Therefore, both the retail coffee chain and the independent players are marketing their locations through various means of advertising, such as television (Arnould, Price, and Zinkhan, 2004, p. 23). This demonstrates the growing level of competition in the retail coffee market (Scott 2006 p. 66). It also serves as a signal to foreign coffee chains to invest in Australia, as it indicates that the sector is seeing tremendous growth.

Methodological strategy and research aims

The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between the products and services offered by independent coffee merchants in Australia, on the one hand, and retail chains, on the other. The purpose of this study is to shed light on the services that these two industry leaders give and whether or not the distinctions in their service delivery could constitute their competitive advantage in an otherwise competitive market. In addition, the purpose of this study is to give additional light on the benefits that customers see when deciding between purchasing coffee from an independent retail store or a retail chain coffee outlet.

Consequently, the specific aims of this research are to assess the socio-demographic profile of coffee customers at both retail chain and independent coffee outlets. The second objective of this research is to investigate the perceived differences between independent coffee shop outlets and their retail chain equivalents with regard to relational benefits and determining features. Respondents will be given a self-administered and semi-structured questionnaire in order to assist the effective completion of this study. In this instance, the respondents to the questionnaire will be frequent consumers of the coffee shops chosen by the researcher.

The selection of these places will be conducted in a way that promotes diversity. The acquired data will subsequently be examined using statistical software such as Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and Microsoft Excel (MS Excel). The findings of the investigation shall be presented using statistics tables and bar graphs. Finally, the research findings will be examined in relation to the existing literature on the same topic, opening the way for a conclusion and recommendations to better inform future relevant investigations.

Literature review

Loyalty applications

The vast majority of coffee businesses have adopted reward programs as a means of recruiting loyal consumers. Not only can loyalty programs facilitate the formation of a special relationship between a firm and its consumers (Euromonitor International 2009, p. 3), but they are also designed to encourage repeat business from customers. According to Meyer and Waarden (2007, p. 225), loyalty programs substantially lower customers' propensity to migrate from one business to another.

In order to attract customers, business owners, in this case the proprietors of coffee shop outlets, provide their clients with loyalty cards that allow them to accrue points based on their purchases. Consequently, if a customer decides to move brands, they will also forfeit the points they have accrued, preventing them from redeeming them for other rewards that may be available. Moreover, loyalty programs demonstrate to customers that they are valued (Lewis 2008, p. 3), thereby strengthening the link between customers and coffee shop owners.

affecting secondary motivation

The category of conscious secondary motivators has been established. In addition, secondary motivators may be extrinsic or intrinsic. By extrinsic, it is meant that the concept of rewarded action is included. In the context of a coffee shop, an incentive program could be considered an intrinsic motivator for repeat consumers. Intrinsic motivators, on the other hand, are those that originate from within an individual. Simply said, this is what motivates a person. In addition to personal experience, it is important to recognize that secondary motivators typically require a high level of socializing. Due to shifting lifestyle habits, coffee consumption has become more of a lifestyle, and both chain coffee shops and their independent counterparts are aware of this. As a result of the personal development experience, individuals will want to be associated with a particular coffee shop and not others, and this will affect their choice of the coffee shop they frequent most frequently. Due to shifting lifestyle patterns and a more affluent population, the majority of coffee manufacturers have found it vital to educate consumers on the numerous products they offer through promotions such as discounts and loyalty cards. In addition, coffee shops host numerous coffee festivals, such as the Sydney, Australia-based Aroma Coffee Festival.

courteous employees

The level of friendliness of a coffee shop's personnel will influence the frequency with which consumers frequent that establishment (Smith 2008 par. 4). At a coffee shop with nice personnel, customers feel valued and appreciated. In addition, first impressions are permanent, so how a consumer is treated the first time they visit a certain coffee shop may influence whether or not they will return. The bulk of independent coffee businesses lack the financial means to advertise on par with retail chains. Therefore, the quality of service they provide to customers becomes their most valuable asset.

Conceptual structure and hypothesis formulation

Both individual coffee shops and retail coffee chains have used loyalty programs designed to retain and reward loyal consumers in order to enhance business revenues. In order for coffee businesses to generate greater money, they must be able to raise the rate at which their customers consume coffee. Consequently, loyalty programs function by preventing existing customers from switching coffee shops. If customers are pleased with the service they receive and the quality of the coffee, not only are they likely to return, but they are also likely to bring their friends, which will result in increased coffee consumption and additional money for the coffee shop. Additionally, it is essential that the staff at a coffee shop be friendly so that customers feel appreciated and return. However, it is not sufficient for coffee shops to adopt customer loyalty programs if they do not also ensure that their workers are friendly.

According to Banasiewicz (2005, p. 234), a loyalty program has the capacity to influence consumer behavior by encouraging people to return to a certain organization. In addition, a pleasant environment created by the personnel guarantees that customers are calm and content. Given that the coffee chain can promote and is therefore better known than the small coffee shops, it would be prudent if the independent coffee shops created a loyalty program to not only attract but also keep their consumers.

Methodology

A semi-structured and self-administered questionnaire will be utilized to collect data for the study. The subjects of the study will be customers who visit both independent and chain coffee shops. Ethical considerations must be adhered to throughout the entirety of the study's execution. In this instance, consent must be obtained from both the management of the designated retail coffee shops and the subjects themselves. The acquired data shall be analyzed using statistical data analysis tools such as SPSS and MS Excel.

Project management

This research project will be conducted by a student enrolled in the Master of Business Administration program at Victoria University. This research will be conducted as part of the student's master of business administration degree requirements. This researcher will enlist the assistance of two bachelor's degree-qualified research assistants in order to expedite the investigation. In addition, the researcher must regularly seek the guidance and direction of the supervisor to ensure that the study is both timely and relevant.

References

AFP (2008): "Coffee culture grinds the Australian operation of Starbucks." Web.

Arnould, E., L. Price, and G. Zinkhan (2004). Consumers (2nd Ed). Irwin McGraw-Hill.

Banasiewicz, A. (2005). Loyalty program strategy and analytics. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22(6), pp. 332-239.

According to Euromonitor International (2009), specialty coffee shops in Australia are expanding rapidly. Web.

Lewis, K. (2008). "The Importance of Coffee Shop Service and Quality." Web.

Meyer, L., and M. Waarden. 2007. "The effect of loyalty program on customer, lifetime duration, and share of wallet." Journal of Retailing, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 223–236.

Scottish café society: modern consumer challenges and lifestyle identities.

Smith, J., "New Wave Coffee," (2008). Web.

[supanova question]

Coffee Shops: Differences In Products And Services Need Essay Help

Object of study

In recent years, coffee consumption has increased, resulting in a rapid expansion of coffee shops within the food service business. In an effort to gain a strong grasp on the market share in the coffee industry, the various industry participants have developed a variety of products and services to offer their clients. In addition, both independent and retail chain coffee establishments have implemented a campaign designed to educate their customers about the available coffee kinds. Consequently, coffee consumers in Australia have become more intelligent (AFP 2008, p. 2), and this has affected their assessment of the products and services offered by retail coffee establishments. Therefore, both the retail coffee chain and the independent players are marketing their locations through various means of advertising, such as television (Arnould, Price, and Zinkhan, 2004, p. 23). This demonstrates the growing level of competition in the retail coffee market (Scott 2006 p. 66). It also serves as a signal to foreign coffee chains to invest in Australia, as it indicates that the sector is seeing tremendous growth.

Methodological strategy and research aims

The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between the products and services offered by independent coffee merchants in Australia, on the one hand, and retail chains, on the other. The purpose of this study is to shed light on the services that these two industry leaders give and whether or not the distinctions in their service delivery could constitute their competitive advantage in an otherwise competitive market. In addition, the purpose of this study is to give additional light on the benefits that customers see when deciding between purchasing coffee from an independent retail store or a retail chain coffee outlet.

Consequently, the specific aims of this research are to assess the socio-demographic profile of coffee customers at both retail chain and independent coffee outlets. The second objective of this research is to investigate the perceived differences between independent coffee shop outlets and their retail chain equivalents with regard to relational benefits and determining features. Respondents will be given a self-administered and semi-structured questionnaire in order to assist the effective completion of this study. In this instance, the respondents to the questionnaire will be frequent consumers of the coffee shops chosen by the researcher.

The selection of these places will be conducted in a way that promotes diversity. The acquired data will subsequently be examined using statistical software such as Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and Microsoft Excel (MS Excel). The findings of the investigation shall be presented using statistics tables and bar graphs. Finally, the research findings will be examined in relation to the existing literature on the same topic, opening the way for a conclusion and recommendations to better inform future relevant investigations.

Literature review

Loyalty applications

The vast majority of coffee businesses have adopted reward programs as a means of recruiting loyal consumers. Not only can loyalty programs facilitate the formation of a special relationship between a firm and its consumers (Euromonitor International 2009, p. 3), but they are also designed to encourage repeat business from customers. According to Meyer and Waarden (2007, p. 225), loyalty programs substantially lower customers' propensity to migrate from one business to another.

In order to attract customers, business owners, in this case the proprietors of coffee shop outlets, provide their clients with loyalty cards that allow them to accrue points based on their purchases. Consequently, if a customer decides to move brands, they will also forfeit the points they have accrued, preventing them from redeeming them for other rewards that may be available. Moreover, loyalty programs demonstrate to customers that they are valued (Lewis 2008, p. 3), thereby strengthening the link between customers and coffee shop owners.

affecting secondary motivation

The category of conscious secondary motivators has been established. In addition, secondary motivators may be extrinsic or intrinsic. By extrinsic, it is meant that the concept of rewarded action is included. In the context of a coffee shop, an incentive program could be considered an intrinsic motivator for repeat consumers. Intrinsic motivators, on the other hand, are those that originate from within an individual. Simply said, this is what motivates a person. In addition to personal experience, it is important to recognize that secondary motivators typically require a high level of socializing. Due to shifting lifestyle habits, coffee consumption has become more of a lifestyle, and both chain coffee shops and their independent counterparts are aware of this. As a result of the personal development experience, individuals will want to be associated with a particular coffee shop and not others, and this will affect their choice of the coffee shop they frequent most frequently. Due to shifting lifestyle patterns and a more affluent population, the majority of coffee manufacturers have found it vital to educate consumers on the numerous products they offer through promotions such as discounts and loyalty cards. In addition, coffee shops host numerous coffee festivals, such as the Sydney, Australia-based Aroma Coffee Festival.

courteous employees

The level of friendliness of a coffee shop's personnel will influence the frequency with which consumers frequent that establishment (Smith 2008 par. 4). At a coffee shop with nice personnel, customers feel valued and appreciated. In addition, first impressions are permanent, so how a consumer is treated the first time they visit a certain coffee shop may influence whether or not they will return. The bulk of independent coffee businesses lack the financial means to advertise on par with retail chains. Therefore, the quality of service they provide to customers becomes their most valuable asset.

Conceptual structure and hypothesis formulation

Both individual coffee shops and retail coffee chains have used loyalty programs designed to retain and reward loyal consumers in order to enhance business revenues. In order for coffee businesses to generate greater money, they must be able to raise the rate at which their customers consume coffee. Consequently, loyalty programs function by preventing existing customers from switching coffee shops. If customers are pleased with the service they receive and the quality of the coffee, not only are they likely to return, but they are also likely to bring their friends, which will result in increased coffee consumption and additional money for the coffee shop. Additionally, it is essential that the staff at a coffee shop be friendly so that customers feel appreciated and return. However, it is not sufficient for coffee shops to adopt customer loyalty programs if they do not also ensure that their workers are friendly.

According to Banasiewicz (2005, p. 234), a loyalty program has the capacity to influence consumer behavior by encouraging people to return to a certain organization. In addition, a pleasant environment created by the personnel guarantees that customers are calm and content. Given that the coffee chain can promote and is therefore better known than the small coffee shops, it would be prudent if the independent coffee shops created a loyalty program to not only attract but also keep their consumers.

Methodology

A semi-structured and self-administered questionnaire will be utilized to collect data for the study. The subjects of the study will be customers who visit both independent and chain coffee shops. Ethical considerations must be adhered to throughout the entirety of the study's execution. In this instance, consent must be obtained from both the management of the designated retail coffee shops and the subjects themselves. The acquired data shall be analyzed using statistical data analysis tools such as SPSS and MS Excel.

Project management

This research project will be conducted by a student enrolled in the Master of Business Administration program at Victoria University. This research will be conducted as part of the student's master of business administration degree requirements. This researcher will enlist the assistance of two bachelor's degree-qualified research assistants in order to expedite the investigation. In addition, the researcher must regularly seek the guidance and direction of the supervisor to ensure that the study is both timely and relevant.

References

AFP (2008): "Coffee culture grinds the Australian operation of Starbucks." Web.

Arnould, E., L. Price, and G. Zinkhan (2004). Consumers (2nd Ed). Irwin McGraw-Hill.

Banasiewicz, A. (2005). Loyalty program strategy and analytics. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22(6), pp. 332-239.

According to Euromonitor International (2009), specialty coffee shops in Australia are expanding rapidly. Web.

Lewis, K. (2008). "The Importance of Coffee Shop Service and Quality." Web.

Meyer, L., and M. Waarden. 2007. "The effect of loyalty program on customer, lifetime duration, and share of wallet." Journal of Retailing, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 223–236.

Scottish café society: modern consumer challenges and lifestyle identities.

Smith, J., "New Wave Coffee," (2008). Web.

[supanova question]

Employee Handbook And Human Resources Trends Need Essay Help

Development of the Primary Solution

The fundamental solution for this project is a comprehensive reform of HR strategies and procedures at Belmont Village, based on internal research. The research will analyze the existing management strategy, workforce organization, and patient quality levels, as well as collect data on the variables influencing employees' plans to quit.

The research will need the management to devise a plan for retaining current employees and recruiting new professionals. The research will necessitate at least four critical steps in order to provide comprehensive data that would permit drawing conclusions on the desired methodology.

Initially, it is required to do a historical study of the organizational changes that occurred before to the onset of the period of high turnover. Even new employees depart shortly after completing their orientation, indicating that organizational structure or management flaws are most likely the root cause of the high turnover rate. Given that the issue has grown prevalent in the past four months, it is evident that a change within the company drove the employee turnover.

By studying the chronological chronology of the organizational changes over the past year, it would be feasible to identify new rules, practices, or other changes that have contributed to increased employee turnover rates.

Second, the team would need to evaluate the current HR processes and organizational procedures at Belmont Village. The data obtained as part of the second step should include information on how staff at various levels is managed, the organizational structure of the organization, the management theories used to support HR practices, and the components of the benefits package, among other things. This information would represent the organization's perspective on its HR management, which would be useful in building a research-based solution.

Finally, it is essential to collect and assess the employees' perspectives on Belmont Village's management procedures and activities. This portion of the research should consist of anonymous questionnaires to be completed by all employees, allowing them to voice their opinions without fear of reprisal. The survey should focus on the potential causes of high turnover found in the literature review, such as burnout, workload, job satisfaction, empowerment, and other predictors. This phase of the research would offer the company with the employees' perspective on the situation, which would be useful for planning the new approach to management.

The second element of the proposed solution is to examine the information gained from internal research in order to discover common patterns and concerns, and to change the current management strategy in order to minimize the problems that may have produced high turnover in the first place. This should be accompanied by the development of a new recruitment strategy to attract new employees: for example, an increased benefits package or flexible scheduling choices could be attractive to prospective employees.

Different Approach

Although the primary solution will produce certain outcomes, it is costly and time-consuming because it demands substantial research and a number of adjustments to the current administration and operations. Promoting management techniques that boost employee engagement and job happiness as well as introducing new recruitment strategies that would attract a varied range of new employees to ensure higher rates of employee retention is a potential alternative option that is likely to be effective.

For instance, giving part-time roles would allow the business to attract nursing students, so reducing the workload of full-time employees. In addition, part-time employees may be able to transition to full-time positions as they develop experience and fulfill other obligations. On the other hand, employee empowerment can boost employee engagement. Establishing quality circles, for instance, would provide management with insight into the workforce issues that may be causing high turnover, while also fostering a greater sense of appreciation among employees. Overall, implementing these simple changes could help the corporation avoid extensive organizational modifications while simultaneously reducing turnover.

Focus on Theory

The primary emphasis of the project is on management and HR theories that boost employee retention and motivation. For instance, the principal solution is based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory and the job characteristics model created by Hackman and Oldham. According to Maslow, excessive turnover is caused by the unfulfillment of some employees' needs, which decreases their job happiness and motivation.

Belmont Village may be affected by a variety of requirements. For example, if working conditions are unsuitable (task overload, short rest intervals), this affects the workers' fundamental security needs. However, if the work environment or the connections between coworkers are poor, this has a negative impact on the social requirements of employees. In addition, the job's particular traits can make it undesirable for workers.

According to Hackman and Oldham, the work should possess five essential features, including task identification and relevance, skill diversity, feedback, and autonomy. If these attributes are weak or inadequate, work satisfaction will suffer and turnover rates will rise. Consequently, the principal solution is based on these theories and seeks to identify the specific holes in the organization's practical structure that need to be rectified.

Similarly, the alternative solution is founded on the theories of Maslow and Hackman and Oldham, since it focuses on fixing the identified gaps in management procedures to guarantee that all employees' needs and job preferences are met. Moreover, the alternate method suggests the implementation of quality circles. Although they were originally designed as a quality control tool, they are suitable to Belmont Village since they would let employees to participate in HR decisions, so improving their involvement and empowerment.

Regarding the proposed remedies, there are few ethical considerations that must be evaluated. The fundamental objective of the procedures that will aid in reducing employee turnover is to eradicate worker difficulties such as increasing stress, lack of empowerment, and low morale. Both the quality of care and employee work satisfaction will increase as a result of the proposals. When assessed with the Four Lens approach, the decisions made as part of the solution are most advantageous for all stakeholders and involve minimum risks or negative outcomes. Creation of quality circles is a possible ethical concern.

Typically, the circles consist of a small number of people, which may leave some employees feeling excluded. According to the equity hypothesis of John Stacey Adams, this may cause other employees to feel unfairly treated, especially if they believe they have greater experience or knowledge required to participate. The growth of the benefits package, which would necessitate an increase in HR expenditure, poses an additional ethical challenge.

Especially if management decides to reduce service costs, this may have an effect on the quality of treatment. Lastly, flexible scheduling may potentially have unintended outcomes. For instance, it may result in some shifts being understaffed, necessitating the hiring of more part-time employees with less experience delivering high-quality care. In order to strike a balance between these ethical issues, the administration will need to examine the risks associated with each action and identify strategies to mitigate their impact on the quality of care.

Key Issues Analysis

As a consequence of the literature review, four concerns were found as having a positive link with employee turnover: employee engagement, empowerment, job satisfaction, and workload-related difficulties like stress and burnout. These difficulties are not only organizational but also ethical, as they contradict the demands of employees and endanger the quality of services provided to patients.

Employment Pleasure

Low job satisfaction is one of the most important predictors of turnover intentions, according to Cicolini, Comparcini, and Simonetti (2014). In most industry sectors, low job satisfaction is connected with poor performance and service quality. It may be useful to forecast employees' intentions to leave their jobs if their levels of job satisfaction are analyzed. In addition, it can help identify the most urgent improvement areas that must be addressed immediately to prevent the loss of other staff.

Employee Engagement

Employee engagement describes the workers' affiliation with the organization and outlines their sense of worth and belonging. Promoting employee engagement has long been considered as a beneficial method for boosting productivity; but, it may also be used to encourage staff retention and reduce turnover rates. Although engagement techniques alone would not solve the problem of high turnover at Belmont Village, they could have a moderating effect (Collini, Guidroz, & Perez, 2015), affording the organization more time to address the underlying issues and causes of high turnover.

Empowerment

Empowerment was highlighted as one of the most important techniques for reducing turnover rates (Currie & Hill, 2012; Cicolini et al., 2014). First, some empowerment initiatives, such as a shared governance model and quality circles, allow employees to engage in decision-making and contribute their own answers to the organization's problems. In situations when there is a high rate of employee turnover, the employee perspective is particularly important, as it enables management to build an innovative solution to the problem based on the workers' opinions and suggestions.

Secondly, empowerment contributes to a sense of responsibility, which in turn motivates employees to improve service quality. Moreover, allowing the workers to execute other tasks might strengthen their experience and skills, making them potential candidates for future managing or leadership vacancies.

Concerns Related to Workload

The increased workload is both a result and a cause of high turnover, making it one of the most important concerns that Belmont Village must address with its plan. In most cases, a high workload is accompanied by additional issues that influence the intention to leave the company. According to Laschinger (2012), for instance, burnout and emotional weariness might result in greater turnover rates. Increased levels of stress are also among the workload-related factors that might lead to retention concerns in medical companies (Currie & Hill, 2012). Depression is also a crucial aspect to consider in research and solution implementation, as it is pervasive and contributes to higher employee turnover (Chiang & Chang, 2012).

References

Chiang, Y. M., & Chang, Y. (2012). Stress, depression, and intention to leave among nurses in various hospital units: Implications for healthcare administration and nursing practice. 108(2), 149-157. Health Policy.

Cicolini, G., Comparcini, D., & Simonetti, V. (2014). A systematic evaluation of the literature on workplace empowerment and nurses' job satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Administration, 22(7), 855-871.

Collini, S. A., Guidroz, A. M., & Perez, L. M. (2015). The moderating effects of employee engagement on turnover in health care 23(2), pp. 169-178, in Journal of Nursing Management.

E. J. Currie and R. A. C. Hill (2012). What factors contribute to nursing's high turnover rate? A discussion of presumed causative causes and treatment options. 49(9):1180-1189 in International Journal of Nursing Studies.

Laschinger, H. K. S. (2012). Newly graduated nurses' job and career satisfaction and turnover intentions. 20(4), pages 472-484, in Journal of Nursing Management.

[supanova question]

Effective Leadership And Its Importance In Business Need Essay Help

Kathy Smith perceived herself to be a competent and accountable project manager. After completing the new assignment, she was keen to receive a promotion within her organization. However, from the perspective of her new team, her approach was too authoritative; she did not value or consider their input on the project. Due to her egocentricity, Kathy failed to engage with the new team and recognize her group members as individuals. Her lack of emotional intelligence impeded her ability to attain the intended outcome.

The ability of a manager to govern and handle the interpersonal interactions of a group is crucial to executive effectiveness (Holmberg et al., 2016). Leaders must adapt to new situations, be more flexible, and utilize general skills. Managers apply a variety of leadership styles to generate greater employee commitment and performance. Emotional intelligence is the capacity to evaluate and control intragroup and intergroup emotions. A leader's ability to detect and sustain a team's ideal emotional state is essential for achieving high team performance (Alkahtani, 2015). Even those with the most exceptional leadership abilities might fail to advance in their careers without emotional intelligence.

Failure was inevitable due to a mismatch between the manager's requirements and expectations and the group members' capabilities and work ethic, which led to the segmentation of teamwork. Kathy had the potential to achieve due to her honesty and drive, but her specific skills were useless and unsuccessful for this assignment. She was incapable of recognizing and managing the organizational environment. Instead of adjusting the strategy and approaching the issue from a different aspect, it was a grave error to push the team even harder. In this situation, a leader with emotional intelligence would have demonstrated awareness, empathy, and individualized consideration.

Emotional Intelligence Dimensions in Project Management

Emotional intelligence is the ability to recognize and manage one's own emotions and emotional information, as well as those of others. Five components of emotional intelligence were identified by Daniel Goleman: self-awareness, self-regulation, self-motivation, empathy, and social competence (Ugoani et al., 2015). Self-awareness is an introspective perspective on one's emotions and the capacity to comprehend one's own strengths and flaws. A leader must comprehend and examine their personality and how it affects the team in order to make the required adjustments to decision-making. Self-regulation is the capacity of an individual to regulate their emotions and focus on the work at hand. Self-motivation is the desire to achieve success and overcome obstacles with a clear objective in mind. Empathy is the recognition and acknowledgment of the feelings of group members. A effective leader identifies with their people and cultivates great relationships with them. Social management is the capacity to connect with and listen to each group member, discuss differing ideas, and develop a common ground.

Kathy's strengths lie in her self-motivation and self-control. She lacked self-awareness since she was confident in her qualities and abilities, but could not perceive the unfavorable attitude of the new group towards her. Overall, the leader lacked empathy for the team and did not acknowledge the superiority of the group over self. The employees felt pushed and unmotivated under the new work environment because Kathy did not value their thoughts or build a team bond. She had weak social skills in this instance; she was overly focused on success and underappreciated the significance of interpersonal communication. The leader acted in her own self-interest and did not accord the team equal weight.

Consequences of Ineffective Management

During my summer break, I interned in merchandising at a retail fashion store. Friendly and highly professional, the workplace offered a reasonable wage and valuable experience. Due to the management's understanding and friendliness, the period of adaption was uncomplicated. They scheduled regular meetings and debates in which every member of the group had the opportunity to express themselves, learn something new, and analyze ways for achieving improved performance.

Two months later, new stores were scheduled to open, and the management decided to disperse the interns among the new locations. My new group leader was a young female who, even to my untrained eyes, lacked leadership abilities. She lacked self-awareness and was unaware of the group's disapproval of her actions. She lacked empathy and social skills, and she never attempted to speak with or bond with her new teammates. Due to the novelty of the store, the management demanded a more concentrated and rigorous work schedule. However, the absence of emotional support drove the workers to their breaking point. As a result, many group members, including myself, left.

This case illustrates how the management squandered an opportunity for success by failing to assign a qualified leader to a newly launched store. Possessing a positive attitude and a great education is insufficient for leading a team to high performance. Leadership frequently lacks or disregards emotional intelligence, despite the fact that resilience and motivation are largely dependent on it. As a result of this experience, I have observed and studied crucial management factors that can only lead to success when each stage and dimension is implemented.

References

Alkahtani, A. H. (2015). The moderating effect of emotional intelligence on the effect of leadership styles on organizational commitment. Business and Management Studies, 2(1), 23-30. Web.

Holmberg, R., Larsson, M., & Backstrom, M. (2016). Developing leadership abilities and resiliency during times of turmoil. Management Development Journal, 35(2), 154-169. Web.

Ugoani, J. N. N., Amu, C. U., & Kalu, E. O. (2015). A correlation analysis of the dimensions of emotional intelligence and transformative leadership. Independent Journal of Management and Production, 6(2), pages 563 to 564. Web.

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MyBank: Change Management Need Essay Help

Introduction

Change management is essential to the growth and development of a firm. Hayes, (2007p.27) (2007p.27). Change is unavoidable if an organization is to achieve financial success. Change management frequently takes various forms and may involve multiple change contexts. Kotter (2005). According to Hayes (2007p.31), organizational change management is the process of adopting a planned strategy to organizational transformation. Hayes (2007, p.33) adds that "typically, the objective is to maximize the collective benefits for all parties involved in the change while minimizing the risk of failure associated with its implementation."

Change management is largely concerned with the human element of change. Hayes, (2007p.34) (2007p.34). "In this regard, it is prudent to note that the change management process is multidisciplinary and should encompass all facets of the organization or business" Hayes (2007p.35). "It is also essential to predict how a change will likely affect employee behavior patterns, work processes, technological requirements, and motivation," writes Hayes. (2007p.36).

In this regard, an organization's leadership should be watchful to guarantee that there is no opposition to change by ensuring that all employees are included in the adopted change. Nilekani and Ramnarayan (2006, p.58) note that change programs should be developed, communicated throughout the organization, monitored for effectiveness, and altered as needed. According to Nilakant and Ramnarayan (2006, p.73), “describes the change process to all concerned parties and explains why the changes are taking place.” "The information should be complete, impartial, trustworthy, transparent, and up-to-date." Nilakant, and Ramnarayan (2006 p.77). This article provides a concise analysis of MyBank's change management practices.

Change Models

According to ProSci (2005, p.26), "ProSci developed the ADKAR model for individual change management." ProSci, (2005, p.27) explains further that "This model describes five necessary building blocks for change to be successfully implemented at the individual level."

According to Prosci (2005), the ADKAR Model's basic blocks include:

Understanding – of why the change is necessary Desire – to support and engage in an organization's change Understanding – understanding how to alter Capacity – to adopt new skills and habits "Reinforcement – in order to maintain the change"

Kotter (2005) "has developed an eight-step change management strategy for organizations." These steps consist of:

Create a sense of urgency towards transformation. Create the change's leading coalition. Develop a change vision and strategy. Share the change vision with the entire organization. Empower everyone to take action on a big scale. Gain short-term success. Consolidate gains and generate further change. Integrate new methods into the culture.

Reference Kotter (2010)

The notion of adaptation to change and stress

The transformation process typically elicits a variety of responses inside an organization. These behaviors and reactions to change might be favorable or unpleasant. Towards this end, the leadership of a company and another change agent should consider the necessity to address the change problems adequately. accordance with (Hayes 2007 p.147).

As we age, our ability to accept new information and change tends to diminish. Nevertheless, the world around us is evolving at an accelerating rate. Thus, we must continually adjust to current and shifting challenges. Several factors influence how we react to the changes and whether or not we have a stress reaction.

Regarding the grieving process, some change models refer to the graphic below, which is based on Kubler-original Ross's research. When examining responses to change, it appears that humans do, to some extent, follow this curve.

Change Agents inside an organisation

Industry development

Typically, evolution produces novel methods of accomplishing things. In order to do this, businesses in a certain industry, such as the banking industry, must adapt the changes that industry evolution has wrought. In this instance, industry evolution is a factor requiring an organization to embrace change.

Economic Cycle

According to Mullineux (1984), economic development and growth are essential components of a healthy economy. Utilizing economic indicators is necessary for evaluating the state of the economy. ” Economic indicators are categorized into numerous groups. This classification facilitates the economic understanding of the business cycle. The business cycle necessitates alterations in a company's operations. In this instance, the business cycle will require MyBank to adopt a change in order to adapt to the market's prevailing economic conditions. For instance, a recession will prompt an organization to adopt modifications that not only save expenses but also adhere to the market's economic conditions.

Competitive Structure

Competition is an excellent motivator for change within a business. In this instance, competition in the market or industry will prompt a company's transformation. MyBank will have little options other than to embrace change in its operations.

Norms and practices

Not only do rules and procedure control the operation of corporations and organizations in the sector, but they also outline the registration requirements for a certain company. Considering the frequency with which these rules and procedures are updated, it is advisable for a company to be adaptable in order to comply with rules and regulations.

Global Economic Situation

The economic climate is always a driver of change. For instance, a global credit crunch may compel a firm to embrace a move that not only increases efficiency but also reduces costs to ensure profitability. These methods may involve downsizing.

Market Needs

One of the change drivers in a company is market demand. Companies and organizations typically respond to market requirements. In order to maintain the company's continued market viability, transformation is unavoidable.

Alter constraints

Poor employee adaptability to change

A negative attitude toward change inhibits an organization's transition process. This requires employee education to provide them with a positive attitude toward organizational transformation.

How to trigger –field Diagram functionality

The Force-Field Diagram works by first finding pro and con arguments and then arranging and expressing them visually in a diagram, as seen below. Each argument is represented by an arrow pointing in either the ‘for’ or ‘against’ direction. Each of these arguments may also carry varied weight; for instance, the fact that an outdated machine frequently breaks down may carry more weight than reports that it is simple to repair. This is emphasized by use longer arrows for more crucial points.

Diagram of Force Fields Modify Typology

This refers to the type of organizational change and personnel.

Changes incremental and transformational

The change process and type of change adopted by a company are crucial, and depending on the business's desired purpose, the organization may choose either incremental or transformational change.

Changes made gradually

This is when the change process is gradually integrated and incorporated into the genesis. It is a viable method for implementing change in an organization since it generates less resistance. MyBank implemented an incremental kind f change in its bank's change procedure. This was necessitated by the requirement to facilitate employee adaptation to the bank's transition process. It is quite simple for an organization to adjust to this kind of change (Walton, Nadler and Shaw 1995 p.133).

Transformational

This type of shift typically affects the entirety of an organization's operations. When a corporation adopts a completely different operational technique, this is a positive development. My bank has chosen to incorporate both incremental and transformative sorts of change into its operational system.

The Professional – Hayes claims that (2007 p. 132),

Professional executive is difficult to persuade, especially if he enjoys running the show and is near to retirement.

These individuals must be persuaded gently to accept the process of change.

The Traditional Method — According to Hayes, this is the traditional method (2007 p. 133),

"Had his moment of creativity in the past, introduced technology, or contributed to another success. However, occasionally recognizes the same pattern in new modifications and is a reliable ally."

The Visionary — According to Hayes, the protagonist is a visionary (2007 p. 133),

Excited about new things, has expansive notions about how things should or will be. The older visionary is borderline obsessed with the one concept they have been contemplating and developing for years. Appears to be the best ally, but frequently fails in implementation and notably in flexibility and curiosity. If the zeal is still youthful, it can be harnessed and used to recruit others.

These kind of individuals are extremely amenable to change adoption.

The Maverick – Hayes says so (2007 p. 134),

Isolated in a location where he can do things his way, he has established an environment where his methods are accepted/tolerated. Depending on the power available to him, he can either be a grumpy skeptic on the sidelines with little or no power, or a true ally doing everything he can in an executive position. True mavericks in executive positions are a rare species, as few organizations employ them.

This type of employee is relatively amenable to change acceptance within a business.

Appreciating alteration

Change is a crucial organizational process (Nilakant and Ramnarayan, 2006 p.289). Not only must everyone be made aware of the change process, but also of the change's benefits. In this situation, employees will appreciate and readily accept change. The administration of MyBank has implemented all necessary strategies to guarantee that all bank workers embrace change. These techniques involve educating everyone on the necessity and benefits of change in the bank and utilizing change agents in the process of implementing change.

Change support / mobilizing

Change implementation requires substantial support from all bank employees. To guarantee that the change process is appropriately mobilized and supported, the management of My bank aggressively educated their department's personnel on the necessity to accept change in the bank's operations.

Management's contribution and function

Managing Director

The managing director is one of MyBank's primary change agents, organizing leadership addresses that not only mobilize staff towards change, but also push people towards growth and development.

Senior executives

A senior executive of MyBank was instrumental in mobilizing all staff to accept the need for change at the bank.

Managers

Managers are essential for MyBank's change agents.

This is because they ensure that all employees in their department are well-educated not only on the need for change in the bank, but also on the necessity to accept and respect change in the bank.

Some employees

Several bank employees volunteered to educate their coworkers on the importance of embracing change. This aids in the bank's mobilization of currency.

Outside consultant

The bank hired outside experts to provide the necessary technical expertise for the implementation of transformation. In addition, they provided training on leadership, motivation, and the advantages of change within the bank.

External auditing firm

MyBank retained the services of an external accounting company to ensure that the bank accounts are maintained effectively throughout the transition. This is required for the correctness of the bank's accounting system.

Multiple influences on strategic Human Resource Management and Change

HRM has a significant impact on an organization. This has been achievable due to the fact that HRM professionals employ multidirectional tactics. HRM utilize numerous abilities, including research and persuasion skills, among others, to attain their objectives. McNamara, according to his statements (2008 p. 47),

Social psychologists have examined the psychological mechanisms behind persuasion, conformity, and other forms of social influence, but they have infrequently modeled how influence processes manifest when numerous sources and multiple recipients of influence interact over time.

Change Implementation

"The implementation of change is the most important aspect of a company or organization's change process" McNamara (2008 p. 57). An organization should use all available resources to ensuring that this procedure is carried out efficiently.

Building change capability

Employees and all other staff members must receive the proper training to ensure that they accept organizational change. This will decrease the amount of ordinarily stressed employees who are inadequately prepared for the transition.

Motivation and Adjustment

Motivation is essential to human existence (Goncalves, 2007 p.34). Consequently, the same concept of motivation must be implemented in the workplace. This will significantly contribute to job happiness in a corporation. Job satisfaction refers to a person's feelings or mental state on the nature of their work. It can be influenced by a range of factors, including workplace wellness initiatives, employee relationships with top management and supervisors, the ability to meet work objectives, and the quality of one's physical working environment.

Work has been one of the most important aspects of human existence for generations. Research concentrating on the biopsychosocial effects of job satisfaction and discontent on the contemporary worker reveals that "one's level of job satisfaction influences one's mental and physical health and overall life satisfaction" (Ozaki, 1992 p.72). The ideology holds that in exchange for their services, employees are entitled to more than their wages, benefits, and safe and healthy work environments. Employees should have the right to be treated as human beings, especially when one considers that the bulk of their problems emerge in the context of work and are therefore best addressed there in order to attain high levels of job satisfaction.

According to Ozaki (1992, p.57), "the employee's worries and resulting stress may stem from their work and their concerns about security, money, health, and interpersonal relationships" These criteria define and determine job satisfaction as a whole.

Influence of organizational socialization on job satisfaction and modification

Recognizing that people are the most valuable asset of every firm, it is necessary to place the utmost importance on their wellbeing for optimal organizational performance. Corporate socialization is the process by which employees learn and adjust to their new jobs, positions, and workplace culture (Deszca, and Cawsey, 2007p.51) "The effect of socialization on job satisfaction cannot be discounted because the level and quality of organizational socialization are directly correlated with job satisfaction levels" (Deszca, and Cawsey, 2007p.56)

Change Management in MyBank

Enhancing change

Change reinforcement is essential and unavoidable within an organization (Bush 2003 p.48).

In the implementation of change, there is a need for an introduction of strategies that not only help in the creation of awareness on the change being adopted but also reinforce it to ensure its ultimate success. In an endeavor to reinforce change, communication is crucial at all

Marketing In The Hotel Industry Need Essay Help

Industry segmentation in the hotel sector

When targeting distinct consumer groups, businesses employ a variety of segmentation criteria. These segmentation bases include, first, psychographic segmentation, which is typically based on psychological characteristics and involves merging the actions, opinions, interests, and values of consumers into the final product's positioning (Charles 2002). Second, geographical segmentation is the positioning of a product based on its geographic location. Thirdly, segmentation is based on consumer behavior by analyzing criteria such as user status, purchasing propensity, desired advantages, brand loyalty, and usage rates. Lastly, segmentation can be demographic, and in this situation, product positioning is accomplished by taking age, gender, family size, income, and nationality into account when determining the final product mix. The Marriot Hotel is one hotel that illustrates the significance of segmentation in the hotel sector.

The Marriot Hotel was founded in Virginia, United States, in 1927 (O'Brien, 1995). The hotel currently has over 2500 locations spread over 60 countries and employs over 15,000 people worldwide. Marriott's packages include full service and accommodations, select service and accommodations, and extended long stays and resorts. In addition, the Marriot Hotel has both upscale and budget-friendly business wings. Thus, due to the diversity of its offerings, the hotel can successfully use both the price skimming strategy and the price penetration strategy to stable and optimize its revenue streams while taking advantage of the market. Marriott's senior management recognizes the significance of product and service distinction and the role that such a process plays in achieving its organizational objectives, thereby making segmentation a reality.

Hotel markets are segmented based on the complexity of the service industry and the amount of features contained in a particular customer's product bundle or service. Psychographic techniques of segmentation are common because many individuals, especially the wealthy, use value as a justification for their purchases. As a result, they will frequently purchase an expensive service or product because they believe the price is a direct mechanism that can be used to describe the quality of the product (Kotler 1999).

Figure 1 depicts the buyer purchase and consumption process as described by Philip Kotler in 1999.

Typically, a consumer's purchasing behavior is prompted by a need that serves as a motivator for the purchase, and as a result, a consumer always has needs that he or she want to satisfy at the conclusion of the shopping and consumption process. Abraham Maslow, a motivational guru, says that the two highest levels of motivation entail satisfying ego and self-esteem requirements. Marriott hotel Customers who purchase their premium products and services, such as ExecuStay and Resort services, which often target high-spending clients, are high-status members of society who are driven by self-esteem and ego demands (Kotler 1999). Some of these folks may be high-earning citizens and celebrities who utilize these services and packages to set themselves apart and appear unique in society. Therefore, consumers who consume these highly differentiated products that the Marriot hotel offers derive greater utility or satisfaction by obtaining a sense of pride and psychological satisfaction that is typically associated with the fact that their purchases directly reflect their social status.

The executive rooms and apartments of Marriott, such as those in Dubai creek, are elegantly appointed with a touch of traditional Arabic design and top-tier hotel services that are tailored to the individual tastes and preferences of specific consumers. The hotels are also equipped with flat-screen televisions, air conditioning, individual climate control, feathered pillows, business amenities, and entertainment systems, not to mention their proximity to a golf club and the finest yacht clubs, thereby enhancing the holiday and business experiences of high-end consumers.

A wealthy businessman may prefer to retain a luxurious and elegant lifestyle while also enjoying conducting business and producing money. The management of Marriot guarantees that this is possible, and the client may be required to pay up to $545. Alternatively, couples who wish to spend their vacation time at Marriot may opt to purchase the romance option packages that include additional features such as a menu full of strawberries, chocolate, champagne, and amenities such as dim romantic lighting, which can cost up to $795, in order to have a complete customer experience, and thus pay a premium (Lugosi 2009).

On the other side, the hotel offers cheaper options in some of its global locations. Due to the hotel's brand, giving these lower hotel facilities allows it to attract the low-end market and keep a huge customer base. As with high-end consumers, low-end consumers may operate with a desire to save money, and as is typical consumer behavior, such individuals expect to pay less for more; therefore, hotel management must find a way to make this wish a reality for these individuals in order to ensure their satisfaction at the conclusion of their stay. Prior to purchasing a service or good, low-end consumers undergo the same purchase and decision-making process as high-end consumers.

A cheap room at the Budapest Marriott hotel may be had for as little as $75, and the room itself is considered to be fairly decent, clean, and well-designed. In addition, the rooms are equipped with a quality air conditioning system, pillows, and large, extremely comfortable beds. In contrast to high-end consumers, the majority of low-end consumers always seek convenience and have mostly basic demands. As a result, their primary objective is to save money by selecting the most economically sensible option.

Describe the value chain of a hotel chain in general terms.

A value chain is a methodical analysis of a company's specific activities that can provide a competitive advantage; it conceptualizes the company as a chain of value-adding activities (Lugosi 2009). Without these value chains, the business activities that enable the delivery of goods and services within an organization would be paralyzed and brought to a halt, so paralyzing the firm.

Figure 2 depicts a graphical representation of the value chain, as depicted by Porter (1999).

The value chain of a hotel may involve activities such as research and development, product and service design, real product and service production, sales and marketing, distribution, and customer service. These operations within a hotel value chain may be upward or downward and contribute to the effective delivery of products and services, so assisting the organization in achieving its primary objective. Therefore, when the leadership or management of a hotel develops strategy and plans to guide these activities, it is more likely that synergistic benefits will result from coordinating these activities more effectively, allowing the hotel to produce products and services efficiently and thereby satisfy consumers.

Consequently, operations that occur inside the value chain of an industry may move forward or backward before their primary goals and objectives are accomplished. In the event that a seafood restaurant gets fresh shrimp from its distributor, but the shrimp arrive spoiled, the distributor would be required to call his supplier and place a new order on behalf of his client. In a similar manner, the marketing department can engage with consumers to determine their desires, and then relay that information to management in the hopes of inciting a change that would allow them to satisfy their consumers' demands.

Choose two product or service characteristics that, in your opinion, have the biggest effect on attracting customers.

Product qualities are characteristics or features that are typically thought to appeal to customers (Kotler 1999). A product or brand may have characteristics such as price, dependability, safety, exclusivity, opulence, and occasionally its location of origin. Sometimes, product qualities are determined by the perspective of a seller or producer, who uses them to give his or her items an identity and perception that influences purchase decisions and customer experience. Attributes of products are difficult to quantify; consequently, they may be categorized using a five- or seven-point Likert Scale that seeks to gauge the attribute's magnitude using descriptors such as good or terrible. Therefore, many buyers may end up acquiring a product not because of its unique characteristics, but rather because of the attributes that are immediately associated with or connected with a product.

The fact that product features can be utilized in the advertising and promotion of items simplifies the process of establishing a product's identity through promotion activities. Consider Marriott ExecuStay as an example; the branding of this product makes it abundantly clear that it is intended for individuals who consider themselves to be executives. As a result, the customer chooses to purchase this brand because they believe it to be unique and a direct reflection of their image. However, the price of such a product is likely to be expensive, as buyers will perceive that it is intended for executives or those who consider themselves to be executives. Thus, a product feature enables hotels such as Marriott to effectively segment their audiences and cater to various niches.

Therefore, the high-end consumer market is attracted to the prestige that is a product and service attribute of Marriot's high-end hotel services. The level of complexity and sophistication that Marriot hotels incorporate into its high-end product packages, such as the romance package and the business executives packages for high-end consumers, appeals to self-esteem/ego demands that are typically viewed as a prestige package (Stem 2006). High-end consumers of Marriott products and services are extremely proud of themselves when they spend a great deal of money on products and services that are exclusive to a select few. This trait of prestige, class, and originality provides these folks with the satisfaction they seek. As a result, Marriott guarantees that its employees is adequately trained in providing high-quality service throughout the hotel industry's value chain.

Low-end consumers, on the other hand, like Marriot-branded products and are aware of the unassailable reputation and brand value that Marriott has established over the years. As a result, when people pay less to spend time at Marriott facilities, they receive better value for their money and have a greater sense of trust and trustworthiness in the company's product packages.

Value for money is a product attribute; consequently, qualities and benefits should not be confused. The consumer easily obtains the product attribute value for money due to the Marriot hotel chain's objective to provide high-quality services regardless of the consumer category to which they belong. Brand qualities or product attributes are significant because they frequently influence consumers' perceptions of a product and may go on to affect the nature of the purchase made. Low-end buyers would have felt cheated and unacknowledged by the corporation if these characteristics were not available (Kotler 1999).

What alternatives exist for managing and executing the value activities and acquiring the resources and skills required to execute the activities?

The activities inside a value chain must be carried out properly, and hotels typically implement techniques that allow business leaders and hotel management to select the optimal solutions for optimizing the use of available resources. Hotels and other commercial organizations often have a single objective, which is to maximize revenue and decrease expenses; hence, every endeavor within the business will highlight this (Charles 2002). Consequently, when altering these activities and selecting the next-best alternatives, it is crucial for a company to guarantee that the resulting modifications will not harm the hotel's true aims and objectives. It is important to recognize the significance of the client and the specific features that have always attracted customers to Marriott, whether status or price.

Marriot takes a methodical approach to resolving business difficulties, particularly customer service; its customer service efforts are typically oriented on providing the finest answers to its customers. Effective customer service efforts are facilitated by policies such as the one-ring policy, which requires customer service agents to answer the phone immediately upon ringing. In the hotel industry, customer service is a delicate matter that, if mishandled, can lead to inefficiency and loss of potential clients.

Before a consumer can enjoy the real service that he has paid for, there are multiple channels and a large number of individuals involved in ensuring that these services reach their destination on time and with a high degree of efficiency. There may be multiple methods to accomplish this, particularly in operations management; consequently, operational managers must select the important path to optimize resource use and maximize efficiency. When operations management within the industry's value chain is improperly planned, it becomes very difficult for the hotel to achieve operational efficiency. As a result, inefficiencies can result in unhappiness among stakeholders, including workers and customers, who are the hotel's business fulcrum (Kotler 1999). For instance, if Marriott decides to abruptly switch raw material suppliers without undergoing inspection and testing, the end product, which consumers ultimately consume, may be badly impacted. Alternatively, if the hotel chooses an effective supplier, it will be easier for them to enhance their service offering.

In the hotel sector, the development of value is of utmost importance; without value creation, there would be no satisfaction, and without satisfaction, institutions within the hotel industry will inevitably perish. If customer care services are enhanced, the consumer experience will undoubtedly improve, making it simpler and easier for customers to feel valued. Because hotel departments are not autonomous, they must collaborate to ensure that service delivery is highly effective and meets the needs of the target market. In the end, criteria such as cost, quality, flexibility and imitability, efficiency, and timeliness must be taken into consideration.

Tesla’s Corporate Governance Overview Need Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Price Cuts and Share Price Plunge Reflect Irrational Governance Choices Conclusion References

Introduction

Tesla Corporation is an American automaker that develops electric vehicles and investigates renewable energy. It was established in 2003 and has had rapid expansion over the following two decades. Investors and other stakeholders are concerned about the company's leadership stability and corporate governance in light of recent occurrences. Negative events affecting the company include the CEO's deceptive tweets, staff turnover, fraudulent dealings, price cutbacks, share price plunges, weak corporate governance, and the founder's unpredictable conduct.

Price Reductions and Share Price Fall

During the fourth quarter of 2019, Tesla recorded record output, which represented a 13 percent increase over the previous period. However, investors responded with a sell-off, and analysts criticized the gains (Boudette, 2019). The corporation reduced the price of all models by $2,000 in response to a federal tax credit for electric vehicles. However, critics said that the business was protecting itself against declining demand following the Model 3's initial mass-market release (Boudette, 2019). In addition, the company encountered significant supply chain issues when delivering automobiles to clients. Tesla was driven by sluggish deliveries to buy three tracking businesses to expedite the process (Boudette, 2019). In spite of the difficulties, the company's third-quarter profits climbed.

Erratic Conduct

Investors are uneasy about Musk's behavior in recent years. For example, he smoked marijuana during an appearance on the Joe Rogan program. This occurred at a time when the company's chief accounting officer (Dave Morton) had resigned after less than a month of service (Bomey, 2018). These instances prompted questions about the leadership stability at Tesla. Consequently, they caused a 6.3 percent fall in the share price of the company (Bomey, 2019). To fulfill the strong demand, the CEO has been pressed repeatedly to prioritize accelerating the manufacturing of electric vehicles. Musk has previously stated on Twitter that he was aiming to take the firm private and had acquired the necessary cash. Morton stated that the focus on Tesla and the pressure to perform within the company compelled his resignation (Bomey, 2019). The need to succeed was one of the primary drivers of the corporation's high turnover rate. Musk says that pressure is necessary for the corporation to achieve its objectives.

Decisions Regarding Corporate Governance

Multiple actions made by the company's chief executive officer have been questioned by investors and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). In a 2018 filing, Tesla stated that Musk had spent $10 million on the purchase of Tesla shares and planned to spend an additional $20 million to increase his shareholding (Maidenberg, 2018). He acquired around 30,000 shares through a trust, increasing his stake in the company to approximately 20 percent. The SEC had accused him of fraud, and a settlement agreement with the agency cost him and his company $20 million in fines apiece (Henning, 2018). Musk was compelled to step aside as chairman of the firm and appoint a replacement for the next three years. It has been asserted that he has been preoccupied with his detractors to the exclusion of more vital issues concerning the company's future (Goldstein, 2018). For instance, he has been encouraged to concentrate on growing manufacturing capacity to satisfy the company's strong demand.

Musk was charged by the SEC of deceiving investors when he claimed to have secured money to take Tesla private. It was unethical for the CEO of a publicly traded company to deceive investors with claims of becoming private. In a tweet, he said he had the funds to acquire the company and would offer $420 per share to investors (Goldstein, 2018). He originally refused to settle, but subsequently consented to stricter terms with a lighter penalty (Goldstein, 2018). For instance, the new conditions doubled the penalty and disqualified him from the company's chairmanship for three years, as opposed to two years in the original terms (Henning, 2018). The ruling demonstrated the SEC's determination to compel corporations to alter their business practices. The penalty was a constructive step toward helping the company's future governance alignment. The settlement alleviated investor anxiety while Musk runs other businesses. It allowed him to retain his post as chief executive.

Musk startled investors at the start of 2019 by choosing Zach Kirkhorn, a vice president of finance aged 34, as the company's chief financial officer. Deepak Ahuja would be replaced by Kirkhorn, who joined Tesla in 2008. He returned in 2017 after the previous CFO, Jason Wheeler, resigned. He had quit in 2015 after seven years of service (Higgins, 2019). The revelation of Kirkhorn's hiring surprised investors, resulting in a 4.5 percent decrease in the company's stock price (Higgins, 2019). The news was made at the conclusion of a conference call with analysts, throwing further doubt on Musk's leadership abilities.

Conclusion

Elon Musk's unpredictable conduct and questionable actions have caused investors to be concerned. Negative effects have resulted from his involvement in fraud, the high turnover rate, his questionable decisions about the selection of top executives, and the company's shaky governance. Analysts attribute the decline in share price to his erratic behavior, which has the potential to undermine his leadership and damage the corporation's governance.

References

Bomey, N. (2018). Investors are concerned about Musk's actions and Tesla's turnover. Arizona Republic. Web.

Boudette, N. E. (2019). Tesla boasts record production, yet reduces pricing, causing its stock to decline. New York's Times. Web.

Goldstein, M. (2018). Elon Musk resigns as chairman of Tesla in a settlement with the SEC for a tweet disparaging the company. New York's Times. Web.

Henning, P. J. (2018). How the SEC attempts to impose conventional corporate governance on Tesla. New York's Times. Web.

Higgins, T. (2019). Musk's unexpected choice for Tesla's CFO is a relative unknown. This publication is the Wall Street Journal. Web.

Maidenberg, M. (2018). Musk invests $10 million in Tesla shares and plans to invest an additional $20 million. This publication is the Wall Street Journal. Web.

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