Stricter Gun Control Laws Need To Be Enforced

In the span of a little more than 6 minutes, 17 lives vanished and another 14 lives were harmed by one gunman with an AR-15 rifle. This was the reality for the students and faculty members at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School on February 14, 2018. It was Valentine’s Day, the day of love and affection, and yet, none of the high school’s students, faculty, or family members of the victims felt the same way on that day. During the mass shooting, Mrs. Schamis, one of the teachers, recalled one student asking, “Mrs. Schamis, are we going to die today?” (Burch). A child should never have to worry about life and death situations; however, what the children faced that day at Marjory Stoneman High concerned life and death. The AR-15 rifle that facilitated the deaths has been used in many other mass shootings such as the 2012 shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School. At the time of the shooting, the semi-automatic rifle was easy to purchase and in Florida, a potential buyer had the opportunity to immediately buy and possess the rifle. The fact that the gunman, Nikolas Cruz, had passed the background check to buy the AR-15 rifle even with numerous mental health issues emphasizes the need for stricter background checks. In America, guns prove to do more harm than good. In response, stricter gun control laws need to be enforced by the government to help reduce the amount of gun deaths.

Since 1791, several changes have been made in regard to the regulation of manufacturing, selling, and transporting firearms in the U.S. In 1934, the first national gun control legislation was passed. As part of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “New Deal for Crime,” The National Firearms Act was made to minimize gang affiliated crimes such as the St. Valentine’s Day Massacre, and it enforced a $200 tax on the manufacturing, selling, and transporting of certain firearms. In 1968, the Gun Control Act came about and allowed federal, state, and local law enforcement officials more power for regulating gun control in order to fight crime. The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act of 1993 signed by President Clinton amended the Gun Control Act by requiring the purchaser of a firearm from federal firearms licensees to complete a background check. In 1994, Congress passed The Federal Assault Weapons Ban which restricted the manufacture of assault weapons for civilian usage. The ban eventually expired in 2004 after lasting for 10 years and it has not been renewed since then.

Through the requirement for background checks when purchasing firearms and ammunition, gun deaths will drastically decline in the U.S. Background checks are vital for any effective effort to reduce gun violence and contribute to lower rates of gun murders and suicides. This is shown in the states that demand for background checks for all gun related sales. In one recent research study called “Association Between Connecticut’s Permit-to-Purchase Handgun Law and Homicides,” the researchers have concluded that the 1995 Connecticut law (which requires firearm buyers to pass the background checks through permits) leads to a 40% decline in gun homicides and a 15% decline in suicides. In addition, in another research study called “Effects of Missouri’s Repeal of Its Handgun Purchaser Licensing Law on Homicides,” researchers have found that in Missouri’s 2007 repeal of its permit-to-purchase law, the amount of gun homicides has increased by 23%, and the amount of suicides has increased by 16%. The research findings show that background checks play a significant role in decreasing the amount of gun homicides and suicides in the U.S. There should be a requirement for background checks as statistics show that they have a massive impact on gun-related death rates.

With the renewal of The Federal Assault Weapons Ban, mass-shooting related homicides in the United States would be reduced. The school shooting that took place at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School (see Fig. I.) on February 14, 2018 has one of the highest death counts for gun massacres in U.S. history.

Fig. I. Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School where the school shooting took place. Wbur. “After Parkland, Don’t ‘Turn Our Schools Into Prisons,’ Says Education Activist.” WBUR, WBUR, 7 Mar. 2018, www.wbur.org/hereandnow/2018/03/07/school-shootings-security. For the specific purpose of shooting the high school, the gunman bought his legal AR-15 assault rifle. Assault weapons including the weapon used by the Parkland gunman had been banned through The Federal Assault Weapons Ban; however, the ban only lasted 10 years from 1994 to 2004 and has not since been renewed. Assault weapons have been used in a number of other mass shootings since The Federal Assault Weapons Ban ended and include the following: the church shooting in Texas, the Las Vegas shooting, and the Orlando Pulse nightclub shooting. Assault weapons have been regularly used for mass-shooting incidents as they have “accounted for 430 or 85.8% of the total 501 mass-shooting fatalities reported in 44 mass-shooting incidents” (Changes in US Mass Shooting Deaths). In comparison, according to the Washington Post, during The Federal Assault Weapons Ban, gun massacres fell 37%, but after the ban stopped in 2004, the massacres went up to 183%. The Federal Assault Weapons Ban has proven to be highly effective and should be renewed so that assault weapons are not readily available for misuse and gun massacres are minimized.

As believed by most gun rights advocates, gun control laws deny people the right to self-defense and a sense of safety. Gun rights advocates maintain that defending oneself with the use of guns is a natural right and cannot be taken away. In addition, supporters of the gun rights movement argue that tighter gun restrictions interfere with the ability of innocent citizens to defend themselves against criminals. Some gun rights supporters believe that by simply buying a gun, the individual instantly becomes safer; however, this is not the case. Gun owners need to be properly trained in order to use their weapons as a way of self-defense if the situation is ever to arise. Research shows that guns are rarely ever used in self-defense and “in 2007-11, less than 1% of victims in all nonfatal violent crimes reported using a firearm to defend themselves during the incident” (Planty and Truman). All in all, although guns are rarely used in self-defense, opponents of gun control argue that having a gun on hand automatically makes the individual safer.

Gun rights advocates maintain that the Second Amendment guarantees an individual’s right to own firearms. Opponents of gun control argue that gun ownership is protected by the Second Amendment and with strict gun control laws, the right to bear arms is denied. The Second Amendment of the US Constitution says, “A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed” (The Bill of Rights: A Transcription). However, the Second Amendment is not an unlimited right to own guns. The Second Amendment embodies only a collective right of the states to maintain militias. In the June 26, 2008, District of Columbia et al. v. Heller US Supreme Court majority opinion, Justice Antonin Scalia, LLB, said, “Like most rights, the right secured by the Second Amendment is not unlimited…” (Cornell University Law School). In essence, gun rights activists believe that the Second Amendment guarantees an individual’s right to have firearms; however, Second Amendment is not an unlimited right to own guns.

With the use of stricter gun control, the rate of suicides has been proven to decrease. Between 2000 and 2010, “Firearm-related suicides accounted for 61% of the gun deaths in the United States” (Desilver). The massive rate of suicides came through the use of guns. A Dec. 2009 study found “general barrier to firearm access created through state regulation can have a significant deterrent effect on male suicide rates in the United States. Permit requirements and bans on sales to minors were the most effective of the regulations analyzed” (Hempstead and Rodriguez). All in all, suicide rates have decreased in states where gun control is strictly enforced.

Through the use of stricter gun control, the amount of gun deaths will reduce drastically. Harsh gun control decreases the amount of shooting related homicides in the United States. Through the requirement for background checks when purchasing firearms and ammunition, gun deaths will drastically decline in the U.S. Through the requirement for background checks when purchasing firearms and ammunition, gun deaths will drastically decline in the U.S. All in all, the gun deaths in the U.S. would decrease through the use of gun control.

2019-2-12-1549977286

The Fight for Equality in “Battle Royal”: writing essay help

“Battle Royal” challenges equality throughout the narrator’s speech. People need to be shown equality because in this short story, the blacks were seriously injured when the whites made them go to boxing matches and they were tased/electrocuted when they took the money the whites left for them. The author Ralph Ellison shows in “Battle Royal” that there is an issue between race and the people need equality and social responsibility, so both races can be equal with one another.

The thesis shows the way that people need equality, so the blacks and whites can respect one another. The whites state, “We mean to do right by you, but you’ve got to know your place at times” (Ellison 11). This explains the way the whites are showing equality towards the narrator and soon it might happen to all of the blacks.

The short story shows symbolism with the dancing blonde woman, boxing match, blindfolds, the coins, and the speech. The “speech” symbolizes social responsibility between the white and black races. For example, the narrator of this story is wanting to read the speech about the way that people need to treat one another, but the whites did not listen to the speech until the end. The boxing match, the coins, and the blindfolds symbolize the suffering of the blacks. The boxing match symbolizes the way the blacks were in pain and suffering, while the whites were being comfortable and enjoyed watching the suffering of the blacks. The blindfold symbolizes the way the blacks suffered by getting knocked out in the boxing match.The narrator says, “Blindfolded, I could not control my motions” (Ellison 5). This discusses the fact that the narrator is blindfolded and he cannot control his mind and his display of knowledge for the speech. The coins symbolize greed by the whites. The whites gave the coins to the blacks, who are in need of money. But once they held a hand on the coins, they will be electrocuted. The dancing blonde woman symbolizes that the blacks cannot marry a white woman because there was a law that prevented interracial marriage, which is known as the “Loving vs Virginia” law case that prevented marriage from blacks and whites, according to the story’s historical content. The blonde woman has an American flag tattooed on her belly which symbolizes the way blacks were prevented from intermarriage between races in America. The narrator states “and yet to stroke where below the small American flag tattooed upon her belly her thighs formed a capital V”(Ellison 3). This explains where the American flag tattoo is located on her body and it relates to how the dancing blonde woman can be symbolized and the way she is a way to be used as the American dream.

The race experience explains that the whites treat all the blacks as animals by putting them in boxing matches and the whites were being forceful and brutal to the blacks by yelling to them and forcing them to punch one another. It shows how violent the boxing match really is, “In one comer I glimpsed a boy violently punching the air and heard him scream in pain as he smashed his hand against a ring post” (Ellison 6). Another race experience in this short story is that this story discusses mostly about the dancing blonde woman. The reason that this shows race experience is that this woman is trying to make all the white men be in love with her and they feared looking, were not disgusted so the narrator wants to read the speech and it is not about how people should treat one another. The short story discusses the way that blacks cannot be in an interracial marriage because it is a law for them not to break according to the culture that they are living in.

The background of this short short story discusses the historical content between the Reconstruction era to Jim Crow law era. The reason that the story occurred during the Reconstruction era is that the grandfather is discussing to his grandson about the way he was being in a relationship with the whites during the Reconstruction era and he was treated horribly by the whites being brutal to him. The prologue of this story discusses grandpa about his experience with the whites during the Reconstruction era: “I never told you, but our life is a war and I have been a traitor all my born days, a spy in the enemy’s country ever since I give up my gun in the Reconstruction” (Ellison 1). Afterwards, it continued around the Jim Crow law, when the whites were in contempt with the blacks, who are in suffering at boxing matches, shootings, fist fighting, or anything that the whites find that is considered violence. This quote explains how the blacks suffered in the boxing match as the whites were being soothed in this short story: “The harder we fought the more threatening the men became” (Ellison 6). This explains as the blacks are fighting one another they are suffering by being abused brutally. Another part of the quote, “the more threatening the men became” explains the men as the whites were making the blacks threatening one another as a form their race’s entertainment (Ellison 6).

In the short story, the narrator’s experience is calm in the beginning of the short story, then his experience was abhorrent, atrocious, gruesome, and cruel in the plot of the story, and his experience was then calm again. This promise the grandfather tells to the narrator of the story: “On his deathbed he called my father to him and said, “Son, after I’m gone I want you to keep up the good fight”” (Ellison 1). This shows an explanation about the narrator’s grandfather giving him a promise that he discussed that he had a lot of trouble with his lifetime despite the fact of his race experience between the whites and blacks and he does not want it to happen to anyone, especially his grandson. Throughout the events of the narrator’s experience is that he is in a bad experience because he is in a boxing match and he may be afraid to go in the boxing match. During the boxing match, the narrator is fearful in this short story, when he is set in a boxing match: “I stumbled like a baby or a drunken man” (Ellison 5). So, the narrator decided to make a speech similar to what Martin Luther King Junior did with his “I Have a Dream” speech.

The narrator creates the speech, so the whites to listen about the way they are needing to get along with the blacks, because the speech can make them understand equality. They did not listen until the end. Then, the experience of the narrator seems to be exciting because he seems excited when he is reading the speech and the whites are listening to every word of this essay. Once he was done with his speech, the whites had given him a scholarship to college, congratulating him for his way to be helpful to the people that were living in all of America. This quote explains one of the things that was used in this speech: “When ever I uttered a word of three or more syllables a group of voices yelled at me to repeat it” (Ellison 10). This quote says when the narrator is reading the essay, the whites were yelling at him to repeat because they want to listen to what he is saying for this essay so they want to know what he is talking about and they might end their conflict with the whites and blacks once he finishes his speech.

In “Battle Royal”, equality is discussed for the whites and the blacks and why they are in an opposite relationship with each other. The analysis says that the blacks and whites need to be in a fair relationship. Equality should matter because this short story explains why the blacks and whites should be equal with one another and the blacks are wanting to stop being threatened by the whites.

2019-2-15-1550252529

Issues faced by society – gun violence, racism and religion

When our reality becomes so unsightly, we tend to deny the outcomes because we are ashamed to see the mess we have made. Reality has become too hard to accept because the issues in our nation have brought us to not be able to agree to disagree with our opinions. In today’s society, we find ourselves never being able to talk about issues that affect us negatively, but rather starting something chaotic because we get so caught up in our own points of view—but in our communities, we should come together and address these problems, such as gun violence, racism, and religion, as best as we could, so they can get fixed and not continue to grow. But our biggest question right now, is how? How do we get everyone to understand and listen to one another?

As we get into our most sensitive topics of today’s issues, one of our biggest problems is not taking into consideration what others have already been through. The word racism has been flourishing in the media for what we can consider, too long. African Americans have been dealing with racial profiling, attacks, teasing, and death because of their skin color. In an article shared from CNN, explains that “a white student at Yale called police because a black student was napping in a dorm building.” (Yan) When a small issue like this happens to someone, it is hard to believe that there is room for the slightest change. Aside from someone you catch on the street saying something disrespectful, our president, Trump “appears to be unifying America — unifying Americans in their denial. The more racist Mr. Trump sounds, the more Trump country denies his racism, and the more his opponents look away from their own racism to brand Trump country as racist. (Kendi) Making it more difficult for us to see our faults as a nation. Rachel Godsil, a researcher apart of an organization who helps reduce discrimination explains, “There are enormous health consequences to those experiencing these everyday harms… because of the constancy of this stress.” For those who have never experienced such a thing cannot relate to what these people go through. Racism is a never-ending cycle that has to be addressed before we have more people suffering this pain that brings us this rage that no one can understand.

People do not seem to realize how closely each of these issues relate to one another. We reached the era where nearly 40,000 people have died from guns in the United States. In an article it states, “this is the highest than any other since at least 1968, according to new data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention.” (Mervosh) Which I believe will dramatically continue to grow. “Pro-gun advocates see guns as our best defense against armed criminals. Anti-gun advocates see the wide availability of guns as a greater threat than criminal violence. The issue seems to come down to what you fear more: criminals or guns.” (Gutting) Coming into the problem of, who is right, and who is wrong? People believe that the ones who should be allowed to carry a gun be certified, but even the ones who are supposed to be “protecting” us from the criminals, are the ones shooting us for no reason. So, when we come down to think of where we can come together and think of a solution, that is where most of us fail to agree to disagree.

As case numbers go up from unjustified police shootings, to mass killings, it brings us to a difficult decision whether guns should be allowed at all or not. After the school shooting in Parkland, Florida, “House of Representatives held its first hearing on gun violence in eight years.” (Collins) Where it was thought to make it harder for people to purchase guns without well done background checks. “Senator Murphy believes the endless rejection of any gun legislation looks like a kind of “moral green light” to potential killers: “I truly believe these young men who have something very dark happening in their minds watch our silence and interpret it as an endorsement.” Meaning, if we keep these guns that is a way of lessening our crime rate for the next following years. People feel safe with guns but when will it be okay to own one without abusing your right to own one? We have heard these stories of people using their gun way too often it’s no surprise anymore.

Religion is an issue that ties to many problems emotionally. Not so long ago, our president, Donald Trump has brought attention to whether the government will continue to fund planned parenthood. Aside from planned parenthood being one of the top places specifically where young women go to have an abortion, they allow you to get a screening for any STI, plan B pills, birth control pills, and most importantly, where they get access to health care services. The biggest problem with why they do not want to keep funding is because of the abortion service. There has been discussion on “Pro-life or pro-choice.” Watson, author of Scarlet A: The Ethics, Law, and Politics of Ordinary Abortion states, “We should be able to acknowledge the complexity of private decision making, without threatening the right of private decision making.” Meaning, us as a community should find ways in which we can accept what is going on without having to do things like, defund because we are not happy with a decision. For example, in an article published in 1989, Lucy Killea, who was running for California State Senate, put in her campaign that she supports the right to abortion. Bishop Leo T. Maher later wrote her saying she could no longer receive communion. Looking at this example from years ago, and now seeing that Trump is defunding Planned Parenthood shows that throughout the years, nothing exactly changes. The people who agree with Trump, who in a study from Mary Rezac, showed that 47% of Catholics are pro-life, will continue to support his ideas but what about the other half? Where do they fall in this discussion? Abortion is up to the women, her body, her choice and if we cannot find a way to talk about how these issues are affecting us, the government will not fund what is helping these girls who get pregnant.

Another growing issue within religion is the number count of r**es within the Vatican. People see the church as a sacred place to go for a time of help or to praise our savior, Jesus Christ, but recently they have found the priests, the ones we should trust, have been r**ing the altar servers. Pope Francis took the issue into his own hands, and people were not satisfied with the outcome of his speech. Before he can even finish what was being said, the ones who were victims of such abuse were expressing their anger and failure to address the problem. This brings out attention to the issue that we in reality, need. Without people expressing how they feel, how will anyone know it needs to be done? Victims need to come together and express what happened to them so justice can be done. Anna Barrett Doyle states, “As the world’s Catholics cry out for concrete change, the pope instead provides tepid promises, all of which we’ve heard before.” This becomes an issue when trying to solve problems because as soon as we get the idea that something will happen and it doesn’t, that starts even bigger problems like riots and controversial articles. As a community we fail at trying to express our feelings towards an issue. When one encounters someone with the opposing view, we tend to find ourselves loss of words when they don’t agree with what we believe. If we do not get to the root of the problem, the problem will never be able to go away. Pope Francis believes he is making a change, but he is only making it more difficult for Roman Catholics to believe what is really going on within the church.

In result, we have found that one of our biggest issues as a nation is coming together and seeing our most troublesome issues embellish when we least expect. If we do not try to come together and resolve these problems, we will never see the end of racism, gun violence, or our biggest issues in religion. We are always going to be so caught up in our own point of view that no matter how we try to end the controversy, it will continue to grow right in front of our eyes. We need to be willing to agree to disagree to even begin to address these problems. Most of these issues correlate with one another, so if we begin to eliminate as time progresses, these issues shouldn’t be as big as a problem as they are today. We are in a time of need for help. We need to keep working together.

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Historical design development and impacts of new and emerging technologies: college essay help online

The origins of 3D printing trace back further than you might expect. In 1860 the photo-sculpture method was explored by Francois Wilhelm when he captured an object in 3 dimensions using cameras surrounding the subject and in 1892 Blanther proposed a layering method of producing topographical maps. Fast forward to 1972 Mastubara of Mitsubishi motors proposed photo-hardened materials (photopolymers) to be used to produce layered parts.

The 3D printer came about in the 1980’s. In the early 1980’s, Dr. Hideo Kodama, a Japanese researcher first invented the innovative layer approach to stereolithography through using a single-beam ultraviolet light laser to set photosensitive polymers. This was used as a means for rapid prototyping. Unfortunately, Dr. Kodama didn’t fulfil the application for a full patent due to a funding issue. In 1984, a group of French researchers, Jean-Claude André, Alain le Méhauté and Olivier de Witte came together to file a patent for the stereolithography process. Witte realisation was that when 2 lasers cross each other, a monomer liquid can become a solid polymer, the basic principle of the 3D printer. However, the application for their patent was abandoned by their French technology company due to a lack of proper funding.

Later in 1984, Charles (Chuck) Hull filed his patent for the process. He patented it as a method of consecutive thinly printed layers using UV light which pointed at a vat filled with a liquid photopolymer. This method bonded one polymer to the next with the help of CAM/CAD software to guide the path until a desired 3D object was produced. Stereolithography was such revolutionary innovation as it allowed designers to create ideas using digital data programs that could be uploaded to the printer to produce a tangible object. Hull’s patent was granted in 1986. Following this success, Hull co-founded the world’s first 3D printing company, called 3D Systems, to further commercialise it. This process of stereolithography established the basis of all 3D printing we know today. In 1987, they released their first commercial product the SLA-1 and is now classified as a transformative impact in engineering and manufacturing. Fused deposition modelling (FDM) process, another type of 3D printing processes, was developed by Scott Crump in 1989. Crump then founded the company Stratasys also in 1989, which is a global leader in 3D printers and 3D printer systems. In 2009, the company’s FDM printing patent expired, which offered the market FDM 3D printers, usually referred to as fused filament fabrication (FFF) for companies other than Stratasys 3D printers and open to public domain. Another key development was the RepRap Project (Replicating Rapid Prototyper) established in 2004 by UK Adrian Bowyer who established an open source project aimed to build a 3D printer that can print most of its own components and then could share with people all around the world.

The new millennium saw several success stories using the 3D printer in exciting medical innovations such as the first working kidney in 2000, the first prosthetic limb in 2008, the first prosthetic jaw in 2012 and in 2014 it was used to help reconstruct the face of a motorcyclist after a serious road injury. Testing of bio materials for regenerative medicine using a patient’s cell allowing 3D printing of small body parts (like ears and noses) have also increased media attention.

In recent years 3D printing has been able to assist with disaster relief. US not for profit ‘Field Ready’, were able to print spare parts such as pipe fittings to help repair broken pipelines after the severe earthquake in Nepal in 2015. A Japanese 3D printed drone was designed for search and rescue missions for disaster hit areas. 3D printed houses have similarly been used in disaster relief situations and now also a possible option for low income housing. In 2014 in China, a giant cement 3D printer was used to print 10 houses in just one day.

In the field of fashion 3D printing has opened the possibilities to expand beyond the traditional boundaries of design, allowing fashion designer to turn challenging design concepts into reality. From traditional production methods designers are now able to 3D print their own garments as one such young textile designer Danit Peleg with the first fashion collection 3D printed at home in 2014.

While there have been many positive developments as cited above, the first 3D printed gun in 2013 by Cody Wilson and the uploading of the blueprint for same has posed many questions as to where this might end.

Factors affecting success

Despite the 3D printer having been in existence since the early 1980’s its commercial viability and success has really only gained momentum over the past decade or so. This can be attributed mostly to timing, IP, pricing and market demand. In 2013 Obama’s State of the Union address claimed that the 3D printer had “the potential to revolutionize the way we make almost everything”. Faced with the rise of China’s dominance in manufacturing, there has been increased pressure for countries to produce products more efficiently and cost effectively. Manufacturers have been forced to explore the possibilities offered by new technologies to try to maintain their competitive edge. For example, the U.S Government’s investment in NAMII (National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute) as an incubator for 3D printing technology and the commitment of companies such as General Electric, United Technologies Corporation, Hewlett-Packard, 3M, Boeing, Stratasys, MIT and 3D Systems in investing in innovations using 3D printing helped promote this success. A window of opportunity was also created with the lapsing of certain patents around 2009 and subsequently there was a decline in litigation cases coupled with licensing activity showing steady growth. Pricing was also a key factor. At first 3D printers were not only expensive to produce but were also expensive to purchase and run. 3D printer prices have dropped (about 90% since 2009), from over $10,000 to less than $1,000 and this has also created a larger reach in the market for a more consumer friendly 3D printer that was a cost- effective option. So not only did larger companies have access to this technology, but basis this new affordability, more entrepreneurs and people with an appetite for experimentation have had a chance to explore new applications of 3D printing across different platforms and given the market’s increased demand for customisation these factors have all worked to give the 3D printer the status it enjoys today.

Role of agencies

There have been many agencies which have played a significant role in the innovation of the 3D printer particularly given the potentially huge benefits 3D printing has on manufacturing. NASA (National American Space Agency) has developed The Zero G 3D printer which manufactured the first 3D printed object in space and was active in lodging patents since 2009. The US Government recognised the upside of this phenomenon and funded the establishment of National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute in 2012 (also referred to America Makes) which is an initiative to try and promote the application of 3D printer across different disciplines. Big industrials such as GE (General Electrics) with its new ‘Multi Modal” facility in India and its fuel nozzle and BAE (British Aerospace) utilising 3D printed metal parts in its fighter jets both are pushing the boundaries. Other smaller yet still significant players are Bureau Services such as Shapeways and iMaterialise which have offered companies access to a wider customer by being able to harness a central service with printers located around the world and within a few days able to receive their 3D printed part in the post. With regards to IP, one of the main legislative challenges about 3D printing is that its users are able to copy almost any object, with or without the authorization of those who hold rights to that object. This makes it hard to regulate and govern the legal rights and ownership to the copyrights or patents. 3D printing is challenging the government and patent agencies to transform the way in which they monitor and control issues of surrounding ownership as well as IP infringements.

Entrepreneurial activity

We need entrepreneurs in the world as it is their creative, innovative, daring and out of the box thinking that has been so vital to evolution of ideas. Entrepreneurial activity has been significant to 3D printer design taking it beyond the realm of its initial purpose for rapid prototyping. Entrepreneurial activity has assisted with the acceleration and dissemination of ideas and in this respect, there have been some truly unique and ground-breaking applications on both a local and an international scale having enormous impacts socially, economically and environmentally. Initially the 3D printer used plastic, but this has now expanded to include finished items made from ceramic, metal, resin, concrete, silver, gold, stainless steel, food and bio material. The breadth of ideas range from prosthetics, dental implants, internal organs, customisation of jewellery, cake decorations to being able to 3D print cars, houses and spare parts. For example, Adidas and Parley for the Oceans, an organisation dedicated to reducing plastic wastage in the ocean, have collaborated to create a 3D printed sneaker made from plastic recycled from the ocean. Without entrepreneurs pushing the boundaries, 3D printing would not have had the transformative impact on our world today.

2019-2-26-1551177198

Mass shootings – changes needed to gun regulation

On April 20, 1999 a massacre took place at Columbine High School in Jefferson County Colorado. The two teen shooters Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris killed 13 people and wounded over 20 others. After, the two perpetrators turned the guns on themselves ending their own lives. At the time this was the worst high school shooting in US history. This event induced a governmental on school safety and gun control.

Following the shootings, a large amount of schools decreed zero tolerance policies. For those cases which regarded threatening behavior and violence on school grounds. This tragedy brought light to the importance of identifying risk factors for youth violence, as well as the need for the development and enactment of programs based on the early detection of these risk factors and prevention of school violence.

Researchers from the University of Northern Colorado have been examining the changes that schools have made since 1999 to prevent future incidents like Columbine. Surveys were sent out asking schools about mental health services and violence prevention programs before and after the event. The surveys showed the help after the shooting had increased by a large amount. A 20% increase in schools with crisis plans. 10% increase in group counseling. 9% of more schools had a crisis plan. 7% more schools offered social skills training. A larger number of schools not only increased their counseling but also school security. About 63% of schools had more advanced mechanism. 40% instilled stricter discipline. 17% started doing locker searches. 13% increased mental health providers.

Though this will make a big difference it’s not enough. Regardless of these changes many mental health professionals needed to be available in schools. Mainly to put together conflict resolution programs with students and parents. Sadly lack of funds were a major issue and the availability of people to help out. Thankfully many changes have been made in public high schools all over the US since the tragedy. Less is known about individual high schools across the states but as a whole safety has increased. Furthermore preventing youth violence is not only a responsibility of the school but also parents and students.

A large number of risk factors for the violence has been identified as history of aggression, history or mental illness, substance use, abusive childhood, bullying, depression, bad parenting, and violence in the media. Many places have been exposed to risk factors and early warning signs from the APA which expands on reasoning for the violence.

Not only have schools changed their ways of responding to situations like these but law enforcement as well. “Before the Columbine schooling no one knew what the term active shooter mean” (James Gagliano FBI) “Within 13 minutes of the first 911 call, Klebold and Harris fatally shot 12 students and a teacher and wounded 23 other people before killing themselves with gunshot wounds to the head. SWAT teams entered the school 47 minutes after the gunfire erupted. An exhaustive FBI review of the police response at Columbine led to more rapid response strategy during active shooter situations.” After this the responding officers learned they would have to set up a secure perimeter around the crime scene before moving on the suspect. “The tactic, known in law enforcement circles as rapid deployment involving the first officer at the scene, began in earnest after the Columbine shooting.” (CNN)

A fine training program has helped the enforcements lower the threat. “The lessons learned from Columbine led the US Justice Department and other federal agencies to partially fund an active shooter program known as Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training, or ALERRT, Schweit wrote.

The training, which was developed by the San Marcos, Texas, Police Department and the Hays County, Texas, Sheriff’s Department and adopted by Texas State University in San Marcos, includes a 16-hour course that “prepares first responders to isolate, distract and end the threat when an active shooter is engaged,” ( Schweit)

“Another key lesson of Columbine: We need to prepare students and teachers better for an emergency. The Columbine shooters caught their high school unprepared. We’re less naïve now. Most kids and their teachers are now drilled on lockdowns and evacuations. Police departments have up-to-date floor plans and alarm codes.”

“No one can say for sure why Klebold and Harris committed such a horrific crime. Many people have come up with theories including being picked on in school, violent video games , violent movies, music, racism , Goth, problematic parents, depression, and more.

It is hard to pinpoint one trigger that started these two boys on a murderous rampage. They worked hard to fool all those around them for over a year. Surprisingly, about a month before the event, the Klebold family took a four-day road trip to the University of Arizona, where Dylan had been accepted for the following year. During the trip, the Klebold’s didn’t notice anything strange or unusual about Dylan. Counselors and others also didn’t notice anything unusual.

Looking back, there were telltale hints and clues that something was seriously wrong. Videotapes, journals, guns, and bombs in their rooms would have been easily found if the parents had looked. Harris had made a website with hateful epithets that could have been followed up on.

The Columbine Massacre changed the way society looked at children and at schools. Violence was no longer just an after-school, inner-city occurrence. It could happen anywhere”.

Even though this tragic event struck the community in such an extensive way there is still no end to these tragedies. There have been more than a dozen more shootings and we still haven’t learned our lesson till this day we still have no gun control and no sense of urgency toward this matter examples such as

2007 Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, Va. — 33 deaths
2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School, Newtown, Conn. — 27 deaths
2018 Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School, Parkland, Fla. — 17 deaths
2015 Umpqua Community College, Roseburg, Ore. — 10 deaths
2018 Santa Fe High School, Santa Fe, Tex. — 10 deaths
2005 Red Lake Senior High School, Red Lake, Minn. — 7 deaths
2012 Oikos University, Oakland, Calif. — 7 deaths
2006 West Nickel Mines School, Bart Township, Penn. — 6 deaths
2008 Northern Illinois University, Dekalb, Ill. — 6 deaths
2014 Marysville Pilchuck High School, Marysville, Wa. — 5 deaths

After columbine you would imagine that things couldn’t get worse. In the 19 years since Columbine rocked America to its core, the country has seen so many more mass shootings that the attack isn’t even among the 10 deadliest mass shootings in modern US history.

“Three of the five deadliest shootings have occurred in just the last year and a half. Let alone school shootings the lack of gun control has brought upon us”

The Harvest Music Festival: 58 killed
Pulse nightclub: 49 killed
First Baptist Church in Sutherland Springs: 26 killed
Luby’s Cafeteria: 23 killed

This list can go on and on. This is where I have issue with both the NRA and our Federal, State and Local Governments. The NRA has made too many concessions and given away too many freedoms in order to effect a compromise. They continue to do this. I feel there needs to be a Criminal Background Check, and a Medical History Background Check to confirm whether someone that is a danger to society or mentally ill or unstable are not able to purchase firearms. Meaning they have not been diagnosed with Paranoid Schizophrenia, or any other mental illness that requires drugs to maintain their “normal”. The problem seen in the states is first and foremost the culture around guns and gun ownership. What could be of some use to start to change that is tighter gun restrictions on who can own a gun and who can buy ammo etc. Some say that it’s easy to get a gun illegally which is true BUT most mass shootings seem to happen when a unstable person has easy access to guns. That is the major problem. I am not in support of banning guns necessarily but there is something to be said for countries that have. The statistics show where there are tighter restrictions on guns such as Canada and the UK there are less shootings and gun crimes in general. So my conclusion in not to ban all guns, or to make harsher punishments for people that commit gun crimes in order to deter future criminals; My point is mainly to say the government and other agencies need to help change the culture around guns and make it harder for people to get guns, especially automatic rifles and pistols. If everyone has guns there will be more gun violence not the other way. The logic behind the saying “the only thing that will stop a bad man with a gun is a good man with a gun” is simply not correct. This could be argued all day but I want to end on that note. The culture needs to change. Change has to be made in order to make progress we have to do better with who we let bear these weapons.

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Gun Control – The Unforeseen Dangers of Unchecked Firearms

To say that guns are dangerous and need to be controlled is putting our situation mildly. Every year, 36,000 Americans die from guns, that is nearly 100 people killed every day (America’s Background Check 2019). The American situation is dire, with the need for reform on gun control increasing everyday. School shootings, gun related homicides, and gun related suicides can all be reduced or avoided with the help of more complex legislation. The second amendment needs to be amended as militias are not relevant anymore, and therefore, making it constitutional to pass advanced legislation to have more comprehensive background checks and restrict the American public from buying assault rifles.

Gun control has been an incredibly controversial topic for years, with many affected from gun violence every year and the need to be protected in one’s own home, many have clashing opinions. These opposing viewpoints have created many organizations that are for and against gun control. These organizations include the Brady Campaign which fights for more comprehensive background and checks and the National Rifle Association which want to keep the second amendment the way it is. These values have spawned many arguments about the pros and cons of guns, and if they need to be taken away from the hands of civilians. As stated earlier, many people are affected by gun violence, with mass shootings becoming one of the ultimate causes of fear. On December 14th, 2012, A shooter opened fire inside Sandy Hook elementary school. Adam Lanza, the shooter, fatally shot 20 children and adults. The police investigated what could have caused this to happen, as it turned out, Lanza had several mental health issues (Sandy Hook Elementary 2012). He also had access to these deadly weapons and mixed with his mental health, he become disturbed enough to become a shooter. Gun control activists say that this is why we need to restrict the sales of guns, meanwhile, pro gun activists say that this is why we need more guns to protect people from shooters.

The second amendment is a vastly outdated part of our constitution, as it merely states, “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State…”. In 1791, when this amendment became part of the Bill of Rights, there was no guaranteed safety by federal officials. People were forced to protect themselves from foreign and local threats. Yet, we now have organized police forces and a very powerful military, ensuring our safety from many perils. However, most militias do provide a sense of security for some local neighborhoods and families. Many patrol the Mexico-America border, stopping illegal immigrants from crossing (Bauer 2016). Yet, since militias are made up of private citizens, the government does not sanction their actions or beliefs. In fact, many of these groups are anti-government. A powerful and influential militia organization the Three Percenters warned, “all politics in this country now is just dress rehearsal for civil war” (Nuckols 2013). Such a rhetoric has been embraced by many other Militias, with many calling for training against government threats. These militias are afraid that the American government will/have been invaded by foreigners and will force them to give away all of their firearms. It is argued that the second amendment was created to keep the government from becoming tyrannical and dangerous. Although such an argument is very hard to make, considering the United States military is much more advanced and better equipped. Some of these militias have more discreet goals, such as instilling fear in the hearts and minds of immigrants. For example, three Kansas militia men were convicted of plotting to bomb a mosque and the homes of Somali immigrants. Luckily, they were thwarted by another member of their group who ended up telling authorities about the planned attack (Kansas militia men 2019). These groups do keep some people feeling safe and protected, yet, they instill fear in those who do, in fact, believe that these groups are legitimate in their goals and claims.

Complex legislature and revision to the second amendment would prove to keep Americans much safer than they already are. Among these emendations would be more complex and universal background checks. As stated by the Brady Campaign, “97% of Americans support an expanded background check system” (America’s Background Check 2019). A major error in our background check system is the private sale gap loophole. Private sellers do not need to use background checks, in fact, 1 in 5 guns are sold by private sellers, avoiding background checks completely (America’s Background Check 2019). Such a loophole can put american in serious danger, and closing this loophole would be welcomed by the majority of America. Currently, the Brady Campaign is fighting to keep Americans safe, but is met with resistance from groups such as the National Rifle Association (NRA).

Assault rifles in the hands of untrained, unprepared civilians is a fatal mistake for America. Assault rifles are fun to shoot for some, yet, many of the same guns are used by the United States military (Cook, Goss 2014). Such powerful weapons must be kept away from the untrained hands of the American public. Assault rifles, used by the military, are created to inflict the most amount of casualties the fastest. While many are not automatic and only fire one bullet every time the trigger is pulled, they are still incredibly dangerous (The Gun Control Debate 2019). Compared to various pistols and handguns, these assault rifles have much more power and many have additions, such as silencers, that can be added onto them. Such weapons include the AR15, a deadly variation of the military’s M16. The M16 is a common gun used by the United States government, meanwhile the AR15 is the civilian version. This gun is a semi-automatic weapon, however, it is legal to add a “bump stock”, effectively turning a semi-automatic weapon into an automatic assault rifle. In fact, in 1994 president Bill Clinton signed an assault rifle ban, which prohibited guns such as the AR15. In the following years, the amount of mass shootings did drop, however, they did not end (Myre 2018). Unfortunately, the ban expired in 2004, allowing the American public to buy these weapons of mass destruction again.

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The ‘International’, the ‘Global’ and the ‘Planetary’: essay help free

What are the key differences between the ‘International’, the ‘Global’ and the ‘Planetary’? Why are these important?

Introduction

The “International”, the “Global”, and the “Planetary” represent the stages of evolution of the discipline of International Relations, which was shaped by theories diverging on “the relationship between agency, process, and social structure” (Wendt, 1992, p422). This essay will attempt to identify, critique and reflect upon the most fundamental differences between the three. I identified their key differences to be: the conceptualisations of the international arena, types of politics, driving motivation behind their politics, types of actors, quality of dynamics, identities and interests, and security. In the subsequent sections, I will critically expose each of these concepts in the framework of the “International”, the “Global”, and the “Planetary”, and speculate on their relevance.

The International Paradigm

The discipline of International Relations, also known as IR, has always been divided by many theories on how to theorise the world, and whether or not elements such as history, philosophy, morals and politics played a significant role in it. The many theories which scatter across IR give to the aforementioned elements different grounds of importance, or no importance at all. In the realm of the discipline of IR, Realism is the Queen theory. The other approaches mostly had the merit of adding elements which the discipline acquired and assimilated through its evolution over the centuries. Nonetheless, the school of thought of Realism is the theory which provided the discipline with its foundation, structure and precise conceptualisation of the actors who rule the discipline of International Relations.

Realism states that the ground stage on which the international actors interact is within a timeless sphere of anarchy, in which States base their relations on Realpolitik, power politics. As a result, the quality of the elapsing exchanges is permeated by overbearingness and selfishness, prevarication of interests of the “stronger” State upon the “weaker” State, distrust, disloyalty, and so on. IR, according to Realism, conceptualises the international arena within Realpolitik, which means applying the original concept of Realpolitik to the international system. Realpolitik is a concept which was coined in Germany in the Nineteenth Century to indicate the pursuit of pragmatic politics, without taking much into account morals and ethics when making a policy decision. Applying the concept of Realpolitik to the international arena meant conceptualising an international system of relations which is more concerned with the pursuit of pragmatic objectives, of selfish politics which would benefit the single State who is pursuing it, rather than the international system. Therefore, the quality of the exchanges happening between States, in turn, did not offer fertile soil for the establishment of international cooperation between States or leagues of States.

It is an international system founded on, and functioning through, power politics. Because of the assumption that Anarchy governs the international system, the only possible actor who is strong enough to survive and interact with the system to pursue and defend its interests, is the State. Therefore, there is only space for State-based politics and the conception of the “International” is an inter-State system exclusively. This is the State-based paradigm of International Relations, and, as the only actors in the international system, they are depicted as rational and autonomous, acting in a static, and consequences-less anarchy. States come into the international arena already equipped with an identity and a set of interests. Therefore, a conception of pre-made identities and interests characterises the international arena, and the only objective of their interactions is power, to gain more and to protect what amount of power one has.

The Origins of The Discipline

To genuinely comprehend the discipline of IR and its mission, one must dive into its origins and subsequent evolution. Different philosophical beliefs and paradigms oppositely approached international relations through conceptualisations of study, politics, dynamics and instruments. IR finds its roots in historical, theoretical, philosophical, political frameworks which, once combined, coined the discipline, whose development culminated with its sudden fall after the end of the Cold War.

To further explain the historical, theoretical, philosophical, political origins of my previous statement I will refer to the work of International Relations scholar, Martin Wight, who was a professor at the London School of Economics.

Wight started studying International Relations when the discipline was gaining momentum and celebrity status in the United States in the 1950s, under the denomination of “A Theory of International Relations”. The scientific or behaviourist movement of the United States developed the belief that if you were to study behaviours attentively enough, one could explain the events that have intersected the faiths of countries in the past, present, and even predict future political intersections between States. This belief gave birth to Modern International Relations, as a rejection of “old” Realist views on the matters of International Politics. Therefore, this wave of Neo-Realism tried to move past the “obsolete methodology of existing general works about International Relations, especially those of Realist writers such as E. H. Carr, George F. Kennan and Hans Morgenthau, which formed the staple academic diet of the time” (Bull, 1976, p 103).

It is imperative to take in mind the element of history if one wants to genuinely understand why the theory of Neo-Realism, which undoubtedly represents an oversimplified framework of the exchanges between States, gained such relevance. This view on International Relations was developed right after the end of World War II, in a post-war world that had lost many things to a conflict which many, if not most, deemed useless, and, above all, evitable. Even the mere idea of a discipline which could avoid the repeating of such events, through the detailed analysis of everyday political events and politicians national and international behaviours, was sufficient justification or motivation for a world that had starved many years for hope.

Wight argued that “it is no accident that international relations have never been the subject of any great theoretical work, that there is “a kind of disharmony between international theory and diplomatic practice, a kind of recalcitrance of international politics to being theorised about” (Bull, 1976, p 114). Therefore, in an effort to alleviate this disharmony, he developed his vision to contribute to the debate, and he based it on the commingling of history, philosophy, morals, and politics. Wight “saw the Theory of International Relations […] as a study in political philosophy or political speculation pursued by way of an examination of the main traditions of thought about International Relations in the past” (Bull, 1976, p 103).

He initially decided to divide it into three main categories, each one representing a great thinker of the past. Later on, he identified a possible fourth category, the Inverted Revolutionists, based on a pacifist current inspired by Christianism, Leo Tolstoy and Mahatma Gandhi.

The three main categories are the Machiavellians, from Niccolò Machiavelli’s ideals; Grotians, from Hugo Grotius’s; and the Kantians’, from the work of Immanuel Kant. Each one of them ideated their interpretations on the conception of human nature, the critical units of analysis of the international system, its dynamics and instruments, and the definition of political space and its characteristics.

Machiavelli theorised that the human nature is only driven by self-interest and permeated with greediness. He identified that the critical unit of analysis for understanding the international arena is the recognition of its state of anarchy, which is dominated by dynamics of warfare, power, security and gathering of resources. The political space, exactly like the human nature, is filled only with self-interest and no morality. Machiavelli provided the base on which Realist theories laid their foundations.

Grotius, unlike Machiavelli and the subsequent most fervent Realists, considers the human a rational being who operates within the State, which subsequently engages in international relations in an international system which, like men, runs on rationality. Everything about Grotius’s theory is permeated with rationality, and the quality of the dynamics of the international arena is a reflection of such. Indeed, he believed that the dynamics of the international arena are ruled by diplomacy, negotiations, institutions and norms because the political space is dominated by institutions and by order. Grotius represents moderation and the voice of reason for the successful establishment of an international system based on rationality and cooperation, not on violence and distrust like the system painted by Machiavelli in his most famous works, The Prince and Discourses in the First Decade of Titus Livy. Grotius speculates on the doctrine of an international system based on a society of states working together towards common goals, he dreams of an international society, in direct opposition with the sharp, realist concept of national societies above all. It is “the idea […] that international politics is not just a matter of relations between states, but also a matter of so-called “transnational” relations among the individuals and groups that states compose” (Bull, 1976, p112).

Kant theories that the human nature is good, peaceful, a supporter of solidarity and cooperation. He believed in a global community and in an ideal man who would contribute to its flourishment. The dynamics revolve around policies for cooperation, international trade and exchange, and they would eventually enable the development of a political space represented by a cosmopolitan society. In one of his works, “Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch”, he goes as far as developing a plan for governments of the world to follow to establish peace for the world, because peace has to come above all. He dreams of a political space which is characterised by the emancipation from State and by an international confederation and the disruption of geographical boundaries.

Moreover, Wight believed that “the truth about international politics had to be sought not in any one of these patterns of thought but in the debate among them” (Bull, 1976, p 110). Machiavelli’s theory is also most notoriously known as Realism. Grotius represents Rationalism, and Kant is Revolutionism, and each one is a founding brick of the discipline of International Relations. Each theory went through transformative changes over the decades. For example, Machiavelli’s Realism turned into Neo-Realism in the 1970s and 1980s and turned into Modernist or Positivist in the 1990s. Grotius’s Rationalism found a new key of interpretation in the English School, between the 1940s and 1960s. Kant’s Revolutionism went from Idealism in the 1920s – 1930s to Neo-Liberalism and Neo-Institutionalism in 1970s and 1980s .

The State-Based Approach to Security

I end this excursus on the origins of the discipline of international relations here, and I catch this occasion to list another key aspect which sets the International paradigm apart from the global and the planetary. And it is its State-based approach to security, which meant that only the State was in charge of taking the necessary measurements aimed at safety, preservation and survival of a country. This implied a severe limit at the protection of one’s nation because “weak” nations did not possess a force of power tantamount to the one of a “strong” country. Therefore, a “weak” state was in the thrall of the anarchic international system, and if a nation wanted to exercise its power to gain more resources, it could attack it, without an international community which would defend it or even dissuade a predator country from invading it.

Methodological Nationalism

The theory of Methodological Nationalism offered a base to understand and organise the life and cycles of IR. It provided the discipline with a source of legitimacy. “Methodological Nationalism […] equates societies with nation-state societies, and sees states and their governments as the cornerstones of social-scientific analysis. It assumes that humanity is naturally divided into a limited number of nations, which internally organise themselves as nation-states and externally set boundaries to distinguish themselves from other nation-states” (Beck, 2003, p 453). It’s the perfect theory to justify the Realist approach to IR. It combined realist accents with the belief that there is only one-world World, everything else merely points at other ways to look at the same one-world world. Methodological nationalism is founded on six core beliefs: a plurality of Societies; Societies are subordinated to the Nation-State; States run on territorial “State-constructed” boundaries (Beck, 2003, p454); State and Society both determinate themselves through a circular belief: the nation is creator and protector of Society’s plethora of rights, and the individuals of the Society organize themselves in movements to influence the actions of the Nation-State, which, in turn, also legitimises the State again; “both States and Societies are located within the dichotomy of national and international” (Beck, 2003, p454); the state is the provider of social order and provides the scholars of multiple disciplines with the data about the country necessary to them. (Beck, 2003). Moreover, the core elements of this theory engage in constant activities which result in continuous determination and further legitimisation of one and the other, without leaving any room for the introduction of new elements.

The Decline of legitimacy of the Discipline

The international paradigm of the discipline experienced a major setback after the end of the Cold War, which left everyone baffled. Also, it left everyone unprepared for the events which followed it. The discipline of IR lost credibility as a predictor of events because all of the academics and IR contemporary theorists indeed failed at predicting one of the most history-shaping events of last century. Moreover, even the assumptions of State-based politics faltered, especially after the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers of September 11th, 2001. The discipline was built upon the framework of conceiving the world from the point of view of a State, indeed a State-based approach, preferably a white, Western one.

The end of the Cold War put into question the sounding of the reasoning behind the discipline, and the terrorist attack struck the final hit. It forced scholars, and politicians alike, to recognise the existence of worlds beyond the “Western World”. I am not here to speculate on whether or not the terrorist attack would have happened if the united states had not imposed their ways in the Middle East for years on end. But I am here to point out that the terrorist attack lifted the veil and it made it impossible for the discipline to ever go back to its original frameworks.

I believe that, at this Realist stage, the discipline used to run on such limited territorial lines that its failure had always been around the corner. Proof of this is that it only took a major event such as the abrupt end of the Cold War for it to crumble and for the scholars to put its frameworks into question altogether. Nonetheless, I do believe that the ultimate cause for the failure of the discipline has to be found on the terrorist attack, which slashed the core beliefs of many, terrorised an entire world, and scarred a whole generation forever. The fear that came afterwards paralysed the world for a moment. Somehow, the introduction of an undefinable enemy turned the discipline of IR on its head. State-based politics, as flawed as they were, were easily graspable and easily manageable: they played alongside the rules of an accepted framework. But 9/11? What was that? Under what category would it fall in the limited structures “allowed” by the discipline? A terrorist attack from an undefinable actor was inconceivable; it did not fit even in the corner of the discipline. The discipline was lacking something. The discipline was wrong.

A Critique of IR, and The Rise of the Global

Eventually, what were the core beliefs of the discipline of International Relations, turned out to be their very own self-limiting beliefs which did not allow the discipline to evolve with time into a comprehensive and complete discipline which provides an adequate understanding of the world and the exchanges which elapse within it.

“The fact that worlds of power politics are socially constructed […] does not guarantee they are malleable”, which is one of the flaws which contributed to the fall of IR, and “through practice agents are continuously producing and reproducing (the same) identities and interests. (Wendt, 1992, p411).

It’s a discipline based on seeing, experiences and conceptualising the world from a State-based only perspective, which results into the provision of a partial and meagre framework of understanding of the exchanges occurring in the world. It is a very limited perspective which lent a voice only to the white, Western Elite.

At the break of the new century, people started looking for other outlooks to replace entirely the failure that the “International” represented. In this time of international (relations) crisis, talks about what will come to be known as the ‘Global’ sprung everywhere. They will bring into the conversation a mixture of concepts which classical IR theories did not cover: Constructivism, gender issues, the need for Morals, Critical Discourses, Post-colonialism, and subsequently, the rise of the Anthropocene.

The Main Paradigms of the “Global”: Social Constructivism and Critical Thinking

“The cosmopolitan perspective dismisses the either-or principle of realism: either the State exists, albeit only as an essential core, or it does not exist at all; either there is national sovereignty – a zero-sum game between national and international competence – or there is no sovereignty at all. From a cosmopolitan perspective, “Realism” is a kind of political irrealism because it neglects the possibility and reality of a second “Great Transformation” of the global power game” (Beck, 2003, p457).

These words from Ulrich Beck, one of the most significant theorists of the Global, summarise the stark contraposition between the “International” and the “Global”. In the 1990s, debates about the Global came in to dismantle the limiting beliefs at the core of the discipline, which flawed for its lack of inclusiveness and overbearingness. The arrival of the global represented the fall of the exclusive domain of binary Left and Right politics as well.

The opening of the discipline of IR to a Global Era brings a new opportunity to engage with the world from a non-State-based position, through the development of many, pluriversal approaches: Constructivist, Critical and Cosmopolitan approaches. The Global Era represents a commingling of these new approaches, and the final result portrays how “the cosmopolitan perspective opens up negotiation spaces and strategies which the national viewpoint precludes. […] The negotiation space the cosmopolitan viewpoint opens up contradicts the absence of alternatives.” (Beck,2003, p466).

They introduce new ways of seeing and thinking about politics, global interests, and global concerns. The Global aims at creating a universal vision to build a liberal and global community, in which the States are not the centre of IR speculation anymore. The international arena is also positively shaken up by the appearance of new international actors which are not states: it’s the rise of the global civil society and Non-Governmental Agencies (Kaldor, 2003). Moreover, through the development of new international dynamics, Nation-States become the product, not the subjects, of the international arena (Jackson, 1990; Krasner, 1999).

Two paradigms of thought especially shaped this evolutionary period of IR: the social constructive/liberal and the critical/deconstructive.

The maintenance of the inter-State system, alongside the rise in popularity of theories of Global sovereignty, characterise the new international order. The emergence of the Global requires a new understanding of the mechanisms of the international arena because “It is the collective meanings that constitute the structures which organise our actions” (Wendt, 1992, p397). Therefore, with the evolutionary passage towards a new stage of the discipline of IR, scholars and citizens alike require a new framework of concepts. Social Constructivism achieves just that by providing a sociological understanding of interactions which challenge previous IR thinking. Alexander Wendt, a leading Constructivist theorist, explains how Constructivists believe that the international system and its frameworks are socials constructs, not beliefs that should be taken as “a given” (Wendt, 1992). Therefore, the significance of everything regarding IR comes “out of interaction” (Wendt, 1992, p403). According to Realism, States come into the international arena already equipped with an identity and a set of interests. Alexander Wendt, in direct opposition to Realism, speculates on “how knowledgeable practices constitute subjects”, and how Constructivism can contribute to “identity and interest formation” (Wendt, 1992, p394). They elaborate on the idea that the creation of an identity and set of interests happen through the elapsing exchanges between States in the international arena. “Actors acquire identities by participating in such collective meanings” (Wendt, 1992, p397). Therefore, actors do not enter the international arena with pre-formed identities, but they create one during their contacts with other states. And the same goes for their interests, which are formed while experiences these exchanges. Different exchanges will show how countries can have a variegated set of interests, depending on the circumstances (Wendt, 1992). Therefore, identities and interests are not a given, and their establishment happens during the socialisation process.

The paradigm of the Critical thinking supported the rise of the global because it opened the door for the emancipation of security from the state-based approach. (Booth, 1991). Critical theorists, alongside Constructivists, discuss the treatment of human security and how the obstacles to human security are constructed. The particular interests of States are a barrier to a universalist liberal approach to global rights and justice. Instead, supporters of Foucauldian critics see the rise of the global as a negative shift. The pursuit of global liberal “governmentality” and “biopolitics” are a negative aspiration for the security of States, which will end up having to rely on the international community. “The undermining of the politics of state-based representation and the globalisation of regulatory power has become the starting assumption for the postructuralist “scaling up” of Foucault in critiques of global governmentality” (Chandler, 2009, p536). Lemke (2001) shows how Foucault used concepts regarding governmentality in a way closer to realism than constructivism, which indicates a critique of the doctrine and its “obsession” with subjectification.

Another fundamental difference of the Global, in opposition with the International, is highlighted attention on Morals and Ethics, which have to have a more profound impact on the decisions of the Nation-State. Indeed, the rise of humanitarian aid actions and acts of global cooperation are proof of that. The global perspective introduces a new critical theory of social inequalities which shines a light on the need to provide aid to nations, minorities or whoever is in considerable need (Beck, 2003). Beck (2003) critics how the original IR used methodological nationalism to remove from its agenda the tackling of global inequalities. “Thus, the bigger blind spots – and sources of error- of methodological nationalism linked to research on inequality will only be recognisable by means of a systemic switch from the national to the cosmopolitan perspective. It is only within the framework of such a new critical theory of social inequality that the fundamental asymmetry of inequality perception […] can be unravelled” (Beck, 2003, p459). Nonetheless, he highlights also how the shift to a global perspective is still not enough to put a real fight against inequalities. Until “there is no global jurisdiction and reporting institution to survey global inequalities, these will remain disintegrated into a motley pattern of national-state inequalities” (Beck, 2003, p461).

International cooperation also brings a Decentring of State-based approaches to security, which in turn, produces more equilibrium and guarantees more safety to “weak” nations. The global brings about the creation of a “cooperative security system, in which states identify positively with one another so that the security of each is perceived as the responsibility of all” (Wendt, 1992, p400).

A Critique of Methodological Nationalism

Globalisation theorists deeply criticise Methodological Nationalism, a stream of thought which profoundly shaped the direction of the original discipline of IR, through the definition of its narrow frameworks. Ulrich Beck, one of the most famous theorists of the cosmopolitan approach, offers a brilliant critique of it. Methodological nationalism only manages to produce a continuous cycle of self-limiting beliefs which do not allow room for adaptation to new contemporary challenges. It is tiring and continuous contraposition between them or us, north or south, weak or strong. Its concepts are not appropriate anymore in the rise of the global age. He calls for a “paradigmatic reconstruction and redefinition of social science from a national to a cosmopolitan perspective [which] can be understood as […] a broadening of horizons for social science research” (Beck, 2003, p456). “Social science must be re-established as a transnational science of the reality of denationalisation, transnationalisation, and “re-ethnification” in a global age – and this is on the levels of concepts. Theories, and methodologies as well as organizationally. This entails a re-examination of the fundamental concepts of “modern society” (Beck, 2003, p458).

The cosmopolitan age requires a redefinition of the understanding of sovereignty in both the national and international context (Beck, 2003). Therefore, he states that “traditional conceptualisations of terms and the construction of borders between the “national” and the “international”, domestic and foreign politics, or Society and the State are less and less appropriate to tackling the challenges linked to the global age” (Beck, 2003, p456). Therefore, the main focus on the debate of globalisation has to be “on gaining a new cosmopolitan perspective on the global power field, pushing new actors and actors’ networks, power potentials, strategies. And forms of organisation of debonded politics into the field of vision” (Beck, 2003, p 467). Nonetheless, Beck (2003), stresses the importance of not mistaking the critique of this theory for the end of the nation-state theory: nation-state will always exist or will evolve into a new concept close to a possible transnational states theory.

The new Era of Planetary Politics of the Anthropocene

From the 2010s, discussions about a new concept called Anthropocene replaced the Global, which had declined in popularity because the translation of the global theories into reality did not appear to focus on achieving global forms of liberal governments anymore, nor did its original aim seemed to carry a positive connotation anymore. Furthermore, “the lack of strategic engagement […] (was) fundamental to the appeal of the Global Ideology” (Chandler, 2009, p540). Therefore, the rise of depreciative theories of the global made the world of scholars look for another direction. The crisis of the global did not produce a return to the past of IR, but rather a perspective of the problematics of IR.

The rise of the Anthropocene is strictly connected with the development of theories on pluriversalism, multiple universes. Blaney and Tickner (2017) discuss how an ontological turn of IR could exorcise “singular world logics introduced by colonial modernity” and allow the discipline to interact with the conception of pluriversalism. By studying on various sources, they develop “the potentials of a politics of ontology for unmaking the colonial universe, cultivating the pluriverse, and crafting a de-colonial science.” (Blaney and Tickner, 2017, p293). They suggest the presence of alternative world realities, which could produce “multiple and hybrid “reals”” (Blaney and Tickner, 2017, p295).

Both Global and Planetary do not see the world in terms of State-based theories of strategy and interests. Therefore, there is no intern-national theory. The predominant discussions of these two theories are about the how we understand and see the world beyond the strict assumptions of the discipline of IR.

Bruno Latour (1993) goes as far as to say that the modern society is stuck in “great divides”, mainly in the frameworks of nature/culture, human/non-human, facts/values, mind/body. These separations allow Western society “to claim to represent a singular reality in a unified science untainted by political interest, power or culture. […] Nature and culture are not discrete categories but intertwined in a multiplicity of hybrid assemblages […] modernity’s particular mode of representing reality is not universally shared. […] many communities do not sharply distinguish humans and other entities, so that animals, plants, and spirits are as much “people” (with consciousness, culture and language) as “we” are” (Blaney and Ticker, 2017, p296). The western societies start paying attention the profoundly original ways of seeing the world, which come from cultures that they had ignored. From them they take new eyes to look at the world: they discern how human activities never separated themselves from the earth’s ecosystem. It is the explosion of a real global conscience with the birth a planetary community, who is aware of the environment and the consequences of humanity’s actions on the planet. This also brought the awareness of agencies that had always been ignored by western society in the international arena: the equal presence of Human and non-human actors; nature declined in many agencies: water, air, etc., and cosmos.

The Planetary is aware that humankind with its actions has changed the planet we live in: the ecosystem, flora and fauna. And the planetary politics have started addressing these problems and, thanks to the rise of a planetary sense of community, governments of many countries have started doing something about it.

The era of the Anthropocene in IR is still relatively new; therefore, there is not as much debate about is as there has been for the International and the Global, but it is visible how planetary seems to have taken away the biggest concern of original IR, which is the gain of power. The race for power which has theorised the first conception of the discipline has come very close to destroying our world and the most recent “update” on IR now works on how to “fix” the unfixable. Planetary politics can be regarded as the least optimistic era of our history, and the only stream of thought which has offered a possible way to save our planet comes from the cultures the western society had tried to crash and integrate within it for centuries.

Conclusion

I will conclude by stating that identifying the key differences between the international, global and planetary is crucial because they show the development of the frameworks within which humankind moved and evolved, over the centuries, the conflicts and the scientific developments. Therefore, these differences provide the world with a reflection of the changing times and the world’s rejection of a one-world World, hegemony and lack of representation of multiple identities, interests, and beliefs. We have only recently entered the phase of planetary politics, although 8 years in IR provide a discreet amount of material; therefore, it is too soon to speculate on whether or not the attempts operated by the Anthropocene of preserving our planet will be fruitful, but it is definitely an improvement from the “International” paradigm of IR.

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2018-4-12-1523522615

Organisational Behaviour: An Analysis Of A Team-Based Approach To Working In The Case Of Phil Jones

Abstract

The aim of this essay is to discuss at length and critically evaluate group and team development and behavioural theories in practice, with reference to the case study concerning Phil Jones and his Gulf Project Team, within Engineering Co, evaluating if a team based approach to work is effective within organisations. It firstly establishes to what extent Phil Jones’ analysis of his group’s current situation is accurate, referring Tuckman and Jensen’s stages of group development in evaluating this. Then it discusses the possible interventions that could be made by Phil to allow his team to get back on track, and reach the performing stage of team development. It is then noted that a possible intervention that could assist the team in reaching this stage is to become a virtual team. The potential issues facing virtual teams are then evaluated, and are contrasted with the issues faced by Phil Jones’ team, with possible solutions offered to issues facing such virtual teams and virtual team leaders, allowing them to reach the performing stage. Finally this essay critically analyses the strengths and weaknesses of a team-based approach to work as a whole, drawing from Phils Jones’ case, a range of literature, and anecdotal experience to conclude that the use of a team-based approach to work can be an effective way of working, through the use of strong e-leadership skills and technology to manage teams virtually.

Introduction

In contemporary society a team-based approach to working is becoming evermore common (Callanhan, 2004), and has become prominent among project teams in the engineering industry (Schaffer et al, 2012). Hence it is unsurprising that a project team; a group of individuals whom come together for an individual task, disbanding after its conclusion (Poel, Stoker and Van der Zee, 2014), is used in Phil Jones’ case for the Gulf Project within Engineering Co. Despite the high popularity of a team-based approach to project work, it is debatable if such approaches are the most efficient way of working, due to the myriad of issues which can arise amongst a team due to poor leadership, leading to them struggling to perform. However when teams succeed the benefits of a team-based approach to project work are reaped (Terry, 1999). Hence through an analysis of group and team development, discussion of interventions made to aid team development, and an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of a team-based approach, with reference to Phil Jones’ case, it can be established if a team-based approach to project work is effective within organisations in modern society.

Tuckman and Jensen’s Stages of Group Development in the Case of Phil Jones

Initially Phil Jones lacked the training to deal with people issues amongst the group and lead his team. Initially it must be noted that teams and groups are defined differently. A group consists of a number of individuals all of whom accomplish their tasks independently, which have a similar purpose (Gilley and Kerno Jr, 2010). Smith (1967) also gives the description of a group saying that it is two or more individuals who collaborate, share common objectives and norms and have a communal identity. Although different researchers, both give a similar description of a group in that individuals still have common goals. The definition of a team is very similar to a group, however; a group may not be a team but a team may be a group. Hence these terms cannot be used interchangeably. Baldwin et al (2008) defined a team as a group of individuals who have a great amount intercommunication and interdependence, sharing equal responsibility in their appointed objective. The clear difference between a group and a team is therefore the higher level of interdependence and equal responsibility a team has in achieving their objective.

To remedy his teams’ issues, to make them stop working as a group and start working as a team, Phil read about the stages of group development (Tuckman 1965). Tuckman and Jensen (1977), defined five group development stages, the initial two of which are; forming (Tuckman 1965); when team members get to know each other; unlikely to disagree with their teammates to avoid conflict at an early stage, and storming; defined by Bonebright (2009), as involving disagreements; with frictions in the group as the individual roles and tasks of team members can be unclear, leading to work moving slower than anticipated and team tensions. Phil concluded his group was stuck at the storming stage, and struggled to see how to resolve conflict and reach stages three, four and five defined by Tuckman and Jensen (1977) as; norming; where group members understand their roles and goals, feeling belonging among the team; storming; where the group works effectively as one, building on each others strengths and weaknesses, and finally adjourning; where the group completes their project, evaluates and disbands.

Using Tuckman and Jensen’s 1977 stages of group development conclusively Phil’s diagnosis of the situation is correct, as there are similarities between the storming stage of group development and Phil’s teams position. The case study exemplifies the transition of the team from the forming stage to the storming stage. Phil generated competition within the team, as in his opinion a team needs disagreements to achieve creative innovative ideas. Phil’s point of view is that teams need some debate, as this is what happens among teams in the storming stage, in order to reach the norming stage. Instead of this, the team ended up with more issues than accomplishments, getting stuck in the storming stage, resulting in Phil having to deal with more disputes between team members than project developments. This is common; according to Gersick (1988) many teams end up being stuck in the storming stage, never moving onto the performing stage due to poor management of disputes by leaders like Phil. Hence the project is falling behind due to the lack of clarity of instruction regarding team members roles from Phil as a leader, leading to multiple members completing the same work, resulting in a waste of capital and time. Fapohunda (2013) claims clarity is one of the main elements that concerns team members at storming stage, stating it is often the cause of all disputes regarding roles within in the team. This suggests that due to poor leadership from Phil through misguided attempts to bring the group together through conflict, to gain a sense of belonging as found in the norming stage, interventions are needed to overcome mistakes made by Phil to get out of the storming stage.

Hackman’s Team Leadership Mistakes In the Case Of Phil Jones

Hackman’s work (1998) is used to show the common mistakes made with teams, all of which are a common feature in the Gulf Project Team at Engineering Co. One of the obvious mistakes defined by Hackman (1998) and displayed by Phil Jones is attempting to build a team by managing them as individuals, encouraging members to lack communication with each other, hampering the norming stages characteristic of team spirit. In Phil’s team this is difficult to avoid, as the physical distance of the members placed in different locations hampers any attempt from Phil to motivate members not only communicate with him; the only member to have physically met everyone, but to communicate with each other to gain a sense of team belonging. This leads to another mistake featured in Hackman’s 1998 work, exemplified by The Gulf Project Team; a lack of agreement regarding roles, authority, and boundaries for all team members. This issue is also difficult to avoid within Phil’s team, as it is harder for the team to agree on limitations, delegation and boundaries if they can’t physically meet and work things out, suggesting that distance has again hampered the teams communication and sense of belonging. This exemplifies a further mistake made on Phil’s part featured in Hackman’s 1998 work; a clear lack of planning and execution of tasks. To resolve this Phil must show organisational skill, delegating work effectively, to stop time being wasted through duplicated work, fracturing the teams’ sense of belonging further.

The final mistake shown by Phil Jones featured in Hackman’s 1998 work, is assuming all the members of the ‘team’ have the necessary skills to work together, despite being a diverse group from multiple cultural backgrounds, who are unknown to each other. Phil shows poor leadership regarding his cultural awareness surrounding his authority and responsibility in decision-making, and is naïve, being “sure everything would somehow have fallen into place as at first people appeared to be committed to the project and the team”. The forming stage is crucial to team development. By distancing himself from this stage, encouraging team conflict over team belonging despite members’ diversity in the teams’ early stages, he has created a fractured team. He must rectify this; as workplace diversity is becoming increasingly important in society (Parham and Muller, 2008). Phil must not see this as an issue to progress, and accept today’s workforce is diversified. Instead of taking a Laissez-Faire approach, he must look to use this as an advantage, working to integrate cultures to produce the end result.

Phil is correct that his team is still in the storming stage of Tuckman’s stages development; hence he must address such mistakes. Phil must show leadership in the initial stages of getting the team back on track ensuring that until the team is norming it does not control itself, accepting delegation and clarity of roles and working practice. Once the team has a better understanding of each other he can allow them more freedom, as Matsudaira (2016) states “being a good leader means allowing the people around you to be experts in their domains”. Hence through understanding his team members and delegating efficiently Phil can get the best out of everyone, by drawing on motivation theories using social identity to get the best out of the team, giving each member a task suited to their skills they can be proud of. Lewis (2011) states social identity “refers to the desire of individuals to strive to maintain some perceived distinctiveness”. Hence if through interventions all dispersed group members can be motivated to take pride in the work through motivational leadership and a feeling of belonging through their role in the team, there will be no duplication of work and less conflict. Hence a key intervention Phil Jones could use to remedy all such issues and allow team to perform, and hence work as a team efficiently is the use of a virtual team.

The Use Of Virtual Project Teams To Reach The Performing Group Development Stage

A virtual team is defined as “a group of people who interact through interdependent tasks guided by common purpose and work across space, time, and organizational boundaries with links strengthened by information, communication, and transport technologies” (Gassman and Von Zedtwitz, 2003 p.244). Hence though leading a team in person is difficult (Lilian 2014), virtual project team leaders face greater issues. Kayworth and Leidner (2002) found virtual project teams face similar issues to traditional teams, more strongly in virtual settings, coupled with challenges linked to dispersion of members, high reliance on technology and strong communication. Consequently specific leadership strategies are needed. The strategy utilized by managers of virtual teams is e-leadership, defined as “a social influence process, mediated by advanced information technologies, to produce a change in attitudes, feelings, thinking, behaviour and/or performance with individuals, groups or organisations” (Avolio, Kahai and Dodge, 2001 p.617). Hence e-leaders utilize technology to resolve virtual team issues by influencing team behaviour, as the goals of leadership; motivation, vision, determination and innovation (Spicker, 2012) are unchanged, however the mediums implemented to resolve issues are vastly different in virtual project teams.

The initial issue e-leaders face when managing a virtual project team is distance. Distance in a virtual team is established by geography, time zone, and familiarity among team members. In Phil’s case, geography and time zone impeded the team’s success, as though cultural differences were the reason why Phil was the key communicator in the team, to some extent the issue of coordinating an appropriate time for group communication due to differing time zones hampered simultaneous work, proving detrimental in motivating the team to communicate with each other individually. Studies show this assumption. Cummings (2011) found differing work hours caused by time zones burdens team members and leaders. Such levels of dispersion of team members as in Phil’s case can hinder team members familiarity with each other, as he is the only person on the team to have communicated with all team members, reducing social familiarity, which is important to how teams operate (Zaccaro and Bader, 2002). To remedy this e-leaders can address distance by responding quickly to distance specific issues regarding deadlines, then finding a good time to use virtual meeting software, enhancing feelings of closeness through diverse technologies, achieving team performance and greater organisational values. Hence in Phil’s case making the team virtual would be positive in this aspect, as the use of technology would aid the team’s success as schedules and deadlines could easily be accessed by all. Furthermore greater feeling of closeness among team members through the use of virtual meetings could be made, allowing team members to contact each other directly, rather than through Phil.

Though physical distance can be remedied through this, cultural diversity regarding national culture, and values caused by dispersion requires other strategies to be taken. Diversity can be problematic as like in Phil’s case cultural expectations regarding work ethic, work execution and job roles can vary regionally (Burnelle, 2012), causing friction, misunderstandings and fractured communication in the team, with further difficulties when there is a language barrier. E-leaders can solve issues related to cultural diversity by designing team-building sessions through technological mediums to ensure team members understand each other’s cultural differences. They can also address ambiguous online communications, ensuring no misunderstandings. Furthermore promoting a sense of belonging in a virtual team keeps members engaged and stops feelings of isolation from the rest of the team, reducing in and out groups (Leonard, 2011). Therefore through accommodating diversity through teambuilding and technology Phil would be best making his project team virtual as it reduces cultural frictions, and improves members sense of belonging.

Though diversity can cause communication errors within a virtual team, such errors can also be caused by technological breakdowns and, as in Phil’s case; a lack of clarity given by leaders regarding the roles and behavioural expectations of team members, leading to work being completed incorrectly. Hence if the qualities of effective communication; “quantity, frequency and accuracy of information exchange” (Gallenkamp et al 2011, p.8) are unfulfilled, communication breakdowns occur, causing frictions and hampering the team’s success as in Phil’s team. Communication is difficult in a virtual team, as face-to-face communication is omitted from most communicative mediums, potentially deterring emphasis on certain points. The lack of face-to-face contact may cause interactions to lose social or contextual information (Purvanova and Bono, 2009), such as a member’s higher professional status, or higher level of expertise on a subject. Hence to resolve such issues, e-leaders must ensure it becomes habit to team members to maintain continuous contact with each other, and analysing communications to ensure clarity is given regarding roles and expectations. Video-chat technologies can mediate this issue. Hence by making his team virtual Phil could resolve his teams and his own communicative issues.

Hence by improving communication e-leaders create social belonging within a virtual team, eventually creating trust. Trust is important within virtual teams as it motivates individual members to fulfil their role, building dependability (Uber Grosse, 2002). If trust is not achieved conflicts and low group satisfaction occur, deterring the team’s chance of success, as in Phil’s case. E-leaders can create trust through video-chats and electronic meeting systems, promoting communication, joint-efforts and a shared understanding of team issues. Hence through motivating his team to communicate effectively and hence building trust through technological mediums, over-coming distance and diversity, Phil could bring his team to performing stage as a virtual team, by becoming an e-leader. Therefore the use of project teams can be effective within modern society, should a virtual team be used due to recent technological innovations.

Strengths and Weaknesses Of A Team Based Approach to Work

However even when using a virtual team there are strengths and weaknesses of a team based approach to work, within a group of individuals. Some may say a team-based approach to work is far more effective than accomplishing a complex task individually. This is because several people can divide the work up, decreasing individual workload and providing many different ideas to cope with the complexity of a task. Wageman (1997) stated several viewpoints are more suitable when the task is complicated. This is also supported by Klein (2005) stating multiple people are required to carry out a task if the workload is extravagant. Working in a team on a complex task also increases levels of creativity when completing a task. Amabile, et al. (1996) states teamwork increases creativity, as members all have different and diverse backgrounds, combined with the fact that members’ ideas are challenged by others within the team to reach common goals. Furthermore Moreland (2006) explains that working in a team will increase the ability of members’ to specifically remember and recall important project information to reach common goals. This is because members of a group are aware of each other and remember different pieces of information better than other members would. If a member forgets a piece of information another may remember and be able to recall it due to goal interdependence. The degree of goal interdependence will have a significant impact on all members of a team. If there is a high level of objective interdependence, this will enhance team members’ execution of current tasks (Emans, et al., 2001). The authors believe that a high degree of goal interdependence promotes cooperation amongst group members, hence improving performance when carrying out projects. Furthermore Emans, et al. (2001) states that this greater execution of interdependent tasks is positively correlated to group members job satisfaction.

However using a team is not always the most efficient method to complete a task, as each member of the team has a different perspective. Therefore, in team discussions, each team member will have different perceptions, which makes decision time-consuming. Hinsz, et al. (2003) noted how teams are very contemplative in operation; hence their time to make a decision is very slow; whereas an individual’s decision-making process is much faster. Cognitive thinking is also impeded due to the way people communicate in teams (Cooke, et al., 2013). Diehl and Stroebe (1987) elaborated saying that communication of ideas and knowledge interrupts cognitive thinking by preventing other team members from creating ideas. This is so as one person in a team talks at a time, hence planting their idea first and mitigating others thoughts. Members also suffer from being able to challenge a group decision once it is already being carried out. Hence even if the decision is working out poorly, group individuals will generally fail at proposing alternative strategies. Hinsz (2015) stated that teams cause members to lose their own self-awareness and even if a member has knowledge that a team decision is incorrect, or working ineffectively they will not query it.

One of the most substantial disadvantages of working in a team is social loafing. Usually one member of a large team tends to exert much less effort than the rest of the team. This not only causes frustration in other members, but also reduces the quality of the project. Harkins, et al. (1979) found that in larger groups the average performance of each person decreased, with the explanation that some individuals felt like they could slack whilst remaining undetected using the group. However now more than ever it is difficult for individuals not to be called out on ‘social loafing’ in a group, if a project team is managed effectively through technology. With the innovation of cloud based constantly editable software such as Google Docs, e-leaders such as Phil Jones can continuously check on the pace of work uploaded by his team members, ensuring work is completed accurately, creativley and at an appropriate pace to ensure deadlines are met, and furthermore giving such leaders the ability to know which individual team members are doing the majority of the work, allowing social loafers to be pulled up through virtual devices.

Conclusions

Conclusively a team-based approach to work though popular, can be inefficient if team leaders fail to assert their authority and leadership skills in early group formation ad storming stages, hindering their team from reaching the performing group development stage as defined by Tuckman and Jensen’s stages of group development. However should interventions be put in place such as a virtual team, teams can overcome the variety of social and communicative challenges that can face a failing dispersed team as defined by Hackman’s work, and as exemplified in The Gulf Project Team. Hence virtual teams can allow teams to perform effectively, with a review of literature concluding the use of a team-based approach to project work is effective within organisations in modern society, due to recent technological advances.

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Construction of identity and images of the communion in post-colonial Indonesia: college essay help online

Coexist with colonist; Construction of identity and images of the communion in post-colonial Indonesia.

Subject area, aims and objectives

Subject Area

Britain, Dutch and Japan are the three empires which politically colonised Indonesia for more than 100 years. After gaining their independence in 1945, Indonesia began constructing their identity to state their power and gain recognition from other countries. However, during the transition period, there are possibilities that the formation of identity may produce by doing assimilation with former colonist country by adjusting and adapting the existing colonist identity legacy. The relationship during colonial period between the individual and socio-cultural space is as follows shaped in a dual hybrid position, a hybrid that represents the identity of Indonesian communion.

This research would like to examine the visual representation of Indonesian communion. The visual identity used by the state such as the national emblem, currency design, military crest, and maps–which the latest considered as Western imperial’s science and technology gifts– is a construction of the national identity through the symbolism which represents Indonesia’s in international circumstance.

Aims

Examining the identity formation and transition in pre and post-colonial Indonesia (a decade between 1940– 1950), which may generate some insight about how the hybrid of two visual identities–Indonesia’s and Colonist–coexist and later build the images of the communion in Indonesian minds.
Utilizing graphic design studies to excavate the complexity of identity construction during the postcolonial period which cannot be understood by conventional history narrative.

Objectives

Examine and exploring the founded sources idea, and learn the method of combining the visual identification such as in symbols, colour or visual style which considered share universal visual language and mutual value for both sides.
Deconstruct how the product such as technology and science perceived and accepted by the natives and later adapted it as their identity. (Such as Map)
Experimenting and do iterative process with deconstruction method.
Examine the tools used by the government to certifies the identity and nationality during decades of transition. (contemporary: Passport)
Identify how national identity intertwined and influence with personal details (such as ID Card, Passport) which developed the image as a part of the community.

Historical context

Postcolonial History

The research begins with the studies and history of postcolonialism, which commonly understand as an aftermath of Western colonialism or various form of imperialism, both represented in the historical period or state of affair. However, some argue that, etymologically, postcolonialism frequently misunderstood as a temporal concept; the time after colonialism has ceased, or the time following the politically determined Independence Day on which a country breaks away from its governance by another state. Gilbert and Tompkins (1996) suggested that a theory of post-colonialism must, then, respond to more than the merely chronological construction of post-independence, and to more than just the discursive experience of imperialism. The postcolonial theory thus establishes intellectual spaces for subaltern peoples to speak for themselves, in their voices, and thus produce cultural discourses of philosophy, language, society and economy, balancing the imbalanced us-and-them binary power-relationship between the colonist and the colonial subjects.

The Postcolonialism studies indicate a possible future of overcoming colonialism, anticipating the potential new forms of the global empire and new forms of domination and subordination (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2018).

Postcolonial Theory

Postcolonialism aimed at destabilising these theories (intellectual and linguistic, social and economic) employing which colonialists “perceive”, “understand”, and “know” the world. The postcolonial theory thus establishes intellectual spaces for subaltern peoples to speak for themselves, in their voices, and thus produce cultural discourses of philosophy, language, society and economy, balancing the imbalanced us-and-them binary power-relationship between the colonist and the colonial subjects.

Postcolonial Identity

Decolonized people develop a postcolonial identity that based on interactions between different identities (cultural, national, and ethnic as well as gender and class-based) which are committed varying degrees of social power by the colonial society. In postcolonial literature, the anti-conquest narrative analyses the identity politics that are the social and cultural perspectives of the subaltern colonial subjects—their creative resistance to the culture of the coloniser. How such cultural resistance complicated the establishment of a colonial society; how the colonisers developed their postcolonial identity; and how neocolonialism actively employs the Us-and-Them binary social relation to view the non-Western world as inhabited by The Other.

However, postcolonial theory is somehow problematic. John Lye (1997) argues that while the theory deals with the reading and writing of literature written in previously or currently colonised countries, or literature written in colonising countries which deals with colonisation or colonised peoples. The post-colonial theory focuses particularly on;

The way in which literature by the colonising culture distorts the experience and realities, and inscribes the inferiority, of the colonised people
literature by colonised peoples which attempts to articulate their identity and reclaim their past in the face of that past’s certain otherness.

It can also deal with the way in which literature in colonising countries appropriates the language, images, scenes, traditions and so forth of colonised countries.

Marxist Scholar Vivek Chibber (2013) express that postcolonial theory will remember for its revival of cultural essentialism and its acting as an endorsement of orientalism, rather than being an antidote to it. It is essentialized cultures, painting them as fixed and static categories and presents the difference between East and West as unbridgeable. On his book Postcolonial Theory and the Specter of Capital, Chibber focusing mainly on the strain of postcolonial theory known as subaltern studies. He makes a strong case for why we can — and must — conceptualise the non-Western world through the same analytical lens that we use to understand developments in the West.

Contemporary Context

Nina Katchadourian

Hand-held Subway, Geographic Pathologies, Finland’s Longest Road, Finland’s Unnamed Islands, Head of Spain. 1996-2008.

Various work from Nina Katchadourian which exploring the cartographic works. She deconstruct an existing maps and atlas of New York subway system, Finland’s highway, Spanish paper road map to create a new possibility of creating meaning and generates a new ways of seeing things.

Meta Haven Sealand Identity Project

Meta Haven collaborate on the Sealand Identity Project, which was to conceive a national identity for the Principality of Sealand, which is a self-proclaimed nation on a former war platform near the coast of the UK.

Sealand Identity Project was really a combination of this idea of sovereignty, self-proclaimed nationhood, in combination with this flawed entrepreneurial dream of starting an offshore business onboard Sealand.

Theoretical Context

Critical Theory

History of Politics and Identity

Jonathan Friedman (1994) points out there were two aspects of the relation between social identification and the making of history. The first concerned the relationship between the social conditions of identity formation and the production of culturally viable past. The second introduced so-called scientific constructions of other people’s past into the same frame argument.

On the Journal of the Society for Cultural Anthropology, Friedman (1992, p.41) acknowledges that history and discourse about the making of history are positional, that is, it is dependent upon where one located in social reality, within society, and within the global process. The idea is even applicable to the present discourse, which in no way represents an attempt to stand in some objective truth-sphere above or outside of the goings-on of the world. Objective history, just as any other history, is produced in a definitive context and is a particular kind of project.

Besides, he suggested that the discourse of history as well as of myth is simultaneously a discourse of identity; it consists of attributing a meaningful past to a structural present. Objective history produced in the context of a particular kind of selfhood, one that based on a radical separation of the subject from any particular identity, and which objectifies and textualises reality.

Imagined Community

A country which merely liberated from their former colonist would be struggling in defining their own political identity and build their image of communion. As they build the identity on the top of the ruins of existing colonist structure, it would be unavoidable to eradicate their former identity. Even the previous one is arguably an already hybrid of different cultures. However, it was understood that images of the communion were built not only taking the references from the community itself, but also construct by external influence. Benedict Anderson’s theory regarding the identity of a community would be very fit to depict the condition of emerging, newly independent nation.

Anderson (1983, p.6) defines the nation as, “an imagined political community – and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign…It is imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives the image of their communion”. Anderson sees the nation as a social construct, an “imagined community” in which members feel a commonality with others, feel a “horizontal” comradeship with each other even though they may not know them. It could be said that the lasting appeal and political resilience of nationalism of newly independence nation affirm the strength of patriotic feeling and the enormous sacrifices people have made on behalf of their nation.

In the chapter “The Origins of National Consciousness”, where he argues that the convergence of capitalism, printing, and the diversity of vernacular languages led to the birth of national consciousness. Popular nationalism threatened to exclude the European monarchies from the new imagined communities, as the dynasties had dubious and often conflicting national credentials. They responded with what Anderson terms “official nationalism,” a Machiavellian appropriation of nationalist ideas to secure dynastic legitimacy and suppress ethnolinguistic subject groups within their realms. In the European colonial empires, official nationalism served as a tool of the imperial administration.

Census, Map, Museum.

In the more specific topic, Anderson introduces three institutions of powers– Census, Map, Museum–that profoundly shaped the way in which the colonial state imagined its dominion and the legitimacy of its ancestry. As the research emphasises on more pragmatic visual based identity, the writer considered it would be more fruitful on profoundly examining the Map topic. However, the assumption made after thoughtfully deal with the capacity of the author, which couldn’t afford further research on Census and Museum.

It could be said that the Mercatorian map, which brought in by the European colonisers via print, was beginning to shape the imagination of Southeast Asians, including Indonesia (Anderson, 1983, p. 247) Regarding most communication theories anti-common sense, a map is a scientific abstraction of reality. A map merely represents something which already exists objectively “there”. Anderson (1983) points out, “In the history, I have described, this relationship was reversed. A map anticipated spatial reality, not vice versa. In other words, a map was a model for, rather than a model of, what it purported to represent… It had become a real instrument to concretise projections on the earth’s surface… The discourse of mapping was the paradigm which both administrative and military operations worked within and served”

Map as a Logo

As an administrative and military tool, maps acknowledge the ability as the second avatar of one nation or empire, the map-as-logo. Its origins were reasonably innocent— the practice of the imperial states of colouring their colonies on maps with an imperial dye. British colonies were usually pink-red. French purple-blue, Dutch yellow-brown, and so on. (Anderson, 1983, p. 250) The map becomes a pure sign, no longer compass to the world. As the map then entered an infinite reproducible series, available for transfer to posters, official seals, letterheads, magazine which made them instantly recognisable and visible–the logo-map penetrated deep into the popular imagination, forming a powerful emblem for the anticolonial nationalism.

One of the most known examples of this process is what happened on the island of New Guinea. Dutch Empire settlement in Indonesia was made on the island of New Guinea and succeed to incorporate it into Netherland Indies in 1901 and made it in time for Dutch logoization. Dutch colonial logo-maps sped across in the colony, showing a West New Guinea with nothing to its East, unconsciously reinforced the developing imagined ties among Indonesian nationalist. Even Indonesian nationalist was struggling and made as a national sacred site in the national imagining, they never actually saw New Guinea with their own eyes until the 1960s.

Anderson (1983, p. 251) then relates that “the prestige of the colonial state was accordingly, now intimately, linked to that of its homeland superior.” As more and, more Europeans were being born in Southeast Asia, and being tempted to make it their home. The old sacred sites were to be incorporated into the map of the colony, and their ancient prestige (which, if this had disappeared, as it often had, the state would attempt to revive) draped around the mappers.

The “warp” of this thinking was a totalizing classificatory grid, which could be applied with unlimited flexibility to anything under the state’s real or contemplated control: peoples, regions, religions, languages, products, monuments, and so forth. The effect of the grid was always to be able to say of anything that it was this, not that; it belonged here, not there.

Parallel Theory

Cartography

To provide a profound understanding of Map and its influence on the construction of national identity, the writers realised that the study of cartography is one of the best ways to explain it. While map in the previous point bears the capacity to become a witness of powers, the map also can produce their language. Polish-American philosopher Alfred Korzybski’s theory of general semantics states that; human knowledge is limited by our physical being as well as the structure of language. Though the human experience of reality is limited, yet increasingly see the world through more maps, bigger maps of more data, and more maps of bigger data.

Huffman and Matthews (2014) endorse that, “Cartographers have always been storytellers. This metaphor works well for thematic maps, but topographic or reference maps also tell stories: of the landscape, of the settlement, and of the shape of the natural and human-modified world that surrounds us… Cartographers take data and wrestle it before applying some graphical treatment that provides the narrative. They codify the story in a visual language that they hope speaks to people.”

While cartography has the ability to promoted scientific objectivity over artistic representation and vice versa, the scientific objectivity did not always go the actual representation, a metaphor involved in this work, such map does not always mean the territory. Like any other tools that generate knowledge, maps are informative, but they also can be deceptive, even threatening. At one time or another, it probably safe to say that all of us have been misled by a map designed to hide something the mapmaker did not want us to know, or drawn in such a way that we jump to false conclusions from it.

H. J. de Blij (1996, p. xi-xii) points out that Map crosses the line between information and advocacy. In which later he added that in the world of changing political and strategic relationships and devolving nation-sites, maps become propaganda tools. Some national government even go so far as to commit cartographic aggression, mapping parts of neighbouring countries as their own. Turkish Cypriots, Sri Lankan Tamils, Crimean Russians publish maps that proclaim their political aspirations, fuelling nationalism that spell disaster for the state system.

When the research go further in finding the capability and possibility of a map in manipulating or altering the fact, the research leads to an exciting book written by Dr Mark Monmonier, How to Lie with Maps. In this book, Monmonier (1996, p.2) acknowledges that in showing how to lie with maps, he want to make readers aware that maps–like speeches and paintings–are authored collections of information and also are subject to distortions arising from ignorance, greed, ideological blindness, or malice. The idea seems uncomfortable and uneasy to accepted as it lot of sense of offensiveness. However, he provides a stunning yet straightforward analogy. He offers the idea of the relationship of Map and Scale and its capability on defining the truth.

He took the example as follows; the square inch on the large-scale map could show inch on the ground in far greater detail than the square inch on the small-scale map. Both maps would have to suppress some details, but the designer of the 1:10,000,000-scale map must be far more selective than the cartographer producing the 1:10,000-scale map. In the sense that all maps tell white lies about the planet, the small-scale map has a smaller capacity for truth than large-scale maps.

That is the softball of how maps tell lies, then what about the other possible one? Such as Maps for political propaganda. A good propagandist knows how to shape opinion by manipulating maps. Political persuasion often concerns territorial claims, nationalities, national pride, borders, strategic position, conquests, attacks, troop movements, defences, spheres of influence, regional inequality, and other geographic phenomena conveniently portrayed cartographically. (Monmonier, 1996, p. 87).

People trust maps, and intriguing maps attract the eye as well as connote authority. The map is a perfect symbol of the state and an intellectual weapon–in disputes over territory. Naïve citizens willingly accept as a truth map based on a biased and sometimes crooked selection of facts.

Maps as Symbols of Power and Nationhood

The string of newly independent states formed after World War II, such as Indonesia, revived the national atlas as a symbol of nationhood. In the service of the state, maps and atlases play dual roles. Monmonier (1996, p.89) research confirmed that although a few countries in western Europe and North America had state-sponsored national atlases in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, these served mainly as reference works and symbols of scientific achievement. However, between 1940 and 1980 the number of national atlases increased from fewer than twenty to more than eighty, as former colonies turned to cartography as a tool of both economic development and political identity.

Even tiny maps on postages stamps can broadcast political propaganda. Postage stamps bearing maps are useful propaganda tools for developing nations and ambitious revolutionary movements. In mail interest, it is useful to keep aspirations alive domestically and to suggest national unity and determination internationally. Postage stamps maps afford a small but numerous means for asserting territorial claims (Monmonier, 1996, p. 91). The war claims between India, Pakistan and China offer us an excellent example of this. Official government tourist maps show Kashmir as a part of India, on the other hand as a part of Pakistan. In reality, India controls the southern part of the state of Kashmir, Pakistan controls the northwestern part, and China controls three sections along the eastern margin. The other example is the Ligitan and Sipadan dispute. It was a territorial dispute between Indonesia and Malaysia over two islands in the Celebes Sea, namely Ligitan and Sipadan. The dispute began in 1969 as Malaysia put them on their official passport and tourism map. Thus it was mostly resolved by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in 2002, which opined that both of the islands belonged to Malaysia as British Empire, their former colonist, has already settled administrative work since 1930 on both islands.

The latest example given probably slightly capture how the state intervenes-wars, colonialism and national planning intertwined on mapping activities. However, these activities of the major powers not confined to their colonial territories, the very existence of which had left them with global rather than local strategic preoccupations. On Maps and Air Photographs, Dickinson (1979, p. 48) states that; stimulated by various motives, among which the discovery of potentially exploitable areas and resources and the complete delineation of boundaries against possible counter-claimants are two obvious ones, most European nations with colonial possessions carried out various surveys in them often very actively. At first, both the maps themselves and the bodies that produced them were slightly varied.

Methodology

The initial stage of the research would emphasize on experimental design, as this approach is a careful balancing of several features including “power”, generalizability, various forms of “validity”, practicality and cost. A thoughtful balancing of these features in advance will result in an experiment with the best chance of providing useful evidence to modify the current state of knowledge in a particular design field. The goal is to actively design an experiment that has the best chance to produce meaningful, defensible evidence, rather than hoping that proper statistical analysis may be able to correct for defects after the fact.

In the realm of experimenting, the deconstructive method would be the fittest one to tackle the question and inquiry of this research. It is a strategy of critical form-making which performed across a range of artefacts and practices, both historical and contemporary. Deconstruction was born to uncover the meaning of a literary work by studying the way its form and content communicate essential humanistic messages.

Lupton and Miller (1994) argue that deconstruction offer the mode of questioning through and about the technologies, formal devices, social institutions, and founding metaphors of representation. That deconstruction belongs to both history and theory. In Derrida’s theory, deconstruction asks how representation inhabits reality. How does the external image of things get inside their inner essence? How does the surface get under the skin?

While examining the construction of the identity of the communion, it is important to trace its source, find the authenticity and telling of a story viewed as a passive record of events. The research foresees to gain a vast amount of result and new insight by studying the meaning of a sign and its relationship to other signs in a system. This principle is the basis of structuralism, an approach to language which focuses on the patterns or structures that generate meaning rather than on the “content” of a given code or custom (Lupton, E. and Miller, J. A., 1994)

How does the theory relate to the practical experimentation?

By experimenting with deconstruction would benefit the research in doing widespread disruption, founded on a challenged and remodelled idea of what existing idea/design can do and bring.

What is the theory for?

As a platform on the iterative process. The fundamental principle of deconstruction and how deconstructive method work help to maintain the system while doing experiment and records thought for future transmissions.

What process of experimentation will be used?

Experimenting by deconstructing existing visual material and try a different approach to generate the possible outcome and utilise the basis of structuralism, an approach to language which focuses on the patterns or structures that generate meaning rather than on the “content” of a given code or custom.

How the project recorded and keep track of what have been done.

Documentation by photograph, video, scanned artefact and scheduled digital/printed publication.

Visual evidence

1st Iteration on deconstruction method: Deconstruction of Indonesia’s National Emblem.
2nd Iteration on deconstruction method: The study of Colonized and Colonist Map.

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Niccolo Machiavelli’s The Prince – leadership and power: essay help site:edu

Niccolo Machiavelli’s, The Prince, is one of the most controversial books of its time. Because of its contents, Machiavelli is seen by many as symbol for evil and vice. The book was thought to be so abhorrent that it was banned by the Catholic church, and harshly critiqued by many of Machiavelli’s contemporaries. The Sixteenth Century treatise was meant as an advice book for princes on how to gain power and maintain it, but the methods he proposed for achieving these aims were unsavory to many. In the years following its publication, The Prince, horrified and shocked the general populace due to its challenging of the current view that a leader had to be virtuous and moral, asserting that it was better for a leader to be feared than loved, challenging the idea that a ruler gained his power from divine right alone, and its proposition that a ruler might employ unethical actions to secure his position and better his country.

One of the first of things that Machiavelli tried to do in his treatise is to separate ethics from princes. While, many of his contemporaries believed that a successful prince would be one filled with the usual virtues, like honor, purity, and integrity, Machiavelli threw this idea out a window. He did not believe that being simply having the “right” value system would grant a leader power and security. In fact, he argued that often, being tied down by such morals would be counterproductive to one maintaining their position. Moreover, “if a ruler wishes to reach his highest goals he will not always find it rational to be morale” (Skinner 42).

So, what characteristics did Machiavelli think would actually make a strong leader? His ideal prince is one who is cunning and ruthless. Machiavelli believed that, “a ruler who wishes to maintain his power must be prepared to act immorally when this becomes necessary” (26). A ruler should also not be worried about being miserly, for overall this will help rather than hurt his control (Mansfield). If a prince is too generous his people will also become accustomed to such generosity and be angered when it is not forthcoming, and in the long run he will have to tax his people to make up for what he has given away. Such ideas went directly against the Christian and humanist ideas about morality in Machiavelli’s time.

Another major point of interest that Machiavelli discussed throughout The Prince was the concept of fortune and its role in a princes rule. He believed that it was of the utmost importance that a prince try to win fortune to his side as best he can. Here again, Machiavelli differentiates from his predecessors. Many past philosophers believed that fortune would smile upon a ruler who was just and virtuous. Machiavelli disagreed with such notions. Morales had nothing to do with pleasing fortune. Instead, it was the more violent and ambitious ruler, who would seize the moment, that would have a better chance of winning fortune (Spencer). Machiavelli went so far as to compare fortune to a woman and stated that, “If you want to control her, it is necessary to treat her roughly” (87).

While Machiavelli did not think it was in a prince’s best interest to always be kind and good, he did note the importance of his subjects thinking him to be so. It is very hard to hold control a region, in which the people believe their ruler to be completely immoral. However, they may put up with questionable actions of a ruler if once in a while he does something that appears to be in their best interest. The crueler a ruler is the more crucial it is to appear to the public as being the opposite. Once the people are convinced of a ruler being virtuous, he will be able to get away with the most unscrupulous behavior.

Most people would consider it essential for a ruler to keep his promises and appear trustworthy, maintaining a good relationship with his subjects, not Machiavelli. Sometimes it is not realistic for a ruler to be able to make good on every promise. It may even be better for the people in the long run if he does not. A prince should not have qualms about breaking his word, “plausible reasons can always be found for such failure to keep promises” (Machiavelli 62). Moreover, if a prince prides himself on always keeping his word the people will always expect this. When unfortunate circumstances force him to deviate from what he swore to do, the people will be outraged, whereas if they expect promises to be broken it will not garner as much anger.

Another stable argument of Machiavelli’s book is the power of fear. Machiavelli believes fear is one of the best way to keep subjects in line. Fear is strongest of all the emotions and will give a ruler the most control. Striving for the people’s love is not as fruitful, due to mankind’s fickle nature. Andrew Curry of the Washington Post notes that for Machiavelli, “ Man’s weak nature was a constant as unchanging as the bright sun that rose above his beloved Tuscan hills.” A leader who relies on love to gain loyalty from his subjects, will find his people nowhere to be found when hard times come. Men tend to what they think is best for them, and due to this they will changes sides quickly. They will adopt a new prince quickly and shed their old one if they believe it will be prosperous for them. However, if the subjects greatly fear their leader they are more likely to obey him. If they believe their ruler to be lax they will think they can get away with some disobedience, but if a prince has made it clear that the consequences will be great they will hesitate (Machiavelli .

One of the main ways Machiavelli demonstrates the power of fear, is through generals and their handling of the troops under them. He praises the Carthaginian general, Hannibal, for his ability to lead such a large army of various peoples with little discord or trouble among his troops. Despite going through many lands unknown to his soldiers, and enduring times of trial, Hannibal was able to keep his soldiers in order because of their respect and fear of him (Machiavelli 60). How did Hannibal make his troops fear him? Through great cruelty, which made him the perfect Machiavellian leader. It was this cruelty that was key of his success according to Machiavelli. He argued that, “if he had not been so cruel, his other qualities would not have been sufficient to achieve that affect” (60).

Scipio was another general of the same period as Hannibal. Like Hannibal he was a brilliant military mind, and one of the greatest leaders of the era. Unlike Hannibal however, he did not exercise brutality with his troops to keep them in check. Whereas Hannibal’s troops would have never dreamed of revolting, for fear of the consequences, Scipio did lose control over his soldiers at fort Sucro, in Spain. Machiavelli harshly critiqued Scipio for this mutiny and no one else. It was Scipio’s easiness with his soldiers that had caused them to grow rebellious. Had he have been more severe in his command they would have been better disciplined (Machiavelli 60). Machiavelli praises Hannibal’s cruelty, while condemning Scipio’s friendliness with his soldiers.

Another aspect of the power of fear, which Machiavelli touched on was with the capturing of new regions. Under most circumstances successfully maintaining control over a newly vanquished city, and keeping its citizens in check can be quite difficult. However, in cases where subduing a city takes great force and bloodshed it will actually be much easier to keep. Most would think the opposite to be true, but Machiavelli argues that those who have been defeated will be to imitated to revolt, due to knowing what the conquerors are capable of (Mansfield). Machiavelli has complete faith in the power of fear. Essentially he believes that a prince should not be concerned about being excessively brutal when trying to defeat the defenders of a town, because in the long run it may actually help him keep dominances over said town. With advice like this, advising one to be cruel, it is no surprise that Machiavelli’s contemporaries were so shocked by his treatise (Spenser).

All of Machiavelli’s pondering about fear begs the question how far should a ruler go to be feared by his people? Machiavelli does acknowledge that there is a lined that can be crossed. A prince must strive to be feared without being completely hated by his subjects (Machiavelli 59) . It is fine for a leader to exercise extreme ruthlessness for the greater good as long as he is able to redeem himself in the eyes of the people. At a certain point, if pushed too far, a prince’s subject’s fear of their ruler will turn to anger and they will grow unruly. Therefore it is important for a prince to be calculated with his cruelty, and not just unnecessarily brutal.

A major issue during Machiavelli’s time was that of Divine right to rule. Essentially, king’s could justify their rule by it supposedly being God’s will, and they had to answer only to him. Only those chosen by God could rule. Machiavelli did not fully agree with this doctrine. He thought that almost anyone should have the right to rule as long as they were cunning enough to do so. Machiavelli cares most about leaders being competent. The foxes and lions should rise above the lambs. That is the best way for country to be assured of gaining strong leaders. With divine right there is no guarantee that a prince will be capable of ruling, and do what is best for his people. In his own region of Florence Machiavelli wanted a ruler who was effective, not one that was supposedly endowed by the creator. All of the advice given in the book is a challenge against divine right, as it shows how someone may gain power by his own actions and not divine right.

Machiavelli’s key argument against any sort of right to rule is that it is power alone that guarantees a prince his control. “a Machiavellian perspective directly attacks the notion of any grounding for authority independent of the sheer possession of power. For Machiavelli, people are compelled to obey purely in deference to the superior power of the state” (Nederman). Simply having the right virtues, divine right, or any other quantifiers of rule do not matter if one does not have true power. A prince’s subjects will stay in line if they know he has great power over them, but not always so if he his relying on their respect of his “divine right” alone.

One of the main themes running throughout all of Machiavelli’s advice seems to be that the ends always justify the means. Now even though Machiavelli never directly states this, he comes very close, and despite his advice being a bit more nuance than that simple phrase, it is not out of line to say that it represents his key ideas on princeship. Machiavelli was one of the first pessimistic realists of his time, and he based his advice on the negative side of humanity. He argued that a prince’s subjects will not always do the moral thing and so a prince should not either. Instead, he should take what actions he believes to be best for securing his rule and his province. Sacrificing a few is a necessary evil if it guarantees the safety of many (Machiavelli 58).

Machiavelli base much of his advice on the topic on real life rulers of his time. History.com points this out saying, “Machiavelli’s guide to power was revolutionary in that it described how powerful people succeeded—as he saw it—rather than as one imagined a leader should operate.” While his contemporaries where dreaming up the qualities of an ideal leader, Machiavelli believed he was giving a guide based on those he had seen be successful. Almost all of the leaders Machiavelli studied, he found to have exercised cruelty and brutality. Mansfield says thus of Machiavelli’s points on necessary evil, “The amoral interpretation fastens on Machiavelli’s frequent resort to “necessity” in order to excuse actions that might otherwise be condemned as immoral.”

One of the main ruler’s who Machiavelli based much of his advice on was Cesare Borgia. Borgia was the perfect Machiavellian leader. He was, “a crude, brutal and cunning prince of the Papal States” (History.com Editors). He lived in a chaotic time, and the entirety of his rule was face with challenges and uncertainty. Machiavelli admired his ability to handle the problems of his times with such decisive ferocity. He embodied all the traits the Machiavelli was advising the readers of his book to adopt.

Cesare was a man with many enemies and part of his genius lay in his ability to get rid of them. Where others would hesitate to move against powerful men, Borgia did not. He would kill remorselessly if he thought it would help him maintain his land. One of the main examples Machiavelli used to point out Borgia’s cunning, was his luring of the Orsini leaders to the town of Senigallia. He lured them with lavish gifts and lulled them into a false sense of security, promising treaties of peace, but once they had delivered themselves into his hands he killed them (Machiavelli 25). Machiavelli praised this exploit thinking it an exceptionally clever deception.

Borgia also proved his competence as a leader to Machiavelli in his handling of the land he inherited from his father, Pope Alexander VI. The people dwelling there were disorderly and defiant. They had not been well disciplined by their previous ruler, and were not used to really having to obey a leader. Borgia set out to right this wrong. He put an utterly ruthless man, Remirro de Orco, in charge of the area (Machiavelli 26). Many rulers would have told Orco to use caution when dealing with the subjects of the region. He should slowly begin to discipline them so that they would grow use to it over time. However, Borgia did the exact opposite. He gave his new governor complete control to be as severe and merciless as he saw necessary. He new that the cruelty the people would endure under de Orco would be for the better down the road as there would be more order and less lawbreakers.

Even the he knew that it was necessary to use brutality when dealing with his newly acquired land, Borgia did not plan on taking the blame for that cruelty. de Orco’s harsh regime had served to bring discipline to the region, but Cesare Borgia was not blind to the growing anger in those who were suffering under it. Here, in Machiavelli’s mind, Borgia showed his true genius and heartlessness. He killed de Orco and displayed his body in a town, successfully wining the favor of his subjects and getting rid of a possible rival. It Borgia who had put de Orco in charge in the first place, knowing fully well that he was a cruel man, and told him to be a harsh ruler, but the people seemed to forget this and saw Borgia as a hero for killing their oppressor. Those subjects who still had a dislike for Borgia, where too terrified by the execution to cause any discord (Machiavelli 26). So Borgia was able to make his people both love and fear, Machiavelli’s ideal situation. It is clear that much of Machiavelli’s arguments for doing immoral things comes from him having observed Borgia and his callous methods.

Borgia may have been brilliant in the handling of his lands and his enemies, but it was not his own cleverness that gained him his territory in the Romagna. Instead it was the cunning of his father, Pope Alexander IV. Alexander wanted to give his son a state in Italy to help him grow more powerful and, hopefully, eventually make him into a great ruler. However, he knew that he would not be able to do this through peaceful negations, as there were too many other factions who would have been opposed to it. Instead, the Pope would have to use force to size a state. First he sought out to make the states of Italy unstable, by aiding a French invasion of Milan. Doing this helped cause chaos, and the French gave the Pope troops to conquer the Romagna with. The Pope was able his transfer the newly captured states to his son (Machiavelli 24). These actions by the Pope where highly immoral; he helped sow ruin in his own country of Italy to gain a province for Cesare to rule, and he misused the power given to him by his position as Pope to do so. However, Machiavelli praises his ability to take actions that are deemed unethical by society to attain success.

In one chapter of his treatise, Machiavelli addresses those who gained the power from evil deeds. The first example he gives is of Agathocles, of Syracuse. Agathocles is the epitome of doing whatever it takes to get what you want. He was a mere ordinary man, but by his own actions he was able to rise to a position of power in the city of Syracuse. Wanting to become the king of Syracuse he began scheming how this could be accomplished. Eventually he was able to execute a successful coup, and have all his soldiers kill any opposers. He was dishonorable, a murderer, and a traitor, but he did achieve what he set out to do. Machiavelli does point out that these methods wont exactly win someone glory and fame, or at least not the positive kind, but he did commend Agathocles ability to gain power. He also mentions that Agathocles used evil “well” since he had to use it at all (Machiavelli 30-33). Statements like this, that a murdering traitor used evil admirably, are what make Machiavelli’s writing so controversial.

Machiavelli did not stop with Agathocles, he also gave an example more current with the time of a similar situation. Oliverotto of Fermo. Oliverotto had the same cunning and ambition as Agathocles. He too wanted to become the ruler of his hometown Fermo. So, with his mentor he conspired to overthrow the current ruler, his own uncle, Giovanni Fogliani. Oliverotto used his relation to Fogliani to lure him into a trap where he assassinated him, as well as the other leaders of Fermo. With no one else in his way he took control of the region. His immoral actions would have been condemned by most, but Machiavelli’s main issue seems to be that he was not able to keep the power that he gained, as he was killed himself later on. Oliverotto did not use evil well as Agathocles did (Machiavelli 32-32).

Few books have the ability to stir up as much controversy as The Prince. With it Machiavelli tried to set a new example how a prince should act and think, but one that would be found troubling by many in the decades that followed its publication. Its readers would shun it, ban it, mock it, and even go so far as to say that it was satire, because surely there was no way that Machiavelli had actually meant what he wrote. The main cause of all animosity towards the book, came from Machiavelli’s attempt to separate ethics from politics. In the treatise he argued that princes need not be virtuous, and that fear was a great tool to be used to control one’s subjects, better even than love. Furthermore, the book challenged divine right, which put at odds with the churches of the time, and lastly, it promoted the idea of using scrupulous methods to gain power. It is the combination of these four arguments, that were so against the current ideologies of the sixteenth century, that caused many to look at the book with disgust, and the reason why Machiavelli became known as an embodiment of evil.

2019-2-12-1549980013

Organizational change – responding to internal drivers

Organizational change in any business organisation is predominantly influenced by two forces called internal drivers and external drivers. Both can cause favourable as well as unfavourable impacts on organisational change. However, this essay will argue that it is more beneficial for the organisations to introduce changes based on its internal drivers because they are within the organisation and control of the management in bringing the change. Where as the external drivers are beyond the control of the organisation.

In this intensely competitive and globalised world ( Mdletye, Coetzee and Ukpere 2014) of business and management organisational change is very critical and indispensable for numerous competitive advantages. Therefore, companies of all kinds must either initiate change or if not face the natural death (Kotter and Cohen 2008). Hence, although change is task fraught with complexity and challenge (Graetz et al. 2011, p.2) it has become the inevitable phenomena for the successful survival of organization in this modern world.

Organisational change is the continuous process of renewing the firm direction, structure, capabilities, operations, systems and processes to meet the ever-changing needs of external and internal customers (Soosay and Sloan 2005 p.10). It is the movement of an organization away from its present state of status quo (Smith 2005) toward some desired future state to increase its effectiveness (Lunenburg 2010). Nevertheless, as most researchers have found out that, in reality, adopting new changes in the organisation is very difficult and doubtful of success (Robbins 2003 and Raftery 2009 as cited in Beshtawi and Jaaron,2014; p.129) and often land up with failure (Olaghere,n.d p.1; Gilaninia, Ganjinia and Mahdikhanmahaleh 2013). Therefore, in this increasingly uncertain and risky environment (Zhou, Tse and Li, 2006, p.248) it is very crucial to know how to adapt and change according to the environment and to change successfully has become a critical and timeless challenge for any organization ( Feldman, 2004; Pettigrew et al., 2001; Piderit, 2000) for continuous survival and success.

Organisational Change in an organisation is influenced dominantly by two factors called internal factors or internal drivers and external factors or external drivers (Esparcia and Argente (n.d) and Olaghere n.d, p.1).These factors are responsible for triggering the change in the system, policies, product, structures, services, management, performance among many other areas in the organisation (Senior 2002) (as cited in McGuire and Hutchings 2006). Ivancevich and Matteson (2002) consider technology, economic forces and socio-political and legal factors as important external drivers that cause organisational change. However, they argue that these external drivers of change are beyond management’s control and cause a significant impact compelling the organisation to adjust internal processes and systems (McGuire and Hutchings 2006). Conversely, internal drivers are those forces existed within the organisation that influence changes. They are system, structure, management style, leadership, resources, processes, products of the organisation (Esparcia and Argente, n.d).

However, internal factors are more critical to driving organisational change. Ivancevich and Matteson (2002) maintain that human resource issues and process considerations are the most common forces for change within the organisation. They argue that internal factors are generally within the control of management, although sometimes be more difficult to recognise and diagnose than external factors (McGuire and Hutchings 2006).

The external factors are more diversified and intractable compare to internal drivers (Yu and Zhang, 2010, p.3). The internal divers of change are easily influenced by external environments like politics, economy, technology, legal and society.

The external factors helps to determine the opportunities and threats that the company would face, but the internal factors help the company to identify its strengths and weaknesses (Ibrahim and Primiana, 2015, p.285) . Marcus (2005) (as cited in Ibrahim and Primiana, 2015, p.285) noted that organisations should be aware of its strengths and weaknesses and analyzed the extent to which companies can accommodate the opportunities and threats existed in its the external environment.

Anderson and Anderson (n.d) asserted that the most common reason for the failure of managing change with the organizations is the inadequate attention to the less tangible, yet very important, internal drivers such as culture, leader and employee behaviour and their mindset. So, it is very much evident the benefits of concentrating of internal drivers rather than external drivers. This is supported by Kotter and Cohen (2008; p.61) that managers must instigate change by creating the sense of urgency by touching the emotions of employees instead of reasons based on facts and figures. This is possible only through change in internal factors of business enterprise.

Many scholars have consented that internal factors are the key determinants of an organization’s performance (Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kibera 2014, p. 289) as they provide enabling environment to achieve its goals and objectives. Internal environmental forces provide strengths and weaknesses to the business (Tolbert & Hall, 2009) (cited in (Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kiber 2014, p.) Fr example, from their study on the effect of internal drivers on community-based HIV and AIDS organizations in Nairobi County, Kenya, Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kiber (2014) found out that the internal drivers such as organisational structure, strategy, skills, staff, shared values as well as systems helping the organisation to achieve their objective. As a result enhanced the employee performance.

The Resource-based view (RBV) theory, propounded by Penrose (1959) ( as cited in Kute & Upadhyay, 2014,p.68) supported that organizations can gain competitive advantage by concentrating on their internal factors such as abilities, skills, knowledge, capabilities and competencies with reference to technological changes. This is because of strengths and weakness in these areas can be managed and thus the need of enhancing these qualities within the employees can be determined and can be enhanced through continuous organizational learning culture. Furthermore, the following factors such as mission and goals, leadership quality, organisational structure, human resources, technology capacity, organisation culture, employees behaviours and attitude, and organisational performance has to be considered while introducing change in the organisation.

Organisation Vison, Mision, Goals and objectives

Every business organisation is being guided by its mission, goals and objectives pertaining to development philosophy and direction, planning, prioritizing programs, policies, management, organisational structures and everyday responsibilities (Emeka and Eyuche 2014). In nutshell the performance of the company depends on the mission, goals and objectives. Therefore, change in these domains would compel the firm to undertake organisational change to achieve their mission and objectives.

Leadership

Leadership is one of the very important internal factors in an organisation change (Lunenburg 2010). The leaders have the important role in maintaining the measure of control over the environment of the organisation (McGuire and Hutchings 2006, p.197). The sixteenth century political scientist, Niccolo Machiavelli, stressed that the leader’s vision and future plans are critical in determining the shape and structure of the organisation (McGuire and Hutchings 2006, p.198). According to the organisational change models Cummings and Worley (1993) further recognizes that any change can be implemented successfully only by strong leadership who can garner commitment and readiness to change within the employees through shared vision and strategies to achieve the proposed new change and outcome. The way the managers or leaders establish the internal working structure and systems has influence on the performance of the organisation (Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kiber 2014, p.285).It means the structures and systems should be very favourable for the employees to work collaboratively everyday towards the shared goals of the organisation. Conversely, poor leadership and management would result in the failure of enterprise in the implementation of change processes and risking the orgainsation to disastrous consequences (Shiamwama, Ombayo and Mukolwe 2014, p.148). Effective leaders help organisations to surpass any internal obstacles and bring changes through envisioning the desired goals and objectives, energizing the employees, and enabling the resources and conditions (Zhou, Tse and Li 2006, p.253) which are paramount to overcome any external inhibitors of change and improve performance.

For instance, Steve Jobs, the founder of APPLE Computers, was eased out of the business because of poor management. He later went back into the business and was absorbed as a mere employee just to tap his original idea (Cole, 2004). in (Shiamwama, Ombayo and Mukolwe (2014)

Organisation Structure

Change in organizational structure involves redefining and regulating the organizational roles and relations by expanding or reducing audition, determining the decision making authority, selecting decentralised or central management type, regulating communication channels within the organisation ( İkinci, S.S.2014,p.123).It is another internal factor that act as driver of change. It is the way how jobs are allocated, coordinated and supervised through the system that facilitates communication and efficient work processes among the employees in the organisation (Elsaid, Okasha and Abdelghaly, 2013, p.1). In fact the successful execution and implementation of any plans and programs depends on it. The flat bureaucratic structure with decentralised decision-making system and horizontal reporting system among the teams and various managers are more preferred by the employees (Ohlson, 2007).This fosters faster and effective decision and action thus enhancing the efficiency and productivity of the employees and organisation as whole. The tall hierarchical system of organisation characterised by long bureaucratic steps to follow in execution and communication is rather a hindrance to the effectiveness of the performance (p.23). Decentralised administrative structures and processes thus enable a firm to better meet the new environmental conditions and effectively handle environmental turbulence (Damanpour and Evan, 1984)

Human resources

Human resource in the organisation consists of the knowledge, skills, competencies, attitude and behaviours the workers possess ( İkinci, S.S.2014, p.123). Nurturing theses aspect of human resources will lead to personal growth and development which can alter an individual’s perceptions of organisational change, reducing the level of resistance (Bovey and Hede, 2001, p.546). It is the very critical asset that helps organisation to gain competitive advantage (Husso and Nybakk, nd, p.9).This is because they have the capacity to operate all the activities and in turn help to achieve the aims and objective (Mdletye, Coetzee, and Ukpere (2014) which otherwise would not be able to function at all. The researchers emphasized that human resource is the most important aspect, indeed the backbone of every organization and it is also the main source of resource for the effective function of the organization ( Wanza and Nkuraru,2016; p.192) and main strategic resource to gain sustainable competitive advantage in this age of globalization(Kute & Upadhyay, 2014). For example, the management’s emphasis on the human resource management such as employing highly skilled and educated people, providing professional training and encouraging learning from advanced technologies and skills made the employees more competent to achieve Huawei’s internationalization process more successful ( Yu and Zhang, 2010, p.23) .

Organisational culture

Organisational culture is defined as the values, beliefs, norms, customs and behaviours that guide the employees towards the common goals (Awadh & Saad, 2013,) and that set the rule of decision making processes, structure and power (Wambugu, 2014, p. 80). Wambugu (2014) further noted that organisational culture empower the employees to do thing which deemed right and rewarding both at personal and organisational level. According to Wanza and Nkuraru ( 2016, p.195) and Awadh & Saad, (2013, p.168 ) organisational culture has strong bearing on the performance of the employees which is considered as the backbone of development of the organisation. The culture established as system in the organisation enhances employees’ commitment thus improves their input eventually achieving the desired productivity and profitability (Wanza and Nkuraru, 2016, p.193). They concluded from their research that a strong organizational culture acts as the source of synergy and momentum for teamwork and uplift employee performance (p.197).Thus it is worthy of developing organizational culture for sustainable future. For example, one of the internal factor that drive Huawei Technologies Company, a very small local IT company of China, to very successful internationalisation was the corporate culture, such as team work, adaptation, learning and customer-oriented service, being embedded in the behaviours of the Huawei’s employees ( Yu and Zhang, 2010, p.23)

Innovation culture

Innovation is the main strategy to adapt to change, overcome organisational weaknesses, and add value to organization’s products and services in the ever-changing business environment (Sund 2008, p. 2). Being entrepreneurial with creativity and innovation helps organisation to gain competitive advantage (Ireland et al. 2003). Abdelgawad et al. (2013) proposed that entrepreneurial capability is instrumental for realizing a firm’s game-changing strategies for sustainable success in future. For example, Google, Amazon and Apple companies were once just start-ups grown to attract global market through their innovation (EBRD, 2014; p.1). Internal organizational drivers such as resources, experimentation, collaboration, administrative support play a significant role during this innovation process (Agolla and Van-Lill, 2013). So, establishing innovative culture in an organisation will drive the organisation towards favorable and successful change.

Attitude and Commitment

Most of the researches have shown that employees need to develop their attitude and behaviours for successful organizational performance (Bernerth, 2004). Therefore, it is indispensable for the organizational managers to develop and nurture employees’ commitment towards embracing change by bringing positive change in their attitude and behaviour. However, Anderson and Anderson (n.d) stressed that employees’ mindset, which is the root cause of one’s feelings, decisions and actions, has to be changed to bring organizational change. When introducing change people aspect is more critical than just about changes in systems and processes. Rather it is about people believing in change and wanting it to happen (Soosay and Sloan (2005 p.4). Since organisational change requires the participation of people, those involved must first undergo personal change for the success of organisational change (Evans, 1994).

Organisation Performance as drivers

Both the present and past performance are also drivers of organisational change. Some earlier researchers have pointed out that poor performance, that creates the gap between managerial aspirations and achievements, is an extra impetus for the firms to improve further (Greve, 1998; Tushman and Romanelli, 1985). On the other hand some researchers argue that successful companies continuously draw motivation from their success to improve and perform better for sustainable future, especially they face an uncertain environments ( Feldman, 2004; Tsoukas and Chia, 2002).in (Zhou, Tse and Li, 2006). The better a firm performs, the more likely it will invest in new product development and technology advancement to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage (Zhou, Tse and Li, 2006; p.251). As Brown and Eisenhardt (1997) observe, many successful firms, such as Intel, 3M, Hewlett-Packard, and Gillette, have undertaken constant, rapid changes, particularly in their new product development. For example companies like Apple, Microsoft and Samsung companies have undergone continuous rapid changes in development of new product.

Conclusion

The main purpose of this essay was to prove the advantages of responding to internal drivers than to external drivers while introducing change in the organisation. From this study it was found out that internal drivers are within the organisation that has direct impact on its everyday performance. Therefore, they are within the control and management capacity of the organization. If the internal performance, system, culture and resources of an organisation are excellent it is certain that any obstacles posed from the external environments can be nullified leading to very successful organizational change. Whereas external drivers are existed in the external environment of the firm and those are beyond the control and reach of the organisation. Yet, they can affect the internal functions of the organisation causing instability. Hence the external drivers are not to be undermined rather internal drivers must be activated towards meeting change in line with external drivers.

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The Classical World: essay help online

The Classical Era, which flourished from the 8th century BC to the 5th century AD, saw the birth and spread of Greco-Roman ideas. These ideas became the basis for western civilization and laid a foundation of culture that has remained as relevant now as it was in ancient times. Ancient Greece, and later Ancient Rome, cemented their own ideals in the universal consciousness as the cultural standard to which all later societies were held to, and continue to shape contemporary perspective on art, architecture, and government, and other facets of modern society. Despite the core differences of modern and classical times and the centuries that have passed since, the knowledge and perspectives passed down by the Ancient Greeks and Romans remain an essential part of contemporary society and culture, while inspiring western civilization’s greatest accomplishments.

The cultural impact of Ancient Greece and Rome begins most tangibly with the Renaissance, a movement beginning in Florence and spanning through the 14th and 17th centuries. This period is seen as a revival of classical antiquity, with Renaissance scholars, artists, philosophers, and writers attempting to emulate what they considered to be a “golden age,” taking inspiration directly from their Greco-Roman forefathers, with their presence increasingly regarded as an intellectual heritage to be mined for contemporary use. The Florentine author Niccolò Machiavelli, for example, described his nightly retreats into his library in these memorable words:

“At the door I take off my muddy everyday clothes. I dress myself as though I were about to appear before a royal court as a Florentine envoy. Then decently attired I enter the antique courts of the great men of antiquity. They receive me with friendship; from them I derive the nourishment which alone is mine and for which I was born. Without false shame I talk with them and ask them the causes of the actions; and their humanity is so great they answer me. For four long and happy hours I lose myself in them. I forget all my troubles; I am not afraid of poverty or death. I transform myself entirely in their likeness.”

Francesco Petrarca, commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar who rediscovered the letters of Cicero, a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher and one of Rome’s greatest orators and prose stylists. This rediscovery is considered to have initiated the Renaissance, as scholars became interested in learning how the ancients developed their human faculties, powers, and culture, and in turn attempted to apply their findings to their contemporary societies. Through this discovery, Petrarch became the “Father of Renaissance humanism,” humanism being a Renaissance cultural movement that turned away from medieval scholasticism and revived interest in ancient Greek and Roman thought. Petrarch firmly believed that classical writings were not just relevant to his own age but saw in them moral guidance that could reform humanity, a key principle of Renaissance Humanism. The humanists of the Renaissance believed that their mission was to revive the high Roman style of writing pure and eloquent Latin. When that flourished, they believed, art would as well.

The republican elites of Florence and Venice and the ruling families of Milan, Ferrara, and Urbino hired humanists to teach their children classical morality and to write elegant, classical letters, histories, and propaganda. Eventually, the humanism inspired by the study of the Greco-Roman world would bleed into the Catholic Church, a formidable and almost omnipotent deity of the Middle Ages. In the course of the fifteenth century, the humanists convinced most of the popes that the papacy needed their skills. Sophisticated classical scholars were hired to write official correspondence and propaganda to create an image of the popes as powerful, enlightened, modern rulers of the Church and to apply their scholarly tools to the church’s needs, including writing a more classical form of the Mass. Scholars wrote Latin letters and histories on behalf of the popes, and they even tinkered with the church’s traditional liturgy, trying to make prayers and hymns attractively classical. Humanist secretaries and popes wrote dazzling Latin. Though humanism, and therefore classical thinking, never truly permeated the Catholic Church fully, there was an influence of Ancient Greece and Rome on the Church and its leaders.

An easier and far more blatant appreciation of classical antiquity was seen clearly in the art and architecture of the Renaissance. Contrapposto, a sculptural scheme which was revived during the Renaissance, was originated by the Ancient Greeks. It is used when the standing human figure is poised in such a way that the weight rests on one leg (called the engaged leg), freeing the other leg, which is bent at the knee. With the weight shift, the hips, shoulders, and head tilt, suggesting relaxation with the subtle internal organic movement that denotes life. The Greeks invented this formula in the early 5th century BC as an alternative to the stiffly static pose—in which the weight is distributed equally on both legs—that had dominated Greek figure sculpture in earlier periods. Italian Renaissance artists such as Donatello and Andrea del Verrocchio revived the classical formula, giving it the name contrapposto, which suggests the action and reaction of the various parts of the figure, and enriching the conception by scientific anatomical study.

Donatello borrowed from the ancients with his bronze sculpture of David, the biblical hero known for defeating Goliath. Donatello’s David was the first freestanding bronze cast statue of the Renaissance era as well as the first nude sculpture of a male since the classical sculptures of ancient Greece. In Middle Ages, nudity was not used in art except in certain moral contexts, such as the depiction of Adam and Eve, or the sending of souls off to hell.  In the classical world, nudity was often used in a different, majestic context, such as with figures who were gods, heroes, or athletes.  Here, Donatello seems to be calling to mind the type of heroic nudity of antiquity, since David is depicted at a triumphal point in the biblical narrative of his victory over Goliath. In any case, Donatello’s David is a classic work of Renaissance sculpture, given its Judaeo-Christian subject matter modeled on a classical sculptural type.

Another artwork inspired heavily by ancient antiquity would be Botticelli’s painting titled, Birth of Venus. The theme of the Birth of Venus was taken from the writings of the ancient poet, Homer.  According to the traditional account, after Venus was born, she rode on a seashell and sea foam to the island of Cythera.  In the painting, Venus is prominently depicted in the center, born out of the foam as she rides to shore.  On the left, the figure of Zephyrus carries the nymph Chloris (alternatively identified as “Aura”) as he blows the wind to guide Venus. On shore, a figure who has been identified as Pomona, or as the goddess of Spring, waits for Venus with mantle in hand.  The mantle billows in the wind from Zephyrus’ mouth.The story of the Birth of Venus is well described below by a Homeric hymn but its relevance to the painting is disputed as the poem was only published, by the Greek refugee Demetrios Chalcondyles, in Florence in 1488 (five years after the painting was completed as a wedding gift for Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de’ Medici in 1483).

Of august gold-wreathed and beautiful

Aphrodite I shall sing to whose domain

belong the battlements of all sea-loved

Cyprus where, blown by the moist breath

of  Zephyros, she was carried over the waves

of the resounding sea on soft foam.

The gold-filleted Horae happily welcomed her

and clothed her with heavenly raiment.

The model for Venus in this painting has traditionally been associated with Simonetta Vespucci – who had been a muse for Botticelli,  and was seen as the model for female beauty throughout Florence – especially for the Medici family for whom this painting had been created. There is added credence to this suggestion from the fact that she was born in the Ligurian fishing village of  PortoVenere – called Port of Venus because there was a little Temple to Venus there from 1st Century BC.

The other model for the pose of Venus in the painting was possibly the Medici Venus, a first century BC statue depicting Aphrodite in a Venus pudica pose. It is actually a marble copy of an original bronze Greek sculpture that Botticelli would have had an opportunity to study whilst visiting the sculpture school or the Platonic Academy which flourished at the family home of the Medici in Florence.

The demand for this type of scene, of course, was humanism, which was alive and well in the court of Lorenzo d’Medici in the 1480s.  Here, Renaissance humanism was open not only to the use of a pagan sculpture as a model, but also a pagan narrative for the subject matter, and although the Birth of Venus is not a work which employed Renaissance perspectival innovations, the elegance of the classical subject matter was something that would have intrigued wealthy Florentines who patronized this type of work.

The discovery of particular texts had enormous implications on Renaissance architecture. For example, with the discovery of the works of Vitruvius, an architect at the time of Augustus, there was an explosion of interest in ancient building. Vitruvius wrote an extremely important volume, De architectura libri decem (Ten books on architecture), where he introduced three principles to architecture: Firmatis  (durability), Utilitas (utility), and Venustatis (beauty). Vitruvius talked about ancient buildings in a very significant way, not only in terms of practicality, but in an abstract way which emphasized what the buildings represented in both art and society. Similarly to how ancient texts could be applied to the values and aesthetics of contemporary Italians in the 15th century, so could ancient buildings be reduced to an essence, or a set of principles and ideals, that could be applied to the needs of 15th-century Italians, despite their differences from 1st-century Romans.

In particular, we can see in the career of Leon Battista Alberti, who was born in 1404 and died in 1472, how these ideas could be distilled into a set of principles that could apply to the conditions of the Italian world. Alberti wrote De re aedificatoria, or On Building. His work can be considered highly derivative, but Alberti’s purpose was quite different: to take an ancient text and apply it to the needs of his own time. Not only did he write a theoretical treatise on architecture, but he then went out and built buildings. In particular, in Florence, he designed the facade of the Palazzo Rucellai from 1452 to 1470, in which, again, the Vitruvian orders appear and in which the ideas of ancient building are made useful to a Florentine palace for a wealthy merchant.

In the more modern world, there is a wealth of Greco-Roman influence over the inception of the United States of America and its government. For example, the men who inspired the American Revolution and wrote the American Constitution were heavily influenced by the classical Greek and Roman world. The American founding fathers were well educated individuals, and they all had significant experience with ancient Greek and Roman authors since childhood. Historian Bernard Bailyn states, “knowledge of classical authors was universal among colonists with any degree of education.” Thomas Jefferson, writer of the Declaration of Independence, was taught Greek and Latin from the age of nine, and Benjamin Franklin received instruction in Latin at grammar school and became proficient in both Latin and Greek later in life. In Franklin’s Autobiography, frequent references are made to classical western figures, such as Cicero and Cato. James Madison learned Greek and Latin as a child, and “immersed himself in the histories of Greece and Rome.”

With classical schooling such an integral part of the founding fathers’ education, America’s first political leaders studied the works of the great Greek Philosophers, including Plato and Aristotle. Polybius, a less celebrated but still influential thinker, also left his mark upon the American framers of the Constitution. Through Polybius, the founding fathers were introduced to the Roman Republic as the “mixed government” described by Plato and Aristotle. They used Greek philosophy and the model of Roman Republican government in order to form a new nation based on ancient principles.

Philosophers from classical Greece proposed the separation of powers in government, an idea that the American founders adopted for their new nation. In addition, The Roman Republic  (509-27 BC) served as a direct model of government for the writers of the constitution.  Greek and Roman political thought was critical in shaping the government of the United States of America.

Plato writes that that a strong state should contain elements of both democracy and tyranny, so that the state has a mixed government. His political philosophy, particularly his idea of a “mixed” constitution, would have far reaching effects among later philosophers. His mixed government would ultimately be brought to life in the American Constitution.

Aristotle believed that a mixed government, like the one described by Plato, would halt the decline of government into anarchy. In Aristotle’s mixed constitution, defined in his work The Politics, there were to be three branches of government: “All constitutions have three elements, concerning which the good lawgiver has to regard what is expedient for each constitution…There is one element which deliberates about public affairs [“legislative” branch]; secondly, that concerned with the magistrates [“executive” branch]…and thirdly that which has judicial power.”

This three-tiered mixed government of Aristotle would ultimately find its way into the Constitution. Aristotle also established the principle that the rulers of a state should be subject to the same laws as the rest of the populace; to Aristotle, the rule of law is better than the authority of “even the best man.” This concept of a “ruling official subject to the law” is an integral idea to modern government, where all political figures are supposed to be subject to the same legal code as the average citizen.

In addition to the foundation of government inspired by the ancient world, the influence of classical antiquity can be seen in some of America’s most iconic architecture. Prevalent between about 1780 and 1830, Federal style drew inspiration from the Greco-Romans. The influence of Ancient Greek architecture is apparent in the use of columns and colonnades. Thomas Jefferson was an architect during the Federal period, and he designed not only his own home, Monticello, but the campus of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville in this style.

Greek Revival architecture also became widespread in the U.S., and in the middle of the 19th century it became known as the national style, as it was used extensively in houses and smaller public buildings of that time. This style generally featured the Doric Order in larger buildings, and simpler Doric columns topped with a small pediment (without a frieze) in houses. The first major public building built in this style was the Second Bank of the United States, built in Philadelphia between 1819 and 1824, though most famous is the Lincoln Memorial, its exterior echoing that of the Parthenon.

The heritage of the classical world has been one which later societies have taken and made relevant to their own contemporary aesthetics, visions, and ambitions. From the Renaissance to the formation of the United States, Greco-Roman ideals have paved the way and inspired art, architecture, and civic duty, all the while remaining the standard for which culture strains to meet. Despite its antiquity, the classical world has remained both relevant, adaptable, and innovative, inspiring some of western civilization’s greatest feats.

2018-12-4-1543886056

Power dynamics in psychotherapy – reflective literature review

Choice of topic

On receiving the assessment paperwork for my client, I felt overwhelmed and challenged by her status, and that she had previously worked with my placement director. My first reaction, was that I would not be good enough for her as a trainee.

When discussing my responses with my supervisor, she helped me to identify where this had come from, and the skills and knowledge that I had would be beneficial to this client.

To build up a working alliance, Finlay (2016), p.15, with this client, who I will refer to as Kirsty, (not her real name), the progress was slow, and I became very aware of my own counter- transferential feelings. There were areas of her narrative which I felt really in contact with.

Conducting the search

An on-line search Google scholar, using terms like, ‘The Dance of Power’ which returned results of 51, 200,000. Further searches were conducted which brought back similar figures

I then altered the search criteria to ‘The Dance of the Counter-transferential Phenomena’ which brought back 34 Items and this search was done via Wiley on-line Library. This appeared more manageable, and a further search via the same library with a different search term, ‘Undoing Trauma’ brought back just one result. This still was not what I was looking for, so I chose to remain with the search criteria of power within the therapeutic relationship.

So, within the literature, Webster’s dictionary defines power as; ‘the ability to act’ and ‘the capacity to produce and effect’ and ‘the possession of control, authority or influence over others’

Proctor (2017) states how she defines power as being related to how society is formed, and groups of people, who differ from the ‘norm’ have less access to power. These groups could be women, disabled, Black minority ethnic (BME) or working-class people, gay or lesbians. Male or females, young or old.

She suggests that these groups could be oppressed members of society who may have experienced violence or intimidation and who have little experience of power within the relationship.

The history of power within the therapeutic relationship dates to Machiavelli in the 16th century and Hobbes in the 17th century as cited by Proctor, (2017). These two theorists had different views when talking about power. It was not until the twentieth century that Hobbes view of a modernist theory was favoured. Clegg (1989) Hobbes theory of power influenced the basis of thinking around power from a modernist and structural viewpoint.

The modernists view.

This was a new form of expression that was developed in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This was the era when counselling and psychotherapy developed. McLeod (2009) p. 37

The Structural Theories.

These theories lie within the context of modernism and take a single point of view, that is concrete and belongs to a person. It is assumed that power is an experience that can be found in the form of economic, social, physical, or psychological capacity. For instance, Day (2010) cites Robert Dahl (1957) as, “A has the power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would not otherwise do”.

These theories have emphasised the controlling, oppressive and negative angle of power. These structural theories have been critiqued as it assumes that the power is always ‘power over’ another.

Lukes, (1974) argued that it is the ability of one person, to get another, to do something that (s)he might not otherwise do. He argues that this power is a result of conflict between actors to determine who wins and who loses.

However, Arendt, (1963) saw power as being related to people joining together and making unbreakable promises. Arendt observed a difference between ‘power’ within relationships and ‘authority’ that is given to an individual because of their role. Hindess, (1996) suggests that this moves power towards a relational process and relying on the consent of others.

Post-Modern Theories

Elias, (1978) suggests that power is not something a person owns, but it is a trait of human relationships. This view is supported by Lukes, (1974). Elias further suggests that power relations are formed in relationship and that it is a result of living together and interdependence. This phenomenon is like a game of tug of war; a trial of strength between two sides pulling against each other. Oxford English Reference Dictionary (1996), p. 1548

Foucault

Foucault suggested that power follows the concepts of Nietzsche in that knowledge and thought, theories and discourses are penetrated by values, Daudi, 1986 as cited by Proctor 2017. This approach formed the basis of Foucault’s work. He sees this power relationship as not responding to others, but on their actions. Thus, it is an action upon an action. Day, (2010).

This view of power suggests that power is inherent in all relationships so it both enables and limits actions, thereby helping individuals to broaden their boundaries, Hayward, (1998)

From this perspective, “Power is everywhere…because it comes from everywhere”. Foucault (1980). Power is involved in all social interactions, because ideas operate behind all language and action. Lukes (1974).

Foucault focused on how power was used in society, such as sexuality, (1976), madness, (1967) or criminality, (1977). He looked at the aims of those involved and the tactics they used to achieve those aims and the counter actions of others to achieve the same objective. In his deconstruction of the power within these institutions, he defines ‘disciplinary power’. He defines this as “comprising a whole set of instruments, techniques, procedures, levels of application, targets”. Foucault, (1977), p.215. He emphasised the ‘struggle’ that occurs between individuals and groups in society as the discord is taken up in response to the behaviours of others. Day, (2010) suggests power operates systematically within a society not from above.

Perspectives of Power in the Psychotherapy Relationship

Whilst searching the literature, I struggled to find any published research. Where references have been uncovered, these have been philosophical or theoretical perspectives on the subject; or individual accounts of personal and professional experience. Sanders, c (2017), Totton,(2009), Amitay, (2017), Lazarus, (2015).

Positions of Power

From the literature, there appears to be four philosophical positions:

Power as a destructive and oppressive force in the psychotherapy relationship;
The psychotherapy Relationship as a process of liberation and empowerment of the client.
Power as a relational, inter-subjective process in the psychotherapy relationship; and
The denial of the existence of power in the psychotherapy relationship.

At the end of the 1980’s, the central thoughts about how the imbalances between the therapist and client can result in oppressive and destructive outcomes for clients. The following debates concentrated on the abuse of sexual boundaries and forms of discrimination and prejudice against minority groups. Bates, (2006); Lago, (2006); Masson, (1989); Smail, 1995. The way the psychotherapeutic relationship exists between the client and therapist means that there is a potential for abusive relationships in the dialogue between the client and therapist. Spinelli, (1994). This reflects a structural position on power, Day, (2010), Proctor, (2017). So, the therapist in these circumstances, has ‘power over’ the client which renders them ‘powerless’ and vulnerable.

Within the literature, Masson (1989), describes power in the therapy room as having destructive elements and that the therapy could be a form of abuse. Another form of destructive power, could be therapist abusing the client by disrespecting the sexual boundaries, Chesler, (1972), Sonne and Pope, (1991) and Gabbard, (1996).

It is suggested that these destructive ways can operate at an unconscious level thus leaving the client vulnerable to past, negative experiences. Herman, (1992) believes that it is important for the therapist to avoid using their ‘power over’ Proctor, (2017), p. 13 the client for their own needs or to direct the client’s life decisions. Day, (2010).

The British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, (BACP) state that under their Ethical Framework, the counsellor has a commitment to avoid harm towards the client, (2015).

It is assumed from this point of view that power is dangerous and destructive to those who are powerless. Often power is viewed from an ethical or moral basis, looking at what is right or wrong. In simple terms, power is either ‘good’ or ‘bad’. Furggeri, (1992). This view assumes that is a possession, that is in limited supply and this then forms a structural perspective of power. The client is seen as powerless and the therapist powerful. It could be argued that this is an extreme form of domination and repression. Thus, power is viewed as monolithic, unitary and unidirectional. Procter, (2002)

Psychotherapy as Empowerment for the Client.

An alternative perspective of power is seen as positive with the therapist power being good. Psychotherapy is an empowering process for the client and thus enables the client’s autonomy. This line of argument is seen in humanistic literature, feminist literature. Brown, (1994). The British Psychological Society’s (BPS), 2009 division of counselling psychology, states explicitly that it works to ‘empower the client’.

Carl Rogers was one of the first proponents of this. Rogers suggested that the therapist’s role was to avoid power over the client and also refrain from making decisions for them. Rogers supported the client’s autonomy and how they achieved this. So, the decisions are made by the client for themselves. Rogers, (1978)

Bozarth, (1998) argues that the crux of this theory is that the therapist does not intervene. Natiello, (1990), states, “…. Offers a morality of power as well as a methodology for arriving at that morality”. (p 268). She maintains that the person-centred approach offers the client the opportunity to claim his or her own personal power rather than being reliant on the power of others.

Similarly, Freud theories of psychoanalysis argue for the analysist to use their power of rational authority to free the mind of the client.

Fromm, (1956) argues that over the duration of therapy, the client frees and cures themselves from an attachment to irrational authority. Benjamin,(1995) challenged Freud’s position states “ Already idealised for his knowledge and power – his power to know her – the analyst is now internalised in the relationship of knowledge as power over self, a practice in the domination of self whose meaning Foucault (1980) has made unforgettably problematic” p. 154

Frosh, (1987) states that object relations, like psychoanalysis, sets itself up in the feeing of a person’s psyche. He argues that its objectives are to free the client from fixations created by ‘bad’ experiences and to promote internalisation of the more nurturing possibilities experienced in the relationship with the therapist.

This assumes the client is powerless and vulnerable and the therapist has the power to empower the client. Client’s therefore are viewed as powerless. This could be seen as a structural position where power is either ‘good’ or ‘bad’ and one either has it or not. A moral argument could be where one form of power is ‘right’ and others are ‘wrong’.

A Relationship of Mutuality

The psychotherapeutic relationship is viewed as one of mutuality. Aron, (1996) views this as involving mutual generation of data, mutual regulation of the relationship, mutual recognition of the others autonomy and openness on the part of the therapist as to their client’s impact upon them. Aron argues that power is dynamic that is constantly struggled with in therapy and therefore needs ‘to be continually examined, articulated and worked through’, p151. He suggests that therapists need to question their decisions with regards to ethics as well as questioning their authority and domination in the relationship, referenced in Proctor, (2002) p 133.

Frosh, (1987) believes that the objectives for therapy is to allow the client to explore the power in therapy as it copies and reminds the client of internalised introjects from their formative years. He suggests that an approach which is politicised and recognises the reality of social structures. He argues that part of the difficulties relating to change is that people need to identify, re-experience and re-frame these introjects to help to give them a new meaning in their life. Totton, (2000) argues that it is the therapist’s role to help the client find another genuine and authentic psycho- political position. The relational position, therefore sees the power dynamics as being central in the therapeutic relationship. It is suggested that power is aligned to knowledge and neither the client or the therapist can ‘know’. Thus, it is thought that it is present in all relationships rather than being a possession of the client or therapist. It is therefore unavoidable and potentially both positive and negative. Proctor, (2002) it could be argued that this view, might undermine the role of structural differences in power in society reducing it to an intersubjective process.

Concluding thoughts of the literature

Relational perspectives in psychotherapy have started to think about ‘power’ as dynamic and inevitable. Proctor, (2017). However, despite this recognition of power, the discourse on the power dynamics in psychotherapy has remained at a philosophical level. Much of the literature can be seen as a critique of other psychological therapy or it attempts to show how therapists can misuse the power differential with their clients. The question to be explored and researched further would be how psychotherapists experience the phenomenon of power with their client’s and how it can be worked with in a clinical setting.

2018-4-8-1523186705

Inequity In America And Its Literature

Past and present American literature has ultimately reflected the life and culture of America today. The history of that literature suggests that America is not an equitable nation. According to the Oxford Pocket English Dictionary, equity is, in its most basic form, the quality of being fair and impartial. Historically, America has not demonstrated qualities of being fair nor being impartial; the inequity of this nation is depicted in its past and present literature.

Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck demonstrates inequity in the time period and setting of the story. Of Mice and Men takes place during the 1930s, also known as the Great Depression. The journey of George and Lennie, two migrant workers, is an example of the dilemmas of the homeless and unemployed men living in America during the Great Depression. The inequitable circumstances of the Great Depression expose a darker side of human nature. To survive, a person’s first priority had to be themselves.

America attempts to be equitable by offering people with a lower income benefits such as food stamps, or unemployment (if unemployed). The issue with these benefits being considered equitable comes when two people, one with a fifteen-thousand dollar a month income and one with a twenty-one-thousand dollar a month income, receive the same benefits despite having different needs to sustain a comfortable and healthy life.

Another issue of inequity presented in American literature is racism. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s work, “Why We Can’t Wait”, exposes the colonial roots of racism in America. The following quote from Dr. King explains the foundations of the race issues that our nation was built on. “Our nation was born in genocide when it embraced the doctrine that the original American, the Indian, was an inferior race. Even before there were large numbers of Negroes on our shores, the scar of racial hatred had already disfigured colonial society. From the sixteenth century forward, blood flowed in battles over racial supremacy. We are perhaps the only nation which tried as a matter of national policy to wipe out its indigenous population. Moreover, we elevated that tragic experience into a noble crusade. […]. Our literature, our films, our drama, our folklore all exalt it.” These fundamentally racist ideals have grown into segregation during the mid nineteenth century and racism in America today.

These early manifestations of racism described by Dr. King can be seen contextually in the poem “We Wear the Mask” by Paul Lawrence Dunbar. The following quote from the fourth line explains, “That African Americans were not allowed to verbalize their ideas. With torn and bleeding hearts we smile, and mouth myriad subtleties” (Dunbar 3-4). He tried to call to the lord for help, but African Americans continued to be discriminated against and had to put on a “mask” and smile through their pain. The tone of this text is a combination of anger, sorrow, and despair due to the tragic things that African Americans, both then and now, went through. Repetition is used once every stanza in the poem and “We Wear the Mask” is also the title of the work used to reaffirm the message of the poem; African Americans have to wear a mask over their feelings because they were, and to an extent still are, treated so poorly.

Race is not the only factor in discrimination, gender is also a pertinent issue when discussing inequity in America. During the second World War, women were pushed to be patriotic by filling in for the jobs of men who had been called to serve in the military. Women worked to ensure that factories continued to produce materials that were needed for the war and home. In 1943, over 310,000 women were given jobs in the aircraft industry, making up sixty-five percent of its employment. “Rosie the Riveter” was a campaign that urged women to do the munitions work previously managed by men. Inequitably, their pay for the same work was likely less than fifty percent of what the men earned. The concern was not that that there was a large wage gap, but that the men’s original wages would now be lowered to the women’s level when they returned to their jobs. According to male versus female employment statistics, there was no need to worry. One may say women have come a long way since Rosie’s day, which is true however, the wage gap between men and women still exists today. In 2016, women earned eighty-two percent of men’s earnings; men’s median weekly salaries were nine-hundred and fifteen dollars to women’s seven-hundred and forty-nine dollars

During the Victorian period men and women’s roles became more sharply defined than at any other time in history, this helped in part to lead to the gender inequality seen today. In earlier time periods it it was normal for women to work alongside their husbands or brothers in the family business. Living ‘over the shop’ as it were, made it easy for women to help out either by serving customers or keeping the accounts while also attending to their domestic duties. As the nineteenth century progressed men would more often commute to their workplace – a factory, shop or office. Wives, daughters and sisters were now left at home all day to oversee their domestic duties that were now more increasingly being carried out by servants. These ideals of a ‘housewife’ san be seen in the literature written in this time period.

2019-1-14-1547456231

Structure and issues of race within the international system/relations

“The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line.” (Du Bois, n.d.)

Race has been at the epicenter of everything and it propagated throughout centuries in several forms; forms such as economics, geography, education, health and also, socio-politics. This essay discusses and explains the structure and issues of race within the international system/relations; its evolution and development, how it impacts nations and its populations, and nonetheless the elements of race and colonialism in structures of power; followed by the formation of the successful and long-lasting Eurocentric modern capitalism, which is still present in society and acts as a pattern of global hegemon (LeMelle, 1972).

As a definition of a grouping of humans by analyzing their characteristics, either physical or ethnic (En.wikipedia.org, 2018), or a contribution to and a product of stratification (LeMelle, 1972), race has conditioned and influenced many people on the globe, including its governance and leadership. From a socio-constructed conception (En.wikipedia.org, 2018) to a major and predominant constraint in the global order and politics, the ‘race’ denotation itself evolved, building a hierarchy between civilians and nations across the world: White vs Black, Asian and other ethnic groups (BAME). This division led to a different approach of how human beings perceived themselves, strengthening aspects such as levels of development, civilization values, history, religion, culture and traditions, physical features, garments and mainly, color (Jacques, 2003).

Race portrayed and still portrays a significant role in the world order; With its hierarchy status more than solidified – claiming whites as the dominant class and non-whites as the subordinates-, it easily breads racism, discrimination, inequality, and conflict too, perpetuating the ideology of a ‘White Man’s World’ (LeMelle, 1972).

This expression was implemented and widely spread by Europeans with the intent to classify and divide populations according to their ethnicity and backgrounds. With voyages of discovery, colonialism, slavery, and imperialism perceived as great sources of income and prosperity, it became easier for Europeans to strive with their sense of white supremacy and go beyond borders to achieve these hateful and money-driven causes (LeMelle, 1972). Even though, colonialism and slavery are over per se the disparity amongst people, in modern society, is overwhelmingly large (Nkrumah, 1965); race is a structure that conditions and influences the power and actions of actors in the international realm and, in fact, remains beneficial for the Transatlantic couple, the EU and the US. It is then obvious that South American, Asian and African civilizations were reduced solely to their post-colonial and inferior identities and that the conception of a modern and civilized Europe still lingers powerful and wealthy, alienating others from their participation in historical, cultural and financial donations onto the international system (SHILLIAM, 2011).

So how can this term have a credible structure of correlation and such an effect on the international system as we know it? The three antecedents, mentioned priorly, generated a meaningful advantage to the Transatlantic couple in regards to the rest of the globe – Big decision makers with IGOs such as UN, WTO, IMF, NATO or World Bank; leaders of renown institutions such as banks, universities and hospitals; predominant winners of warfare in events like WWI, WII and Cold War; huge influencers in aspects of culture, law, democracy, science, technology, engineering, religion and immigration and responsible for the rise of capitalism and the role on globalization too. The Transatlantic couple is then easily seen as the global hegemon and the face of the international system without any accountability that their strength and mighty development was built on the back and discreditation of the BAME population ().

What also perpetuates widely the state of devaluation that the non-white nations currently find themselves in is the lack of international opportunity and mobility, poverty and debt crisis, uneven development rates with a rapid population growth to a bad wealth distribution, disproportionate citizenship status, high migration flow (LeMelle,1972), neo-colonialism and dependency on Western states, unbalanced of life chances and success by race and by state/region, and a white privileged global society.

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Effects the murder of Stephen Lawrence on policing procedures: custom essay help

This essay will analyse the effects the murder of Stephen Lawrence, which lead to the Macpherson report had on changes in police procedures and policy; especially concerning ethnic communities. The report itself includes seventy proposals of recommendation to tackle racism in the police force; with the race relations legislation being an important policy to improving procedures as well as an investigation into the Metropolitan police force for institutional racism and the failures regarding procedure surrounding the Stephen Lawrence case (The Guardian, 1999).

The murder of eighteen-year-old Stephen Lawrence occurred 22nd April 1993 where the young man was stabbed resulting in his death; although, it was not until January 2012 that two individuals were found guilty of his murder (BBC, 2018). The Macpherson report that followed the murder outlined changes in practice this included the “abolishment of the double jeopardy rule”; before this law was abolished an individual could not be tried again for a crime they had previously been found not guilty for, this was a vital change in policy as it led to the conviction of the individuals found guilty of Stephen Lawrence’s murder (The Guardian, 2013). This proposes a positive effect on policing procedures as cases succeeding the Stephen Lawrence case may have not achieved a conviction had the double jeopardy rule not of been abolished. This is evident in the ‘Babes in The Woods’ murder as this change in policy had a positive effect on policing procedures as the police were able to use new forensic evidence thirty-two years later to convict the murderer of the two young victims (BBC, 2018).

Bowling and Phillips (2002, cited in Newburn, 2017, p.854) suggested that the recommendations that were outlined in the Macpherson report led “to the most extensive programme of reform in the history of the relationship between the police and ethnic minority communities.” This suggests a positive effect of the Macpherson report as due to some of the changes in policy and police procedures actioned by the recommendations outlined has meant that the police have begun to regain the trust of ethnic minority communities; which will support police practice in the future.

The 2009 Home Affairs committee report written ten years after the Macpherson publication highlights if and how the seventy improvement proposals outlined in the report had been met at time of publication; the Home Affairs report highlighted that Dwayne Brooks suggested an important area for progression was the “introduction of appropriately trained family liason officers in critical incident” (Parliament, 2009). The report highlights that this key improvement in police procedure surrounding appropriate training for family liason officers to deal with critical incidents has improved family liason officer’s ability to be able to ‘maintain relationships with families’, whilst obtaining necessary evidence and improving confidence in the police within the black community (Parliament, 2009). Thus, suggesting that this change in policing procedure and policy, due to the Macpherson report, has had a positive effect, especially within the ethnic community. The report also highlights that this change in policing procedure and policy has positively affected homicide detection rates which the report indicated at 90%, which is “the highest of any large city in the world” (Parliament,2009).

However, there are still issues surrounding police procedures especially within ethnic minority communities, in which the Macpherson report improvements may not have positively been actioned. This can be seen in the stop and search rates; policing statistics published by the government for the time period of 2016/2017 suggests that the ratio for white individuals stopped and searched was 4:1000 whereas the ratio for black individuals was 29:1000 (Gov, 2018). Thus, suggesting that police are stopping more black individuals that white, which may still suggest an element of institutional racism in the way police conduct this procedure.

The prison reform trust also highlights an over representation of Black minority ethnic groups (BMES) in prisons with the supporting evidence of the Lammy review, the reform trust suggests that there is a clear correlation between the ethnicity of an individual and custodial sentences being issued (Prison reform trust, 2019). Thus, suggesting discrimination in police procedures and the court system. Therefore, this may suggest that the Macpherson reports improvements have not positively been actioned in some elements of the criminal justice system.

In conclusion, where the recommendations have been put into place and are actively being worked upon, the Macpherson report has provided positive effects on police procedures and policy. However, evidence such as the stop and search statistics shows that there are still issues in policing procedures and policy that need to be addressed.

2019-1-17-1547744694

Boohoo marketing and communication (PESTEL, SWOT)

This report will focus on a three-year Marketing Strategy Plan for Boohoo and a one-year Communication Plan to explore what improvement Boohoo can make across their shopping experience, their site and their social media to drive sales in the UK market.

Methodology

Primary research

For my primary research I made a questionnaire on Survey Monkey to find out customer experience with brand Boohoo. The sample of people used in the primary research ranged from the ages of 16 – 25 who are the main consumers Boohoo targets. Secondary research was carried out through websites such as WGSN.

Brand History

Boohoo is a UK online fashion retailer. It was founded in 2006 by Mahmud Kamani and Carol Kane. The brand specifies in its own brand fashion clothing selling over 36,000 products, including accessories, clothing, footwear and health and beauty. Boohoo also run BoohooMAN, NastyGal and PrettyLittleThing and are all targeted at 16-24 year olds.

Mission statement

Here at boohoo we are very proud of our brand and what we have achieved. Day to day we live by four key values that help us to continue to succeed and are at the heart of everything we do. This is our PACT, the values that seal the deal for boohoo..

The key issues boohoo face are that there are many retailers out there are all very similar including Miss Guided and Pretty Little Thing.

Maco/micro trends

Macro Trends

Political factors

Wage legislation – minimum wage and overtime
Work week regulations in retail
Product labelling
Taxation – tax rates and incentives
Mandatory employee benefits

Economic factors

Exchange rates
Labour costs
Economic growth rate
Unemployment rate
Interest rates
Inflation rates
Education level in the economy

Social factors

Class structure/hierarchy
Power structure in the society
Leisure interests
Attitudes (health, environmental consciousness)
Demographics and skill level of the population

Technological factors

Recent technological developments by Boohoo competitors
Impact on cost structure in Retail industry
Rate of technological diffusion
Technology’s impact on product offering

Environmental factors

Climate change
Weather
Recycling
Air and water pollution regulation in Retail Industry
Waste management in consumer services sector

Legal factors

Copyright
Data protection
Employment law
Health and safety law
Discrimination law

SWOT

Strengths

Strong distribution network – Boohoo have built a trustworthy distribution network which is able to reach most of its potential market
New markets – Boohoo has been entering new markets and making success of them such as BoohooMAN and PrettyLittleThing. The development has helped Boohoo build a new revenue.
Good returns on capital expenditure – Boohoo have made good returns on capital expenditure by making new revenue streams.
Reliable suppliers – Boohoo has a strong reliable supplier of raw material therefore enabling the company to overcome any supply chain holdups

Weaknesses

Investments in new technologies – The scale of expansion and geographies that Boohoo are planning to expand into, they will need to put more money into technology as the investment In technologies is not at balance with the vision of the company.
The profitability ratio and net contribution % of Boohoo are below the industry average.
Global competition such as Missguided, Topshop, Asos and H&M
No flagship stores

Opportunities

Opening up of new markets because of government agreement – the approval of new technology standard and government free trade agreement has provided Boohoo an opportunity to enter a new emerging market
Lower inflation rate – the low inflation rate brings more stability in the market and enable credit at lower interest to Boohoo customers
New technology gives Boohoo an opportunity to maintain its loyal customers with great service and lure new customers through other value positioned plans.
Continue using celebrity endorsements
Creating an online chat on their website that allows customers to receive 24-hour help.

Threats

Poor quality products compared to Boohoo competitors
Increased competition within the industry
Technological developments by competitors – new technological developments by competitors pose a threat towards Boohoo as customers attracted to this new technology can be lost to competitors which will decrease Boohoo overall market share.

Competitor analysis

The retail industry face a strong competition as Boohoo have many competitors such as ASOS, Missguided, New Look and H&M. A way that most consumers experiment all different trends with different brands is to choose cheaper retailers which in this case would be Boohoo.

2019-1-18-1547810074

Why do employees leave organisations? / Can a business force an employee to retire?: college essay help

Some of the reasons employees leave organisations are due to poor culture, poor work life balance, need for greater flexibility, poor management vs employee relationship, lack of communication, poor pay, no room for growth and poor working conditions, However, employees will stay with an organisation if there is a good work life balance, a sense of reward, good benefits packages, competitive salaries, fun environment to work, recognition and a financial need.

Peter Cheese, chief executive of the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, said: “It definitely takes time to get a new employee up to speed. It depends on the nature of the job; on one end of the spectrum, somewhere like McDonald’s can get new employees up to speed very quickly. On the other hand, there is a business development person in a professional development organisation where you’ve got to spend quite some time understanding the network and building connections to the client base and so forth, then three to six months is probably fairly typical” (Replacing Staff Cost)

It’s important to understand the reasons why employees wish to leave an organisation as there are costs associated with a dysfunctional employee turnover, these costs may not only be financial but can also be Intrinsic and reputational. Intrinsic knowledge loss is difficult to measure, but would be a loss either way, if an employee brought clients to the business or has built fantastic relationship with clients whilst employed, that employee leaving the business would be detrimental. Reputational can cost the business immensely, if an organisation doesn’t treat their employees or ex-employees well and this becomes knowledgeable, it can be hard for the organisation to attract good talent and clients. According to an article in the telegraph (Financial) Financial costs in replacing staff can cost up to £4billion a year, that’s an average of £30k per person.

One method for retaining talent in an organisation is to ensure there is an open and inclusive culture which promotes communication. One way of doing this could be to ensure language used by the senior team inclusive of HR is as Lucy Adams say “human”. (Human) Adams surmises that often when we use jargon the company can end up creating a distance between themselves and the employee; whereas if we converse in a human approach using everyday language, we have the opportunity to create a more cohesive working team, where employees can feel involved in dialogue which could leader to greater engagement but encouraging a more human approach.

Of course, “jargon” has come about due to both a cultural need for some departments such as HR to retain a professional and non-committal distance. For example, if HR as an advisory agent apologised directly for offence caused to an employee, there could be ramifications later through allegations of admittance in sensitive situations.

Therefore, it’s vital that when encouraging engagement though treating employees as humans and not numbers that due consideration is provided to the wider ramifications of a change in language and method of communication should also be considered such as platform, surveys and daily briefings.

Another method employed by businesses is the approach of ensuring employees receive a greater work life balance. This can be done through several mediums:

Flexible Working (statutory and company culture)
Seeing the individual a whole
Introduction of TOIL – for additional hours worked
Implementing training for time management, According to HR Review (Poor TM) its “One of the biggest causes of stress in the workplace is poor time management”
Increased leave benefits (holiday, paternity, maternity) Maternity for example According to Glass door (Women) Accenture pay, 9 months full pay

Such promotions can clearly be open to abuse and this can be a possible downside.

—-

Under the Equality Act 2010 [Equ Act2010], The Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (Acas) stated that when managing retirement [Retirement], older workers can voluntarily retire at a time they choose and draw any occupational pension they are entitled to. However, employers cannot force employees to retire or set a retirement age unless it can be objectively justified as what the law terms ‘a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim – [Please see appendix 8], Acas have said that a direct question such as ‘when are you retiring’ should be avoiding, instead open ended questions such as ‘where they see them selves in a few years and there contribution to the organisation, this could be done during a performance development review. An employee can change their mind at anytime about retiring until they have handed in their formal notice

An employer cannot compulsorily retire an employee, as this would leave the employer open to a complaint of unfair dismissal.When managing a dismissal, ACAS states [Dismissal 2019 ] its always best to try and resolve any issues informally first.

According the Employment Rights Act 1996 [ERA 1996] employees have the right not to be unfairly dismissed, companies need to set out clear rules and procedures and act consistently when handling disciplinary procedures and to ensure employees and managers understand the procedures and rules.

One of the following reasons along with a fair procedure, an employee can be fairly dismissed; capability (including the inability to perform competently) redundancy, conduct or behaviour, breach of a statutory restriction (such as employing someone illegally) or some other substantial reason (such as a restructure that is not a redundancy).

Before holding a disciplinary hearing, an investigation should be carried out and the employee given any evidence in time to prepare for the meeting, the employee should also be given the opportunity to bring a trade union rep or a colleague, although they can’t answer any questions, they can ask them.

The employee should be given opportunity to share their side of the situation and challenge evidence.

If the disciplinary is based on performance, the employee should be given support and training and an opportunity to improve, Companies should not sack employees for a first offence unless its gross misconduct and a penalty should reflect the seriousness of the act, staff can usually appeal against Verbal, written 1st and final warnings.

If an Employee has been with the company less than two years, they do not have unfair dismissal rights, with exceptions around discrimination and equality.

CIPD tells us that [redundancy CIPD] redundancy is a special form of dismissal which happens when an employer needs to reduce the size of its workforce. An employee is dismissed for redundancy if the following conditions are satisfied:

the employer has ceased, or intends to cease, continuing the business, or
the requirements for employees to perform work of a specific type, or to conduct it at the location in which they are employed, has ceased or diminished, or is expected to do so.

If there is a genuine redundancy, employers that follow the correct procedure will be liable for:

a redundancy payment, and
notice period payment.

Employers don’t follow the correct procedure may be liable for unfair dismissal claims or protective awards. Redundancy legislation is complex and is covered by statute and case law, with both determining employers’ obligations and employees’ rights.

2019-1-18-1547854403

Should we fight against tort reform?: essay help site:edu

The controversy around tort reform has turned into a two-sided debate between citizens and corporates. With the examination of various cases in recent years, it is clear that the effects of tort reform have proven to be negative for both sides. This issue continues to exist today, as public relations and legislature show a clear difference in opinion. In the event that tort reform occurs, victims and plaintiffs will be prevented from being fully replenished from the harm and negativity that they suffered, making this process of the civil justice system unfair.

In the justice system, there are two forms of law: criminal law, and civil law. The most well known form of law is probably criminal law. Criminal law is where the government (prosecutor) fights a defendant regarding a crime that may or may not have been committed. Contrary to this, civil law has a plaintiff and a defendant who fight over a tort. As stated in the dictionary, a tort is “a wrongful act or an infringement of a right (other than under contract) leading to civil legal liability”. In hindsence, a tort correlates to that of a crime in a criminal case.

Tort reform refers to the passing legislature or when a court issues a ruling that limits in some way the rights of an injured person to seek compensation from the person who caused the accident (“The Problems…Reform”). Tort reform also includes subtopics such as public relations campaign, caps on damages, judicial elections, and mandatory arbitration. Lawmakers across the United States have been heavily involved with tort reform since the 1950s, and it has only grown in popularity since then. Ex-president George W. Bush urged Congress to make reform in 2005 and brought tort reform to the table like no other president.

The damages that are often referred to in civil lawsuits are economic damages and non-economic damages. An economic damage is any cost that is a result of the defendant’s actions. For example, medical bills or money to repair things. Non-economic damages refer to emotional stress, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other impacts not related to money. A cap on damages “limits the amount of non-economic damage compensation that can be awarded to a plaintiff” (US Legal Inc).

Caps on damages are the most common practice of tort reform. In New Mexico, Susan Seibert says that she was hospitalized for more than nine months because of a doctor messing up during her gynecological procedure. After suing, she was supposed to receive $2.6 million in damages, which was then reduced to $600,000 because of a cap on damages. Seibert still suffers from excessive amounts of debt as a result of not being given the proper amount of money that she deserved. Caps on damages highly impacts the plaintiffs in a case. As priorly mentioned, plaintiffs sue because they need money in order to fully recover from the hardship in which they endured as a result of the defendants actions.

A type of tort reform that is not as well known is specialized medical courts. Currently, all medical malpractice courts have juries that have little to no background regarding medical information. This has been working very well because it means that an unbiased verdict is decided. However, the organization Common Good is trying to pass the creation of special medical courts. In this, the jury and judge will be trained medical professionals who will deeply evaluate the case. Advocates for this court feel that people will be better compensated for what they really deserve. However, the majority of the opinions on this court are against the idea of ths. The most concluded opinion of those who oppose this new system believe that it would put the patients at a disadvantage. It is more likely that the trained medical judges and juries will side with the doctor/surgeon/defendant than siding with the plaintiff. They believe that the most fair and efficient way to judge medical malpractice cases would be to use the existing civil justice system. One of the most famous medical malpractice cases involving Dana Carvey was ended in a settlement, but could have been much worse for Carvery if the judge and jury had been medical professionals. Carvey was receiving a double bypass and had a surgeon that operated on the wrong artery. In the event that this case went to a medical court, it is easily predictable that the verdict would have been that the doctor made a “just” mistake. The jury would have said that this mistake was nothing that was easily preventable, and it was something that could have been assumed as a risk going into the surgery. However, this case did not go to court, rather, it ended in a $7.5 million settlement.

Another form of tort reform is mandatory arbitration. Mandatory arbitration, as said in the article, “Mandatory Arbitration Agreements in Employment Contracts”, is “a contract clause that prevents a conflict from going to a judicial court”. This has affected many employers who have experienced sexual harassment, stealing of wages, racial discrimination, and more. Often times, “employees signed so-called mandatory arbitration agreements that are the new normal in American workplaces” (Campbell). These agreements are found under stacks of thousands of papers that have to be signed throughout the hiring process. The manager will force the new employee to sign these documents. Most of the time, these documents will not be called “Mandatory Arbitration Agreement”, rather, they could be called legalese names like “Alternative Dispute Resolution Agreement” (Campbell). “Between employee and employer, this means that any conflict must be solved through arbitration” (“Mandatory Arbitration Agreements in Employment Contracts”). When a conflict is solved through arbitration, “neutral arbiters” go through the evidence that the company/client present, and those arbiters decide what they think the just outcome should be, whether that is money, loss of a job, and more. This decision is known to be called the arbitration award.

A place where the effects of mandatory arbitration can be seen is the #MeToo movement. With the rise of this moment, more and more women have been coming out about their experiences with sexual harassment in the workplace. These women are then encouraged to fight against their harasser. Ultimately, many of these woman find out that they are not allowed to sue because of the mandatory arbitration agreements that they signed during the process of being hired into the job. In fact, Debra S. Katz wrote an article for The Washington Post called “30 million women can’t sue their employer over harassment”, proving how widespread the issue is. Evidently, this form of tort reform ruins the lives of over 30 million people annually. These woman could be suffering from post traumatic stress disorder, truma, and more from their experiences with sexual harassment. In the event that this form of tort reform is not banished, more and more woman will be suffering from mandatory arbitration.

By limiting the amount of money and reparations that a defendant will have to pay a plaintiff, tort reforms benefit major corporations. However, on the opposite side of this, the plaintiff suffers extremely from these limitations. In many cases, a plaintiff will be suing because they need the money to recover fully from the event that took place. For example, in the documentary “Hot Coffee”, many tort cases were discussed. Throughout the cases, there were occurrences in which the plaintiff suffered from the current regulations regarding caps, mandatory arbitration, and more. Tort reform would further exacerbate the negatives of modern day civil court cases.

Groups such as the American Tort Reform Association (ATRA) and Citizens Against Law Abuse (CALA) have also been active in fighting for tort reform. Along with these suspicions, other issues with tort reform such as the fairness behind caps on damages have exposed inequity in the civil justice system. Supporters of tort reform have been rallying for a common goal: to limit the ability of citizens to take advantage of the litigation process to protect businesses and companies.

Victims and plaintiffs will be prevented from receiving the reparations that they deserve as a result of hardship, negativity, and suffrage from the defendant’s actions in the event that tort reform occurs. Caps on damages, special medical malpractice courts, and mandatory arbitration are just a few of the negative impacts that tort reform will allow. Victims and plaintiffs sue the defendant to be able to receive the full compensation that they deserve. It is hard enough as it is to fight against these major corporations, and tort reform would further exacerbate that. Americans have the right to a fair trial, and the implication of tort reform would take away that constitutionally given right. It is essential that Americans continue to fight against tort reform, as you never know if you may become the next victim.

2019-1-6-1546809813

Chinese suppression of Hong Kong

Would you fight for democracy? Its core principles are the beating heart of our society: providing us with representation, civil rights and freedom — empowering our nation to be just and egalitarian. However, whilst we cherish our flourishing democracy, we have blatantly ignored one of the most portentous democratic crises of our time. The protests in Hong Kong. Sparked by a proposed bill allowing extradition to mainland China, the protests have ignited the city’s desire for freedom, democracy and autonomy; and they have blazed into a broad pro-democracy movement, opposing Beijing’s callous and covert campaign to suppress legal rights in Hong Kong. But the spontaneity fueling these protests is fizzling out, as minor concessions fracture the leaderless movement. Without external assistance, this revolutionary campaign could come to nothing. Now, we, the West, must support protesters to fulfill our legal and moral obligations, and to safeguard other societies from the oppression Hong Kongers are suffering. The Chinese suppression of Hong Kong must be stopped.

Of all China’s crimes, its flagrant disregard for Hong Kong’s constitution is the most alarming. When Hong Kong was returned to China in 1997, the British and Chinese governments signed the Sino-Brititish Joint Declaration, allowing Hong Kong “a high degree of autonomy, except in foreign and defence affairs” until 2047. This is allegedly achieved through the “one country, two systems” model, currently implemented in Hong Kong. Nevertheless, the Chinese government — especially since Xi Jinpin seized power in 2013 — is relentlessly continuing to erode legal rights in our former colony. For instance, in 2016, four pro-democracy lawmakers — despite being democratically elected — were disqualified from office. Amid the controversy surrounding the ruling lurked Beijing, using its invisible hand to crush the opposition posed by the lawmakers. However, it is China’s perversion of Hong Kong’s constitution, the Basic Law, that has the most pronounced and crippling effect upon the city. The Basic Law requires Hong Kong’s leader to be chosen “by universal suffrage upon nomination by a broadly representative nominating committee”; but this is strikingly disparate to reality. Less than seven percent of the electoral register are allowed to vote for representatives in the Election Committee — who actually choose Hong Kong’s leader — and no elections are held for vast swathes of seats, which are thus dominated by pro-Beijing officials. Is this really “universal suffrage”? Or a “broadly representative” committee? This “pseudo-democracy” is unquestionably a blatant violation of our agreement with China. If we continue to ignore the subversion of the fundamental constitution holding Hong Kong together, China’s grasp over a supposedly “autonomous” city will only strengthen. It is our legal duty to hold Beijing to account for these heinous contraventions of both Hong Kong’s constitution and the Joint Declaration — which China purports to uphold. Such despicable and brazen actions, whatever the pretence, cannot be allowed to continue.

The encroachment of their fundamental human rights is yet another travesty. Over the past few years, the Chinese government has been furtively extending its control over Hong Kong. Once, Hong Kongers enjoyed numerous freedoms and rights; now, they silently suffer. Beijing has an increasingly pervasive presence in Hong Kong, and, emboldened by a lack of opposition, it is beginning to repress anti-chinese views. For example, five booksellers, associated with one Hong Kong publishing house, disappeared in late 2015. The reason? The publishing house was printing a book — which is legal in Hong Kong — regarding the love-life of the Chinese president Xi Jinpin. None of the five men were guilty; all five men later appeared in custody in mainland China. One man even confessed on state television, obviously under duress, to an obscure crime he “committed” over a decade ago. This has cast a climate of paranoia over the city, which is already forcing artists to self-censor for fear of Chinese retaliation; if left unchecked, this erosion of free speech and expression will only worsen. Hong Kongers now live with uncertainty as to whether their views are “right” or “wrong”; is this morally acceptable to us? Such obvious infringements of rights to free speech are clear contraventions of the core human rights of people in Hong Kong. Furthermore, this crisis has escalated with the protests, entangling violence in the political confrontations. Police have indiscriminately used force to suppress both peaceful and violent protesters, with Amnesty International reporting “Hongkongers’ human rights situation has violations on almost every front”. The Chinese government is certainly behind the police’s ruthless response to protesters, manipulating its pawns in Hong Kong to quell dissent. This use of force cannot be tolerated; it is a barefaced oppression of a people who simply desire freedom, rights and democracy and it contradicts every principle that our society is founded upon. If we continue abdicating responsibility for holding Beijing to account, who knows how far this crisis will deteriorate? Beijing’s oppression of Hong Kongers’ human rights will not disappear. Britain — as a UN member, former sovereignty of Hong Kong and advocate for human rights — must make a stand with the protesters, who embody the principles of our country in its former colony.

Moreover, if we do not respond to these atrocities, tyrants elsewhere will only be emboldened to further strengthen their regimes. Oligarchs, autocrats and dictators are prevalent in our world today, with millions of people oppressed by totalitarian states. For instance, in India, the Hindu nationalist government, headed by Narendra Modi, unequivocally tyrannize the people of Kashmir: severing connections to the internet, unlawfully detaining thousands of people and reportedly torturing dissidents. The sheer depravity of these atrocities is abhorrent. And the West’s reaction to these barbarities? We have lauded and extolled Modi as, in the words then-president Barack Obama, “India’s reformer in chief”, apathetic to the outrages enacted by his government. This exemplifies our seeming lack of concern for other authoritarian regimes around the world: from our passivity towards the Saudi Arabian royal family’s oppressive oligarchy to our unconcern about the devilish dictatorship of President Erdoğan in Turkey. Our hypocrisy is irrefutable; this needs to change. The struggle in Hong Kong is a critical turning point in our battle against such totalitarian states. If we remain complacent, China will thwart the pro-democracy movement and Beijing will continue to subjugate Hong Kong unabashed. Consequently, tyrants worldwide will be emboldened to tighten their iron fists, furthering the repression of their peoples. But, if we support the protesters, we can institute a true democracy in Hong Kong. Thus, we will set a precedent for future democracies facing such turbulent struggles in totalitarian states, establishing an enduring stance for Western democracies to defend. But to achieve this, we must act decisively and immediately to politically pressure Beijing to make concessions, in order to create a truly autonomous Hong Kong.

Of course, the Chinese government is trying to excuse their actions. They claim to be merely maintaining order in a city of their country, while Western powers fuel protests in Hong Kong. Such fabrications from Chinese spin-doctors are obviously propaganda. There is absolutely no evidence to corroborate their claim of “foreign agents” sparking violence in Hong Kong. And, whilst some protesters are employing aggressive tactics, their actions are justified: peaceful protests in the past, such as the Umbrella Movement of 2014, yielded no meaningful change. Protesters are being forced to violence by Beijing, who are stubborn to propose any meaningful reforms.

Now, we face a decision, one which will have profound and far-reaching repercussions for all of humanity. Do we ignore the egregious crimes of the Chinese government, and in our complacency embolden tyrants worldwide? Or do we fight? Hong Kongers are enduring restricted freedoms, persecution and a perversion of their constitution; we must oppose this oppression resolutely. Is it our duty to support the protesters? Or, is democracy not worth fighting for?

2019-10-11-1570808349

Occurrence and prevalence of zoonoses in urban wildlife: essay help online free

A zoonosis is a disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans. Zoonoses in companion animals are known and described extensively. A lot of research has already been done, Rijks et al (2015) for example lists the 15 diseases of prime public health relevance, economical importance or both (Rijks(1)). Sterneberg-van der Maaten et al (2015) composed a list of the 15 priority zoonotic pathogens, which includes the rabies virus, Echinococcus granulosus, Toxocara canis/cati and Bartonella henselae (Sterneberg-van der Maaten(2)).

Although the research is extensive the knowledge about zoonoses and hygiene instruction of owners, health professionals and other related professions, like pet shop employees, is low. According to Van Dam et al (2016) (3)77% of the pet shop employees does not know what a zoonosis is and just 40% of the pet shops has a protocol for hygiene and disease prevention. 27% of the pet shops and asylums give instruction to their clients about zoonoses. It may therefore be assumed that the majority of the public is unaware of the health risks involving companion animals like cats and dogs. Veterinarians give information about responsible pet ownership and the risks when the pet owner visits the clinic (Van dam(3), Overgaauw (4)). In other words, dissemination obtained from research has not occurred effectively.

However, urban areas are not only populated with domestic animals. There is also a variety of non- domesticated animals living in close vicinity of domesticated animals and the human population, the so-called the urban wildlife. Urban wildlife is defined as any animal that has not been domesticated or tamed and lives or thrives in an urban environment (freedictionary(5)). Just like companion animals, urban wildlife carries pathogen that are zoonotic, for example Echinococcus multilocularis. This is a parasite that can be transmitted from foxes to humans. Another example is the rabies virus, which is transmitted by hedgehogs and bats. Some zoonotic diseases can be transmitted to humans from different animals. Q-fever occurs in mice, foxes, rabbits and sometimes even in companion animals.

There is little knowledge about the risk factors that influence the transmission of zoonoses in urban areas (Mackenstedt(6)). This is mostly due to the lack of active surveillance of carrier animals. This surveillance requires fieldwork, which is expensive and time-consuming. Often there is no immediate result for public-health authorities. This is why surveillance often is initiated during or after an epidemic (Heyman(7)). Meredith et al (2015) mentioned that due to the unavailability of a reliable serological test, for many species it is not yet know what the contribution is to the transmission to human (Meredith(8)).

The general public living in urban areas is largely unaware of the diseases transmitted from the urban wildlife that is present in their living area (Himsworth(9)), (Heyman(7)), (Dobay(10)), (Meredith(8)). Since all these diseases can also be a risk for the public health and the public may need to be informed of these risks.

The aim of this study is to determine the occurrence and prevalence of zoonoses in urban wildlife. To do this, the ecological structure of an European city will be investigated first, to determine wildlife living in the urban areas. Secondly, an overview of the most common and important zoonoses in companion animals will be discussed. Followed by zoonoses in urban wildlife.

2. Literature review

2.1 Ecological structure of the city

Humans and animals live closely together in cities. Both companion animals and urban wildlife share the environment with humans. Companion animals are important to human society. They perform working roles (dogs for hearing of visually impaired people) and they play a role in human health and childhood development (Day(11)).

A distinction can be made between animals that live in the inner city and animals that live in the outskirts of the city. The animals that live in the majority of the European inner cities are: brown rats, house mice, bats, rabbits and different species of birds. Those living outside of the stone inner city are other species of mice, hedgehogs, foxes and moles (Auke Brouwer(12)). In order to create safe passage for this particular group of animals, ecological structures are created. The structure also includes wet passageways for amphibia and snakes and dry passageways like underground tunnels, special bridges and cattle grids (Spier M(13)).

A disadvantage of human and animals living in close vicinity of each other is the possibility of transmitting diseases (Auke Brouwer(12)). Diseases can be transmitted from animals to humans in different ways. A few examples are: through eating infected food, inhalation of aerosols, via vectors or fecal-oral contact (WUR(14)). The most relevant ways of transmission for this review are: indirect physical contact (e.g. contact with contaminated surface), direct physical contact (touching an infected person or animal), through skin lesions, fecal-oral transmission and airborne transmission (aerosols). In the following section an overview of significant zoonoses of companion animals will be described. This information will enable a comparison with urban wildlife zoonoses later in this review.

2.2 Zoonoses of cats and dogs

There are many animals living in European cities. Both companion animals and urban wildlife. 55- 59% of the Dutch households has one or more companion animals (van Dam(3)). This includes approximately 2 million dogs and 3 million cats (RIVM(15)). In all of Europe live approximately 61 million dogs and 66 million cats. Owning a pet has many advantages, but companion animals are also able to transmit diseases to humans (Day(11)). In the following section significant zoonoses for companion animals will be described.

A. Bartonellosis (cat scratch disease)

Bartonellosis is an infection by Bartonella henselae or B. clarridgeiae. Most infections in cats are thought to be subclinical. If disease does occur, the symptoms are mild and self-limiting, characterized by lethargy, fever, gingivitis, uveitis and nonspecific neurological signs (Weese JS(16)). The seroprevalence in cats is 81% (barmettler(17)).

Humans get infected by scratches or bites and sometimes by infected fleas and ticks. In the vast majority of cases, the infection is also mild and self-limiting. The clinical signs in humans include development of a papule at the site of inoculation, followed by regional lymphadenopathy and mild fever, generalized myalgia and malaise. This usually resolves spontaneously over a period of weeks to months (Weese JS(16)).

Few cases of human bartonella occur in The Netherlands. Based on laboratory diagnosis done by the RIVM, the bacteria causes 2 cases per 100.000 humans each year. However, this could be ten times higher, since the disease is mild and self-limiting most of the time, so most people do not visit a health care professional (RIVM(18)).

B. Leptospirosis

This disease is caused by the bacteria Leptospira interrogans. According to Weese et al (2002) leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonotic disease in the world. The bacteria can infect a wide range of animals (Weese(16)).

Leptospirosis is in dogs and cats a relatively small zoonosis. It is not know exactly how many dogs are infected annually subclinically or asymptomatically, but according to Houwers et al (2009), each year around 10 cases occur in The Netherlands (Houwers(19)). RIVM states that each year 0,2 cases per 100.000 humans occur (RIVM(20)).

Infection in dogs is called Weill’s disease. Clinical signs can be peracute, acute, subacute and chronic. A peracute infection usually results in in sudden death with few clinical signs. Dogs with an acute infection are icteric, have diarrhea, vomit and may experience peripheral vascular collapse. The subacute form is generally manifested as fever, vomiting, anorexia, polydipsia, dehydration and in some cases severe renal disease can develop. Symptoms of a chronical infections are: fever of unknown origin, unexplained renal failure, or hepatic disease and anterior uveitis. The majority of infections in dogs are subclinical or chronic. In cats clinical disease is infrequent (Weese(16)).

According to Barmettler et al (2011), the risk of transmission of Leptospira from dogs to humans is just theoretical. All tested humans were exposed to infected dogs, but all were seronegative to the bacteria (Barmettler(17)).

The same bacteria that causes leptospirosis in dogs is responsible for the disease in rats, namely Leptospira interrogans. This bacteria is considered the most widespread zoonotic pathogen in the world and rats are the most common source of human infection, especially in urban areas (Himsworth(21)). According to the author, the bacteria asymptomatically colonizes the rat kidney and the rats shed the bacteria via the urine (Himsworth(9)). Bacteria can survive outside the rats for some time, especially in a warm and humid environment (RIVM(20)).

People become infected through contact with urine, or through contact with contaminated soil or water (Himsworth (21)). The Leptospira-bacteria can enter the body via the mucous or open wounds (Oomen(22)). The symptoms and severity of disease can be highly variable, ranging from asymptomatic to sepsis and death. Common complaints are: headache, nausea, myalgia and vomiting. Moreover, neurologic, cardiac, respiratory, ocular and gastrointestinal manifestations can occur (Weese JS(16)).

The prevalence in rats differs between cities and even between locations in the same city. Himsworth (2013) states that in Vancouver 11% of the tested rats was positive for Leptospira (Himsworth(9)). Another study by Easterbrook (2007) found 65,3% of all tested rats in Baltimore to be positive for the bacteria (Easterbrook(23)). Krojgaard (2009) found a prevalence between 48% and 89% in different location in Copenhagen (Krojgaard(24)).

C. Dermatophytosis (ringworm)

Dermatophytosis is a fungal dermatologic disease, caused by Microsporum spp. or Trichophyton spp. It causes disease in a variety of animals (Weese(16)). According to Kraemer (2012), the dermatophytes that occur in rabbits are Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. Although the former is more common(Kraemer(25)).

Dermatophytes live in keratin layers of the skin and cause ringworm. They depend on human or animal infection for survival. Infection occurs through direct contact between dermatophyte arthrospores and keratinocytes/hairs. Transmission through indirect contact also occurs, for example through toiletries, furniture or clothes (Donnelly(26), RIVM(18)). Animals (especially cats) can transmit M. canis infection while remaining asymptomatic (Weese JS(16)).

The symptoms in both animals and humans can vary from mild or subclinical to severe lesions similar to pemphigus foliaceus (itching, alopecia and blistering). The skin lesions develop 1-3 weeks after infection(Weese JS). Healthy, intact skin cannot be infected, but only mild damage is required to make the skin susceptible to infection. No living tissue is invaded, only the keratinized stratum corneum is colonized. However, the fungus does induce an allergic and inflammatory eczematous response in the host (Donelly(26), RIVM(18)).

Dermatophytosis is not commonly occurring in humans. RIVM states that each year, 3000 per 100.000 humans get infected. Children between the age of 4 and 7 are the most susceptible to the fungal infection. In cats and dogs, the prevalence of M. canis is much higher: 23,3% according to Seebacher(27). The prevalence in rabbits is 3.3% (d’Ovidio(28)).

D. Echinococcosis

Echinococcus granulosus can be transmitted from dogs to humans. Dogs are the definitive hosts, while herbivores or humans are the intermediate hosts. Dogs can become infected by eating infected organs, for example from sheep, pigs and cattle (RIVM(29)) . The intermediate hosts develop a hydatid cyst with protoscoleces after ingesting eggs produced and excreted by definitive hosts. The protoscoleces evaginate in the small intestine and attach there(MacPherson(30)).

In most parts of Europe, Echinococcus granulosus occurs occasionally. However, in Spain, Italy, Greece, Romania and Bulgaria the bacteria is highly endemic.

Animals, either as definitive or as intermediate hosts, rarely show symptoms.

Humans, on the other hand, can show symptoms, depending on the size and site of the cyst and the growth rate. The disease can become life-threatening if a cyst in lungs or liver bursts. In that case a possible complication is an anaphylactic shock (RIVM(29)).

In the Netherlands, echinoccosis rarely occurs in humans. Between 1978 and 1991, 191 new patients were diagnosed, but it is not known how many of these were new cases. The risk of infection is higher in the case of bad hygiene and living closely together with dogs (RIVM(29)). In a study done by Fotiou et al (2012) the prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus is 1,1% (Fotiou(31)). The prevalence in dogs is much higher: 10,6% according to Barmettler et al (17).

E. Toxocariasis

Toxocariasis is caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati. Toxocara is present in the intestine of 32% of all tested dogs, 39% of tested cats and 16%-26% of tested red foxes (Luty(32), LETKOVÁ(33)). In dogs younger than 6 weeks the prevalence can be up to 80% (Kantere) and in kittens of 4-6 months old it can be 64% (Luty(32)). The host becomes infected by swallowing the parasites embryonated eggs (Kantere(34)).

Dogs and red foxes are the definitive host of T. canis, cats of T. cati (Luty(32)). Humans are paratenic hosts. After ingestion, the larvae hatch in the intestine and migrate all over the body via blood vessels (visceral larva migrans). In young animals the migrations occurs via the lungs and trachea. After swallowing, the larvae mature in the intestinal tract.

In paratenic hosts and adult dogs that have some degree of acquired immunity, the larvae undergo somatic migration. There they remain as somatic larvae in the tissues. If dogs eat a Toxocara-infected paratenic host, larvae will be released and develop to adult worms in the intestinal tract (MacPherson(30)).

Humans can be infected by oral ingestion of infective eggs from contaminated soil, from unwashed hands or consumption of raw vegetables (MacPherson(30)).

The clinical symptoms in animals depend on the age of the animal and number, location and stage of development of worms. After birth, puppies can suffer from pneumonia because of tracheal migration and die in 2-3 days. 2-3 weeks after birth, puppies can show emaciation and digestive disturbance because of mature worms in the intestine and stomach. Clinical signs are: diarrhea, constipation, coughing, nasal discharge and vomiting.

Clinical symptoms in adult dogs are rare(MacPherson(30)).

In most human cases following infection by small numbers of larvae, the disease occurs without symptoms. Mostly children do get infected. VLM is mainly diagnosed in children of 1-7 years old. The symptoms can be general malaise, fever, abdominal complaints, wheezing or coughing. Severe clinical symptoms are mainly found in children of 1-3 years old.

Most of the larvae seem to be distributed to the brain and can cause neurological disease. Larvae do not migrate continuously. They rest periodically, and during such periods they induce an immunologically mediated inflammatory response (MacPherson(30)).

The prevalence in children is much lower than in adults, respectively 7% and 20%. The risk of infection with Toxocara spp. increases with bad hygiene (Overgaauw(36)). In the external environment, the eggs survive for months and consequently toxocariasis represents a significant public health risk (Kantere(34)) . High rates of soil contamination with toxocara eggs are demonstrated in parks, playgrounds, sandpits and other public places. Direct contact with infected dogs is not considered as a potential risk for human infection, because embryonation to the stage of infectivity requires a minimum of 3 weeks (MacPherson(30)).

F. Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii. Cats are the definitive hosts and other animals and humans act as intermediate hosts. Infected cats excrete oocysts in the feces. These oocysts end up in the environment, where they are ingested by intermediate hosts (direct or indirect via food or water). In the intermediate hosts the protozoa migrates until it gets stuck. It is then encapsulated and stays at that place. If cats eat infected intermediate hosts they become infected.

Animals rarely show symptoms, although some young cats get diarrhea, encephalitis, hepatitis and pneumonia.

In most humans, infection is asymptomatic. Pregnant women can transmit the protozoa through the placenta and infect the unborn child. The symptoms in the child depend on the stage of pregnancy. An infection in early stages leads to severe deviations and in many cases to abortion. If the infection occurs in a later stage, premature birth is seen and symptoms of an infectious disease (fever, rash, icterus, anemia and an enlarged spleen or liver). Although, in most cases the symptoms start after birth. Most damage is done in the eyes (RIVM(37)).

Based on data of the RIVM and Overgaauw (1996) the disease that is most commonly transmitted to humans is toxoplasmosis. The prevalence was 40,5% in 1996. This number is reduced in the last few decades and Jones (2009) states that in 2009 the prevalence was 24,6% (Jones(38)). The prevalence rises with age, being 17,5% in humans younger than 20 years, and 70% in humans of 65 years and older. There is no increased risk of getting an infection if humans have a cat as a pet (RIVM(37)). Birgisdottir et al (2006) studied the prevalence in cats in Sweden, Estonia and Iceland. They found a prevalence of 54,9% , 23% and 9,8%, respectively in Estonia, Sweden and Iceland (Birgisdottir(39)).

G. Q-fever

The aetiological agent of Q-fever is the bacteria Coxiella burnetti. The bacteria has a very wide host range, including ruminants, birds and mammals such as small rodents, dogs, cats and horses. Accordingly, there is a complex reservoir system (Meredith(8)).

The extracellular form of the bacteria is very resistant, therefore it can be persistent in the environment for several weeks. It can also be spread by the wind, so direct contact with animals is not required for infection. Coxiella burnetti is found in both humans and animals in the blood, lungs, spleen, liver and during pregnancy in large quantities in the placenta and mammary glands. It is shed in urine and feces and during pregnancy in the milk (Meredith(8)).

Humans that live close to animals (like in the city) have a higher risk to get infected, since the mode of transmission is aerogenic or direct contact. The bacteria is excreted through the urine feces, placenta or amnionic fluid. After drying, it is aerogenically spread (RIVM(40)). Acute infection is characterized by atypical pneumonia and hepatitis and in some cases transient bacteraemia. The bacteria then haematogenously spreads, which results in an infection in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, reproductive tract and other organs. This is followed by the formation of granulomatous lesions in the liver and bone marrow and development of an endocarditis involving the aortic and mitral valve (Woldehiwet(41)).

On the other hand, there is little information about the clinical signs of Q fever in animals, but variable degrees of granulomatous hepatitis, pneumonia, or bronchopneumonia have been reported in mice (Woldehiwet(41)). In pregnant animals, abortion or low foetal birth weight can occur (Meredith(8), Woldehiwet(41)).

The prevalence in the overall human population in Europe is not high (2,7 %), but in risk groups like veterinarians, the prevalence can be as high as 83% (RIVM(40)).

Meredith et al, have developed a modified indirect ELISA kit adapted for use in multiple species. They tested the prevalence of C. burnetii in wild rodents (band vole, field vole and wood mouse), red foxes and domestic cats in the United Kingdom. The prevalence in the rodents was overall 17,3%. In cats it was 61.5% and in foxes 41,2% (Meredith(8)). In rabbits, the prevalence was 32,3% (González-Barrio(42)).

H. Pasteurellosis

Pasteurellosis is caused by Pasteurella multocida. This is a coccobacillus found in the oral, nasal and respiratory cavities of many species of animals (dog, cats, rabbits, etc). It is one of the most prevalent commensal and opportunistic pathogens in domestic and wild animals (Wilson(43), Giordano(44)). Human infections are associated with animal exposure, usually after animal bites or scratches (Giordano(44)). Kissing or licking of skin abrasions or mucosal surfaces of animals can also lead to infection. Transmission between animals is through direct contact with nasal secretions. (Wilson(43)).

In both animals and humans Pasteurella multocida causes chronic or acute infections that can lead to significant morbidity with symptoms of pneumonia, atrophic rhinitis, cellulitis, abscesses, dermonecrosis, meningitis and/or hemorrhagic septicaemia. In animals the mortality is significant, but not in human. This is probably due to the immediate prophylactic treatment of animal bite wounds with antibiotics. (Wilson(43))

Disease in animals appears as a chronic infection in nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, middle ears, lacrimal and thoracic ducts of the lymph system and lungs. Primary infections with respiratory viruses or Mycoplasma species predisposes to a Pasteurella infection (Wilson(43)).

The incidence in humans is 0,19 cases per 100.000 humans (Nseir(45)). The prevalence in dogs and cats is 25-42% (Mohan(46)). The only known prevalence in rabbits is a 29,8% in laboratory animal facilities (Kawamoto(47)).

The majority of the human population lives in cities. As a result of this, in some countries the urban landscape encompasses more than half of the land surface. This leaves little space for the wildlife species living in the country. Some species are nowadays found more in urban areas than in their native environment. They have adapted to the urban ecosystems. This is a positive aspect for biodiversity in the cities. On the other hand, just like companion animals, this urban wildlife can transmit disease to humans (Dearborn(49)). In the following section, significant zoonoses of urban wildlife will be described.

A. Zoonoses of rats

The following zoonoses occur urban rats: Leptospirosis (see 2.2B) and rat bite fever.

Rat bite fever

The rat bite fever is caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis or S. minis(Chafe(50)). These bacteria are part of the normal oropharyncheal flora of the rat and it is thought to be present in rat populations worldwide.

Since the bacteria are part of the normal flora, the rats are not susceptible to the bacteria. In people, on the other hand, the bacteria can cause rat bite fever. The transmission occurs through the bite of an infected rat and through ingestion of contaminated food. The latter causes Haverhill fever.

The clinical symptoms are fever, chills, headache, vomiting, polyarthritis and skin rash. In Haverhill fever pharyngitis and vomiting may be more pronounced. If not treated, S. moniliformis infection can progress to septicemia with a mortality rate of 7-13% (Himsworth(21)).

The prevalence of Streptobacillus spp. in rats is 25% (Gaastra(51)). According to Trucksis et al (2016), rat bite fever is very rare in humans. Only a few cases each year occur (Trucksis(52)).

B. Zoonoses of mice

The zoonotical diseases that occur in mice are: hanta viruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis, tularemia and Q-fever (see 2.2 G).

Hanta viruses

There are different types of hanta viruses, each carried by a specific rodent host species. In Europe, three types occur: Puumala virus(PUUV), carried by bank vole; Dobrava virus(DOBV), carried by yellow-necked mouse; Saaremaa virus(SAAV), carried by the striped field mouse (Heyman(7)). SAAV has been found in Estonia, Russia, South-Eastern Finland, Germany, Denmark, Slovenia and Slovakia. PUUV is very common in Finland, Northern Sweden, Estonia, the Ardennes Forest Region, parts of Germany, Slovenia and in parts of European Russia. DOBV has been found in The Balkans, Russia, Germany, Estonia and Slovakia (Heyman(7)).

Hantaviruses are transmitted via direct and indirect contact. Infective particles fare secreted in feces, urine and saliva (Kallio(53)).

The disease is asymptomatic in mice (Himsworth(21)). Humans on the other hand do get symptoms. All types of the Hanta virus cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), but they differ in severity. HFRS is characterized by acute onset, fever, headache, abdominal pains, backache, temporary renal insufficiency and thrombocytopenia. In DOBV the extent of hemorrhages, requirement for dialysis treatment, hypotension and case-fatality rates are much higher than in PUUV or SAAV. Mortality is very low (approximately 0.1%)(Heyman(7)).

Hanta viruses are an endemic zoonosis in Europe. Tens of thousands of people get infected each year (Heyman(7)). The prevalence in mice is 9,5% (Sadkowska(54)).

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis is a viral disease, caused by an arena virus (Cahfe(50)). The natural reservoirs of arenaviruses are rodent species. They are asymptomatically infected (Oldstone(55)).

In humans the disease is characterized by varying signs, from inapparent infection to the acute, fatal meningoencephalitis. The transmission of the disease is through mice bites and material contaminated with excretions and secretions of infected mice (Cahfe(50)).

The virus causes little or no toxicity to the infected cells. The disease- and associated cell and tissue injury- are caused mostly by activity of the hosts immune system. The antiviral response produces factors that act against the infected cells and damage them. Another factor is the displacement of cellular molecules that are normally attached to cellular receptors by viral proteins. This could result in conformational changes, which causes the cell membrane to become fragile and interfere with normal signalling events (Oldstone(55)).

The prevalence of lymphocytic choriomeningitis in human is 1,1 %(Lledó(56). In mice, the prevalence is 2,4% (Forbes(57)).

Tularemia

Tularemia is caused by the bacterium Franscisella tularensis. Only few animal outbreaks have been reported and so far only one outbreak in wildlife has been closely monitored(Dobay(10)). The bacteria can infect a large number of animal species. Outbreaks among mammals and human are rare. However, outbreaks can occur when the source of infection is widely spread and/or many people or animals are exposed. Outbreaks are difficult to monitor and trace, because mostly wild rodents and lagomorphs are affected (Dobay(10)).

People get infected in five ways: ingestion, direct contact with a contaminated source, inhalation, arthropod intermediates and animal bites. In animals the route of transmission is not yet known. The research of Dobay et al(2015) suggests that tularemia can cause sever outbreaks in small rodents such as house mice. The outbreak is self-exhausting in approximately three months, so no treatment is needed (Dobay(10)).

Tularemia is a potentially lethal disease. There are different clinical manifestations, depending on the route of infection. The ulceroglandular form is the most common and occurs after handling contaminated sources. The oropharyngeal form can be caused by ingestion of contaminated food or water. The pulmonary, typhoidal, glandular and ocular forms occur less frequently (Dobay(10)), Anda(58)).

In humans the symptoms of the glandular and ulceroglandular form are cervical, occipital, axillary or inguinal lymphadenopathy. The symptoms of pneumonic tularemia are fever, cough and shortness of breath (Weber(59)). Clinical manifestation of the oropharyngeal form include adenopathies on the elbow/ armpit/both, cutaneous lesions, fever, malaise, chills and shivering, painful sore throat with swollen tonsils and enlarged cervical lymph nodes (Sahn(60), Anda(58)).

The clinical features in animals are unspecific and the pathological effects vary substantially between different animal species and geographical locations. The disease can be very acute (for example in highly susceptible species like mice), with development of sepsis, liver and spleen enlargement and pinpoint white foci in the affected organs. The subacute form can be found in moderately susceptible species like hares. The symptoms are granulomatous lesions in lungs, pericardium and kidneys.

Infected animals are usually easy to catch, moribund or even dead (Maurin(61)).

Rossow et al (2015) states that the prevalence in humans is 2% (Rossow(62)). Highest prevalence found in small mammals during outbreak in Central Europe is 3,9% (Gurycová(63)).

C. Zoonoses of foxes

The zoonosis that can be transmitted from foxes to human are Q-fever (see 2.2G), toxocariasis (see 2.2E) and echinococcus multilocularis.

Echinococcus multilocularis

This is considered one of the most serious parasitic zoonosis in Europe. The red foxes are the main definitive hosts. The natural intermediate host are voles, but a lot of animals can act as accidental hosts, for example monkeys, human, pigs and dogs. The larval stage of Echinococcus multilocularis causes Alveolar echinococcosis (AE). The infection is widely distributed in foxes, with a prevalence of 70% in some areas. RIVM states that the prevalence in The Netherlands is 10-13%. The prevalence in humans differs throughout Europe, and has to do with the prevalence in foxes. If the prevalence in foxes is high, the prevalence in human increases. However, there has not been reported a prevalence higher than 0,81 per 100.000 inhabitants (RIVM(29)). Foxes living in urban areas pose a threat to the public health and there is concern that that risk may rise due to the suspected geographical spread of the parasite (Conraths(64)).

In foxes the helminth colonizes the intestines, but it does not cause disease. In intermediate hosts and accidental hosts cysts are formed after oral intake of eggs excreted by foxes, which causes AE. The size, site and growth rate of the larval stage determine the symptoms. Most of the time, infection starts in the liver, causing local deviations. The larvae grow invasively to other organs and blood vessels. It can take five to fifteen years before clear symptoms show (RIVM(29)). In human AE is a very rare disease, but incidences have increased in recent years.

D. Zoonoses of rabbits

The zoonoses that can be transmitted from rabbits to human are: Pasteurellosis (see 2.2H), tularemia (see 2.3B), Q fever (see 2.2G), dermatophytosis (see 2.2C) and cryptosporidiosis.

Cryptosporidiosis

Cryptosporidium is a protozoa. It is considered the most important zoonotic pathogen causing diarrhea in humans and animals. In rabbits, Cryptosporidium cuniculus (rabbit genotype) is the most common genotype (Zhang(65)). Two large studies have been done in rabbits, they showed a prevalence between 0,0% and 0,9% in rabbits (Robinson(66)).

The risks of cryptosporidiosis for the public health from wildlife are poorly understood. No studies of the host range and biological features of the Cryptosporidium rabbit genotype were identified. However human-infectious Cryptosporidium (including Cryptosporidium parvum) have caused experimental infections in rabbits and there is some evidence that his occurs naturally (Robinson(66)).

In human and neonatal animals, the pathogen causes gastroenteritis, chronic diarrhea or even severe diarrhea (Zhang(65), Robinson(66)). In >98% of these cases, the disease is caused by C. hominis or C. parvum, but recently, the rabbit genotype has emerged as a human pathogen. Little is known yet about this genotype, because only a few cases in humans were reported (Robinson(66)). Since little isolates have been found in humans and little is known about human infection with Cryptosporidium rabbit genotype, Robinson et al (2008) assumed this genotype is insignificant to public health and further investigation is needed (Robinson(67)).

E. Zoonoses of hedgehogs

Hedgehogs pose a risk for a number of potential zoonotic disease, for example microbial infections like Salmonella spp, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Mycobacterium marinum and dermatophytosis.

Salmonellosis

Salmonellosis is the most important zoonotic disease in hedgehogs. The prevalence of Salmonella in hedgehogs is 18,9%. The infection can either be asymptomatic or symptomatic. The hedgehogs that do show symptoms can display anorexia, diarrhea and weight loss. Humans get infected through ingestion of the bacteria, after handling the hedgehog or contact with feces (Riley(68)).

The Salmonella serotypes that are associated with hedgehogs are S. tilene and S. typhimurium (Woodward(69), Riley(68)).

Clinical manifestations in human (mainly adults) of both serotypes involve self-limiting gastroenteritis (including headache, malaise, nausea, fever, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea (Woodward(69))), but bacteriamia, localized and endovascular infections may also occur (Crum Cianflone(70)). Infection with S. typhimurium and S. tilene is rare in humans, approximately 0,057 per 100.000 inhabitants (CDC(71))

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

No clinical symptoms for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection in hedgehogs are described in the literature. However, this bacteria causes a gastroenteritis in humans, characterized by a self-limiting mesenteric lymphadenitis, which mimics appendicitis. Complications can occur, which include erythema nodosum and reactive arthritis (Riley(68)). Since only Riley et al (2005) reported a case concerning Y. pseudotuberculosis, no information in available yet about the prevalence in hedgehogs or humans, or about the route of transmission. Although Riley et al (2005) claim that the zoonosis in commonly occurring (Riley(68)).

Myobacterium marinum

Mycobacterium marinum infection is not common in hedgehogs. The bacteria causes systemic myocbacteriosis. The porte d’entrée of the bacteria is through a wound or abrasion in the skin and the bacteria spreads systemically through the lymphatic system. This is also the way in which hedgehogs transmit the bacteria to human; the spines of the hedgehog can cause wounds and the bacteria can enter. Symptoms in human consist of clusters of papules or superficial nodules and can be painful. (Riley(68)). No information is reported regarding the prevalence of the bacteria in hedgehogs or humans.

Dermatophytosis

Dermatophytosis has been seen in hedgehogs. The most isolated dermatophyte is Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei. Microsporum spp. have also been reported. Lesions in the hedgehog are similar to those in other species: nonpruritic , dry, scaly skin with bald patches and spine loss. Hedgehogs can also be asymptomatic carriers, and that is a risk for potential zoonotic transmission (Riley(68)).

In human, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei causes a local rash with pustules at the edges and an intensely irritating and thickened area in centre of the lesion. This usually resolves spontaneously after 2-3 weeks (Riley(68)).

Few cases of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei have been reported (Pierard-Franchimont(72), Schauder(73), Keymer(74)), but no prevalence is known for humans and hedgehogs.

F. Zoonoses of bats

According to Calisher et al (2009) bat viruses that are proven to cause highly pathogenic disease in human are rabies virus and related lyssaviruses, Nipah and Hendra viruses, and SARS-CoV-like virus (Calisher(75)). Only the former is relevant for this review, since Nipah and Hendra do not occur in Europe (Munir(76)) and SARS is not directly transmitted to human (Hu(77)).

Rabies virus and related lyssaviruses

The rabies virus is present in the saliva of infected animals. Accordingly, the virus is transmitted from mammals to human through a bite (Calisher(75)).

Symptoms are equal in animals and humans. The disease starts with a prodromal stage. Symptoms are non-specific, and consist of fever, itching and pain near the site of the bite wound.

Subsequently follows the furious stage. Clinical features are hydrophobia (violent inspiratory muscle spasms, hyperextension and anxiety after attempts to drink), hallucinations, fear, aggression, cardiac tachyarrhythmias, paralysis and coma.

The final stage is the paralytic stage. It is characterized by ascending paralysis and loss of tendon reflexes, sphincter dysfunction, bulbar/respiratory paralysis, sensory symptoms, fever, sweating, gooseflesh and fasciculation.

Untreaded, the disease is fatal in approximately five days after showing the first symptoms (Warrell(78)).

Lyssaviruses from bats are related to the rabies virus. There are seven lyssavirus genotypes. Some of these cause disease in human, similar to rabies. Others, on the other hand, do not cause disease. Although it is still unclear, transmission is thought to be through bites (Calisher(75)).

Since 1977 4 cases of human rabies coming from a bat bite have been reported in The Netherlands. In bats living there, the prevalence is 7% (RIVM).

2016-3-12-1457784290

Sickle-cell conditions

NORMAL HEMOGLOBIN STRUCTURE:

Hemoglobin is present in erythrocytes and is important for normal oxygen delivery to tissues. Hemoglobinopathies are disorders affecting the structure, function or production of hemoglobin.

Different hemoglobins are produced during embryonic, fetal and adult life. Each consists of a tetramer of globin polypeptide chains: a pair of ”-like chains 141 amino acids long and a pair of ”-like chains 146 amino acids long. The major adult hemoglobin, HbA has the structure ”2”2. HbF (”2”2) predominates during most of gestation and HbA2 (”2”2) is the minor adult hemoglobin.

Each globin chain surrounds a single heme moiety, consisting of a protoporphyrin IX ring complexed with a single iron atom in the ferrous state (Fe2+). Each heme moiety can bind a single oxygen molecule; a molecule of hemoglobin can transport up to four oxygen molecules as each hemoglobin contains four heme moieties.

The amino acid sequences of various globins are highly homologous to one another and each has a highly helical secondary structure. Their globular tertiary structures cause the exterior surfaces to be rich in polar (hydrophilic) amino acids that enhance solubility and the interior to be lined with nonpolar groups, forming a hydrophobic pocket into which heme is inserted Numerous tight interactions (i.e.,”1”1 contacts) hold the ” and ” chains together. The complete tetramer is held together by interfaces (i.e., ”1”2 contacts) between the ”-like chain of one dimer and the non-” chain of the other dimer. The hemoglobin tetramer is highly soluble, but individual globin chains are insoluble. (Unpaired globin precipitates, forming inclusions that damage the cell and can trigger apoptosis. Normal globin chain synthesis is balanced so that each newly synthesized ” or non-” globin chain will have an available partner with which to pair.)

FUNCTION OF HEMOGLOBIN:

Solubility and reversible oxygen binding are the two important functions which were deranged in hemoglobinopathies. Both depend mostly on the hydrophilic surface amino acids, the hydrophobic amino acids lining the heme pocket, a key histidine in the F helix and the amino acids forming the ”1”1 and ”1”2 contact points. Mutations in these strategic regions alter oxygen affinity or solubility.

Principal function of Hb is to transport oxygen and delivery to tissue which is represented most appropriately by oxygen dissociation curve (ODC).

Fig: The well-known sigmoid shape of the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC), which reflects the allosteric properties of haemoglobin.

Hemoglobin binds with O2 efficiently at the partial pressure of oxygen (Po2) of the alveolus, retains it in the circulation and releases it to tissues at the Po2 of tissue capillary beds. The shape of the curve is due to co-operativity between the four haem molecules. When one takes up oxygen, the affinity for oxygen of the remaining haems of the tetramer increases dramatically. This is because haemoglobin can exist in two configurations – deoxy (T) and oxy (R). The T form has a lower affinity than the R form for ligands such as oxygen.

Oxygen affinity is controlled by several factors. The Bohr effect (e.g. oxygen affinity is decreased with increasing CO2 tension) is the ability of hemoglobin to deliver more oxygen to tissues at low Ph. The major small molecule that alters oxygen affinity in humans is 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG; formerly 2,3-DPG) which lowers oxygen affinity when bound to hemoglobin. HbA has a reasonably high affinity for 2,3-BPG. HbF does not bind 2,3-BPG, so it tends to have a higher oxygen affinity in vivo. Increased levels of DPG, with an associated decrease in P50 (partial pressure at which haemoglobin is 50 per cent saturated), occur in anaemia, alkalosis, hyperphosphataemia, hypoxic states and in association with a number of red cell enzyme deficiencies.

Thus proper oxygen transport depends on the tetrameric structure of the proteins, the proper arrangement of hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids and interaction with protons or 2,3-BPG.

GENETICS OF HEMOGLOBIN:

The human hemoglobins are encoded in two tightly linked gene clusters; the ”-like globin genes are clustered on chromosome 16, and the ”-like genes on chromosome 11. The ”-like cluster consists of two ”-globin genes and a single copy of the ” gene. The non-” gene cluster consists of a single ” gene, the G” and A” fetal globin genes, and the adult ” and ” genes. The ”-like cluster consists of two ”-globin genes and a single copy of the ” gene. The non-” gene cluster consists of a single ” gene, the G” and A” fetal globin genes, and the adult ” and ” genes.

DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY OF HUMAN HEMOGLOBINS:

Red cells first appearing at about 6 weeks after conception contain the embryonic hemoglobins Hb Portland (”2”2), Hb Gower I (”2”2) and Hb Gower II (”2”2). At 10’11 weeks, fetal hemoglobin (HbF; ”2”2) becomes predominant and synthesis of adult hemoglobin (HbA; ”2”2) occurs at about 38 weeks. Fetuses and newborns therefore require ”-globin but not ”-globin for normal gestation. Small amounts of HbF are produced during postnatal life. A few red cell clones called F cells are progeny of a small pool of immature committed erythroid precursors (BFU-e) that retain the ability to produce HbF. Profound erythroid stresses, such as severe hemolytic anemias, bone marrow transplantation, or cancer chemotherapy, cause more of the F-potent BFU-e to be recruited. HbF levels thus tend to rise in some patients with sickle cell anemia or thalassemia. This phenomenon probably explains the ability of hydroxyurea to increase levels of HbF in adult and agents such as butyrate and histone deacetylase inhibitors can also activate fetal globin genes partially after birth.

HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES:

Hemoglobinopathies are disorders affecting the structure, function or production of hemoglobin. These conditions are usually inherited and range in severity from asymptomatic laboratory abnormalities to death in utero. Different forms may present as hemolytic anemia, erythrocytosis, cyanosis or vaso-occlusive stigmata.

Structural hemoglobinopathies occur when mutations alter the amino acid sequence of a globin chain, altering the physiologic properties of the variant hemoglobins and producing the characteristic clinical abnormalities. The most clinically relevant variant hemoglobins polymerize abnormally as in sickle cell anemia or exhibit altered solubility or oxygen-binding affinity.

Thalassemia syndromes arise from mutations that impair production or translation of globin mRNA leading to deficient globin chain biosynthesis. Clinical abnormalities are attributable to the inadequate supply of hemoglobin and imbalances in the production of individual globin chains, leading to premature destruction of erythroblasts and RBC. Thalassemic hemoglobin

variants combine features of thalassemia (e.g., abnormal globin biosynthesis) and of structural hemoglobinopathies (e.g., an abnormal amino acid sequence).

Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) is characterized by synthesis of high levels of fetal hemoglobin in adult life. Acquired hemoglobinopathies include modifications of the hemoglobin molecule by toxins (e.g., acquired methemoglobinemia) and clonal abnormalities of hemoglobin synthesis (e.g., high levels of HbF production in preleukemia and ” thalassemia in myeloproliferative disorders).

There are five major classes of hemoglobinopathies.

Classification of hemoglobinopathies:

CLASS HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES

1 Structural hemoglobinopathies’hemoglobins with altered amino acid sequences that result in deranged function or altered physical or chemical properties

A. Abnormal hemoglobin polymerization’HbS, hemoglobin sickling

B. Altered O2 affinity

1. High affinity’polycythemia

2. Low affinity’cyanosis, pseudoanemia

C. Hemoglobins that oxidize readily

1. Unstable hemoglobins’hemolytic anemia, jaundice

2. M hemoglobins’methemoglobinemia, cyanosis

2 Thalassemias’defective biosynthesis of globin chains

A. ” Thalassemias

B. ” Thalassemias

C. ”, ”, ” Thalassemias

3 Thalassemic hemoglobin variants’structurally abnormal Hb associated with coinherited thalassemic phenotype

A. HbE

B. Hb Constant Spring

C. Hb Lepore

4 Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin’persistence of high levels of HbF into adult life

5 Acquired hemoglobinopathies

A. Methemoglobin due to toxic exposures

B. Sulfhemoglobin due to toxic exposures

C. Carboxyhemoglobin

D. HbH in erythroleukemia

E. Elevated HbF in states of erythroid stress and bone marrow dysplasia

TABLE 127

GENETICS OF SICKLE HEMOGLOBINOPATHY:

This genetic disorder is due to the mutation of a single nucleotide, from a GAG to GTG codon on the coding strand, which is transcribed from the template strand into a GUG codon. Based on genetic code, GAG codon translates to glutamic acid while GUG codon translates to valine amino acid at position 6. This is normally a benign mutation, causing no apparent effects on the secondary, tertiary, or quaternary structures of hemoglobin in conditions of normal oxygen concentration. But under conditions of low oxygen concentration, the deoxy form of hemoglobin exposes a hydrophobic patch on the protein between the E and F helices. The hydrophobic side chain of the valine residue at position 6 of the beta chain in hemoglobin is able to associate with the hydrophobic patch, causing hemoglobin S molecules to aggregate and form fibrous precipitates. It also exhibits changes in solubility and molecular stability.

These properties are responsible for the profound clinical expressions of the sickling syndromes.

HbSS disease or sickle cell anemia (the most common form) – Homozygote for the S globin with usually a severe or moderately severe phenotype and with the shortest survival
HbS/”0 thalassemia – Double heterozygote for HbS and b-0 thalassemia; clinically indistinguishable from sickle cell anemia (SCA)
HbS/”+ thalassemia – Mild-to-moderate severity with variability in different ethnicities
HbSC disease – Double heterozygote for HbS and HbC characterized by moderate clinical severity
HbS/hereditary persistence of fetal Hb (S/HPHP) – Very mild or asymptomatic phenotype
HbS/HbE syndrome – Very rare with a phenotype usually similar to HbS/b+ thalassemia
Rare combinations of HbS with other abnormal hemoglobins such as HbD Los Angeles, G-Philadelphia and HbO Arab

Sickle-cell conditions have an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance from parents. The types of hemoglobin a person makes in the red blood cells depends on what hemoglobin genes are inherited from her or his parents. If one parent has sickle-cell anaemia and the other has sickle-cell trait, then the child has a 50% chance of having sickle-cell disease and a 50% chance of having sickle-cell trait. When both parents have sickle-cell trait, a child has a 25% chance of sickle-cell disease, 25% do not carry any sickle-cell alleles, and 50% have the heterozygous condition.

The allele responsible for sickle-cell anemia can be found on the short arm of chromosome 11, more specifically 11p15.5. A person who receives the defective gene from both father and mother develops the disease; a person who receives one defective and one healthy allele remains healthy, but can pass on the disease and is known as a carrier or heterozygote. Several sickle syndromes occur as the result of inheritance of HbS from one parent and another hemoglobinopathy, such as ” thalassemia or HbC (”2”2 6 Glu’Lys), from the other parent. The prototype disease, sickle cell anemia, is the homozygous state for HbS.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY:

The sickle cell syndromes are caused by mutation in the ”-globin gene that changes the sixth amino acid from glutamic acid to valine. HbS (”2”2 6 Glu’Val) polymerizes reversibly when deoxygenated to form a gelatinous network of fibrous polymers that stiffen the RBC membrane, increase viscosity, and cause dehydration due to potassium leakage and calcium influx. These changes also produce the sickle shape. The loss of red blood cell elasticity is central to the pathophysiology of sickle-cell disease. Sickled cells lose the flexibility needed to traverse small capillaries. They possess altered ‘sticky’ membranes that are abnormally adherent to the endothelium of small venules.

Repeated episodes of sickling damage the cell membrane and decrease the cell’s elasticity. These cells fail to return to normal shape when normal oxygen tension is restored. As a consequence, these rigid blood cells are unable to deform as they pass through narrow capillaries, leading to vessel occlusion and ischaemia.

These abnormalities stimulate unpredictable episodes of microvascular vasoocclusion and premature RBC destruction (hemolytic anemia). The rigid adherent cells clog small capillaries and venules, causing tissue ischemia, acute pain, and gradual end-organ damage. This venoocclusive component usually influences the clinical course.

The actual anaemia of the illness is caused by hemolysis which occurs because the spleen destroys the abnormal RBCs detecting the altered shape of red cells. Although the bone marrow attempts to compensate by creating new red cells, it does not match the rate of destruction. Healthy red blood cells typically function for 90’120 days, but sickled cells only last 10’20 days.

Clinical Manifestations of Sickle Cell Anemia:

Patients with sickling syndromes suffer from hemolytic anemia, with hematocrits from 15 to 30%, and significant reticulocytosis. Anemia was once thought to exert protective effects against vasoocclusion by reducing blood viscosity. The role of adhesive reticulocytes in vasoocclusion might account for these paradoxical effects.

Granulocytosis is common. The white count can fluctuate substantially and unpredictably during and between painful crises, infectious episodes, and other intercurrent illnesses.

Vasoocclusion causes protean manifestations and cause episodes of ischemic pain (i.e., painful crises) and ischemic malfunction or frank infarction in the spleen, central nervous system, bones, joints, liver, kidneys and lungs.

Syndromes cause by sickle hemoglobinopathy:

Painful crises: Intermittent episodes of vasoocclusion in connective and musculoskeletal structures produce ischemia manifested by acute pain and tenderness, fever, tachycardia and anxiety. These episodes are recurrent and it is the most common clinical manifestation of sickle cell anemia. Their frequency and severity vary greatly. Pain can develop almost anywhere in the body and may last from a few hours to 2 weeks.

Repeated crises requiring hospitalization (>3 episodes per year) correlate with reduced survival in adult life, suggesting that these episodes are associated with accumulation of chronic end-organ damage. Provocative factors include infection, fever, excessive exercise, anxiety, abrupt changes in temperature, hypoxia, or hypertonic dyes.

Acute chest syndrome: Distinctive manifestation characterized by chest pain, tachypnea, fever, cough, and arterial oxygen desaturation. It can mimic pneumonia, pulmonary emboli, bone marrow infarction and embolism, myocardial ischemia, or lung infarction. Acute chest syndrome is thought to reflect in situ sickling within the lung, producing pain and temporary pulmonary dysfunction. Pulmonary infarction and pneumonia are the most common underlying or concomitant conditions in patients with this syndrome. Repeated episodes of acute chest pain correlate with reduced survival. Acutely, reduction in arterial oxygen saturation is especially ominous because it promotes sickling on a massive scale. Chronic acute or subacute pulmonary crises lead to pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale, an increasingly common cause of death in patients.

Aplastic crisis: A serious complication is the aplastic crisis. This is caused by infection with Parvovirus B-19 (B19V). This virus causes fifth disease, a normally benign childhood disorder associated with fever, malaise, and a mild rash. This virus infects RBC progenitors in bone marrow, resulting in impaired cell division for a few days. Healthy people experience, at most, a slight drop in hematocrit, since the half-life of normal erythrocytes in the circulation is 40-60 days. In people with SCD however, the RBC lifespan is greatly shortened (usually 10-20 days), and a very rapid drop in Hb occurs. The condition is self-limited, with bone marrow recovery occurring in 7-10 days, followed by brisk reticulocytosis.

CNS sickle vasculopathy: Chronic subacute central nervous system damage in the absence of an overt stroke is a distressingly common phenomenon beginning in early childhood. Stroke is especially common in children and may reoccur, but is less common in adults and is often hemorrhagic. Stroke affects 30% of children and 11% of patients by 20 years. It is usually ischemic in children and hemorrhagic in adults.

Modern functional imaging techniques have indicated circulatory dysfunction of the CNS; these changes correlate with display of cognitive and behavioral abnormalities in children and young adults. It is important to be aware of these changes because they can complicate clinical management or be misinterpreted as ‘difficult patient’ behaviors.

Splenic sequestration crisis: The spleen enlarges in the latter part of the first year of life in children with SCD. Occasionally, the spleen undergoes a sudden very painful enlargement due to pooling of large numbers of sickled cells. This phenomenon is known as splenic sequestration crisis. Over time, the spleen becomes fibrotic and shrinks causing autosplenectomy. In cases of SC trait, the spleenomegaly may persist upto adulthood due to ongoing hemolysis under the influence of persistent fetal hemoglobin.

Acute venous obstruction of the spleen a rare occurrence in early childhood, may require emergency transfusion and/or splenectomy to prevent trapping of the entire arterial output in the obstructed spleen. Repeated microinfarction can destroy tissues having microvascular beds, thus, splenic function is frequently lost within the first 18’36 months of life, causing susceptibility to infection, particularly by pneumococci.

Infections: Life-threatening bacterial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with SCD. Recurrent vaso-occlusion induces splenic infarctions and consequent autosplenectomy, predisposing to severe infections with encapsulated organisms (eg, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae).

Cholelithiasis: Cholelithiasis is common in children with SCD as chronic hemolysis with hyperbilirubinemia is associated with the formation of bile stones. Cholelithiasis may be asymptomatic or result in acute cholecystitis, requiring surgical intervention. The liver may also become involved. Cholecystitis or common bile duct obstruction can occur. Child with cholecystitis presents with right upper quadrant pain, especially if associated with fatty food. Common bile duct blockage suspected when a child presents with right upper quadrant pain and dramatically elevated conjugated hyperbilirubinemia.

Leg ulcers: Leg ulcers are a chronic painful problem. They result from minor injury to the area around the malleoli. Because of relatively poor circulation, compounded by sickling and microinfarcts, healing is delayed and infection occurs frequently.

Eye manifestation: Occlusion of retinal vessels can produce hemorrhage, neovascularization, and eventual detachments.

Renal manifestation: Renal menifestations include impaired urinary concentrating ability, defects of urinary acidification, defects of potassium excretion and progressive decrease in glome”rular filtration rate with advancing age. Recurrent hematuria, proteinuria, renal papillary necrosis and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are all well recognized.

Renal papillary necrosis invariably produces isosthenuria. More widespread renal necrosis leads to renal failure in adults, a common late cause of death.

Bone manifestation: Bone and joint ischemia can lead to aseptic necrosis, common in the femoral or humeral heads; chronic arthropathy; and unusual susceptibility to osteomyelitis, which may be caused by organisms, such as Salmonella, rarely encountered in other settings.

-The hand-foot syndrome is caused by painful infarcts of the digits and dactylitis.

Pregnancy in SCD: Pregnancy represents a special area of concern. The high rate of fetal loss is due to spontaneous abortion. Placenta previa and abruption are common due to hypoxia and placental infarction. At birth, the infant often is premature or has low birth weight.

Other features: Particularly painful complication in males is priapism, due to infarction of the penile venous outflow tracts; permanent impotence may also occur. Chronic lower leg ulcers probably arise from ischemia and superinfection in the distal circulation.

Sickle cell syndromes are remarkable for their clinical heterogeneity. Some patients remain virtually asymptomatic into or even through adult life, while others suffer repeated crises requiring hospitalization from early childhood. Patients with sickle thalassemia and sickle-HbE tend to have similar, slightly milder symptoms, perhaps because of the bad effects of production of other hemoglobins within the RBC.

Clinical Manifestations of Sickle Cell Trait:

Sickle cell trait is often asymptomatic. Anemia and painful crises are rare. An uncommon but highly distinctive symptom is painless hematuria often occurring in adolescent males, probably due to papillary necrosis. Isosthenuria is a more common manifestation of the same process. Sloughing of papillae with urethral obstruction has been also seen, due to massive sickling or sudden death due to exposure to high altitudes or extremes of exercise and dehydration.

Pulmonary hypertension in sickle hemoglobinopathy:

In recent years, PAH a proliferative vascular disease of the lung, has been recognized as a major complication and an independent correlate with death among adults with SCD. Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a mean pulmonary artery pressure >25mmHg, and includes pulmonary artery hypertension, pulmonary venous hypertension or a combination of both. The etiology is multifactorial, including hemolysis, hypoxemia, thromboembolism, chronic high CO, and chronic liver disease. Clinical presentation is characterized by symptoms of dyspnea, chest pain, and syncope. It is important to note that high cardiac output can also elevate pulmonary artery pressure adding to the complex and multifactorial pathophysiology of PHT in sickle cell disease. Thus, if left untreated, the disease carries a high mortality rate, with the most common cause of death being decompensated right heart failure.

Prevalance and prognosis:

Echocardiographic screening studies have suggested that the prevalence of hemoglobinopathy-associated PAH is much higher than previously known. In SCD, approximately one-third of adult patients have an elevated tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) of 2.5 m/s or higher, a threshold that correlates in right heart catheterization studies to a pulmonary artery systolic pressure of at least 30 mm Hg. Even though this threshold represents quite mild pulmonary hypertension, SCD patients with TRV above this threshold have a 9- to 10- fold higher risk for early mortality than those with a lower TRV. It appears that the baseline compromised oxygen delivery and co-morbid organ dysfunction of SCD diminishes the physiological reserve to tolerate even modest pulmonary arterial pressures.

Pathogenesis:

Different hemolytic anemias seem to involve common mechanisms for development of PAH. These processes probably include hemolysis, causing endothelial dysfunction, oxidative and inflammatory stress, chronic hypoxemia, chronic thromboembolism, chronic liver disease, iron overload, and asplenia.

Hemolysis results in the release of hemoglobin into plasma, where it reacts and consumes nitric oxide (NO) causing a state of resistance to NO-dependent vasodilatory effects. Hemolysis also causes the release of arginase into plasma, which decreases the concentration of arginine, substrate for the synthesis of NO. Other effects associated with hemolysis that can contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension are increased cellular expression of endothelin, production of free radicals, platelet activation, and increased expression of endothelial adhesion mediating molecules.

Previous studies suggest that splenectomy (surgical or functional) is a risk factor for the development of pulmonary hypertension, especially in patients with hemolytic anemias. It is speculated that the loss of the spleen increases the circulation of platelet mediators and senescent erythrocytes that result in platelet activation (promoting endothelial adhesion and thrombosis in the pulmonary vascular bed), and possibly stimulates the increase in the intravascular hemolysis rate.

Vasoconstriction, vascular proliferation, thrombosis, and inflammation appear to underlie the development of PAH. In long-standing PH, intimal proliferation and fibrosis, medial hypertrophy, and in situ thrombosis characterize the pathologic findings in the pulmonary vasculature. Vascular remodeling at earlier stages may be confined to the small pulmonary arteries. As the disease advances, intimal proliferation and pathologic remodeling progress, resulting in decreased compliance and increased elastance of the pulmonary vasculature.

The outcome is a progressive increase in the right ventricular afterload or total pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and, thus, right ventricular work.

Chronic pulmonary involvement due to repeated episodes of acute thoracic syndrome can lead to pulmonary fibrosis and chronic hypoxemia, which can eventually lead to the development of pulmonary hypertension.

Coagulation disorders, such as low levels of protein C, low levels of protein S, high levels of D-dimers and increased activity of the tissue factor, occur in patients with sickle cell anemia.This hypercoagulable state can cause thrombosis in situ or pulmonary thromboembolism, which occurs in patients with sickle cell anemia and other hemolytic anemias.

Clinical manifestations:

On examination, there may be evidence of right ventricular failure with elevated jugular venous pressure, lower extremity edema, and ascites. The cardiovascular examination may reveal an accentuated P2 component of the second heart sound, a right-sided S3 or S4, and a holosystolic tricuspid regurgitant murmur. It is also important to seek signs of the diseases that are often concurrent with PH: clubbing may be seen in some chronic lung diseases, sclerodactyly and telangiectasia may signify scleroderma, and crackles and systemic hypertension may be clues to left-sided systolic or diastolic heart failure.

Diagnostic evaluation:

The diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension in patients with sickle cell anemia is typically difficult. Dyspnea on exertion, the symptom most typically associated with pulmonary hypertension, is also very common in anemic patients. Other disorders with similar symptomatology, such as left heart failure or pulmonary fibrosis, frequently occur in patients with sickle cell anemia. Patients with pulmonary hypertension are often older, have higher systemic blood pressure, more severe hemolytic anemia, lower peripheral oxygen saturation, worse renal function, impaired liver function and a higher number of red blood cell transfusions than do patients with sickle cell anemia and normal pulmonary pressure.

The diagnostic evaluation of patients with hemoglobinopathies and suspected of having pulmonary hypertension should follow the same guidelines established for the investigation of patients with other causes of pulmonary hypertension.

Echocardiography: Echocardiography is important for the diagnosis of PAH and often essential for determining the cause. All forms of PAH may demonstrate a hypertrophied and dilated right ventricle with elevated estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure. Important additional information can be obtained about specific etiologies such as valvular disease, left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, intracardiac shunts, and other cardiac diseases.

An echocardiogram is a screening test, whereas invasive hemodynamic monitoring is the gold standard for diagnosis and assessment of disease severity.

Pulmonary artery (PA) systolic pressure (PASP) can be estimated by Doppler echocardiography, utilizing the tricuspid regurgitant velocity (TRV). Increased TRV is estimated to be present in approximately one-third of adults with SCD and is associated with early mortality. In the more severe cases, increased TRV is associated with histopathologic changes similar to atherosclerosis such as plexogenic changes and hyperplasia of the pulmonary arterial intima and media.

The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET): This test may help to identify a true physiologic limitation as well as differentiate between cardiac and pulmonary causes of dyspnea but test can only be performed if patient has reasonable functional capacity. If this test is normal, there is no indication for a right heart catheterization.

Right Heart Catheterization: If patient has cardiovascular limitation to exercise, a right heart catheterization should be inserted. Right heart catheterization with pulmonary vasodilator testing remains the gold standard both to establish the diagnosis of PH and to enable selection of appropriate medical therapy. The definition of precapillary PH or PAH requires (1) an increased mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP ’25 mmHg); (2) a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), left atrial pressure, or left ventricular end-diastolic pressure ’15 mmHg; and (3) PVR >3 Wood units. Postcapillary PH is differentiated from precapillary PH by a PCWP of ’15 mmHg; this is further differentiated into passive, based on a transpulmonary gradient <12 mmHg, or reactive, based on a transpulmonary gradient >12 mmHg and an increased PVR. In either case, the CO may be normal or reduced. If the echocardiogram or cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) suggests PH and the diagnosis is confirmed by catheterization.

Chest imaging and lung function tests: These are essential because lung disease is an important cause of PH. A sign of PH that may be evident on chest x-ray include enlargement of the central pulmonary arteries associated with ‘vascular pruning,’ a relative paucity of peripheral vessels. Cardiomegaly, with specific evidence of right atrial and ventricular enlargement may present. The chest x-ray may also demonstrate significant interstitial lung disease or suggest hyperinflation from obstructive lung disease, which may be the underlying cause or contributor to the development of PH.

High-resolution computed tomography (CT): Classic findings of PH on CT include those found on chest x-ray: enlarged pulmonary arteries, peripheral pruning of the small vessels, and enlarged right ventricle and atrium. High-resolution CT may also show signs of venous congestion including centrilobular ground-glass infiltrate and thickened septal lines. In the absence of left heart disease, these findings suggest pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, a rare cause of PAH that can be quite challenging to diagnose.

CT angiograms: Commonly used to evaluate acute thromboembolic disease and have demonstrated excellent sensitivity and specificity for that purpose.

Ventilation-perfusion Ratio: Scanning done for screening because of its high sensitivity and its role in qualifying patients for surgical intervention. Negative ratio virtually rules out CTEPH, some cases may be missed through the use of CT angiograms.

Pulmonary function test: Isolated reduction in DLco is the classic finding in PAH, results of pulmonary function tests may also suggest restrictive or obstructive lung diseases as the cause of dyspnea or PH.

Evaluation of symptoms and functional capacity (6 Min walk test): Although the 6-minute walk test has not been validated in patients with hemoglobinopathies, preliminary data suggest that this test correlates well with maximal oxygen uptake and with the severity of pulmonary hypertension in patients with sickle cell anemia. In addition, in these patients, the distance covered on the 6-minute walk test significantly improves with the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, which suggests that it can be used in this population.

DYSLIPIDEMIA IN SICKLE HEMOGLOBINOPATHY:

Disorders of lipoprotein metabolism are known as ‘dyslipidemias.’ Dyslipidemias are generally characterized clinically by increased plasma levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, or both, accompanied by reduced levels of HDL cholesterol. Mostly all patients with dyslipidemia are at increased risk for ASCVD, the primary reason for making the diagnosis, as intervention may reduce this risk. Patients with elevated levels of triglycerides may be at risk for acute pancreatitis and require intervention to reduce this risk.

Hundreds of proteins affect lipoprotein metabolism and may interact to produce dyslipidemia in an individual patient, there are a limited number of discrete ‘nodes’ that regulate lipoprotein metabolism. These include:

(1) assembly and secretion of triglyceriderich VLDLs by the liver;

(2) lipolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by LPL;

(3) receptor-mediated uptake of apoB-containing lipoproteins by the liver;

(4) cellular cholesterol metabolism in the hepatocyte and the enterocyte; and

(5) neutral lipid transfer and phospholipid hydrolysis in the plasma.

Hypocholesterolemia and, to a lesser extent, hypertriglyceridemia have been documented in SCD cohorts worldwide for over 40 years, yet the mechanistic basis and physiological ramifications of these altered lipid levels have yet to be fully elucidated. Cholesterol (TC, HDL-C and LDL-C) levels decreased and triglyceride levels increased in relation to severity of anemia. While not true for cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels show a strong correlation with markers of severity of hemolysis, endothelial activation, and pulmonary hypertension.

Decreased TC and LDL-C in SCD has been documented in virtually every study that examined lipids in SCD adults (el-Hazmi, et al 1987, el-Hazmi, et al 1995, Marzouki and Khoja 2003, Sasaki, et al 1983, Shores, et al 2003, Stone, et al 1990, Westerman 1975),

with slightly more variable results in SCD children. Although it might be hypothesized that SCD hypocholesterolemia results from increased cholesterol utilization during the increased erythropoiesis of SCD, cholesterol is largely conserved through the enterohepatic circulation, at least in healthy individuals, and biogenesis of new RBC membranes would likely use recycled cholesterol from the hemolyzed RBCs. Westerman demonstrated that hypocholesterolemia was not due merely to increased RBC synthesis by showing that it is present in both hemolytic and non-hemolytic anemia (Westerman 1975). He also reports that serum cholesterol was proportional to the hematocrit, suggesting serum cholesterol may be in equilibrium with the cholesterol reservoir of the total red cell mass (Westerman 1975). Consistent with such equilibration, tritiated cholesterol incorporated into sickled erythrocytes is rapidly exchanged with plasma lipoproteins (Ngogang, et al 1989). Thus, low plasma cholesterol appears to be a consequence of anemia itself rather than increased RBC production (Westerman 1975).

Total cholesterol, in particular LDL-C, has a well-established role in atherosclerosis. The low levels of LDL-C in SCD are consistent with the low levels of total cholesterol and the virtual absence of atherosclerosis among SCD patients. Decreased HDL-C in SCD has also been documented in some previous studies(Sasaki, et al 1983, Stone, et al 1990). As in lipid studies for other disorders in which HDL-C is variably low, potential reasons for inconsistencies between studies include differences in age, diet, weight, smoking, gender, small sample sizes, different ranges of disease severity, and other diseases and treatments (Choy and Sattar 2009, Gotto A 2003). Decreased HDL-C and apoA-I is a known risk factor for endothelial dysfunction in the general population and in SCD, a potential contributor in SCD to PH, although the latter effect size might be small (Yuditskaya, et al 2009).

In addition, triglyceride levels have been reported to increase during crisis. Why is increased triglyceride but not cholesterol in serum associated with vascular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension? Studies in atherosclerosis have firmly established that lipolysis of oxidized LDL in particular results in vascular dysfunction. Lipolysis of triglycerides present in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins releases neutral and oxidized free fatty acids that induce endothelial cell inflammation (Wang, et al 2009). Many oxidized fatty acids are more damaging to the endothelium than their non-oxidized precursors; for example, 13-hydroxy octadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) is a more potent inducer of ROS activity in HAECs than linoleate, the nonoxidized precursor of 13-HODE(Wang, et al 2009). Lipolytic generation of arachidonic acid, eicosanoids, and inflammatory molecules leading to vascular dysfunction is a well-established phenomenon (Boyanovsky and Webb 2009). Although LDL-C levels are decreased in SCD patients, LDL from SCD patients is

more susceptible to oxidation and cytotoxicity to endothelium (Belcher, et al 1999) and an unfavorable plasma fatty acid composition has been associated with clinical severity of SCD (Ren, et al 2006). Lipolysis of phospholipids in lipoproteins or cell membranes by secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) family members releases similarly harmful fatty acids, particularly in an oxidative environment (Boyanovsky and Webb 2009 ) and in fact selective PLA2 inhibitors are currently under development as potential therapeutic agents for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease(Rosenson 2009). Finally, sPLA2 activity has been linked to lung disease in SCD. sPLA2 is elevated in acute chest syndrome of SCD and in conjunction with fever preliminarily appears to be a good biomarker for diagnosis, prediction and prevention of acute chest syndrome(Styles, et al 2000). The deleterious effects of phospholipid hydrolysis on lung vasculature predicts similar deleterious effects of triglyceride hydrolysis, particularly in the oxidatively stressed environment of SCD.

Elevated triglycerides have been documented in autoimmune inflammatory diseases with increased risk of vascular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension, including systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, and mixed connective tissue diseases(Choy and Sattar 2009, Galie, et al 2005). In fact, triglyceride concentration is a stronger predictor of stroke than LDL-C or TC(Amarenco and Labreuche 2009). Even in healthy control subjects, a high-fat meal induces oxidative stress and inflammation, resulting in endothelial dysfunction and vasoconstriction(O’Keefe, et al 2008). Perhaps having high levels of plasma triglycerides promotes vascular dysfunction, with the clinical outcome of vasculopathy mainly in the coronary and cerebral arteries in the general population, and with more targeting to the pulmonary vascular bed in SCD and autoimmune diseases.

The mechanisms leading to hypocholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in plasma or serum of SCD patients are not completely understood. In normal individuals, triglyceride levels are determined to a significant degree by body weight, diet and physical exercise, as well as concurrent diabetes. Diet and physical exercise very likely impact body weight and triglyceride levels in SCD patients also. These findings indicate that standard risk factors for high triglycerides are also relevant to SCD patients. Mechanisms of SCD-specific risk factors for elevated plasma triglycerides are not as clear. RBCs do not have de novo lipid synthesis (Kuypers 2008). In SCD the rate of triglyceride synthesis from glycerol is elevated up to 4-fold in sickled reticulocytes (Lane, et al 1976), but SCD patients have defects in post absorptive plasma homeostasis of fatty acids (Buchowski, et al 2007). Lipoproteins and albumin in plasma can contribute fatty acids to red blood cells for incorporation into membrane phospholipids (Kuypers 2008), but RBC membranes are not triglyceride-rich and contributions of RBCs to plasma triglyceride levels have not been described. Interestingly, chronic intermittent or stable hypoxia just by exposure to high altitudes, with no underlying disease, is sufficient to increase triglyceride levels in healthy subjects (Siques, et al 2007). Thus, it has also been suggested that hypoxia in SCD may contribute at least partially to the observed increase in serum triglyceride. Finally, there is a known link of low cholesterol and increased triglycerides that occurs in any primate acute phase response, such as infection and inflammation (Khovidhunkit, et al 2004). Perhaps because of their chronic hemolysis, SCD patients have a low level of acute phase response, which is also consistent with the other inflammatory markers. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms leading to hypocholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in SCD.

Pulmonary hypertension is a disease of the vasculature that shows many similarities with the vascular dysfunction that occurs in coronary atherosclerosis (Kato and Gladwin 2008). The similarities and differences are: They both have proliferative vascular smooth muscle cells ‘ just in different vascular beds. They both have an impaired nitric oxide axis, increased oxidant stress, and vascular dysfunction. Most importantly, serum triglyceride levels, previously linked to vascular dysfunction, are definitely shown to correlate with NT-proBNP and TRV and thus, with pulmonary hypertension. Moreover, triglyceride levels are predictive of TRV independent of systolic blood pressure, low transferrin or increased lactate dehydrogenase.

PAH in SCD is also characterized by oxidant stress but in SCD patients plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are low. There have been some reports of low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C)17,18 and increased triglyceride in SCD patients ‘ features widely recognized as important contributory factors in cardiovascular disease. These findings and the therapeutic potential to modulate serum lipids with several commonly used drugs prompted us to investigate in greater detail the serum lipid profile in patients with sickle hemoglobinopathy (SH) coming to our hospital and its possible relationship to vasculopathic complications such as PAH.

essay-2016-09-27-000BaY

Gender and Caste – The Cry for Identity of Women

INTRODUCTION

‘Bodies are just not biological phenomena but a complex social creation onto which meanings have been variously composed and imposed according to time and space’. These social creations differentiate the two biological personalities into Man and Woman and meanings to their qualities are imposed on the basis of gender which defines them as He and She.

The question then arises a woman ‘ who is she? According to me, a woman is the one who is empowered, enlightened, enthusiastic and energetic. A woman is all about sharing. She is an exceptional personality who encourages and embraces. If a woman is considered to be a mark of patience and courage then why even today there is a lack of identity in her personality. She is subordinated to man and often discriminated on gender basis.

The entire life of a woman revolves around the patriarchal existence as she is dominated by her father in the childhood, in the other phase of her life she is dominated by her husband and in the later phase by her son, which gives no space to her own independence.

The psychological and physical identity of a woman is defined through the role and control of men: the terrible trait of father-husband-son. The boundary of women is always restrained by male dominance. Gender discrimination is not only a historical concept but it still has its existence in the contemporary Indian Society.

Indian society in every part of its existence experiences the ferocious gender conflict which is everyday projected in the daily newspapers, news channels or even walking on the streets of Indian society. The horror of patriarchal domination exists in every corner of the Indian society. The role of Indian women has always been declining over the centuries.

Turning the pages of history, in the pre-Aryan India God was female and life was being represented in the form of mother Earth. People worshipped the mother Goddess for fertility symbols. The Shakti cult of Hinduism says women as the source and embodiment of cosmic power and energy. Woman power can also be shown through Goddess Durga who lured her husband Shiva from asceticism.

The religious and social condition abruptly changed when the Aryan Brahmins eliminated the Shakti cult and power was given in the hands of male group. They considered the male deities as the husbands of the female goddess providing the dominance in the hands of the male. Marriage was involvement of male control over female sexuality. Even the identity of mother goddess was dominated by the male gods. As Mrinal Pande writes, ‘to control women, it becomes necessary to control the womb and so Hinduism, Judaism, Islam and Christianity have all Stipulated, at one time or another, that the whole area of reproductive activity must be firmly monitored by law and lawmakers’ .

The issue of identity crisis for a woman

The identity of a woman is erased as she becomes a mere reproductive machine ruled and dominated by male laws. From the time she takes birth she is taught that one day, she has to get married and go to her husband’s house. Neither thus she belongs to her own house nor to her husband’s house leaving a mark on her identity. The Vedic times, however proved to be a boon in the lives of women as they enjoyed freedom of choice in aspect of husbands and could marry at mature age. Widows could remarry and women could divorce.

The segregation of women continued to raise the same question of identity as in the Chandogya Upanishad, a religious text of the pre-Buddhist era, contains a prayer of spiritual aspirants which says ‘May I never, ever, enter that reddish, white, toothless, slippery and slimy yoni of the woman’. During this time control over women included reclusion and exclusion and they were even denied education. Women and shudras were treated as the minority class in the society. Rights and privileges given to women were cancelled and girls were married at a very early age. Caste structure also played a great role as women were now discriminated within their own caste on gender basis.

According to Liddle, women were controlled under two aspects: firstly, they were disinherited from ancestral property, economy and were expected to remain under the domestic sphere known as purdah. The second aspect was the control of men over female sexuality. The death rituals of the family members were performed by the sons and no daughter had the right to fire their parent funeral.

A stifling patriarchal shadow hangs over the lives of ladies all through India. From all areas, ranks and classes of society, ladies are casualty of its oppressive, controlling impacts. Those subjected to the heaviest weight of separation are from the Dalit or “Planned Castes”, referred to in less liberal vote based times as the “Untouchables”. The name may have been banned however pervasive negative mentalities of psyche stay, as do the amazing levels of misuse and subjugation experienced by Dalit ladies. They encounter different levels of segregation and misuse, a lot of which is primitive, debasing, horrifyingly vicious and absolutely obtuse. The divisive position framework ‘ in operation all through India, “Old” and “New” ‘ together with biased sexual orientation demeanors, sits at the heart of the colossal human rights manhandle experienced by Dalit or “outcaste” ladies.

The lower positions are isolated from different individuals from the group, precluded from eating with “higher” standings, from utilizing town wells and lakes, entering town sanctuaries and higher rank houses, wearing shoes or notwithstanding holding umbrellas before higher stations; they are compelled to sit alone and use distinctive porcelain in eateries, restricted from cycling a bike inside their town and are made to cover their dead in a different cemetery. They every now and again confront ousting from their territory by higher “overwhelming” stations, compelling them to live on the edges of towns frequently on fruitless area.

This plenty of preference add up to politically-sanctioned racial segregation, and the time has come ‘ long past due ‘ that the “popularity based” legislature of India authorized existing enactment and cleansed the nation of the guiltiness of position and sexual orientation based separation and abuse.

The strategic maneuver of patriarchy soaks each range of Indian culture and offers ascend to an assortment of unfair practices, for example, female child murder, victimization young ladies and shares related passing. It is a noteworthy reason for misuse and manhandle of ladies, with a lot of sexual brutality being executed by men in positions of force. These reach from higher position men damaging lower rank ladies, particularly Dalit; policemen abusing ladies from poor family units; and military men mishandling Dalit and Adivasi ladies in rebellion states, for example, Kashmir, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa and Manipur. Security faculty are ensured by the generally condemned Armed Forces Special Powers Act, which gifts exemption to police and individuals from the military completing criminal demonstrations of assault and to be sure murder; it was proclaimed by the British in 1942 as a crisis measure, to stifle the Quit India Movement. It is an unreasonable law, which needs canceling.

In December 2012 the intolerable posse assault and mutilation of a 23-year-old paramedical understudy in New Delhi, who consequently kicked the bucket from her wounds, collected overall media consideration, putting a transient focus on the risks, persecution and shocking treatment ladies in India confront each day. Assault is endemic in the nation. With most instances of assault going unreported and numerous being released by police, the genuine figure could be 10 times this. The ladies most at danger of misuse are Dalit: the NCRB gauges that more than four Dalit-ladies are assaulted each day in India. An UN study uncovers that “the lion’s share of Dalit ladies report having confronted one or more episodes of verbal misuse (62.4 for every penny), physical attack (54.8 for each penny), inappropriate behavior and strike (46.8 for each penny), aggressive behavior at home (43.0 for every penny) and assault (23.2 for every penny)”. They are subjected to “assault, attack, seizing, snatching, crime physical and mental torment, shameless movement and sexual misuse.”

The UN found that extensive numbers were deterred from looking for equity: in 17 for each penny of occasions of savagery (counting assault) casualties were blocked from reporting the wrongdoing by the police; in more than 25 for each penny of cases the group ceased ladies recording grumblings; and in more than 40 for each penny ladies “did not endeavor to get legitimate or group solutions for the brutality basically out of apprehension of the culprits or social disrespect if (sexual) viciousness was uncovered”. In just 1 for every penny of recorded cases were the culprits sentenced. What “takes after episodes of viciousness”, the UN found, is “a resonating hush”. The impact with regards to Dalit ladies particularly, however not solely, “is the creation and upkeep of a society of brutality, quiet and exemption”.

Class discrimination faced by women of contemporary time

The Indian constitution clarifies the “rule of non-separation on the premise of rank or sexual orientation”. It promises the “privilege to life and to security of life”. Article 46 particularly “shields Dalit from social unfairness and all types of abuse”. Add to this the imperative Scheduled Castes and Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act of 1989, and an around outfitted administrative armed force is framed. Notwithstanding, in view of “low levels of execution”, the UN expresses, “the procurements that secure ladies’ rights must be viewed as vacant of importance”. It is a commonplace Indian story: legal impassion (and cost, absence of access to lawful representation, interminable formality and obstructive staff), police defilement, and government arrangement, in addition to media lack of interest bringing on the significant hindrances to equity and the perception and implementation of the law.

Not at all like white collar class young ladies, Dalit assault casualties (whose numbers are developing) once in a while get the consideration of the rank/class-cognizant urban-driven media, whose essential concern is to advance a Bollywood gleaming, open-for-business picture of the nation.

A 20-year-old Dalit lady from the Santali tribal gathering in West Bengal was group assaulted, supposedly “on the requests of town senior citizens who questioned her relationship (which had been going ahead in mystery for a long time) with a man from an adjacent town in the Bird hum locale”. The savage occurrence happened while, as indicated by a BBC report, the man went to the lady’s home’ with the proposition of marriage, villagers spotted him and sorted out a kangaroo court. Amid the “procedures” the couple were made to sit with situation is anything but hopeful’ the headman of the lady’s town fined the couple 25,000 rupees (400 US dollars; GBP 240) for “the wrongdoing of experiencing passionate feelings for. The man paid, however the lady’s family were not able pay. Subsequently, the “headman” and 12 of his companions more than once assaulted her. Brutality, abuse and prohibition are utilized to keep Dalit ladies in a position of subordination and to keep up the patriarchal grasp on force all through Indian culture.

The urban areas are unsafe spots for ladies, yet it is in the farmland, where a great many people live (70 for each penny) that the best levels of misuse happen. Numerous living in country zones live in amazing neediness (800 million individuals in India live on under 2.50 dollars a day), with practically no entrance to medicinal services, poor instruction and horrifying or non-existent sanitation. It is a world separated from law based Delhi, or Westernized Mumbai: water, power, majority rule government and the tenet of law are yet to venture into the lives of the ladies in India’s towns, which home, Mahatma Gandhi broadly proclaimed, to the spirit of the nation.

Nothing unexpected, then, that following two many years of monetary development, India winds up moping 136th (of 186 nations) in the (sex fairness balanced) United Nations Human Development record’ Harsh thoughts of sexual orientation imbalance

Indian culture is isolated in numerous ways: position/class, sexual orientation, riches and neediness, and religion. Dug in patriarchy and sex divisions, which esteem young men over young ladies and keep men and ladies and young men and young ladies separated, join with tyke marriage to add to the formation of a general public in which sexual misuse and abuse of ladies, especially Dalit ladies, is an adequate piece of ordinary life.

Sociologically and mentally molded into division, schoolchildren separate themselves along sex lines; in numerous territories ladies sit on one side of transports, men another; unique ladies just carriages have been introduced on the Delhi and Mumbai metro, acquainted with shield ladies from inappropriate behavior or “eve teasing” as it is conversationally known. Such wellbeing measures, while being invited by ladies and ladies’ gatherings, don’t manage the basic reasons for misuse, and as it were may promote kindle them.

Assault, sexual brutality, attack and provocation are overflowing, at the same time, with the special case maybe of the Bollywood Mumbai set, sex is a forbidden subject. A survey by India Today directed in 2011 found that 25 for every penny of individuals had no complaint to sex before marriage, giving it’s not in their family.

Sociological partition energizes sex divisions, bolsters biased generalizations and feeds sexual constraint, which numerous ladies’ association trust represents the high rate of sexual viciousness. A recent report, did by the International Center for Research on Women, of men’s mentalities in India towards ladies created some startling measurements: one in four conceded having “utilized sexual brutality (against an accomplice or against any lady)”, one in five reported utilizing “sexual savagery against a stable [female] accomplice”. Half of men would prefer not to see sexual orientation correspondence, 80 for each penny respect evolving nappies, nourishing and washing youngsters to be “ladies’ work”, and a minor 16 for every penny have influence in family obligations. Added to these repressing states of mind of psyche, homophobia is the standard, with 92 for every penny admitting they would be embarrassed to have a gay companion, or even be in the region of a gay man.

With everything taken into account, India is cursed by an inventory of Victorian sex generalizations, fuelled by a position framework intended to oppress, which trap both men and ladies into molded cells of detachment where ruinous thoughts of sex are permitted to age, bringing about blasts of sexual brutality, misuse and man handle. Investigations of position have started to draw in with issues of rights, assets, and acknowledgment/representation, showing the degree to which position must be perceived as key to the account of India’s political advancement. For instance, researchers are getting to be progressively mindful of the degree to which radical masterminds.

Ambedkar, Periyar, and Phule requested the acknowledgment of histories of misuse, custom derision, and political disappointment as constituting the lives of the lower-ranks, even all things considered histories additionally framed the loaded past from which get away was looked for.

Researchers have indicated Mandal as the developmental minute in the “new” national governmental issues of station, particularly for having radicalized dalitbahujans in the politically critical states of the Hindi belt. Hence Mandal may be an advantageous, despite the fact that overdetermined vantage-indicate from which break down the state’s conflicting and incapable interest in the talk of lower-rank qualification, tossing open to examination the political practices and philosophies that enliven parliamentary vote based system in India as a recorded arrangement.

Tharu and Niranjana (1996) have noticed the perceivability of station also, sexual orientation issues in the post-Mandal connection and depict it as a opposing arrangement. Case in point, there were battles by upper-station ladies to challenge reservations by comprehension them as concessions, and the extensive scale investment of school going ladies in the counter Mandal tumult with a specific end goal to claim meet treatment instead of reservations in battles for sexual orientation equality. On the other hand, lower-position male declaration regularly focused on uppercaste ladies, making an uncertain problem for upper-rank women’s activists who had been professional Mandal. The relationship between standing and sexual orientation never appeared to be more cumbersome. The interest for bookings for ladies (and for further reservations for dalit ladies and ladies from the Backward Class and Other Backward Communities) can likewise be seen as an outgrowth of a restored endeavor to address rank and sex issues from inside the landscape of governmental issues. It may likewise demonstrate the inadequacy of concentrating exclusively on sexual orientation in assembling a measurable “arrangement” to the political issue of perceivability and representation.

Rising out of the 33 for each penny bookings for ladies in nearby Panchayat, and plainly inconsistent with the Mandal dissents that compared reservations with ideas of inadequacy, the late requests for reservations is a stamped move far from the verifiable doubt of bookings for ladies. As Mary John has contended, ladies’ powerlessness must be seen with regards to the political removals t h at imprint the emergence of minorities before the state.

The subject of political representation and the plan of gendered defenselessness are associated issues. As I have contended in my exposition incorporated into this volume, such defenselessness is the characteristic of the gendered subject’s peculiarity. It is that type of harmed presence that brings her inside the edge of political readability as various’yet qualified’for general types of review. All things considered, it is basic to political talks of rights and acknowledgment.

Political requests for bookings for ladies’and for lowercaste ladies’supplement academic endeavors to comprehend the profound cleavages between ladies of various positions that contemporary occasions, for example, Mandal or the Hindutva development have uncovered. In investigating the difficulties postured by Mandal to ruling originations of mainstream selfhood, Vivek Dhareshwar indicated conversions between perusing for and recouping the nearness of position as a hushed open talk in contemporary India, and comparable practices by women’s activists who had investigated the unacknowledged weight of gendered personality.

Dhareshwar recommended that scholars of station and scholars of sex may consider elective affinities in their strategies for examination, and deliberately grasp their trashed personalities (position, sexual orientation) with a specific end goal to attract open thoughtfulness regarding them as political characters. Dhareshwar contended this would demonstrate the degree to which secularism had been kept up as another type of upper-rank benefit, the extravagance of overlooking standing, rather than the requests for social equity by dalitbahujans who were requesting an open affirmation of such benefit.

Women and dalit considered the same

Untouchability and Dalit Ladies’ Oppression,” that “It remains a matter of reflection that the individuals who have been effectively required with arranging ladies experience troubles that are no place tended to in a hypothetical writing whose foundational standards are gotten from a sprinkling of standardizing hypotheses of rights, liberal political hypothesis, a not well educated left governmental issues and all the more as of late, every so often, even a well meaning convention of’entitlements.’ Malik in impact requests that how we are comprehend dalit ladies’ defenselessness.

Rank relations are implanted in dalit ladies’ significantly unequal access to assets of essential survival, for example, water and sanitation offices, and in addition to instructive foundations, open spots, and destinations of religious love. Then again, the material impoverishment of dalits and their political disappointment propagate the typical structures of untouchability, which legitimates upper-station sexual access to dalit ladies. Station relations are likewise changing, and new types of viciousness in autonomous India that objective images of dalit freedom such as the defilement of the statues of dalit pioneers, endeavor to counteract dalits’ socio-political progression by dispossessing land, or deny dalits of their political rights are gone for dalits’ apparent social versatility. These fresher types of brutality are regularly supplemented by the sexual harrassment and attack of dalit ladies, indicating the rank and gendered types of helplessness that dalit ladies experience.

As Gabriele Dietrich notes in her exposition “Dalit Movements and Women’s Movements,”* dalit ladies have been focuses of upper-position savagery. In the meantime, dalit ladies have likewise worked as the “property” of dalit men. Lowercaste men are likewise occupied with an unpredictable arrangement of dreams of requital that include the sexual infringement of upper-station ladies in striking back for their weakening by rank society. The risky organization of dalit ladies as sexual property in both occurrences overdetermines dalit ladies’ character in wording exclusively of their sexual accessibility.

Young ladies: Household Servants

At the point when a kid is conceived in most creating nations, companions and relatives shout congrats. A child implies protection. He will acquire his dad’s property and land a position to bolster the family. At the point when a young lady is conceived, the response is altogether different. A few ladies sob when they discover their infant is a young lady on the grounds that, to them, a girl is simply one more cost. Her place is in the home, not in the realm of men. In some parts of India, it’s conventional to welcome a family with an infant young lady by saying, “The worker of your family has been conceived.”

A young lady can’t resist the urge to feel second rate when everything around her advises her that she is worth not exactly a kid. Her character is fashioned when her family and society confine her chances and proclaim her to be inferior.

A blend of amazing neediness and profound inclinations against ladies makes a callous cycle of separation that keeps young ladies in creating nations from satisfying their maximum capacity. It additionally abandons them helpless against extreme physical and psychological mistreatment. These “hirelings of the family” come to acknowledge that life will never be any diverse.

Most prominent Obstacles Affecting Girls

Oppression young ladies and ladies in the creating scene is an overwhelming reality. It results in a huge number of individual tragedies, which signify lost potential for whole nations. Contemplates show there is an immediate connection between a nation’s disposition toward ladies and its encouraging socially and financially. The status of ladies is fundamental to the strength of a general public. On the off chance that one section endures, so does the entirety.

Grievously, female kids are most exposed against the injury of sexual orientation separation. The accompanying impediments are stark case of what young ladies overall face. However, the uplifting news is that new eras of young ladies speak to the most encouraging wellspring of progress for ladies’and men’in the creating scene today.

Endowment

In creating nations, the introduction of a young lady causes awesome change for poor families. At the point when there is scarcely enough nourishment to survive, any tyke puts a strain on a family’s assets. Be that as it may, the financial channel of a little girl feels considerably more serious, particularly in areas where endowment is drilled.

Endowment is merchandise and cash a lady of the hour’s family pays to the spouse’s family. Initially planned to help with marriage costs, share came to be seen as installment to the man of the hour’s family to take on the weight of another lady. In a few nations, endowments are indulgent, costing years of wages, and regularly tossing a lady’s family into obligation. The settlement hone makes the possibility of having a young lady considerably more offensive to poor families. It likewise puts young ladies in threat: another lady is helpless before her in-laws if they choose her settlement is too little. UNICEF gauges that around 5,000 Indian ladies are executed in settlement related occurrences every year.

Disregard

The creating scene is brimming with neediness stricken families who see their girls as a monetary problem. That state of mind has brought about the across the board disregard of child young ladies in Africa, Asia, and South America. In numerous groups, it’s a standard practice to breastfeed young ladies for a shorter time than young men so ladies can attempt to get pregnant again with a kid at the earliest opportunity. Subsequently, young ladies pass up a great opportunity for nurturing nourishment amid an essential window of their advancement, which hinder their development and debilitates their imperviousness to sickness.

Measurements demonstrate that the disregard proceeds as they grow up. Young ladies get less sustenance, medicinal services and less inoculations generally than young men. Very little changes as they get to be ladies. Convention calls for ladies to eat last, regularly decreased to picking over the scraps from the men and young men.

Child murder and Sex-Selective Abortion

In compelling cases, guardians settle on the terrible decision to end their infant young lady’s life. One lady named Lakshmi from Tamil Nadu, a ruined area of India, nourished her child sap from an oleander bramble blended with castor oil until the young lady seeped from the nose and kicked the bucket. “A little girl is dependably liabilities. By what method would I be able to raise a second?” said Lakshmi to disclose why she finished her child’s life. “Rather than her affliction the way I do, I thought it was ideal to dispose of her.”

Sex-specific premature births are much more regular than child murders in India. They are developing always visit as innovation makes it straightforward and shabby to decide an embryo’s sex. In Jaipur, a Western Indian city of 2 million individuals, 3,500 sex-decided premature births are completed each year. The sex proportion crosswise over India has dropped to an unnatural low of 927 females to 1,000 guys because of child murder and sex-based premature births.

China has its own particular long legacy of female child murder. In the most recent two decades, the administration’s notorious one-kid strategy has debilitated the nation’s reputation considerably more. By confining family unit size to restrict the populace, the approach gives guardians only one opportunity to create a desired child before being compelled to pay overwhelming fines for extra youngsters. In 1997, the World Health Organization proclaimed, “‘ more than 50 million ladies were evaluated to miss in China as a result of the standardized slaughtering and disregard of young ladies because of Beijing’s populace control program.” The Chinese government says that sex-specific premature birth is one noteworthy clarification for the amazing number of Chinese young ladies who have just vanished from the populace in the most recent 20 years.

Misuse

Indeed, even after outset, the risk of physical mischief takes after young ladies for the duration of their lives. Ladies in each general public are helpless against misuse. Be that as it may, the danger is more extreme for young ladies and ladies who live in social orders where ladies’ rights mean for all intents and purposes nothing. Moms who do not have their own particular rights have little assurance to offer their girls, a great deal less themselves, from male relatives and other power figures. The recurrence of assault and vicious assaults against ladies in the creating scene is disturbing. Forty-five percent of Ethiopian ladies say that they have been struck in their lifetimes. In 1998, 48 percent of Palestinian ladies confessed to being manhandled by a personal accomplice inside the previous year.

In some societies, the physical and mental injury of assault is aggravated by an extra shame. In societies that keep up strict sexual codes for ladies, if a lady ventures too far out’by picking her own significant other, being a tease in broad daylight, or looking for separation from an injurious accomplice’she has conveyed disrespect to her family and must be restrained. Regularly, teach implies execution. Families submit “honor killings” to rescue their notoriety polluted by defiant ladies.

Shockingly, this “insubordination” incorporates assault. In 1999, a 16-year-old rationally disabled young lady in Pakistan who had been assaulted was brought before her tribe’s legal guidance. Despite the fact that she was the casualty and her aggressor had been captured, the guidance chose she had conveyed disgrace to the tribe and requested her open execution. This case, which got a ton of reputation at the time, is not uncommon. Three ladies succumb to respect killings in Pakistan consistently’including casualties of assault. In zones of Asia, the Middle East, and even Europe, all obligation regarding sexual wrongdoing falls, as a matter of course, to ladies.

Work

For the young ladies who get away from these pitfalls and grow up moderately securely, day by day life is still unfathomably hard. School may be a possibility for a couple of years, however most young ladies are hauled out at age 9 or 10 when they’re sufficiently helpful to work throughout the day at home. Nine million a bigger number of young ladies than young men pass up a major opportunity for school each year, as indicated by UNICEF. While their siblings keep on going to classes or seek after their leisure activities and play, they join the ladies to do the main part of the housework.

Housework in creating nations comprises of persistent, troublesome physical work. A young lady is prone to work from before dawn until the light depletes away. She strolls unshod long separations a few times each day conveying overwhelming pails of water, undoubtedly contaminated, just to keep her family alive. She cleans, grinds corn, accumulates fuel, tends to the fields, washes her more youthful kin, and gets ready suppers until she takes a seat to her own after every one of the men in the family have eaten. Most families can’t manage the cost of current machines, so her undertakings must be finished by hand’squashing corn into dinner with substantial rocks, cleaning clothing against harsh stones, plying bread and cooking gruel over a rankling open flame. There is no time left in the day to figure out how to peruse and compose or to play with companions. She falls depleted every night, prepared to get up the following morning to begin another long workday.

The greater part of this work is performed without acknowledgment or prize. UN measurements demonstrate that despite the fact that ladies create a large portion of the world’s sustenance, they possess just 1 percent of its farmland. In most African and Asian nations, ladies’ work isn’t viewed as genuine work. Should a lady accept an occupation, she is relied upon to keep up every one of her obligations at home notwithstanding her new ones, with no additional assistance. Ladies’ work goes neglected, despite the fact that it is urgent to the survival of every family.

Sex Trafficking

A few families choose it’s more lucrative to send their girls to a close-by town or city to land positions that more often than not include hard work and little pay. That urgent requirement for money leaves young ladies simple prey to sex traffickers, especially in Southeast Asia, where universal tourism pigs out the illicit business. In Thailand, the sex exchange has swelled without register with a primary part of the national economy. Families in little towns along the Chinese fringe are consistently drawn nearer by scouts called “close relatives” who request their girls in return for a long time’s wages. Most Thai agriculturists win just $150 a year. The offer can be excessively enticing, making it impossible to can’t.

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Would it be moral to legalise Euthanasia in the UK?: essay help online

The word ‘morality’ seems to be used in both descriptive and normative meanings. More particularly, the term “morality” can be used either (Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/morality-definition

1. descriptively: referring to codes of conduct advocated by a society or a sub-group (e.g. a religion or social group), or adopted by an individual to justify their own beliefs,

or

2. normatively: describing codes of conduct that in specified conditions, should be accepted by all rational members of the group being considered.

Examination of ethical theories applied to Euthanasia

Thomas Aquinas’ natural law considered that morally beneficial actions and the goodness of those actions is assessed against eternal law as a reference point. Eternal law, in his view, is a higher authority and the process of reasoning defines the differences between right and wrong. Natural law thinking is not just concerned with focussed aspects, but considers the whole person and their infinite future. Aquinas would have linked this to God’s predetermined plan for that individual and heaven. The morality of Catholic belief is heavily influenced by natural law. Primary precepts should be considered when considering issues involving euthanasia particularly important key precepts to do good and oppose evil and to preserve life upholding the sanctity of life. Divine law set out in the Bible states that we are created in God’s image and held together by God from our time in the womb. The Catholic Church’s teachings on euthanasia maintain that euthanasia is wrong (Pastoral Constitution, Gaudium et Spes no. 27, 1965) as life is sacred and God-given. (Declaration on Euthanasia 1980). This view can be seen to be just as strongly held and applied today in the very recent case of Alfie Evans where papal intervention in the case was significant and public. Terminating life through euthanasia goes against divine law. Ending life and the possibility of that life bringing love into the world or love coming into the world in response to the person euthanised is wrong. To take a life by euthanasia, according to catholic belief, rejects God’s plan for that individual to live their life. Suicide or intentionally ending life is an equal wrong to murder and as such is to be considered rejection is God’s loving plan (Declaration on euthanasia, 1.3, 1980).

The Catholic Church interprets natural law to mean euthanasia is wrong and that those involved in it are committing a wrongful and sinful act. Whilst the objectives of euthanasia may appear to be good in that they seek to ease suffering and pain they are in fact failing to recognise the greater good of the sanctity of life within God is greater plan and include people other and the person suffering and eternal life in heaven

The conclusions of natural law consider the position of life in general and not just the ending of a single life. An example would be that if euthanasia is lawful older people could become fearful of admission to hospital in case they were drawn into euthanasia. It could also lead to people being attracted to euthanasia at times when they were depressed. This can be seen to attack the principles of living well together in society as good people could be hurt. It also makes some predictions on the slippery slope and floodgates type arguments about hypothetical situations. Euthanasia therefore clearly undermines some primary precepts.

Catholicism accepts the disproportionately onerous treatment is not appropriate towards the end of a person’s life and gives a moral obligation not to strenuously keep a person alive at all costs. An example of this would be the terminally ill cancer patient deciding not to accept further chemotherapy or radiotherapy which could extend their life, but at great cost to quality of that remaining life. Natural law does not seem to prevent them from making these kinds of choices.

There is a doctrine of double effect an example being palliative care with the relief of pain and distress as the objective might have a secondary effect of ending life earlier than if more active treatment options had been pursued. The motivation is not to kill, but rather to ease pain and distress. An example of this is when an individual doctor’s decision to increase opiate drug dosage to the point where respiratory arrest occurs almost inevitably but at all times the intended motivation is the easing of pain and distress. This has on various occasions been upheld as being legally and morally acceptable by the courts and medical watchdogs such as the GMC (General Medical Council).

The catechism of the Catholic Church accepts this and view such decisions as best made by the patient if competent and able and if not by those legally and professionally entitled to act for the individual concerned.

There are other circumstances when the person involved in the process might not be the same type of person as is assumed by natural law. For example, someone with severe brain damage and in a persistent coma or “brain-dead”. In these situations, they may not possess the defining characteristics of a person. This could form justification for euthanasia. The doctors or relatives caring for such a patient may have conflicts of conscience by being unable to show compassion to another and thereby prolong suffering, not only of the patient, but of those surrounding them.

In his book Morals and Medicine published in 1954, Fletcher, the president of the euthanasia Society of America argued that there were no absolute standards of morality in medical treatment and that good ethics demand consideration of patient’s condition and the situation surrounding it.

Fletcher Situation Ethics avoids legalistic consideration of moral decisions. It is anchored only actual situations and specifically in unconditional love for the care of others. When considering euthanasia with this approach it will always “depend upon the situation”.

From the view point of an absolutist, morality is innate from birth. It can be argued that natural law does not change as a result of personal opinions; remaining never changed. Natural law is a positive view with regard to morality as it can be seen to allow people from ranging backgrounds, classes and situations to have sustainable moral laws to follow.

Religious believers also follow the principles of Natural Law as the underlying theology of the law argues the idea that morality remains the same and never changes with an individual’s personal opinions or decisions. Christianity as a religion, has great support amongst its religious believers for there being a natural law of morality. Christian understanding behind this concept has been largely shown to have come as a result of Thomas Aquinas- following his teaching of the close connection of faith and reason being closely related arguments for there being a natural law of morality.

Natural Law has been shown over time to have compelling arguments, one of which being its all-inclusiveness and fixed stature- a contrast to the relative approach to morality. Natural law is objective and is consequently abiding and eternal. It is considered to be within us/innate and is seen to occur as a mixture of faith and reason to go on the form an intelligent and rational being who is faithful in belief of God. Natural law is a part of human nature, commencing from the beginning of our lives when we gain our sense of right and wrong.

However, there are also many disadvantages of natural law with regard to resolving moral problems. They can include, the fact that they are not always self-evident (proving). We are unable to confirm whether there is only one global purpose for humanity. It can be argued that even if humanity had a purpose for its existence, this purpose cannot be seen as self-evident. The perception of natural beings and things is forced to change over generations due to different perceptions, with forms of different times being more fitting with the present culture. It can therefore be argued that absolute morality is changed and altered by cultural beliefs of right and wrong. Some things later on in time being perceived as wrong, leading on to believe that defining what is natural is almost impossible as moral decisions are ever changing. The thought of actuality being better that potentiality, cannot easily transfer to practical ethics. The future holds many potential outcomes, however some of these potential outcomes are ‘wrong’. (Hodder Education, 2016)

Natural law being the best way to resolve moral problems holds a strong argument, however its strict formation means that there is some confusion as to what is right and wrong in certain situations. These views are instead formed by society- not always following the natural law of morality. Darwin’s Theory of Evolution put forward in On The Origin of the Species in 1859, challenged natural law as he put forward the notion that living things strive for survival (survival of the fittest) and supporting his theory of evolution by natural selection. It can be argued that moral problems being solved by natural law may be possible, but not necessarily the best solution.

For many years, euthanasia has been a controversial debate across the globe with different people taking opposing sides and arguing in support of their opinions. Ideally, it is the act of allowing an individual to die in a painless manner by suppressing their medication. Often, these are classified in different forms such as voluntary, involuntary and non-voluntary. However, the legal system has been actively involved in this debate. A major concern put forward is that legalizing any form of euthanasia may lead to slippery slope principle, which holds that permission of anything comparatively harmless today, may begin a trend that results in unacceptable practices. Although one of the popular stands argues voluntary euthanasia is morally acceptable while non-voluntary euthanasia is always wrong, the legal constitution has been split in their decisions in various instances. (Oxford for OCR Religious Studies, 2016)

Voluntary euthanasia is defined by the killing of an individual upon their approval through various ways. The arguments that voluntary euthanasia is morally acceptable are drawn from the expressed desires of a patient. As far as the respect for an individual’s decision does not harm other people, then it is morally correct. Since individuals have the right to make personal choices about their lives, their decisions on how they should die should also be respected. Most, importantly, at times, it remains the only option of assuring the well-being of the patient especially if they are suffering incessant and severe pain. Despite these claims, several cases have emerged, but the court has continued to refuse to uphold the morality of euthanasia irrespective of a victim’s consent. One of these is the case of Diane Pretty who suffered from motor neuron disease. Since she was afraid of dying by choking/aspiration, a common end of life event experienced by many motor neurone disease victims. She sought to have legal assurance that her husband would be free from the threat of prosecution if he assisted her to end her life. Her case went through the Court of Appeal, The House of Lords (the Supreme Court in today’s system) and the European Court of Human Rights. However, due to the concerns raised under the slippery slope principle, the judges denied her request, and she lost the case.

There have been many legal and legislative battles attempting to change the law to support voluntary Euthanasia in varying circumstances. Between 2002 and 2006 Lord Joel Joffe (a Patron of the Dignity in Dying organisation) fought to change the law in the UK to support assisted dying. His first Assisted Dying (Patient) Bill continued to the stage of a second reading (June 2003) however surpassed the time limit to progress to the committee stage. However, Joffe persisted and in 2004 restated his plight with the Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill which progressed further to the earlier bill to make it to the committee stage in 2006. The committee stated: “In the event that another bill of this nature should be introduced into Parliament, it should, following a formal Second Reading, be sent to a committee of the whole House for examination”. However, unfortunately in May 2006 an amendment at the Second reading lead to the collapse of the bill. This was a surprise to Joffe, with the majority of the select committee on board with the bill. In addition to this calls for a statute supporting voluntary euthanasia have increased and this can be evidenced by the significant numbers of people in recent years travelling to Switzerland where physician assisted suicide is legal under permitted circumstances. Lord Joffe expressed these thoughts in an article written for the campaign for Dignity In Dying cause in 2014 shortly before his death in 2017 in support of Lord Falconer’s Assisted Dying Bill which was a Bill which proposed to permit the “terminally ill, mentally competent adults to have an assisted death after being approved by doctors” (Falconer’s Assisted Dying Bill, Dignity in Dying, 2014). The journey of this bill was followed by the following referenced documentary.

The BBC documentary ‘How to Die: Simon’s Choice’ followed the decline of Simon Binner from motor neurone disease and his subsequent plight for an assisted death. The documentary followed his journey to Switzerland for a legal assisted death and documented the reactions of his surrounding family. During filming of the documentary, a legal bill was being debated in parliament proposing to legalise assisted dying in the United Kingdom. The bill proposed a new law (The Lord Falconers Assisted Dying Bill) which would allow a person to request a lethal injection if they had less that six months left to live, this raised a myriad of issues including precisely defining a life term whereby one has more or less that six months left to live. The Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby urged MP’s to reject the bill stating that Britain would be crossing a ‘legal and ethical Rubicon’ if parliament were to vote to allow the terminally ill to actively be assisted to die at home in the UK under medical supervision. The leaders of the British Jewish, Muslim, Sikh and Christian religious communities wrote a joint open letter to all members of the British parliament urging them to oppose the bill to legalise assisted dying. (The Guardian, 2015). After announcing his death on LinkedIn, Simon Binner died at an assisted dying clinic in Switzerland. The passing of this bill may have been the only way of helping Simon Binner in his home country, although assisted dying was ruled to be unlawful. (Deacon, 2016)

The result of the private members bill, originally proposed by Rob Marris (a Labour MP from Wolverhampton) ended in defeat in 330 MPs against and 118 MPs in favour. (The Financial Times, 2015)

The 1961 Suicide Act (Legislation, 1961) decriminalised suicide, however it didn’t make it morally licit. It outlines that a person who aids, abets, counsels or procures suicide of another/attempt by another to commit suicide shall be liable to be sentenced to a prison term of up to 14 years. It also provided for the situation of a defendant on trial on indictment for murder/manslaughter it is proved that the accused aided, abetted, counselled or procured the suicide of the person in question, the jury could find them guilty of that offence as an alternative verdict.

Many took that the view that the law supports principle of autonomy, but the act was used to reinforce the sanctity of life principle by criminalising any form of assisted suicide. Although the act doesn’t hold the position that all life is equally valuable, there have been cases when allowing a person to die would be the better solution.

In the case of non-voluntary euthanasia, patients are often incapable of giving their approval for death to be induced. It mostly occurs if a patient is either very young, mentally retarded, has an extreme brain damage, or is in a coma. Opponents argue that human life should be respected and in this case, it is even worse because the victim’s wishes are not factored when making decisions to end their life. As a result, it becomes morally wrong irrespective of the conditions that they face. In such a case, all parties involved should wait for a natural death while at the same time according the patient the best palliative medical attention possible. The case of Terri Schiavo who was suffering from bulimia and with an extremely damaged brain falls under this argument. The ruling of the court allowing the request of her husband to have her life terminated triggered heated debates with some arguing that it was wrong while others saw it as a relief since she had spent more than half of her life unresponsive.

I completed primary research in order to support my findings as to whether it would be moral or not to legalise Euthanasia in the UK. With regard to the having an understanding of the correct definition of Euthanasia nine out of ten people who took part in the questionnaire selected the correct definition of physician-assisted suicide being “The voluntary termination of one’s life by administration of a lethal substance with the direct or indirect assistance of a physician” (Medicanet, 2017). The one person who selected the wrong definition believed it to be “The involuntary termination of one’s own life by administration of a lethal substance with the direct or indirect assistance of a physician. The third definition on the questionnaire stated that physician assisted suicide was “The voluntary termination of one’s own life by committing suicide without the help of others”- this definition is the ‘obvious’ incorrect answer and no participant in the questionnaire selected this answer.

The morality of the young should be followed. From the results of my primary research completed by a selected youth audience seventy percent were in agreement that people should have the right to choose when they die. However only twenty percent of this targeted audience were in agreement that they would assist a friend or family member in helping them die. This drop in support can be supported by the fear that prosecution brings of a possible fourteen year imprisonment for assisting in a person’s death.

The effect of the Debbie Purdy case (2009), was that guidelines were established by the Director of Public Prosecutions in England and Wales (Dying or assisted dying isn’t illegal in Scotland however there is no legal way to medically access it). These guidelines were established according to the Director of Public Prosecutions to “clarify what his position is as to the factors that he regards as relevant for and against prosecution” (DID Prosecution Policy, 2010). The guidance policy outlines ‘more likely’ factors as to when prosecution should take place; for prosecution of an assistor the policy outlined that if they had a history of violent behaviour, didn’t know the person, received a financial gain from the act or acted as a medical professional then they were more likely to face prosecution. However despite these factors the policy stated that police and prosecutors of the case should examine any financial gain with a ‘common sense’ approach as many financially benefit from the loss of a loved one, however the fact that they were a close relative being relieved of pain for example should be a larger factor behind assisting someone to die, to be considered in case of prosecution.

Arguments that state voluntary euthanasia is morally right while involuntary euthanasia is wrong, remains as being one of the most controversial issues even in the modern society. It is even more significant because even the legal systems remain split in their ruling in the various cases such as those cited. Based on the slippery slope argument, care should be taken when determining what is morally right and wrong because of the sanctity of human life. Many consider that the law has led to considerable confusion and that one way of developing the present situation is to create a new Act which permitting physician assisted dying, with the proposal stating that there should be a bill to “enable a competent adult who is suffering unbearably as a result of a terminal illness to receive medical assistance to die at his own considered/persistent request… to make provision for a person suffering from a terminal illness to receive pain relief medication” (Assisted Dying for the Terminally ill Bill, 2004).

There is a major moral objection to voluntary euthanasia under the reasoning of the “slippery slope” argument: the fear that what begins as legitimate reasons to assist in a person’s death will also permit death in other illegal circumstances.

In a Letter addressed to The Times newspaper (24/8/04), John Haldane and Alasdair MacIntyre along with other academics, lawyers and philosophers, suggested that any supporters of the Bill change from making the condition one of actual unbearable suffering from terminal illness to merely the fear, discomfort and loss of dignity which terminal illness might bring. In addition, there is an issue of if quality of life is grounds for euthanasia from those who request it therefore it must be open to those who don’t request it or are unable to request it therefore presenting the issue of a slippery slope. Also in the letter addressed to The Times, the esteemed academics referenced Euthanasia in the Netherlands where it is legal. The purpose of this was to infer that many people have dies against their desire due to safeguarding issues. (Hodder Education, 2016)

In conclusion, upon considering different morality arguments on both sides of the debate, I concluded that the two forms of morality (Natural Law and Situation Ethics) would give two opposing responses in relation to the question.

From the viewpoint of a deontologist who would be guided by natural law, duty and obligation arguably from a religion would lead a society to decide that it would be wrong to legalise Euthanasia. However, from the viewpoint of a situational ethicist whose viewpoint would be changeable depending on the independent situation could support the plight to legalise Voluntary Euthanasia in the UK under guidelines to account for differing situations.

After completing my Primary and Secondary Research, considering the passage of many unsuccessful bills put through parliament to legalise euthanasia and many case studies including the moving account of Simon Binner’s fight to die, my own view rests on the side of a situational ethicist who would believe that depending to the independent situation people should be able to have the right to die in their own country by legalising voluntary euthanasia, rather than being forced to travel abroad to access a legal form of voluntary euthanasia and risk their loved ones being prosecuted on their return to the UK for assisting them.

The slippery slope argument does not help those in particular individual situations and it must surely be wrong to shy away from making difficult decisions on the grounds that an individual should sustain prolonged suffering in order to protect society from the possible extended over use of any legalisation. In practice over the past half century some sort of euthanasia has been going on in the UK when doctors give obvious over-dosage of opiates in terminal cases, but have been shielded from the legal consequences by an almost fictional notion that as long as the motivation was to ease and control pain then the inevitable consequence of respiratory arrest (respiratory suppression is a side effect of morphine type drugs), then the action was lawful.

Discredited and now defunct Liverpool Care Pathway for the Dying Patient (LCP) was an administrative tool used as an attempt to assist UK healthcare professionals to manage the care pathway and deciding palliative care options for patients at the very end of life. As with many such tick the-box-exercises individual discretion is restricted in an attempt to standardise practice nationally (Wales was excluded from the LPA). The biggest problem with the LPA (which attracted much adverse media attention and public concern in 2012) was that most patients or their families were not consulted when they were placed on the pathway. It had options for withdrawing active treatment whilst managing distressing symptoms actively. However, removing intravenous hydration/feeding by regarding it as active treatment would inevitably lead to death in a relatively short period of time making the decision to place a patient on the LPA because they were at the end of life a self-fulfilling prophesy. (Liverpool Care Pathway)

There is a chilling consideration of cost of provision of “just in case” boxes at approximately £25 in the last part of this lengthy document should be part of the process of considering what to advise professionals may seem alarming to some. However there is a moral factor in the financial implications of unnecessarily prolonging human life. Should the greater good be considered when deciding to actively permit formal pathways to euthanasia or to take steps to prohibit it (the crimes of murder or assisting suicide). In the recent highly publicised case of Alfie Evans enormous financial resources were used to keep a child with a terminal degenerative neurological disease alive on a paediatric intensive care unit at Alder Hay hospital in Liverpool for around a year. In deciding to do this it is inevitable that those resources were unavailable to treat others who might have gone on to survive and live a life. Huge sums of money were spent both on medical resources and lawyers. The case became a highly media publicised circus resulting in ugly threats made against medical staff at the hospital concerned. There was international intervention in the case by the Vatican and Italy (granting of Italian nationality to the child). Whist the emotional turmoil of the parents was tragic and the case very sad was it moral that their own beliefs and lack of understanding of the medical issues involved should lead to such a diversion of resources and such terrible effects on those caring for the boy?

(NICE (National Institute of Clinical Excellence) guidelines, 2015)

The General Medical Council (GMC) governs the licensing and professional conduct of doctors in the UK. They have produced guidance for doctors regarding the medical role at the end of life Treatment and care towards the end of life: good practice in decision making. It gives comprehensive advice on some of the fundamental issues dealing with the end of life treatment and it covers issues such as living wills (where withdrawal of treatment requests can be set out in writing and in advance). These are binding both professionally, but as ever there are some caveats regarding withdrawal of life prolonging treatment.

It also sets out presumptions of a duty to prolong life and of a patient’s capacity to make decisions along established legal and ethical viewpoints. I particular it is stated that “decisions concerning life prolonging treatments must not be motivated by a desire to bring about a patient’s death” (Good Medical Practice, GMC Guidance to Doctors, 2014)

Formally the Hippocratic Oath was sworn by all doctors and set out a sound basis for moral decision making and professional conduct. In modern translation from the original ancient Greek it states with regard to medical treatment that a doctor should never treat “….. with a view to injury and wrong-doing. Neither will [a doctor] administer a poison to anybody when asked to do so, nor will [a doctor] suggest such a course. Doctors in the UK do not swear the oath today, but most of its principles are internationally accepted except perhaps in the controversial areas surrounding abortion and end of life care.

(Hippocratic Oath, Medicanet)

In conclusion, upon considering different morality arguments on both sides of the debate, I concluded that the two forms of morality (Natural Law and Situation Ethics) would give two opposing responses in relation to the question.

From the viewpoint of a deontologist who would be guided by natural law, duty and obligation arguably from a religion would lead a society to decide that it would be wrong to legalise Euthanasia. However, from the viewpoint of a situational ethicist whose viewpoint would be changeable depending on the independent situation could support the plight to legalise Voluntary Euthanasia in the UK under guidelines to account for differing situations.

After completing my Primary and Secondary Research, considering the passage of many unsuccessful bills put through parliament to legalise euthanasia and many case studies including the moving account of Simon Binner’s fight to die, my own view rests on the side of a situational ethicist who would believe that depending to the independent situation people should be able to have the right to die in their own country by legalising voluntary euthanasia, rather than being forced to travel abroad to access a legal form of voluntary euthanasia and risk their loved ones being prosecuted on their return to the UK for assisting them.

At the end of the day, much of the management of the end of life of patients is not determined by the stipulations laid out by committees in lengthy documents, but by the individual treatment decisions made by individual doctors and nurses who are almost always acting in the best interests of patients and their families. The methodology of accelerating the inevitable event by medication or withdrawal of treatment is almost impossible to standardise across a hospital or local community care setup, let alone a country. It may be a better way to continue the practice of centuries and let the morality and conscience of the treating professions determine what happens and keep the formal moral, religious and legal factors involved in such areas in the shadows.

2018-5-4-1525394652

Has the cost of R & D impacted vaccine development for Covid-19?

Introduction

This report will be investigating and trying to answer the question of: ‘To what extent have the cost requirements of R&D, structure of the industry and government subsidy affected firms in the pharmaceutical industry in developing vaccines for Covid-19?’. The past two years have been very unpredictable for the pharmaceutical industry regarding the breakout of the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the fact that the pharmaceutical industry has made major contributions to human wellbeing with regards to the reduction of suffering and ill health for over a century, the industry still remains one of the least trusted industries based on public opinions. It is even often compared to the nuclear industry in terms of trustworthiness. Despite being one of the riskiest industries to invest money into, governments have subsidised billions into the production of the COVID-19 vaccines. Regardless of the fact of the associated risks that come with pharmaceuticals, a big part of the public still thinks pharmaceuticals should continue to be produced and developed in order to provide the correct treatment to those with existing health issues (Taylor, 2015). This along with further aspects affecting the requirements of R&D, structure of the industry and government subsidy and how these have affected firms in the pharmaceutical industry with regards to the development of the COVID-19 vaccines will be discussed further in the report.

The Costs of R&D

Back in 2019, $83 billion was spent on R&D. That figure alone is roughly 10 times greater than what the industry spent on R&D in the 1980s. Most of this amount was dedicated to testing and discovering new drugs and clinical testing with regards to safety of the drug. In 2019 drug companies dedicated a quarter of their annual income to R&D which is also an increase of almost double since the early 2000s.

(Pharmaceutical R&D Expenditure Shows Significant Growth, 2019)

Usually the amount spent on R&D of a new drug by drug companies is based on the financial return they expect to make, any policies influencing the supply and demand for drugs and the cost of developing these drugs.

Most drugs that have been approved recently have been specialty drugs. These are drugs that typically treat issues such as complex, chronic or rare conditions and can require patient monitoring. However, specialty drugs are very expensive to develop, pricey for the customer and hard to remake (Research and Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry, 2021).

Government subsidies for the COVID-19 vaccines

There are two main ways in which a federal government can have a direct impact in supporting vaccine development. This is either done by making a promise to purchase a successful vaccine in advance once the firm has successfully achieved its specified goal with the vaccine, or they can cover any costs associated with the R&D of the vaccine.

(Which Companies Received The Most Covid-19 Vaccine R&D Funding?, 2021)

The Department of Health and Human Services in the month of May 2020, launched ‘Operation Warp Speed’. This was a collaborative project in which the FDA, the Department of Defence, the National Institutes of Health and the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention all worked together to provide funding for the COVID-19 vaccine development. Through ‘Operation Warp Speed’, more than $19 billion was provided in funding by the federal government to help seven different private pharmaceutical manufacturers in the development and research of COVID-19 vaccines. A further five out of seven of those went on to accept further funding in order to help these companies boost the production capabilities of the vaccines. Later a sixth company accepted funding in order to help boost the production of another company’s vaccines as they received authorization for emergency use. Then six of the seven also made a deal for an advance purchase. Two of these companies received additional funding as they sold more doses than they expected to during the advance purchase agreements, in order for them to develop even more vaccines to distribute. Due to the simultaneous execution of combining numerous stages of development that in normal cases would be developed in consecutive order, it allowed pharmaceutical manufacturers to reach their end goal and manufacture vaccines at a rate a lot higher than normal when it comes to vaccines. This was done due to the urgency of a solution to the COVID-19 pandemic, as it was starting to cause public uproar and panic amongst nations. As soon as the first COVID-19 diagnoses was made in the US, two vaccines were already at Phase III clinical trials, and this is immensely quick, as it would usually take around a few years of research in order to reach Phase III in clinical trials for a vaccine. The World Health Organisation claims that there were already over 200 COVID-19 vaccine development candidates in the time period of February 2021 (Research and Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry, 2021).

(Research and Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry, 2021)

The image above shows what vaccines were at which stage of development during what time period. This shows the urgency that was there in order to develop and produce these vaccines to fight the outbreak of the coronavirus. Without these government subsidies, firms would have been nowhere near completing the research and development needed in order to produce numerous COVID-19 vaccines. This shows the importance that government subsidies have on the pharmaceutical industry and the development of new drugs and vaccines.

Impact of the structure of the pharmaceutical industry on vaccine development

When it came to the development of the COVID-19 vaccines, many different names in the pharmaceutical industry took part. Now as far as the majority of society is concerned, the pharmaceutical industry is just a small group of large multinational corporations such as GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, AstraZeneca, Pfizer and Roche. These are frowned upon by the public as they are stereotyped to be the ‘Big Pharma’ and so they can be misleading. Many people have their if’s and doubts about these big multinational corporations especially when they have such an influence on their health and the drugs they develop. It becomes hard for the public to rely and trust these companies because at the end of the day it is their health that they are trusting these companies with. So therefore it is logical that a lot of people will have had and still do have their suspicions about the COVID-19 vaccines developed by a handful of these companies. If you were to ask someone whether or not they have ever heard of companies like Mylan or Teva, they would probably have no clue about them even though Teva is the world’s 11th biggest pharmaceutical company and probably produces the medicine that these people take on a regular basis. The fact that over 90% of pharmaceutical companies are basically almost invisible to the general public obviously means that when it does become known to the public who has manufactured a medicine they are considering taking, for example the Pfizer vaccine, people are going to be careful and suspicious about taking this vaccine as they have probably never heard of the company Pfizer before. All this, despite it being that these companies are responsible for producing a majority of the medicines that everyone takes.

Most new drugs that are produced never even make it onto the market as the drug is found to not work or to have serious side effects, making it unethical to use on patients. However, the small percentage of drugs that do make it onto the market are patented, meaning that the original manufacturer only holds temporary rights to sell the product. Once this has expired, the pharmaceutical is free to sell and manufacture by anyone, meaning it is now a generic pharmaceutical (Taylor, 2015).

This again does not help research pharmaceutical companies, as their developments which are now out of patent, are just being sold by generic pharmaceutical companies where everyone goes to buy their pharmaceuticals. This means generic pharmaceutical companies basically never have a failed product and the research companies are barely able to create a successful product to make it out onto the market. This again causes the public to not even know that the majority of drugs they buy come from these research companies and are not originally procured by the generic pharmaceutical company they buy them from.

As seen with the COVID-19 vaccines, this caused a lot of uncertainty and distress amongst the public as most people had never even heard of companies like ‘Pfizer’ or ‘AstraZeneca’. This in turn made it more difficult for pharmaceutical companies to successfully manufacture and sell their vaccine, prolonging the whole vaccination process.

Due to this structure of the pharmaceutical industry, it has affected firms greatly in their ability to successfully and reliably manufacture vaccines against COVID-19.

Conclusion

Looking at the three factors combined: cost requirements of R&D, structure of the industry and government subsidy, it is clear that these have all had a great impact in the development of the COVID-19 vaccines. The costs associated with R&D in the development of the COVID-19 vaccines, essentially determines how successful the vaccines would be and whether or not they would have enough to first of all do the needed research and then to finally produce and sell them. Without the large number of costs that go into the development of vaccines and other drugs, the COVID-19 vaccines will have never been able to be manufactured and sold. This will have left the world in even more panic and uproar than it was/is. If this would’ve happened, it can easily have a ripple effect on economies, social factors and maybe even potentially other factors such as environmental factors.

One of the biggest impacts on the successful manufacturing and sale of the vaccines was to do with the structure of the industry. With big research pharmaceutical companies putting in all the work and effort to develop these COVID-19 vaccines but with most of the general public not ever even having heard of them before, it made it very hard for pharmaceutical companies to come across as reliable. People didn’t trust the vaccines as they had never heard of the company who developed it, such as Pfizer. This caused debate and protest against these vaccines, making it harder for companies to produce and successfully sell their vaccines to the public who were in need of them and demanded them. This was due to one major flaw in the pharmaceutical industry, which is the fact that companies such as Pfizer and AstraZeneca are kept under the rug and are barely even known by the public as all their products are just taken and sold on by generic pharmaceutical companies where people can buy them from. It also has to do with the fact that research pharmaceutical companies specialise in advanced drugs and not in more generic drugs which are more likely to be successful as they are easier to develop. So naturally the lack of successful products produced will reflect negatively on these companies although the one product they do successfully produce will also be frowned upon due to its previously non viable products.

Then finally, probably the second or joint most important factor is government subsidies. It is quite clear that without the correct government funding and without ‘Operation Warp Speed’ we’d still be in the process of trying to develop even the first COVID-19 vaccine as there will have been nowhere near enough funding for the R&D of the vaccines. This would’ve resulted in the death rate of coronavirus infections to spike, and will have probably put the economy on a complete standstill putting a large number of people out of work. All of this has numerous ripple effects, as just the one issue of loss of work could spike the poverty rate immensely, leaving economies broken. So overall, these three factors have had a huge impact on firms in the pharmaceutical industry in developing the COVID-19 vaccines.

2022-1-5-1641412725

Gender in Design: essay help free

Gender has always had a dominant place in design. Kirkham and Attfield in their 1996 book, The Gendered Object, set out that in their view that there are attributable genders which seem to be unconsciously attached to some objects as the norm. Making the distinction between how gender is viewed in modern day design compared to twenty plus years ago is now radically different in that there is now recognition of this normalization. Having international companies recognise this change and adapt their brands and companies to relate to this modern day approach influences designers like myself to keep up to date and affect my own work.

When designing there is Gender system some people tend to follow very strictly, the system is a guide that works with values that reveals the gender formation in mankind. In the gender system you have binary opposition which takes action in colour, size, feeling and shape, for example pink/blue, small/large, smooth/rough and organic/geometric. Without even thinking the words give off synonyms of male or female without even putting them in context. Gender’s definition is traditionally Male or Female but modern day brands are challenging and pushing these established boundaries. They don’t think they should be restrictive or prescriptive as they have been in the past. Kirkham and Attfield challenge this by comparing perceptions in the early twentieth century illustrating that the societal norms were the opposite to what we are now made to believe by gender norms. A good example of this is the crude binary opposition implicit in ‘pink for a little girl and blue for a boy’ was only established in the 1930’s; babies and parents managed perfectly well without such colour coding before then. Today through marketing and product targeting these ‘definitions’ are even more widely used in the design and marketing of children clothes and objects than a few years ago. Importantly, such binary oppositions also influence those who purchase objects, and, in this case, facilitate the pleasures of many adults take in seeing small humans visibly marked as gendered beings. This is now being further challenged by the demands for non-binary identification.

This initial point made by Kirkham and Attfield in 1996 is still valid. Even though the designers and brands are in essence guilty of forms of discrimination by falling in line with using the established gender norms, they do it because it’s what their consumers want and how they see development of business and creation of profit, because these stereotypical ‘Norms’ are seen to be Normal, acceptable and sub-consciously recognisable. “Thus we sometimes fail to appreciate the effects that particular notions of femininity and masculinity have on the conception, design, advertising, purchase, giving and uses of objects, as well as on their critical and popular reception”. (Kirkham and Attfield. 1996. The Gendered Object, p. 1).

With the help of the product language, gendered toys and clothes appear from an early age. The products are sorted as being ‘for girls’ and ‘for boys’ in the store as identified by Ehrnberger, Rasanen, Ilstedt, in 2012 in the article ‘Visualising Gender Norms in Design. International Journal of Design’. Product language is mostly used in the branding aspect of design, how a product or object is portrayed, it’s not only what the written language says. Product language relates to how the object is being showcased and portrayed through colours, shapes and patterns. A modern example of this is the branding for a Yorkie chocolate bar. Their slogan was publicly known as being gender bias towards mens. ‘Not for girls’, there is no hiding the fact that the language the company are using is being targeted at men because they are promoting a brand that is strong, chunky and ‘hard’ in an unsophisticated way which all have connotations of being ‘male’ and actually arguably as ‘alpha male’ to make it more attractive to men. Their chosen colours also suggest this with using navy blue, dark purple, yellow and red which are bold and is typically a ‘male’ generated pallette. Another example would be the advertisement of tissues. Tissues no matter where you buy them do the exact same thing irrespective of gender so why are some tissues being targeted at woman and some at men, could it be that this gender targeting be avoiding neutrality helps sell more tissues.

Product Language is very gender specific when it comes to clothing brands and toys for kids. “Girls should wear princess dresses, play with dolls and toy housework products, while boys should wear dark clothes with prints of skulls or dinosaurs, and should play with war toys and construction kits”. (Ehrnberger, Rasanen, Ilstedt, 2012. Visualising Gender Norms in Design. International Journal of Design). When branding things for children having the separation between girl and boy is extremely common, using language like ‘action’ which has male connotations or ‘princess’ which has female connotations appeals to the consumer because they are relatable words to them and to their children as well. In modern society most people find it difficult not to identify blue for boys and pink for girls especially from newborns. If you were to walk into any department store/ toy store or any store that caters to children you will see the separation between genders no matter if it is clothes to toys or anything in between. The separation is so obvious through the colour branding used. Girl side, pink, yellow, lilac are used, soft bright happy colours being used on toy babies and dolls to hats and scarfs. Conversely on the boys side blue, green and black, bold, dark, more primary colours being used for trucks to a pair of trousers.

Some companies have begun to notice how detrimental the separation is developing into and how it could possibly create a hold in advancing and opening up our society, example being John Lewis Partnership.

John Lewis is a massive department store, that has been in business for nearly fifty years. In 2017 they decided to scrap the girls section and boys sections for the clothing range in their store, and name it ‘Childs wear’ a gender neutral name. Allowing them to design clothing that allows children to wear whatever they want without being told ‘no, that is a boys top you can’t wear that because you’re a girl’ or vice versa. Caroline Bettis, head of children’s wear at John Lewis, said: “We do not want to reinforce gender stereotypes within our John Lewis collections and instead want to provide greater choice and variety to our customers, so that the parent or child can choose what they would like to wear”. Possibly the only issue with this stance is the price point, John Lewis is typically known for being a higher priced, high street store which means it isn’t accessible for everyone to shop there. Campaign group Let Clothes be Clothes commented on this “Higher-end, independent clothing retailers have been more pro-active at creating gender-neutral collections, but we hope unisex ranges will filter down to all price points. We still see many of the supermarkets, for example, using stereotypical slogans on their clothing,” (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/09/02/john-lewis-removes-boys-girls-labels-childrens-clothes/).

Having a very well-known brand make this move should only enforce, encourage and inspire others to join in with the development. This change is a bold way of using Product language, even though it’s not for just one specific thing its advertising and marketing as well, meaning it is a whole rebrand of company, by not using gender specific words it takes away the automatic stereotypes you get when buying anything for children.

Equality is the state of being equal, be it in status, rights or opportunities, so when it comes to design why does this attribute get forgotten about. This isn’t a feminist rant, gender equality is affected in both male and females in the design world, when designing, everything should be equal and fair to both sexes. “Gender equality and equity in design is often highlighted, but it often results in producing designs that highlight the differences between men and women, although both the needs and characteristics vary more between individuals than between genders” (Hyde 2005). Hyde’s point is still contemporary and relevant, having gender equality in design is very important, but gender isn’t the sole issue, things can be designed for a specific gender but even if you are female you might not relate to the gender specific clothes for your sex. Design is to make and create something for someone or thing, not just gender. “Post- feminism argues that in an increasingly fragmented and diverse world, defining one’s identity as male or female is irrelevant, and can be detrimental”. (https://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/events/experiencingcriticaltheory/Satchell-WomenArePeople.pdf).

Recently many more up and coming independent brands and companies have been launching Unisex clothing brands for a multiple of years, most have been doing it and pushing the movement well before the topic of gender equality in design got into mainstream media as an issue. One company pushing out gender norms is Toogood London and another is GFW, Gender Free World. Gender Free World is a company that was created by a group of people who all think on the same wavelength when it comes to equality in gender. In fact their ‘Mission Statement’ sets this out as a core ethos (which incidently is obviously an influence on John Lewis when you look at the transferability of the phraseology) “GFW Clothing was founded in 2015 (part of Gender Free World Ltd) by a consortium of like-minded individuals who passionately believe that what we have in our pants has disproportionately restricted the access to choice of clothing on the high street and online.” https://www.genderfreeworld.com/pages/about-g. Lisa Honan is the cofounder of GFW, her main reason for starting a company like this was through ‘sheer frustration’ due to the lack of options for her taste and style on the market, with this she has shopped in male and female departments but never found anything fitted either especially if she was going for a male piece of clothing. During an interview with Honan by Saner she commented that the men’s shirts didn’t fit her because she had a woman’s body and iIt got her thinking, ‘ why is there a man’s aisle and a woman’s aisle, and why do you have to make that choice?’. She saw that you’re not able to make many purchases without being forced to define your own gender and this is reinforcing the separation between genders in fashion, if she feels this way many others must too, and they do or there wouldn’t be such a potential big business opportunity for it.

In my design practice of Communication Design, gender plays a huge role. Be it from colour choices, to certain typefaces being used, most work Communication designers need to create and produce, will either be to represent a brand or to actually brand a company, so when choosing options, potential gender stereotyping should come into consideration. The points mentioned above, showing how using the gender system, product language, gender norms and having equality and equity in design, reinforces graphic designers in a cautionary manner not to not fall down any pit holes when designing.

Designing doesn’t mean simply male or female, designing means to create and produce ‘something’ for ‘someone’ no matter their identifiable or chosen gender. If they are a company producing products targeted specifically at men and after a robust design concept examination I felt that using blue would enhance their brand and awareness to their target demographic then blue would be used, in just the same way using pink for them if it works for the customer, then put simply it works.

To conclude, exploring the key points of gender in the design world, only showcases the many issues there are.

2017-12-11-1513023430

The stigma surrounding mental illness: essay help free

Mental illness is defined as a health problem resulting from complex interactions between an individual’s mind, body and environment which can significantly affect their behavior, actions and thought processes. A variety of mental illnesses exist, impacting the body and mind differently, whilst affecting the individual’s mental, social and physical wellbeing to varying degrees. A range of psychological treatments have been developed in order to assist people living with mental illness, however social stigma can prevent individuals from successfully engaging with these treatments. Social or public stigma is characterized by discriminatory behavior and prejudicial attitudes towards people with mental health problems resulting from the psychiatric label they possess (Link, Cullen, Struening & Shrout, 1989). The stigma surrounding labelling oneself with a mental illness causes individuals to hesitate in regards to seeking help as well as resistance to treatment options. Stigma and its effects can vary depending on demographic factors including age, gender, occupation and community. There are many strategies in place to attempt to reduce stigma levels which focus on educating people and changing their attitudes towards mental health.

Prejudice, discrimination and ignorance surrounding mental illnesses results in a public stigma which has a variety of negative social effects towards individuals with mental health problems (Thornicroft et al 2007). An understanding of how stigma can be gained through the Attribution Model which identifies four steps involved in the formation of a stigma (Link & Phelan, 2001). The first step in the formation of a stigma is ‘labelling’, whereby key traits are recognized as portraying a significant difference. The next step is ‘stereotyping’ whereby these differences are defined as undesirable characteristics followed by ‘Separating’ which makes a distinction between ‘normal’ people versus the stereotyped group. Stereotypes surrounding mental illnesses have been developing for centuries, with early beliefs being that individuals suffering from mental health problems were possessed by demons or spirits. ‘Explanations’ such as these, promoted discrimination within the community, preventing individuals from admitting any mental health problems due to a fear of retribution (Swanson, Holzer, Ganju & Jono, 1990). The final step in the Attribution model described by Link and Phelan is ‘Status Loss’ which leads to the devaluing and rejection of individuals in the labelled group (Link & Phelan, 2001). An individual’s desire to avoid the implications of public stigma causes them to avoid or drop out of treatment for fear of being associated with negative stereotypes (Corrigan, Druss and Perlick, 2001). One of the main stereotypes surrounding mental illness, especially depression, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is that people with these illnesses are dangerous and unpredictable (Wang & Lai, 2008). Wang and Lai carried out a survey whereby 45% of participants considered people with depression as dangerous, however these results maybe subject to some reporting bias, yet a general inference can be made. Another survey found that a large proportion of people also confirmed that they were less likely to employ someone with mental health problems (Reavley & Jorm, 2011). This study highlights how public stigma can affect employment opportunities, consequently creating a greater barrier for anyone who would benefit from seeking treatment.

Certain types of stigma are unique and consequently more severe to certain groups within society. Approximately 22 soldiers or veterans commit suicide every day in the United States due to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and depression. A study was performed surveying soldiers and found that out of all the people who met the criteria for a mental illness, only 38% would be interested in receiving help and only 23-30% actually ended up receiving professional help (Hoge et al, 2004). There is an enormous stigma surrounding mental illness within the military, due to their high values in mental fortitude, strength, endurance and self sufficiency (Staff, 2004). A soldier who admits to having mental health problems is deemed as not adhering to these values thus appearing weak or dependent, therefore placing a greater pressure on the individual to deny or hide any mental illness. Another contributor to soldiers avoiding treatment is a fear of social exclusion as it is common in military culture for some personnel to socially distance themselves from soldiers with mental health problems (Britt et al, 2007). This exclusion is due to the stereotype that mental health problems make a soldier unreliable, dangerous and unstable. Surprisingly, individuals with mental health problems who seek treatment are deemed more emotionally unstable than those who do not, thus the stigma surrounding therapy creates a barrier for individuals to start or continue their treatment (Porath, 2002). Furthermore, soldiers are also faced with the fear that seeking treatment will negatively affect their career, both in and out of the military, with 46 percent of employers considering PTSD as an obstacle when hiring veterans in a 2010 survey (Ousley, 2012). The stigma associated with mental illness in the military is extremely detrimental to the soldiers’ wellbeing as it prevents them from seeking or successfully engaging in the treatment for mental illnesses which have tragic consequences.

Adolescents and young adults with mental illness have the lowest rate for seeking professional help and treatment, despite the high occurrence of mental health problems. (Rickwood, Deane & Wilson, 2007). Adolescents’ lack of willingness to seek help and treatment for mental health problems is catalyzed by the anticipation of negative responses from family, friends and school staff. (Chandra & Minkovitz, 2006). A Queensland study of people aged 15–24 years showed that 39% of the males and 22% of the females reported that they would not request help for emotional or distressing problems (Donald, Dower, Lucke & Raphael, 2000). A 2010 survey of adolescents with mental health problems found that 46% described experiencing feelings of distrust, avoidance, pity and prejudice from family members. This portrays how negative family responses and attitudes impact an individual by creating a significant barrier to seeking help (Moses, 2010). Similarly, a study on adolescent depression also noted that teenagers who felt more stigmatized, particularly within the family, were less likely to seek treatment (Meredith et al., 2009). Furthermore, adolescents with unsupportive parents would struggle to pay expenses for treatment and transportation, further preventing successful treatment of the illness. Unfortunately, the generation of stigma is not unique to just family members, adolescents also report having felt discriminated by peers and even school staff (Moses, 2010). The main step to seeking help and engaging in treatment for mental illness is to acknowledge that there is a problem and to be comfortable enough to disclose this information to another person (Rickwood et al, 2005). However, in another 2010 study of adolescents, many expressed fear of being bullied by peers, subsequently leading to secrecy and shame (Kranke et al., 2010). The role of public stigma in generating this shame and denial is significant and thus can be defined as a factor in preventing adolescents from seeking support for their mental health problems. A 2001 study testing the relationship between adherence to medication (in this case, antidepressants) and perceived stigma levels determined that individuals who accepted the antidepressants were found to have lower perceived stigma levels (Sirey et al, 2001). This empirical data clearly illustrates the correlation between public stigma levels and an individual’s engagement in treatment, thus inferring that stigma remains a barrier for treatment. Public stigma can therefore be defined as a causative factor in the majority of adolescents not seeking support or treatment for their mental health problems.

One of the main strategies performed by society to assist in the reduction of the public stigma surrounding mental illness is education. Educating people about the common misconceptions of mental health challenges the inaccurate stereotypes and substitutes them with factual information (Corrigan et al., 2012). There is sufficient proof that people who have more information about mental health problems are less stigmatizing than people who are misinformed about them (Corrigan & Penn, 1999). The low cost and far-reaching nature are beneficial aspects of the educational approach. Educational approaches are often carried out on adolescents as it is believed that by educating children about mental illness, stigma can be prevented from emerging in adulthood (Corrigan et al., 2012). A 2001 study testing the effect of education on 152 students found that levels of stigmatization were lessened following the implementation of the strategy (Corrigan et al, 2001). However, it was also determined that by combining a contact based approach with the educational strategy would yield the highest levels of stigma reduction. Studies have also shown that a short educational program can be effective at reducing individuals’ negative attitudes toward mental illness and increases their knowledge on the issue (Corrigan & O’Shaughnessy, 2007). The effect of an educational strategy varies depending on what type of information is being communicated towards people. The information provided should deliver realistic descriptions of mental health problems and their causes as well as emphasizing the benefits of treatment. By delivering accurate information to people, the negative stereotypes surrounding mental illness can be decreased and the publics views on the controllability and treatment of psychological problems can be altered (Britt et al, 2007). Educational approaches mainly focus on improving knowledge and attitudes surrounding mental illness and do not focus directly on changing behavior. Therefore, a link cannot be clearly made as to whether educating people actually reduces discrimination. Although this remains a major limitation in today’s society, educating people at an early age can ensure that in the future discrimination and stigmatization will decrease. Reducing the negative attitudes surrounding mental illness can encourage those suffering from mental health problems to seek help. Providing individuals with correct information regarding the mechanisms and benefits of treatment, such as psychotherapy or drugs like antidepressants, increases their own mental health literacy and therefore increases the likelihood of seeking treatment (Jorm and Korten, 1997). People who are educated about mental health problems are less likely to believe or generate stigma surrounding mental illnesses and therefore contribute to reducing stigma which in turn will increase levels of successful treatment for themselves or other individuals.

The public stigma surrounding mental health problems is defined by negative attitudes, prejudice and discrimination. This negativity in society is very debilitating towards any individual suffering from mental illness and creates a barrier for seeking out help and engaging in successful treatment. The negative consequences of public stigma for individuals is to be excluded, not considered for a job or for friends and family to become socially distant. By educating people about the causes, symptoms and treatment of mental illnesses, stigma can be reduced as misinformation is usually a key factor in the promotion of harmful stereotypes. An individual will more likely engage in successful treatment if they are accepting of their illness and if stigma is reduced.

2016-10-9-1475973764

Frederick Douglass, Malcolm X and Ida Wells

Civil Rights are “the rights to full legal, social, and economic equality” . Following the American Civil War, slavery was officially abolished December 6th, 1865 in the United States of America (US). The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments established a legal framework for political equality for African Americans; many thought that this would lead to equality between white and blacks however this was not the case. Despite slavery’s abolition Jim Crow racial segregation in the South meant that blacks would be denied political rights and freedoms and they would continue to live in poverty and inequality. It took nearly 100 years of campaigning until the Civil Rights and Voting Rights Acts were passed, making it illegal to discriminate based on race, colour, religion, sex or national origin and ensuring minority voting rights. Martin Luther King was prominent in the Modern Civil Rights Movement (CRM), playing a key role in legislative and social change. His assassination in 1968 marked the end of a distinguished life helping millions of African Americans across the US. The contribution played by black activists including political Frederick Douglass, militant Malcolm X and journalist Ida Wells throughout the period will be examined from a political, social and economic, perspective. When comparing their significance to that of King, consideration must be given to the time in which activists were operating and to prevailing social attitudes. Although King was undeniably significant it was the combined efforts of all the black activists and the mass protest movement in the mid-20th century that eventually led to African Americans gaining civil rights.

The significance of King’s role is explored through Clayborne Carson’s, ‘The Papers of Martin Luther King’ (Appendix 1). Carson, a historian at Stanford University, suggests that “the black movement would probably have achieved its major legislative victory without King’s leadership” Carson does not believe King was pivotal in gaining civil rights, but that he quickened the process. The mass public support shown in the March on Washington, 1963, suggests that Carson is correct in arguing that the movement would have continued its course without King. However, it was King’s oratory skill in his ‘I have a Dream’ speech that was most significant. Carson suggests key events would still have taken place without King. “King did not initiate…” the Montgomery bus boycott rather Rosa Parks did. His analysis of the idea of a ‘mass movement’ furthers his argument of King’s less significant role. Carson suggests that ‘mass activism’ in the South resulted from socio-political forces rather than ‘the actions of a single leader’. King’s leadership was not vital to the movement gaining support and legislative change would have occurred regardless. The source’s tone is critical of his significance but passive in the dismissal of King’s role. Phrases such as “without King” are used to diminish him in a less aggressive manner. Carson, a civil rights historian with a PhD from UCLA has written books and documentaries including ‘Eyes on the Prize’ and so is qualified to judge. The source was published in 1992 in conjunction with King’s wife, Coretta, who took over as head of the CRM after King’s assassination and extended its role to include women’s rights and LGBT rights. Although this may make him subjective, he attacks King’s role suggesting he presents a balanced view. Carson produced his work two decades after the movement and three decades before the ‘Black Lives Matter’ marches of the 21st century, and so was less politically motivated in his interpretation. The purpose of his work was to edit and publish the papers of King on behalf of The King Institute to show King’s life and the CRM he inspired. Overall, Carson argues that King had significance in quickening the process of gaining civil rights however he believes that without his leadership, the campaigning would have taken a similar course and that US mass activism was the main driving force.

In his book ‘Martin Luther King Jr.’ (Appendix 2) historian Peter Ling argues, like Carson, that King was not important to the movement but differs suggesting it was other activists who brought success and not mass activism. Ling believes that ‘without the activities of the movement’ King might just have been another ‘Baptist preacher who spoke well.’ It can be inferred that Ling believes King was not vital to the CRM and was just a good orator.

Ling’s reference to activist Ella Baker 1903-86 who ‘complained that “the movement made Martin, not Martin the Movement”’ suggests the King’s political career was of more importance to him than the goal of civil rights. Baker told King she disapproved of his being hero worshipped and others argued that he was ‘taking too many bows and enjoying them’. Baker promoted activists working together, as seen through her influence in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Clearly many believed King was not the only individual to have an impact on the movement, and so Ling’s argument that multiple activists were significant is further highlighted.

Finally, Ling argues that ‘others besides King set the pace for the Civil Rights Movement’ which explicitly shows how other activists working for the movement were the true heroes, they orchestrated events and activities yet it was King that benefitted. However King himself suggested that he was willing to use successful tactics suggested by others. The work of activists such as Philip Randolph who organise the 1963 March highlights how individuals played a greater role in moving the CRM forward than King. The tone attacks King using words such as ‘criticisms’ to diminish King’s role. Ling says that he has ‘sympathy’ for Miss Baker showing his positive tone towards other activists.

Ling was born in the UK studying History at Royal Holloway College and a MA in American Studies, Institute United States Studies, London. This gives Ling an international perspective, making him less subjective as he has no political motivations nevertheless this makes his interpretation limited in that he has no primary knowledge of civil rights in the US. The book was published in 2002 consequently this gives Ling hindsight making his judgment more accurate and less subjective as he is no longer affected by King’s influence. Similarly, his knowledge of American history and the CRM makes his work accurate. Unlike Carson who was a black activist and attended the 1963 March, White Ling was born in 1956 and was not involved with the CRM and so will have a less accurate interpretation. A further limitation is his selectivity; he gives no attention to the successes of King, including his inspiring ‘I had a dream speech’. As a result, it is not a balanced interpretation and thus its value is limited.

Overall, although weaker than Carson’s interpretation, Ling does give an argument that is of value when understanding King’s significance. Both revisionists, the two historians agree that King was not the most significant reason to gaining civil rights however differ on who or what they see as more important. Carson argues that mass activism was vital in success whereas Ling believes it to be other activists.

A popular pastor in the Baptist Church, King was the leader of the CRM when it gained black rights successes in the 1960s. He demonstrated the power of the church and NAACP in the pursuit of civil rights His oratory skills ensured many blacks and whites attended the protests and increased support. He understood the power of the media in getting his message to a wide audience and in putting pressure on the US government. The Birmingham campaign 1963, where peaceful protestors including children were violently attacked by police and his inspirational ‘Letter from Birmingham Jail’ that King wrote were heavily publicised. US society gradually sympathised with the black ‘victims’. Winning the Nobel Peace Prize gained the movement further international recognition. King’s leadership was instrumental in the political achievements of the CRM, inspiring the grassroots activism needed to apply enough pressure on government, which behind the scenes activists like Baker had worked tirelessly to build. Nevertheless there had been a generation of activists who played their parts often through the church publicising the movement, achieving early legislative victories and helping to kick-start the modern CRM and the idea of nonviolent civil disobedience. King’s significance is that he was the figurehead of the movement at the time when civil rights were eventually given.

Pioneering activist Frederick Douglass 1818-95 had political significance to the CRM holding federal positions which enabled him to influence government and Presidents throughout the Reconstruction era. He is often called the ‘father of the civil rights movement’. Douglass held several prominent roles including US Marshall for DC. He was the first black to hold high office in government and in 1872 the first African American nominated for US Vice President particularly significant as blacks’ involvement in politics was severely restricted at the time. Like King he was a brilliant orator, lecturing on civil rights in the US and abroad. When compared to King Douglass was significant in the CRM. He promoted equality for blacks and whites, although unlike King he did not ultimately achieve black civil rights this was because he was confined by the era that he lived.

The contribution of W.E.B Du Bois 1868-1963 was significant as he laid the foundations for future black activists, including King, to build. In 1909 he established The National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP) the most important 20th century black organisation other than the church. King became a member of NAACP and used it to organise the bus boycott and other mass protests. As a result, the importance of Du Bois to the CRM is that King’s success depended on NAACP therefore Du Bois is of similar significance, if not more so than King in pursuing black civil rights.

Ray Stanard Baker’s article in 1908 for The American Magazine speaks of Du Bois’ enthusiastic attitude to the CRM, his intelligence and knowledge of African Americans. (Appendix 3) The quotation of Du Bois at the end of the extract reads “Do not submit! agitate, object, fight,” showing he was not passive but preaching messages of rebellion. The article describes him with vocabulary such as “critical” and “impatient” showing his radical passionate side. Baker also states Du Bois’ contrasting opinions compared to Booker T Washington one of his contemporary black activists. This is evident when it says “his answer was the exact reverse of Washington’s” demonstrating how he was different to the passive, ‘education for all’ Washington. Du Bois valued education, but believed in educating an elite few, the ‘talented tenth’ who could strive for rapid political change. The tone is positive towards Du Bois praising him for being a ferocious character dedicated to achieving civil rights. Through phrases such as “his struggles and his aspirations” this dedicated and praising tone is developed. The American Magazine founded in 1906 was an investigative US paper. Many contributors to the magazine were ‘muckraking’ journalists meaning that they were reformists who attacked societal views and traditions. As a result, the magazine would be subjective, favouring radical Du Bois’, challenging the Jim Crow South and appealing to its radical target audience. The purpose of the source was to confront the racism in the US and so would be political motivated making it subjective regarding civil rights. However some evidence suggests that Du Bois was not radical, his Paris Exposition in 1900 showed the world real African Americans. Socially he made a major contribution to black pride contributing to the black unity felt during the Harlem Renaissance. The Renaissance popularised black culture and so was a turning point in the movement, in the years after the CRM grew in popularity and became a national issue. Finally, the source refers to his intelligence and educational prowess; he carried out economic studies for the US Government and was educated at Harvard and abroad. As a result, it can be inferred that Du Bois rose to prominence and made a significant contribution to the movement due to his intelligence and his understanding of US society and African American culture. One of the founders of the NAACP his significance in attracting grassroots activists and uniting black people was vital. The NAACP leader Roy Wilkins at the March on Washington highlighted his contribution following his death the day before, and said, “his was the voice that was calling you to gather here today in this cause.” Wilkins is suggesting that Du Bois had started the process which had led to the March.

Rosa Parks 1913-2005 and Charles Houston 1895-1950 were NAACP activists who benefitted from the work of Du Bois and achieved significant political success in the CRM. Parks the “Mother of the Freedom Movement.” was the spark that ignited the modern CRM by protesting on a segregated bus. Following her refusal to move to the black area she was arrested. Parks, King and NAACP members staged a yearlong bus boycott in Montgomery. Had it not been for Parks, King may never have had the opportunity to rise to prominence or had mass support for the movement and so her activism was key in shaping King. Lawyer Houston helped defend black Americans, breaking down the deep rooted discriminative and segregation laws in the South. It was his ground-breaking use of sociological theories that formed the basis of the Brown v. the Board of Education 1954 that ended segregation in schools. Although compared to King, Houston is less prominent; his work was significant in reducing black discrimination gaining him the nickname ‘The man who killed Jim Crow ‘. Nonetheless had Du Bois’ NAACP not existed, Parks and Houston would never have had an organisation to support them in their fight, likewise King would never have gained the mass support for civil rights.

Trade unionist Philip Randolph 1890-1979 brought about important political changes. His pioneering use of nonviolent confrontation had a significant impact on the CRM and was widely used throughout 1950’s and 60’s. Randolph had become a prominent civil rights spokesman after organising the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters in 1925, the first black majority union. Mass unemployment after the US Depression led to civil rights becoming a political issue and US trade unions supported equal rights and black membership grew. Randolph was striving for political change that would bring equality. Aware of his influence in 1941 he threatened a protest march which pressured President Roosevelt into issuing Executive Order 8802 an important early employment civil rights victory. There was a shift in the direction of the movement focussing on the military because after the Second World War black soldiers felt disenfranchised and became the ‘foot soldiers of the CRM’ fighting for equality in these mass protests. Randolph led peaceful protests which resulted in President Truman issuing Executive Order 9981 desegregating of the Armed Forces showing his key political significance. Significantly this legislation was a catalyst leading to further desegregation laws. His contribution to the CRM, support of King’s leadership and masterminding of the 1963 March made his significance equal to King’s.

King realised that US society needed to change and inspired by Ghandi he too used non-violent mass protest to bring about change, including the Greensboro Sit-ins to de-segregate lunch counters. Similarly activist Booker T Washington 1856-1915 significantly improved the lives of thousands of southern blacks who were poorly educated and trapped in poverty following Reconstruction through his pioneering work in black education. He founded the Tuskegee Institute. In his book ‘Up from Slavery: An Autobiography’ (Appendix 4) he suggests that gaining civil rights would be difficult and slow, but all blacks should work on improving themselves through education and hard work to peacefully push the movement forward. He says that “the according of the full exercise of political rights” will not be an “overnight gourdvine affair” and that a black should “deport himself modestly in regard of political claim”. Inferring that Washington wanted peaceful protest and acknowledged the time it would take to gain equality, making his philosophy like King’s. Washington’s belief in using education to gain the skills to improve lives and fight for equality is evident through the Tuskegee Institute which educated 2000 blacks a year.

The tone of the source is peaceful, calling for justice in the South. Washington uses words such as “modestly” in an attempt for peace and “exact justice” to show how he believes in equal political rights for all. The reliability of the source is mixed. Washington is subjective as he wants his autobiography to be read, understood and supported. The intended audience would have been anyone in the US, particularly blacks whom Washington wanted to inspire to protest and white politicians who would advance civil rights. The source is accurate, it was written in 1901, during the Jim Crow South. Washington would have been politically motivated in his autobiography; demanding legislative change to give blacks civil rights. There would have also been an educational factor that contributed to his writing, his Tuskegee Institute and educational philosophy, having a deep impact on his autobiography.

The source shows how and why the unequal South should no longer be segregated. Undoubtedly significant, as his reputation grew he became an important public speaker and is considered to have been a leading spokesman for black people and issues like King. An excellent role model a former slave who influenced statesmen he was the first black to dine with the President (Roosevelt) at the White House showing blacks they could achieve anything. Activist Du Bois described him as “the one recognised spokesman of his 10 million fellows … the most striking thing in the history of the American Negro”. Although not as decisive in gaining civil rights as King, Washington was important in preparing blacks for urban and working life but also empowering the next generation of activists.

Inspired by Washington the charismatic Jamaican radical activist Marcus Garvey 1880-1940 arrived in the US in 1916. Garvey had a social significance to the movement striving to better the lives of US blacks. He rose to prominence during the ‘Great Migration’ when poor southern blacks were moving to the industrial North, making Southern race problems into national ones. He founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) which had over 2,000,000 members in 1920. He appealed to discontented First World War black soldiers who had returned home to violent racial discrimination. The importance of the First World War was paramount in enabling Garvey to gain the vast support he did in the 1920s. Garvey published a newspaper, the Negro World which spread his ideas about education and Pan-Africanism, the political union of all people of African descent. Garvey like King gained a greater audience for the CRM, in 1920 he led an international convention in Liberty Hall, and 50,000 parade through Harlem. Garvey inspired later activists such as King.

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Reflective essay on use of learning theories in the classroom: college application essay help

Over recent years teaching theories have been more common in the class room, all in the hope of supporting students and been able to further their knowledge by understanding their abilities and what they need to develop. As a teacher it is important to embed teaching and learning theories in the class room, therefore as teachers we can teach the students to their individual needs.

Throughout my research I will be looking in to the key differences of two different theories by comparing two theories used in class rooms today. I will also be critically analysing what the role of the teacher is in the life-long learning sector, by analysing the professional and legislative frameworks, as well as looking for a deeper understanding into classroom management, and why it is used and how to manage different class room environments, such as managing inclusion and how it is supported throughout different methods.

Overall, I will be linking this to my own teaching, at A Mind Apart (A Mind Apart, 2019). Furthermore, I will have the ability to understand about interaction within the classroom and why communication between fellow teachers and students is important.

The role of the teacher is known for been the forefront of knowledge. Therefore, this suggest that the role of the teacher is to pass their knowledge on to their students, known as a ‘chalk and talk’ approach, although this approach is outdated and there are various ways we now teach in the classroom. Walker believes that, ‘the modern teacher is facilitator: a person who assists students to learn for themselves’ (Reece & Walker 2002) I for one cannot say I fully believe in this approach, as all students have individual learning needs, and some may need more help than others. As the teacher, it is important to know the full capability of your learners, therefore lessons can be structure to the learner’s need. It is important for the lessons to involve active learning and discussions, these will help keep the students engaged and motivated during class. Furthermore, it is important to not only know what you want the students the be learning, but it is just as important that you know as the teacher, what you are teaching; it is important to be prepared and be fully involved in your own lesson, before you go in to any class, as a teacher I make my students my priority, therefore, I leave any personal issues outside the door so I am able to give my students the best learning environment they could possibly have; not only is it important to do this but keep updated on your subject specialism, I always double check my knowledge of my subject regularly, I find following this structure my lesson will normally run at a smooth pace.

Taking in to consideration the students I teach are vulnerable there may be minor interruptions. It is not only important that you as the teacher leave your issues at the door, but to make sure the room is free from distractions, most young adults have a lot of situations which are they find hard to deal with, which means you as the teacher are not only there to educate but to make the environment safe and relaxing for your students to enjoy learning. As teachers we not only have the responsibility of making sure the teaching takes place, but we also have the responsibilities of exams, qualifications and Ofsted; and as a teacher in the life-long learning sector it is also vital that you evaluate not only your learner’s knowledge, but you evaluate yourself as a teacher, therefore, you are able to improve your teaching strategies and keep up to date.

When assessing yourself and your students it is important not to wait until the end of a term to do this and evaluate throughout the whole term. Small assessments are a good way of doing this, it doesn’t always have to be a paper examination, you can equally you can do a quiz, ask questions, use various fun games, or even use online games such as Kahoot to help your students regain their knowledge. This will not only help you as a teacher understand your students’ abilities, but it will also help your students know what they need to work on for next term.

Alongside the already listed roles and responsibilities of being a teacher in the life-long learning sector, Ann gravels explains that,

‘Your main role as a teacher should be to teach your students in a way that actively involves and engages your students during every session’ (Gravells, 2011, p.9.)

Gravels passion is solely based on helping new teachers, gain the knowledge and information they need to become successful in the lifelong learning sector. Gravels’ has achieved this by writing various text books on the lifelong learning sector. Gravels’ states in her book ‘Preparing to teach in the lifelong learning sector’, (Gravells, 2011) the importance of the 13 legislation acts. Although I find each of them equally important as each other, I am going to mention the ones I am most likely to use during my teacher training with A Mind Apart.

Safeguarding vulnerable groups act (2006) – Working with young vulnerable adults, I find this act is the one I am most likely to use during my time with A Mind Apart. In summary, the Act explains the following: ‘The ISA will make all decisions about who should be barred from working with children and vulnerable adults.’ (Southglos.gov.uk, 2019)
The Equality act (2010) – As I will be working with different sex, race and disabilities in any teaching job which I encounter, I believe The Equality act (2010) is fundamental to mention. The Equality act 2010 covers discrimination under one legalisation.
Code of professional practice (2008) – This act covers all aspects of the activities we as teachers in the lifelong learning sector may encounter. Based around seven behaviours which are: Professional practice, professional integrity, respect, reasonable care, criminal offence disclosure, and reasonability during institute investigations.

(Gravells, 2011)

Although, all acts are equally important, those are the few acts I would find myself using regularly. I have listed the others below:

Children act (2004)
Copyright designs and patents act (1988)
Data protection act (1998)
Education and skills act (2008)
Freedom of information act (2000)
Health and safety at work act (1974)
Human rights act (1998)
Protection of children act (POCA) (1999)
The Further education teachers’ qualification regulations (2007)

(Gravells, 2011)

Teaching theories are much more common in classrooms today, however there are three main teaching theories which us as teachers are known for using in the classroom daily. Experiments show that we find the following theories work the best: behaviourism, cognitive constructivist, and social constructivist, taking these theories into consideration I will look at comparing skinners behaviourist theory and taking a look at Maslow (1987) ‘Hierarchy Of Needs’ which was introduced in 1954, and how I could use these theories in my teaching as a drama teacher in the life-long learning sector.

Firstly, looking in to behaviourism is mostly described as the teacher questioning and the student responds the way you want them to. Behaviourism is a theory, which in a way can take control of how the student acts/behaves, if used to its full advantage. Keith Pritchard (Language and Learning, 2019) describes behaviourism as ‘A theory of learning focusing on observable behaviours and discounting any mental activity. Learning is defined simply as the acquisition of a new behaviour.’ (E-Learning and the Science of Instruction, 2019).

An example of how behaviourism works, is best demonstrated through the work of Ivan Pavlov (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2019) Pavlov was a physiologist during the start of the twentieth century and used a method called ‘conditioning’, (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2019) which is a lot like the behaviourism theory. During Pavlov’s experiment, he ‘conditioned’ the dogs to make them salivate when they heard a bell ring, as soon as the dogs hear the bell, they associate it with getting fed. As a result of this the dogs were behaving exactly how Pavlov wanted them to behave, therefore they had successfully been ‘conditioned’. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2019)

During Pavlov’s conditioning experiment there are four main stages in the process of classical conditioning, these include,

Acquisition, which is the initial learning;
Extinction, meaning the dogs in Pavlov’s experiment may not respond, if no food is presented to them;
Generalisation, after learning a response, the dog may now respond to other stimuli, with no further training. For example: if a child falls off a bike, a injures their self, they may be frightened to get back on to the bike again. And lastly,
Discrimination, which is the opposite of generalisation, for example the dog will not respond in the same way to another stimulus as they did the first one.

Pritchard states ‘It Involves reinforcing a behaviour by rewarding it’ which is what Pavlov’s dog experiment does. Although rewarding behaviour can be good, it can also be negative, such as bad behaviour can be discouraged by punishment. The key aspects of conditioning are as follows: Reinforcement, Positive reinforcement, Negative reinforcement, and shaping. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2019)

Behaviourism is one of the learning theories I use in my teaching today, working at A Mind Apart, (A Mind Apart, 2019) I work with challenging young people. The A Mind Apart organisation, a performing arts foundation especially targeted at vulnerable and challenging young people, to help better their lives; hence, on the off chance that I use the behaviourism theory it will admirably inspire the students to do better. Using behaviourism with respect to the standard of improvement and reaction, behaviourism is driven by the teacher and is responsible for how the student will carry on and how it is finished. This theory came around in the early twentieth century and concentrated how individuals behave; with respect to the work I do at A Mind Apart, as a trainee performing arts teacher, I can identify with behaviourism limitlessly, every Thursday, when my 2 hour class is finished, I at that point take 5 minutes out of my lesson to award a ‘Star of the week’ It is an incredible method to urge students to carry on the way they have been, if behaving and influence them to endeavour towards something ion the future. Furthermore, I have discovered that this theory can function admirably in any expert subject and not just performing arts. The behaviourism theory is straightforward as it depends just on detectable conduct and portrays a few widespread laws of conduct. It’s positive and negative support strategies can be extremely effective. The students who we teach in general at A Mind Apart, are destined to come to us with emotional well-being issues, which is the reason most of the time these students find that it is hard to focus, or even learn in a school environment; we are there to give a comprehensive learning environment and utilize the time we have with them, so they can move forward at their own pace and take a leap at their scholarly aptitudes and socialising in the future when they leave us, to move on to college or even jobs, our work with them will also help them meet new individuals, and gain new useful knowledge by using behaviourism teaching theory. Despite the fact some of them may struggle with obstacles during their lives; although it is not always easy to manipulate someone in to thinking or behaving the way you do or want them to, with time, and persistence I have found that this theory can work. It is known that…

‘Positive reinforcement or rewards can include verbal feedback such as ‘That’s great, you’ve produced that document without any errors’ or ‘You’re certainly getting on well with that task’ through to more tangible rewards such as a certificate at the end’… (Information List of topics Assessment Becoming a teacher Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Embedding maths et al., 2019)

Gagne (Mindtools.com, 2019) was an American educational psychologist best known for his nine levels of learning; Regarding Gagne’s nine levels of learning, (Mindtools.com, 2019) I have done something in depth research, in just a couple of his nine levels of learning therefore I will be able to understand the levels and how his theory link to behaviourism.

Create an attention-grabbing introduction.
Inform learner about the objectives.
Stimulate recall of prior knowledge.
Create goal-centred eLearning content.
Provide online guidance.
Practice makes perfect.
Offer timely feedback.
Assess early and often.
Enhance transfer of knowledge by tying it into real world situations and applications.

(Mindtools.com, 2019)

Informing the learner of the objectives, is the one level I can relate to the most during my lessons, I find it important in many ways why you as the teacher, should let your students know what they are going to be learning during that specific lesson. This will help them have a better understanding throughout the lesson, as even more engage them from the very start. Linking it to behaviourism during my lessons, I tell my students what I want from them that lesson, and what I expect them, with their individual needs, to be learning or have learnt by the end of lesson. If I believe learning has taking place during my lesson, I will reward them with a game of their choice at the end of the lesson. In their mind they understand they must do as they are asked by the teacher, or the reward to play a game at the end of lesson, will be forfeited. As studies show, during Pavlov’s (E-Learning and the Science of Instruction, 2019) dog experiment that this theory does work, it can take a lot of work. I have built a great relationship with my students, and most of the time they are willing to work to the best of their ability.

Although Skinners’ (E-Learning and the Science of Instruction, 2019) behaviourist theory is based around manipulation, Maslow’s ‘Hierarchy Of Needs’ (Very well Mind, 2019) believes that behaviour and the way people act is based upon childhood events, therefore it is not always easy to manipulate in to the way you think, as they may have had a completely different upbringing, which will determine how they act. Maslow (Very well Mind, 2019) feels, if you remove the obstacles that stop the person from achieving, then they will have a better chance to achieve their goals; Maslow argues that there are five different needs which must be met in order to achieve this. The highest level of needs is self-actualisation which means the person must take full reasonability for their self, Maslow believes that people can go through to the highest levels, if they are in an education which can produce growth. Below is the table of Maslow’s ‘Hierarchy of needs’ (Very well Mind, 2019)

(Information List of topics Assessment Becoming a teacher Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Embedding maths et al., 2019)

In an explanation the table lets you know your learners needs throughout different levels, during their time in your learning environment, all learners may be at different levels, but should be able to progress on to the next one when they feel comfortable to do so. There may be knockbacks which your learners as individuals will face, but is the needs that will motivate the learning, although you may find that not all learners want to progress through the levels of learning at that moment in time, for example, if your learner if happy with the progress they have achieved so far and are content with life, they may find they want to stay at that certain level.

It is important to use the levels to encourage your learners by working up the table.

Stage 1 of the table is the physiological need – are your learners comfortable in the environment you are providing, are they hungry or thirsty? Your learners may even be tired; taking all these factors in to consideration, these may stop learning taking place. Therefore, it is important to meet all your learners’ physiological needs.

Moving up the table to safety and security – make your learners feel safe in an environment where they can relax, feel at ease. Are your learners worried about anything in particular? If so, can you help them overcome their worries.

Recognition – do your learners feel like they are part of the group? It is important to help those who don’t feel that they are part of the group bond with others. Help your learners belong and make them feel welcome. One recognition is in place your learners will then start to build their self-esteem, are they learning something useful, although your subject specialism may be second to none, it is important that your passion and drive shines through your teaching; overall this will result in the highest level: Self actualisation, are your learners achieving what they want to do? Make the sessions interesting and your learners will remember more about the subject in question. (Very well Mind, 2019)

Furthermore, classroom management comes in to force with any learning theory you use whilst teaching. Classroom management is made up of various techniques and skills that we as teacher utilize. Most of today’s classroom management systems are highly effective as they increase student success. As I am now a trainee teacher, I understand that classroom management can be difficult at times, therefore I am always researching different methods on how to manage my class. Although I don’t believe entirely that this comes from just methods, but if your pupils respect you as a teacher, and they understand what you expect of them whilst in your class, you should be able to manage the class fine; relating this with my placement at A Mind Apart, my students know what I expect of them and from that my classroom management is normally good…following this there are a few classroom management techniques I tend to follow:

Demonstrating the behaviour, you want to see – eye contact whilst talking, phones away in bags/coats, listen when been spoken to and be respectful of each other, these are all good codes of conduct to follow, and they are my main rules whilst in the classroom.
Celebrating hard work or achievements – When I think a student has done well, we as a group will celebrate their achievement, whether It be in education or out, a celebration always helps with classroom management.
Make your session engaging and motivating – This is something all us trainee teachers find difficult within our first year, as I have found out personally from the first couple of months, I have learnt to get to know your learners, understand what they like to do, and what activity’s keep them engaged.
Build strong relationships – I believe having a good relationship with your students is one of the key factors to managing a class room. It is important to build trust with your students, make them feel safe and let them know they are in a friendly environment.

When it comes to been in a classroom environment, not all students will adhere to this, therefore they may require a difference kind of structure to feel included. A key example of this is students with physical disabilities, you may need to adjust the tables or even move them out the way, you could also adjust the seating so a student may be able to see more clearly if they have hearing problems maybe write more down on the board, or even give them a sheet at the start of the lesson, which lets them know what you will be discussing and any further information they may need to know, not only do you need to take physical disabilities in to consideration but it is also important to cater for those who have behavioural problems, it is important to adjust the space to make your students feel safe whilst in your lesson.

Managing your class also means that sometimes you may have to adjust your teaching methods to suit all in your class and understand that it is important to incorporate cultural values. Whilst in the classroom, or even giving out home work you may need to take in to consideration that some students, especially those with learning difficulties, may take longer to do work, or even need additional help.

Conclusion

Research has given me a new insight into how many learning theories, teaching strategies and classroom management strategies there are, there are books and websites which help you achieve all the things you need to be able to do in your classroom. Looking back over this essay I looked in to the two learning theories that I am most likely to use.

2019-1-7-1546860682

Synchronous and asynchronous remote learning during the Covid-19 pandemic

Student’s Motivation and Engagement

Motivation plays an important role in student engagement. Saeed and Zyngier (2012) contend that in order to assess student motivation, researchers should also have to examine engagement in and as part of learning. This manifests that there is a relationship between student motivation and engagement. As support to this relationship, Hufton, Elliot, and Illushin (2002) believe that high levels of engagement show high levels of motivation. In other words, when the levels of motivation of students are high that is when their levels of engagement are also high.

Moreover, Dörnyei (2020) suggests that the concept of motivation is closely associated with engagement, and with this he asserted that motivation must be ensured in order to achieve student engagement. He further offered that any instructional design should aim to keep students engaged, regardless of the learning context, may it be traditional or e-learning. In addition, Lewis et al (2014) reveal that within the online educational environment, students can be motivated by delivering an engaging student-centered experience consistently.

In the context of Student-Teacher Dialectical Framework embedded with Self-Determination Theory, Reeve, J. (2012) reveal three newly discovered functions of student engagement. First, is that engagement bridges students’ motivation to highly valued outcomes. Second, is that student engagement affects the future quality of learning environment especially in the flow of instruction, the external events it has, and the teacher’s motivating style. Third, is that student engagement changes motivation, which means that engagement cause changes in motivation in the future. This highlights that student motivation is both a cause and a consequence. This assertion that engagement can cause changes motivation is embedded on the idea that students can take actions to meet their own psychological needs and enhance the quality of their motivation. Further, Reeve, J. (2012) asserts that students can be and are architects of their own motivation, at least to the extent that they can be architects of their own course-related behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and agentic engagement.

Synchronous and Asynchronous Learning

The COVID-19 pandemic brought a great disaster on the education system around the world. Schools have struggled due to the situation in which led them to cessation of classes for an extended period of time and other restrictive measures that later on impede the continuance of face-to face classes. In consequence, there is a massive change towards the educational system around the world while educational institutions strive and put their best efforts to resolve the situation. Many schools had addressed the risks and challenges in continuing education amidst the crisis by shifting conventional or traditional learning into distance learning. Distance learning is a form of education through the support of technology that is conducted beyond physical space and time (Papadopulou, 2020). Distance learning is an online education that provides opportunities towards educational advancement and learning development among learners worldwide. In order to sustain the educational goal of our country, distance learning is a new way of providing quality education as much as possible among public and private institutions especially to those pursing in higher education. The instructional delivery in considering distance education can be through synchronous or asynchronous mode of learning, in which students can engage and continually attain quality education despite of the pandemic situation.

Based on the definition of Easy LMS Company (2020), synchronous learning refers to a learning event in which a group of participants is engaged in learning at the same time (e.g., zoom meeting, web conference, real- time class) while asynchronous learning refers to the opposite, in which the instructor, the learner, and other participants are not engaged in the learning process at the same time. Thus, there is no real-time interaction with other people (e.g., pre-recorded discussions, self- paced learning, discussion boards). According to article issued by University of Waterloo (2020), synchronous learning is a form of learning that is live presentation which allows the students to ask questions while asynchronous can be a recorded presentation that allows students to have time in reflecting before asking questions. Synchronous learning is a typical meeting of students in a virtual setting and there is a class discussion where everybody can participate actively. Asynchronous learning is the utilization of learning platform or portal where the teachers or instructors can post and update lessons or activities and student can work at their own pace. These types of class instruction are commonly observed in these times and students have their own preferences when it comes to what best works for them.

In comparing both of the types of learning, it is valuable to know the advantages and disadvantages in order to see how it will really be an impact towards students. Wintemute (2021) discussed synchronous learning has greater engagement and direct communication is present, but it requires strong internet connection. On the other hand, asynchronous learning is advantageous in schedule flexibility and more accessible, yet it is less immersive and the challenges in procrastination, socialization and distraction are present. Students in synchronous learning tend to adapt the changes of learning with classmates in a virtual setting while asynchronous learning introduced a new setting where students can choose when to study.

In the middle of the crisis, asynchronous learning can be more favorable than synchronous because most of us are struggling in this pandemic. One of the principal advantages of asynchronous online learning is that it offers more flexibility, allowing learners to set their own schedule and work at their own pace (Anthony and Thomas, 2020). In contrast, synchronous learning allows students to feel connected in a virtual world and it can give them assurance of not being isolated amidst studying lessons because they can have a live interactions and exchange of ideas and other valuable inputs for the class to understand the lessons well by the help of teachers. The main advantages of synchronous learning are that instructors can explain specific concepts when students are struggling and students can also get immediate answers about their concerns in the process of learning (Hughes, 2014). In the article of Delgado (2020), the advantages and disadvantages will not be effective if they do not have a pedagogical methodology considering the technology and its optimization. Furthermore, the quality of learning depends on good planning and design by reviewing and evaluating each type of learning modality.

Synthesis

Motivating students has been a key challenge facing instructors in the contexts of online learning (Zhao et. al 2016). In which motivation is one of the bases of the student to do well in their studies. When students are motivated, the outcome is a good mark. In short, motivation is a way to pushed them study more to get high grades. According to Zhao (2016) motivation in an online learning environment revealed that there are learning motivation differences among students from different cultural backgrounds. Motivation is described as “the degree of people’s choices and the degree of effort they will put forth” (Keller, 1983). Learning is closely linked to motivation because it is an active process that necessitates intentional and deliberate effort. Educators must build a learning atmosphere in which students are highly encouraged to participate both actively and productively in learning activities if they want to get the most out of school (Stipek, 2002). John Keller (1987) in his study revealed that attention and motivation will not be maintained unless the learner believes the teaching and learning are relevant. According to Zhao (2016), a strong interest in a topic will lead to mastery goals and intrinsic motivation.

Engagement can be perceived with the interaction between students and teachers in online classes. Student engagement, according to Fredericks et al. (2004), is a meta-construct that includes behavioral, affective, and mental involvement. Despite the fact that there is a broad body of literature on behavioral (i.e., time on task), emotional (i.e., interest and value), and cognitive engagement (i.e., self-regulation and learning strategies), what sets engagement apart is its capacity as a multifaceted strategy. While there is substantial research on behavioral (i.e., time on task), emotional (i.e., interest and value), and cognitive engagement (i.e., self-regulation and learning strategies what distinguishes engagement is its ability as a multidimensional or “meta”-construct that encompasses all three dimensions.

Motivation plays an important role in student engagement. Saeed and Zyngier (2012) contend that in order to assess student motivation, researchers should also have to examine engagement in and as part of learning.

Lewis et al (2014) reveal that within the online educational environment, students can be motivated by delivering an engaging student-centered experience consistently.

In the context of Student-Teacher Dialectical Framework embedded with Self-Determination Theory, Reeve, J. (2012) reveal three newly discovered functions of student engagement. First, is that engagement bridges students’ motivation to highly valued outcomes. Second, is that student engagement affects the future quality of learning environment especially in the flow of instruction, the external events it has, and the teacher’s motivating style. Third, is that student engagement changes motivation, which means that engagement cause changes in motivation in the future. Distance learning is an online education that provides opportunities towards educational advancement and learning development among learners worldwide. In order to sustain the educational goal of our country, distance learning is a new way of providing quality education as much as possible among public and private institutions especially to those pursing in higher education. The instructional delivery in considering distance education can be through synchronous or asynchronous mode of learning, in which students can engage and continually attain quality education despite of the pandemic situation.

According to article issued by University of Waterloo (2020), synchronous learning is a form of learning that is live presentation which allows the students to ask questions while asynchronous can be a recorded presentation that allows students to have time in reflecting before asking questions. Synchronous learning is a typical meeting of students in a virtual setting and there is a class discussion where everybody can participate actively. Asynchronous learning is the utilization of learning platform or portal where the teachers or instructors can post and update lessons or activities and student can work at their own pace. These types of class instruction are commonly observed in these times and students have their own preferences when it comes to what best works for them.

In comparing both of the types of learning, it is valuable to know the advantages and disadvantages in order to see how it will really be an impact towards students. Wintemute (2021) discussed synchronous learning has greater engagement and direct communication is present, but it requires strong internet connection. On the other hand, asynchronous learning is advantageous in schedule flexibility and more accessible, yet it is less immersive and the challenges in procrastination, socialization and distraction are present.

In the middle of the crisis, asynchronous learning can be more favorable than synchronous because most of us are struggling in this pandemic. One of the principal advantages of asynchronous online learning is that it offers more flexibility, allowing learners to set their own schedule and work at their own pace (Anthony and Thomas, 2020). In contrast, synchronous learning allows students to feel connected in a virtual world and it can give them assurance of not being isolated amidst studying lessons because they can have a live interactions and exchange of ideas and other valuable inputs for the class to understand the lessons well by the help of teachers.

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‘Peak Oil’ – what are the solutions?

The ability to harness energy sources and put them towards a productive use has played a crucial role in economic development worldwide. Easily accessible oil helped to fuel continued expansion in the 20th century. Agricultural production was transformed by motorised farm equipment and petroleum-based fertilisers and pesticides. Cars, trucks and airplanes powered by oil products revolutionised the transportation of people and goods. Oil provides fuel for home heating, electricity production, and to power industrial and agricultural equipment. It also provides the source material for the construction of plastics, many fertilisers and pesticides and many industrial chemicals and materials. It is now difficult to find any product that does not require the use of oil at some point in the production process.

Oil has several advantages over other fossil fuels: it is easily transportable and energy-dense, and when refined it is suitable for a wide variety of uses. Considering the important role that oil plays in our economy, if persistent shortages were to emerge, the economic implications could be enormous. However, there is no consensus as to how seriously the treat of oil resources depletion should be taken. Some warn of a colossal societal collapse in the not-too-distant future, while others argue that technological progress will allow us to shift away from oil before resource depletion becomes an issue.

How much of a problem oil depletion poses depends on the amount of oil that remains accessible at reasonable cost, and how quickly the development of alternatives allows the demand for oil to be reduced. This is what the term ‘peak oil’ means the point of when the demand for oil outstrips the availability. Demand and supply each evolve over time following a pattern that is based in historical data, while supply is also constrained by resource availability. There is no mechanism for market on its own to address concerns about climate change. However, if policies are put in place to price the costs of climate change into the price of fossil fuel consumption, then this should trigger market incentives that should lead efficiently to the desired emission reductions.

A while ago the media was filed with stories about peak oil and it was even in an episode of the Simpsons. Peak oil in basic term means that the point we have used all the easy to extract oil and are only left with the hard to reach which in term is expensive to refine. There is still a huge amount of debate amongst geologist and Petro- industries experts about how much oil is left in the ground. However, since then the idea of a near-term peak in the world oil supplies has been discredited. The term that is now used is Peak Oil demand, the idea is that because of the proliferation of electric cars and other sources of energy means that demand for oil will reach a maximum and start to decline and indeed consumptions levels in some parts of the world have already begun to stagnate.

The other theory that has been produce is that with supply beginning to exceed demand there is not enough investment going into future oil exploration and development. Without this investment production will decline but production is not declining due to supply problems just that we are moving into an age of oil abundance and the decline in oil production seen if because of other factors. There has been an explosion of popular literature recently predicting that oil production will peak soon, and that oil shortages will force us into major lifestyle changes in the near future- a good example of this is Heinberg (2003). The point at which oil production reaches a peak and begins to decline permanently has been referred to as ‘Peak Oil’. Predictions for when this will occur range from 2007 and 2025 (Hirsch 2005)

The Hirsch Report of 2005 concluded that it would take a modern industrial nation such as the UK or the United States at least a full decade to prepare for peak oil. Since 2005 there has been some movement towards solar and wind power together with more electric cars but nothing that deals with the scale of the problem. This has been compounded by Trump coming to power in the United States and deciding to throw the energy transition into reverse, discouraging alternative energy and expanding subsidies for fossil fuels.

What is happening how

Many factors are reported in news reports to cause changes in oil prices: supply disruptions from wars and other political factors, from hurricanes or from other random events; changes in demand expectations based on economic reports, financial market events or even weather in areas where heating oil is used; changes in the value of the dollar; reports of inventory levels, etc. these are all factors that will affect the supply and demand for oil, but they often influence the price of oil before they have any direct impact on the current supply or demand for crude oil. Last year, the main forces pushing the oil market higher were the agreement by OPEC and its partners to lower production and the growth of global demand. This year, an array of factors are pressuring the oil markets: the US sanctions that threaten to cut Iranian oil production from Venezuela. Moreover, there are supply disruptions in Libya, the Canadian tar sands, Norway and Nigeria that add to the uncertainties as does erratic policymaking in Washington, complete with threats to sell off part of the US strategic reserve and a weaker dollar. Goldman Sachs continues to expect that Brent Crude prices could retest $80 a barrel this year, but probably only late in 2018. “production disruptions and large supply shifts driven by US political decisions are the drivers of this new volatility, with demand remaining robust so far” Brent Crude is expected to trade in the $70-$80 a barrel range in the immediate future.

The OPEC

Saudi Arabia-and Russia-had started to raise production even before the 22 June 2018 meeting with OPEC that sought to address the shrinking global oil supply and rising prices. OPEC had over-complying with the cuts agreed to at the November 2016 meeting thanks to additional cuts from Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. The June 2018 22nd meeting decided to increase production to more closely reflect the production cut agreement. After the meeting, Saudi Arabia pledged a “measurable” supply boost but gave no specific numbers. Tehran’s oil minister warned his Saudi Arabian counterpart that the June 22nd revision to the OPEC supply pact do not give member countries the right to raise oil production above their targets. The Saudis, Russia and several of the Gulf Arab States increased production in June but seem reluctant to expand much further. During the summer months, the Saudis always need to burn more raw crude in their power station to combat the very high temperatures of their summer.

US Shale oil production

According to the EIA’s latest drilling productivity Report, US unconventional oil production is projected to rise by 143,000 b/d in August to 7.470 billion b/d. The Permian Basin is seen as far outdistancing other shale basins in monthly growth in August, at 73,000 b/d to 3,406 million b/d. However, drilled but uncompleted (DUC) wells in the Permian rose 164 in June to 3,368, one of the largest builds in recent months. Total US DUCs rose by 193 to 7,943 in June. US energy companies last week cut oil rigs the most in a week since March as the rate of growth had slowed over the past month or so with recent declines in crude prices. Included with other optimistic forecast for US shale oil was the caveat that the DUC production figures are sketchy as current information is difficult for the EIA to obtain with little specific data being provided to Washington by E&Ps or midstream operators. Given all the publicity surrounding constraints on moving oil from the Permian to market, the EIA admits that it “may overestimate production due to constraints.”

The Middle East and North Africa

Iran

Iran’s supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, called on state bodies to support the government of president Hassan Rouhani in fighting US economic sanctions. The likely return of US economic sanctions has triggered a rapid fall of Iran’s currency and protests by bazaar traders usually loyal Islamist rulers, and a public outcry over alleged price gouging and profiteering. The speech to member of Rouhani’s cabinet is clearly aimed at the conservative elements in the government who have been critical of the President and his policies of cooperation with the West and a call for unity in a time that seems likely to be one of great economic hardship spread to more than 80 Iranian cities and towns. At least 25 people died in the unrest, the most significant expression of public corruption, but the protest took on a rare political dimension, with growing number of people calling on supreme leader Khamenei to step down. Although there is much debate over the effectiveness of the impending US sanctions, some analysts are saying that Iran’s oil exports could fall by as much as two-thirds by the end of the year putting oil markets under massive strain amid supply outages elsewhere in the world. Some of the worst-case scenarios are forecasting a drop to only 700,000 b/d with most of Tehran’s exports going to China, and smaller chares going to India, Turkey and other buyers with waivers. China, the biggest importer of Iranian oil at 650,000 b/d according to Reuters trade flow data, is likely to ignore US sanctions.

Iraq

Iraq’s future is again in trouble as protests erupt across the country. These protests began in southern Iraq after the government was accused of doing nothing to alleviate a deepening unemployment crisis, water and electricity shortages and rampant corruption. The demonstrations are spreading to major population centers including Najaf and Amirah, and now discontent is stirring in Baghdad. The government has been quick to promise more funding and investment in the development of chronically underdeveloped cities, but this has done little to quell public anger. Iraqis have heard these promises countless times before, and with a water and energy crisis striking in the middle of scorching summer heat, people are less inclined to believe what their government says. The civil unrest had begun to diminish in southern Iraq, leaving the country’s oil sector shaken but secure-though protesters have vowed to return. Operations at several oil fields have been affected as international oil companies and service companies have temporality withdrawn staff from some areas that saw protests. The government claims that the production and exporting oil has remained steady during the protests. With Iran refusing to provide for Iraq’s electricity needs, Baghdad has now also turned to Saudi Arabia to see if its southern Arab neighbor can help alleviate the crises it faces.

Saudi Arabia

The IPO has been touted for the past two years as the centerpiece of an ambitious economic reform program driven by crown prince Mohammed bin Salman to diversify the Saudi economy beyond oil. Saudi Arabia expects its crude exports to drop by roughly 100,000 b/d in August as the kingdom tries to ensure it does not push oil into the market beyond its customers’ needs.

Libya

Reopened its eastern oil ports and started to ramp up production from 650,000 to 700,000 and is expected to rise further after shipments resume at eastern ports that re-opened after a political standoff.

China

China’s economy expanded by 6.7 percent its slowest pace since 2016. The pace of annual expansion announced is still above the government’s target of “about 6.5 percent” growth for the year, but the slowdown comes as Beijing’s trade war with the US adds to headwinds from slowing domestic demand. The gross domestic product had grown at 6.8 percent in the previous three quarters. Higher oil prices play a role in the slowing of demand, but the main factor is higher taxes on independent Chinese refiners, which is already cutting into the refining margins and profits of the ‘teapots’ who have grown over the past three years to account fir around fifth of China’s total crude imports. Under the stricter tax regulations and reporting mechanisms effective 1 March, however, the teapots now can’t avoid paying a consumption tax on refined oil products sales- as they did in the past three years- and their refining operations are becoming less profitable.

Russia

Russia oil production rose by around 100,000 b/d from May. From July 1-15 the country’s average oil output was 11.215 million b/d an increase of 245,000 b/d from May’s production. Amid growing speculation that President Trump will attempt to weaken US sanctions on Russia’s oil sector, US congressional leaders are pushing legislation to strengthen sanctions on Russian export pipelines and joint ventures with Russian oil and natural gas companies. Ukraine and Russia said they would hold further European Union-mediated talks on supplying Europe with Russian gas, in a key first step towards renewing Ukraine’s gas transit contract that expires at the end of next year.

Venezuela

Venezuela’s Oil Minister Manuel Quevedo has been talking about plans to raise the country’s crude oil production in the second half of the year. However, no one else thinks or claims that Venezuela could soon reverse its steep production decline which has seen it losing more than 40,000 b/d of oil production every month for several months now. According to OPEC’s secondary sources in the latest Monthly Oil Market Report, Venezuela’s crude oil production dropped in June by 47,500 b/d from May, to average 1.340 million b/d in June. During a collapsing regime, widespread hunger, and medical shortages, President Nicolas Maduro continues to grant generous oil subsidies to Cuba. It is believed that Venezuela continues to supply Cuba with around 55,000 barrels of oil per day, costing the nation around $1.2 billion per year.

Alternatives to Oil

In its search for secure, sustainable and affordable supplies of energy, the world is turning its attention to unconventional energy resources. Shale gas is one of them. It has turned upside down the North-American gas markets and is making significant strides in other regions. The emergence of shale gas as a potentially major energy source can have serious strategic implications for geopolitics and the energy industry.

Uranium and Nuclear

The nuclear industry has a relatively short history: the first nuclear reactor was commissioned in 2945. Uranium is the main source of fuel for nuclear reactors. Worldwide output of uranium has recently been on the rise after a long period of declining production caused by uranium resources have grown by 12.5% since 2008 and they are sufficient for over 100 years of supply based on current requirements.

Total nuclear electricity production has been growing during the past two decades and reached an annual output of about 2,600TWh by mid-2000s, although the three major nuclear accidents have slowed down or even reversed its growth in some countries. The nuclear share of total global electricity production reached its peak of 17% by the late 1980s, but since then it has been falling and dropped to 13.5% in 2012. In absolute terms, the nuclear output remains broadly at the same level as before, but its relative share in power generation has decreased, mainly due to Fukushima nuclear accident.

Japan used to be one of the countries with high share of nuclear (30%) in its electricity mix and high production volumes. Today, Japan has only two of its 54 reactors in operation. The rising costs of nuclear installations and lengthy approval times required for new construction have had an impact on the nuclear industry. The slowdown has not been global, as new countries, primarily in the rapidly developing economies in the Middle East and Asia, are going ahead with their plans to establish a nuclear industry.

Hydro Power

Hydro power provides a significant amount of energy throughout the world and is present in more than 100 countries, contributing approximately 15% of the global electricity production. The top 5 largest markets for hydro power in terms of capacity are Brazil, Canada, China, Russia and the United States of America. China significantly exceeds the other, representing 24% of global installed capacity. In several other countries, hydro power accounts for over 50% of all electricity generation, including Iceland, Nepal and Mozambique for example. During 2012, an estimated 27-30GW of new hydro power and 2-3GW of pumped storage capacity was commissioned.

In many cases, the growth in hydro power was facilitated by the lavish renewable energy support policies and CO2 penalties. Over the past two decade the total global installed hydro power capacity has increased by 55%, while the actual generation by 21%. Since the last survey, the global installed hydro power capacity has increased by 8%, but the total electricity produced dropped by 14%, mainly due to water shortages.

Solar PV

Solar energy is the most abundant energy resource and it is available for use in its direct (solar radiation) and indirect (wind, biomass, hydro, ocean etc.) forms. About 60% of the total energy emitted by the sun reaches the Earth’s surface. Even if only 0.1% of this energy could be converted at an efficiency of 10%, it would be four times larger than the total world’s electricity generating capacity of about 5,000GW. The statistics about solar PV installations are patchy and inconsistent. The table below presents the values for 2011 but comparable values for 1993 are not available.

The use of solar energy is growing strongly around the world, in part due to the rapidly declining solar panel manufacturing costs. For instance, between 2008-2011 PV capacity has increased in the USA from 1,168MW to 5,171MW, and in Germany from 5,877MW to 25,039MW. The anticipated changes in national and regional legislation regarding support for renewables is likely to moderate this growth.

Conclusion

The rapid consumption of fossil fuels has contributed to environmental damage, the use of these fuels including oil releases chemicals that contribute to smog, acid rain, mercury contamination and carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption are the main drivers of climate change, the effects of which are likely to become more and more severe as temperature rise. The depletion of oil and other fossil resources leaves less available to future generations and increases the likelihood of price spikes if demand outpaces supply.

One of the most intriguing conclusions from this idea is that this new “age of abundance” could alter behavior from oil producers. In the past some countries (notably OPEC members) restrained output husbanding resources for the future, betting that scarcity would increase the value of their holdings over time. However, if a peak in demand looms just over the horizon, oil producers could rush to maximize their production in order to get as much value for their reserves while they can. Saudi oil minister Sheikh Ahmed Zaki Yamani was famously quoted as saying, “the Stone Age didn’t end for lack of stone, and the oil age will end long before the world runs out of oil.” This quote reflects the view that the development of new technologies will lead to a shift away from oil consumption before oil resources are fully depleted. Nine of the ten recessions between 1946 and 2005 were preceded by spikes in oil prices and the latest recession followed the same pattern.

Extending the life of oil fields, let alone investing in new ones, will require large volumes of capital, but that might be met with skepticism from wary investors when demand begins to peak. It will be difficult to attract investment to a shrinking industry, particularly if margins continued to get squeezed. Peak demand should be an alarming prospect for OPEC, Russia and the other major oil producing countries. Basically, any and all oil producers who will find themselves fighting more aggressively for a shrinking market.

The precise data at which oil demand hits a high point and then enters into decline has been the subject of much debate, and a topic that has attracted a lot of interest just in the last few years. Consumption levels in some parts of the world have already begun to stagnate, and more and more automakers have begun to ratchet up their plans for electric vehicles. But the exact date the world will hit peak demand misses the whole point. The focus shouldn’t be on the date at which oil demand peaks, but rather the fact that the peak is coming. In other words, oil will be less important when it comes to fueling the global transportation system, which will have far-reaching consequences for oil producers and consumers alike. The implications of a looming peak in oil consumptions are massive. Without an economic transformation, or at least serious diversification, oil-producing nations that depend on oil revenues for both economic growth and to finance public spending, face an uncertain future.

2018-9-21-1537537682

Water purification and addition of nutrients as disaster relief: college application essay help

1. Introduction

1.1 Natural Disasters

Natural disasters are naturally occurring events that threaten human lives and causes damage to property. Examples of natural disasters include hurricanes, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons, droughts, tropical cyclones and floods. (Pask, R., et al (2013)). They are inevitable and oftentimes, can cause calamitous implications such as water contamination and malnutrition, especially to developing countries like the Philippines, which is particularly prone to typhoons and earthquakes. (Figure 1)

Figure 1 The global distribution of natural disaster risk (The United Nations University World Risk Index 2014)

1.1.1 Impacts of Natural Disaster

The globe faces impacts of natural disasters on human lives and economy on an astronomical scale. According to a 2014 report by the United Nations, since 1994, 4.4 billion people have been affected by disasters, which claimed 1.3 million lives and cost US$2 trillion in economic losses. Developing countries are more likely to suffer a greater impact from natural disasters than developed countries as natural disasters affect the number of people living below the poverty line, and increase their numbers by more than 50 percent in some cases. Moreover, it is expected that by 2030, up to 325 million extremely poor people will live in the 49 most hazard-prone countries. (Child Fund International. (2013, June 2)) Hence, it necessitates the need for disaster relief to save the lives of those affected, especially those in developing countries such as the Philippines.

1.1.2 Lack of access to clean water

After a natural disaster strikes, severe implications such as water contamination occurs.

Besides, natural disasters know no national borders of socioeconomic status. (Malam, 2012) For example, Hurricane Katrina, which struck New Orleans, a developed city, destroyed 1,200 water systems, and 50% of existing treatment plants needed rebuilding afterwards. (Copeland, 2005) This led to the citizens of New Orleans having a shortage of drinking water. Furthermore, after the 7.0 magnitude earthquake that struck Haiti, a developing country, in 2012, there was no plumbing left underneath Port-Au-Prince, and many of the water tanks and toilets were destroyed. (Valcárcel, 2010) These are just some of the many scenarios of can bring about water scarcity.

The lack of preparedness to prevent the destruction caused by the natural disaster and the lack of readiness to respond claims to be the two major reasons for the catastrophic results of natural disasters. (Malam, 2012) Hence, the aftermath of destroyed water systems and a lack of water affect all geographical locations regardless of its socioeconomic status.

1.2 Disaster relief

Disaster relief organisations such as The American Red Cross help countries that are recovering from natural disasters by providing these countries with the basic necessities.

After a disaster, the Red Cross works with community partners to provide hot meals, snacks and water to shelters or from Red Cross emergency response vehicles in affected neighborhoods. (Disaster Relief Services | Disaster Assistance | Red Cross.)

The International Committee of the Red Cross/Red Crescent (ICRC) reported that its staff had set up mobile water treatment units. These were used to distribute water to around 28,000 people in towns along the southern and eastern coasts of the island of Samar, and to other badly-hit areas including Basey, Marabut and Guiuan. (Pardon Our Interruption. (n.d.))

Figure 2: Children seeking help after a disaster(Pardon Our Interruption. (n.d.))

Figure 3: Massive Coastal Destruction from Typhoon Haiyan (Pardon Our Interruption. (n.d.))

1.3 Target audience: Tacloban, Leyte, The Philippines

As seen in figures 4 and 5, Tacloban is the provincial capital of Leyte, a province in the Visayas region in the Philippines. It is the most populated region in the Eastern Visayas region, with a total population of 242,089 people as of August 2015. (Census of Population, 2015)

Figure 4: Location of Tacloban in the Philippines (Google Maps)

Figure 5: Location of Tacloban in the Eastern Visayas region (Google Maps)

Due to its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire (Figure 6), more than 20 typhoons (Lowe, 2016) occur in the Philippines each year.

Figure 6: The Philippines’ position on the Pacific Ring of Fire (Mindoro Resources Ltd., 2004)

In 2013, Tacloban was struck by Super Typhoon Haiyan, locally known as ‘Yolanda’. The Philippine Star, a local digital news organisation, reported more than 30,000 deaths from that disaster alone. (Avila, 2014) Tacloban is in shambles after Typhoon Haiyan and requires much aid to restore the affected area, especially when the death toll is a whopping five figure amount.

1.4 Existing measures and their gaps

Initially, there was a slow response of the government to the disaster. For the first three days after the typhoon hit, there was no running water and dead bodies were found in wells. In desperation for water to drink, some even smashed pipes of the Leyte Metropolitan Water District. However, even when drinking water was restored, it was contaminated with coliform. Many people thus became ill and one baby died of diarrhoea. (Dizon, 2014)

Long response-time by the government, (Gap 1) and further consequences were borne by the restoration of water brought (Gap 2). The productivity of people was affected and hence there is an urgent need for a better solution to the problem of late restoration of clean water.

1.5 Reasons for Choice of Topic

There is high severity since ingestion of contaminated water is the leading cause of infant mortality and illness in children (International Action, n.d.) and more than 50% of the population is undernourished. (World Food Programme, 2016). Much support and humanitarian aid has been given by organisations such as World Food Programme and The Water Project, yet more efforts are needed to lower the death rates, thus showing the persistency. It is also an urgent issue as malnourishment mostly leads to death and the children’s lives are threatened.

Furthermore, 8 out of 10 of the world’s cities most at risk to natural disasters are in the Philippines. (Reference to Figure _)Thus, the magnitude is huge as there is high frequency of natural disasters. While people are still recovering from the previous one, another hit them, thus worsening the already severe situation.

Figure _ Top 5 Countries of World Risk Index of Natural Disasters 2016 (Source: UN)

WWF CEO Jose Maria Lorenzo Tan said that “on-site desalination or purification” would be a cheaper and better solution to the lack of water than shipping in bottled water for a long period of time. (Dizon, 2014) Instead of relying on external humanitarian aid, which might incur a higher amount of debt as to relying on oneself for water, this can cushion the high expenses of rebuilding their country. Hence, there is a need for a water purification plant that provides potable water immediately when a natural disaster strikes. The plant will also have to provide cheap and affordable water until water systems are restored back to normal.

Living and growing up in Singapore, we have never experienced natural disasters first hand. We can only imagine the catastrophic destruction and suffering that accompanies natural disasters. With “Epione Solar Still” (named after the greek goddess of the Soothing of Pain), we hope to be able to help many Filipinos access clean and drinkable water, especially children who clearly do not deserve to experience such tragedy and suffering.

1.6 Case study: Disaster relief in Japan

Located at the Pacific Ring of Fire, Japan is vulnerable to natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunami, volcanic eruptions, typhoons, floods and mudslides due to its geographical location and natural conditions. (Japan Times, 2016)

In 2011, an extremely high 9.0 magnitude earthquake hit Fukushima, causing a tsunami that destroyed the northeast coast and killed 19,000 people. It was the worst-hit earthquake in Japan in history, and it damaged the Fukushima plant and caused nuclear leakage, leading to contaminated water which currently exceeds 760,000 tonnes. (The Telegraph, 2016) The earthquake and tsunami caused a nuclear power plant to fail, and radiation to leak into the ocean and escape into the atmosphere. Many evacuees have still not returned to their homes, and, as of January 2014, the Fukushima nuclear plant still poses a threat, according to status reports by the International Atomic Energy Agency. (Natural Disasters & Pollution | Education – Seattle PI. (n.d.))

Disaster Relief

In the case of major disasters, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) deploys Japan Disaster Relief (JDR) teams, consisting of the rescue, medical, expert and infectious disease response teams and also the Self-Defence Force (SDF) to provide relief aid to affected countries. It provides emergency relief supplies such as blankets, tents and water purifiers and some are also stockpiled as reserved supplies in places closer to disastrous areas in case disasters strike there and emergency disaster relief is needed. (JICA)

For example during the Kumamoto earthquake in 2016, 1,600 soldiers had joined the relief and rescue efforts. Troops were delivering blankets and adult diapers to those in shelters. With water service cut off in some areas, residents were hauling water from local offices to their homes to flush toilets. (Japan hit by 7.3-magnitude earthquake | World news | The Guardian. (2016, April 16))

Solution to Fukushima water contamination

Facilities are used to treat contaminated water. The main one is the Multi-nuclide Removal Facility (ALPS) (Figure _), which could remove most radioactive materials except Tritium. (TEPCO, n.d)

Figure _: Structure of Multi-nuclide Removal Facility (ALPS) (TEPCO, n.d)

1.7 Impacts of Case Study

The treatment of contaminated water is very effective as more than 80% of contaminated water stored in tanks has been decontaminated and more than 90% of radioactive materials has been removed during the process of decontamination by April 2015. (METI, 2014)

1.8 Lessons Learnt

Destruction caused by natural disasters results in a lack of access to clean and drinkable water (L1)

Advancements in water purification technology can help provide potable water for the masses. (L2)

Natural disasters weaken immune systems, people are more vulnerable to the diseases (L3)

1.9 Source of inspiration

Suny Clean Water’s solar still, is made with cheap material alternatives, which would help to provide more affordable water for underprivileged countries.

A fibre-rich paper is coated with carbon black(a cheap powder left over after the incomplete combustion of oil or tar) and layered over each section of a block of polystyrene foam which is cut into 25 equal sections. The foam floats on the untreated water, acting as an insulating barrier to prevent sunlight from heating up too much of the water below. Then, the paper wicks water upward, wetting the entire top surface of each section. This causes a clear acrylic housing to sit atop the styrofoam. (Figure _)

Figure _: How fibre-rich paper coated with carbon black is adapted into the solar still. (Sunlight-powered purifier could clean water for the impoverished | Science | AAAS. (2017, February 2)

It is estimated that the materials needed to build it cost roughly $1.60 per square meter, compared with $200 per square meter for commercially available systems that rely on expensive lenses to concentrate the sun’s rays to expedite evaporation.

1.10 Application of Lessons Learnt

Gaps in current measures

Learning points

Applications to project

Key features in proposal

Developing countries lack the technology / resources to treat their water and provide basic necessities to their people.

Advanced technology can provide potable water readily. (L2)

Need for technology to purify contaminated water.

Solar Distillation Plant

Even with purification of water, problem of malnutrition which is worsened by natural disasters, is still unsolved.

Solution to provide vitamins to young children to boost immunity and lower vulnerability to diseases and illnesses. (L3)

Need for nutrient-rich water.

Nutrients infused into water using concept of osmosis.

Even with the help of external organisations, less than 50% of households have access to safe water.

Clean water is still inaccessible to some people. (L1)

Increase accessibility to water.

Evaporate seawater (abundant around Phillipines) in solar still. (short-term solution)

Figure _: Table of application of lessons learnt

2. Project Aim and Objectives

2.1 Aim

Taking into account the loopholes that exist in current measures adopted to improve water purification to reduce water pollution and malnutrition in Ilocos Norte, our project proposes a solution to provide Filipinos with clean water by creating an ingenious product, the Epione Solar Still. The product makes use of natural occurrences (evaporation of water), and adapts and incorporates the technology and mechanism behind the kidney dialysis machine to provide Filipinos with nutrient-enriched water without polluting their environment. The product will be located near water bodies where seawater is abundant to act as a source of clean water to the Filipinos.

2.2 Objectives of Project

To operationalise our aim, our objectives are to:

Design “Epione Solar Still”

Conduct interviews with:

Masoud Arfand, from Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University to determine the projected percentage of water that Epione Solar Still can produce and the number of people it can provide for.

Qiaoqiang Gan, electrical engineer from Sunny Clean Water (his team innovated the technology of using fibre-rich paper is coated with carbon black to make process of water purification using the soalr still faster and more cost-friendly) to determine amount of time Epione Solar Still needed to produce sufficient water needed to support Fillipinos in Tacloban, Leyte as Epione Solar Still is a short-term disaster relief solution.

Dr Nathan Feldman, Co-Founder of HopeGel, of EB Performance, LLC to determine significant impact of nutrients-infused water to boost immunity of victims of natural disaster. (Project Medishare, n.d)

Review the mechanism and efficiency of using a solar still to source clean and nutrient-rich water for Filipinos.

3. Project Proposal

Investment into purification of water contamination in the form of disaster relief, which can provide Filipinos with nutrients to boost their immunity in times of disaster and limit the number of deaths that occur due to the consumption of contaminated water during a crisis.

3.1 Overview of Project

Our group proposes to build a solar distillation plant (Figure _) within a safe semi-underground bunker. The bunker will contain a generator to power certain parts of the plant. Then, seawater will be fed into the still via underground pipes from the sea surrounding the southern part of Tacloban. The purified water produced by the distillation process will be infused with nutrients to boost the immunity of disaster victims once consumed. Hence, not only will our distillation plant be able to produce potable water, it will also be nutritious so as to boost victims’ immunity in times of natural calamities. Potable water will then be distributed in drums and shared among Filipinos using .

Figure _: Mechanism of our solar distillation plant, Epione Solar Still

3.2 Phase 1: Water Purification System

3.2.1 Water extraction from the sea

Still is located near the sea where seawater is abundant. Seawater is extracted from low-flow open sea (Figure _) and then pumped into our solar still.

Figure _: Intake structure of seawater (Seven Seas Water Corporation, n.d.)

3.2.2 Purification of Seawater

Solar energy heats up the water in the solar still. The water evaporates, and condenses on the cooler glass surface of the ceiling of the still. Pure droplets of water slide down the glass and into the collecting basin, where nutrients will diffuse into the water.

Figure 6: Mechanism of Epione Solar Still

3.3 Phase 2: Nutrient Infuser

Using the concept of reverse osmosis (Figure _), a semi permeable membrane separates the nutrients and newly purified water, allowing the vitamins and minerals to diffuse into the condensed water. The nutrient-infused water will be able to provide nourishment, thus making the victims of natural disaster less vulnerable and susceptible to illnesses and diseases due to a stronger immune system. This will help the Filipinos in Tacloban, Leyte quickly get back on their feet after a natural disaster and minimise the death toll as much as possible after a natural disaster befalls.

Figure _: How does reverse osmosis work (Water Filter System Guide, n.d.)

Nutrient / Mineral

Function

Upper Tolerable Limit (The highest amount that can be consumed without health risks)

Vitamin A

Helps to form and maintain healthy teeth, bones, soft tissue, mucus membranes and skin.

10,000 IU/day

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Helps maintain healthy skin and nerves

Has cholesterol-lowering effects

35 mg/day

Vitamin C

(Ascorbic acid, an antioxidant)

Promotes healthy teeth and gums.

Helps the body absorb iron and maintain healthy tissue.

Promotes wound healing.

2,000 mg/day

Vitamin D

(Also known as “sunshine vitamin”, made by the body after being in the sun).

Helps body absorb calcium.

Helps maintain proper blood levels of calcium and phosphorus

1,000 micrograms/day (4,000 IU)

Vitamin E

(Also known as tocopherol, an antioxidant)

Plays a role in formation of red blood cells.

1,500 IU/day

Figure _: Table of functions and amount of nutrients that will be diffused into our Epione water. (WebMD, LLC, 2016)

3.4 Phase 3: Distribution of water to households in Tacloban, Leyte

Potable water will be collected into drums (Figure _) of 100 litres in capacity each, which would suffice 50 people since the average intake of water is 2 litres per person per day. These drums will then be distributed to the tent cities in Tacloban, Leyte, our targeted area, should a natural disaster befall. Thus, locals will get potable water within their reach, which is extremely crucial for their survival in times of natural calamities.

Figure _: Rain barrels will be used to store the purified and nutrient-infused water (Your Easy Garden, n.d.)

3.5 Stakeholders

3.5.1 The HopeGel Project

HopeGel is a nutrient and calorie-dense protein gel designed to aid children suffering from malnutrition caused by severe food insecurity brought upon by draughts (Glenroy Inc., 2014). HopeGel has been distributed in Haiti where malnutrition is the number one cause of death among children under five mainly due to the high frequency of natural disasters that has caused much destruction to the now impoverished state of Haiti. (Figure _) The implementation of Epione Solar Still by this company helps it achieve its objective to address the global issue of severe acute malnutrition in children as most victims of natural disasters lack the nourishment they need (HopeGel, n.d.)

Figure _: HopeGel, a packaged nutrient and calorie-dense protein gel (Butschli, HopeGel, n.d.)

3.5.2 Action Against Hunger (AAH)

Action Against Hunger is a relief organisation that develops and carries out programme for countries in need regarding nutrition, health, water and food security (Action Against Hunger, n.d) (Figure _). AAH also provides programs to be better prepared for disasters which aims to anticipate and prevent humanitarian crisis (GlobalCorps, n.d.) With 40 years of expertise, helping 14.9 million people across more than 45 countries, AAH is no stranger to humanitarian crises. The implementation of Epione Solar Still by this company helps it achieve its aim of saving lives by extending help to Fillipinos in Tacloban, Leyte suffering from deprivation of a basic need due to water contamination caused by disaster relief through purifying and infusing nutrients into seawater.

Figure _: Aims and Missions of Action Against Hunger (AACH, n.d.)

2017-7-11-1499736147

Analyse the use of ICTS in a humanitarian emergency

INTRODUCTION

The intention of writing this essay is to analyse the use of ICTS in a humanitarian emergency. The specific case study we have discuss in this essay is Multi-level functionality of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake written by Jung, J., and Moro, M. 2014. This report emphasis on the benefits of social media networks like twitter and face book can be used to spread and gather important information in emergency situations rather than solely utilised as a social network platform. ICTs has changed the way humans gather information during the disasters and social media specially twitter became important source of information in these disasters.

Literature Review

The case studies of using ICTs in a humanitarian emergency can have either technically rational perspective or socially embedded perspective. Technically rational perspective means what to do and how to achieve the given purpose, it is a prescription for design and action. Socially embedded means it focuses on the particular case and process of work is affected by the culture, area and human nature. In this article, we have examined different humanitarian disasters cases in which ICTS played a vital role to see if author consider technically rational perspective or socially embedded perspective.

In the article “Learning from crisis: Lessons in human and information infrastructure from the World Trade Centre response” by (Dawes, Cresswell et al. 2004) author adopts technical/rational perspective. 9/11 was very big incident and no one was ready to deal with this size of attack but as soon as it happened procedure start changing rapidly. Government, NGO and disaster response unit start learning and made new prescription, which can be used universally and in any size of disaster. For example, the main communication structure was damaged which was supplied by Verizon there were different communication suppliers suppling their services but they all were using the physical infrastructure supplied by Verizon. So VOIP was used for communication between government officials and in EOC building. There were three main areas where the problems were found and then new procedure adopt in the response of disaster. The three main areas were technology, information and inter layered relationships between the Ngo’s, Government and the private sector. (Dawes, Cresswell et al. 2004).

In the article “Challenges in humanitarian information management and exchange: Evidence from Haiti,” (Altay, Labonte 2014) author adopts socially embedded perspective. Haiti earthquake was one of the big disaster killing 500000 people and displacing at least 2 million. Around 2000 organisation went in for help but there was no coordination between NGO`s and government for the humanitarian response. Organisation didn’t consider local knowledge they assumed that there is no data available. All the organisations had different standards and ways to do work so no one followed any prescription. Technical aspect of HIME (humanitarian information management and exchange) wasn’t working because all the members of humanitarian relief work wasn’t sharing any humanitarian information. (Altay, Labonte 2014)

In the article, Information systems innovation in the humanitarian sector,” Information Technologies and International Development” (Tusiime, Byrne 2011) author adopts socially embedded perspective. Local staff was hired. They didn’t have any former experience or knowledge to work with such a technology, which slow down the process of implementing new technology. Staff wanted to learn and use new system but the changes were done on such a high pace that made staff overworked and stress, which made them loose the interest in the innovation. The management decided to use COMPAS as a new system without realizing that it’s not completing functional and it still have lots of issues but they still went ahead with it. When staff start using and found the problems and not enough technical support was supplied then they didn’t have any choice and they went back to old way of doing things (Tusiime, Byrne 2011). The whole process was effected by how the work is done in specific area and people behaviours.

In the article “Multi-level functionality of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake,” (Jung, Moro 2014) author adopts technically rational perspective. In any future humanitarian disaster situation, social media can be used as an effective source of communication method conjunction with mass media. After the disaster twitter was used more as a spreading and gathering information source instead of using as social media platform.

In the article “Information flow impediments in disaster relief supply chains,” Journal of the Association for Information Systems,10(8), pp. 637-660.(Day, Junglas et al. 2009) author proposed development of IS for information sharing based on hurricane Katrina. Author adopted TR perspective because need of IS development for information flow within and outside of organisation is essential. This developed IS will help to manage complex supply chain management. Supply chain management in disaster situation is challenging as compare to traditional supply chain management. Supply chain management IS should be able to cater all types of dynamic information, suggested Day, Juglas and Silva (2009).

Case study Description:

On the 11 march 2011 at the scale of 9.00 magnitude hit north-eastern part of japan. This was followed by tsunami. Thousands of people lost their lives and infrastructure was completely damaged in that area (Jung, Moro 2014). Tsunami wiped off two towns of the maps and the costal maps had to be redrawn (Acar, Muraki 2011). On the same day of earth quake cooling system in nuclear reactor no 1 in Fukushima failed because of that nuclear accident Japanese government issued nuclear emergency. On the evening of the earthquake Japanese government issued evacuation order for 3 km area around reactor (Jung, Moro 2014). On March 12 hydrogen explosion occurred in the nuclear reactor because of failed cooling system which is followed by another explosion after 2 days on March 14. The area of evacuation was 3 km in the start but was increased to 20 km so avoid any nuclear radiation. This was one of the big nuclear disaster for the country so it was hard for the government to access the scale of the disaster. As the government officials, didn’t came across this kind situation before and couldn’t estimate the damage occurred because of incident. Government officials were adding more confusion in people with their unreliable information. They declare the accident level as 5 on the international nuclear scale but later they changed it to 7 which was highest on international nuclear scale. Media reporting was also confusing the public. The combination of contradicting information from government and media increase the level of confusion in the public. In the case of disaster Mass media is always the main source of information normally they discontinue their normal transmission and focus on the disaster. Their most of the airtime is devoted for the disaster so they can keep the people update about the situation. Normally mass media provides very reliable information in humanitarian disaster situation but in the case of japan disaster media was contradicting each other news e.g. international media was contradicting the news from local media as well as local government so people start losing faith in the mass media and start relying on different source to get information. Second reason was that the mass media was traditional way of gathering information and because of changes in technology people start using mobile phone and internet. Third main reason people start looking to get the information from different mean because the infrastructure for mass media was damage and lot of people cannot access the services of Television, so they start depending on video streaming sites e.g. ustream and YouTube. People start using twitter on big scale to spread and gather news. There was 30 percent of users increased on twitter within first week of disaster and 60 percent of twitter user thinks that it was useful for gather or spread information.

Case Study Analysis:

Twitter is one of the social media platform and micro blogging website, you can have 140 character in one tweet. It is different from other social media plate form because any one can follow you and they don’t need your authorization. Only register member can tweet but to read a message registration is not required. The author of “Multi-level functionality of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake,” (Jung, Moro 2014) discuss about the five functionalities of twitter by the help of conceptual model of multi-level social media. The following figure describes the five primary function model in twitter very clearly.

Fig No 1 Source: (Jung, Moro 2014)

The five functionality was derived on survey and review of selected twitter timelines.

The first function was having tweets between individual it’s also known as interpersonal communication with others. It is micro level of conceptual model, in this level people from country and outside of a country were connecting other people who were is the affected area. The most of tweets were for checking safety of people that they are safe after the disaster, to inform your love ones if you were at affected area and needs any help or to inform people that you are safe. In the first three days high percentage of tweets were from micro level communication channel.

The second function was having communication channel for local organisation, local government and local media. It is meso level of conceptual model in this communication channel local governments open new accounts and re activate accounts which wasn’t used for a while to keep their local residents informed, the follower of twitter accounts increased very fast. People have understand the importance of social media and benefits of it after the disaster when the infrastructure was damaged and they were having electricity cut out but they were still able to get the information about the disasters and tsunami warnings. Local government and local media used twitter accounts to give different alerts and news e.g. the alert of tsunami was issued on twitter and after tsunami the reports of damage was released on twitter. Local media open new twitters channels and kept people informed about situation. Different organisation e.g. embassies of different countries used twitter to keep their nationals informed about situation about disaster and this was best way of communication between embassies and their nationals. Nationals can even let their embassy that they are struck in affected area and they need any help because they can be in very vulnerable situation as they are not in their country.

The third function was having communication of Mass media which is known as Macro level. Mass media used social platform to broadcast their news because the infrastructure was damage and people in effected area couldn’t access their broadcast. There were some people who were not in the country so they couldn’t access the local mass media news on television so they watching news on video streaming website as the demand increased most of mass media open the accounts on social media to fulfil the requirements. They start broadcasting their news on video streaming websites like YouTube, Ustream. Mass media was giving news updates several times a day on twitter as well and lot of people who were reading it also was retweeting them so information was spreading on very high speed.

The fourth function was information sharing and gathering which is known as cross level. Individual used social media to get the information about earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident. When someone try to find information they come across the tweets which were for micro level, meso level and macro level. This level is great use when you are looking for help and you want to know different people opinions if they were in that situation what would they have done. The research done on the twitter time line proofs that on the day of earthquake people were tweeting regarding the shelters available and information about transport (Jung, Moro 2014).

The fifth function was direct channels between individuals and the mass media, government and the public. This is also consider as cross level. In this level individual could inform government and mass media about the situation of effected area because of disaster there were some places where government and mass media couldn’t reach, so they didn’t know the situation. Mayor of Minami-soma city which was 25 miles away from Fukushima used you tube to tell the government the threat of radiation to his city, the video went viral and Japanese government have international pressure to evacuate the city. (Jung, Moro 2014)

Reflection:

There was gradually change in use of social media to use a communication tool instead of social media platform in event of disaster. The multi-level functionality is one of the important characteristic which connects it very well with existing media. This is complete prescription which can be used in and after any kind of disaster. Social media can be used with other media as an effective communication methods to prepare for emergency in any future disaster situation.

Twitter played a big role in the communication in the disaster in japan. It was used to spread information, gather information about earthquake, tsunami and nuclear reactor accident. It was used to help request, issue warning about earthquake, tsunami and nuclear reactor accident. It was also used for condolences. Twitter has lot of benefits but it has some drawbacks which has to be rectify. The biggest issue in tweets are unreliability, anyone can tweet any information and there is no check and balance on it, only the person who do that tweet is responsible for the authentic information. There is no control on false information and it spreads so fast that it can create anxiety in people because of contradicted information e.g. if the false information about the range of radiation was released by individual and retweets by other individual who didn’t had any knowledge about the effect of radiation and nuclear accident it would had caused a panic in people. In the case of disaster, it is very important that reliable and right information is released.

Information system can play vital role in humanitarian disasters in all aspects. It can be used in the better communication, it can be used to improve the efficiency and accountability of the organisation. The data will be available widely in the organisation so it can have monitoring on the finances. It helps to coordinate different operation in organisations e.g. transport, supply chain management, logistics, finance and monitoring.

Social media has played a significant role in communicating, disseminating and storing data related to disasters. There is a need of control of that information being spread over the social media since not all type of information is authentic or verified.

IS based tools needs to be developed for disaster management in order to get best result from varied range of data extracted from social media and take necessary action for the wellbeing of people in disaster area.

The outcome of using purpose built IS, will be supportive in making decisions to develop strategy to deal with the situation. Disaster management team will be able to analyse the data in order to train the team for a disaster situation.

2017-1-12-1484253744

Renewable energy in the UK: essay help

The 2014 IPCC report stated that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases have led to unprecedented levels of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in the environment. The report also stated that the effect of greenhouse gases is extremely likely to have caused the global warming we have witnessed since the 20th century.

The 2018 IPCC report set new targets, aiming to limit climate change to a maximum of 1.5°C. To reach this, we will need zero CO₂ emissions by the year 2050. Previous IPCC targets of 2°C change allowed us until roughly 2070 to reach zero emissions. This means government policies will have to be reassessed and current progress reviewed in order to confirm whether or not the UK is capable of reaching zero emissions by 2050 on our current plan.

Electricity Generation

Fossil fuels are natural fuels formed from the remains of prehistoric plant and animal life. Fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) are crucial in any look at climate change as when burned they release both carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) and energy. Hence, in order to reach the IPCC targets the UK needs to drastically reduce its usage of fossil fuels, either through improving efficiency or by using other methods of energy generation.

Whilst coal is a cheap energy source used to generate approximately 40% of the world’s electricity , it’s arguably the most damaging to the environment as coal releases more energy into the atmosphere in relation to energy produced than any other fuel source. Coal power stations generate electricity by burning coal in a combustion chamber and using the heat energy to transform water to steam which turns the propeller-like blades within the turbine. A generator (consisting of tightly-wound metal coils) is mounted at one end of the turbine and when rotated at a high velocity through a magnetic field, generates electricity. However the UK has made great claims to fully eradiate the use of coal in electricity generation by 2025. These claims are well substantiated by the UK’s rapid decline in coal use. In 2015 coal accounted for 22% of electricity generated in the UK, this was down to only 2% by the second quarter of 2017 and in April 2018 the UK even managed to go 72 hours powered without coal.

Natural gas became a staple of British electrical generation in the 1990s, when the Conservative Party got into power and privatised the electrical supply industry. The “Dash for gas” was triggered by legal changes within the UK and EU allowing for greater freedom to use gas in electricity generation.

Whilst natural gas emits less CO₂ than coal, it emits far more methane. Methane doesn’t remain in the atmosphere as long but it traps heat to a far greater extent. According to the World Energy Council methane emissions trap 25 times more heat than CO₂ over a 100 year timeframe.

Natural gas produces electrical energy in a gas turbine. Natural gas is mixed with the hot air and burned in a combustor. The hot gas then pushes turbine blades and as in coal plant, the turbine is attached to a generator, creating electricity. Gas turbines are hugely popular as they are a cheap source of energy generation and they can quickly be powered up to respond to surges in electrical demand.

Combined Cycle Gas Turbines (CCGT) are an even better source of electrical generation. Whilst traditional gas turbines are cheap and fast-reacting, they only have an efficiency of approximately 30%. Combined cycle turbines, however, are gas turbines used in combination with steam turbines giving an efficiency of between 50 and 60%. The hot exhaust from the gas turbine is used to create steam which rotates turbine blades and a generator in a steam turbine. This allows for greater thermal efficiency.

Nuclear energy is a potential way forward as no CO₂ is emitted by Nuclear power plants. Nuclear plants aim to capture the energy released by atoms undergoing nuclear fission. In nuclear fission, nuclei absorb neutrons as they collide thus making an unstable nucleus. The unstable nucleus will then split into fission products of smaller mass and emit two or three high speed neutrons which can then collide with more nuclei, making them unstable thus creating a chain reaction. The heat energy produced by splitting the atom is first converted can be used to produce steam which will be used by a turbine generator to produce electricity.

Currently, 21% of electricity generated in the UK comes from nuclear energy. In the 1990s, 25% of electricity came from nuclear energy but gradually old plants have been retired. By 2025, UK nuclear power could half. This is due to a multitude of reasons. Firstly, nuclear fuel is expensive in comparison to gas and coal. Secondly, nuclear waste is extremely radioactive and so must be dealt with properly. Also, in light of tragedies such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, much of the British public expressed concerns surrounding Nuclear energy with the Scottish government refusing to open more plants

In order to lower our CO₂ emissions it is crucial we also utilise renewable energy. The UK currently gets very little of its energy from renewable sources but almost all future plans place a huge emphasis on renewables.

The UK has great wind energy potential as the nation is the windiest country in the EU with 40% of the total wind that blows across the EU.

Wind turbines are straightforward machinery; the wind turns the turbine blades around a rotor which is connected to the main shaft which spins a generator, creating electricity. In 2017, onshore wind generated enough energy to power 7.25 million homes a year and generated 9% of the UK’s electricity. However, despite the clear benefits of clean, renewable energy, wind energy is not without its problems. Firstly, it is an intermittent supply – the turbine will not generate energy when there is no wind. Also it has been opposed by members of the public for affecting the look of the countryside and bird fatalities. These problems are magnified by the current conservative government’s stance on wind energy who wish to limit onshore wind farm development despite public opposition to this “ban”.

Heating and Transport

Currently it is estimated a third of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the UK are accounted for in the heating sector. 50% of all heat emissions in the UK exist for domestic use, consequently making it the main source of CO2 emissions in the heating sector. Around 98% of domestic heating is used for space and water heating. The government has sought to reduce the emissions from domestic heating alone by issuing a series of regulations on new boilers. Regulations state as of 1st April 2005 all new installations and replacements of boilers are required to be condensing boilers. As well as CO2 emissions being much lower, condensing boilers are around 15-30% more efficient than older gas boilers. Reducing heat demand has also been an approach taken to reduce emissions. For instance, building standards in the UK have set higher levels of required thermal insulations of both domestic and non-domestic buildings when refurbishing and carrying out new projects. These policies are key to ensure that both homes are buildings in industry are as efficient as possible when it comes to conserving heat.

Although progress is being made in terms of improving current CO2 reducing systems, the potential for significant CO2 reductions rely upon low carbon technologies. Highly efficient technologies such as the residential heat pump and biomass boilers have the potential to be carbon neutral sources of heat and in doing so could massively reduce CO2 emissions for domestic use . However, finding the best route to a decarbonised future in the heating industry relies upon more than just which technology has the lowest carbon footprint. For instance, intermittent technologies such as solar thermal collectors cannot provide a sufficient level of heat in the winter and require a back-up source of heat making them a less desirable source of heat . Cost is also a major factor in consumer preference. For most consumers, a boiler is the cheapest option for heating. This provides a problem for low carbon technologies which tend to have significantly higher upfront costs . In response to the cost associated with these technologies, the government has introduced policies such as the ‘Renewable Heat Incentive’ which aims to alleviate the expense through paying consumers for each unit of heat produced by low carbon technologies. Around 30% of the heating sector is allocated for industry use, making it the second largest cause of CO2 in this sector . Currently, combined heat and power (CHP) is the main process used to make industrial heat use more efficient and has shown CO2 reductions of up to 30%. Although this is a substantial reduction in CO2, alternative technology has the potential to deliver even higher reductions. For example, the process of carbon capture storage (CCS), has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 90% . However, CCS is a complex procedure which would require a substantial amount of funding and as a result is not currently implemented for industrial use in the UK.

Although heating is a significant contribution to CO2 emissions in the UK, there is also much needed progress elsewhere. In 2017 it was estimated that 34% of all carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the UK were caused by transport and is widely thought to be the sector in which least progress is being made, with only seeing a 2% reduction in CO2 emissions since 1990. Road transport contributes the highest proportion of emissions, more specifically petrol and diesel cars. Despite average CO2 emissions of new vehicles declining, the carbon footprint of the transport industry continues to increase due to the larger number of vehicles in the UK.

In terms of progress, CO2 emissions of new cars in 2017 were estimated to be 33.1% lower than the early 2000s. Although efficiencies are improving, more must be done if we are to conform to the targets set from the Climate Change Act 2008. A combination of decarbonising transport and implementing government legislation is vital to have the potential to meet these demands. New technology such as battery electric vehicles (BEV’s) have the potential to create significant reductions in the transport industry. As a result, a report from the committee of climate change suggests that 60% of all sales of new cars and vans should be ultra-low emission by 2030. However, the likeliness of achieving this is hindered by the constraints of new technologies. For instance, low emission vehicles are likely to have significantly higher costs and lack consumer awareness. This reinforces the need of government support in projecting new technologies and cleaner fuels. To support the development and uptake of low carbon vehicles the government has committed £32 million for the funding of charging infrastructure of BEV’s from 2015-2020 and a further £140 million has been allocated to the ‘low carbon vehicle innovation platform’ which strives to advance the development and research of low emission vehicles. Progress has also been made to make these vehicles more cost competitive through being exempt from taxes such as Vehicle Excise Duty and providing incentives such as plug in grants of up to £3,500. Aside from passenger cars, improvements are also being made to emissions of public transport. The average low emission bus in London could reduce its CO2 emissions by up to 26 tonnes per year subsequently acquiring the governments support in England of the ‘Green Bus Fund’.

Conclusion

In 2017, renewables accounted for a record 29.3% of the UK’s energy generation. This is a vast improvement on previous years and suggests the UK is on track to meet the new IPCC targets although a lot of work still needs to be done. Government policies do need to be reassessed in light of the new targets however. Scotland should reassess its nuclear policy as this might be a necessary stepping stone in reduced emissions until renewables are able to fully power the nation and the UK government needs to reassess its allocation of funding as investment in clean energy is on a current downward trajectory.

Although progress has been made to reduce CO2 emissions in the heat and transport sector, emissions throughout the UK remain much higher than desired. The committee of climate change report to parliament (2015), calls for the widespread electrification of heating and transport by 2030 to help prevent a 1.5 degree rise in global temperature. This is likely to pose as a major challenge and will require a significant increase in electricity generation capacities in conjunction with greater policy intervention to encourage the uptake of low carbon technologies. Although the likelihood of all consumers switching to alternative technologies are sparse, if the government continues to tighten regulations surrounding fossil fuelled technologies whilst the heat and transport industry continue to develop old and new systems to become more efficient this should see significant CO2 reductions in the future.

2018-11-19-1542623986

Is Nuclear Power a viable source of energy?: college application essay help

6th Form Economics project:

Nuclear power, the energy of the future of the 1950s, is now starting to feel like the past. Around 450 nuclear reactors worldwide currently generate 11% of the world electricity, or approximately 2500 TWh in a year, just under the total nuclear power generated globally in 2001 and only 500 TWh more than in 1991. The number of operating reactors worldwide has seen the same stagnation, with an increase of only 31 since 1989, or an annual growth of only 0.23% compared to 12.9% from 1959 to 1989. Most reactors, especially in Europe and North America, where built before the 90s and the average age of reactors worldwide is just over 28 years. Large scale nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl in 1986 or, much more recently, Fukushima in 2011 have negatively impacted public support for nuclear power and helped cause this decline, but the weight of evidence has increasingly suggested that nuclear is safer than most other energy sources and has an incredibly low carbon footprint, causing the argument against nuclear to shift from concerns about safety and the environment to questions about the economic viability of nuclear power. The crucial question that remains is therefore about how well nuclear power can compete against renewables to produce the low carbon energy required to tackle global warming.

The costs of most renewable energy sources have been falling rapidly and increasingly able to outcompete nuclear power as a low carbon option and even fossil fuels in some places; photovoltaic panels, for example, have halved in price from 2008 to 2014. Worse still for nuclear power, it seems that while costs of renewable energy have been falling, plans for new nuclear plants have been plagued with delays and additional costs: in the UK, Hinkley Point C power station is set to cost £20.3bn, making it the world’s most expensive power station, and significant issues in the design have raised questions as to whether the plant will be completed by 2025, it’s current goal. In France, the Flamanville 3 reactor is now predicted to cost three times its original budget and several delays have pushed the start up date, originally set for 2012, to 2020. The story is the same in the US, where delays and extra costs have plagued the construction of the Vogtle 3 and 4 reactors which are now due to be complete by 2020-21, 4 years over their original target. Nuclear power seemingly cannot deliver the cheap, carbon free energy it promised and is being outperformed by renewable energy sources such as solar and wind.

The crucial and recurring issue with nuclear power is that it requires huge upfront costs, especially when plants are built individually, and can only provide revenue years after the start of construction. This means that investment into nuclear is risky, long term and cannot be done well on a small scale, though new technologies such as SMRs (Small Modular Reactors) may change this in the coming decades, making it a much bigger gamble. Improvements in other technologies over the period of time a nuclear plant is built means that is often better for private firms, who are less likely to be able to afford large scale programs enabling significant cost reductions or a lower debt to equity ration in their capital structure, to invest in more easily scalable and shorter term energy sources, especially with subsidies favouring renewables in many developed countries. All of this points to the fundamental flaw of nuclear: that it requires going all the way. Small scale nuclear programs that are funded mostly with debt, that have high discount rates and low capacity factors as they are switched off frequently will invariably have a very high Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE) as nuclear is so capital intensive.

That said, the reverse is true as well. Nuclear plants have very low operating costs, almost no external costs and the cost of decommissioning a plant are only a small portion of the initial capital cost, even with a low discount rate such as 3%, due to the long lifespan of a nuclear plant and the fact that many can be extended. Operating costs include fuel costs, which are extremely low for nuclear, costing only 0.0049 USD per kWh, and non-fuel operation and maintenance costs which are barely higher at 0.0137 USD per kWh. This includes waste disposal, a frequently cited political issue that has no longer been relevant technically for decades as waste can be reused relatively well and stored on site safely at very low costs simply because the quantity of fuel used and therefore waste produced is so small. The fuel, uranium is abundant and technology enabling uranium to be extracted from sea water would give access to a 60,000 year supply at present rates of consumption so costs from ‘resource depletion’ are also small. Finally, external costs represent a very small proportion of running costs: the highest estimates for health costs and potential accident are at 5€/MWh and 4€/MWh respectively, though some estimates fall to only 0.3€/MWh for potential accidents when past records are adjusted to try and factor in improvements in safety standards; though these vary significantly due to the fact that the total number of reactors is very small.

Nuclear power therefore remains still one of the cheapest ways to produce electricity in the right circumstances and many LCOE (Levelised Cost of Energy) estimates, which are designed to factor in all costs over the life time of a unit to give a more accurate representation of the costs of different types of energy, though they usually omit system costs, point to nuclear as a cheaper energy source than almost all renewables and most fossil fuels at low discount rates.

LCOE costs taken from ‘Projected Costs of Generating Electricity 2015 Edition’ and system costs taken from ‘Nuclear Energy and Renewables (NEA, 2012)’ have been combined by the World Nuclear association to give LCOE for four countries to compare the costs of nuclear to other energy sources. A discount rate of 7% is used, the study applies a $30/t CO2 price on fossil fuel use and uses 2013 US$ values and exchange rates. It is important to bear in mind that LCOE estimates vary widely as many assume different circumstances and they are very difficult to calculate, but it is clear from the graph that nuclear power is more than still viable; being the cheapest source in three of the four countries and third cheapest in the fourth behind onshore wind and gas.

2019-5-13-1557759917

Decision making during the Fukushima disaster

Introduction

On March 11, 2011 a tsunami struck the east coast of Japan, which resulted in a disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. During the day commencing the natural disaster many decisions were made with regards to managing the crisis. This paper will examine these decisions made during the crisis. The Governmental Politics Model, a model designed by Allison and Zelikow (1999), will be adopted to analyse the events. Therefore, the research question of this paper is: To what extent does the Governmental Politics Model explain the decisions made during the Fukushima disaster.

First, this paper will lay the theoretical basis for an analysis. The Governmental Politics Model and all crucial concepts within it are discussed. Then a conscription of the Fukushima case will follow. Since the reader is expected to already have general knowledge regarding the Fukushima Nuclear disaster the case description will be very brief. With the theoretical framework and case study a basis for the analysis is laid. The analysis will look into the decisions government and Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) officials made during the crisis.

Theory

Allison and Zelikow designed three theories to understand the outcomes of bureaucracies and decision making in the aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. The first theory to be designed was the Rational Actor Model. This model focusses on the ‘logic of consequences’ and has a basic assumption of rational actions of a unitary actor. The second theory designed by Allison and Zelikow is the Organizational Behavioural Model. This model focusses on the ‘logic of appropriateness’ and has a main assumption of loosely connected allied organizations (Broekema, 2019).

The third model thought of by Allison and Zelikow is the Governmental Politics Model (GPM). This model reviews the importance of power in decision-making. According to the GPM decision making has not to do with rational/unitary actors or organizational output but everything with a bargaining game. This means that governments make decisions in other ways, according to the GPM there are four aspects to this. These aspects are: the choices of one, the results of minor games and of central games and foul-ups (Allison & Zelikow, 1999).

The following concepts are essential in the GPM. First, it is important to note that power in government is shared. Different institutions have independent bases and, therefore, power is shared. Second, persuasion is an important factor in the GPM. The power to persuade differentiates power from authority. Third, bargaining according to the process is identified, this means there is a structure in the bargaining processes. Fourth, power equals impact on outcome is mentioned in the Essence of Decision making. This means that there is a difference between what can be done and what is actually done, and what is actually done has to do with the power involved in the process. Lastly, intranational and international relations are of great importance to the GPM. These relations are intertwined and involve a vast set if international and domestic actors (Allison & Zelikow, 1999).

Not only the five previous concepts are relevant for the GPM. The GPM is inherently based on group decisions, in this type of decision making Allison and Zelikow identify seven factors. The first factor is a positive one, group decisions, when met by certain requirements create better decisions. Secondly, the agency problem is identified, this problem includes information asymmetric and the fact that actors are competing over different goals. Third, it is important to identify the actors in the ‘game’. This means that one has to find out who participates in the bargaining process. Fourth, problems with different types of decisions are outlined. Fifth, framing issues and agenda setting is an important factor in the GPM. Sixth, group decisions are not necessarily positive, they can lead to groupthink easily. This is a negative consequence and means that no other opinions are considered. Last, the difficulties in collective actions is outlined by Allison and Zelikow. This has to do with the fact that the GPM does not consider unitary actors but different organizations (Allison & Zelikow, 1999).

Besides the concepts mentioned above the GPM consists of a concise paradigm too. This paradigm is essential for the analysis of the Fukushima case. The paradigm exists of six main points. The first main point is the fact that decisions are the result of politics, this is the GPM and once again stresses the fact that decisions are the result of bargaining. Second, as said before, it is important to identify the players of the political ‘game’. Furthermore, one has to identify their preferences and goals and what kind of impact they can have on the final decision. Once this is analysed, one has to look at what the actual game is that is played. The action channels and rules of the game can be determined. Third, the ‘dominant inference pattern’ once again goes back to the fact that the decisions are the result of bargaining, but this point makes clear that differences and misunderstandings have to be taken into account. Fourth, Allison and Zelikow identify ‘general propositions’ this term includes all concepts examined in the second paragraph of the theory section of this paper. Fifth, specific propositions are looked at, these specify to decisions on the use of force and military action. Last, is the importance of evidence. When examining crisis decision making documented timelines and for example, minutes or other account are of great importance (Allison & Zelikow, 1999).

Case

In the definition of Prins and Van den Berg (2018) the Fukushima Daiichi disaster can be regarded as a safety case, this is because it was an unintentional event that caused harm to humans.

The crisis was initiated by an earthquake of 9.0 on the Richter scale which was followed by a tsunami, which waves reached a height of 10 meters. Due to the earthquake all external power lines, which are needed for cooling the fuel rods, were disconnected. Countermeasures for this issue were in place, however, the water walls were unable to protect the nuclear plant from flooding. This caused the countermeasures, the diesel generators, to be inadequate (Kushida, 2016).

Due to the lack of electricity, the nuclear fuel rods were not cooled, therefore, a ‘race for electricity’ started. Eventually the essential decision to inject sea water was made. Moreover, the situation inside the reactors was unknown. Meltdowns in reactors 1 and 2 already occurred. Because of explosions risks the decision to vent the reactors was made. However, hydrogen explosions materialized in reactors 1,2 and 4. This in turn led to the exposure of radiation to the environment. To counter the disperse of radiation the decision to inject sea water to the reactors was made (Kushida, 2016).

Analysis

This analysis will look into the decision or decisions to inject seawater in the damaged reactors. First, a timeline of the decisions will be outlined to further build on the case study above. Then the events and decisions made will be paralleled to the GPM paradigm with the six main points as described in the theory.

The need to inject sea water arose after the first stages as described in the case study passed. According to Kushida government officials and political leaders began voicing the necessity of injecting the water at 6:00 p.m., the day after the earthquake, on March 12. It would according to these officials have one very positive outcome, namely, the cooling of the reactors and the fuel pool. However, the use of sea water might have negative consequences too. It would ruin the reactors because of the salt in the sea water and it would produce vast amounts of contaminated water which would be hard to contain (Kushida, 2016). TEPCO experienced many difficulties with cooling the reactors, as is described in the case study, because of the lack of electricity. However, they were averse to injecting sea water into the reactors since this would ruin them. Still, after the first hydrogen explosion occurred in reactor one TEPCO plant workers started the injection of sea water in this specific reactor (Holt et al., 2012). A day later, on March 13, sea water injection started in reactor 3. On the 14th of March, seawater injection started in reactor 2 (Holt et al., 2012).

When looking at the decisions made by the government or TEPCO plant workers it is crucial to consider the chain of decision making by TEPCO leadership too. TEPCO leadership was in the first instance not very positive towards injecting seawater because of the earlier mentioned disadvantages, the plant would become unusable in the future and vast amounts of contaminated water would be created. Therefore, the government had to issue an order to TEPCO to start injecting seawater. They did so at 8:00 p.m. on 12 March. However, Yoshida, the Fukushima Daiichi Plant Manager already started injecting seawater at 7:00 p.m. (Kushida, 2016).

As one can already see different interests were at play and the outcome of the eventual decision can well be a political resultant. Therefore, it is crucial to examine the chain of decisions through the GPM paradigm. The first factor of this paradigm concerns decisions as a result of bargaining, this can clearly be seen in the decision to inject seawater. TEPCO leadership initially was not a proponent of this method, however, after government officials ordered them to execute the injection they had no choice. Second, according to the theory, it is important to identify the players of the ‘game’ and their goals. In this instance these divisions are easily identifiable, three different players can be pointed out. The different players are the government, TEPCO leadership and Yoshida, the plant manager. The Government has as a goal to keep their citizens safe during the crisis, TEPCO wanted to maintain the reactor as long as possible, whereas, Yoshida wanted to contain the crisis. This shows there were conflicting goals in that sense.

To further apply the GPM to the decision to inject seawater one can review the comprehensive ‘general proposition’. In this part miscommunication is a very relevant factor. Miscommunication was certainly a big issue in the decision to inject seawater. As said before Yoshida, already started injecting seawater before he received approval from his chiefs. One might even wonder whether or not there was a misunderstanding of the crisis by TEPCO leadership because of the fact that they hesitated to inject seawater necessary to cool the reactors. It can be argued that this hesitation constitutes a great deal of misunderstanding of the crisis since there was no plant to be saved anymore at the time the decision was made.

The fifth and sixth aspect of the GPM paradigm are less relevant to the decisions made. This is because ‘specific proposition’ refers to the use of force, which was not an option in dealing with the Fukushima crisis. The Japanese Self-Defence forces were dispatched to the plant; however, this was to provide electricity (Kushida, 2016). Furthermore, the sixth aspect, evidence is not as important in this case since many scholars, researchers and investigators have written to a great extent about what happened during the Fukushima crisis, more than sufficient information is available.

The political and bargaining game in the decision to inject seawater into the reactors is clearly visible. The different actors in the game had different goals, however, eventually the government won this game and the decision to inject seawater was made. Even before that the plant manager already to inject seawater because the situation was too dire.

Conclusion

This essay reviewed decision making during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster on the 11th of March 2011. More specifically the decision to inject seawater into the reactors to cool them was scrutinized. This was done by using the Governmental Politics Model. The decision to inject seawater into the reactors was a result of a bargaining game and different actors with different objectives played the decision-making ‘game’.

2019-3-18-1552918037

Tackling misinformation on social media: college essay help online

As the world of social media expands, the ratio of miscommunication rises as more organisations hop on the bandwagon of utilising the digital realm to their advantage. Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, online forums and other websites become the pinnacle of news gathering for many individuals. Information becomes easily accessible to all walks of life meaning that people are becoming more integrated about real life issues. Consumers absorb and take information in as easy as ever before which proves to be equally advantageous and disadvantageous. But, There is an evident boundary in which the differentiation of misleading and truthful information is hard to cross without research on the topic. The accuracy of public information is highly questionable which could easily lead to problems. Despite there being a debate about source credibility in any platform, there are ways to tackle the issue through “expertise/competence (i. e., the degree to which a perceiver believes a sender to know the truth), trustworthiness (i. e., the degree to which a perceiver believes a sender will tell the truth as he or she knows it), and goodwill”. (Cronkhite & Liska (1976)) Which is why it has become critical for this to be accurate, ethical and reliable for the consumers. Verifying information is important regardless of the type of social media outlet. This essay will be highlighting the importance of why information need to fit this criteria.

By putting out credible information it prevents and reduces misconception, convoluted meanings and inconsistent facts which reduce the likeliness of issues surfacing. This in turn saves time for the consumer and the producer. The presence of risk raises the issue of how much of this information should be consumed by the public. The perception of source credibility becomes an important concept to analyse within social media, especially in terms of crisis where rationality reduces and the latter often just take the first thing that is seen. With the increasing amount of information available through newer channels, the idea of releasing information from professionals of the topic devolve away from the producers and onto consumers. (Haas & Wearden, 2003) Many of the public is unaware that this information is prone to bias and selective information sharing which could communicate the actual facts much differently. One such example is the incident of Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s Fukushima No.1 nuclear power plant in 2011, where the plant experienced triple meltdowns. There is a misconception floating around that the food exported from Fukushima is too contaminated with radioactive substances making them unhealthy and unfit to eat. But the truth is that this isn’t the case when strict screening reveals that the contamination is below the government standard to pose a threat. (arkansa.gov.au) Since then, products shipped from Fukushima have dropped considerably in prices and have not recovered since 2011 forcing retailers into bankruptcy. (japantimes.co.jp) But thanks to the use of social media and organisations releasing information out into the public, Fukushima was able to raise funds and receive help from other countries. For example the U.S. sending $100,000 and China sending emergency supplies as assistance. (theguardian.com) This would have been impossible to achieve without the use of sharing credible, reliable and ethical information regarding the country and social media support spotlighting the incident.

Accurate, ethical and reliable information open the pathway for producers to secure a relationship with the consumers which can be used to strengthen their own businesses and expand their industries further whilst gaining support from the public. The idea is to have a healthy relationship without the air of uneasiness where monetary gains and social earnings increase. Social media playing a pivotal role in deciding the route the relationship falls in. But, When done incorrectly, organisations can become unsuccessful when they know little to nothing about the change of dynamics in consumers and behaviour in the digital landscape. Consumer informedness means that consumers are well informed about products or services available with precision influencing their willingness in decisions. This increase in consumer informedness can instigate change in consumer behaviour. (uni-osnabrueck.de) In the absence of accurate, ethical and reliable information, people and organisations will make terrible decisions with no hesitation. Which leads to losses and steps backwards. As Saul Eslake (Saul-Eslake.com) says, “they will be unable to help or persuade others to make better decisions; and no-one will be able to ascertain whether the decisions made by particular individuals or organisations were the best ones that could have been made at the time”. Recently, a YouTuber named Shawn Dawson made a video that sparked controversy to the company ‘Chuck E. Cheese’ for their pizzas slices that do not look like they belong to the whole pizza. He created a theory that part of the pizzas may have been reheated or recycled from other tables. In response Chuck E. Cheese responded in multiple media outlets to debunk the theory, “These claims are unequivocally false. We prep the dough daily for our made to order pizzas, which means they’re not always perfectly round, but they are still great tasting.” (https://twitter.com/chuckecheeses) It is worth bringing up that no information other than pictures back up the claim that they reused the pizza. The food company has also gone far to create a video showing the pizza preparation. To back as the support, ex-employees spoke up and shared their own side of the story to debunk the theory further. It’s these quick responses that saved what could have caused a small downfall in sale for the Chuck E. Cheese company. (washintonpost.com) This event highlights the importance on the release of information that can fall in favour to whoever utilises it correctly and the effectiveness of credible information that should be taken to heart. Credible information is good and bad especially when it has the support of others whether online or real life. The assumption or guess when there is no information available to base from is called a ‘heuristic value’ which is seen associated with information that has no credibility.

Mass media have been a dominant source of finding information (Murch, 1971). They are generally thought and assumed to provide credible, valuable, and ethical information open to the public (Heath, Liao, & Douglas, 1995). However, along with traditional forms of media, newer media are increasingly available for information seeking and reports. According to PNAS (www.pnas.org), “The emergence of social media as a key source of news content has created a new ecosystem for the spreading of misinformation. This is illustrated by the recent rise of an old form of misinformation: blatantly false news stories that are presented as if they are legitimate . So-called “fake news” rose to prominence as a major issue during the 2016 US presidential election and continues to draw significant attention.” This affects how we as social beings perceive and analyse information we see online compared to real life. Beyond just reducing the intervention’s effectiveness, failing to deduce stories from real to false increase the belief of false content. Leading to biased and misleading content that fool the audience. One such incident is Michael Jackson’s death in June 2009 where he died from acute propofol and benzodiazepine intoxication administered by his doctor, Dr. Murray. (nytimes.com) It was deduced from the public that Michael Jackson was murdered on purpose but the court convicted, Dr. Murray of involuntary murder as the doctor proclaimed that Jackson begged him to give more. A fact that was overlooked by the general due to bias. This underlines how information is selectively picked from the public and not all information is revealed to sway the audience. A study conducted online by Jason and his team (JCMC [CQU]) revealed that Facebook users tended to believe their friends almost instantly even without a link or proper citation to a website to backup their claim. “Using a person who has frequent social media interactions with the participant was intended to increase the external validity of the manipulation.” Meaning information online that can be taken as truth or not is left to the perception of the viewer linking to the idea that information online isn’t credible fully unless it came straight from the source. Proclaiming the importance of credible information to be released.

Information has the power to inform, explain and expand on topics and concepts. But it also has the power to create inaccuracies and confusion which is hurtful to the public and damages the reputation of companies. The goal is to move forward not backwards. Many companies have gotten themselves into disputes because of incorrect information which could have easily been avoided through releasing accurate, ethical and reliable information from the beginning. False Information can start disputes and true information can provide resolution. The public has become less attentive to mainstream news altogether which strikes a problem on what can be trusted. Companies and organisations need their information to be accurate and reliable as much as possible to defeat and reduce this issue. Increased negativity and incivility exacerbate the media’s credibility problem. “People of all political persuasions are growing more dissatisfied with the news, as levels of media trust decline.” (JCMC [CQU]) In 2010, Dannon’s ‘Activia Yogurt’ released an online statement and false advertisement that their yogurt had “special bacterial ingredients.” A consumer named, Trish Wiener lodged a complaint against Dannon. The yogurts were being marketed as being “clinically” and “scientifically” proven to boost the immune system while able to help to regulate digestion. However, the judge saw this statement as unproven. As well as many other products in their line that used this statement in their products. “This landed the company a $45 million class action settlement.” (businessinsider.com) it didn’t help that Dannon’s prices for their yogurt was inflated compared to other yogurts in the market. “The lawsuit claims Dannon has spent “far more than $100 million” to convey deceptive messages to U.S. consumers while charging 30 percent more that other yogurt products.” (reuters.com) This highlights how inaccurate information can cost millions of dollars to settle and resolve. However it also showed how the public can easily evict irresponsible producers from their actions and give leeway to justice.

2019-5-2-1556794982

Socio-political significance of Turkey’s emergent neo-Ottoman cultural phenomenon

Over the last decade, Turkey’s cultural sphere has witnessed a motto of Ottomania—a term describing the recent cultural fervor for everything Ottoman. Although this neo-Ottoman cultural phenomenon, is not entirely new since it had its previous cycle back in the 1980s and 1990s during the heyday of Turkey’s political Islam, it now has a rather novel characteristic and distinct pattern of operation. This revived Ottoman craze is discernable in what I call the neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble—referring to a growing array of Ottoman-themed cultural productions and sites that evoke Turkey’s Ottoman-Islamic cultural heritage. For example, the celebration of the 1453 Istanbul conquest no longer merely takes place as an annual public commemoration by the Islamists,[1] but has been widely promulgated, reproduced, and consumed into various forms of popular culture such as: the Panorama 1453 History Museum; a fun ride called the Conqueror’s Dream (Fatih’in Rüyası) at the Vialand theme park; the highly publicized and grossed blockbuster The Conquest 1453 (Fetih 1453); and the primetime television costume drama The Conqueror (Fatih). It is the “banal”, or “mundane,” ways of everyday practice of society itself, rather than the government or state institutions that distinguishes this emergent form of neo-Ottomanism from its earlier phases.[2]

This is the context in which the concept of neo-Ottomanism has acquired its cultural dimension and analytical currency for comprehending the proliferating neo-Ottoman cultural phenomenon. However, when the concept is employed in contemporary cultural debates, it generally follows two trajectories that are common in the literature of Turkish domestic and foreign politics. These trajectories conceptualize neo-Ottomanism as an Islamist political ideology and/or a doctrine of Turkey’s foreign policy in the post-Cold War era. This essay argues that these two conventional conceptions tend to overlook the complexity and hybridity of Turkey’s latest phase of neo-Ottomanism. As a result, they tend to understand the emergent neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble as merely a representational apparatus of the neoconservative Justice and Development Party’s (AKP; Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi) ideology and diplomatic strategy.

This essay hence aims to reassess the analytical concept of neo-Ottomanism and the emergent neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble by undertaking three tasks. First, through a brief critique of the concept of neo-Ottomanism, I will discuss its common trajectories and limitations for comprehending the latest phase of neo-Ottoman cultural phenomenon. My second task is to propose a conceptual move from neo-Ottomanism to Ottomentality by incorporating the Foucauldian perspective of governmentality. Ottomentality is an alternative concept that I deployed here to underscore the overlapping relationship between neoliberal and neo-Ottoman rationalities in the AKP’s government of culture and diversity. I contend that neoliberalism and neo-Ottomanism are inseparable governing rationalities of the AKP and their convergence has engendered new modes of governing the cultural field as well as regulating inter-ethnic and inter-religious relations in Turkey. And finally, I will reassess the neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble through the analytical lens of Ottomentality. I contend that the convergence of neoliberal and neo-Ottoman rationalities has significantly transformed the relationships of state, culture, and the social. As the cases of the television historical drama Magnificent Century (Muhteşem Yüzyıl) and the film The Conquest 1453 (Fetih 1453) shall illustrate, the neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble plays a significant role as a governing technique that constitutes a new regime of truth based on market mentality and religious truth. It also produces a new subject of citizenry, who is responsible for enacting its right to freedom through participation in the culture market, complying with religious norms and traditional values, and maintaining a difference-blind and discriminatory model of multiculturalism.

A critique of neo-Ottomanism as an analytical concept

Although the concept of neo-Ottomanism has been commonly used in Turkish Studies, it has become a loose term referring to anything associated with the Islamist political ideology, nostalgia for the Ottoman past, and imperialist ambition of reasserting Turkey’s economic and political influence within the region and beyond. Some scholars have recently indicated that the concept of neo-Ottomanism is running out of steam as it lacks meaningful definition and explanatory power in studies of Turkish politics and foreign policy.[3] The concept’s ambiguity and impotent analytical and explanatory value is mainly due to the divergent, competing interpretations and a lack of critical evaluation within the literature.[4] Nonetheless, despite the concept being equivocally defined, it is most commonly understood in two identifiable trajectories. First, it is conceptualized as an Islamist ideology, responding to the secularist notions of modernity and nationhood and aiming to reconstruct Turkish identity by evoking Ottoman-Islamic heritage as an essential component of Turkish culture. Although neo-Ottomanism was initially formulated by a collaborated group of secular, liberal, and conservative intellectuals and political actors in the 1980s, it is closely linked to the consolidated socio-economic and political power of conservative middle-class. This trajectory considers neo-Ottomanism as primarily a form of identity politics and a result of political struggle in opposition to the republic’s founding ideology of Kemalism. Second, it is understood as an established foreign policy framework reflecting the AKP government’s renewed diplomatic strategy in the Balkans, Central Asia, and Middle East wherein Turkey plays an active role. This trajectory regards neo-Ottomanism as a political doctrine (often referring to Ahmet Davutoglu’s Strategic Depth serving as the guidebook for Turkey’s diplomatic strategy in the 21st century), which sees Turkey as a “legitimate heir of the Ottoman Empire”[5] and seeks to reaffirm Turkey’s position in the changing world order in the post-Cold War era.[6]

As a result of a lack of critical evaluation of the conventional conceptions of neo-Ottomanism, contemporary cultural analyses have largely followed the “ideology” and “foreign policy” trajectories as explanatory guidance when assessing the emergent neo-Ottoman cultural phenomenon. I contend that the neo-Ottoman cultural phenomenon is more complex than what these two trajectories offer to explain. Analyses that adopt these two approaches tend to run a few risks. First, they tend to perceiveneo-Ottomanism as a monolithic imposition upon society. They presume that this ideology, when inscribed onto domestic and foreign policies, somehow has a direct impact on how society renews its national interest and identity.[7] And they tend to understand the neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble as merely a representational device of the neo-Ottomanist ideology. For instance, Şeyda Barlas Bozkuş, in her analyses of the Miniatürk theme park and the 1453 Panorama History Museum, argues that these two sites represent the AKP’s “ideological emphasis on neo-Ottomanism” and “[create] a new class of citizens with a new relationship to Turkish-Ottoman national identity.”[8] Second, contemporary cultural debates tend to overlook the complex and hybrid nature of the latest phase of neo-Ottomanism, which rarely operates on its own, but more often relies on and converges with other political rationalities, projects, and programs. As this essay shall illustrate, when closely examined, current configuration of neo-Ottomanism is more likely to reveal internal inconsistencies as well as a combination of multiple and intersecting political forces.

Moreover, as a consequence of the two risks mentioned above, contemporary cultural debates may have overlooked some of the symptomatic clues, hence, underestimated the socio-political significance of the latest phase of neo-Ottomanism. A major symptomatic clue that is often missed in cultural debates on the subject is culture itself. Insufficient attention has been paid to the AKP’s rationale of reconceptualizing culture as an administrative matter—a matter that concerns how culture is to be perceived and managed, by what culture the social should be governed, and how individuals might govern themselves with culture. At the core of the AKP government’s politics of culture and neoliberal reform of the cultural filed is the question of the social.[9] Its reform policies, projects, and programs are a means of constituting a social reality and directing social actions. When culture is aligned with neoliberal governing rationality, it redefines a new administrative culture and new rules and responsibilities of citizens in cultural practices. Culture has become not only a means to advance Turkey in global competition,[10] but also a technology of managing the diversifying culture resulted in the process of globalization. As Brian Silverstein notes, “[culture] is among other things and increasingly to be seen as a major target of administration and government in a liberalizing polity, and less a phenomenon in its ownright.”[11] While many studies acknowledge the AKP government’s neoliberal reform of the cultural field, they tend to regard neo-Ottomanism as primarily an Islamist political agenda operating outside of the neoliberal reform. It is my conviction that neoliberalism and neo-Ottomanism are inseparable political processes and rationalities, which have merged and engendered new modalities of governing every aspect of cultural life in society, including minority cultural rights, freedom of expression, individuals’ lifestyle, and so on. Hence, by overlooking the “centrality of culture”[12] in relation to the question of the social, contemporary cultural debates tend to oversimplify the emergent neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble as nothing more than an ideological machinery of the neoconservative elite.

From neo-Ottomanism to Ottomentality

In order to more adequately assess the socio-political significance of Turkey’s emergent neo-Ottoman cultural phenomenon, I propose a conceptual shift from neo-Ottomanism to Ottomentality. This shift involves not only rethinking neo-Ottomanism as a form of governmentality, but also thinking neoliberal and neo-Ottoman rationalities in collaborative terms. Neo-Ottomanism is understood here as Turkey’s current form of neoconservatism, a prevalent political rationality that its governmental practices are not solely based on Islamic values, but also draws from and produces a new political culture that considers Ottoman-Islamic toleration and pluralism as the foundation of modern liberal multiculturalism in Turkey. Neoliberalism, in the same vein, far from a totalizing concept describing an established set of political ideology or economic policy, is conceived here as a historically and locally specific form of governmentality that must be analyzed by taking into account the multiple political forces which gave its unique shape in Turkey.[13] My claim is that when these two rationalities merge at the cultural domain, they engender a new art of government, which I call the government of culture and diversity.

This approach is therefore less concerned with a particular political ideology or the question of “how to govern,” but more about the “different styles of thought, their conditions of formation, the principles and knowledges that they borrow from and generate, the practices they consist of, how they are carried out, their contestations and alliances with other arts of governing.”[14] In light of this view, and for a practical purpose, Ottomentality is an alternative concept that I attempt to develop here to avoid the ambiguous meanings and analytical limitations of neo-Ottomanism. This concept underscores to the convergence of neoliberal and neo-Ottoman rationalities as well as the interrelated discourses, projects, policies, and strategies that are developed around them for regulating cultural activities and directing inter-ethnic and inter-religious relations in Turkey. It pays attention to the techniques and practices that have significant effects on the relationships of state, culture, and the social. It is concerned with the production of knowledge, or truth, based on which a new social reality of ‘freedom,’ ‘tolerance,’ and ‘multiculturalism’ in Turkey is constituted. Furthermore, it helps to identify the type of political subject, whose demand for cultural rights and participatory democracy is reduced to market terms and a narrow understanding of multiculturalism. And their criticism of this new social reality is increasingly subjected to judicial exclusion and discipline.

I shall note that Ottomentality is an authoritarian type of governmentality—a specific type of illiberal rule operated within the structure of modern liberal democracy. As Mitchell Dean notes, although the literature on governmentality has focused mainly on liberal democratic rules that are practiced through the individual subjects’ active role (as citizens) and exercise of freedom, there are also “non-liberal and explicitly authoritarian types of rule that seek to operate through obedient rather than free subjects, or, at a minimum, endeavor to neutralize any opposition to authority.”[15] He suggests that a useful way to approach to this type of governmentality would be to identify the practices and rationalities which “divide” or “exclude” those who are subjected to be governed.[16] According to Foucault’s notion of “dividing practices,” “[t]he subject is either divided inside himself or divided from others. This process objectivizes him. Examples are the mad and the sane, the sick and the healthy, the criminals and the ‘good boys’.”[17] Turkey’s growing neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble can be considered as such exclusionary practices, which seek to regulate the diversifying culture by dividing the subjects into categorical, if not polarized, segments based on their cultural differences. For instance, mundane practices such as going to the museums and watching television shows may produce subject positions which divide subjects into such categories as the pious and the secular, the moral and the degenerate, and the Sunni-Muslim-Turk and the ethno-religious minorities.

Reassessing the neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble through the lens of Ottomentality

In this final section, I propose a reassessment of the emergent neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble by looking beyond the conventional conceptions of neo-Ottomanism as “ideology” and “foreign policy.” Using the analytical concept of Ottomentality, I aim to examine the state’s changing role and governing rationality in culture, the discursive processes of knowledge production for rationalizing certain practices of government, and the techniques of constituting a particular type of citizenry who acts upon themselves in accordance with the established knowledge/truth. Nonetheless, before proceeding to an analysis of the government of culture and diversity, a brief overview of the larger context in which the AKP’s Ottomentality took shape would be helpful.

Context

Since the establishment of the Turkish republic, the state has played a major role in maintaining a homogeneous national identity by suppressing public claims of ethnic and religious differences through militaristic intervention. The state’s strict control of cultural life in society, in particular its assertive secularist approach to religion and ethnic conception of Turkish citizenship, has resulted in unsettling tensions between ethno-religious groups in the 1980s and 1990s, i.e. the Kurdish question and the 1997 “soft coup.” These social tensions indicated the limits of state-led modernization and secularization projects in accommodating ethnic and pious segments of society.[18] This was also a time when Turkey began to witness the declining authority of the founding ideology of Kemalism as an effect of economic and political liberalization. When the AKP came to power in 2002, one of the most urgent political questions was thus the “the limits of what the state can—or ought for its own good—reasonably demand of citizens […] to continue to make everyone internalize an ethnic conception of Turkishness.”[19] At this political juncture, it was clear that a more inclusive socio-political framework was necessary in order to mitigate the growing tension resulted in identity claims.

Apart from domestic affairs, a few vital transnational initiatives also took part in the AKP’s formulation of neoliberal and neo-Ottoman rationalities. First, in the aftermath of the attacks in New York on September 11 (9/11) in 2001, the Middle East and Muslim communities around the world became the target ofintensified political debates. In the midst of anti-Muslim and anti-terror propaganda, Turkey felt a need to rebuild its image by aligning with the United Nations’ (UN) resolution of “The Alliance of Civilizations,” which called for cross-cultural dialogue between countries through cultural exchange programs and transnational business partnership.[20] Turkey took on the leading role in this resolution and launched extensive developmental plans that were designated to rebuild Turkey’s image as a civilization of tolerance and peaceful co-existence.[21] The Ottoman-Islamic civilization, known for its legacy of cosmopolitanism and ethno-religious toleration, hence became an ideal trademark of Turkey for the project of “alliance of civilizations.”[22]

Second, Turkey’s accelerated EU negotiation between the late 1990s and mid 2000s provided a timely opportunity for the newly elected AKP government to launch “liberal-democratic reform,”[23] which would significantly transform the way culture was to be administered. Culture, among the prioritized areas of administrative reform, was now reorganized to comply with the EU integration plan. By incorporating the EU’s aspect of culture as a way of enhancing “freedom, democracy, solidarity and respect for diversity,”[24] the AKP-led national cultural policy would shift away from the state-centered, protectionist model of the Kemalist establishment towards one that highlights “principles of mutual tolerance, cultural variety, equality and opposition to discrimination.”[25]

Finally, the selection of Istanbul as 2010 European Capital of Culture (ECoC) is particularly worth noting as this event enabled local authorities to put into practice the neoliberal and neo-Ottoman governing rationalities through extensive urbanprojects and branding techniques. By sponsoring and showcasing different European cities each year, the ECoC program aims at promoting a multicultural European identity beyond national borders.[26] The 2010 Istanbul ECoC was an important opportunity for Turkey not only to promote its EU candidacy, but also for the local governments to pursue urban developmental projects.[27] Some of the newly formed Ottoman-themed cultural sites and productions were a part of the ECoC projects for branding Istanbul as cultural hub where the East and West meet. It is in this context that the interplay between the neoliberal and neo-Ottoman rationalities can be vividly observed in the form of neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble.

Strong state, culture, and the social

Given the contextual background mentioned above, one could argue that the AKP’s neoliberal and neo-Ottoman rationalities arose as critiques of the republican state’s excessive intervention in society’s cultural life. The transnational initiatives that required Turkey to adopt a liberal democratic paradigm have therefore given way to the formulation and convergence of these two forms of governmentalities that would significantly challenge the state-centered approach to culture as a means of governing the social. However, it would be inaccurate to claim that the AKP’s prioritization of private initiatives in cultural governance has effectively decentralized or democratized the cultural domain from the state’s authoritarian intervention and narrow definition of Turkish culture. Deregulation of culture entails sophisticated legislations concerning the roles of the state and civil society in cultural governance. Hence, for instance, the law of promotion of culture, the law of media censorship, and the new national cultural policy prepared by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism explicitly indicate not only a new vision of national culture, but also the roles of the state and civil society in promoting and preserving national culture. It shall be noted that culture as a governing technology is not an invention of the AKP government. Culture has always been a major area of administrative concern throughout the history of the Turkish republic. As Murat Katoğlu illustrates, during the early republic, culture was conceptualized as part of the state-led “public service” aimed to inform and educate the citizens.[28] Arts and culture were essential means for modernizing the nation; for instance,the state-run cultural institutions, i.e. state ballet, theater, museum, radio and television, “[indicate] the type of modern life style that the government was trying to advocate.”[29] Nonetheless, the role of the state, the status of culture, and the techniques of managing it have been transformed as Turkey undergoes neoliberal reform. In addition, Aksoy suggests that what distinguishes the AKP’s neoliberal mode of cultural governance from that of the early republic modernization project is that market mentality has become the administrative norm.[30] Culture now is reconceptualized as an asset for advancing Turkey in global competition and a site for exercising individual freedom rather than a mechanism of social engineering. And Turkey’s heritage of Ottoman-Islamic civilization in particular is utilized as a nation branding technique to enhance Turkey’s economy, rather than a corrupt past to be forgotten. To achieve the aim of efficient, hence good, governance, the AKP’s cultural governance has heavily relied on privatization as a means to limit state intervention. Thus, privatization has not only transformed culture into an integral part of the free market, but also redefined the state’s role as a facilitator of the culture market, rather than the main provider of cultural service to the public.

The state’s withdrawal from cultural service and prioritization of the civil society to take on the initiatives of preserving and promoting Turkish “cultural values and traditional arts”[31] lead to an immediate effect of the declining authority of the Kemalist cultural establishment. Since many of the previously state-run cultural institutions now are managed with corporate mentality, they begin to lose their status as state-centered institutions and significance in defining and maintaining a homogeneous Turkish culture that they once did. Instead, these institutions, together with other newly formed cultural sites and productions by private initiatives, are converted into a market place or cultural commodities in competition with each other. Hence, privatization of culture leads to the following consequences: First, it weakens and hollows out the 20th century notion of modern secular nation state, which sets a clear boundary confining religion within the private sphere. Second, it gives way to the neoconservative force, who “models state authority on [religious] authority, a pastoral relation of the state to its flock, and a concern with unified rather than balanced or checked state power.”[32] Finally, it converts social issues that are resulted from political actions into market terms and a sheer matter of culture, which is now left to personal choice.[33] As a result, far from a declining state, Ottomentality has constituted a strong state. In particular, neoliberal governance of the cultural field has enabled the ruling neoconservative government to mobilize a new set of political truth and norms for directing inter-ethnic and inter-religious relations in society.

New regime of truth

Central to Foucault’s notion of governmentality is “truth games”[34]—referring to the activities of knowledge production through which particular thoughts are rendered truthful and practices of government are made reasonable.[35] What Foucault calls the “regime of truth” is not concerned about facticity, but a coherent set of practices that connect different discourses and make sense of the political rationalities marking the “division between true and false.”[36] The neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble is a compelling case through which the AKP’s investment of thought, knowledge production, and truth telling can be observed. Two cases are particularly worth mentioning here as I work through the politics of truth in the AKP’s neoliberal governance of culture and neo-Ottoman management of diversity.

Between 2011 and 2014, the Turkish television historical drama Magnificent Century (Muhteşem Yüzyıl, Muhteşem hereafter), featuring the life of the Ottoman Sultan Süleyman, who is known for his legislative establishment in the 16th century Ottoman Empire, attracted wide viewership in Turkey and abroad, especially in the Balkans and Middle East. Although the show played a significant role in generating international interests in Turkey’s tourism, culinary, Ottoman-Islamicarts and history, etc. (which are the fundamental aims of the AKP-led national cultural policy to promote Turkey through arts and culture, including media export),[37] it received harsh criticism among some Ottoman(ist) historians and warning from the RTUK (Radio and Television Supreme Council, a key institution of media censorship and regulation in Turkey). The criticism included the show’s misrepresentation of the Sultan as a hedonist and its harm to moral and traditional values of society. Oktay Saral, an AKP deputy of Istanbul at the time, petitioned to the parliament for a law to ban the show. He said, “[The] law would […] show filmmakers [media practitioners] how to conduct their work in compliance with Turkish family structure and moral values without humiliating Turkish youth and children.”[38] Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (Prime Minister then) also stated, “[those] who toy with these [traditional] values would be taught a lesson within the premises of law.”[39] After his statement, the show was removed from in-flight-channels of national flag carrier Turkish Airlines.

Another popular media production, the 2012 blockbuster The Conquest 1453 (Fetih 1453, Fetih hereafter), which was acclaimed for its success in domestic and international box offices, also generated mixed receptions among Turkish and foreign audiences. Some critics in Turkey and European Christians criticized the film for its selective interpretation of the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople and offensive portrayal of the (Byzantine) Christians. The Greek weekly To Proto Thema denounced that the film served as a “conquest propaganda by the Turks” and “[failed] to show the mass killings of Greeks and the plunder of the land by the Turks.”[40] A Turkish critic also commented that the film portrays the “extreme patriotism” in Turkey “without any hint of […] tolerance sprinkled throughout [the film].”[41] Furthermore, a German Christian association campaigned to boycott the film. Meanwhile, the AKP officials on the contrary praised the film for its genuine representation of the conquest. As Bülent Arınç (Deputy Prime Minister then) stated, “This is truly the best film ever made in the past years.”[42] He also responded to the questions regarding the film’s historical accuracy, “This is a film, not a documentary. The film in general fairly represents all the events that occurred during the conquest as the way we know it.”[43]

When Muhteşem and Fetih are examined within the larger context in which the neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble is formed, the connections between particular types of knowledge and governmental practice become apparent. First, the cases of Muhteşem and Fetih reveal the saturation of market rationality as the basis for a new model of cultural governance. When culture is administered in market terms, it becomes a commodity for sale and promotion as well as an indicator of a number of things for measuring the performance of cultural governance. When Turkey’s culture, in particular Ottoman-Islamic cultural heritage, is converted into an asset and national brand to advance the country in global competition, the reputation and capital it generates become indicators of Turkey’s economic development and progress. The overt emphasis on economic growth, according to Irving Kristol, is one of the distinctive features that differentiate the neoconservatives from their conservative predecessors. He suggests that, for the neoconservatives, economic growth is what gives “modern democracies their legitimacy and durability.”[44] In the Turkish context, the rising neoconservative power, which consisted of a group of Islamists and secular, liberal intellectuals and entrepreneurs (at least in the early years of the AKP’s rule), had consistently focused on boosting Turkey’s economy. For them, economic development seems to have become the appropriate way of making “conservative politics suitable to governing a modern democracy.”[45] Henceforth, such high profile cultural productions as Muhteşem and Fetih are of valuable assets that serve the primary aim of the AKP-led cultural policy because they contribute to the growth in the related areas of tourism and culture industry by promoting Turkey at international level. Based on market rationality, as long as culture can generate productivity and profit, the government is doing a splendid job in governance. In other words, when neoliberal and neoconservative forces converge at the cultural domain, both culture and good governance are reduced to and measured by economic growth, which has become a synonym for democracy “equated with the existence of formal rights, especially private property rights; with the market; and with voting,” rather than political autonomy.[46]

Second, the AKP officials’ applause of Fetih on the one hand and criticism of Muhteşem on the other demonstrates their assertion of the moral-religious authority of the state. As the notion of nation state sovereignty has become weakened by the processes of economic liberalization and globalization, the boundary that separates religion and state has become blurred. As a result, religion becomes “de-privatized” and surges back into the public sphere.[47] This blurred boundary between religion and state has enabled the neoconservative AKP to establish links between religious authority and state authority as well as between religious truth and political truth.[48] These links are evident in the AKP officials’ various public statements declaring the government’s moral mission of sanitizing Turkish culture in accordance with Islamic and traditional values. For instance, as Erdoğan once reacted to his secular opponent’s comment about his interference in politics with religious views, “we [AKP] will raise a generation that is conservative and democratic and embraces the values and historical principles of its nation.”[49] According to his view, despite Muhteşem’s contribution of generating growth in industries of culture and tourism, it became subjected to censorship and legal action because its content did not comply with the governing authority’s moral mission. The controversy of Muhteşem illustrates the rise of a religion-based political truth in Turkey, which sees Islam as the main reference for directing society’s moral conduct and individual lifestyle. Henceforth, by rewarding desirable actions (i.e. with sponsorship law and tax incentives)[50] and punishing undesirable ones (i.e. through censorship, media ban, and jail term for media practitioners’ misconduct), the AKP-led reform of the cultural field constitutes a new type of political culture and truth—one that is based on moral-religious views rather than rational reasoning.

Moreover, the AKP officials’ support for Fetih reveals its endeavor in a neo-Ottomanist knowledge, which regards the 1453 Ottoman conquest of Constantinople as the foundation of modern liberal multiculturalism in Turkey. This knowledge perceives Islam as the centripetal force for enhancing social cohesion by transcending differences between faith and ethnic groups. It rejects candid and critical interpretations of history and insists on a singular view of Ottoman-Islamic pluralism and a pragmatic understanding of the relationship between religion and state.[51] It does not require historical accuracy since religious truth is cast as historical and political truth. For instance, a consistent, singular narrative of the conquest can be observed in such productions and sites as the Panorama 1453 History Museum, television series Fatih, and TRT children’s program Çınar. This narrative begins with Prophet Muhammad’s prophecy, which he received from the almighty Allah, that Constantinople would be conquered by a great Ottoman soldier. When history is narrated from a religious point of view, it becomes indisputable as it would imply challenge to religious truth, hence Allah’s will. Nonetheless, the neo-Ottomanist knowledge conceives the conquest as not only an Ottoman victory in the past, but an incontestable living truth in Turkey’s present. As Nevzat Bayhan, former general manager of Culture Inc. in association with the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (İBB Kültür A.Ş.), stated at the opening ceremony of Istanbul’s Panorama 1453 History Museum,

The conquest [of Istanbul] is not about taking over the city… but to make the city livable… and its populace happy. Today, Istanbul continues to present to the world as a place where Armenians, Syriacs, Kurds… Muslims, Jews, and Christians peacefully live together.[52]

Bayhan’s statement illustrates the significance of the 1453 conquest in the neo-Ottomanist knowledge because it marks the foundation of a culture of tolerance, diversity, and peaceful coexistence in Turkey. While the neo-Ottomanist knowledge may conveniently serve the branding purpose in the post-9/11 and ECoC contexts, I maintain that it more significantly rationalizes the governmental practices in reshaping the cultural conduct and multicultural relations in Turkey. The knowledge also produces a political norm of indifference—one that is reluctant to recognize ethno-religious differences among populace, uncritical of the limits of Islam-based toleration and multiculturalism, and more seriously, indifferent about state-sanctioned discrimination and violence against the ethno-religious minorities.

Ottomentality and its subject

The AKP’s practices of the government of culture and diversity constitute what Foucault calls the “technologies of the self—ways in which human beings come to understand and act upon themselves within certain regimes of authority and knowledge, and by means of certain techniques directed to self-improvement.”[53] The AKP’s neoliberal and neo-Ottoman rationalities share a similar aim as they both seek to produce a new set of ethnical code of social conduct and transform Turkish society into a particular kind, which is economically liberal and culturally conservative. They deploy different means to direct the governed in certain ways as to achieve the desired outcome. According to Foucault, the neoliberal style of government is based on the premise that “individuals should conduct their lives as an enterprise [and] should become entrepreneurs of themselves.”[54] Central to this style of government is the production of freedom—referring to the practices that are employed to produce the necessary condition for the individuals to be free and take on responsibility of caring for themselves. For instance, Nikolas Rose suggests that consumption, a form of governing technology, is often deployed to provide the individuals with a variety of choice for exercising freedom and self-improvement. As such, the subject citizens are now “active,” or “consumer” citizens, who understand their relationship with the others and conduct their life based on market mentality.[55] Unlike the republican citizens, whose rights, duties, and obligations areprimarily bond to the state, citizens as consumers “[are] to enact [their] democratic obligations as a form of consumption”[56] in the private sphere of the market.

The AKP’s neoliberal governance of culture hence has invested in liberalizing the cultural field by transforming it into a marketplace in order to create such a condition wherein citizens can enact their right to freedom and act upon themselves as a form of investment. The proliferation of the neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble in this regard can be understood as a new technology of the self as it creates a whole new field for the consumer citizens to exercise their freedom of choice (of identity, taste, and lifestyle) by providing them a variety of trendy Ottoman-themed cultural products, ranging from fashion to entertainment. This ensemble also constitutes a whole new imagery of the Ottoman legacy with which the consumer citizens may identify. Therefore, through participation within the cultural field, as artists, media practitioners, intellectuals, sponsors, or consumers, citizens are encouraged to think of themselves as free agents and their actions are a means for acquiring the necessary cultural capital to become cultivated and competent actors in the competitive market. This new technology of the self also has transformed the republican notion of Turkish citizenship to one that is activated upon individuals’ freedom of choice through cultural consumption at the marketplace.

Furthermore, as market mechanisms enhance the promulgation of moral-religious values, the consumer citizens are also offered a choice of identity as virtuous citizens, who should conduct their life and their relationship with the others based on Islamic traditions and values. Again, the public debate over the portrayal of the revered Sultan Süleyman as a hedonist in Muhteşem and the legal actions against the television producer, are exemplary of the disciplinary techniques for shaping individuals’ behaviors in line with conservative values. While consumer citizens exercise their freedom through cultural consumption, they are also reminded of their responsibility to preserve traditional moral value, family structure, and gender relations. Those who deviate from the norm are subjected to public condemnation and punishment.

Finally, as the neo-Ottomanist cultural ensemble reproduces and mediates a neo-Ottomanist knowledge in such commodities as the film Fetih and Panorama 1453 History Museum, consumer citizens are exposed to a new set of symbolic meanings of Ottoman-Islamic toleration, pluralism, and peaceful coexistence, albeit through a view of the Ottoman past fixated on its magnificence rather than its monstrosity.[57] This knowledge sets the ethical code for private citizens to think of themselves in relation to the other ethno-religious groups based on a hierarchical social order, which subordinates minorities to the rule of Sunni Islamic government. When this imagery of magnificence serves as the central component in nation branding, such as to align Turkey with the civilization of peace and co-existence in the post 9/11 and ECoC contexts, it encourages citizens to take pride and identify with their Ottoman-Islamic heritage. As such, Turkey’s nation branding perhaps also can be considered as a noveltechnology of the self as it requires citizens, be it business sectors, historians, or filmmakers, to take on their active role in building an image of tolerant and multicultural Turkey through arts and culture. It is in this regard that I consider the neo-Ottoman rationality as a form of “indirect rule of diversity”[58] as it produces a citizenry, who actively participates in the reproduction of neo-Ottomanist historiography and continues to remain uncritical about the “dark legacy of the Ottoman past.”[59] Consequently, Ottomentality has produced a type of subject that is constantly subjected to dividing techniques “that will divide populations and exclude certain categories from the status of the autonomous and rational person.”[60]

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Understanding Education: Theories, Experiences And Arguments

Introduction

To accomplish this assignment on Understanding education: theories, experiences and arguments, I have chosen the following topics as literatures from the theme of learning.

A. Cognitive development through social interaction by Bandura.

B. A social theory of learning by Etienne Wenger.

C. The social learning theory by Vygotsky

D. A Ph.D. thesis by Jane Bozarth (2008) entitled “The usefulness of Wenger’s frame work in understanding a Community of Practice submitted to North Carolina State University’.

In addition to above, I have tried to use the concepts of multiple intelligence by Howard Gardner to social learning as I understood; it can be related in this context too.

My research question: how does social interaction impact on learning process?

I have tried to answer this research question based on the above selected four literatures along with my experiences. The research question is selected on the basis of my experience and interest as I found students have tendency of learning faster during group work and collaboration while I used to put some mathematical problems in the class. During the discourse of this assignment, I have also focussed to reflect my own feeling while I was a student. How did the social interaction impact on my own learning? What were the strengths and weaknesses from the social context and environment in my learning process? Were those favourable condition to learn are reflected in this assignment?

This assignment is divided into three parts with some subdivisions part I.

1. Part I

This first part focuses on the literature review having relevant concepts and ideas taken from different theories of social learning. The major concepts and ideas are dealt as follows:

1.1 Cognitive development through social interaction:

In this subdivision, concepts and theories established in the initial time of research in social learning theories are presented.

Bandura (1977, as mentioned in McLeod, 2011) summarizes that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling. The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation.

According to Barbara (1986), he comes with an interesting point to be discussed as “like genes, social interaction and social arrangement are an essential aspect of child development, without which it would be impossible to conceive of a child developing. Even the process of conception is inherently social”(p.70). It demonstrates that right from the conception, there is need of social process and social interaction. It is focussed that development makes on the internalization by the novice of the shared cognitive process, appropriating what was carried out in collaboration to expose contemporary knowledge and skills. (Vygotsky, 1984). Here, the term collaboration I think indicates a social phenomenon that needs a social interaction. This emphasizes that more sharing of skills and knowledge to group members develops the horizon of knowledge and skills.

Hence, the Vygotskian perspective seeks social construction of meaning in a shared culture which indicates social interaction process.

1.2 Vygotsky ‘s Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).

This concept of ZPD focuses on the gap between what a child can learn without instruction and what a child can learn with the help of parents or teacher. This demonstrates the interactional support of the knowledgeable person and hence social interaction is needed for learning (Vygotsky, 1984).

For example, while I was in class five, I had difficulties in solving puzzle. As I got the ideas from my teacher where I was confused, then, I advanced up even up to making puzzle problems myself. Here I reflect ZPD and social interaction concepts were involved.

After I learnt Vygotsky’s model of social learning, it is found that more learning is possible when pre-requisite knowledge is combined with ZPD having met with social interaction. He suggested that the social interaction develops cognition of human beings.

Similarly, Albert Bandura concluded after his Bobo Doll experiment as “children learn and imitate behaviours they have observed in other people” (Baudura, 1977, P.49). Here people are the components of social interaction that makes children learn new behaviours. The social environment, interaction with each other and socio-cultural contexts determine the learning process (Bandura, 1977).

Bandura (1977) emphasizes as “people follow and model other behaviours through the observation” (P.48). He has also given an example in this context that when a well-dressed person crosses a road when the traffic light was red, other people also imitated to follow him.

1.3 Wenger’s a social theory of learning:

In 1998, Etienne Wenger wrote a book named Communities of practice, meaning and identity. This book has focussed on the social theory of learning.

Wenger (1998) gives a strong theory regarding the social membership, identity and community of practice. He analyses that there are different communities of practice with different discipline of knowledge to learn their knowledge, one needs to be a member of that community.

Wenger (1998) mentions learning is fundamentally a social process in which we engage. According to Wenger “human are social kings and this fact is the central aspect of learning’. Knowing is a matter of participating with active engagement with in the community of practice (COP) (Wenger, 1998).

Wenger (1998) points out “learning as a social interaction between four components: community, identity, meaning and practice”(p.211).He focuses on the membership getting and active engagement in the community of practice as necessary components for learning process.

Wenger has strong concepts about social learning as learning can’t be deduced only by the simple process of knowledge transmission. He views learning is the inheriting dimensions of everyday life helps to reform this as a fundamentally social process in which we engage in everyday of our life (Wenger, 1998).

Wenger has put attempts to build the theory of social learning as a revolting concept at present. It is found that he has been framing and using this theory not only in education but also in society where learning of any community is to be practiced i.e. this theory had been used by Barak Obama and for raising European social fund.

As a learnt this theory, I realized that doing academic research itself is a community of practice and I am participated and make an identity by my active involvement to learn different ideas of research as well as to give a contribution of new knowledge to this community. During this discourse (trajectory in the language of Wenger), I am involved with research members as a part of groups. This may be my friends, professors and participants in professional seminars of research.

Wenger (2010) focussed on the pulling of experiences from practicing communities and pushing of own experiences to the community of practice as well to contribute the knowledge. Learning in embedded in practice and a part of practice was useful way of thinking. He claimed that the society is complex with different communities of practices and each member of community struggle to learn and produce new knowledge.

I agree with Wenger’s theory because learning in a group activity where participants share an area of interest, practice and engagement and discussion and activities they carry out. This really helps the teachers to form such communities in the classroom too.

The theory of Wenger helps to find the meaning and ideas of social interaction for learning process. More the shared participations and discussion, more acquiring of knowledge occurs and participants learn (Wenger, 2010).

In extension of Wenger’s theory , Bozarth (2008) mentioned in his research ‘Scholars and practitioners now have research findings that support a shift in focus from managing a community of practice, to nurturing and understanding the significant internal dynamics of learning, meaning, and identity’. This is the research done on the usefulness of communities of practice by Jane Bozarth.

Wenger’s theory enabled me to understand that we need to become a regular practitioner of a community if we want to learn. I am learning literature review as a practice of RSUC community. As I go on practicing the trends and make a discussion among the group members by a reciprocal process of giving and taking experience regarding the research, I myself learn and contribute to RSUC community too. This hence shows the relevancy of social interaction for learning and will be a good theory to compare/conceptualize my research question.

1.4 Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligence

The last literature that I have chosen to describe my research question is Howard Gardner’s theory of intelligences. After he originally listed the intelligences in the famous book ‘frames of mind’ in 1983 and later put forward nine theories of multiple intelligences.

In the context of my research question, I believe that social interaction belongs to Howard Gardner’s two theories on multiple intelligences they are as follows:

1.4.1 Inter personal intelligence:

Gardner (1999) defines interpersonal intelligence as “the capacity to understand the intentions, motivation and desire of the people. It allows people to work effectively with others’ (P.45)

The above definition supports us to stand on that this theory deals with group culture and collaboration among the group members as a part of social interaction and inclusion. This expresses the social experience as a part of learning and hence it is the theory that conceptualizes my research question as each group member share and learn from the designed practice.

1.4.2 Intra personal intelligence

As just it is to be meant, it shows the intelligence within self. But this is also another concept that I can link with my research question.

Gardener (1999) defines as “intrapersonal intelligence entails the capacity to understand oneself to appreciate one’s feeling, fears and motivation”(p.45)

Here, I want to describe that this intrapersonal intelligence gives rise to one’s feeling and whenever it is expressed among group members as a practice of a regular reflection contributes learning. Everyone learns from reflections and experience of other. There are life changing learning situation in a community because of contribution of an individual’s reflections and experience.

2. Part II

Whenever it is to talk about my own experience regarding the concepts of theory I discussed above and my own research question, I describe it in two parts. The first is during of school years of education and second is after schooling to till now as a practitioner of education and learning theory.

2.1 During my schooling

During schooling phase, we learnt my skills and new knowledge in a group with peers. As a friend, I used to interact with the classmates and share many ideas as well as learn behaviours and manners.

I used to imitate as that of my mathematics teacher. I liked the way he presented the topic and share his personal experience with students. In different gathering of school functions, we used to learn good disciplines and perform our task punctually. I was better in the subjects in which the teachers used to be more friendly and interactive.

I still remember that I used to walk similar to that of a teacher (say Krishna here) as I got it from direct observation and was interested for it.

In English class while I was in grade 10, we were learning article. I was confused in some question though I knew most of the question, when teacher supported me to solve that article’s problem; I was able to compose a good paragraph with correct use of articles. Here, now, I feel I had the ZPD and I got support as the English teacher interacted with me which was also a part of social interaction that enabled me learn.

I was aware on the social norms and values of my society because of I used to participate in the social celebrations, festivals. During this, my interaction, observation with other seniors and peers made me do so. Occasionally, we used to have confrontation and again have a consensus to make a common decision is also an example of learning from social interaction.

While I was studying intermediate of Science, I could observe the practices that were existing in Muslim Communities in the place called Rajbiraj and I learnt about their cultures and even compared the Muslim Community with Hindu Community. This comparison made me understand and appraise the practices that were going on in the Community which I think is a part of learning from social interaction as I used to participate in the function of Muslim Community. In addition to this, I feel now we Hindu students and Muslim students used to discuss about bad trends and traditions occurring in both the communities and learn what is good by drawing appropriate meaning of every events.

2.2 During my teaching profession

I used to follow different teaching learning methods. Among the methods I applied in most of the cases I found the methods of group making fieldtrips and mini research on different social phenomena made students learn better. Their engagement, exploration and active participation in the interaction with people, environment and socio-cultural contexts too gave a basis to reflect the usefulness of social interaction for better learning. I have found social learning in one situation helps to another situation. It helped students to be confident, make argue, accept and contrast, but again to come to a better solution as a result of shared vision and collaboration.

I felt group interaction and presentation in teaching learning situation developed unexposed competition and co-operation where power sharing I can say is in equilibrium among the group members.

To connect he theme to my one experience, I have another example to present here. It is a feeling of mine what I learn during the interaction with students. They sometimes come up with outstanding and critical contents related matter that makes me learn new concepts about the contents I deliver. This is another example of social interaction.

Similarly, my university education itself is from two different continents, i.e. Asia and Europe. In Asia, in university, we had more lecturing on the contents, but in Europe, we have more exercise to do. Here, I find two distinct communities of practice in their own norms and standard and I learnt to get the meaning of both the practices, newness when I myself became a member of both the communities. I practice, share and get active involvement and interact with different socio-cultural contents and people (members) of communities, this matches with Wegner’s theory of community of practice. During my university education, I interacted with many professionals and got new insights even occasionally I imitated to be as them when I was impressed with them. My imitation is when I am motivated and interested to behave similarly to my role models that still I copy especially the ones who has an interest in academic research.

A part from it, when I joined to RSUC, I realized myself involved in socio-cultural environment and social interaction with my friends, teachers and classroom while we were doing learning activities such as presentations, exercises, mini research on cows, trees and others. This has impressed me to find such unique designing of learning based on the social interaction theories.

Hence, every day we gain new knowledge, skills and behaviours because we interact with the world (environment) where we live in, practice by involvement and give and take the experiences of community and self. This process of social interaction has made me learn better and acquire new knowledge as well as contribute some newness in the field wherever I am in. This way I have got experience of social theories of learning that is closely linked to my research question.

3. Part III

Most of the theoretical texts I mentioned are linked to my experiences directly or indirectly. In some of the cases, because of context, my interest and social factors have also brought deviation on the usefulness of these theories in my life experiences.

Bandura’s theory of modelling made me a teacher as I was highly impressed with my mathematics teacher and I acted to become a teacher. Learning from society and environment, I changed, modified and transferred many behavioural skills.

Whenever I participated in the community’s practice, I learnt and contributed better if that was the community of my interest and when I felt I participate and therefore I am which is linked to Wenger’s theory of community of practice. Most of the times, I developed my own meaning to the community but when I engage to it, interact, I find and realize that there is a contrasting meaning that makes me analyse the situation and reality and bring to a conclusion. In this case, many ideas and people interact to have new meaning as Wenger got when he was asked to taste a wine when I was a student, teacher and researcher. I involved in their own communities and got different experiences from practice. I even have felt that sometimes I was excluded from the group that I was interested in gave me a bitter and disappointed experiences. In this case occasionally, I kept an ego to perform/learn better and even was highly stressed.

In my experience, the theory of multiple intelligence especially inter and intrapersonal intelligence also play a vital role to have social interaction and hence a better learning. The tasks performed by students in a group by the process of mutual engagement and shared goals have demonstrated good learning. It is a matter of fact how we stimulate and form the groups, what is the culture within the classroom that plays an important role. Thinking self on the contents and demonstrating it with other, sharing vision enable both the intelligences and promote learning.

During I studied the literature; there were some questions that were not answered by the theories. For example, in imitation/modelling, if learners develop/demonstrate opposite behaviours than that of the role model as they analyse that the behaviours exhibited by the role model are not positive. In this case is it again a modelling or opposite of modelling? This is yet to be answered.

Similarly, despite of many usefulness of social theory of learning, it has been misused and misguided to being unfair and strange competition from the information developed by social media as a means of learning. Learning occurs in both the cases, but whether that is ethical enough or not? Does it guide or misguide, check and balance is necessary as this theory has been in practiced by some political leaders and other organization to fulfil their goals, for example the model designed by Wenger for raising the European Social Fund (ESF). For this, a clear vision and shared goals is needed. How to make the learners accountable is my another issue that is not discussed in the theories.

3.1 Conclusion

To sum up, social interaction promotes a better learning. It also demonstrates a concept of democracy and inclusion to participate and to make the decision favourable to majority of the group. In social interaction, children learn from each other from their own active participation and co-operation. Children learn both positive and negative behaviour, so, the teachers and parents must be role models for their children.

In addition to this, children while in social interaction, learn from observation, motivation and their own interest. Children’s learning is also determined by the community of practice they are member in and the identification they get to share their own experience in the communities and to get the meaningful insight this experience sharing as a common and reciprocal communication involved in the group members of community. It is suggestive that while making group for learning in the classroom, mixed ability grouping and clear vision are the necessary matters to be considered. Also, during the social interaction, a more knowledgeable other (mentor) has a high responsibility to observe and give positive reinforcement to the learner. In this context, the mentor him/herself performs the role of a member in the social interaction.

Hence during the social interaction, the learners learn by scaffolding and getting a support as a part of interaction in Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). Sharing culture, co-ordination, collaboration, modelling, motivation and interest make the learners learn better in social interaction process.

4. Reference lists

Bozarth, J.(2008). The Usefulness of Wenger’s Framework in Understanding a Community of Practice. (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation ). North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.

Gardner, Howard (1999) . Intelligence Reframed. Multiple intelligences for the 21st century, New York: Basic Books.

McLeod, S. A. (2011). Bandura – Social Learning Theory. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/bandura.htm

Piaget, J. (1977). Les operations logiques et la vie sociale. In Etudes sociologiques, Geneva, Librarie Droz.

Rogoff, B. (1986). Adult assistance in children’s learning. In T.E. Raphael (Ed.), The context of school based literacy. New York: Random House.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1984). Mind in society. The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge,MA: Harvard University Press.

Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity. Cambridge,MA:Harvard University Press.

Equality in organisations

Introduction

In the United Kingdom, every organization is committed to promote equality, value diversity and create an all-inclusive environment for both their clients as well as their employees in their policy. They are increasingly embracing diverse environments at local and also international level. This can be noticed in their clients, customers, workforce, suppliers, suppliers, partners and communities. The business environment is very competitive and for an organization to be successful, performances and employees engagement is a key factor. Therefore, this paper attempts to evaluate the key features of the equality and diversity of an organization. The organization to be examined critically is UK Oxford shire. The paper would examine the challenges in which the organization experience in operationalizing its policy and approaches which could be taken to ensure effective implementation.

Main Body

Age UK Oxford shire is an organization that is promoting the well-being of old persons and is working to make later life most enjoyable and fulfilling experiences. They understand that all people are individual with diverse preferences, abilities and needs. The organization is aiming to reflect diversity and equality in everything it undertakes. They make their services accessible and inclusive to old persons from all sections of the community, retaining and attracting diverse workforce. Age UK Oxford shire believes that discrimination denies human dignity and should be actively opposed. Diversity means variety, difference and multiplicity. It implies an approach to tackle an inequality that stems from forms of discrimination based on disability, age, disability, domestic circumstances, ethnic or national origin, gender. In addition, they want equality regardless of nationality, race, religion or belief, political affiliation, sexual orientation and trade union membership.

Age UK Oxford shire is aiming at treating people in a fair manner, dignity and with respect. The organization cannot give room any form of victimization, harassment and discrimination. Their aim is to value differences in a positive manner. Age UK Oxford shire believes that in order to be more effective and a better place to work they require to harness attributes, experiences and contributions. The organization prioritizes equality as their mainstream part of work. They make sure that their policies, practices and plans embrace equality targets and objectives appropriately. Age UK Oxford shire organization is committed to publicly do something visible and practical about Diversity and Equality.

Age

Ageism can be defined as ‘application of assumed age-based group characteristics to an individual, regardless of that individual’s actual personal characteristics’3. Age discrimination can be experienced by anyone, at any age, young and old. As an example, in an interview the panel may assume that ‘older’ candidates are less able to learn new skills or ‘younger’ candidates are less likely to be committed to the organization. Such assumptions may mean that the panel members fail to consider the individual’s skills, experience and personal characteristics.

Disability

The ‘social model’ of disability, which MMU supports, locates the disability within the physical barriers and negative attitudes in society rather than a person’s impairment. In the medical model, disabled people are seen as the problem. They need to change and adapt to circumstances (if they can), and there is no suggestion that society needs to change. It is important to avoid characterizing disabled people as a victimized group. Avoid expressions that turn adjectives into nouns e.g. ‘the disabled’ which depersonalize, or which define people in terms of their disability, such as ‘epileptics’. It is helpful to use positive images of disabled people in case studies etc. in order to illustrate that disability is incidental to the activity being undertaken. Bear in mind the needs of disabled people in the design of written material. In producing typed text consider the size and shape of the typeface to ensure that the maximum number of readers can see it clearly without assistance.

This will help those with visual loss or dyslexia to read the text, as smaller and more elaborate fonts are more difficult to read. High contrast text/images with uncluttered backgrounds are best. Try to avoid text superimposed on images. Glossy paper and coloured print also make reading more difficult for everyone. Written materials, where requested should be available in alternative formats e.g. on disk for those unable to read print and in advance of the meeting or lecture. All web based material should be accessible to the technologies used by some disabled people and conform to the good practice guidelines on accessibility to disabled people.

Gender

The English language has traditionally tended to assume the world to be male unless specified otherwise and therefore it is important to be sensitive to ways in which the use of sex neutral words can actively promote equality. Using ‘he’ to refer to an unspecified person is now generally considered unacceptable and it is preferable to use ‘(s) he’, ‘she/he’ or’s/he’ or ‘he or she’ and vice versa. Use gender-neutral language; women are also often referred to in terms of the title conferred by their marital status ‘ ‘Miss’ or ‘Mrs’. As you will often not know a woman’s marital status, it is safer to use the title ‘Ms’, which may not always be their preferred title, but will not be inaccurate. Approximately half of the people in paid work in Britain are women and a minority of households now takes the form of a traditional nuclear family. It is important to reflect this in case studies and teaching materials and you should consider showing women in jobs, hobbies and roles traditionally ascribed to men and vice versa. Use ‘partner’ instead of spouse routinely, to avoid assuming that everyone is a heterosexual couple or part of a ‘traditional’ family. Sex has traditionally been associated with the words for particular roles for example ‘foreman’, ‘housewife’ and ‘chairman’. The test is always to ask yourself whether you would describe someone of the other sex in the same way and so using the word ‘chairman or ‘chairwoman’ to advertise a post on a committee or board would not be advisable.

Race and Ethnicity

When it comes to cultural classification or ethnicity both of these factors are always self-defined and one individual’s opinion may differ from another. The term ‘ethnicity’ is used to refer to the sense of identity which derives from shared cultural characteristics such as language, religion, history or geographical location. Everyone has a race and belongs to an ethnic group, whether they are in the majority or minority. The term ‘ethnic’ to describe someone’s racial origin is therefore meaningless. BME stands for black and minority ethnic. ‘Minority ethnic’ refers to those people/groups other than the white British majority. The term ‘black people’ refers to Black British, African-Caribbean, African, or African American people. Opinion is divided amongst British Asians about whether they consider themselves as ‘black’ and for this group the term should be considered a matter of self-definition. ‘Asian’ and ‘South Asian’ in the UK is used to refer to people from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and their British Asian descendants. ‘South East Asian’ includes people and their descendants from the Far East.

Religion and Belief

You should be respectful of people’s religious beliefs and be aware that some terminology may offend. The most commonly used inappropriate terms in the UK tend to refer to Christianity. You should be respectful of, and sensitive to, the way in which we refer to the religious beliefs and customs of all faiths.

Sexual Orientation

The dominant societal bias towards heterosexual lifestyles fosters assumptions that attraction to people of the opposite sex is the ‘norm’ and a different orientation towards people of the same sex is therefore unacceptable. As equal members of society lesbians and gay men should be described in terms that do not demean them, sensationalize their lives or imply deviance. The term ‘homosexual’ is generally not used now, as it has medical and derogatory connotations and is often considered only to refer to men. To avoid any misunderstanding people should stick to using the words lesbian, gay or bisexual – even though they may hear LGB people choosing to speak about themselves differently. Care is needed however. Some women, for instance, may refer to themselves as gay women rather than as lesbians.

Transgender

‘Trans’ is an inclusive term for those who identify themselves as transgender, transsexual or transvestite. The word ‘trans’ can be used without offence to cover people undergoing gender transition; people who identify as someone with a different gender from that in which they were born, but who may have decided not to undergo medical treatment; and people who choose to dress in the clothing typically worn by the other sex.

Challenges in Operationalization of the Policy

Furthermore, the legal and social structures put in place not only enable this to happen, but are deliberately utilized to create inequality. Jewson and Mason (1986) argued that at times those responsible for equality of opportunity at the ground level deliberately conflate policy models to confuse opponents; we believe that the problem is much greater than this.

The 1998 guidelines for EU member states refers to ”main streaming” of gender

equality issues into all four of the pillars for action of increased employment,

entrepreneurship, adaptability and equal opportunity (Booth and Bennett, 2002). The

concept of main streaming is not unproblematic. For example, gender specific issues

around violence, poverty, abuse and prostitution are impossible to ad dress with

main streaming. The focus on equal treatment further denies the oppression of certain

groups (Young, 2000).

At the organizational level main streaming has meant something else. Part of this organizational mainstreaming agenda has been caught up in the development of a parallel project which is often labelled as ”diversity ”. On one level it is a free-standing policy objective, where greater diversity is something to be pursued and celebrated, on another it forms the co re of a policy agenda known as ”man aging diversity” (Kandola et al. 1995). While managing diversity has made an impact on some organisations, as we will argue below (see also Johns, 2006), in practical terms it has yet to displace equal opportunities thinking, language and practice. Diversity, as a principle is conceptually at odds with the policy of mainstreaming, despite its inclusive language (Dickens, 1994).

The problems of the European Union: essay help site:edu

Introduction

Ever since the beginning of European culture and the European way of life began its journey in ancient Greece throughout the Roman times, the medieval ages or in the modern times, it has never been this integrated and peaceful as now. The continent has been one of the most diverse of all continents, if accounted for size. Europe was a strong continent, with countries that have ruled half of the planet at some points, but in the modern age the continent have became divided and weak, especially compared to the continent sized superpowers of the USA and the Soviet Union. This reason have brought forth the idea of a single, united Europe, which is able to held its own in both military and economic terms. After this enlightment, the leaders of the continent have gradually made changes in their policies and facilitated change so a supranational organization can be founded to unite the old continent. Even though the cooperation is much more developed as it was used to, but the fiscal and monetary cooperation is far from perfect. Only the fiscal policy is a common policy, but the monetary policy is at national level. The current debt crisis showed the dangers of this half integration.

Europe and the problems of unity

First of all, the European Union is using a same currency, with same interest rates for very differently developed countries. The needs of Germany are completely different and on a whole different level as of a smaller county such as Malta or even Belgium. The problem is that the common monetary policy is set for the whole Euro zone.

This means that the interest rates are similar for countries with different growth prospects. There is no “one size fits all” in economics what is acceptable for Germany or other countries, with relative high growth rate and developed financial markets, is not acceptable for other countries, which are dealing with recession. This has become clear when the Greek government have launched a campaign to change the mind of the policymakers and the leaders of the main countries of the EU, first and foremost, Germany (Bird, 2015). This continuous battle shows that the one size fits all economic policy is simply not fitted for such a diverse union. The ECB set higher interest rates to favor the German economy and help to boost the European economy through that, but these higher interest rates were not appropriate for some other countries such as Portugal and Italy (Pettinger, 2013).

Europe is really diverse and this makes it harder for workers to deal with unemployment, than it does in a country with less diversity in language and culture. Because of this, if someone got unemployed in Hungary, he would have a much harder time finding a new job in another country. The language and the culture are quite different in Europe, unlike the US.

The US is often thought to be the Optimal Currency Area. The main criteria are the labor and capital mobility. The second one is the price and wage flexibility across regions and the third is the ability to transfer government funds and adjust the taxation across region.

How do the countries of the EU compare to the states of the US in terms of the OCA criteria?

Labor mobility US > EMU

Capital mobility US = EMU

Price flexibility US = EMU

Wage flexibility US > EMU

Union level fiscal transfers US > EMU

(CES, 2009, Optimal Currency Area)

It is evident, that the US outperforms the European Monetary Union in 3 areas out of the 5, and even in the remaining field, the two unions are equals. The EU is not able to beat the US in any relevant fields, which leads to structural level problems, and smaller competitiveness compared to the US and the rest of the world economy.

To balance out these problems and to become similar to the US, the EU needs to remove language and cultural barriers throughout the Union. It also need to make the wages much more responsive to price and inflation fluctuations. This limits the labor movement severely. The last main issue is that the EMU cannot transfer funds or adjust taxes from one region to another. In the US these issues are resolved and it is a one of the main source of their general efficiency.

A similar, federal-local system similar to the US could solve funding issues in EU projects; as regions would be able to use their funding for the smaller issues, while the higher level could concentrate on European cohesion. This of course would also require that the EU would get more funding from the members, and this is unlikely in the foreseeable future (Knipton, 2013).

The fiscal policy is limited. It is important to have similar levels of national debts, because otherwise the counties which have a higher national debt will have a hard time finding buyers for their national debt. This caused a huge problem in the PIIGS (Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece and Spain), who have huge national debt, which is getting harder and harder to finance.

One of the main problems is that there is no Europe-wide fiscal authority. Each individual country in the EU controls its own budget and thus fiscal policy. It is a problem because the EMU cannot deal with the economic fluctuations on a regional level and it cannot eliminate the ups and downs. Because of the nationally lead fiscal policy, it is harder for the European Central Bank to cooperate with the national level authorities. Another setback is that these national authorities can and already have acted without regards to the common hazards and they already collected high national deficits (Pettinger, 2013).

The specialists argue that countries which are member of the Euro Zone, tend to fall into a sense of security and they think that they are safe from the currency crisis. This sense that for security can be a quite dangerous one, because countries and the local governments are delaying the structural changes and fiscal responsibility. This is weakening the Euro Zone, because the Economic and Monetary Union cannot affect the local fiscal policies.

Germany has a sense of recovery, as the investors are flocking to the largest and safest economy of the Euro zone. This made the Germans sure that their mix of fiscal and monetary strictness and discipline is the only working way; this perception have blocked the talks between Germany and Greece, as Germany is unwilling to accept alternative solutions or any kind of extra support (Smith and Rankin, 2015).

In the case of Greece, they benefitted from the low bond yields, because the Euro zone was backing up the Greek debt. Because of this, they delayed the structural reforms and this lead to a dangerous situation, where even the complete bankruptcy of Greece was imaginable (El-Elrian, 2012).

There is no lender of last resort yet, because the European Central Bank will not buy bonds from countries which have short term liquidity problems. Because of this, those member states that need the ECB the most – are excluded.

Also, there divergence in bank rates. The Euro zone is supposed to create a common interest rate, however we see something else. We see that the interest rates for the private sector in the peripheral countries are significantly higher than the ones at the central countries. Even though the ECB tried to counter it by cutting the official interest rate, but it was not effective, since the banks did not cut a meaningful amount from the interest rates charged after debt. So this move failed to solve the issues of the companies in the peripheral countries, such as Italy or Spain (Pettinger, 2013)

Social Issues

“Europe is facing its worst humanitarian crisis in six decades,” according to the general secretary of the International Federation of Red Cross (IFCR), Bekele Geleta. Even years after the financial crisis, there are millions of people falling under the poverty and staying there for indefinable time (Machaus, 2013).

The crisis made the poor poorer, and it also started to destroy the middle class as well. The middle class of Serbia for example had already been shirked.

The crisis also affected the hospitals and the social sector, because the countries cut from the funding of these as a reaction to the crisis. So now when the people need it most, there is less help than it used to be. The level of service in these sectors keeps declining, which is completely in contrary with the EU’s objectives.

The unemployment is also one of the largest concerns of European Union. The newcomers to the job market are affected even more severely. This means that the young people are not able to find jobs in their own country and they start migrating to other countries. In Spain the unemployment rate under 25 years is more that 50%. This leads to the overburdening of the receiver’s social sector and it also increases xenophobia and rising social turmoil, such as anti migration protests. The migrated workers are already causing problems, and it would only deteriorate; with a mass of peripheral Europeans migrating to the centre (Pipes, 2014).

These people are not only in the peripheral countries, with weaker economy. The number of people dependent on welfare is growing in the most powerful economies of EU as well. In Germany and France there are more and more people who are unable to afford food and rent at the same time. If it was not for the food aids, these people would either starve or would be homeless. According to the Red Cross, there are around 600 000 German citizens, who are in this situation and the number is still growing (Machaus, 2013)

Conclusion

The problems of the European Union can come from several reasons. The first is the Great Recession, which hit the Euro zone and crippled the economy.

However there are other factors as well, which can be equally if not more dangerous. The countries of the EU are not pushing the structural, fiscal and monetary reforms which are needed to secure the future of the European Union.

The rising problem of unemployment is also linked to both reasons. To stop this, the European Union needs to deal with structural reforms, because this problem cannot be solved by just policy changes, it needs real changes and real solutions for the problems of the European Union.

Challenges of caregivers

Caregivers were found to endure mental stress due to their relatives’ injury and care-related issues. They were worried about the impact of the trauma on their clients’ health, outcome of treatment and longevity of care giving. The findings of this study were consisted with those of Dickson et al., (2011) that reported spousal caregivers of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) experience worries as a result of uncertainty of the outcome of their partners’ health conditions, sudden change of role and chronicity of their roles. This study found that some caregivers were despaired by the poor outcome of their clients’ treatment when the care recipients could not walk during discharged. This concurs with the findings of a study reported caregivers were devastated and worried upon realizing the clients’ spinal injury was permanent (Lucke et al., 2013). The situation worsened their mental health by increasing their risk of developing depression (Rodakowski et al., 2013).

Thoughts of how to get money for treatment of clients culminated in obsessive thinking and worrying due to the high monetary requirement. Gardiner, Brereton, Frey, Wilkinson-Meyers, & Gott, (2014) gave similar description in their which suggested the cost of caring for a family member led to increased caregiver burden. This resulted in sleepless night and loss of concentration. Effects of financial burden on caregivers have also been reported to include increased worrying and difficulties in coping (Gardiner et al., 2014).

This study also found pains that persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) went through also emotional affected their caregivers. They were worried when the clients were going through pain or grief due to unexpected injury. They empathized with their care recipients when they were in pain. As commented by PP3 ‘When he went to the theatre and came back, that very day the doctors needed to do (wound) dressing, the way the child was shouting, I could not stand there. It was as if I was the one they were working on.’ The findings of this study is similar to those reported by Angel & Buss, (2011) among cohabitant couples whose partners had SCI in Denmark that the injured person’s pain increased psychological stress of healthy partners. Studies have also shown that caregivers go through sorrow without having emotional assistance (Lucke et al., 2013;Wells et al., 2009) but are however expected to provide emotional support to the injured person. This current study reported caregivers who could not control their emotions after their client’s injury wept upon seeing them immediately after the injury. Consistent with other findings, a qualitative study using grounded theory approach by Lucke et al., (2013) indicated that family caregivers of newly Latino persons with SCI experienced feeling of sadness during the early months of caring. The issue was not peculiar to only this study, Chen & Boore, (2009) reported that caregivers wept because of the incapacitation of their clients at the early stage of the injury. Dickson et al., (2011) also suggested moderate depression among 40% of caregivers caring for persons with SCI due to caregiver burden.

5.2 Challenges of caregivers

Caregivers reported being worried by myriad challenges. According to ABCX family stress model, stressors are the issues or needs that upset the caregiver or the family. The study revealed caregivers were faced with financial need because of the huge cost of treatment that affected the family’s finances. The findings of this study mirrors those by Monlinari, Gum, Roscore & Mills, (2008) which found family members were upset by the continual financial demands of caring for an injured relative. Similarly, Chen & Boore, (2009) reported caregivers and their families were faced with financial challenges after the unexpected injury. They were worried because of fear of lack financial resources required for the treatment of the disabled member (Chen & Boore, 2009). Caring for persons with SCI is financially intensive as a result, a huge financial burden is placed on families whose member is injured in the Ghanaian setting. A study reported financial cost included transportation to hospital, costs of medical service, prescription drugs and hospital bills (Gardiner et al., 2014; Sun, 2014). It was revealed that inadequate funding could limit the quality of medical treatment the client could access since the cost of treatment had to be paid by the family before certain services could be rendered.

The study also identified that, transportation of persons with SCI to the hospital was perceived a challenge for caregivers because the client’s condition, cost involved and scarcity of ambulances in certain remote parts of Ghana. Other studies found lack of access to transportation as a vexed challenge that made the need for physiotherapy and going out with the person with SCI for social activities difficult (Beauregard & Noreau, 2009; DeSanto-Madeya, 2009). Use of taxi and other commercial vehicles were employed to convey persons with SCI to the hospital and this sometimes caused the clients a lot of discomfort. This study result supports claims by Ahidjo et al., (2011), that indicated the use of ambulances and commercial vehicles for transportation of person with SCI in Nigeria. According to Ahidjo et al., (2011), the use of commercial vehicles and crouch positions were factors that negatively influence the outcome of the injured person condition.

Besides, the art of caregiving was as a major challenge that caregivers estimated as a difficult. Caregivers had to take care of all personal care activities that the clients could not perform personally. Caregiving tasks identified included bath??ing, dressing, diaper change, transferring, laundry, and transportation, feeding, managing medications (Rodakowski et al., 2013). Physical care of clients was reported by this study as a cumbersome activity that required extra training or caution. Likewise, 68% of caregivers in a comparable study reported being overwhelmed by their caregiving responsibilities (Arango-Lasprilla et al., 2010). They reported being anxious about the risk of causing further injury and pain to their clients because such clients require special attention (DeSanto-Madeya, 2009). This study reported their caregiving functions affected their physical health. Chen & Boore, (2009) gave a similar description when they reported, caregivers complained of exhaustion due to caregiving tasks. This study also found bed sore made caregiving tasks complex because the sores were never healing. Caregivers felt unprepared to deal with the complications of the client’s condition such as bedsores (Lucke et al., 2013). This was supported by PP1 as he pointed out ‘He is going to be discharged but here he is having some bed sores. Which we know it is not something which can be handled easily by us or any other person’Now how are we going to handle it’?

Though caregivers lacked the skills for caring for the injured family member, they were not given any training. A study found caregivers observed nurses without being able to assist their clients much at the initial stages of care. They further indicated how significant it is to involve relative in the caring process Angel & Buus, 2011). It is apparent that a special training for caregivers of person with SCI on the management of the injured family member at home in the Ghanaian setting would be worthwhile. This current study found that caregivers faced difficulties at the health facility during admission of their clients due to limited access to beds, uneasy access to medical specialist and unfriendly relationship of some healthcare providers. Brew Richardson, (2002) reported 7.7% of clients were delayed at the emergency because they had difficulty accessing hospital inpatients beds. This means that delays in access to inpatient beds could also delay certain specialist care. This study found that, relationship with healthcare providers had two facets. While some caregivers reported having supportive relationship with healthcare providers others were not treated friendly. The finding of this study is consistent with those by Lucke et al., (2013) which identified some caregivers found healthcare providers very helpful and supportive with the educational and physical aspects of care. Unfriendly relationship with family caregivers resulted in poor discharge information that complicated client’s condition. This finding pararelles other studies that suggested poor discharge information to caregivers can have direct effect on the care of clients in the community placing client safety in danger (Shivji, Ramoutar, Bailey, & Hunter, 2015). PP5 pointed out she was not given any information with regards to her daughters wound dressing at home except being told to come for review in two (2) weeks’ time. She was also not able to make enquiry from the nurse on duty because she was very unfriendly and that resulted in her daughter’s wound being infected. Accordingly, healthcare providers need to ensure good relationship with clients and their family caregivers so that their concerns can be broached for redress.

Also, caregivers were reported by this current study to spend more time at the hospital while their clients were on admission. Some caregivers came to the hospital early in the morning to attend to their clients and left there late in the evening. Similar findings have been reported by Lucke et al., (2013) that caregivers visited the hospital frequently while the family member was on admission, to learn to care for their loved ones.

Electrical Engineering: writing essay help

Electrical Engineering is a standout amongst the most imperative designing fields. It is a blend of different majors, for example, hardware, computerized interchanges, information transfers, and force gadgets, sign handling, incorporated circuits, micro processors and controllers. Livelihood opportunities are bounty in this field of study. Designers of this stream get employments in PC related firms, electrical and electronic firms, telecom commercial ventures and different assembling businesses. Electrical Engineering employments incorporate research, advancement, and outline, testing, counseling and educating. To be effective in Electrical Engineering we ought to be productive in critical thinking, innovative, and expert of PC plan, science and great learning in physical science and power to deliver adequate and decided yields.

“The architect and the technologist utilize a blend of science, math, and critical thinking abilities to outline, build, keep up, and circulate products, administrations, and data. In particular, specialists and designing technologists outline and grow new items and administrations. They create testing techniques and utilization research strategies to deliver sheltered, practical, and tough items and deal with the improvement and creation of products and administrations” [FDU Library]. Imagination is the real perspective that an Electrical Engineer ought to have.An Electrical Engineer ought to have solid learning at ideas in material science and math.

Moreover, specialized abilities and PC capability are needed for an essential basic occupation. There are some extra aptitudes helps Electrical Engineer manages diverse labs, for example, VHDL lab, Mat lab furthermore for outlining new CAD programming. Architects oblige manual and itemized learning of numerous sorts of get together procedures and different devices. Livelihood prerequisites differ by the forte of the stream we work.

We ought to have definite learning of the properties of metal and outline to make sheltered, proficient yields when we construct modern apparatus. To discover the vocation as an Electrical Engineer an individual ought to have a professional education. A percentage of the little occupations we traverse single guys degree just. The work here taking into account the standards and procedures in outline and usage with utilization of equipment and programming. Individuals who buckle down and fit for showing their abilities have extensive variety of headway opportunities in the assembling organizations and designing firms. Relational abilities are important to have the capacity to work with gatherings. We ought to comprehend proficient and moral obligations to be an impeccable specialist. We ought to have capacity direct new examinations, plan and examine to decipher information.

Electrical Engineers have difficulties, for example, critical thinking and the utilization of proper specialized arrangements, test supplies, and systems which will help us to accomplishment over the span of study. In this field we have long lasting adapting through course in specialized correspondence, research facility and division research exercises. Effective electrical designers have an alternate way to the issues furthermore conceive brand new ideas to discover the better arrangements. We ought to be meticulous when are dealing with our items. An effective specialist is one who is fit for checking little subtle elements at every step.

To be effective we ought to be great communicators and we ought to know how to compose clear and compact reports, the best approach to pass on our thoughts to our directors and ready to convey the guidelines to our representatives. Cooperation is most imperative in this field in light of the fact that it have all that much hard works which could be possible effortlessly when imparted. In a group the designer ought to work with an inspirational disposition for the accomplishment of the venture. Certainty at the work will pick up trust from the associates and great distinguishment from the higher powers.

In the event that you are an Electrical designer you are a regular learner on the grounds that innovation changes continually, so it keeps us to proceed with our training and stays overhauled with any progressions or new thoughts in the field. To be effective in this field we need to ceaselessly look at things and thinking in distinctive ways help us in adapting new ideas. We must think well when we are doing our work in light of the fact that slight blunder can result in the whole thing to come up short. Time administration is all that much essential here on the grounds that the vast majority of the things we bargain here are with time just; every gear is situated to work in the certain timeline. Fruitful electrical specialist can dissect and interfere with information and outline new gear’s when vital. We ought to be ready take obligations and difficulties at work. We ought to be mindful of the contemporary issues. You must realize what your errand is and ready to create dependable yield.

A decent specialist makes a supplies and innovation to the serve client needs. You must impact the client with the venture what you made. One ought to be dedicated furthermore a have decent hard working attitude. We ought to look after a ‘can do’ state of mind at the work space. Promptness ought to be kept up by great architect. Versatility and adaptability furthermore the capacity buckle down are fundamental for the development in this field when we take occupation as an issue. Impeccable judgment abilities are essential in adjusting expense issues, advantages, wellbeing quality.

There are a few vital subjects in this field, for example, Power hardware, Control frameworks, Integrated Circuits, Computer Communication Networks, VLSI, Electrical Circuits, Embedded frameworks, Micro Processors and Controllers, Electrical Circuits, CAD, Wireless Communications, Telecommunications and numerous more fields that an individual ought to have great learning for the gigantic accomplishment in Electrical Engineering.

In the present day world Telecommunication assumes a critical part as we all utilizing the some correspondence mediums, for example, Cell Phones to correspond with others, so the individual with great learning in Telecommunications have incredible interest concerning livelihood. IC circuits are vital on the grounds that it manages the outline of chips and coordinated circuit. Any electronic supplies ought to utilize coordinated circuits for its process. So IC circuits likewise assume a noteworthy part in Electrical building.

All the fields in Electrical Engineering are co related with one another, in the event that you have incredible information in any of the fields of Electrical Engineering one can have great job opportunities. Electrical and Communications Engineering is a stream in which we can work in Software field too. So Electrical Engineers will have double open doors.

At last an Electrical Engineer ought to have exhaustive information in different subjects and definite learning of central Electronics. One ought to be actually sound, inventive with new thoughts, effective with yields, great at arithmetic to manage the issues furthermore ideas of material science in light of the fact that one needs to manage significant ideas of physical science, look into, and grow new systems, gears. One ought to have learning on distinctive dialects and be arranged to work in different nations for turning into an effective Electrical Engineer.

Flora in the oral cavity: essay help

The oral cavity contains some of the varied and vast flora in the entire human body and is the main entrance for two systems vital to human function and physiology, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. The mouth harbors a diverse, abundant and complex microbial community. This highly diverse microflora inhabits the various surfaces of the normal mouth. Bacteria accumulate on both the hard and soft oral tissues in biofilms. Bacterial adhesion is particularly important for oral bacteria. Some bacterial population causes the oral disease like dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis etc. (Seymour et al.,2007)

The periodontal diseases are a diverse group of clinical entities in which induction of an inflammatory process results in destruction of the attachment apparatus, loss of supporting alveolar bone, and, if untreated, tooth loss. Periodontal disease is one of the most common diseases of the oral cavity and is the major cause of tooth loss in adults. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the relationship of periodontal disease to important systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. (O’Toole G et al.,2000)

The group of bacteria identified as causative organisms in periodontitis are Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides forsythus, Treponema denticola, T. socranskii, and P. intermedia.

2.2 Atherosclerosis

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), also called heart disease, is caused by disorders of the heart and blood vessels. It includes coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease, raised blood pressure, peripheral artery disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease and heart failure. Many of these conditions are related to atherosclerosis.

Fig1: Showing atherosclerosis phenomenon

Atherosclerosis is a condition that develops when a substance called plaque (atheroma) builds up in the walls of the arteries. It involves a gradual and focal accumulation of lipids, smooth muscle cells, white blood cells, cholesterol crystals, calcium, and fibrous connective tissue under the surface lining (endothelium) of the artery, ultimately forming an elevated plaque that protrudes into the vessel’s lumen and significantly reducing blood flow.

2.3 Relation between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis

Oral conditions such as gingivitis and chronic periodontitis are found worldwide and are among the most prevalent microbial diseases of mankind. The cause of these common in’ammatory conditions is the complex microbiota found as dental plaque, a complex microbial bio’lm.

The association between periodontal diseases and coronary heart disease such as atherosclerosis, has been realised. (Chun Xiao et al.,2009)

Several studies have shown bacteria in the atherosclerotic plaques. In a study by Ford et al. , real-time PCR was used to show Porphyromonas gingivalis in 100% of atherosclerotic plaques. Chlamydia pneumoniae was found in approximately 30%. Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter rectus were both found in approximately 4% of the arteries. These results clearly show that oral organisms can and do invade blood vessel walls.

Possible explanations for the association between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis

1. It may merely reflect confounding by common risk factors that cause both periodontal disease and atherosclerosis, such as smoking, obesity, and diabetes.

2. The autoimmune theory, according to which antibodies against bacterial antigens may also react against endothelial protein, causing destruction of the artery wall and initiating the arterial lesion

3. Both atherosclerosis and periodontitis are inflammatory processes. The presence of gum inflammation enhances theory is supported by an increase in white blood cells, C-reactive protein and other markers for inflammation in patients with periodontitis.

4. Periodontal bacteria entering the bloodstream during chewing, or small cuts and tears made by dental procedures. Once in the bloodstream, bacteria can produce an enzyme that causes blood platelets to become sticky and form small blood clots which may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. (Wong et al.,2004)

For adherence and entry into bacterial surface some surface structures are important which include:Fimbrae i.e, binding partner Fibronectin(FN) and Arg-gingipain A and Arg-gingipain B and they form the complex with tranglutaminase of the host epithlial cell.

Fig2: Showing difference in normal and atherosclerotic condition of blood vessel

The connection is indeed biologically plausible. Various epidemiological studies have shown this association in the past 20 years. There is 25% increase in the risk for CHD associated with periodontal disease. A longer follow-up period demonstrated a stronger relationship, and the risk for CHD increased gradually with the severity of periodontal disease. It is important to note that periodontitis and atherosclerosis share a number of powerful risk factors like smoking, diabetes mellitus, and low socioeconomic status, all of which can contribute to a confounded association.

2.4 Vaccine development

A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body’s immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and keep a record of it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters. Exploration of available bioinformatics tools for epitope based vaccine design affords a thorough consideration of vaccine design without expenditure of excess time or resources.

2.5 Emerging concepts regarding vaccine development

Three emerging concepts of periodontal disease may influence the development of a sophisticated vaccine to eradicate or alleviate the disease burden. The first is that periodontal disease is a polymicrobial infection. The second is that it is a major cause of adult tooth loss worldwide. The third is that periodontal disease contributes to the perpetuation of systemic diseases of critical importance (atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, etc.)

Recruitment methods

The recruitment methods can be informal or formal, depending on the source.

Informal recruitment methods:

filling job openings above entry-level positions with current employees. A major advantage of a promotion-from-within policy is its positive effect upon employee motivation. Availability provided by this practice thus may not only motivate employees to perform better and increase their satisfaction with the company, but also improve their morale and commitment toward the company.

filling a vacancy with a candidate that comes with a personal recommendation. This approach is usually favored when the costs of recruiting needs to be reduced. It is considered that when a candidate comes with a referral, they are better suited for the job and they already have a mentor. There are also disadvantages to putting too much emphasis on referral schemes, such as reduced workforce diversity and unfairness regarding other prospective candidates

Portfolio with hiring requests: this method works only when the hiring requests database is updated.

hiring interns reduces time and training costs because the intern already knows the company and its requirements.

has the advantage of knowing the employee and their potential and also reducing time and costs. The main disadvantage is that an employee who left the company once can’t be a long-term investment.

Formal recruitment methods:

These are paid for by the government and are responsible for helping the unemployed find jobs or get training. They also provide a service for businesses needing to advertise a vacancy and are generally free to use.

Advertisements are the most common form of external recruitment. They can be found in many places (local and national newspapers, notice boards, recruitment fairs, websites) and should include important information relating to the job. Where a business chooses to advertise will depend on the cost of advertising and the coverage needed.

if a company decides to go outside to fill an upper level management position, it may ask an executive search consultant to find potential candidates. Head-hunters usually analyze the vacancy and offer an opinion about the type of person required, conduct initial screening, and administer psychometric tests, etc. This may save the client many administrative costs and advertising expenses.

Provides employers with details of suitable candidates for a vacancy and can sometimes be referred to as ‘head-hunters’. They work for a fee and often specialise in particular employment areas e.g. nursing, financial services, teacher recruitment

Under this method of external recruitment, educational institutions such as schools, colleges and universities offer opportunities for recruiting fresh candidates. Most educational institutions provide placement services where the prospective recruiters can review credentials and interview the interested graduates.

When the application period is over, the process of recruitment comes is said to have ended. The next step of the process is to select the candidate.

The selection process is a series of specific steps used to decide which candidates should be hired. The process starts with an evaluation of application forms and ends with the selection decision or a job offer. Each step in the selection process seeks to expand the organization’s knowledge about the candidates’ background, abilities, and motivation, and it increases the information from which HR managers/specialists can make their predictions and final choice.

Museums: college admission essay help

Museums are defined as institutions that seek to serve the public by way of acquiring, conserving, researching, communicating and exhibiting the natural and cultural inheritance. At the center of these institutions is one important component which is research. Research is a major constituent of museum business. Smith (1960: 311) describes museums as centers for research, study, and contemplation. It can be noted that research is a significant part in museums because it fosters generation of new knowledge, it is also important in acquisition, preservation, conservation, and interpretation of the objects. It is against this background that this paper is going to discuss the relevance of research in museums.

According to Desvallees et al (2010), research in museums is mainly classified into four major categories. The first deals with museum’s collections, relating to disciplines such as history, and natural sciences. The second type is that which relates the material objects to science and other subjects outside the realm of museology, such as physics and chemistry. The third form is concerned with the operations of the museums, and the final category addresses the issues to do with institutional analysis. All these various forms of research are conducted within a museum at different levels, therefore, it can be noted that research is of importance in museum business.

Museums have the mandate to acquire, preserve, conserve, and promote their collections, as a contribution to safeguarding the natural, cultural, and scientific heritage (ICOM Code of Ethics, 2006). For museums to be able to fulfill this mandate there is need for them to conduct research so as to protect the potential value of their collections. Desvallees et al (2010) further note that, ‘the objective of conservation is to use all the means necessary to guarantee the condition of an object against any kind of alteration in order to bequeath it to future generations.’ It can therefore be noted that research is a crucial part of museums because before conservation can be done, there is need to first conduct research so as to guarantee the possible and appropriate measures to be taken for conservation and preservation of different material objects. Hence, research is a major component in museums because it is through research that information about how to preserve and conserve the material objects is acquired.

A museum mainly deals with the collection of objects. Desvallees et al (2010) defines a collection as a set of material or intangible objects which have been assembled, classified, selected, and preserved. These collections keep the museums in motion. However, collection of objects or intangible aspects of culture, is not just done at random, the set of objects collected must form a coherent and meaningful whole. This assessment whether the collection is meaningful is reached at through research. Therefore, it can be argued that research is a major component of museums because it is crucial in acquiring meaningful collections.

Bearing in mind that a good museum needs a good collection, and a good collection a, good scholarship; research is viewed as a crucial section of museums. Research in museums leads to the development of the collections. Smithies (2011) argues that the need to keep actively developing collections, including through ongoing acquisition and disposal all depend on the research which is conducted. Therefore, research is a significant component in museums because it leads to the acquisition of good collections, hence excellent museums in the end.

Museums can be said to be institutions that seek to serve the society through interpreting the cultural and natural inheritance to the general public. Lewis (2004: 6) notes that these museums are concerned with the up keep and interpretation of any aspect of the world’s tangible and intangible cultural legacy. For museums to be able to appropriately interpret the cultural and natural heritage, they need to first conduct research before they come up with conclusions based on their expertise. Van Mensch (1992) then elude that, research entails the scientific interpretation of the information value of cultural and natural heritage, to come up with new conclusions. Therefore, it can be noted that research is a major component in museums because it fulfills that main aims of the museums which is to interpret the cultural and natural inheritance to the society.

Desvallees et al (2010: 73) notes that in museums, research consist of the intellectual activities and work aimed at discovering, inventing, and the advancement of new knowledge connected with the museum collections. In other words, research can be said to be the driving force in the function of museums. The main aim of museums is to conduct research about the material objects that will have been acquired; this will then generate knowledge about the objects. Smithies (2011: 9) notes that, sufficient expertise research in museums generate new knowledge and create new narratives that speak to the general public. Therefore, it can be argued that research is a major component of museum business because it provides new insights to the objects and also aide as a form of communication between the audience and the silent objects.

Museums have also accepted the role of being learning centers; therefore there is need for research to be conducted in these institutions so that the information disseminated to the audience is adequate. Dudzinska-Przesmitzki et al (2008: 9) notes that, apart from their usual roles as conservators and collectors, society have bestowed upon museums, and most museums have acknowledged, the mission of acting as cultural and enlightening centers of knowledge. Research therefore is crucial if museums are continue to be learning centers as Jelinek (1978) contends that, neglecting of the scientific activities of research in museums will result in liquidation of the whole work even the educative discourse. It can therefore be argued that research is a major factor of museum business because museum act as center of attaining information by the general public, thus they should always have relevant and adequate information for the audience.

Research is viewed as the stronghold of any museum. Sofka (1978: 59) contend that with the absence of research, the collecting, cataloguing, and preservation function of the museum will be curtailed. It is argued that research is important for museums because without it, there will be no knowledge acquisition from the material objects. Also it is significant because through research museum personnel acquire knowledge and will be able to convey it to the general public in a way which they can understand better. Research therefore, improves the scientific quality of the collection and acts as the connection between the collection and the society.

Museums are regarded as important institutions, especially at national level; they do carry with them the sense of national consciousness. In Prague for instance, the revival of nationalism led to the foundation of the national museum in 1818, and later it became the Czech nationalism. It is against this background that research should be a paramount factor in museums because it is through research that the heritage of a nation can be preserved. Lewis (2004) further reiterates that, museums are appropriate institutions for the preservation of a nation’s historic heritage. Therefore, it can be noted that research is significant in museums because it provides the platform where the heritage can be preserved appropriately.

Research is a major constituent of museum business because it gives the responsible authority, the perception of users of the museum. Chang (2006) notes that, research give an understanding to the authorities, of the different characteristics of museum visitors and the nature of their museum experience. This is crucial for museum business because it is through the use of such knowledge that the museum is developed. Therefore, it can be argued that research is a major component for museums because aide the development of museums through understanding the visitor perceptions.

Moreover, it can be drawn from the above presentation that research is surely a major component of museum business. Research is the central constituent in the running of the museum. It provides the knowledge about how to acquire, conserve, preserve, communicate, and dispose the objects. It is through research that most museums in the world do have different obligations to meet. However, it should be noted that the role of research is not the same in all parts of the world.

Fish

Fish are very susceptible to both microbiological and chemical deterioration, due to large amounts of free amino acids, volatile nitrogen bases, highly unsaturated fatty acids and higher final pH Razavi Shirazi (2001). Chemical, enzymatic and microbial activity caused to loss of fish quality during storage ??zogul et al., (2006) and ??zyurt, (2009). Lipid oxidation is one of the major problems encountered in fish processing which have high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Synthetic antioxidants have been widely used as food additives to provide protection against oxidative degradation and to prolong the storage stability of foods. According to some reports, these compounds have possible toxic properties to human health and environment and can exhibit carcinogenic effects in living organisms Stich (1991), Ames (1983) and Baardseth (1989). Many efforts have been done to reduce these activities for supplying fresh fish according to consumers’ demand Hassan (2002). In this situation, using natural additives such as essential oils has been studied on shelf life of different food Burt (2004), to develop natural preservative with high antioxidant and antibacterial effect that could extent the shelf life of fish.

Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the use of natural antioxidants, such as essential oils. Essential oils possess antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral and anti-mycotic properties Burt (2004). The antioxidant properties of these plant extracts have been mainly attributed to their polyphenolic compounds, which are plant secondary metabolites, have many positive effects on human health, including their anti-inflammatory activity and anti-carcinogenic properties. Moreover, the activity of these components as food lipid antioxidants is well known Iqbal Bhanger et al., (2008) and Fazel et al., (2008).

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) also called as ”cilantro’ is an annual herbaceous plant originally from the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions, cultivated for its culinary, aromatic and medicinal use Mildner-Szkudlarz et al., (2009). This plant is of economic importance since it has been used as a flavoring agent in food products, perfumes, cosmetics and drugs. This culinary and medicinal plant widely distributed and mainly cultivated for the seeds which contain an essential oil Neffati et al., (2011). The essential oil and various extracts from coriander have been shown to possess antibacterial, antidiabetic, anticancerous, antimutagenic, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities Sreelatha et al., (2009) and Zoubiri and Baaliouamer, (2010).

Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is a small annual plant belonging to the Apiaceae family, and is native to the Mediterranean region, where it is cultivated extensively. It is one of the popular spices regularly used as a flavouring agent Thippeswamy and Naidu (2005). Cumin’s distinctive flavour and strong, warm aroma is due to its essential oil content that may be considered as an interesting source of antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant components, which are used as potent agents in food preservation and for therapeutic or nutraceutical industries. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde) Hajlaoui et al., (2010).

Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a member of Apiaceae family that has been employed in the food, pharmaceutical, perfume, and cosmetic industries Lopez, Sanchez-Mendoza and Ochoa-Alejo (1999). Many investigations point out to the antioxidant properties of parsley. The flavonoid apigenin, one of the components of parsley plant, was shown to express strong antioxidant effects by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and related to that, decreasing the oxidative damage to tissues. Potential for anticancer activity by parsley was reported as well Nguyen et al., (2004) and Kinoshita et al., (2006).

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of some essential oils in improvement some quality attributes of fish finger freeze stored at -18??C up to 6 months.

Bureaucratic Approach (Management Theory)

This theory was proposed by Max Weber, a German Sociologist. It focused on a stratified structure, which outlined apparent assignment of authority providing managers with a constitutional control over their workers. Weber saw each firm as an administration with aims to be accomplished at the cost of individual contribution. He stated that managers would be obeyed just because of their position as managers (O’ Connor, T., 2013).

His theories had two dominant characteristics which are the stratification of authority and the system of rules. Through his analysis of firms he stated three basic types of authorities are legal and these are;

‘ Traditional Authority: the approval of people in authority had its roots in tradition and custom.

‘ Charismatic Authority: In this case, the approval came from solidarity to, and trust in, the individual abilities of the leader.

‘ Rational-legal Authority: The approval came from the office, or level of the individual in authority as restricted by the guidelines and procedures of the firm. This rational-legal authority is what constitutes the form of authority in firms today and Weber’s bureaucracy theory is attributed to this form of authority (Caughey, et al, 2009).

Features of Bureaucracy

‘ Funct??ons ??n a f??rm are defined by rules.

‘ Workers operate within the boundaries of the specialization of the task, the level of authority attributed and the guidelines running the use of authority.

‘ A stratified framework of offices.

‘ Employment is made based on technical capability only.

‘ The ownership of the firms is distinct from officials.

‘ The authority is imputed on the legitimate positions and not on the individuals holding these positions (Debra Mesch et al, 1995).

Advantages of Bureaucracy

‘ Employment, promotion and authority depend only on technical capability and is put in place by written down guidelines and procedures of elevating those capable of managing rather those who are favored to manage as in nepotism and corruption.

‘ The implementation of bureaucracy management theory enables firms to develop into large and elaborate firms with the vision of formalizing clear goals.

‘ Weber’s theory can be used as a basis on which to compare and propagate new modern theories (Jessica Snow, 2014).

Disadvantages of Bureaucracy

‘ There is a likelihood of firms becoming more procedure-oriented than goal-oriented.

‘ There is a tendency of greatly formalized firm objectives to superintend creativity and resilience of workers.

‘ Strict attitude of senior managers may cause regulated services that do not meet the customer needs.

‘ Strict procedures and guidelines do not motivate the employees in a firm.

‘ Implementation of authority based on knowledge has caused the development of ‘experts’ whose ideas and behavior may frequently go against those of other general managers and coordinators (Rubin C. et al, 2012)

2.4.1.4 Human Relations Movement Theories (Behavioral Management Theories)

It is called the human relations movement because it focuses on the human aspect of work. Human relations theorists’ belief that a good understanding of the behavior of people at their work places such as the drive, prospects, rivalry, group gestures will improve productivity. They saw the employees as individuals, resources and not liabilities that are to be improved upon and worked with. Hence the foci of human relations theory are motivation of different factions of a firm and leadership (Joseph Kennedy, 2007).

The different human relations theorists, there experiments, the criticisms and strengths of their works are discussed below:

2.4.1.4.1 Elton Mayo

In the 1920s, Elton Mayo, a Harvard Professor, after his observation of the importance of both human interaction and individual relationships in the work place, performed experiments to comprehend the influence of different working conditions on worker’s productivity. His experiments proved that when the social needs of employees are met, it improves the working conditions and hence has positive effects on productivity (Houghton Mifflin, 2014).

As an improvement on the scientific management theory of seeing managers as task masters; his new human relations approach was concerned with the essence of group dynamics, collective team work and positive effects of social interaction. Managers under this theory now have care and affection for the employee’s needs and health as part of their roles (Slayor Foundation, 2015)

Also, human relations and the social requirements of workers are necessary aspects of managing an organization (Houghton Harwert, 2015).

Advantages

‘ Mayo’s experiment was the premier attempt to carry out leg??t??mate social experiments in an industrial environment.

‘ It proved that people cannot be worked with in isolation, but work with other group members.

‘ He proved that personal motivation did not rest solely in monetary or physical incentives, but in their necessities and their roles in a group.

‘ It stated the need for managers to be shown concern and cater for the social desires of employee’s in a group (Richard Trahair, 2012).

Disadvantages

‘ Doubts started to rise between the 1930s and 1950s on the increased usefulness of these theories in day to day working life (Korajczyk, 1961).

Power quality of AC system: essay help online free

With the outburst in number of electronic equipment’s, power electronics & High voltage power systems including induction motors and inductive loads , the power quality of AC system has become a matter of concern. Heavy Penalty is laid on people who do not follow the limited value of PF (Power Factor) allocated by Electric Power Companies. All this is done so as to prevent excessive drawing of power and increased number of connected load which lead to harmonic contamination in power lines and degradation in transmission efficiency. Because of all these reasons PF correction has become a hot topic in today’s world. There are many methods proposed for PF correction.

In this project we have tried studying about nature of industrial load, designing of a PF corrector for the same and Development of a single phase PF corrector using PIC microcontroller chip. Using PIC microcontroller and sensors it measures and senses the PF of the load. With the help of programming done right it will determine and switch appropriate number of capacitors to compensate the reactive components of the electrical load. Thus, driving a Power Factor value to unity results in higher efficiency and reducing the maximum demand.

Exposure to construction of manual and automatic Power Factor Correction apparatus is also imparted at DDK (DoorDarshan Kendra) and BSNL (Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd.) Sub Stations.

In earlier times the loads have been fairly benign, having either resistive characteristics (light bulbs) or input currents that are sinusoidal but phase shifted (AC Motors). Most electronics systems now use one or more switch mode power converters that will tend to draw currents from the power line in a non-sinusoidal fashion. This input current characteristics results in current & possibly voltage distortions that can create problems with other equipment connected to the power lines & degrade the capability of the mains. In electrical plants the loads draw network electrical power as power supply source or convert it to other form of energy or into mechanical output. To get this, it is often necessary that the load exchanges with the network, the reactive energy, mainly of inductive type. This energy if not immediately converted into other forms, contributes to increase the total power flowing through the electrical network, from the generator along the conductors, to the users. To smooth such a negative effect, the power factor correction obtained by using capacitor banks to generate locally the reactive energy necessary for the transfer of useful electrical power, allows a better & rational technical- economical management of plants.

In our work we aim to improve the overall power factor of an installation. Improving power factor means taking necessary steps to increase the power factor in a defined section of the installation by locally delivering necessary reactive power so that the value of current & consequently of the power flowing through the upstream network can be reduced, at the required output power. Our work provides a solution which allows technical & economic advantages.

A modern technological development in our society

It’s agreeable that, Technological progress has merely provided us with more efficient means for going whether forwards or backwards as well. Technology has enable Us to increase our comfort and to achieve efficiency in all sectors of life .without technology ,we can’t achieve any progress or development . thanks to technology ,we can modernize our industry so life becomes easier for us and next generations .despite advantages mentioned above, there are drawbacks of technology . so we can consider technology is a servant but a bad master.

There are some modern technological developments that play a major role in making our daily life more effective . television is ,no doubt, a good servant .it’s the cheapest source of information and entertainment nowadays .TV has a big influence in our life . It can be an educational tool. there is a considerable variety of TV programmes which give us instruction as well as education . there are , for examples , some programmes for educating adult illiterates and others for teaching foreign languages . besides ,a lot of films, plays and series are presented time at home . Television also provides outlet for creative talents . many playwrights ,actors emerged from television . color TV has given greater opportunities for such talents.

However ,television is a bad master . it has a negative effect on our behavior It encourages us to accept violence and to be inactive and unimaginative. it occupies most of our time . thus , we have no time left to pursue our hobbies , listen to music or read books . it also regulates our free time . we rush home ,gulp food and then sit in complete silence before the TV screen . Many television channels broadcast violent films and programs. The more our children see violence on television , the less sensitive they become to it . So , violence doesn’t seem wrong . We can also notice that violence on television doesn’t seem to have consequence s . An actor who is killed in a film an hour ago ,can be seen laughing in another program . This may confuse with reality and we forget killing must be permanent

Television also encourages passive enjoyment it is a tool to cut us off from the real world .We become less active . We do nothing except turning it on and changing the channels . We can’t even move around to practice sports . we get little so lazy and of course we will suffer from physical diseases . we choose to spend a fine day in semi ‘darkness ,glued to our sets , rather than go out into the world itself. Besides , its bad effect concerning social relationship, we notice that TV cuts the soul of gathering people in one trend . In addition, we notice the bad morals that spread in society among people . Crimes spread as a result of bad films and forcing scenes . social illnesses prevail over the countries Addiction to watching TV acts as a hindrance to our imagination . Stories are told for us . We don’t even have to imagine what the place of stories look like

On my opinion . television can tight relations . News and other information , we see on television gives us topics to discuss with our friends and family . Television also helps us to understand each other better as we all have access to its programmes . TV can help us share our interests with other people . Television programmes give us topics to think about . Now we can know about news in a few minutes after they happen all over the world . For example , now we know about those who die of birds flu minutes after the event . We all like to discuss these matters with other people . So , Television news and information programmes help us to discuss our ideas with others . No matter where you live ,you have access to many television channels . You can watch television programmes and movies of many other foreign countries . through them you can get information about many different cultures . When you go to a new city to work , study or take a vacation , you will already have something in common with the people there . Where you meet new people ,you will probably be familiar with at least some of the television programs they watch . The gives you something to talk about and a way to begin new friendships

Most people use television as a way to pursue their interest . People who play sports usually like to watch sports on television . Those who like to cook prefer to watch cooking programs . Television encourage s communication among people . Television is a tool that gives access to information and entertainment as well as education . You can share others’ interests effectively

Technology is also needed to raise our standard of living . our homes are more comfortable and use fewer energy recourses thanks to improvements in home construction techniques as well as computer technology . without technology we couldn’t have treatments for heart diseases thanks to progress in medicine

From the above ‘ mentioned lines we come to a conclusion that says “technology is good ” Without it there would be no change ,no improvement s in our economy ,our standard of living , or our health . Hence , We can’t deny the necessity of technology.

Holography: essay help online

Hologram is defined as ‘a three-dimensional image reproduced from an interference pattern produced by a split coherent beam of radiation (as a laser)’ [1]. Holograms can achieve a three-dimensional image, but it can be easily minded of a hologram as a photograph which can be refocused at any depth [2]. Therefore, as a photograph taken of two people standing far apart would have one in focus and one blurry, a hologram taken of the same scene can be reconstructed to bring either person into focus [2].

This chapter will concern on the definition of holography and its advantages over the conventional imaging techniques. Also it will investigate the holographic technology development and its application including microscopy.

In conventional imaging techniques, such as photography, what is recorded is merely the intensity distribution in the original scene resulting that all information about the optical paths to different parts of the scene is lost [2].The unique characteristic of holography is the concept of recording both the phase and the amplitude of the light waves from an object [2].

When a hologram is illuminated by a proper light source, the exact amplitude and phase is reconstructed and the original light field recreated, Since the observer has the whole light field available, the genuine three dimensional sensation is achieved, therefore, Holography is about capturing and reproducing light field, and each point in this field is determined by an amplitude and phase [3].

Holography has advanced to the digital area since 90s, after the advent of CCD and CMOS digital cameras [4]. In digital holography there is no need of wet processing to record the holograms and it is convenient to evaluate the properties of the specimen structures quantitatively [4]. Three major areas of holography which usually addressed in a context of digital holography can be considered, They are the capturing, the reproduction and hologram fringes synthesis, in addition, digital holography introduces one specific issue that don’t have parallel in optical holography, the area is numerical reconstruction[3].Since the mid 90’s, digital holography had attract many applications such as in optical metrology, encryption of information and microscopy[4],which is the goal of this thesis.

Digital holographic microscopy is proposed to yield a microscope that can image optical thickness as well as phase object [4].

Fig.(1.1) Digital holographic microscopy of SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells (60 ?? 60 ??m^2,404??404 pixels): (a) hologram, (b) amplitude image,(c)phase image, (d) unwrapped phase image, and ( e) phase image in pseudo-color pseudo-3D view [5].

An example of DHM imaging of a SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells is shown in Fig. (1.1), where Fig. (1.1) a) is the hologram and Fig. (1.1) b) is the reconstructed amplitude image, similar to what one would see through a conventional microscope, the phase image in Fig. (1.1) c) indicates that the cells appear having thickness of several microns, therefore the phase profile varies by several cycles of 2?? radians. A public domain phase unwrapping algorithm is used to remove the 2 ?? discontinuities in Fig. (1.1) d), and it is rendered in pseudo-color pseudo-3D perspective in Fig. (1.1) e). The apparent height profile is the profile of optical thickness that includes both physical thickness and index variation [5].

Stage plays in Ancient Greece and the film Selma: essay help online free

It was the tradition of the Ancient Greek civilization to have their Tragedies and poetry performed in a stage play; more confident writers would enter their work in competitions and have it compete with the works of other fellow writers. These traditions were carried on and adapted into more modern channels of expression, progressing alongside with the changing times. The Tragedies and poetry that were once performed by actors on a stage for a present audience, are now performed by actors projected onto a screen upon the discretion of the viewer ; more commonly known as film. The tradition of having one’s work compete with others was also carried on and a modern day counterpart being the Cannes International Film Festival. The modernization of the channels of expression significantly affect the process of creation and overall outcome of the work. However the underlying principles of what makes Tragedy efficient and proper, as introduced by Aristotle, and the poet as inspired by the divine, as proposed by Socrates, maintains its place at the very core of it all; an example is the film Dancer in the Dark. In summary the film is centralized upon Selma, a Czech immigrant with a hereditary eye condition and passion for American musicals. After accidentally killing her neighbor, in an attempt to retrieve her savings for her son’s eye operation, she is wrongfully convicted of murder and is sentenced to the death row.The film, which garnered the Golden Palm at the Cannes film festival, exhibited the elements of proper and efficient Tragedy and poetry as divine inspiration.

To illustrate, it should be noted that at certain parts of the film Selma made use of the surrounding noise to initiate a musical number; with the exception of the last song, where in the number was unaccompanied by any noise or instrument and Selma was unable to finish her song. These musical numbers were packaged as a daydream as well as a coping mechanism. It depicts how Selma would breakaway from reality during distressing situations, such as upon the realization of the gravity of her crime and the moments leading up to her execution. The performance of the ballads is analogous to the performance of poetry by the Rhapsodes of Ancient Greece. While the disassociation with reality prior to the performance is also analogous to Socrates’ concept of Divine Inspiration as the primary source of the Rhapsode’s driving force. However to concede to the notion of Divine Inspiration would also concede to the idea that the Rhapsode, Selma (and to some extent the actress, Bj??rk Gu??mundsd??ttir, herself), is without talent and incapable of achieving such feats in art without the aid of the divine. Yet, it can be argued that talent and inspiration are forces that complement rather than negate. Inspiration may function as a stimulant for an inherent talent, and the execution of said talent will in turn give justice to the inspiration.

Likewise, the film also conformed to the standards of Aristotelian tragedy. Since Tragedy, according to Aristotle, is an imitation of action, rather than man; in the hierarchy of elements Plot is superior superior to all. According to Aristotle Plot must be whole, complex, must posses magnitude, a single issue and the elements of emotional interest. The film exhibits all of these elements; it his whole as it has a beginning, middle and end. In terms of complexity, the innocence of Selma but wrongful conviction excites pity; while her execution arouses fear. Although the film’s magnitude was twice as long as a regular film, still it is considered to be the proper length because it was able to narrate the plot without being too vast for easy consumption. The single issue in the film is the mistrial that led to Selma’s demise. Finally, the element of emotional interest namely: Reversal of situation, Recognition, and Scene of suffering. The Scene of suffering can be found at the very end, it was the moments of psychological turmoil leading up to the execution and finally as Selma was hung from the gallows. The Reversal of situation is when Selma’s savings became Bill’s,her neighbor, inheritance money. Although the reversal did not occur on screen, it is still an event that is probable within the given parameters of the film; thus it is valid. Lastly, Recognition was achieved during the scene where Selma was going to put away her final salary only to realize that the tin box was empty and Selma realizes that the person with the motive and capability to commit the act was Bill.

Following Plot is Character and Thought, respectively. The Character performs the action, thus reigns over Thought. Aristotle states that a character of Tragedy must be good, true to life, consistent, aim at propriety and must transition from prosperity to despair. The character of Selma conforms to these standards. As a mother Selma wants to provide the best life for her child, Gene, thus she saves her salary and work overtime to ensure that he does not suffer the same eye condition. As a person with a passion for musicals, Selma joins a local theater play and finds music in everyday noise. As a friend, she refused to divulge Bill’s motives for theft, stating that she had promised to keep it a secret, which destroys her only chance in winning the case. As a victim of circumstance, Selma expresses her trust that all of her savings are still intact as she retrieves it from Bill; as well as the grave remorse she experiences as she desperately takes the money by force. Thought, on the other hand, is portrayed through Selma’s song rather than proverbs or maxims. The song, “I’ve Seen It All”, displays how Selma no longer fears being blind and how grand objects have a more simplified version. In the lyrics Selma sing how Niagara Falls, considered to be one of the great waterfalls in the world, is nothing more than water. Another example is the song “107”, which narrates the supposed one hundred and seven steps of the convict to the death row. It portrays how Selma copes with reality using her songs.

Below the level of Thought is Song followed by Diction, both of which are mediums of imitation.The songs are reflective of Selma’s situation and character. An example of a Song is her final one entitled, “Next to the Last Song” that delivered the final blow in arousing the audience’s pity and fear. This was achieved by executing Selma, thus preventing from finishing the song but revealing to the audience the final stanza: “They say it’s the last song/ They don’t know us you see/ It’s only the last song/ If you let it be.” In terms of Diction, the generally short dialogue allowed the tension to gradually build. This was best exhibited in the scene where her neighbor asks for a loan, but Selma refuses for the second time. The conversation did not progress any further but it heightened the sense of foreboding.

Finally, the remaining element is Spectacle. In the hierarchy of the elements of Tragedy, Aristotle places Spectacle as the least relevant element; claiming that a Tragedy need not be an extravagant stage play to achieve its purpose. The “Spectacle” being referred to equates to the special effects, setting, editing, and other components that deal with the visual aspect of the film. With regard to Spectacle the film had minor continuity errors in most of the scenes, it was shot using cheap digital cameras, and settings were very commonplace (a factory, the railroad, a trailer home, etc.). Compared to the usual Hollywood movies that makes use of professional cinema-cameras, flamboyant musical numbers, and high end special effects, the film’s Spectacle is inferior but it did not hinder the arousal pity and fear.

The great interval between the creation of the works of Aristotle and Plato to the production films of the modern day, did not alienate these works from each other. Although some concepts are debatable while others provide an exemplary standard for art. It can be said that the elements of the classics still reign true and are applied to its contemporary counterparts.

The history of newspapers in the US

The United States political structure transformed from loosely organized states to a strong central government with a strong constitution. In America’s early years of independence, the two dominant political parties that contested for power were Federalism and Republicanism. Federalists advocated a strong central government while Republicans favored less centralization and more power for states. Federalist and the country’s second President, John Adams, pushed for the Alien and Sedition Acts to silence newspapers that opposed the Federalist Administration. It embodies the notion of ‘patriotism to write in favor of our government; it is sedition to write against it’ (Copeland, 151). Newspapers could help or hurt people in an office since it had a great influence on the public. Literacy rates surpassed ninety percent in some regions of the United States by 1800. The popularity of newspapers and other forms of print reflected the attractiveness of public debate. However, writers faced certain risks when publishing their work because it may land them in trouble with certain groups. As a result, writers resorted to anonymity, which protected writers from defamation charges and reflected a pledge to a cause, rather than an appeal to a personal agenda (Copeland, 141). Interestingly, the author points out that certain news were published to avoid controversy in the colonies (Copeland, 142). I agree with the claim to a degree because the extensive circulation of the newspaper gave way to debate and discussion, people would discuss what was on the news. However, if the state or whoever controls the press, they can choose what contents can be printed to control the debates in public spheres. The 1750s was engulfed by the French and Indian War, and it lead newspapers to increase coverage of local, trans-colonial and international events that had an effect on America. Also, the debate concerning the enactment of the Constitution and Bill of Rights between 1787 and 1791 drove the growth of newspapers farther. To obtain news people in the colonies would attend taverns to borrow newspapers that recently arrived in a town or listen to someone read the paper out loud (Copeland, 143). Congress authorized the Secretary of the Sate to select newspapers to publish the latest resolutions it passed. By 1799, it ordered that at least one newspaper in each state. Newspapers allowed individuals at all levels of society to become part of the public sphere and ‘join in debate of issues bearing on state authority’ (Copeland, 144). People wrote letters to publishers regarding an article or any topic of discussion and sometimes their letters were published in the newspaper. Copeland also mentions that in colonial America the phrase ‘Printed by Authority’ appeared in the paper’s nameplate indicated that newspapers needed a license from the colonial government to publish news. However, this licensing never stopped those without permits from printing. By 1760, increases in sales meant that printers did not need a government contract to produce a profitable newspaper. The daily newspaper made its debut in the colonies in 1783. Before that, most papers were published on a weekly basis. As America’s population grew, and the economy strengthened, political issues became the central focus of opinion in newspapers (Copeland, 145). The press sought to influence the country’s managing of its international affairs by supporting causes and urging adoption of political action. It was then considered as an architect of political culture and an agenda-setter for public debate (Copeland, 146). As the number of newspapers thrived during the early nineteenth century, so did their level of political affiliation. For example, in 1808, out of 329 newspapers in the United States, only fifty-six were not aligned with a political party (Copeland, 149). Affiliation to a political party in power meant that newspapers could incentives from the party in power. Some of those incentives include government printing contracts and political office. Patronage was a hefty source of income for newspapers.

Furthermore, the establishment of institutions of learning and a printing press were objectives of the settlers (Thomas, 4). Presses and printers in the colonies were sent over from England but for religious purposes, which was spreading the gospel among the Native American in the colonies (Thomas, 5). Similar to Copeland’s discussion of licensing to print newspapers. Thomas takes a more in-depth analysis, where he gives the reader a specific state (Massachusetts). According to the author, in 1664, Massachusetts passed a law concerning the publication of contents. “No printing should be allowed in any towns within the jurisdiction, expect in Cambridge; nor should anything be printed but what the government permitted’ (Thomas, 6). The author also mentions that offenders against the 1664 law were to forfeit their presses to the country and to be stripped of the privilege of printing. What is eye-opening in Thomas’s work is how colonial authorities chose to keep people in ignorance. For example, in the colony of Virginia decided it was best not to allow public schools, nor to allow the use of the press. In doing so, they kept the people unaware, so they can be more obedient to the laws, to prevent them from causing political unrest, and prevent heresy (Thomas, 7).

Indeed Uribe’s The Birth of a Public Sphere claims that the development of a legitimate public sphere in New Spain was obstructed by the absence of printed news and the lack of a literate population (Uribe, 425). From 1760 to 1800 a new feeling of equity emerged, and the rejection of public powers based on privilege, status, or tradition became the dominant paradigm. ‘Capitalists’ and ‘scholars’ were groups that developed new institutions of sociability which made it possible for individuals to gather, critique, and ultimately mold ‘public opinion’ to influence State policies. Members of such societies were more knowledgeable about American and French revolutionary events, intellectual debates, enlightened ideas, and modern scientific doctrines. In addition, some men launched scientific expeditions, academic and literary groups, and newspapers in the colonies (Uribe, 437). Interestingly, Venezuelan Francisco Miranda organized a secret society of Spanish Americans in London to promote the independence of the Spanish colonies. Individuals later active in the liberation movements in the Americas were initiated in Masonic groups during their time in the European continent. For example, General Simon Bolivar joined the French Masons in 1804. With that, the public sphere was created and expanded New Spain. Colonial regimes in Spanish and Portuguese America tried hinder any open discussion of or participation in politics and policymaking. Such efforts made possible by eliminating printing presses and political organizations (Uribe, 427). As with Freemasonry, tertulias were accused of heresy where they questioned the divine right of monarchs and charged with advocating popular sovereignty and the need to free the colony from Spanish tyranny (Uribe, 430).

Therefore, in Guerra’s work, An Alternative to Modernity, societies are presented as a place to think and share ideas; to arrive at a collective opinion (Guerra, 6). Most importantly, the author discusses tertulias. They were the first form of modern sociability similar to the ‘salon’ in France. Nobles, officials or the bourgeoisie assembled at such places to discuss an array of topics such as literature, science, or religious issue (Guerra, 9). Additionally, Guerra does talk about other societies that are somewhat similar to the tertulias. The numbers of such societies were about one hundred in Spain and a dozen in the Americas. Interestingly, several of the peninsular economic societies were connected to the Spanish Crown. Spain promoted some of the societies to exemplify enlightened despotism and show that such societies can coincide with the Crown and not result in an all-out overthrow of rule like in France. In a way, the authorities wanted to show that such societies did not pose a threat to the state. However, Guerra mentions that in America, the role of the State as a supportive motor was missing (Guerra, 21). The absence of support was interpreted by many people in New Spain as a sign that the crown was uninterested in them (Guerra, 22). Guerra points out that in Mexico, the extent of literacy due to an abundant circulation of printed sources facilitated for progressive ideas of the elite to travel faster to the masses and provoke very strong reactions of rejection. However, from my understanding, Mexico did not have numerous newspapers or high literacy. In Copeland’s America 1750, he mentions that America experienced an expansion of newspaper circulation and publishing along with high literacy rates. With that, the spread of progressive ideas is much easier and faster than in a place that lacked such qualities. Guerra explains that the spread of liberal ideas in Mexico is demonstrated by the Independence of Mexico and Father Hidalgo, who he was able to mobilize indigenous communities (Guerra, 27). According to Guerra, public space was formed not just by the press, but also by the abundance of books, and enlightened practices.

Drosophila melanogaster: essay help

Drosophila melanogaster is a model organism used in genetics and various research in cellular and molecular biology for many years. This organism is known for its short life cycle, small size, genetic variability, and its in-expensive trait to be studied in the laboratories. Thomas Morgan, an American geneticist is heavily credited for his work in discovering eye pigment mutation in the flies. He discovered mutation of white eyed Drosophila and concluded they were sex-linked. For many years, 75% specific genes in Drosophila have equivalency with humans in relation to certain diseases. Disease include cancer, renal disorders, Parkinson’s disease, and Azhelmer’s. (Russel and Tikko 2002).

The recessive allele rugose (rg) is one of many genes studied for eye color pigmentation in D. melanogaster. rugose was first seen as a rough eye phenotype due to abnormal retina and cone development. This abnormality resulted in loss of cone cells. Furthermore, this gene encodes for a kinase protein A and is mandatory for retinal formation and cell differentiation. The gene rugose (rg) is an aging gene, that plays a role in physiological age and senescence. Fecundity changes are also incorporated into this, and assimilate dramatically with age. SNPs, otherwise known as single-nucleotide polymorphisms, affect fecundity and life span as well. With this said, increase in SNP levels, result when comparing fecundity with age. This relation provides adequate support and provides theory of aging (Durham, 2014).

At the biological level rugose participates in imaging circadian pacemakers in order to detect brain study and intact cAMP levels by a neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor also known as PDF. In some flies, pacemakers were elevated by, activating ortholog of mammalian adenylate cyclase 3 (AC3), however it seemed to have no effect. Although, a different isoform was utilized known as AC78C by RNAi which reduced, but did not completely take usage of PDF (Duvall, 2013).

Phenotypic characteristics in the mutation of the gene

The sex-linked recessive rugose (rg) gene is located on chromosome 1 is observed to have small rough eye phenotype showing an abnormality in the ocelli. Many are seen with two or three cone cells in their ommatidia when normal complements are observed to have four. In comparison to wild type the ommatidia are not hexagonal in shape. rugose (rg) bristles are positioned irregularly and excess bristles tend to form at the corner of the ommatidia. Photo receptors are also lacking in the ommatidia and position of them tend to be disoriented resulting in disformity in the retina. Wings are curled upward, thin and frayed toward the margins with body being pale in color (lindsley,1992). These phenotypic classes cause a mutation in both dominant and recessive alleles and contribute in being lethal. Two alleles in particular address this chromosomal effect; rugose (rg1) and rugose (rg7) to signify differences as rugose (rg) in the phenotype.

The (rg1) allele is the only non extinct allele associated with rugose (rg). This allele is hypomorphic with a slight rough appearance at 17??, but moderately rough at 25??. Depending on the severity of the roughness, the eye is classified into mild, moderate, and severe classes. The (rg1) allele deals with loss in memory similar to rugose (rg), in addition to learning disability. On the other hand, (rg7) has the same phenotypes seen as rugose (rg), but differentiates by having a mutation of eclosion delay.

Molecular characteristics of the gene and gene product

rugose (rg) is responsible for the regulation protein kinase A and targeting the membrane. Pathways predicted to direct memory formation are anesthesia-resistant memory and protein synthesis-dependent. With the membrane it may or may not include surrounding organelles associated proteins. Its identity of being required for retinal pattern as well as, interactions with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathways links to learning, short-term memory loss, neuromuscular junction, and their body. Short-term memory impairment is one of the main discrepancies caused in this gene by the absence of cold shock. This deficiency is seen at three hours after one cycle training. After every three hours more deduction in memory is seen to occur (Qin, 2013). At the molecular level, it is said, in the pathway of memory formation theirs a direct link which connects dysfunction in short-term memory into long-term memory (Zhao, 2013). Pathways predicted to direct memory formation are anesthesia-resistant memory and protein synthesis-dependent (Zhao, 2013).).

The mutation of rugose (rg) primarily causes abnormal or complete loss of cone cells. This can be retrieved by proapoptotic signals. However, a complete rescue can only be completed by Notch signaling. Cone cell loss is also seen by N-terminal kinase activity and reduction of EGFR signaling pathway. Together, both these aspects accumulate in integrating various signals for accurate regulation of cone cell development.

Conclusion

The biological and molecular perspective of Drosophila melanogaster leads up to gaining insight on different genes and their specificity on how they function and various mutations they cause to help scientists understand what they are experimenting with. In such a case, rugose a protein A kinase induced allele has been evident to be seen in 58 other alleles that are crucial in learning, mushroom body development, and neuromuscular junction development. Studying gene rugose (rg) further, can help gain knowledge on cone cell abnormality in the Drosophila as well as memory loss and learning impairment. Even though, there is no research that rugose (rg) has yet a significance in human diseases currently, Drosophila argose (aos) share similar phenotypes that are visualized in Drosophila rugose (rg). argos also, a protein coding gene located on chromosome 3 functions In enlargement of cell size as well as the development of the optic lobe located in the midbrain of the Drosophila melanogaster. While this gene affects cell size and the midbrain it is also important in photoreceptors of the eye and is hypomorphic as rugose (rg1) (Shamloula, 2002).

With ongoing research, the various functions and perspectives that play a part in the abnormality of cone cells in the retina, and memory loss disability have gave scientists the access and knowledge of rugose mutations that can be observed in other Drosophila flies. Research supports the idea that short-term memory is always associated with long-term memory and factors into olfactory attributes as well. Furthermore, this condition of memory impairment is still inconclusive due to rising alleles which develop and are complemented with others for further research.

Australia and obesity

Australia is the fattest nation in the world, and due to this there is an increasing obesity epidemic. The Brisbane Bariatric Centre (n.d) stated that obesity is an excess total of fat, which results from kilojoule intake that exceeds the energy usage, measured by the Body Mass Index (BMI). Whether it is lifestyle choices, genetics, parental, peer or social influence, these many causes are largely affecting the health of the nation. This research assignment will cover why with all the media coverage of obesity in society the numbers are increasing, and it will argue that individuals, families and society must change to be responsible for guaranteeing a decline in obesity epidemic numbers, starting now.

The Gympie State High School year 11 Home Economics class of 2015, have the surveyed the school community including teachers, parents and students in order to gain information about lifestyle choices (Appendix 1). The most significant figures out of each question was taken and put into percentages and the data is as follows (Appendix 2). Out of those surveyed, 55% saw themselves as overweight, 45% saw themselves as having a healthy weight while only 5 % saw themselves as obese. Out of these figures, 20% have take-away once a week, 45% have once a month and a small sum of only 5% have it once year, with the most predominant meal being take-away pizza. In addition, 95% of the participants stated that they were responsible for their own health, and in leisure time 50% watch TV and 20% spend it on their phone/ iPod. The statistics furthermore validate the undeniable fact that the nation is detrimental to its own health, through not eating healthy foods and spending large amounts of time watching TV/social media and not exercising.

The media has many outlets; television, print and social media sites, for example, Facebook or twitter. Due to this there are many ways for fast food companies to promote their products. The numerous advertisements showing delicious, appetising meals at an inexpensive price, is ultimately creating the desire in viewers to consume these products. Also, the simplicity and ease of driving and not having to put any time or effort into making meals makes it so much easier when in a hurry to purchase fast food and this relates directly to many Australians, especially mothers who work full time and are time poor. However, what many do not realise is no matter how tasty, quick and easy the food is to get, it is extremely unhealthy due to high levels of saturated fats, sugars and salts. These fats increase low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels which are linked to cardiovascular diseases (Better Health Channel, 2015) such as coronary heart disease and possibly causing heart attacks and/or strokes. Overall, these foods are contributing to the numbers of obese individuals, therefore making health problems more prevalent.

Obesity has many consequences in terms of health and the damage can be seen both physically and psychologically through many conditions. Depression, poor body image, low self-concept/esteem, behavioural and learning problems (Obesity Society, 2014) are just a few of the possible psychological conditions associated with obesity. Type 2 diabetes, asthma, hypertension (high blood pressure), High LDL cholesterol levels, low HDL cholesterol levels, sleep apnea, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, coronary heart disease, fatty liver disease, osteoarthritis, gallbladder disease and some forms of cancer including endometrial, breast and colon/colorectal (Obesity society, 2014), (Cdc.gov, 2015) are the physical conditions. These illnesses are directly linked to obesity, and as a result doctor and hospital visits ultimately end up costing the economy millions each year.

The enormity of these visits in relation to the illnesses caused by obesity, the cost to the economy is into the millions. Data from (The growing cost of obesity 2008: three years on, 2008) clearly corroborates this and includes specific information with regard these associated diseases and health conditions. The many financial costs to the Australian health system can include the costs of running hospitals and nursing homes, GP and specialist services, the cost of pharmaceuticals, allied health services, research, productivity losses, carer costs, deadweight loss (DWL) from transfers, aids, equipment and modifications, transport and accommodation costs along with respite and other government programs. As well as the financial costs there are also the non-financial costs. These can include, disability, loss of wellbeing, premature death caused by the disease obesity and its affects which is measured in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), also known as Burden of Disease (BoD). (The growing cost of obesity 2008: three years on, 2008) also gives specific financial information from both 2005 and 2008 on obesity related diseases and the data is as follows. (Table 4-1: Cost Summary, Obesity ($M), 2005): In 2005 alone, the total of the diseases including BoD was at a whopping 21’013 million dollars with the individual diseases including: Type 2 diabetes at $2’289 million, CVD at $12’653, osteoarthritis at $2’027 and cancer at $3’954. This rapidly increases over the three year gap with Type 2 diabetes increasing 57.3% to $8’251 million, CVD increasing 71.4% to $34’565 million, osteoarthritis increasing 63.6% to $5’662 million and cancer increasing 72.4% to $9’701 million with a total of 58’179 million dollars. This data furthermore validates the fact that obesity is not only affecting the lives of Australians but also the Australian economy and due to this an immediate change is needed, and eating healthy and exercising each week can make the positive impact Australia so desperately needs.

Bridge to Terabithia characters by Katherine Paterson

Author: Katherine Paterson

Illustrator: Donna Diamond

Genre: Friendship

Publisher: HarperTrophy

Publication date: January 1, 1977

Number of pages: 176

Jesse Aarons is a eleven-year boy who lives in England, he loves running. his dream is to be the fasted boy from year five out of his class. When school starts in the fall, feeling that this is his change to be in the spotlights amomg his five sisters, he might aswell will get more attention of his preocupied dad. Jess is realy insecure about his identety. He likes painting and drawing, but he dosn’t realise that other people bully him for likeing those things. including his dad. In addition, his family is stretched so tight by poverty that he has little chance to really explore his own identity during this crucial period of adolescence. He has therefore built up the importance of winning in his mind, feeling that here, at least, is something that he is good at which won’t win him an undesired label of “sissy” in the eyes of his father or schoolmates, and which will allow him to shine in his own right. He practices each morning, always dreaming of his upcoming victory. However, when the races come around at recess, a new girl, Leslie Burke, who just moved next door to Jess, boldly crosses to the boys’ side of the playground and beats everyone.

A rather unpromising start, but Jess en Leslie became friends realy quikly. They builded a secrect fantasy place accros the creek in the woods, named Terabithia, where they play everytime. This place makes them forget that the rest of the world exist. Like the kids at school or Jess’s family. The time they spend in Terabithia, in fact, seems to strengthen them for these trials of everyday life: it is there that they map out a plan of revenge on the school bully when she steals May Belle’s Twinkies, and it is there that they discuss Jess’s feelings of insecurity when Leslie begins to draw closer to her father. Leslie also introduces Jess to the world of imagenation and creativity. Telling him the stories of such classics of literature as Moby Dick and Hamlet. All of this made Jess’s artestic talent stronger, Leslie Supports his ambition and, through the stories she tells, provides him with great subject matter. But much of the time they play wonderful games of their own invention-defeating intruders on Terabithian territory, praying to the Spirits of the Grove to end a long spell of rain, and numerous other fantasies.

However, Jess and Leslie’s friendship, although centered in Terabithia, is not limited to Terabithia.They see each other at school, where they have a ribbing of fun for their diffrents in gender, but now Leslie dosn’t have the feeling to tease Jess now, and Leslie is never particularly bothered by what others think. At home, they celebrated together on holiday, such as Christmas, when Jess gives Leslie a puppy and she gives him an expensive art set to his artistic talent to develop. At Easter, when Jess goes to the Church he takes Leslie with her. Leslie is impressed by the beauty of the story of Christ.

One day there music teacher at school, Miss Edmunds, who Jess realy likes, invites him to go with her to the art galleries in washington. This trip does a lot for his spirit to expand and make him feel as if he is special, a feeling that he only had when he was whit Leslie. Jess has a perfect day, but when he comes home, he’s told that Leslie drowned in the Creek that morning trying to sway in Terabithia on the rope that they used to get to Terabithia. Jess is completely devastated and goes through the stages of denial, anger, fear and tears incredibly painful to suffer and, indeed, to read about. Initially he does not see how he is in the first place. Leslie has him raised to new heights as the King of Terabithia, and now he feels that without her, he has no choice but to return to the old Jess, plagued by fear and uncertainty. But in the end he realizes that he just Leslie’s memory, and his own newly discovered sense of self, live by the continuation of the fantasy of Terabithia. He brings his little sister May Belle there and makes her the new Queen, make sure that a part of Leslie will live as well.

Jesse Oliver: The main character. Jess is a guy from year five at his school. He is lonely because he likes art, people at his school call him sassy. Then a girl arrives at his school named Leslie Burke. She became the fasted runner at their school, something that Jesse always dreamed of. Jess en Leslie become best friends. Jess is very talented in art.

Leslie Burke: Jesse’s new neighbour and best friend she is a realy intelligent girl. She came with the idea to create there own fantasyland named Terabithia. Leslie’s family is well educated in diffrent then the rest of the neighbours, esecially Jess’s neigbours.

For me the theme of the book is friendship, because its all about the friendly relationship between Jess and Leslie. They both have the same hobbies, for example they both like running.

My opinion of this book is that its a good book, i realy enjoyed reading it. Especially the bond between Jess and Leslie, They proof that a boy and a girl can be friends.

FUNDAMENTALS OF SERVICE MANAGEMENT: custom essay help

A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research

OBJECTIVE: To attain the insights in the importance of quality in service industry through an extensive exploratory research.

SUMMARY: For a tangible good, the products quality has always been measurable by various marketers and it has been one of the important roles of the organizations to maintain their quality standards throughout their run. But, for the service sector, a lot of researchers have not been able to find the quality of the service and are yet to focus on it. In this article, the authors have focussed and tried to rectify this situation by using numerous methods some of which are:

‘ Recording the perceptions obtained in an extensive exploratory investigation of quality in four service businesses

‘ Developing a separate model for determining the service quality.

‘ To create new propositions to help future research in this field.

The main problem for the authors here is the INTANGIBILITY of service sector, which prevents many from having an access to its insights. Most services cannot be calculated, measured, inventoried, confirmed, and verified in progress of sale to promise quality. This intangibility makes it difficult for the firm to understand how consumers perceive the services and its quality. Secondly, services are heterogeneous i.e, they differ from maker to maker, customer to customer and time to time.

The authors used exploratory investigation in this article which included,

1) Executive interviews- This included a nationally recognized company from each of the four service businesses participated in the study. The respondents held titles such as president of the company, senior vice president of the company, director of customer relations and manager of consumer market research.

2) Focus Group Interviews- This was done in 12 groups for, 3 for each selected service industry. 6 groups consisted only male and 6 consisted only female. The groups were formed on the basis of age and sex to maintain the homogeneity.

FINDINGS

Two types of service quality exist: Technical and functional. The technical quality involves what the customer gets from the service and functional quality is the manner in which the service is delivered. The service quality can actually be attained by the interaction between the customers with the elements of the service organization. They have actually used three quality dimensions which are

Physical quality: This includes the physical aspects of the service (e.g., equipment or building)

Corporate quality: This involves the company’s image or profile

Interactive quality: This actually derives from the interaction between contact personnel and customers as well as between some customers and other customers.

After conducting the interviews and the focus group a discussion, a table was formed which mentioned the determinants of service quality. The following were found out to be the determinants:

1. Reliability: Consistence of performance and reliability.

2. Responsiveness: Readiness of employees to provide service.

3. Competence: Having the required skills/knowledge to provide the service.

4. Access: Ease of contact.

5. Courtesy: politeness of contact personnel.

6. Communication: Making the customers understand in a language they know.

7. Credibility: Honesty and reliability

8. Security: Freedom from risk or danger.

9. Understanding the customer: Understanding what the customer needs.

10. Tangibles: Physical evidence of the service.

CONCLUSION:

The quality of service given to the customers plays a pivotal role in the growth of any service industry. The importance of quality has been mentioned clearly in the article which leads them to find out on how to measure the same. The research methodologies used by the authors have provided us with various insights and propositions, concerning consumer’s perception of service quality. The authors also mentioned 10 various dimensions through which the customers actually perceive the service quality given to them. The article can be used a base for further investigation and research in the findings of the quality of service provided by industries

OBJECTIVE: combine implementation of service marketing and strategic bonds in health care sector.

SUMMARY:

Fundamentals of service marketing must be practiced by hospitals in spite of the policies followed by healthcare industry which benefits them and sustain its competition, compromised of physicians, consumers, pharmaceutical firms, etc. A service lead culture plays in important role in the positioning of hospitals. Hospitals will need to differentiate themselves by making effective strategic alliances to position themselves as members of an integrated healthcare organization. It is known that various existing strategies will continue to dominate this industry for the next several years, hospitals need to redefine the concept of marketing, sales and service to include establishing comprehensive customer service centers and information centers.

FINDINGS:

1. SERVICE MARKETING IS HERE TO STAY: in order to sustain the competition from the players in same industry and meet customer requirements, service marketing principles are to be followed. Positioning hospitals’ potential role as the most important activity of health care industry will help a hospital to remain it s position in market. Since a decade service marketing has been in practice in hospital industry.

2. NEED FOR STRATEGIC ALLIANCES AND SERVICE MARKETING: Hospitals that are standing out from others with service market programs are those which are effective in making strategies. As the network of healthcare market has increased, the conversion of health care delivery programs into managed care is implemented by Group Health Assoc.

3. A PARADIGM SHIFT FOR HEALTH CARE MARKETING: In the forthcoming decade, it is clear that health care industry will be dominated by different capitation strategies. These strategies will not affect the requirements that are necessary for a hospital to be ‘market- oriented’ but affects the style of marketing of a hospital and its business activities.

4. MARKETING, SALES AND SERVICE- REDEFINED: Hospitals should have the positioning strategy in order to act as reliable source of information for customer to access various services. Embracing this responsibility can position hospitals successfully in a market that will continue to separate winners from losers. To abandon this responsibility places them at risk, as they will lose the ability to favorably influence activities within their market.

5. APPLYING MARKETING TECHNOLOGY TO THE NEW PARADIGM: Information systems technology is readily available to support a broad range of strategic marketing activity. Consumer information extends beyond basic demographics to include past and predicted use of health care services. Consumers with predefined health profiles should be targeted in order to detect in early stages regarding health situation. It is important to monitor the consumers who have accessed to the services in the past, since it is as important as various reform models implementation.

6. PUSHING THE EDGE OF THE ENVELOPE THROUGH STRATEGIC ALLIANCES: The programs which use the health information for the hospitals are important as they manage risk under certain captivated contracts. The service centers of a hospital acts as a tangible asset for the other providers who seeks this information in order to have some extent of security.

CONCLUSION:

The conclusion is that these service marketing and selective alliances will prepare the changes which are hidden so that it simplifies the important strategies for the hospitals. The hospitals can concentrate on the activities which create value addition and attract the business partners while the hospitals’ health care proposals remain controversial. Rather than going for a particular strategy which is uncertain about predicting of success, fundamentals of service marketing and strategic alliances will help the organization in positioning for success under any policy.

Richard Ford – The Sportswriter (1986)

Richard Ford is one of the most gifted novelists in the contemporary America. He was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for his novel Independence Day. This novel is the first one in history to win together the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction and PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction in 1995. His works are being associated by the literary critics to the movement of ‘foul realism’. Ford is widely respected for the work with the language he applies in his texts. He was born in 1944. Ford has written eight novels and a collection of short stories in American literature. Ford’s The Sports Writer is a highly acclaimed pattern of contemporary realistic fiction. It revolves around the thoughts and observations of one central character, the protagonist Frank Bascome. This paper encapsulates the protagonist, life, affairs, happiness, love, feelings and pain, as well as the dramatic change in his style. Of course the soundless plight of men in contemporary society was skilfully depicted by American author Richard Ford in his award winning novel The Sportswriter (1986).

Ford’s Frank novels efficiently dramatize the poverty of human relationships in contemporary culture. Frank, the protagonist, and the men with whom he interacts suffer from problems that are quite conman to many North American men. Thirty year-old Frank faces the tragedies and disappointments in his life without self ‘ pity. He faces difficulties similar to those the earlier athlete faces. Frank is no longer a husband and barely a father. He is a writer for an American sports magazine who is struggling to understand himself and the world around him. The opening paragraph, “My name is Frank Bascombe. I am a sportswriter” (3).provides us with a complete list of al1 the things which are clear to Frank as the novel begins. The paragraphs which follow reveal his confusion over the disappointments and failures of his life; he has made money but is neither happy nor stable, as he thought he would be. Mid-life crisis has cast the protagonist into a state of dreaminess and depression. He remains, yet, a unfailing narrator as he assures us early on: ‘I have a voice that is really mine, a frank argues in rural voice more or less like a used car salesman: a no-frills voice that hopes to uncover simple truth by a straight-on application of the facts”(11). The Sportswriter chronicles a weekend of Frank’s life and the lives of three men he encounters, and reveals the problems the male mystique causes them. Frank responds to his feelings of alienation by joining The Divorced Men’s Club, a group of five single men who meet occasionally to relax and engage in traditionally masculine activities such as watching baseball games and fishing. These activities are alluring to Frank and other men because they appear to promote social interaction; unfortunately, the activities also distance the men from interaction with women and true progress in their lives The men are unable or unwilling to express their feelings about their individual lives, and the club exists simply as an excuse for the men to drink and display bravado, rather than engage in any manner of therapeutic conversation.’ This unfortunate arrangement is attributable to the masculine mystique and the manner in which it encourages men to conceal their emotional problems so that they do not appear weak or feminine. While Frank does not address his problems another club member, Walter Luckett, does and is, in fact, the only man to do so in the novel.,

In the novel’s starting page, Frank and his ex-wife (Anne Dykstra, but referred to in this novel only as X) are standing in a cemetery sharing a moment of reflection on the anniversary of their first son’s death. Even as in the cemetery, Frank makes mention to three poems: “The Hollow Men” by T. S. Eliot, “To An Athlete Dying Young” by A.E. Housman, and “First Meditation” by Theodore Roethke–each of which is thematically relevant to The Sportswriter. Like the men described in the poem, lead empty, meaningless, life-in-death existences in a dying and meaningless world. The American men lead empty lives, dedicated to accumulating wealth and power instead of friendships and happiness. These poems indicate that there is something wrong.

With the social codes that govern men’s lives; the codes create an absurd world and ruin the lives of its inhabitants. Frank and X exemplify Ford’s disregard for gender conventions; while each retains feelings for the other, they each transmit those feelings in unconventional ways. Frank still cares deeply for his wife and openly displays his emotions when they are together. X still cares about Frank but she erects a transparent facade of stoicism. Frank is often depicted as fragile, dreamy, and sympathetic. He notes that “I have always liked hearing women talk more than men” (11). And believes that ‘men feel things women don t”(329). The death of his first son has dispelled the notion of continuity for Frank, as has his divorce. Trapped in what he refers to as the Existence Period, Frank inhabits a world that is seemingly unknowable and retreats within himself to escape. Frank, like many men, lacks the vocabulary to describe the psychological turmoil from which he suffers, so Existence Period is his label for this turmoil. The turmoil includes his divorce, the death of one son, and his inability to fa11 in love again, and regrets from his past. The Sports Writing is unambiguous and Frank depends on the simplicity of his profession to keep himself sane, but the therapeutic qualities of his vocation are a lie. Frank

Claims to love Sports writing superficiality, but the truth is that the job is perp&uating Frank’s dreaminess. Rather than confronting his mid-life problems, Frank is allowing himself to slip in and out of a dream-like state (10).

His dreaminess provides temporary escape, but it provides no true solace because, in his dreamy state, he sees that he is himself, as complex, chaotic, and mysterious as the world around him. Frank does not fit into the world because the world insists on obedience to the doctrines of the masculine mystique-doctrines against which Frank is unconsciously rebelling as he suffers his mid-life crisis. Frank’s divorce, for example, tags him as socially dysfunctional. As he notes, it is not, I have come to understand, easy to have

a divorced man as your neighbour. Chaos lurks in

him–the viable social contract called into

question by the smoky aspect of sex. Most people

feel they have to make a choice and it is always

easier to choose the wife, which is what my

neighbours and friends have mostly done(5).

Frank responds to his feelings of alienation by joining The Divorced Men’s Club, a group of five single men who meet infrequently to relax and engage in traditionally male activities such as watching baseball games and fishing. These manners are alluring to Frank and other men because they appear to promote social contact; unfortunately, the activities also distance the men from interface among women and true progress in their lives. The men are unable or unwilling to express their feelings about their individual lives, and the club exists simply as an excuse for the men to drink and display bravado, rather than engage in any manner of therapeutic conversation. While Frank does not address his problems, another club member, Walter Luckett, does and is, in fact, the only man to do so in the novel. Even though, Frank listens with discomfort and annoyance, Walter explains that his life is in shambles. He is undergoing a crisis, a mid-life crisis, which he does not fully understand and which recently has led him to have sexual intercourse with a man he met in a bar. After his shocking revelation, Walter reflects on his inability to bond with Frank during his confession. Even though his future is uncertain, he is able to take consolation in the knowledge that his own problems with the men mystique and the male mid- life crisis are shared by others: ‘We have all felt that way, I am confident; since there’s no way that I could feel what hundreds of millions of other citizens have not (375). What separates Frank from the crowd is that he redeems himself from his life long participation in the men mystique, which tens of millions of other American men are unable to do. Because Frank plays the role of “the saved” in The Sportswriter, it is not he who is most illustrative of the negative effects of the masculine mystique because he manages to survive his mid-life crisis

and re-focus his life. While Frank’s fate preserves optimism and saves the novel from a morbid conclusion, it is the men who interact with Frank, “the damned,” who are more interesting subjects of study. Unlike Frank Bascombe, Walter Luckett, Herb Wallagher, and Wade Arcenault do not contend well with the masculine mystique and the male midlife crisis.

At the end of the novel Frank is dumped by Vicki because of his argument at the supper table. It is an interesting separation because it marks a physical separation form those from whom he is ideologically distancing himself–those who, like the Arcenaults, are-content to live under the thumb of the masculine mystique. The separation is a violent one–Vicki punches him in the face, making his mouth bleed when he protests–which marks the abrupt termination of his association with mental and. ideological apathy and the birth of a new Frank, who is more clearly able to understand his own life and the world around him.

The Berlin Wall: custom essay help

History

After Germany lost World War II the country was split into four zones, each occupied by one of the four Allied powers that defeated the Nazis. (je kan misschien een foto hiervan plakken in je verslag; je kan het opnemen als bijlage I) The zones controlled by France, Great Britain and America became West Germany, or Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Federal Republic of Germany = FRG). The Soviet-controlled zone became East Germany, or Deutsche Demokratische Republik (Germany Democratic Republic = GDR). Germany’s capital, Berlin, was situated in Soviet-controlled East Germany , but as this city was the administrative area for the Allied forces, it too was split into four. This meant that France, Great Britain and America controlled West Berlin, whereas the Soviet Union controlled the East. Relations between America and the Soviet Union soured considerably during much of the second half of the Twentieth Century. The Berlin Wall was a symbol of this hostility, a physical representation of what was called the Iron Curtain.

Iron Curtain

The Iron Curtain symbolized the ideological conflict and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. The term symbolized efforts by the Soviet Union to block itself and its satellite states from open contact with the west and non-Soviet-controlled areas. On the east side of the Iron Curtain were the countries that were connected to or influenced by the Soviet Union. On either side of the Iron Curtain, states developed their own international economic and military alliances.

Economic situation in West and East Berlin

West Berlin received financial help from the Allied powers (especially Marshall Fund of the United States) , but East Berlin didn’t get any help from Soviet Union. Unlike East Berlin West Berlin could build a good economy. In East Berlin, there was food shortage and there was unemployment, while they had enough food and luxury in West Berlin. The result was that many people who lived in East Berlin fled to West Berlin. There were so many people that the GDR fell from 18.4 million in 1950 to 17.2 million in 1960. Especially highly skilled workers moved to West Berlin, to find a better job there. Only low-skilled workers remained in East Berlin.

The rise of the Wall

On August 13,1961 Premier Khrushchev of the Soviet Union gave the East German Government permission to stop the flow of emigrants by closing its border for good. In just two weeks, the East German army, police force and volunteer construction workers had completed a makeshift barbed wire and concrete block wall’the Berlin Wall (45 kilometers long)’that divided one side of the city from the other.

Before the wall was built, Berliners on both sides of the city could move around fairly freely: They crossed the East-West border to work, to shop, to go to the theater and the movies. Trains and subway lines carried passengers back and forth. After the wall was built, it became impossible to get from East to West Berlin except through one of three checkpoints: at Helmstedt, at Dreilinden and in the center of Berlin at Friedrichstrasse. (Eventually, the GDR built 12 checkpoints along the wall.) At each of the checkpoints, East German soldiers screened diplomats and other officials before they were allowed to enter or leave. Except under special circumstances, travelers from East and West Berlin were rarely allowed across the border.

Politicsl

After World War II Germany was divided into West Germany and East Germany (as stated above). In East Germany the Communism arose and in West Germany the capitalism.

In the west, it was actually quite good. There was free economy, so it went well with the prosperity. This was done with the help of the United States. There were free elections and a parliamentary democracy.

In East Germany the communists took control and the SED (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) became the official state party. There was a people’s democracy under the leadership of the communists. There were no free elections. There was a dictatorship because the political party was the only party that did exist. The residents of the East were very suppressed. There was no freedom of speech. Only positive things about the SED appeared in the newspaper and the negative things were omitted (propaganda). East Berliners wanted to live in freedom like the West Berliners.

Social and economical consequences of Berlin Wall

Most people lost their jobs because 60,000 East Berliners were working in West Berlin and 13,000 West Berliners in East Berlin. Before the wall West Berliners could buy their products for lower prices in East Berlin. People were separated from relatives, because they were living on the other side of the wall.

At the beginning the West Germans felt imprisoned by the Berlin Wall, but it soon became apparent that the East Germans were locked. Unlike the East Germans the West Germans lived in luxury. The West Germans could just eat, drink and wear anything what they wanted. In fact, the West Germans were not much affected by the wall beyond the fact that they were separated from relatives in the East (as stated above). Until 1972 it was not allowed to travel to the other side of the city. The East Germans tried to smuggle all kinds of articles like food and clothes from the West.

Animal testing: essay help

Every year thousands of animals are tested on for human safety and die of agonisingly long and painful deaths. Animal testing is a valuable asset in scientific research, drug development, health and medical research and cosmetic manufacturing. Animals are frequently used as a test subject since their body are very similar to the humans and will react in a similar way to different substances. Do you want innocent animals suffer painful deaths just for your beauty?

Not surprisingly, many types of animals tested on are mice, rats, rabbits, monkeys, dogs, cats, guinea pigs, hamsters, birds and mini pigs. Mice are the most popular animal to be tested on due to their size, ease of handling, fast reproduction rate, availability and low cost. 7342 mice are used in worldwide labs everyday- one every 12 seconds! They are widely considered to be the prime model of inherited human disease and share 99% of their genes with humans. In 2012, 3,045,690 mice, 262,641 rats and 28,677 other rodents were used in the UK alone (83.1% of total animals used that year). In 2011, the statistics show animal use totalled to 3,792,857 animals. This equates to 10,391 per day, or one every 8.3 seconds.

Even though many people oppose to the idea of animal testing, it has saved so many human lives and helped with our knowledge of different drugs, cosmetics(etc.). For example, we now have the technology for organ transplants. Organ transplants have improved the quality- and length- of life for millions of people across the world. For example, the first human cornea transplant took place over 100 years ago, following research using rabbits. In 2007, 2,403 people had their sight restored by cornea transplants. In addition, of the 5,000 people to develop kidney failure every year in the UK, 1 in 3 would die without a transplant. The surgery behind transplantation itself but also method of tissue-typing and anti-rejection drugs were developed using dogs, rabbits and mice from 1950 onwards. In 167, the first human to human heart transplant finally took place. Few people knew it took 60 years to prepare for this using animal research. Professor Christian Barnard carried out nearly 50 animal heart transplants over 4 years. Heart-lung transplants were later developed using monkeys.

The animals tested on can either survive; they won’t react to the product or the animal will suffer in great pain a die from a reaction from the product. They can be infected with a disease, poisoning, burning skin, brain damage, implanting electrodes into the brain, and blinding. They are abused and tortured. Over 100 million animals are burned, crippled, poisoned and abused in US labs every year. When used in cosmetic tests, mice, rats, rabbits and guinea pigs are often subjected to skin and eye irritation tests were chemicals are rubbed onto shaved skin or dripped into the eye without any pain relief given. Some tests can involve a killing of a pregnant animals and testing on their fetus. This is inhumane.

Animals in labs live stressful, monotonous, and unnatural lives of daily confinement and deprivation. The only changes in their lives may come from being called into a research or testing protocol- which may include an invasive experiment, or a procedure whose endpoint id death. Imagine spending your whole entire life as a hospital patient or a prisoner.

Would you pay a high amount of money for designer make-up when an animal has suffered in great pain and lost their life for something that isn’t necessary in life?

Use of fossil fuels and global warming

Due to global warming and other ill-effects of conventional energy sources, there is a need to produce energy by clean and environmental friendly ways. Fuel cell is one of the effective solution to produce energy without polluting the environment. There are various types of fuel cells viz. solid oxide, proton exchange membrane, alkaline fuel cells, etc. We are going to discuss more about solid oxide fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a device which generates electricity by using chemical energy stored in the fuel viz. hydrogen or hydrocarbons. SOFC consists of three parts ‘ electrolyte, anode and cathode. SOFCs have fuel flexibility, are low cost and have long-term stability. Operating temperature is the main disadvantage of the SOFC. To overcome this disadvantage, nanomaterials are used for electrolytes, anodes and cathodes of SOFC in order to improve their performance. Various fabrication and preparation methods are used to integrate different nanomaterials in the different parts of SOFCs. In this research, different fabrication methods along with their applications are discussed. [1, 2]

‘ Problem statement or gap:

The high use of fossil fuels like coal, gas and oil in last 100 years has increased the carbon dioxide and other poisonous gases emissions from power generation devices. This is considered to be an important factor for some of the environmental problems like global warming. The energy demand is always increasing and fossil fuels are depleting at faster rate. The power generation by using fossil fuels would not be sustainable. Thus, there is a need to find alternative or renewable energy sources that can meet this demand. The fuel cell is considered to be the one of the efficient and clean power generating device. Now, as we are considering fuel cells as replacement for the current power generating devices, the efficiency and durability of the fuel cells should be ideally equal or higher than those devices. To increase the efficiency and durability, different nanomaterials can be used in three different parts i.e. electrolyte, cathode and anode of fuel cells. Thus, in summary, there is need for better understanding of how these nanomaterials can be integrated on these parts in an efficient, fast and low cost ways. [1, 2, 4]

The research questions that the paper is going to address are:

1. What are some of the efficient methods to integrate the nanoparticles?

2. What are some of the applications of above methods along with the results to show the power output and durability of the fuel cells? [2, 3, 4, 5]

3. What future work needs to be done in order to improve the long term performance of the fuel cells? [6]

‘ Objectives of your research:

The objective of the current study is to provide a comprehensive review of literatures related to the application and advantages of each fabrication method of SOFCs. The fabrication methods discussed in the current study are photolithography process, sintering process and infiltration process. These processes are used for fabrication of nanomaterials on electrolyte, anode and cathode respectively. In this research, the methods are discussed using one nanomaterial for each fabrication method. The nanomaterial used for photolithography is YSZ (yttrium stabilized zirconia) [1, 2], for sintering is NiO/YSZ [3, 5] and for infiltration is metal salt nitrate [4]. These materials would increase the power output and performance of SOFCs. Different nanomaterials can also be used other than the mentioned, for improving the performance. The long term goal of the research is to help the researchers to understand the impact of use of nanomaterials in SOFCs.

‘ Expected solution or anticipated results of your research:

The results of this research will be shared in a form of paper, power point and poster presentation. The results would primarily include the schematic diagrams of the fabrication methods. They would also include the preparation methods for a particular nanomaterial used in the fabrication. The results for nanomaterial in electrolyte would include tables and graphs related to performance of SOFCs with respect to crystalline sizes, temperature, durability and cell voltage. For anode, the results would include performance of fuel cells with respect to temperature and cell voltage. The results for cathode would include performance with respect to temperature. In summary, the performance and durability of SOFCs are expected to increase with addition of nanomaterials.

‘ Timetable for completion:

February 28, 2015 ‘ Literature review and start research from the reference papers.

March 13, 2015 ‘ Proposal for Final Project.

March 27, 2015 ‘ Progress Report for Final Project.

April 17, 2015 ‘ Present Results in Poster Presentation.

April 24, 2015 ‘ Submit Final Paper.

‘ Your qualifications:

I am pursuing Master of Science in Electrical and Computer Engineering. I am writing this research paper as a part of curriculum for TCM 460.

‘ Limitations, discussion, conclusion:

In this research paper, we will see how nanomaterials can be used by using fabrication methods for electrolyte, anode and cathode of SOFCs. Introducing these nanomaterials will increase performance and durability of SOFCs. But, there are some limitations of this research. We are going to see only limited number of fabrication methods for integration of nanomaterials in fuel cells and only one application of the nanomaterial used for electrolyte, anode and cathode. There might be several other fabrication methods and nanomaterials which are not covered in this research paper. Degradation of performance after a certain number of working hours of SOFCs should also be considered while doing future work. [6]

Situated learning: essay help online free

Situated learning is a type of learning that allows individual learners to learn through socializing with other people, or with knowledgeable people or through observing and imitating real activities in real life situations. The above mentioned practice builds on participation and observation in activity.

Situated learning is based on practical activities whereby learners gain beneficial knowledge that they ought to get from schools. In the past years, learners were taught things that were not really useful to them in their everyday life. Learners need to learn or acquire skills or knowledge that are relevant to their lives, and that might be related to the career that they are going to choose in the near future.

Situated learning declared that thinking, learning and doings cannot be separated from the practical and social situations in which they occur. They work in harmony

When the teacher allows learners to have an opportunity to participate, demonstrate and interact their own thoughts, this will build their cognition abilities. Learners will acquire specific skills by observing, visualize, hear and listen by having someone to imitate or follow.

In situated learning, learner’s works through participating in a particular activity of a certain community. Participation involves joining in with the community or group of people who are performing that activity. For example, if a learner wants to know to design clothes or wants to become a fashion designer, he will probably join a group of people who design different types of clothes. In this way a learner will gain his designing experience through doing and from there, he will be able to become productive in his life after mastering the designing skills.

Teaching method -Demonstration

The teaching method that I will use in situated learning perspective is demonstration. It is the process of teaching through giving or showing examples, or acting out situations or carries out experiments. Demonstration can be used as a proof or evidence about whatever theory or situation explained to the learners, through a combination of visual evidence (of things that you can really see with your eyes) and associated reasoning.

Demonstration gives learners an opportunity to relate to the presented information individually and reinforce memory storage, because they provide the link between facts and real world implementation of those facts.

Heather (2009) on his education reference article when he explained the demonstration method of teaching stated that: ‘when using the demonstration model in the classroom, the teacher or some other expert on the topic being taught, perform the tasks step-by-step so that the learner will be able to complete the same task independently. After performing the demonstration, the teacher’s role becomes supporting students in their attempts, providing guidance and feedback and offering suggestions for alternative approaches.

Implementing the practice in my teaching, using demonstration method to improve learning

According to the situated learning perspective, people learn through participation and we participate by joining the group of people who are experts or experienced in carrying out a particular activity. To implement the practice of working to bring authentic practice into the classroom, a learner need to be able to do things or carry out tasks appropriately in real life situations . And the teacher or an expert from a certain community of practice will act as a scaffold in this situation, by carrying out demonstrations.

In English language teaching under the speaking domain, I will implement this practice in teaching my learners about how to give (deliver) a speech in public. Firstly I will teach my learners about what is a speech, how people present speeches and what is the layout of a speech, in presenting it as well as in writing, and also about the main components of a speech such as: The speech should be logically written (should have an introduction, body and conclusion) speaker should be relaxed and try to be calm even when he knows that he is nervous, speech should be interesting, the speaker should use the body language correctly. I will also demonstrate to learners by giving them a short speech as an example.

Secondly I will invite an expert from the community of practice, a person who deliver speeches at different occasions to my class. This person will demonstrate to my learners about how people present speeches, so that they can improve their skills. After the expert’s presentation, learners will be given an opportunity to ask questions, I will also ask them questions to check what they have captured from the presentation. Then I will ask them to work in collaboration with each other in groups, to come up with a speech following the layout that I taught them, and then they should choose a presenter from their groups to present the speech to class. After the group’s presentations, they will be given a chance to comment or make suggestions about others presentations.

As the learners become able to perform the task on their own effectively, more tasks are given, until they master the tasks of speeches presentations. Learners will then be given a task to prepare their own speeches, individually. Before presentations, they will be given opportunities to rehearse. Firstly, they will submit their speeches that they wrote down (draft). I will give those comments and suggestions. In the second rehearsal they will present their speeches in class, this will be done with the purpose to increase their fluency in reading, and to remind them of speech presentation strategies such as: use of voice, facial expressions, and use of body language. Then I will ask them to make changes in their speeches where necessary. Finally they will present their speeches again with an expert observing them. The expert would give comments after the presentations. If possible the presentations should be recorded or videotaped.

From the situated learning perspective, learning is a process that does not take place in an individual mind, but it takes place in a situated learning. In the case of situated practice of speech presentation rehearsal, the teacher as an instructor and the learners constructed the changes in participation that were observed as the learners developed skills from peripheral to fuller participation. In these process learners participation was transformed through demonstration and the teacher’s participation complemented the learner’s learning.

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Introduction:

Diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA, is one of the most serious metabolic disorders seen in both human and veterinary medicine. A severe complication of diabetes mellitus, DKA is characterized by a more concentration of blood sugar, the presence of substances called ketones in the urine, and decreased concentrations of bicarbonate in the blood. Some dogs with DKA will be less affected but the majority will be seriously ill and may have severe complications such as neurological problems due to brain swelling, acute kidney failure, pancreatitis, and anemia. DKA will lead to death in many cases, but aggressive diagnostics and treatment can be life saving.

DKA often develops in diabetes that had previously been unrecognized or untreated. Thus, it is essential to identify diabetes mellitus or the development of additional symptoms in a dog that is known to be diabetic to prevent DKA from occurring.

Clinical Signs:

Clinical signs include weight loss, lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. Complications may include anemia, electrolyte abnormalities, neurological disorders, and acute renal failure.

Symptoms:

Some of the symptoms related to this disease are as follows;

‘ Increased thirst

‘ Loss of appetite

‘ Frequent urination

‘ Weight loss

‘ Tiredness

‘ Vomiting

Explanation:

In addition to diabetes mellitus, another most serious condition that may develop. Ketones, also called ketone bodies, are used for energy production in most body tissues. They are normally formed when fatty acids are released from fatty tissue and are transported to the liver. The liver then makes ketones from the fatty acids. Excessive production of ketones can occur in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, and as they accumulate, ketosis, and eventually acidosis, develop. The four major factors that contribute to ketone formation in DKA are

1. insulin deficiency

2. fasting

3. dehydration, and

4. increased levels of “stress” hormones such as epinephrine, cortisol, glucagon, and growth hormone.

DKA is more common in animals with previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, but it can also be seen in dogs with established diabetes that are not receiving enough insulin. In these dogs, there may be an associated inflammatory or infectious disease. Other canines may develop conditions associated with insulin resistance such as hypothyroidism or Cushing’s disease. Dogs may be only mildly affected by DKA, or they may be close to death at the time of diagnosis. DKA develops at an unpredictable rate, and some diabetic dogs may be able to live fairly normal lives for several months with no treatment at all. However, once DKA develops, most dogs become seriously ill within one week.

The aggressiveness of treatment depends on how sick the dog is. While dogs with mild DKA may be successfully treated with intravenous fluids and insulin, dogs with severe manifestations of disease will need more significant intervention. Fluid therapy, potassium, bicarbonate, and phosphorus supplementation can be vitally important. Any accompanying disorders must be identified and treated specifically where possible to enhance resolution of DKA.

Complications during DKA treatment are common, and can include the development of hypoglycemia, neurological signs due to brain cell swelling, and severe electrolyte abnormalities. Anemia due to red blood cell breakdown can occur if the serum phosphorus concentration drops too low. Acute kidney failure also is possible.

DKA is one of the most serious metabolic disorders seen in both human and veterinary medicine. Many patients will die from it. However, the majority of patients can pull through a crisis successfully with aggressive diagnostics and treatment.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of DKA is based on the clinical signs and the presence of elevated serum glucose concentrations and ketones in the urine, and reduced serum bicarbonate concentrations within the blood stream. Mild DKA is present when dogs with high serum glucose concentrations and ketones in the urine appear healthy, or have only mild clinical signs, or have mild decreases in serum bicarbonate concentration. These dogs do not require extremely aggressive treatment, and should be distinguished from dogs with severe DKA. Dogs with severe DKA have high serum glucose concentrations, ketones in the urine, extreme reductions in serum bicarbonate concentration, and often show severe signs of illness.

In addition to the serum glucose concentrations and urinalysis results, other key diagnostic procedures include measurement of venous total carbon dioxide, blood gas evaluation, and analysis of electrolytes and serum kidney values. In addition to a routine urinalysis, a urine culture should be performed on any dog with DKA, as urinary tract infections are very common complicating factors for this condition. A complete blood count, serum liver and pancreatic enzyme measurements, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels should also be obtained. X-rays of the chest and abdomen, and ideally an abdominal ultrasound, should also be used to investigate underlying or associated factors, as well as other abnormalities that might require specific treatment.

Prognosis

The prognosis for DKA is guarded. As many as five to 10 percent of humans with DKA die from this condition. Death rates for dogs may be as high as 30 to 40 percent in some environments.

Transfer:

DKA usually occurs in either dogs with diabetes that has been present but unrecognized and untreated for a long time, or in previously diagnosed diabetic dogs that have become ill with another problem or that are taking inadequate amounts of insulin

Cure:

Relatively healthy dogs with DKA can be treated with potent but regular short-acting crystalline insulin injections to help get the serum glucose levels back under control. It may take a few days for serum glucose and urine ketone levels to fall, but aggressive treatment may not be needed as long as the dog’s condition is basically stable.

Treatment of sick diabetic dogs needs to be more aggressive. Paramount to the treatment of DKA is the gradual replacement of fluid deficits, as well as the maintenance of normal fluid balance. Many dogs will seem substantially better after being treated by intravenous fluids alone. Phosphate supplementation may also be needed, since serum phosphorus concentrations can drop to dangerously low levels during the treatment of DKA leading to serious complications such as a red blood cell breakdown that results in anemia. Bicarbonate is given to help correct acid-base disturbances. Insulin also is vital in the treatment of DKA. In some situations, fluids need to be replaced quickly, while the glucose levels will need gradual adjustment.

Until safer serum glucose concentrations are obtained, most dogs with DKA are treated first with regular crystalline insulin, the most potent and shortest acting form of insulin, which may be given intravenously or on an hourly basis in the muscle. If the dog is not eating on its own, dextrose may be added to the fluids to keep the serum glucose level from dropping too low after insulin is started.

Concurrent illnesses must be identified and treated specifically where possible. Pancreatitis is extremely common in DKA, but there is no specific treatment for this disorder. Bacterial infections need to be identified and treated in a timely manner. Antibiotics usually are given even if a bacterial infection has not been confirmed, due to the problems that infections cause in DKA. Acute kidney failure may also accompany DKA, and needs to be treated aggressively with fluids. Drugs may be needed to stimulate urine production if it appears inadequate.

Complications during treatment of DKA that occur most frequently include the development of hypoglycemia, central nervous system signs, electrolyte abnormalities, and anemia. The best way to prevent these side effects is to aim for gradual correction of the multiple abnormalities associated with DKA. Excessively rapid correction of glucose concentrations and electrolyte abnormalities often leads to brain cell swelling and neurological signs. Electrolyte concentrations need to be monitored very carefully during the treatment of DKA, as frequent adjustments of fluid type and rate, and the amount of potassium supplementation, are often needed. Also, close attention must be paid to the serum phosphorus concentration, as supplementation with phosphorus is often needed to prevent the development of severely low serum phosphorus concentrations and the anemia that can result from this.

Once the dog is stabilized and eating and drinking on its own, longer-acting insulin types can be initiated. In addition, the supportive measures, such as fluid therapy and medications, can be tapered, as long as no other complicating issues surface and improvement continues. Eventually, the animal should be able to go home with an insulin regime designed for at home use, as well as any other treatments necessary to address additional disorders that might be present.

Preventive measures:

There is no specific method for preventing DKA, but careful treatment and monitoring of diabetic dogs is essential. Recognition of the common signs of diabetes mellitus in a dog–increased thirst and urination, increased appetite, and weight loss–also is important so the diagnosis of uncomplicated diabetes mellitus can b

Rhetorical Analysis of Jonathan Swift's 'A Modest Proposal'

A Modest Proposal is a satirical pamphlet that examines the attitude of the rich towards the poor starving children in their society. Jonathan Swift uses a number of rhetorical devices effectively as he highlights his proposal. He uses logical fallacies, metaphors, repetition and parallelism as well as humor, sarcasm and satire tone to highlight these negative attitudes.

Jonathan swift begins by mocking and blaming the mothers of the children by telling them that they should engage or find themselves in working to earn an honest living instead of strolling to beg for alms. He also predicts tough future for these children that when they grow up they will turn to be thieves. This is simply because the parents did not train their children the modest way of life.

Swift uses logical fallacies to make his argument in ‘A Modest Proposal’. His way of argument and thinking is incorrect and lack validity in what is proposing. This is evident in this pamphlet on line 69 to 73, ‘that a young healthy Child well Nursed is at a year Old, a most 71 delicious, nourishing, and wholesome Food, whether Stewed, Roasted, 72 Baked, or Boyled, and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a Fricasie’. He notes down that a young healthy child is a delicious food to be roasted, stewed and boiled to be served and eaten. Secondly, he has computed twenty thousand children to be reserved for breeding. This dehumanizes the children to be like animals.

Jonathan swift uses emotional appeal in his argument by proposing slaughter houses to be erected or built in suitable places and butchers to be employed to do the work of slaughtering the children. He further exaggerates by saying that the children will be roasted like pigs. Jonathan knows clearly that this proposal will affect many because no person would want his or her child to be butchered. Beyond that, Swift captures the reader’s emotion on line 34 and 35 ‘prevent those voluntary Abortions, and that horrid practice of Women 35 murdering their Bastard Children’. This is a horrific behavior that is being opposed everywhere in this world.

Another rhetorical device that Jonathan Swift use in his work is irony. He says ‘I calculate there may be about two hundred thousand couple whose wives are breeders’ and ‘how this number shall be reared and provided for’. This suggestion is ironic because he compares women to animals. Also, this creates a good argument because human beings do not breed and cannot be reared. He therefore dehumanizes human beings and creates satire in this statement.

Jonathan swift in his scheme of supporting his argument, he is sarcastic that certain body parts of a child are good to eat. He further clarifies that in certain occasion, the body parts will be on demand. He further suggests that good and healthy children will be skinned and the skin will be used to make admirable gloves for ladies and summer boots for gentlemen. This idea is ridiculous to an extent that children will not only be a delicacy, but their body parts will be used to make ornaments. Secondly, he sarcastically suggests option to Ireland to counter its economic problems. Jonathan proposes that if the poor children can be food, this will create a good revenue to the country through exporting the surplus child’s flesh to the rich outside Ireland. Thirdly, Swift computes the selling price of one child to be ten shillings. This is recorded on line 103-105 ‘I believe no gentleman would repine to give Ten Shillings for the Carcass of a good fat child, which, as I have said will make four Dishes of excellent Nutritive Meat’. He proceeds and make fun of the mothers that they will get eight shillings profit to use until they will able produce another child.

Swift applies a sympathetic tone in his proposals, especially at the beginning. In paragraph two, he is requesting for amicable and a permanent solution to help these children from deplorable state they are living. He goes ahead to award anyone who will find cheap and easy method of making these children useful by building a statue in his or her memory. Jonathan’s tone is not constant in his recording of his proposals. He later changes to scary tone as he progresses to give his personal opinions about these children. For instance, he talks of butchering these children to be made delicious food and skinning of the children to make admirable gloves for ladies and summer boots for gentlemen. This tone shocks and creates fear for the reader.

To what extent the psychiatric services can be improved in the special observation ward in a general hospital under Hospital Authority by nurse leader?: college application essay help

What is leadership about?

There are many different people defined leadership in different ways (Heacock, 2013). According to Hickman (1998), leadership aimed to induce the followers to follow and take action in order to complete the specified goals, and it can helped to show the values of the leaders and the followers and also their motivations can be showed. According to Jooste (2004), leadership is more complicated and not simply acted as a role by how to control the followers, and leaders always tried to help and teach the followers to complete the task by step by step such as planning, leading, controlling and organizing. According to Northouse (2009), leaders can have the ability to affect the followers to complete a specified goal. Rogers (2003) stated that leaders can help the followers to become more aware of the uncertainty and possible outcome about the possible changes. The above information showed that a leader must have good leadership skills in order to affect the followers about what is happening and the values to change the current conditions. It can helped the followers to have a more and better understanding of the specified goal, as a result, the followers are more willing to follow and complete the tasks smoothly.

Importance of Leadership

According to the Strategic Service Plan of the Hospital Authority (2009-2012), health care workers and the frontline staff need to increase and enhance their related skills for the raising patient’s service’s needs, the number of patients, the complexity of medical devices and more complicated medical cases. In order to solve the above problems and needs, Hospital Authority has focused on three main different aspects such as including management skills, leadership skills and clinical competence. Hospital Authority emphasis the importance of leadership and put sufficient resources such as overseas training and classroom courses in order to enhance the leadership skills to current ward mangers, nursing officer, advanced practice nurse and future leaders. According to the Hospital Authority Annual Plan (2011-2012), one of the key objectives was ‘Build People First Culture’ and the one of the priority services for 2011-2012 was to ‘Enhance professional competencies and build up effective management and leadership’.

Overview of psychiatric services in Hong Kong

According to the Hospital Authority Mental Health Service Plan for Adults (2010-2015), there was estimated 1 million to 1.7million people were having psychiatric problem in Hong Kong and about 70,000 to 200,000 people were suffering from severe psychiatric problems. And around 40,000 of them with diagnosed schizophrenia and nearly half of them were treated at out-patient setting.

According to Chui, Mui and Cheng et al. (2012), the aim for public psychiatric hospital was to minimize the psychiatric admission rates and wanted to focus on psychiatric community services such as psychiatric out-patient clinic, psychiatric community out-reach team services and the Consultation Liaison team (CLT) in public general hospital for patients who needed to have psychiatric services. Hospital Authority tried to minimize the psychiatric admission rate by implementing some services since the year 2009.

Why I chose the topic to discuss and how it is important to me and others

I chose this topic because I am working in a ward call special observation ward which strongly supported by the Consultation Liaison team (CLT) services in public general hospital for patients who needed to have psychiatric services. Some of the patients are not physically fit for transfer to psychiatric unit, some of them are patients who are transferred back from psychiatric unit for medical problem, some of them are elderly with newly diagnosed dementia with relatives cannot accept the reality even with poor social support. However, many problems such as placement problems, complaint cases, safety problem and long waiting lists for patients who needed to admit to my ward existed.

This paper will start with the introduction and my selected real case scenario in my ward (special observation ward). I will compare different leadership models such as laissez-faire leadership, transactional leadership and transformational leadership. I will discuss the leadership style of my leader in my case scenario. For the discussion part, force field analysis will be used for analysis the data and I will summarize the findings, and also, I will discuss how the situation can be more effectively with how to improve the situation. Reflective summary will be the last part of this paper with my comment.

Context

Case scenario:

I am working in a special observation ward in one of the general hospital under Hospital Authority and this ward aimed to receive patient with unstable emotion or some psychiatric problem, but they are not physically fit for transfer to psychiatric hospital or need some close observation in general hospital. There are only 24 beds available with long waiting list that patients needed a bit long time to be admitted to my ward. There are only 3 APNs, 13 RNs and 5 ward assistants to support the ward within 3 shifts with heavy workload and stress.

My ward manger wanted to improve the quality of service and reduce the long waiting time for admission. She carried out a lot of guidelines and policies for staff to follow. Some of the policies are: 1) Discuss with relatives whom patients got dementia to find a placement to reduce the length of hospital stay, 2) Team in-charge should screen out cases who can be early discharged or transfer to psychiatric hospital. 3) Writing detailed report in each patient’s record to reduce the chance of getting challenge when patient’s service department receives complaints.

One month later, 1) some relatives complained that nurses forcing them to find old age home within a short period of time and forcing patients to discharge even they were not yet prepared well. 2) Doctors felt unpleasant and complained that nurses overriding their decisions about the discharge plan as some newly upgraded nurses does not have sufficient knowledge to screen suitable cases which causing low morale and conflicts. 3) Nurses needed to spend a lot of time in writing patient’s record causing low morale because nurses always need to spend their own time after duty turnover to finished writing detailed patient’s record (usually more than one hour). Also, many junior nurses do not have sufficient knowledge about detailed and special required documentation skills which put the nurse in-charge in a very difficult position.

Analysis

I will compare different leadership styles and analyze the leadership style in this scenario. According to Hickman (1998), transactional leaders will only correct the problems or mistakes once it happened in which will threatens the leader’s management plan and no changes will be made if nothing happened. Hickman (1998) also stated that transactional leaders also avoid development and improvement as they do not have motivation to have any changes. According to Bass (1990), transactional leadership will use rewards or punishments to the followers in order to achieve the goals.

For the transformational leadership, Hickman (1998) stated that transformational leadership will try to motivate the followers to achieve the goals and needs to changes, and the morality of the followers could be higher. Transformational leader need not to use the authority or power to control the followers. According to Bass (1990), transformational leaders will acted himself/herself as role model to the followers in order to obtain trustfulness and loyalty of his followers. Besides, through mentoring and empowering, Transformational leaders also use the mentoring and empowering skills to let the followers to enhance and develop the potential power in order to complete the specified goals.

According to Gill (2011), there are no guidelines and protocols for the followers to follow for the laissez-faire leadership style. The morale of the followers may be high or low as the followers can do whatever they wanted. However, the followers will have their own style of work and therefore more easily to reach the specified goal.

However, both transactional leadership and transformational leadership will set a clear objectives and goals for their followers with clear guideline. As a result, the followers can have a better understanding of what they should do in order to achieve the goals.

The leadership style of my case scenario:

Firstly, in this scenario, the leadership style of my ward manager was autocratic leader style and she was as a transactional leader. She has the greatest powers and the highest position in order to influence all the staff including nurses, doctors and patients with their relatives. According to Bass (1990), transactional leader got the power to make the plan and ask the followers to perform that in order to achieve the specified goals with the authority power.

In this scenario, she used her power to set some guidelines and policies for the staff to follow in order to improve the quality of service and reduce the long waiting time for admission. The advantages were 1) Admission rates to special observation ward were increased from average 10 patients per days after one month time as evidenced by the admission book. 2) Patient’s Services Department sent an e-mail to department head to appreciate the detailed documentation written in patient’s record in order to minimize the investigation time to answer the complaint cases. 3) Discharge rates were increased as many elderly with placement or caring problem were directly discharged to aged home other than home. And also, the cases which were medically fit for transfer to psychiatric unit were screened out earlier. That evidences were showed in the discharge record. Although her goals were achieved, there were disadvantages such as 1) Low morale of the nurses as they have to spend a lot of time in writing documentation by using their own time. 2) Heavy workload for staff for writing detailed documentations together with the routine work. Junior staff may have difficulties in proper and special documentations and senior staff also felt fatigues by doing their own work together with teaching and supervising the junior staff. 3) Poor relationship between nurses and doctors together with the relatives. As they always said that nurses forcing early discharge of patients which leading to increase in complaints.

Discussion

Changes and Force Field Analysis

According to Carney (2000), the basic and essential skills for all nurse leaders are manage, implement and support the changing process in order to ensure the followers to adopt about the changes. If the leaders lack of the quality of leadership skills, the changing process may be not successful. Force Field Analysis (Lewin, 1951) stated that it can help to how and what were the difficulties about the followers encountered. In the year 1951, Force Field Analysis was done in order to assess the followers for how to the implement the Family-Centered Care Program from the original situation. There were some advises given to improve the leadership skills according to the analysis result of the Force Field Analysis.

Force field analysis is a model designed by Lewin on the year 1951. It is useful to determine the effectiveness of the variables included and also helped to develop some strategies to change or by intervene some of the variables. Lewin assumed that both driving and restraining forces will be occurred when there were any changes existed. Driving forces are equal to the forces in which it keeps the changes are going on continuously. And the restraining forces are equal to the forces that occurred to resist the driving forces. According to Baulcomb (2003), equilibrium can be occurred once the leader can be able to decrease the restraining forces and allow reaching to the desired status by increasing the driving forces.

From the analysis, restraining forces were 1) Poor documentation skills of new staff, 2) Poor communication skills between staff and relatives, 3) Heavy workload due to extra jobs such as teaching new staff and extra time for detailed documentations, 4) High stress from staff to choose potential early discharge patient would due to conflicts with doctors and relatives and 5) Increase in the number of complaint cases. And the pushing forces were 1) Reducing waiting time for admission, 2) increase discharge rate, 3) improve documentation skills of staff and 4) increase the quality of services.

What has been successfully done listed in the Force Field Analysis in this scenario?

1) Reduce the waiting time for admission to special observation ward.

2) Increase the discharge rates in special observation ward.

3) Increase documentation skills for some of the nurses in special observation ward. (but not all).

What has been addressed but failed to success at the beginning without changes?

1) Increase documentation skills for some of the nurses in special observation ward.

2) Reduce the rate of complaints (as increasing rate of conflicts about placement issues)

3) Improve the quality of care as the morale of nurses is low and they feel stressful with heavy workload.

After identify the restraining and pushing forces, some changes or solutions can be established in order to eliminate and minimize the negative factors to make improvement. For the stress issues, as many junior nurses needed a lot of time to handle the routine work because lack of experiences, so they needed to stay after duty off to finish the all the tasks including the detailed documentations. Senior nurses also have the responsibilities to supervise the junior nurses in which they also have to leave lately after off duty. Documentation class training can be implemented by some experienced staff to junior staff and some samples of special documentations can be shared for reference. For the discharge issues, there are communication problems and many doctors and relatives would not listen to nurse’s advice and leading to conflicts and complaints. This can helped by holding a meeting with doctors with agreement made before starting the program. And nurses can invite medical social worker and pre-discharge team if difficult to handle to placement problem in order to avoid conflicts and complaints from relatives. As a result, stress and workload can be reduced with the specified goals can also be achieved.

According to Cain and Mittman (2002), there should be promoting and supporting in changes within the health care setting, but should not greatly influence the existing situations. Conner and Patterson (1982) stated that the reason for the failed to changes were due to the lack of commitment for the followers to changes and it was important for the followers to accept and support the changes in order to success any changes.

In this scenario, although changes were necessary for improving the quality of services, but the leader did not provide adequate support, time and training before implemented the policies and protocol. As a result, the followers showed lack of energy and even felt stressful to support the changes.

Conclusion

Different leadership style such as laissez-faire leadership, transactional leadership and transformational leadership were introduced with a case scenario was shared. Force Field Analysis was used to point out the pushing and restraining forces which can help to improve the situation. There is also a discussion part to discuss the case scenario for improvement. A good leader should show the advantages to changes and to minimize the weaknesses. Regular review and support are essential and a good leader should be ready to accept feedback and suggestions.

Part2:

Reflective Summary

I am a Registered Nurse who is working in Medical Department for nearly nine years and rotated to the special observation ward under medical department for about seven years. I am the second highest appointment Registered Nurse working in this ward and always needed to perform the job as ward in-charge and mentors for new comers and student nurses. As my ward manager decided to implement the guidelines and protocols as stated in Part 1, the workload was increased and I felt very stress as I needed to choose some potential early discharge cases and presented to my ward manager and doctor-in-charge. Also, I needed to spend a lot of time to explain the importance of placement issues to the relative with caring problem during visiting hour with half of my colleagues went out for dinner time and some of them will scolded nurses for forcing patients to aged home. For the potential complaint cases, nurses involved needed to write detailed documentations in patient’s record in which sometimes involves three pages of papers to write. All of the nurses feel fatigue and stress about the new guidelines.

If I am my ward manager, I will choose to be a transformational leader. It is because transactional leadership only focuses on the goals achievement with punishment and rewards were made for the followers. Although Outhwaite (2003) stated that the transactional leaders must have their own abilities to achieve a common goal and the routine job should be done sufficiently. The followers have sufficient instructions from the transactional leader to ensure the work having done successfully and effectively. However, the moralities of the staff under transactional leadership were low as they will always tried to avoid punishment by following the standard guidelines to achieve the specified goals.

I think that transformational leadership is more suitable in nursing field because the followers can have more opportunities and freedom to involve in the decision making process. The transformational leader can allow the followers to implement some tasks with their specified abilities. It provides opportunities for the followers to learn the leadership skills and knowledge. The relationship between the leader and the followers will be better for transformational leadership.

Transformational leader always try to emphasis changes and encourage having commitments. Moreover, I believed that transformational leaders will spend more time to teach and provide coaching to the followers, as a result, the followers should be more satisfied and happier. Transformational leader will also provide the followers some training and for further development of the specified areas and helps to develop the strengths of the followers.

As all of the public hospitals are facing the problem of manpower insufficient already and the turnover rates are high due to heavy workload and poor working environment. It is not practical to implement some new guidelines without sufficient support to increase the workload of staff. If I am the leader, I will have sufficient information and suggestions before implement a new guideline or policy and I will provide adequate professional training and support to the staff in order to allow them to develop their strengths. I will also listen and allow staff to provide suggestions or advises for improvement and changes because the morality will be higher if the staff having the chance for involvement.

To improve my leadership skill, I will use a reflective diary to written down some special events which are happened in my ward together with the advantages and the disadvantages of the leadership style of my ward manager in order to have further improvement or what is good for learning. It can help me to summarize all the events and make an evaluation to be a role model before I can promote to Advanced Practice Nurse. Also, I can seek the approval of my ward manager to set some projects such as the topic ‘Documentation’ by using transformational leadership style to test the effect of performing projects and it can helped to observe the response of the followers for me for further development.

I will set a three to twelve months leadership developmental plan in special observation ward -by SMART. The SMART Objectives of the project as set below:

1) To implement a documentation training course for all of the nurses working in the special observation ward to enhance the documentation skills and special documentation style especially for the patients in special observation ward. For 100% of nurses working in special observation ward have the chance to join the training course within six months time.

2) To implement a communication skills training course for all of the nurses working in the special observation ward to enhance the communication skills especially for the patients and their relatives in special observation ward. For 100% of nurses working in special observation ward have the chance to join the training course within twelve months time.

3) To increase the morale of the colleagues in my ward by receiving feedback of the new guideline to allow their involvement to improve the services within three months time.

Manhole Rehabilitation

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Manhole rehabilitation has become common. It costs less to rehab manholes that to replace them. It has become an important approach in the trenchless sector. Our keyword city state experts assist you in manhole inflow issues, restoring the structures etc. Manhole Rehabilitation is a service focused at repairing the damaged manholes rather than replacing them. Handling the manhole issue on your own is impossible. You need to call a reputable full-time servicing company to involve in keyword city staterather than replacement at competitive prices.

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Decentralisation: college essay help online

Over the past two decades a wave of decentralization to the local political bodies has been noticed all over the world. (Martinez-Vazquez, May 2007, p. 1) These worldwide trend towards decentralization is welcomed by the academicians and experts as a positive sign for democratic transformation and the process can be perceived in two fundamental observations,:’First, decentralization is most often associated with an increase in local autonomy. Second, the connotations and values attached to decentralization and local autonomy are almost exclusively positive.’ (Beer-T??th, 2009, p. 29)However, it is observed in most of the cases that political or administrative transfers of power were not followed by proper empowerment in fiscal affairs. Low fiscal autonomy has been a major policy problem in the decentralization process at local level both in developed and developing nations. Central control and supervision of local affairs also found to be a major obstacle in the trends of governing local governments around the world. Lack of fiscal autonomy is closely related to ensuring accountability and transparency for the local government bodies. For better governance at local level, it is urged that more emphasis should be given to local level fiscal decentralization so that local governments can have a certain level of financial resources to organize their internal affairs and ensure peoples empowerment at local level .This paper is designed to examine the major issues and concerns related to fiscal autonomy, accountability mechanism and decentralization at local level around the world and connect those issues to broder governance paradigm and find out the major challenges to advance democratic practices at local level. The paper will try to give an overall view of the trends of local level governance practices in both developed and developing world and will try to bring under a comparative lens of all the concurrent issues and challenges related to local level governances financing.

A) Financing by Central Government: central control and the question of autonomy

Dependence on central government in fiscal affairs is a worldwide trend in local government financing. Intergovernmental transfers are the important sources of local government financing around the world. It is thought that these government transfers have political dimensions as most of such kinds of transfers are designed from center with political motives. Therefore, it is important to assess the role of center government in financing local bodies around the world. In this part, the global trends of intergovernmental transfers, imbalance between center and local and its political dimensions around the world will be discussed and analyzed with the purpose to comprehend the magnitude of central government transfers to local government around the world.

1. Intergovernmental transfers for financing local governments

Intergovernmental transfers are the main source of local governmental finance around the world.

The transfers are especially important for developing nations because local government taxing powers are very limited in most of the developing world. In fact, many different types of transfers are in use around the world and it is difficult to settle on a best practice (Roy, 2008, p. 30). It is urged to reduce the flow of government grants to local governments and increase the scope of local taxation and resource mobilization. In fact, the share of government grants in local government budgeting is recognized as an indicator for financial autonomy at local level (Daniel Bergvall & Merk, 2006, p. 4) and bridging the gap between revenues and expenditures remain the main challenge for the effective execution of decentralization and democratic transformation. However, there is yet any consensus whether those transfers promote efficiency or misallocate resources at local level. In one view, lack of adequate resource transfers to local governments creates difficulties to finance their expenditure responsibilities, while in other view; overdependence of central grants can undermine local accountability. According to one analyst over-dependence can created perverse incentives at the local level to misallocate public resources in federal system. (Khemani, July 24,2001, pp. 5-6)

2. Political dimension of financial decentralization

Local autonomy is a fundamental base for making democracy work, and is often referred to as a ‘school in democracy.’ (Shimizutani, 2010, p. 99) People’s participation should come from the roots and decentralized and autonomous local body can equip the people at local level to promote democratic procedures .Nevertheless, it can backfire from its own strength. Decentralization which is believed to break down the asymmetric relationship of clientelism at local level can create a new type of clientical political practices in real world (Garc??a-Guadilla & P??rez, 2002, p. 104). Indeed, in many cases, decentralization simply empowers local elites to capture a larger share of public resources, often at the expense of the poor (Johnson, Deshingkar, & Start, 2005, p. 937). Recentralization process also can be noticed for political reasons. Nicholas Awortwi examines the administrative reform policy of Ghana and Uganda; and showed that recentralization and further weakening of LGs are likely to continue in both countries because the initial path that was created benefited politicians and bureaucrats and they are committed to staying on that course. (Awortwi, 2011) Political calculation is always a major factor in any policy setting. Even, in Developed world, like UK, political trend of targeting local government fund can be identified. (John & Ward, 2001).Central-periphery financial relations in different countries always evolved differently in different political perspective. Moreover, developing countries often reach their decision about intergovernmental transfers for political reasons as well. (Roy, 2008, p. 33) Bahl Roy explained the politics behind the intergovernmental transfers in three categories:

i. The Central authority likes to provide local governments with intergovernmental transfers that carry stringent conditions to bypass the decentralization demand.

ii. A reason for advocating intergovernmental transfers by central government is the goal of enforcing uniformity in the provision of public services.

iii. A transfer system may be put in place as part of a political strategy to hold open the option of offloading the budget deficit on to subnational governments (for example, underfunding a grant program). (Roy, 2008, pp. 33-34)

Thought, it is thought that there are political calculations behind the sanctions of government grants, it is the dominating trends in both developed and developing world and the trend of Intergovernmental transfers is likely to continue.

3) Financial Gap between local and central governance

Countries, both developed and developing, transfer funds to equip the local governments for providing services and generate development at local level .However; Developing and transition countries are characterized by wide disparities among regions in economic well-being. (Roy, 2008, p. 31) Nevertheless, vertical imbalance existed between centre and periphery is a common symptom of fiscal imbalance of developing nations which is believed to treat with taking policies of financial empowerment. An analyst emphasized the solution to adopt equalization measures of inter-regional differences in financial capacities and it can be accomplished by providing intergovernmental transfers. (Roy, 2008, p. 31) In a study of 9 major developed and developing countries , it is suggested to adopt more equalization formula to face the disparity problem. (Ma, 1997)Roy Bahl identified a reason behind transfers (subnational) is to offset externalities so that local governments can make their own decision and may underspend on services where there are substantial external benefits (Roy., 2000, p. 3). It is also argued by Roy that reducing administrative cost of taxing may be another cause to collect tax by central authority and then the central government transfers grants to local level. (Roy., 2000, p. 4)

In OECD countries 34.4 percents of revenues come from transfers. (Shah & Shah, 2006, p. 37). In a study of OECD countries , a growing trend of widening gap between sub-national tax and expenditure shares in the last twenty years is identified (Daniel Bergvall & Merk, 2006, p. 5)which caused a higher dependence of sub-national governments on grants. So fiscal decentralization in OECD countries, in fact, shrink the scope of fiscal autonomy as sub-national governments have become more dependent on central governments for their resources. Intergovernmental transfer from centre to state governments in USA constitutes a larger part of state budgeting. These transfers accounted for about 38% of all local government revenues, ranging from a low of 19.2% in Hawaii to a high of 70.2% in Vermont (Wildasin, 2009, p. 7).In developing countries, the dependence of fiscal transfers is more instrumental. Intergovernmental fiscal transfers finance about 60 percent of subnational expenditures in developing and transition economies. (Shah. A. , 2007, p. 1) In a study of World Bank on some selected countries, it is found that the average funding of local governments by government transfer is 50.9 percent. (Shah & Shah, 2006, p. 37)It is found that the fiscal transfers are much larger than average in Uganda (85.4 percent), Poland (76.0 percent), China (67.0 percent), Brazil (65.4 percent), and Indonesia (62.0 percent). (Shah & Shah, 2006, p. 37) It is also noticed in AND report that significant vertical fiscal imbalances prevails in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan, and at the local level in the Philippines, the PRC, and Viet Nam. (Martinez-Vasquez, 2011, p. 5)In case of revenue autonomy, lower autonomy can be found as a common practice in many countries. Revenue autonomy is found low outside Japan and the Republic of Korea, and much less in Indonesia and the Philippines. However, autonomy at provincial level can be traced in India, Pakistan, and the PRC. (Martinez-Vasquez, 2011, p. 5)

4) Fiscal autonomy and the question of public service delivery of Local Government

Decentralization is recognized as a way to bring people closer to government services and also as a feedback mechanism to response the local people needs. This move reflects public preferences for more democratic and participatory forms of government in order to improve the level of public services to respond to the needs of users of those services. (Sayuri, 2005) Though the notion of fiscal autonomy is central in fiscal decentralization literature; the idea of fiscal autonomy did not get proper academic investigation at the beginning. The local autonomy concept can be traced from Tibeout model of 1956 as an arrangement for local competition. Probably the earliest attempt was from Clark who described autonomy as a relative concept with two specific powers: power of initiations and power of immunity. (Beer-T??th, 2009, p. 31) Early theorization was mostly involved to deal with the question of the capacity of local government following Clark and then later literatures incorporate other issues including local government autonomy. The European Charter of Local Self-Government taken by the Council of Europe in 1985 described local self-government (i.e. local autonomy) along the double characteristics of right and ability to manage local public affairs. (Beer-T??th, 2009, p. 36) Therefore, it is obvious that fiscal empowerment is an important part of decentralization and without it, the goal of effectively providing services from local level cannot be achieved.

Though a wave of decentralization is recorded around the globe in the last two decades, the decentralization of local bodies did not supported by proper autonomy in fiscal affairs. Low expenditure autonomy due to the central supervision lacks the local government to introduce or keep services by their own. A study on the local government finance of some OECD countries found that the most common way of transferring resources from central to subnational government is through earmark grants and these grants are used for the purpose of financing and subdivision of services and for equalization of tax or service capacity (Daniel Bergvall & Merk, 2006) The study affirmed that non-earmark grant can be more effective instrument for financial purposes. On the other hand, a study on fiscal decentralization of Asian countries found that many Asian countries exhibits the highest level of decentralization in the world in term of the share of subnational government in total expenditures. (Martinez-Vasquez, 2011, p. 3) It is showed in the report that 70% of total expenditure is allocated at subnational level in PRC, 66% in India, 60% in japan,45% both in republic of Korea and Vietnam. However, this data in many cases failed to interpret the actual level of autonomy at local level. Throughout the entire region, heavy reliance and dependence on transfers and revenue sharing can be found. Lower tier governments in most Indian states have a very little expenditure autonomy from their state governments. (Martinez-Vasquez, 2011, p. 3) It is also noticed that central government in many countries involved in local functions as well. Expenditure autonomy (percentage of own expenditure under effective control of sub-national governments), is on average higher (74% for all but 96% in Croatia, and 7% in Albania) in transition economies than developing countries (58% for all but 95% for Dominican Republic and 23% for South Africa. (Shah. A. , 2004, p. 17)

B) Financing by own: three major sources for local financing

There are different means of financing local needs by own resources of local governments. Three sources from which local level bodies mostly rely on are local level taxation, local government Borrowing and Public private partnership which have significant importance to enforce local financing.

1. Local level Taxation: empowered by own sources

Taxes are the most important sources of the local government revenues. Financial decentralization process provides the Local governments institutions with the necessary authority to change tax rate, initiate new tax and enhance the scope of the tax. It is thought that fiscal decentralization will increase taxation net and a greater share of GDP will be reached by tax system. Indeed, it is believed that increased subnational revenue mobilization will reduce the need for intergovernmental transfers from central revenues (Bird & Bahl, 2008, p. 4).

Significant tax assignment to subnational governments has become prevalent in developed countries (Bird R. , November 2010, p. 1). Bird & Bahl examines different country cases and identified the trend of developed world. (Bird & Bahl, 2008, p. 6)US State governments and Canadian provinces have almost complete autonomy in choosing any tax base, so long as there is no interference with interstate commerce. In Denmark and Sweden, local taxes account for nearly one-half of local government spending. Revenues from subnational government taxes in Switzerland are greater in amount than revenues received from grants. Though, Japan had a conservative tax policy which allow little to local government in term of taxing capabilities but the country is planning to introduce new intergovernmental reform to shift taxing power significantly to local governments (Bird & Bahl, 2008, p. 6) However, it is noticed that in most developing countries, central governments have been reluctant to reform the taxing system for subnational governments. (Bird & Bahl, 2008, p. 7) The subnational tax share in total taxes in developing countries is only about 10 percent while it is 20 percent in industrialized countries. These figures have changed little in the last 30 years. (Bird & Bahl, 2008, p. 7) Local governments in countries like Cambodia, China and Vietnam get less than 5 percent of their total revenues from their own sources (Talierciao, 2005, pp. 107-128) On the other hand, in a few developing countries, like the Philippines, Brazil, and Colombia, a third or more of subnational government expenditure is met up by own sources (Bird & Bahl, 2008, p. 7)

It is thought that increased fiscal autonomy would improve the efficiency and responsiveness of the public sector governance. (Fjeldstad & Semboja, 2000, p. 28) However, strengthening autonomy by providing more taxation power to local government can cause greater mismanagement and corruption in local authorities. In developing country like Tanzania where Local taxes represent less than 6 per cent of total national tax revenues (Fjeldstad & Semboja, 2000, p. 7), it is strongly recommended to restructure the revenue system combined with capacity building and improved integrity mechanism. In case of India, it is noticed that decentralization of fiscal power to local Panchayat Body eventually decreases the volume of taxes and also shrink the tax base. The chiefs of the Panchayats always count the elections factors which is one of the cause of declining taxes. So it is recommended to undertake more accountability measures and provide intensives in tax collection of the Panchayat. (Jha, Kang, & Nagarajan, 2011) Therefore, in case of tax autonomy, it can be assumed that capacity building and ensuring accountability and transparency are crucial while transferring power to local authority.

A major part of local revenues is collected from property taxes around the world. OECD countries raise 54 percent of local revenues from property taxes, 23 percent from personal income taxes, 14 percent from corporate taxes, and 9 percent from other taxes. (Shah & Shah, 2006, pp. 37-39) Therefore, it is apparent that local governments in OECD countries depend more on property and income taxes than other sources. But developing word lacks proper tax autonomy because of the unwilling political elites and capacity problems. For all developing countries, revenues from property taxes constitute only 0.5percent of GDP which is about 2 percent (1 to 3 percent) of GDP in industrial countries. (Shah & Shah, 2006, p. 39) Therefore, property taxes may represent significant untapped potential for funding local affairs in developing countries.

2. Local government borrowing: Challenges and promises

Unavailability of government grants and Lack of local funding sometimes compelled local governments to take loans from public and private sectors. Local government bodies usually collects loans from banking sector ( both national and international development program loans) or issued bonds. (Bucic & others, 2011, p. 2) Developments projects are designed with such type of borrowing options for emergency situation. Large infrastructure deficiencies in developing countries call for significant access to borrowing by local governments. (Shah & Shah, 2006, p. 40) Local access to credit requires well-functioning financial markets and creditworthy local governments; however, in most of the local governments in developing countries lacks both. (Shah & Shah, 2006, p. 40) Heavy reliance on borrowing also can jeopardize macroeconomic stabilization. For example, perversely structured intergovernmental systems destabilized the economy of Argentina in the late 1990s. (Yilmaz, Beris, & Serrano-Berthet, 2008, p. 281) After the 90es Japan took some initiatives to empower local governments by issuing bonds with guarantees, uniform issuing conditions, and secured finance from public funds to meet up the gap between revenues and expenditure. But it was proven ineffective and unproductive in most of the cases and it is suggested to adopt accrual-based accounting system instead of cash-based accounting system. (Sayuri, 2005)Most countries follow the policy to limit, control, or even prohibit the issuance of debt by local governments. A World Bank study report found none of the local governments of ten country’s health and education sectors that are surveyed in the study was given full discretion to borrow. However, it is noticed in the study that local governments in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Kerala, Philippines, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda, have partial authority over borrowing. (Bank, 2009, p. 55)

3. Public Private Partnership (PPP): A New Window of local Financing

Public-Private Partnerships (PPP’s) have been hailed as the latest institutional form of co-operation between the public sector and the private sector. (Greve & Ejersbo, 2002, p. 1) If local government enjoys necessary autonomy from central government, PPP can be used as effective instrument to respond to the local demand without looking funding from central government. For example, Mandaluyung city of the Philippines build a new Market place using the PPP formula which had lacking of fund at that time. But PPP has some instrumental risks concerning the possibilities of misuse of power, corruption and transparency. The Danish local government of Farum in Denmark was considered as one of the success story of PPP at local level governance in 90s.But later, a huge scandal of corruption and irregularities were erupted in the organization in 2002. Clash between central government and lack of democratic accountability mechanism were thought to be responsible for the failure of the local governance. (Greve & Ejersbo, 2002) In an article on the PPP taken by Morogoro municipality in Tanzania, Lameck analyzed various PPP project by the city and urged that there should be a framework of rule and regulation to undertake such practice; otherwise Government will lose control over the whole procedure. (Lameck, 2009).As private organizations are more profit oriented, the local governments should be more careful about the accountability and responsiveness of the project. John Hood and N Mcgarvey showed that the local Government PPP initiatives taken by Labour Government in Scotland lack proper risk management procedures which might jeopardize the whole arrangement. (Hood & Mcgarvey, 2002)

C) Corruption, accountability and Fiscal decentralization

Decentralization of fiscal affairs is thought to be a panacea for corruption and to promote accountability and transparency at local level. However, it has some significant policy risks as it can open up new windows of nepotism, corruption and mismanagement.

1. Does fiscal decentralization combat corruptions?

It is assumed that fiscal devolution to local governments creates space to bring the services to the people and installs a way of trustworthiness which can decrease the culture of corruption practice. A flow of increasing intergovernmental and political competition installed by decentralization can reduce rent seeking and monopolistic behavior and improve service deliveries. (Fisman & Gatti, 2002) But there is huge debate on the effectiveness of fiscal reforms to bring accountability and transparency by installing decentralized structure. Some researchers have an optimistic assessment on the effect of decentralization of fiscal affairs on corruption while some other explained decentralization as a way of corruption. Treisman argued that decentralized government creates many levels of governments and a more complex system of governance reduce accountability and increase corruption. (Treisman, 2000) Prud’homme stated that there is more opportunity for corruption at local level as local bureaucrats have more powers to execute and they are influenced by the local interest groups. (Prud’homme, 1995) Goldsmith argued that it is easy to hide corruption in local level than center level. (Goldsmith, 1999) But most other studies found a negative relationship between the two variables. An exclusive study on 24 countries in the time frame of 1995-2007 found that fiscal decentralization has a positive impact in reducing corruption. (Padovano, Fiorino, & Galli, 2011) In another rigorous study of 182 countries, it is founded that decentralization and corruption has a negative relationship. (Ivanyna & Shah, 2010)

In Malawi, a move to decentralize the local government body in 2000 following the act of 1998 opened up a huge window of corruption in the country. (Tambulasi & Kayuni, 2007) After the fiscal reform and devolution of fiscal power to local bodies, the new-patrimonial leadership became reinforced exploiting the opportunities which eventually broke down the accountability system. (Tambulasi & Kayuni, 2007) Tambulasi in another article expressed the view that adaptation of new public management strategy is the policy problem of the whole process and suggested to take public governance reform model with more participation and transparency. (Tambulasi R. I., 2009) Some argues that using bribery as an indicator of corruption is problematic and other social and economic indicators should be examined. (Bardhan & Mookherjee, 2005) He summarized that the relation between corruption and decentralization is very complex as a lot of variable is involved in the process and single one approach is not enough to unveil the underlying relationship. He also mentioned that the problem of capture and lack of accountabilities are the major obstacles in developing countries. Robert Klitgaard (1988) explained the principle’agent theory and argued that monopoly and discretion can exacerbate corruption while accountability has a reducing effect. (Witz, 2011, p. 5)A report on the corruption of Local governments in Latin American countries also suggested taking legal and institutional reforms to combat the problem. (Bliss & Deshazo, 2009) The Report emphasizes on the availabilities of information and urged for performance management efforts to be undertaken. (Bliss & Deshazo, 2009, pp. 14-15) Nina Witz in a paper showed that accountability in local level water governments is relatively higher than central government in Sweden and described decentralization as an antidote of corruption. (Witz, 2011)Arikan also found evidence that decentralization can lower the level of corruption. (Arikan, 2004) .Furthermore, fiscal decentralization believed to have positive impact on the citizen behaviors regarding the corruption issues and can boost social capital by increasing trust among the citizens to the government officials and bring the government closer to the people. Oguzhan Dincer found a positive correlation between fiscal decentralization and trust using data from US states. (Dincer, 2010) Following the seminal work of Putnam, a good number of empirical studies found a positive impact of social capital on the economic growth of a country and it is suggested to follow fiscal decentralization as a policy to increase social capital and trust in both developing and developed countries. (Dincer, 2010, p. 189). In case of Zambezia of Mozambique, Akiko Abe found that Social trust (one dimension of social capital) was formed in a shorter period of time than Putnam has outlined. (Abe, 2009, p. 77)

2. Risks of Local fiscal Autonomy and accountability mechanism

Financial devolution of power is thought to empower the local leadership and provides accountability and transparency to the whole settings. However, providing financial autonomy at local level has some potential risks. Fiscal decentralization depends on the ability of local governments to manage revenues and expenditures effectively and requires strong institutions for financial accountability. (Yilmaz, Beris, & Serrano-Berthet, 2008, p. 23) Financial accountability seeks transparency in the management of public funds. It also requires that governments manage finances prudently and ensure integrity in their financial reporting, control, budgeting and performance systems. (Sahgal & Chakrapani., 2000., p. 3) In an article, Serdar Yilmaz, Yakup Beris and Rodrigo Serrano-Berthet explained two methods of downward accountability (Public accountability approaches and Social accountability approaches) of local financial organization along with other methods .They examined different experiences of financial autonomy and accountability from different countries and identified different issues arising from the lack of internal controls. (Yilmaz, Beris, & Serrano-Berthet, 2008) They showed that many nations impose central control over local governments as a policy to restructure subnational relations observing the capacity problem of local governments around the world. They suggest not taking only upward accountability mechanism which may limit local government autonomy in decision-making and service delivery negating the intended empowering of local governments. (Yilmaz, Beris, & Serrano-Berthet, 2008, p. 26) Yilmaz and Felicio examined the decentralization and low accountability problems of Angola and urged for a checked and balanced policy to cope with the tendency of abusing of discretion power. (Yilmaz & Felicio, 2009) Though citizen participation is ensured at local level there, Provincial and Municipal administrators did not genuinely embrace the spirit of the citizen councils. It is suggested to incorporate appropriate advocacy efforts to ensure quality participation processes at the municipal and provincial levels and emphasis on strengthening civil society’s skills that will incrementally increase accountabilities in public expenditure management activities and will ensure proper oversight. (Yilmaz & Felicio, 2009, p. 21)In Ethiopia, it is noticed that progressive features of fiscal decentralization were not followed by political management. A strong upward accountability structure without the accompanying discretion and downward accountability mechanism was the main feature of the system which failed to ensure the accountable nature of organization. (Yilmaz & Venugopal, 2008, pp. 23-24) It is evident from different experiences that a combination of upward and downward accountability arrangement and a participatory nature of governance only can ensure democracy, better management and transparency at local level. Anwar Shah, in an article, urged for judicial accountability measures in developing countries where laws on property rights, corporate legal ownership and control, bankruptcy, and financial accounting and control are not fully developed. (Shah. A. , 2004, p. 34) He also emphasis on traditional channels of accountability such as audit, inspection and control functions should be strengthened, since they tend to be quite weak in transition and developing economies. (Shah. A. , 2004, p. 34)

3. Participatory local budgeting for more accountability and transparency

Budgeting at local level is a significant instrument for the fiscal health of a local body. Traditional municipal budgets which is in fact, focused with incremental line-item budgeting practice, have historically been constructed on giving emphasis on accounting staffs to face the audit requirements and it said by one analyst mentioned that it is aimed to the audited financial statements required to be submitted by municipal authorities after the fiscal year. (Schaeffer & SerdarYilmaz, 2007, p. 8)Over the last two decade, it is observed that different reform measures have been taken incorporated with the traditional budgeting to ensure more transparency and accountabilities. Program budgeting at local level brought different planning and accountability measures differing from the traditional line-item approach in preparing, reviewing, and presenting the budget. In recent changed global world, participatory local budgeting becomes a powerful good governance tool to integrate citizens in government’s matters. Participatory budgeting is considered as a direct-democracy approach to budgeting and by enhancing transparency and accountability participatory budgeting can help reduce government inefficiency and curb clientelism, patronage, and corruption. (Shah, Overview, 2007, p. 1) However, Participatory budgeting has some significant risks. Participatory processes can be captured by interest groups. Such processes can mask the undemocratic, exclusive, or elite nature of public decision making, giving the appearance of broader participation and inclusive governance while using public funds to advance the interests of powerful elites. (Shah, Overview, 2007, pp. 1-2)

4. E-Governance for strengthening decentralization

The potential of e-government in advancing good governance is increasingly being recognized. (Bank., 2004) E-governance is identified as an efficient tool to generate transparency and ensure accountability in government procedures. Moreover, one of the strength of e-governance is that it is cost effective. E-procurement creates a highly competence and transparent environment of procurement and a faster method of getting quotes which can narrow the scope of corruption and also reduce the cost as well. E-procurement can even cut 50 % municipalities public procurement cost. In this backdrop, it is highly recommended to induce electronic methods in government procurement and other administrative procedures for transparency and ensure easy access of the citizens.

World Bank funded some pilot cases in developing world (some state in India) and found a positive result in widely used services, such as issuance of licenses and certificates and collection of payments and taxes (Bank., 2004). One of the strength of e-governance is that it provides transparency which acts as a viable tool against corruption. For example, Karnataka State of India digitalized the transfer system of teachers and it eventually reduced the scope of corruption in the transfer process. (Bank., 2004) In Andra Pradesh of India, the e-governance strive faced lot of difficulties due to manage huge information of complex administration which is related to a vast population. Reengineering and changing work processes across 70 departments in the secretariat have been a challenge even for the country’s largest information technology company, which is implementing the project. (Bank., 2004) Most e-governance project requires huge funding to automation the whole system and also huge population in developing countries are outside the internet facilities. In a report on African prospect to introduce e-governance, it is identified that adequate funding and low rate of literacy and PC penetration rate are the challenges to update the whole system under e-governance. (Kitaw, 2006, p. 8) Another study of six African southern countries (Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland) examined e-Readiness conditions and suggested to initiate more capacity building measures to strengthen the procedures. (Meyaki, 2010)Digital divide is a big challenge to integrate all the people in a more citizen centric structure of e-governance. Growing mobile networks around the world and also in developing countries can be easily recognized and m-Governance (providing services though mobile phones) can be an option to fight the digital divide. Integrating fiscal measures in local affairs can ensure accountability and transparency at local level as well. Kerala state of India initiated m-governance by launching varies services focusing on the utilization of mobile technologies to deliver citizen services which includes electricity and water services billing, road tax and vehicle registration. (Young, 2009)

Conclusion

Strengthening Local governments by providing more autonomous power in fiscal affairs and ensuring citizen involvement is believed to empower people at local level and can bring changes from root level as local governments only know the needs from grassroots. In this paper a wide range of literatures is examined to recognize the trends and issues concerning fiscal autonomy and financial accountability mechanism at local governments around the world. Most of the local government experiences indicate positive relations between financial decentralization and better governance. In this age of globalization and Information technology revolution, a more global world with localization of governments is emerging. This trend must be supported by financial empowerment of local bodies and accountability mechanism at local level. Access to untapped revenue sources and digitalization of organization procedures has become an important tool to cope with the challenge of globalization and Information technology revolution nowadays. Bangladesh, a developing nation which has a huge population living under local government bodies and the weakness of her local government is depicted as the root cause of her dysfunctioning democracy, can be benefited from the lessons of decentralization around the world and can reevaluate her policy regarding local government and decentralization.

The emerging role of distance bounding protocol in aerospace systems: college essay help near me

Abstract: RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) systems are vulnerable to replay attacks like mafia fraud, distance fraud and terrorist fraud. The distance bounding protocol is designed as a countermeasure against these attacks. These protocols ensure that the tags are in a distant area by measuring the round-trip delays during the rapid challenge response exchange. Distance Bounding protocols are cryptographic protocols which enable verifier to establish the upper bound on the physical distance to the prover. They are based on timing the delay between the sending out a challenge bit and receiving back the corresponding response bits. A timing based response followed by consecutive timing measurement provides more optimistic approach in authenticating the prover.

Index Terms: RFID, Mafia fraud, Distance fraud, Terrorist fraud, Distance Bounding protocol.

I. INTRODUCTION

A famous story of the little girl who played against two Chess Grandmasters’ How was it possible to win one of the games? Annie-Louise played Black against Spassky. White against Fisher. Spassky moved first, and Ann-Louise just copied his move as the first move of her game against Fisher, then copied Fisher’s replay as her own reply to Spassky’s first move, and so on.

This problem exploited by Anne-Louise is known in the cryptographic community as mafia-fraud. Mafia fraud is a man in the middle attack against an authentication protocol where the adversary relays the exchanges between the verifier and prover, making them believe they directly communicate together. The mafia fraud is particularly powerful against the contactless technologies. The most threatening systems are Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Near Field Communication (NFC) because the devices answer to any solicitation without explicit agreement of their holder. The vulnerability of these technologies has already been illustrated by several practical attacks [10]. The two attacks related to mafia fraud are distance fraud and terrorist fraud. The distance fraud only involves a malicious prover, who cheats on his distance to the verifier. The terrorist fraud is an exotic variant of the mafia fraud where the prover is malicious and actively helps the adversary to succeed the attack.

Measuring the physical distance between communicating parties is important for communication security. For example, we can imagine a building security system that allows a visitor to open the door to the building only when the visitor has an authorized radio frequency Identification (RFID) tag for entering the building. When authenticating the tag, the security system should also verify the upper-bound distance between the door and the tag to thwart the remote attackers who may desire to open the door from a distance between communicating parties [4].

To solve the above problem, Brands and Chaum have proposed a distance-bounding protocol. In this protocol, a verifier V seeks to authenticate a prover P while measuring the distance d between V and P. For authentication, most of these protocols rely on multi-rounds of single-bit challenge and response, also known as a fast bit exchange phase. They are also lightweight in the sense that they do not require an additional (time and resources consuming) slow phase to terminate the protocol. A timing based response followed by the consecutive timing measurement provides more optimistic approach in authenticating the prover.

II. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

By using distance bounding protocols, a device (the verifier) can securely obtain an upper bound on its distance to another device (the prover). The security of distance-bounding protocols was so far mainly evaluated by analyzing their resilience to three types of attacks. For historical reasons, these are known as Distance Fraud, Mafia Fraud and Terrorist Fraud. In Distance Fraud attacks, a sole dishonest prover convinces the verifier that he is at a different distance than he really is. In Mafia Fraud attacks, the prover is honest, but an attacker tries to modify the distance that the verifier establishes by interfering with their communication. In Terrorist Fraud attacks, the dishonest prover colludes with another attacker that is closer to the verifier, to convince the verifier of a wrong distance to the prover. So far, it was assumed that distance bounding protocols that are resilient against these three attack types can be considered secure. In case of hostile attackers, the dishonest prover can pretend to be closer to or further away from the verifier than it actually is by either jumping the gun or sending a response before the request, or pretend to be further away than it is by delaying its response. Hostile attacker could attach its own identity to the prover’s response, and pass off honest verifier’s location as its own [1], [13].

Finally, dishonest provers can conspire to mislead the verifier, one prover lending the other prover its identity so that the second prover can make the first prover look closer than it is. The idea is that the prover first commits to a nonce using a one-way function, the verifier sends a challenge consisting of another nonce, the prover responds with the exclusive-or of its and the verifier’s nonce’s, and then follows up with the authentication information.

Fig 1: System Architecture

METAR is constructed to analyze the Weather report and cloud base height of an airplane. These details or information is passed between the verifier and prover. METAR is Meteorological elements observed at an Airport at a specific time. The verifier uses the time elapsed between sending its nonce and receiving the prover’s rapid response to compute its distance from the prover, and then verifies the authenticated response when it receives it. Through the wireless, verifier raises an authentication query to the prover side. If the prover gives an exact answer to the question means he/she is able to receive the extracted information at the end.

III. RFID TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

RFID frequency identification (RFID) technology consists of small inexpensive computational device with wireless communication capabilities. Currently, the main application of RFID technology is in inventory control and supply chain management fields. In these areas, RFID tags are used to tag and track the physical goods. Within this context, RFID can be considered a replacement for barcodes. RFID technology is superior to barcodes in two aspects. First, RFID tags can store information than barcodes [3]. Unlike a barcode, the RFID tag, being a computational device, can be designed to process rather than just store data. Second, barcodes communicate through an optical channel, which require the careful positioning of the reading device with no obstacles in-between [12]. RFID uses a wireless channel for communication, and can be read without line-of-sight, increasing the read efficiency.

The pervasiveness of RFID technology in our everyday lives has led to concerns over these RFID tags pose any security risk. The future applications of RFID make the security of RFID networks and communications even more important than before. The ubiquity of RFID technology has made it an important component in the Internet-of-Things (IoT), a future generation Internet that seeks to mesh the physical world together with the cyber world. RFID is used within the IoT as a means of identifying physical objects [11]. For example, by attaching an RFID tag to medication bottles, we can design an RFID network to monitor whether patients have taken their medications.

IV. DISTANCE BOUNDING PROTOCOL

Verifying the physical location of a device using an authentication protocol is an important security mechanism. Distance Bounding protocol aim to prove the proximity of two devices relative to each other. Distance bounding protocol determines an upper bound for the physical distance between two communicating parties based on the Round-Trip-Time (RTT) of cryptographic challenge response pairs. Brands and Chaum proposed a distance bounding protocol that could be used to verify a device’s proximity cryptographically. This design based on a channel where the prover can reply instantaneously to each single binary digit received from the verifier [1]. The number of challenge ‘response interactions is being determined by a chosen security parameter, Distance bounding protocol not only in the one-to-one proximity identification context but also as building blocks for secure location systems. After correct execution of the distance bounding protocol, the verifier knows that an entity having data is in the trusted network. Distance bounding protocol can be dividing in three phase: the Commitment Phase, the Fast Bit phase and signing phase.

The first DB protocol suitable for resource-constrained devices example: RFID tags. This protocol is considered lightweight in the sense that a single computation of a hash function and a call to a Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) are the most costly operations required for its execution. The simplicity and efficiency of this protocol yield to similar designs for other DB protocols which modify how answers are calculated in order to improve the security performance. The protocol first contains a slow phase in which nonce are generated and exchanged [4], [7]. From this nonce and a secret value x, the possible response used in the first phase are computed via a function f. Then the fast phase consists of n consecutive rounds. In each of these rounds, the verifier picks a challenge ci, starts a timer and sends ci to the prover. When the prover receives the challenge he computes the answer ri and sends it back to the verifier as soon as possible. Upon reception of the answer, the verifier stores as well as the round trip time. Once the n rounds are elapsed, the verifier checks the validity of the answers, i.e., the n rounds, the protocol succeeds. Initialization, execution and decision steps are presented below and a general view is provided in Fig. 2.

Fig 2: Distance Bounding Protocol

Initialization. The prover (P) and the verifier (V ) agree on (a) a security parameter n, (b) a timing bound ‘tmax, (c) a pseudo random function P RF that outputs 3n bits, (d) a secret key x.

Execution. The protocol consists of a slow phase and a fast phase.

Slow Phase. P (respectively V ) randomly picks a nonce NP (respectively NV ) and sends it to V respectively P). Afterwards, P and V compute P RF (x, NP , NV ) and divide the result into three n-bit registers Q, R0 , and R1 . Both P and V create the function fQ : S ‘ {0, 1} where S is the set of all the bit-sequences of size at most n including the empty sequence. The function fQ is parameterized with the bit-sequence Q = q1 . . . qn, and it outputs 0 when the input is the empty sequence. For every non-empty bit-sequence Ci = c1 . . . ci where 1 ‘ i ‘ n, the function is defined as fQ(Ci) = Lij=1(cj ‘ qj ).

Fast Phase. In each of the n rounds, V picks a random challenge ci ‘R {0, 1}, starts a timer, and sends ci to P. Upon reception of ci , P replies with ri =Rcii ‘ fQ(Ci) where Ci = c1…ci. Once V receives ri , he stops the timer and computes the round-trip-time ‘ti .

Decis.ion. If ‘ti < ‘tmax and ri = Ri ci’ fQ(Ci) ‘ i ‘ {1, 2, …, n} then the protocol succeeds.

V. SECURITY ANALYSIS

Being resistant to both mafia and distance fraud is the primary goal of a distance bounding protocol. An important lower-bound for both frauds is (1/2) n [6], which is the probability of an adversary who answers randomly to the n verifier’s challenges during the fast phase. However, this resistance is hard to attain for lightweight DB protocols. Therefore, our aim is to design a protocol that is close to this bound for both mafia and distance frauds, without requiring costly operations and an extra final slow phase[5],[2].

A. Mafia Fraud:

A mafia fraud is an attack where an adversary defeats a distance bounding protocol using a man-in-the-middle (MITM) between the verifier and honest tag located outside the prover.

Fig 2(a): Mafia fraud

Among the DB protocols without final slow phase, those achieving the best mafia fraud resistance are round dependent. The idea is that the correct answer at the ith round should depend on the ith challenge and also on the (i-1) previous challenges.

B. Distance Fraud:

A distance fraud is an attack where a dishonest and lonely prover supports to be in the neighborhood of the verifier.

Fig 2(b): Distance Fraud

In mafia fraud, the best protocols in terms of the distance fraud are round dependent. However, round dependency by means of predefined challenges fails to properly resist to distance fraud. Intuitively [9], [7], the higher control over the challenges the prover has, the lower the resistance to distance fraud is. For this reason, our proposal allows the verifier to have full and exclusive control over the challenges.

C. Terrorist Fraud

A terrorist fraud is an attack where an adversary defeats a distance bounding protocol using a man-in-the-middle (MITM) between the reader and a dishonest tag located outside the neighborhood.

Such that the latter actively helps the adversary to maximize her attack success probability, without giving to her any advantage for future attacks. Terrorist fraud attack is not considered in our proposed system.

Fig 2(c): Terrorist Fraud

VI. PREVENTION TECHNIQUE OF ATTACKS

Different methods are used for prevention of these attacks. In the distance fraud the location will not be sufficient because the verifier does not trust the prover [5]. He wants to prevent a fraud prover claiming to be closer. Different type’s location mechanism that prevent these attacks are:

A. Measure the signal strength

Node can calculate distance from other node by sending it a message and see how long it takes to return. If response authenticated, fraud node can lie about being further away than it is, but not closer. Sender includes strength of transmitted message in message; Receiver compares received strength to compute distance.

B. Measure the Round Trip Time

Another solutions measure the round trip time. The round trip time is the time required for exchange a packet from a specific destination and back again. In this protocol the verifier sends out a challenge and starts a timer. After receiving the challenge, the prover does some elementary computations to construct the response. The response is sent back to the verifier and the timer is stopped. Multiplying this time with the propagation speed of the signal gives the distance.

C. Measure the Consecutive Time

Timing based input information followed by consecutive timing measurement provides more optimistic approach in authenticating the user. The verifier uses the time elapsed between sending its nonce and receiving the prover’s rapid response to compute its distance from the prover, and then verifies the authenticated response when it receives it. Our proposed system provides a proof breaks down concept if the prover is dishonest.

D. Validation and Identification

i. Validate the authentication information provided by the user

ii. Extract the MAC address to validate the request origin location

iii. Consecutive Execution time duration on the request processing.

VII. CIPHER BLOCK RIVEST ALGORITHM

Cipher Block Rivest Algorithm is used in our proposed system for encryption process. Fast symmetric block cipher. Same key used for encryption and decryption algorithm. Plaintext and cipher text are fixed-length bit sequences.

In cryptography, RC% is a symmetric-key block cipher notable for its simplicity. Designed by Ronald Rivest in 1994. RC stands for ‘Rivest Cipher’, or alternatively ‘Ron’s Code’ (compare RC2 and RC4). A key feature of RC5 is the use of data-dependent rotations; one of the goals of RC5 was to prompt the study and evaluation of such operations as a cryptographic primitive. RC5 also consists of a number of modular additions and exclusive OR (XOR). The general structure of the algorithm is a Fiestel-like network. The encryption and decryption routines can be specified in a few lines of code. The key schedule, however, is more complex, expanding the key using an essentially one-way function with the binary expansions of both e and the golden sources of nothing up my sleeve numbers.

The RC5 is basically denoted as RC5-w/r/b where

w = word size in bits,

r=number of rounds,

b= number of 8-bit in the key.

Cryptanalysis 12-round RC5 (with 64-bit blocks) is susceptible to a differential attack using 244 chosen plaintexts. 18-20 rounds are suggested as sufficient protection. Block Ciphers plaintext is divided into blocks of fixed length and every block is encrypted one at a time. The number of rounds can range from 0 to 255, while the key can range from 0 to 2040 bits in size [7]. Cipher text involves

C = E (PUB, E (PUA, M)

Cipher text can be generated by the encryption of public key with the private key associated in the source place. De-cipher text involves

M = D (PUA, D (PRB, C))

Actual message can be generated by public and private key followed by the consecutive timings.

BLOCK CIPHER

Defined as a cryptosystem with large plaintext space

P=C=Z2n

Typically n’64 bits

Round structure

Apply same function on the intermediate cipher text repeatedly Nr time.

Use different key Ki defined from K on ith round.

Pseudo code 1

1. INPUT: plaintext x, key K

2. OUTPUT: cipher text y=ek(x)

3. ASSUME: round function g, last function h, key scheduling procedure Ki

w0=x

For i = 0 to Nr-1

wi = g (wi-1,Ki)

y = g (wNr-1, K Nr-1)

VIII. EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPARISON

A. Error free environment

The first lightweight DB protocol was proposed by Hancke and Kuhn’s [11] in 2005. Its simplicity and suitability for resource-constrained devices have promoted the design of other DB protocols based on it [2], [13]. All these protocols share the same design: (a) there is a slow phase4 where both prover and verifier generate and exchange nonces, (b) the nonces and a keyed cryptographic hash function are used to compute the answers to be sent (resp. checked) by the prover (resp. verifier). Below, we provide the main characteristics of each of these protocols, especially the technique they use to compute the answers.

a) Mafia Fraud

Mafia Fraud

a) Tradeoff with memory constraint

Hancke and Kuhn’s protocol [11]. The answers are extracted from two n-bit registers such that any of the n 1-bit challenges determines which register should be used to answer.

Avoine and Tchamkerten’s protocol [2]. Binary trees are used to compute the prover answers: the verifier challenges define the unique path in the tree, and the prover answers are the vertex value on this path. There are several parameters impacting the memory consumption: l the number of trees and d the depth of these trees. It holds d ‘ l = n, where n is the number of rounds in the fast phase.

Trujillo-Rasua, Martin and Avoine’s protocol [12]. This protocol is similar to the previous one, except that it uses particular graphs instead of trees to compute the prover answers.

b) Distance Fraud

Mafia Fraud

b)Tradeoff without memory constraint

Kim and Avoine’s protocol [13]. This protocol, closer to the Hancke and Kuhn’s protocol [11] than [12], uses two registers to define the prover answers. An important additional feature is that the prover is able to detect a mafia fraud thanks to predefined challenges, that is, challenges known by both prover and verifier. The number of predefined challenges impacts the frauds resistance: the larger, the better the mafia fraud resistance, but the lower the resistance to distance fraud.

Mafia and distance fraud analysis in a noise free environment can be found in [12]. Fig. 3(a) and Fig. 3(b) show that the resistance to mafia fraud and distance frauds respectively for the five considered protocols in a single chart. For each of them, the configuration that maximizes its security has been chosen: this is particularly important for AT and KA2 because different configurations can be used.

In case of draw between two protocols, the one that is the less memory consuming is considered as the best protocol. Trade-off chart represents for every pair (x, y) the best protocol among the five considered ones. Fig. 4(a) shows that our protocol offers a good trade-off between resistance to mafia fraud and resistance to distance fraud, especially when high security level against distance fraud is expected. In other words, our protocol is better than the other considered protocols, except when the expected security levels for mafia fraud and distance frauds are unbalanced, which is meaningless in common scenarios.

Another interesting comparison takes into consideration the memory consumption of the protocols. Indeed, for n rounds of the fast phase, AT requires 2n+1 -1 bits of memory, which is prohibitive for most pervasive devices.

We can therefore compare protocols that require a linear memory with respect to the number of rounds n. For that, we consider a variant of AT [10], denoted n/3 trees of depth 3 instead of just one tree of depth n. The resulting trade-off chart shows that constraining the memory consumption considerably reduces the area where AT is the best protocol, but it also shows that our protocol provides the best trade-off in this scenario as well.

IX. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

The time stamp based distance bounding protocol has been introduced in this paper which provides the optimistic approach to identify the relay attack. This protocol deals with both mafia and distance frauds with less computer memory and additional computation. The analytical expressions and experimental results show that the new protocol provides best trade-off between mafia and distance fraud resistance. Such a performance is achieved based on the round dependent design where the prover is unable to guess any challenge with a probability higher than the 1/2.

For computer-intensive systems, our consecutive timed response provides significantly better throughput for a broad variety of scenarios, including the mafia fraud, distance fraud and terrorist fraud attack. The encryption and decryption can use more than one different algorithm on each round of the resistance, which provides more confidential services in the system.

REFERENCES

[1] Ronalndo Trujillo-Rasua, Benjamin Martin, and Gildas Avoine,’Disrance-bounding facing both mafia and distance frauds,’IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications,vol 9, May 2014.

[2] Sangho Lee, Jin Seok Kim,Sung Je Hong, and Jong Kim, ‘Distance Bounding with Delayed Responses,’ IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 16, september 2012.

[3] Kapil Singh,’Security in RFID Networks and Protocols,’ International Journal of Information and Computation Technology, vol.3, pp.425-432, 2013.

[4] Ammar Alkassar,Christian Stuble,’Towards Secure IFF:Preventing Mafia Fraud Attacks,’Sirrix AG security technologies, Germany Saarland University,D-66123 Saarbrucken,Germany.

[5] Srikanth S P,Sunitha Tiwari,’A Survey on Distance Bounding Protocol for attacks and frauds in RTLS system,’International journal of Engineering and Innovative technology(IJEIT),vol.3,April 2014.

[6] J.H.Conway,’on numbers and games,’AK Peters,Ltd., 2000.

[7] Claus P.Schnorr,’Efficient signature generation by smart cards,’Journal of Cryptology, vol.4, no.3, pp. 161-174, 1991.

[8] Capkun, Srdjan and EI Defrawy,Karim and Tsudik, Gene. GDB: Group Distance Bounding Protocols, arXiv.org, 2010.

[9] S.Brands and D.Chaum, ‘Distance-bounding protocols,’in 1993 EUROCRYPT.

[10] G.Avoine, C.Lauradoux,B.Martin,How secret-sharing can defeat terrorist fraud, The 4th ACM Conference on Wireless Network Security,WiSec’11,pp.145-156.

[11] G.Avoine ‘RFID, Distance Bounding Multiple Enhancement’, progress in cryptography, pp.290- 307.

[12] J. Munilla, A.Painado, ‘Distance Bounding Ptotocol for RFID enhanced by using void challenges and analysis in noise channels’, compute 8(2008) 1227- 1232.

[13] J. Kelsey, B. Schneier, and D. Wagner. Protocol interactions and the chosen protocol attack. In Proc. 5th International Workshop on Security Protocols, volume 1361 of LNCS, pages 91{104. Springer, 1997.

Center Parcs

Strategy

A company has to stand for something in order to have success. You need to know where it is at this certain point and where you want the company to be in the future. To reach those goals in the future you have to have a strategy and so does Center Parcs.

The mission of Center Parcs is to let the guests experience a moment of happiness in a save and stimulating place. This is being created with the help of caring employees.

Their vision is that people need a place to connect with their friends and family. Therefore Center Parcs tries to offer a place where they can enjoy the simpel but yet special things in life and give the oppurtunity to just be yourself.

In the near future Center Parcs will be building new parcs. In 2015 they hope to open Center Parcs Vienne and in 2016 Village Nature (nearby Disneyland Paris). Center Parcs is innovative in the designs of their cottages. Some new cottages for example are tree houses, eden cottages and boats.

In the longer term they want to further develop their innovative desings and renovate the already existing parcs. In this way they want to distinguish themselves from the competition, offering short holidays which can not be found anywhere else. With this they want to be an inspiration towards their guests and be an recognizable ‘brand’.

Center Parcs’ most important visitors are families with children 0-11, this group accounts for 49% of the visitors, followed by families with children 12-18 and adults 18-54 with both 21%. Given the 49% of the families with children 0-11 it is presumable that this is the target group of Center Parcs. Center Parc is with 3.1 million visitors per year the European market leader. 1.3 million visitor have a Dutch nationality, this makes them the best represented nationality. Followed by the German with 806.000 visitors. The French account for 589.000 visitor and 372.000 are Belgian. the last 12.400 visitors have other nationalities.

The three biggest competitors of Center Parcs are Landal Greenparks, Dinseyland Paris and Roompot.

Landal Greenparks advertises the nature in their parks as well as Center Parcs. Landal Greenparks also focuses on young families and they offer many activities, outdoor and indoor. The parks are located in the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium and therefore they aim for the same group geographically speaking.

Disneyland Paris has several hotels in and surrounding the attractionpark. Each hotel has his own theme and atmosphere. They offer a attractionpark with mutiple activities and focusses on extended families, with this families with smaller childern.

Roompot also has parks in the Netherlands, Germany, Belgium and France. They also offer facilities for business people. Roompot’s parks are also located in nature enviroments and they advertise with the possibilty to cycling and hiking.

They are competitors of Center Parcs because they share the same target group. They focus on young families and are geographically all located in the same locations. They offer the same facilities and Landal and Roompot are cheaper than Center Parcs. This makes them competitors of Center Parcs.

3. Structure

Every organisation needs some sort of organisational structure in order to function. An orginasational chart shows how tasks are divided between departments and individuals. At Center Parcs they work according to the line and staff organsation. The most traditional organisational structure is a line organisation. Authority and accountibilty travel downwards from the top to the bottom. There is a strong hierarchy between the department managers and the department employees. One of the function at the top of the charts is the function of General Manager, the departments at Center Parcs all have to report back to the General Manager. Center Parcs has the following departments: Safety & Pool department, Leisure department, Technical department and the Houskeeping department.

In a line-and-staff organisation there are staff departments which support the line departments. In the staff departments there are experts in specific areas who advice and inform the line management in that specific area. The overall responsibilty belongs to the line manager and the staff departments are responsible for qaulitative advice. Center Parcs has two staff departments: Human Resource department and Finance department.

As you can see in de organogram up top the top manager is the General Manager, after that follows the manager of the department, after that the floor manager of the department and at the end of the chain comes de rest of the staff in that department.

If an employee of the Kids Club faces a problem he goes to the the Floor manager of the Kids Club. If the Floor manager cannot solve this problem alone he turns to the manager of the Leisure department. The Leisure manager reports the problem to the General Manager. If the Leisure mananger needs financial advice, he can contact the Finance department. If he has a question for the Human Resource department, he can also contact them.

As a Finance Manager you fulfil a management position as well as a executive position and carrie the responsibility for business analysis and reports of the park. He manages the budget of the park and pro-actively assist the other staff of the Management Team to meet set targets and budgets. Besides the responsibilty for an appropiate administrative organisation and internal control, the Finance Manager is also the financial oracle for the entire park organisation. Moreover the Finance Manager is partly responsible for the business implementation of the park, excluding the Horece & Retail Food activities.

5. Staff

Center Parcs has 11.600 employees of which 7.000 full-time and 4.600 are in part-time or other employement. Of all those employees, 66% is female and 34% is male.

19 % of the employees is under the age of 25. Most of the employees are between the ages of 25 and 45, in fact a large 51% is. Followed by the second biggest group of people over 45 with a 21%. Which leaves 9% left for the employees over 55.

The nationality that is most represented at Center Parcs are the French with 4960 employees. Followed by the Dutch with 2965 employees. Belgium accounts for 2511 employees, Germany for 926 employees and Spain accounts for another 238 employees.

The management functions are almost equally divided with 55% male managers and 45% female manangers. The techinal part is mostly in hand of the male employees and female employees overrule the housekeeping and reception departments.

Most of the employees of Center Parcs are native speakers. Especially in the higher positions, as for example the management positions. In those positions it is also expected that you speak more different languages, such as English, German, French or Dutch. All the positions in which you have contact with the customers it is important that you are a native speaker and in some cases it might even be necessary that you speak a little of the other lanuages. In the jobs such as housekeeping and maintenance it is not necessary to be a native speaker. Those jobs can also be performed by expats, since contact with the customer is exceptional.

7. Skills

A good hospitality performance will make your guests feel welcomed in your company, in this case in the park. As a company you should do everything within your power to let your guests have the most comfortable experience. This is important in all sorts of companies but even more so for companies within the hospitality industry such as Center Parcs. They can dustinguish themselve from the other competitors by offering quality service. Guests come to enjoy their holiday and with this comes a good experience of the park. For a stay at a bungalow park a big part of this experience is created by the behavior of the staff. Therefore ‘customer service’ skills is a requirement for the staff.

A good way to accomplish this is by offering good working conditions and rewarding them to the employees to keep them motivated. The employees will emit this positivity to the customers, which hopefully results in happier customers. Another way is by offer employees a training to learn about ‘customer service’ skills and how to put them into practice.

Another important point is that if problems occur the staff needs to respond professionally, the problems needs to be solved according the situation and immediately.

Waiting times are need to be kept as short as possible and the staff needs to be on time for an appointment or meeting.

Enviromentally speaking there should always be enough and nearby parking space. The guests have to easily find their way around the property. In smaller businesses like a restaurant or caf?? this is not essential, but at Center Parcs the guests have to be able to find their way around the park, to the reception, their bungalow, the pool etc.

The company has to have a corperate identity. The guests have to recognise the staff by the cloting and so on. The uniforms need to be appropiate and clean. The hospitality performance can also be improved by greeting the guests at the welcome and the receptionist or spokesperson for the park needs to be a native speaker and preferably be fluent in English, even better would be if they speak several languages.

And at last the facilities should be in working order and clean.

Center Parcs askes you to respond immediately in case of a complain, you can file a complain in the park so the management gets the chanche to solve it right away. If you feel like your complain is not handled accordingly you can send an e-mail to ‘[email protected]’ or send a letter by mail, this can be done untill a month after leaving the park. Still not sattisfied? Then you can file a complain to the ‘Geschillencommissie Recreatie’ and they will look at it, this can be done untill three months after leaving the park.

This shows that Center Parcs always tries to solves problems immediately and if that cannot be done, the guests are given mutiple oppurtunities to complain. That they try to solve it immediately and the chanches the guests get to file a complain are according to the hospitality performance.

This picture shows that Center Parcs has clear indication signs to lead the guests around the park. the numbers of the cottages are reffered to as well as all the other facilities in the park.

Center Parcs got elected top employer 2014. They have be scored on 5 different critertia: primary conditions, secundary conditions, training & development, career perspectives and cultural management. The fact that they received this quality mark shows that employees have good working conditions. Happy employees results, most of the time, in happy customers.

This picture show the corporate identity. Most of the employees wear a blue shirt with a Center Parcs logo on the sleeve, this is very recognizable for the guests and in this way they will know who to approach. The logo can be found around the park, on the internetsite etc. which also cnotributes to the corporate identity.

If you would like to become a receptionist at Center Parcs in the Netherlands, there are a few job requirements you need to meet. One of them is that you have sufficient oral and written knowledge of the English and German language. This is to make sure you can help guests from different nationalities and that contributes to the hospitality performance.

Health and safety – Capstan construction site in Kutno, Poland: online essay help

This report is written on 07/02/2015 following Health and Safety inspection of Capstan construction site in Kutno, Poland. Capstan project involves approximately three hundred people working on ap. 20 000 square meters, the aim is to build a snack factory. The factory will include main production building, utilities building, waste water treatment plant and other facilities.

The factory main building is already erected, wrapped with sandwich panels. The project has already reached its milestone but there is still a lot of works performed on site. Most of them, inside of the building. Civils, mechanical works, pipe installation (hot works) and Manufacturing machinery installation are main activities at the moment. There are also pressure and other tests carried on. The works are being performed by 8 contractors and their subcontractors. Each has at least one works supervisor and one first aider with certification. Construction Management company with 25 engineers staff is managing the project on the spot and supervising all the works.

Executive Summary

Inadequate access and egress routes inside of the main building make it a high-traffic area with too many pedestrians and mobile elevating work platforms or forklifts passing by every hour. Outside is not bad, pedestrian paths and a road for vehicles are both separated and kept clean. There are signs informing about speed limit and a ‘zebra’ straps marked for crossing the road.

Every task must be first planned and introduced in a method statement including time and equipment used (Occupational Health and Safety Regulations 2007),

Despite a large amount of time spent on trainings, working at height is an issue to be solved. Some of workers were wearing their safety harnesses incorrectly, or did not anchor themselves while working. Mobile Elevating Work Platforms should be operated only by certified operators. There was equipment out of date for inspection found on site. Working at heights is one of the biggest killers in construction, therefore there must be an extra care and awareness along all the people involved.

Hot works is a big issue on this contruction site. Cutting, grinding and welding are only allowed when Permit-to-work has been issued. Permits are clear instructions and a source of information for both workers and supervisors, yet lack of firefighting accessories, lack of fire watch after works are completed and poor housekeeping are everyday threat.

Cabling and electrical works should also be improved. Many cables were found lying without protection on the floors easy to be damaged by MEWP, they are a trip hazard for people and, if destroyed, may cause an electric shock.

Main findings of the inspection

Working at height

There are MEWP (mobile elevation work platforms), scaffolds and ladders used every day on site. Despite of a monthly inspection, some of the above equipment was found damaged and missing manufacture manual instructions. Before using MEWP, all the documentation of each machine must be checked (Ustawa z dnia 21 grudnia 200r o dozorze technicznym Dz.U.z 2013, poz. 963) according to Polish law. Also, this documentation should be on the workplace for all times attached to the machine. All the works at heights, including MEWP are marked as a dangerous zone. Workers must use a safety tape to barrier they area and protect people from falling objects.

All works at height must be performed with fall protection system. International (Amendment of the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulation 1998/2005) and Polish (Rozporzadzenie Ministra Pracy I Polityki Socjalnej, 26/09/1997 no. 169, 1650) laws are clear about this matter. To prevent falling and death risk, no worker is allowed to work at heights without ‘harness training’. Workers are using safety harness when working above 1 meter height. This PPE must be not only visually inspected each time before and after use but also annually checked by a proper company / third party organization. This inspection should result with a mark or certificate as ‘good to use’. Without such proof, no harness should be used.

Mobile scaffolds must be erected, used and maintained according to its design and manufacturer instruction to prevent displacement and collapse ( ILO R175, art.17) Only after an inspection made by a certified engineer, works on scaffold are allowed. Workers should always check by themselves if the scaffold is levelled, wheels are blocked and authorised to use by an inspector.

Lack of anchoring, safety harness worn too loose or damaged, missing parts of scaffolds are one of the most common problems found during inspection. The management must take care of these matters every day putting pressure on daily inspections of the equipment, placing barriers where applicable and wearing safety harness according to manufacturer instructions. The indirect costs of WAT accident may be crucial for an organisation, moreover, potencial loss of a human life and living with responsibility of somebody’s death are higher cost than any money.

Fire

Fire is one of the main dangers on construction site. Along with WAT, it can cost life, time ‘ dalay, loss of property, materials, equipment. It is much cheaper and easier to prevent fire than maintain the workplace after fire occure.

When hot works performed, there must be Permit- to- work system introduced. Also, ongoing supervision is a must in order to execute all the actions/ preventive measurements included in a hot work, method statement, risk assessment, safety plan and a legislation of a country we work in.

Before working, all the flammable materials must be removed, area should be barried and marked as a Hot Works Zone/Workshop. Fire blankets and extinguishers must be always on the work place and gas cylinders kept properly: stored vertically, minimum 10 meters from the flame, secured in order not to fall. Works can be performed after supervisor check the workplace comparing to measures and information from a Hot Work Permit.

Electricity

Every activity with using electricity must be supervised. Labels, LOTO procedures, Work Permit, are one of the ways to avoid shock, death and burns. Only certified electricians and engineers should have access to life electricity. All the cables and electrical tools must be checked by an authorised inspector once a month, and labelled according to a ‘sticker system’. Each month has its own colour and all the equipment missing current label is being removed from a work place immediately. In order to avoid damage and tripping, all the cables lying on the floor must be protected.

Welfare

The temperature inside of the building was less than 10C. Hand function drops very fast in the cold. Workers are forced to perform activities with safety gloves which are not warm enough for them, and tend to restrict hand movement. Workers are also at risk of cold stress injuries. According to International Labour Organisation (Ambient Factors in the Workplace, paragraph 8.4.) the employer has a responsibility to lower the risks connected with cold workplace. The temperature held in the work area is unacceptable.Workers must be provided with more heating.

Moreover, the lighting went on and off during the inspection making it very difficult for people to work, and creating a very dangerous Environment.

With that amount of traffic and works at heights, problem with lightening is a huge risk. Tripping and falling along with collisions are more likely to happen, especially during late/night shifts.

A Lack of breakfast break was also noted, workers are only allowed to have a lunch break. This is inadequate, especially taking under consideration the low temperatures in the workplace.

Housekeeping

Housekeeping standards aren’t bad, but can be higher. Tripping and slipping hazards should be taken under consideration and removed.

Chemical Substances

Chemical substances must be stored properly, marked with safety signs, labelled and kept as the manufacturer recommends. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) should be attached in the area and available for everyone involved to read.

Conclusions

The amount of supervisors on site would be enough if not for a poor safety culture among engineers. Health and Safety matters are only HSE department problem according to many people on site. Safety should be everyone responsibility and priority.

Working at heights must be taken seriously at all times, ongoing inspections of MEWP, scaffolds, laders and fall arrest PPE is very important, sharing awareness throughout contractors by trainings should be carried out.

Fire is a grate cost in many dimensions. Therefore, Hot Works must be done as carefully as possible. The area must be checked before, during and after performing works. This takes less time, than delay and loss caused by fire.

Welfare is a big issue, the organisation must improve lightetnig and rise the temperature in order to avoid workers sick leave payments or legal threats.

All in all, the safety culture and supervision must be improved, Hot Works, Electrical works must be authorised by a Permit- to- Work, WAT supervised. Each activity on site is a potential risk of harm for people working around.

Pesticides

Pesticides are designed to kill, supposedly insects but not humans. Numerous pesticides are sprayed upon crops to keep them glamorous enough until they reach grocery stores and last until consumption. Even though assessing detailed health effects is still a scientific challenge, the accumulated health risks and detriments cannot be completely ignored. These toxins have been developed to eradicate insects but are causing side effects to our health too. The pesticide residues remaining on what we consume each day have proven to be harmful and can be attributed as the source of many untraceable and unexpected health problems in the long run.

While leading a more natural and healthy lifestyle has been under the spotlight in this age of artificialization, pesticide usage could be targeted as a root cause for many chronic diseases and prolonged health effects. The chemical composition of certain pesticides has been discovered to hinder the biochemical processes of vital organs

As soon as a pesticide enters the passageways of the body and comes in contact with any cell, it chemically reacts with its newfound surroundings, lowering the toxicity. These counter effects occur to make it more water soluble and easier to excrete out of the system. The body reacts to each pesticide depending on its chemical structure and properties including its shape, size, electronic charge, and how stable it is, defining how soluble the pesticide will be in different solutions and surroundings. These unique characteristics can determine if the substrate, or the reacting pesticide molecule, can bind onto its complementary receptor site on cells. As electron distribution changes and energy transition states are lowered, chemical reactions via enzymes instigate the formation of products, in this case the catalysis of a biological process.

Enzymes are the proteins present in our body that speed up the reactions taking place within us at a desired rate for life to sustain. The presence of pesticides interrupts the rate of habitual routines that the body performs. Any interruptions or interferences in the midst of these enzymatic processes can trigger a toxic response, acting as an inhibitor to the natural reactions. Homeostasis is disrupted as a result, creating numerous imbalances that cause organs to respond in unpredictable manners.

Sodium bisulfite is one of the ordinary pesticides that prevent the browning and blackening of fresh fruits, vegetables. Known as sodium hydrogen sulfite, has a chemical formula of NaHSO3. Refer to its structural formula in Figure 1. This chemical combination has the properties of readily reacting against dissolved oxygen. In addition, it discharges sulfur dioxide as a byproduct in the presence of water, which inhibits bacterial and fungal growth caused by common chemical reactions (3).

Generally, any foreign substance that goes into the lungs elicits reactions which set off asthma attacks as the airways in the lungs contract and restrict airflow. The presence of pesticides in the respiratory system creates a more hyperactive and aggressive response as the constriction of airways causes bronchiole contractions to occur, causing wheezing and breathlessness. The high level toxicity of pesticides that engulfs the lungs through residues from food puts your respiratory system under enormous stress, which is detrimental to victims of asthma.

Organophosphates are a type of phosphoric acid consisting of the elements phosphorus, carbon, and hydrogen. Refer to the structural formula in Figure 2. Especially seen on fruits we eat every day, organophosphates are repeatedly sprayed on pounds and pounds produce to keep them insect-free enough to catch your eye at the grocery store even though the EPA classifies them to moderate to highly toxic. Tests conducted by the USDA in 2008 found that ‘95% of celery tested contained pesticides, and 85% contained multiple pesticides, 93.6% of apples, 96% of peaches, a single blueberry has residue from 13 different chemicals,’ (HuffPo).

The organic molecule, whose purpose is to function as a neurotoxin to insects has been now discovered as an inhibitor to multiple processes. Since cells aren’t physically connected to one another, the synapses of neuron relay messages to the brain. These ‘bridges’ forming the entire network throughout the body are broken when hit by organophosphates. In the nervous system, the organophosphate is accountable for restraining the flow of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme crucial to nerve transmissions of impulses between our cells or a neurotransmitter. The breaking down of this particular enzyme signals when one transmission is completed and another is ready to begin. Figure 3 displays how the toxin enters the neuron and obstructs its path.

Synthetically composed pesticides in today’s industry are causing health deterioration greatly impacting children at a young age. Children in general are about twice as more vulnerable to intoxication by pesticides as eating and drinking more, they take in more pesticides and toxic chemicals relative to body weight. Their undeveloped organs are unable to filter out hazardous chemicals, which remain in their system and overtime produce a negative effect in several mediums.

The excess buildup of AChE makes young children whose bodies are still in growing stages, extremely susceptible to neurological damage and dysfunction, preempting problems in behavior and cognition. The conditions of an over-stimulated nervous system is the defining neuropathic cause of ADHD, holding about 5.9 million children captive in the United States (CDC 2015).

High percentages of residues present in common foods we eat daily, the vast use of these human-composed toxins is directly unsafe. The exact chemical arrangement of these, have been proved to collide with the cellular functions performed to sustain life within us. While organic foods are considered healthier but also more expensive, currently less than 1% of US farmland has been adopted for implementation of organic farming systems. As we wait for organic farming to amplify and become more affordable, an alternative resolution is the evolution of biopesticides. Recently, the federal government has proposed to increase research in alternate solutions using biotechnology under the National Bio-economy Blueprint. They have given their consent to find microbiological substances and microorganisms to synthesize chemicals replacing toxic pesticides.

Economic Case For Launch Of New Product (Gluten Free Bread)

Managerial Economics Assignment

1.0 Introduction

The purpose of this paper is to present the economic case for the launch of a new product, designated a ‘Gluten Free’ (GF) Bread.

2.0 Domestic economic landscape

“Almost every economy in the modern world falls somewhere along a continuum running from pure market to fully planned” (Investopedia, 2016).

As a developed capitalist nation, the UK’s economic system is technically a mixed economy; a blend of free market with some government interference via regulation of business and industry. That said, the UK is often determined as having a market economy “because we allow market forces to drive the vast majority of activities, typically engaging in government intervention only to the extent it is needed to provide stability” (Investopedia, 2016).

3.0 Market Analysis

“There are several market structures within which firms can operate. The type of structure influences the firm’s behaviour, whether it is efficient, and the level of profits it can generate” (Economics Online, 2016.a).

Market structure refers to the number of firms in the market, their market share, extent of product differentiation, and other features which affect the level of competition, which, as can be seen below, is the main distinguishing factor in market classification.

Picture 1. Market Structures. Source: www.economicsonline.co.uk

Worthington et al (2005) define a market as “an exchange mechanism which brings together buyers and sellers; in essence it is any situation in which someone wishing to buy and someone wishing to sell come together to effect an exchange (demand and supply)”. The domestic Gluten Free (GF) market falls within ‘monopolistic competition’, which is categorised as many firms selling products that are similar but not identical, with firms competing on other factors besides price. The below picture lists the six characteristics of monopolistic competition:

Picture 2. Market Structures. Source: www.simplilearn.com

Monopolistic competition cannot exist unless there is at least a perceived difference among the products, with product differentiation, such as branding, packaging or quality (Spaulding, 2016) acting as the major tool of competition and thus the defining characteristic. That said, differentiation is not so great as to eliminate other goods as substitutes which although close, are classed as ‘imperfect substitutes’.

This availability of close substitute products means that demand is deemed to be ‘elastic’, such that when one firm increases its price beyond a level consumers are willing to pay for it, consumers switch to a competitor with the lowest or lower price and so are said to be sensitive to changes in prices. However, the greater the level of differentiation, the more inelastic demand becomes. This cross-price elasticity (XED) is thus a measure of the responsiveness of demand for good X following a change in the price of a related good Y, and in this instance XED is deemed to be positive. Although bread is a necessity and therefore should be inelastic, “the greater and closer the number of substitutes, the higher the elasticity” (Worthington, 2005) and GF breads falls into this category given its premium pricing and the number of suppliers in the market.

The demand curve in a monopolistic competitive market slopes downward, so as price decreases, the quantity demanded for that good increases, ceteris paribus, creating important implications for firms in this market. The downward slope signifies that these firms have market power allowing them to increase prices without losing all of their customers, by focusing on product differentiation such as branding or advertising (Boundless, 2016).

Picture 3: Monopolistic Competition Demand Curve. Source: yourarticlelibrary.com (2017)

4.0 Gluten Free Market Insight

Demand

According to research by the University of Nottingham, there has been a fourfold increase in the rate of diagnosed cases of coeliac disease over the past two decades, with an estimated three-quarters of people with the disease still undiagnosed (Thorne, 2014). The only treatment for coeliac disease, an autoimmune disease, is a strict lifelong GF diet, eliminating all products containing wheat, barley and rye (The Gluten-Free Agency, 2012).

“New data on the UK GF market shows that market growth is being driven by a number of factors including greater awareness and diagnosis of food allergies, the desire for a healthy lifestyle and increased availability of gluten free foods, brands and solutions” (Donohoe, 2016).

Research from Mintel (2016) reveals that sales of GF foods in 2016 were forecasted to grow 13% reaching £531million, up from an estimated £470m in 2015, with the market reaching estimated sales of £673m by 2020. 33% of Brits had bought or eaten a GF product in the preceding six months.

This impressive double digit market growth (Robinson, 2014) is said to be because of the rise in product innovation giving customers more product choice, with research claiming that 12% of new food products launched in the UK (2015) carried the GF claim, up from 7% in 2011 (Mintel, 2016). Accordingly, demand is forecasted to increase amongst existing consumers with growing availability at mainstream supermarkets a key factor.

That said, the report also suggests that price is the key area holding back further growth with 39% of Brits citing price as a barrier to wider adoption (Axtell, 2016) as free from products are considerably more expensive than standard products, e.g. UK’s leading GF Bakery Brand Genius has a RRP of £2.99 for its bread loaves. This point is important because “the ‘health-halo’ of free from foods is a key driver of uptake and has resulted in a much larger group of users than the limited number of actual or suspected allergy sufferers” (The Gluten-Free Agency, 2012).

Demand in the GF market has thus been bolstered by non-coeliac consumers looking to GF products to either lose weight (24%) or improve their energy levels (28%) (Gibbons, 2014). Indeed, in 2014, the Kantar Worldpanel estimated that 55% of the UK population was buying a free-from product with half of those said to be non-sufferers (Incredible Bakery Company, 2016).

Demand is influenced by a range of independent variables such as price, consumer income, consumer preferences, advertising etc. The impact of Brexit on consumer confidence is essential to consider and a new report on household finances from Lloyds bank says that “the pound’s steep fall since the Brexit vote is raising import costs for the UK and trickling through to higher prices for consumers” (Allen, 2016). However, that said, the report also found that household spending on essentials such as food rose at the fastest pace for almost three years, despite a slowing economy (Blanchflower and Sentence, 2016). Looking ahead it is essential to consider that if inflation continues to rise, it will eat into consumers spending power and subdue consumer confidence, however for the GF market, given the makeup of consumers and the variety of product price points (discussed below and in Picture 4), it is likely that demand will be sufficient to justify new products.

The above data supports the case for increasing demand for GF foods in the short and long term, across an unrestricted consumer base. With a 20% annual growth rate of the GF bakery market this is an enticing prospect pursuant to the proposed new product (Donohoe, 2016).

4.1 Supply

“Pricing is one of the biggest opportunities and one of the greatest challenges a company faces” (Schofield, 2016) and “in the same way that price has a significant effect on the quantity of goods demanded by consumers; it also has a significant effect on the quantity of goods supplied by producers” (UK Essays, 2017).

The goal of the law of supply is to produce the right amount of product to meet consumer demand, while charging the highest price that consumers are willing to pay (Schofield, 2016).

If we look at the market prices of supermarket own brand GF bread below (Picture 4), it is evident that there is a range of pricing from £1.50 to £2.29. However, according to Kantar, branded products account for 70% of spend in the GF category (Donohoe, 2016) with Genius, the number one GF brand in UK holding 27.9% market share, growing at higher than market rate of 25.7% versus 16.1% year-on-year for the market. With Genius bread costing consumers £2.99 a loaf, this signals a willingness by consumers to pay premium prices for the right brand, signifying that with a concerted effort on brand differentiation, a company entering the GF market can in the long run set high prices in the face of cheaper substitutes and still maintain market share.

Picture 4 Prices for GF Products. Source: Coeliac UK.

As with demand, there are numerous factors influencing supply apart from price; that is the costs of production or supplying the products. Such resources include:

fixed factors which do not change as output is increased or decreased: premises, factories and capital equipment, and
variable factors that do change with output: typically labour, energy, and raw materials directly used in production.

The current economic climate is turning quite hostile for manufacturers. With the pound’s steep fall since Brexit, UK companies will continue to face rising import costs on food and fuel as inflation climbs further in 2017 (Allen, 2016.a). According to the Office for National Statistics (2017), “prices for materials and fuels paid by UK manufacturers for processing (input prices) rose 15.8% on the year to December 2016 and 1.8% on the month…largely as a result of sterling depreciation and a recovery in global crude oil prices”.

The two main relevant imported commodities for GF bread are rice (for rice flour) and oil. The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations Cereal price index predicts that “subdued global trade in rice on account of lower demand from Far Eastern buyers” in combination with “world rice production forecast now at an all-time high of 499 million tonnes” will suppress rice prices (FAO, 2017).

Picture 5: International Rice Prices. Source: AMIS 2017

However, the FAO Vegetable Oil Price Index shows that low global inventory levels and protracted supply tightness continue to bolster palm oil prices and as such this variable has a key bearing on future costs and therefore the price to consumers.

Picture 6. Food Commodity Price Indices. Source: FAO.org (2017)

5.0 Scale of Output

The fundamental principles of production relate closely to time periods when the firm adjusts its productive capabilities:

1) the ‘short run’: a production process that uses at least one fixed input e.g. capital such as factory, where costs are both fixed and variable;

2) the ‘long-run’: a production process in which all inputs and costs are variable, and capacity can be altered to maximise profits.

“In the short run, a monopolistically competitive firm maximizes profit or minimizes losses by producing that quantity that corresponds to when marginal revenue (MR) equals marginal cost (MC). If average total cost (ATC) is below the market price, then the firm will earn an economic profit” (Spaulding, 2017).

A firm making profits in the short run will nonetheless only break even in the long run, because as new firms enter the market, demand will decrease and average total cost will increase (Wikipedia, 2017).

Picture 7. Monopolistic Competition Short-Run Profit. Source: Spaulding (2017)

As a firm expands its scale of operations, it is said to move into its long run. Businesses that can lower average costs by increasing scale of operation are said to have economies of scale, with cost per unit of output generally decreasing with increasing scale as fixed costs are spread out over more units of output.

“Because the percentage change in output exceeds the percentage change in factor inputs used, then, although total costs rise, the average cost per unit falls as the business expands”.

“This represents an improvement in productive efficiency and can give a business a competitive advantage in a market”. (Riley, 2017)

The consumer is also eligible to benefit if reduced costs are passed on in lower prices (Worthington et al, 2005).

Picture 8 Economies of Scale in the Long Run. Source: Riley (2017)

Provided the long run average total cost curve (LRAC) is declining, then economies of scale are being exploited (Riley, 2017) beyond which is diseconomies of scale. In terms of the GF Bakery market, no data is identified to inform range of outputs for increasing returns to scale.

Economies of scale are a very effective barrier to entry. Incumbent firms operating at a lower cost than a potential new entrant will compromise the newcomer’s ability to compete effectively at a small scale of output, since higher prices will need to be charged to cover costs. This is a key consideration for the GF market as it’s dominated by established big brands, and costs of production are very high due to:

Importation of vast number of raw materials in small batches
Quality assurance supervision
Smaller production plants with less automation
Higher staffing levels.

Source: Lucinda Bruce-Gardyne, founder of Genius Gluten Free (Foods Matter, 2015).

6.0 Macroeconomic Policy Considerations

“Governments often intervene in their economies in an attempt to maintain economic stability” (Grimsley, 2016).

Governments implement an expansionary fiscal policy to encourage growth through increased spending for goods/services which increases demand thereby increasing production and raising employment. Taxes can also be decreased. On the other hand, if it wants to slow the economy down, the government will engage in contractionary policy by decreasing spending and increasing taxes.

According to PwC (2016), UK economic growth following Brexit is projected to slow which will mean higher public borrowing, but a recession in 2017 is not expected.

“Living standards are also likely to fall meaning declining growth of employment. Furthermore, weak sterling and rising inflation will erode real wages. The Resolution Foundation forecasts growth of real earnings at around, or below, zero in the second half of 2017. High inflation will also aggravate the freeze on the nominal value of welfare benefits”. (FT.com, 2016)

A good sign for new small businesses however, is that the Chancellor pledged £400 million to be injected into venture capital funds via the British Business Bank (a government-owned business development bank for small businesses) which will then be invested into growing UK companies.

“Venture capital investment is vital for small and medium sized businesses who are often unable to access more traditional funding sources” (KWM, 2016).

7.0 Conclusion

The macroeconomic factors described above signal contrasting economic forces acting upon both the consumer and producer in the near future. Consumer spending is forecasted to be depressed with lower disposable incomes coming up against obdurate rising food prices. However, the target market, GF consumers who mainly purchase out of necessity but also out of lifestyle choice across all consumer segments, will likely demonstrate rising demand and a willingness to pay premium prices (Watrous, 2016). As a new business looking to launch a new product, the GF market is yet to mature and product innovation is driving demand. The general economic outlook in light of Brexit is an obvious concern and rising costs of imports is a key consideration however, with the government’s recent commitment to support investment in small firms, the economic case for this venture seems sound.

15.2.2017

Honour and identity in Pride and Prejudice: online essay help

In ‘Pride and Prejudice,’ the mother, Mrs Bennet, becomes a caricature of motherhood, desiring for her daughters first and foremost a “secure” marriage—by which she means one which is monetarily advantageous or raises the family’s social standing. Her primary objective following the first ball at the local assembly rooms, is to show off that her daughter Jane had three dances with Mr Bingley, quite overtly to Mrs Lucas, even putting on a show of pity for Caroline Lucas’s being plain. Mrs Bennet’s monologues are full of the kind of thoughtless juxtapositions of concern for her Lydia’s honour and concern for Lydia’s wedding outfit. She cried about “Such flutterings all over me” but quickly follows it with the direct command “Lydia [is] not to give any directions about clothes”, suggesting it could cause a disaster similar in scale to that of her running off with Mr Wickham. However, even that which could be seen as a positive caring for the daughter’s honour could be a simple act of vanity, worrying that “we will be much talked of”. Her theatricality means that the reader must continually doubt whether anything she says is true t oho she feels. Mrs Bennet first exclaims that she is “sick of Mr Bingley” but six lines later says she “Always knew I should persuade you at last” to visit Mr Bingley such that the Bennet daughters may be introduced.

Though usually unaware of what she is doing, Mrs. Bennet consistently promotes connections threatened by her daughters’ modesty or pride. Early in the novel she forces Elizabeth to defend Darcy by responding at such length to an imagined slight that Elizabeth feels compelled to intervene: “Indeed, mamma, you are mistaken,” said Elizabeth, blushing for her mother.

”You quite mistook Mr. Darcy. He only meant that there was not such a variety of people to be met with in the country as in town, which you must acknowledge to be true.”

This defence anticipates the broader support of Darcy which Elizabeth undertakes toward the end of the novel and it presents Mrs. Bennet as a useful, though inadvertent, instructor. Unwittingly, Mrs. Bennet offers her eldest daughters a flattering contrast. Darcy assures Elizabeth in his explanatory letter, that her and Jane failing to act like their mother has reflected very positively on their prospects.

Mrs Reed’s treatment of Jane is what is often presented as the source of Jane’s anger or desire to rebel, the memories of Mrs Reed and her abusive son John erupting in an incendiary manner, common with imagery of fire throughout the novel. The position she places Jane in the household does not belong to either the family since “she is not a gentleman’s son” nor do the majority of the servants look kindly on her. In fact, Abbot considers Jane even below her status in the household, since she does “no work for her due”. From the beginning of the novel, Jane is made to suffer from isolation which mirrors the very same isolation of Bertha, Rochester’s wife and prisoner. Jane very noisily and with much resistance suffers her punishments wanting “Escape from insupportable oppression” however Helen teaches her at Lowood that by submitting to punishment and taking it silently, as she does when Miss Scatcherd canes her in front of the whole school and she stifles tears, does she claim the most power. This paradox, whereby submission causes a gaining of agency, is one that Jane wrangles with and never fully accepts shown by her not being able to trust in a god who loves her, yet one that she learns to value once she is admonished by Mr Brocklehurst and yet receives the support of all her peers and teachers.

Wanting to identify with high society is a facet of Clarissa’s insecurity about her identity, and how she fits in, and therefore whether she should conform to society’s expectations of her. This cause a real feeling of isolation as she remains trapped between different lifestyle and ultimately struggles to be completely content with the path she has chosen. Highlighted by her marriage with Richard Dalloway, a politician, who cannot even say ‘I love you’ to his wife. He is by no means unloving rather showing affection through flowers and gifts, but Clarissa has chosen for herself an incredibly conventional marriage. Reminded by the arrival of Peter Walsh, she has repressed significant desires and as a result “had the oddest sense of being herself invisible…being Mrs Richard Dalloway.” Peter presents himself in opposition to Richard, as a “bucaneer” who was an “adventurer, reckless…swift and dareing”. She demonstrates restraint within her marriage, and the meeting with Peter Walsh evokes sadness at what could have been, since she cries when Peter calls her “the perfect hostess”, summarising the domestic role she has taken up in this life. Nonetheless, she has entirely constructed this obdurate alternate reality with Peter who is in truth lame: he has his own faltering relationship with Daisy, he criticises everything, such as the British in India, yet comes from an entirely mainstream and ignorant perspective and he fidgets with a pen knife.

8.1.2019

Core Jewish beliefs – afterlife

The Jewish belief revolves around the concept of the afterlife. We have the Torah which teaches us mitzvos and aveiros. Mitzvos are in order to teach us what is the correct way to live our lives so that we can then move on to the next stage of our life: heaven. Aveiros are telling us what not to do; they are incorrect and when we do them, we will be sent to Gahenem after we die. This world was created in order for us, the Jewish people, to conquer the test that God has given us of doing right or wrong. The obdurate actions that we do in this world determine our destiny in the world to come either for reward or punishment.

To be Jewish you technically need to believe in the afterlife; that your deeds in this world will cause you to be rewarded or punished in the afterlife, because otherwise there isn’t any inclination to follow the Torah. However, many Jews don’t believe in it; yet we were still raised with good morals, therefore we do the mitzvos anyways. Moreover, Hashem created this world to test us because He didn’t want to just give everyone the reward. He decided that people need to deserve it so he created olam hazeh. So, in this world, earth, everyone was created in order to move on to the better world, olam habah. We have a choice; either follow Hashem’s Torah and do His mitzvos to get into the world to come or do bad things and go to Gahenem. Depending on the person, each one will truly get what’s coming to them. However, Hashem wants everyone to go to heaven, but sometimes people choose material things/pleasure in this world over the greater good in the world to come.

This view on the afterlife is hard to believe because we have no physical evidence that the afterlife exists. We have a blind faith that we have to behave and follow a set of rules because the world after this one’s apparently pleasurable and unfathomable or incomparable to anything in this world. However, in Daniel (12:2) it states, “וְרַבִּ֕ים מִיְּשֵׁנֵ֥י אַדְמַת־עָפָ֖ר יָקִ֑יצוּ אֵ֚לֶּה לְחַיֵּ֣י עוֹלָ֔ם וְאֵ֥לֶּה לַחֲרָפ֖וֹת לְדִרְא֥וֹן עוֹלָֽם.” That means, “Many of those that sleep in the dust of the earth will awake, some to eternal life, others to reproaches, to everlasting abhorrence.” This implies that once you die, you, your neshama, will be judged. Those judged favorably will live forever and those judged bad will be punished.

The non Jewish belief on the afterlife depends on if u believe in g-d or not. The typical atheist believes that they were born with no specific purpose and the world just happened. That lead them to believe that there is no afterlife and there are no consequences for their actions. But other religions that do have a g-d for example Christianity, since its a break off of an Abrahamic religion, also believe in the afterlife and that you are judged for what you do. Additionally, to them, they also have to listen to JC and if they do then they will go to heaven. This shows the Christian belief involving the afterlife.

The Jewish belief on olam haba is that its filled with unbelievable measures of pleasure and everyone’s going to be learning all day. There are 7 levels and on the top level you can learn there, with Hashem, but you can’t see Him of course because we aren’t worthy enough for that. Gahenem though is full of suffering.There are seven levels there too, with the bottom one being the worst. Jews believe that everyone goes to Gahenem just for a little because it’s a cleaning slate for the neshama. However, no one is ever there for more than 11 months. Therefore, we never say Kaddish for a passed one after that extended period of time because kaddish is supposed to elevate one that is in Gahenem.

The non Jewish belief on heaven and Gahenem is that you are at either one for eternity. There are some people that believe in purgatory which is neither good or bad for if you were neither good or bad and if you pass and go there you just walk aimlessly for eternity.

Overall, this world was created as a test for us, the Jewish people, to follow in the way of Hashem. However, if you fail to do so, you will end up in Gahenem. Hashem wants all of us to strive, to be the best we can be because after all, we are in this world to help us get into the better world, olam habah. Hashem doesn’t give anyone a test that they can’t handle. Because at the end of day he wants all of us to be in olam habah, we just need to deserve it first.

8.1.2019

A Separate Peace – John Knowles: college application essay help

A Separate Peace is a fiction book written by the famous American author, John Knowles. Gene Forrester looks back at his former school, Devon, mainly his confusing friendship with his best friend, Finny. The two young men are appeared to have direct inverse viewpoints on the world. Though Finny sees the world as basically agreeable and humane, the skeptical Gene considers the world as overflowing with divisions. Finny’s feeling of culmination attracts individuals to him. However, the novel likewise recommends that he has an untainted method for identifying with the world, one that can’t endure the cruel realities of war.

The themes of “wholeness” and “separateness” keep running all through the novel, with Finny speaking to the previous and Gene the last mentioned. Finny appears to exist in ideal concordance with his general surroundings; a trademark Gene notes over and over when he depicts his companion’s stroll as a “stream.” Finny’s body is by all accounts a single, consistent element, and his body thus is at one with the entire world, floated along by its ebbs and flows and free of pressure from outside powers. This feeling of concordance with the physical world reaches out to Finny’s associations with other individuals. Dissimilar to alternate young men, whom Gene depicts as continually building “Maginot Lines” against their genuine and imaged adversaries, Finny never sets himself against others. Even though he cherishes games, for instance, he comes up short on the drive to separate himself. He declines to give Gene a chance to tell the specialists that he has beaten the school swimming record, and afterward later develops an amusement, blitzball, where nobody wins. Partitioning individuals into classifications, for example, “champs” and “failures” would nullify the valid point of games, in Finny’s eyes: physically communing with the air and sky and connecting with a gathering of different players. For Finny, sports are a demonstration of interfacing, not of separating. Unsurprisingly, every one of the prizes he succeeded at Devon was for sportsmanship, not for athletic ability.

Quality, then again, persistently separates the world into unfriendly and well-disposed camps. In Gene’s eyes, even secondary school sports amusements cover lethal hostilities. Class portrays how he does not confide in different competitors, distinctively envisioning football players “truly keen on pulverizing the life out of one another,” boxers came down within battles to the terrible bug, and tennis balls transforming into projectiles. Though Finny trusts that “when you truly love something, at that point it adores you back,” Gene considers everybody to be a potential adversary—even his closest companion. Quality’s question emerges from the way that he does not just trust that individuals can isolate against each other, yet added that individuals could separate against their extremely selves. He considers Devon to be where everybody has “numerous open faces,” seeming like researchers in the classroom, similar to “blameless outgoing individuals” on the playing field, and like “crooks” in the smoking room. He believes that it is difficult to recognize what anybody may genuinely resemble within, and this uneasiness persuades that Finny harbors a mystery obdurate disdain for him. Through the span of the novel, in any case, Gene comes to understand that his companion’s open and private selves combine into one entire.

While Gene remains wracked with blame over his job in Finny’s mishap and inevitable demise, the novel appears to propose that Finny could not have endured life after Devon. Quality realizes that Finny’s familiar feeling of sympathy would be an obligation on the war zone; he prods him that he would make a horrible warrior since he would be everlastingly befuddling the lines among companion and foe, welcoming the Germans or Japanese to play baseball or coincidentally exchanging regalia with them. In a world unfortunately portrayed by hatred and ruthlessness, Finny’s optimistic perspective of human instinct appears a simple idea more qualified to students than to warriors. Finny himself seems to comprehend this when, for all his emphasis on solidarity and wholeness, he draws an apparent division between his reality and the more prominent truth of the war. The “independent harmony” of the title alludes to Devon, the Eden-like enclave where young fellows can live as guiltless kids. In any case, while the more significant part of the understudies comprehends the division among Devon and whatever is left of the world to be a false one, developed for their enthusiastic advantage, Finny eagerly denies that the war even exists. He compartmentalizes his insight about outside occasions with the goal that he can live entirely and entirely at the time, however as the young men grow up and start enrolling, it turns out to be evident that Finny cannot continue propagating this lie and hope to endure the war.

As Gene takes note of, the various young men of Devon encountered a minute when they got themselves “fiercely hollowed against their general surroundings.” Finny alone “got away from” this destiny—the destiny, that is, of growing up. Finny’s demise, however awful, additionally figures out how to safeguard his honesty, transforming him into an endless image of amicable adolescence.

9.1.2019

The Power Of Persuasion – Animal Farm by George Orwell

Literature And Composition 1H-4

07 December 2017

The Power Of Persuasion

    According to Cathy Benjamin, a reporter for Mental Floss, sixty percent of people can’t go ten minutes without telling a lie (Benjamin 1). Persuasion can be a large part of dishonesty and lying. If you can't convince someone of your lie then they won't believe you. Throughout the past, persuasion and dishonesty has won wars and started them. It has made both friends and enemies alike. So it is obvious that persuasion is a powerful weapon in anyone’s hands. Shiv Khera, an Indian author said “There are good leaders who actively guide and bad leaders who actively misguide. Hence, leadership is about persuasion and presentation.” The novella Animal Farm by George Orwell (1946) is about an animal uprising. Napoleon, a pig from the farm started the book as one of the leaders of the rebellion against power and ended the book with all the power as the clear leader of the farm. He is the kind of leader who actively misguides his followers. You might even call him a dictator. Yet how he keeps his control is due to multiple things that can be rolled into one idea: persuasion. Persuasion, in Napoleon’s case, includes propaganda through Squealer, threats and violence, and changing the past for his benefit.

    The way in which Napoleon, through Squealer, makes use of propaganda proves that propaganda is one way Napoleon keeps control of his followers. Propaganda is a mixture of truth and lies and can be very misleading. In Animal Farm, it is clear that the pigs are smart—smarter than all the other animals. Squealer is one of these. He is Napoleon’s right hoof man and spreader of all propaganda on the farm. After Snowball, another pig that was leading with Napoleon, was driven from the farm and changes were made, Squealer was sent to reassure the animals. He said, “Comrades, I trust that every animal here appreciates the sacrifice that Comrade Napoleon has made in taking this extra labour upon himself. Do not imagine, comrades, that leadership is a pleasure! On the contrary, it is a deep and heavy responsibility.” (Orwell 69). In effect, he is saying that leadership is a struggle and that Napoleon is working very hard for all the animals, when in reality the pigs didn't work at all. This is all just a big lie, exactly what propaganda should be. In a way, Squealer is twisting all the other animals thoughts around. He says that he trusts that they appreciate Napoleon. This makes them think, “well of course I appreciate Napoleon,” because no one wants to be the one to stand up and say, “I don't appreciate Napoleon. What has he done for us?” No one wants to be that person. Later, Squealer is sent to convince the animals again. Orwell writes, “but Squealer spoke so persuasively,…that they accepted his explanation without further questions” (Orwell 72). This also show how ignorant the other animals are. They just accept what Napoleon through Squealer is saying only because of a persuasive voice. And Squealer is very persuasive. There are many times in the book when Squealer convinces the animals of something and he is even described as being able to “turn black into white” (Orwell 36). It is clear that Squealer is a very powerful weapon of propaganda, and through propaganda, persuasion for Napoleon. Napoleon, through Squealer, uses propaganda to control his followers on the farm.

    The vicious dogs that Napoleon has control over and the way that he threatens animals with physical harm, is one way that Napoleon keeps control of the animals on the farm. The dogs that Napoleon took and raised soon became big, terrifying creatures. And that's how they were meant to end up. When Napoleon took them from their mother at a young age, he planned for them to be both his protectors and the enforcers of his laws. When we first see them in the book, they are the ones who chase Snowball off the farm. In a meeting in the barn, when four young pigs voice their dissent, “the dogs sitting round Napoleon let out deep, menacing growls, and the pigs fell silent and sat down again” (Orwell 69). In these scene the dogs are the enforcers. The pigs didn't like what Napoleon was saying but when the dogs start growling, they shut up. The pigs are obviously scared of the dogs. And if the pigs, the most powerful animals on the farm, are scared of the dogs, isn't the one with control of the dogs, Napoleon, even more powerful than they are? And if Napoleon has control of the dogs, he also has a way to control others. If another animal is out of line, all Napoleon has to do is threaten them with the dogs. There is a time when he does use the dogs to kill countless other animals. Napoleon calls another meeting to find out which animals had been “helping” Snowball. The four pigs from earlier were dragged forward and, being scared by the dogs, confessed to everything (be it true or false). Orwell writes, “When they had finished their confession, the dogs promptly tore their throats out, and in a terrible voice Napoleon demanded whether any other animal had anything to confess” (Orwell 93). This shows that not only did Napoleon use the dogs to threaten and control the other animals, but he also acted upon those threats (after this quote was the slaughtering of more animals including chickens, geese, and sheep). And after this happens, the animals are even more afraid of the dogs. If Napoleon wanted his followers to follow him because of their loyalty and respect for him, not because they were afraid of him (or the dogs), he wouldn't have placed himself in a position that made him seem distant and far from all of the other animals. The distance is caused by the violence of the dogs. The threats of violence from the dogs and the fear they create are one way that Napoleon controls the animals.

           Because Napoleon twists the past for his own benefit to make him seem more infallible, he has better control of the animals on the farm. When the rebellion against the humans at the beginning of the book is over, seven commandments are written on the barn. However it seems that as you progress through the book, the commandments seem to change. For example, “No animal shall sleep in a bed” (Orwell 43) became “No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets” (Orwell 79). This commandment does not give the pigs a great deal of power, but this next one does. “All animals are equal” (Orwell 43) turned into “All animals are equal but some animals are more equal than others” (Orwell 133). This eventually becomes the only commandment and all all others are abolished. The pigs now have total control over the farm because of this commandment because they can claim that they are more equal than the other animals. The way it was before, all animals were the same, but now the pigs are more than the others. Napoleon also uses this to suppress any thoughts of rebellion against him for Snowball. Boxer, a horse, thinks he remembers Snowball as a hero of the Farm, but Squealer quashes this with “Our leader, Comrade Napoleon, announced Squealer, speaking very slowly and firmly, has stated categorically – categorically, Comrade – that Snowball was Jones's agent from the very beginning” (Orwell 91). Actually, Boxer was right and Snowball was a hero, but this just goes to show what Napoleon will do for power. He lies to his followers about what actually happens, just to stay in power. He “changed” the past so that he would stay in power for a better future. Because Napoleon changes the past for his benefit, he stays in power and has control of his followers.

            So, sixty percent of people can't go ten minutes