Knowledge Management: Business Strategies Scholarship Essay Help

Introduction

Knowledge management typically entails identifying and charting scholarly assets within the organization, creating new information for the spirited benefit of the group, constructing vast quantities of business values within reach, and contributing the finest customs and technology that facilitates each of the aforementioned features, including associative and interactive characteristics. Frequently, knowledge management is described as a "business activity with two fundamental facets:

Regarding the knowledge component of business activities as an explicit business concern expressed in strategy, policy, and practice at all organizational levels. Establishing a direct link between an organization's intellectual assets — both explicit [documented] and tacit [personal knowledge] — and favorable economic outcomes" (Murray & Barelay, 1997).

Knowledge management includes managerial viewpoints on the link between knowledge assets and commercial activity. Most large corporations and non-profit organizations allocate resources to domestic knowledge management, typically as part of their commercial strategies, scientific expertise, or human resource management obligations. In addition, numerous advisory firms exist to simplify the provision of knowledge management strategy and advice to similar businesses.

The preceding graphic makes it abundantly evident that the origins of knowledge management are innovative methods, management information, the usage of knowledge bases systems, the placement of intellectual assets such as copyrights, trademarks, and patents, and their competitive application in business. Knowledge management projects rely on information technology (IT) as a key facilitator and medium for creating and disseminating knowledge (Nonaka 2005, p.19).

Business organizations are in a perpetual state of learning, and business change is anticipated via business transformation and a culture of change.

Related Business Strategies to Knowledge Management

Like any other administrative sector, knowledge management employs a variety of tactics and techniques to achieve its goals. However, there are management disciplines that are closely related to knowledge management. They are designated as:

"Change management Best practices Risk management Benchmarking” (Murray & Barelay 1997). (Murray & Barelay 1997).

Change management

Change management is a systematic process for transitioning individuals, groups, and organizations from their current state to a desired future state. Change management is the process by which revisions to a plan are executed in a controlled manner by adhering to a predetermined structure or template with, to a certain extent, logical modifications. Successful adaptation to change is as essential in business as it is in the outside world. Change management comprises a minimum of three distinct features, including adapting to change, limiting changes, and implementing alterations. "As with any significant change, implementing a Knowledge Management initiative presents motivational and change management opportunities" (5 resources for change management and knowledge management and management, 2005).

Elements of KM

Best Methods

Best practice is another business technique strongly related to knowledge management. In any scenario involving business or commerce, success likelihood is given the utmost attention. "A best practice is a technique or method that, through experience and research, has been demonstrated to consistently produce the desired outcome" (Best practice 2007). An obligation to utilize the finest practices in every field is a commitment to using all available knowledge and skill at a particular area to ensure victory. The term is frequently used in the disciplines of medicine, administrative authority, academia, task management, hardware and software product expansion, and other nearly identical fields. Clearly, knowledge management will aid in the achievement of best practices, but vice versa will always exist in all types of businesses. A best practice is an organized and deliberate method that contributes to a successful product expansion. After a success has been established, a best practice decides to spread over a sector or industry. Conversely, it is frequently the case that established best practices are slow to spread inside an organization. American Productivity & Quality Center asserts that lack of awareness on possible novel techniques, lack of inspirational approaches to adapt to changes, and lack of required level of expertise and skills for motivating are realistic risks to implementation plan.

The knowledge creation process entails the generation of new knowledge for use in knowledge management (KM), whereas adoption refers to the adaptation and application of created knowledge in specific business contexts. Knowledge distribution would entail transforming personal knowledge into organizational knowledge, and revision and evaluation would entail bringing knowledge up to date and in line with current demands.

Case report

The 1992 failure of the system designers for the London Ambulance Service Computer Dispatch System (LASCAD) is the subject of this case study. The participating parties include upper management, the union, the technical manager, and the government. The system failed because it failed to identify organizational, political, and social environment changes. Before implementing a new policy within the organization, employees were not informed sufficiently in advance. This was the primary cause of the system's failure. The abrupt changes inside the organization caused the employees to turn against the organization, which decreased the organization's overall productivity. There was a lack of communication among the organization's staff. The staff were not notified of the changes occurring in the organization's overall system. Additionally, the argument between the parties made the problem worse than before. The system's fundamental methodology consisted of identifying the real problem, presenting the problem, determining possible solutions, identifying the root cause of the problem, developing a conceptual model for the issue, comparing the problem with the available alternatives, identifying the changes that are desirable for the company, and recommending actions to improve the situation so that productivity could be increased.

The case focuses on the failure of the organization's Computer Sided Despatch (CAD) technology. It was discovered that the software was not in its final state and was missing several essential components. The hardware was not thoroughly tested. It was also determined that the fallback option to the second server file was not unproven. "There was some skepticism regarding the Automatic Vehicle Location System's accuracy record" (AVLS). The Central Ambulance Control (CAC) and ambulance crews lacked faith in the system and lacked adequate training (Finkelstein 1993, p.3). During the transmission of data from the mobile to the terminal, a complicated issue was found. The primary purpose of LASCAD was to automate several labor-intensive tasks, hence facilitating the smoother operation of manual dispatch systems associated with ambulance services in the United Kingdom. The centralized system within the organization supports the organization's smooth operation of the dispatching process's numerous actions. Thus, the primary issue in this instance is the implementation of a computer-aided dispatching system.

The Importance of Knowledge Management

Consequently, knowledge management becomes indispensable. The majority of the time, in order to make use of many of the accumulated data, it is necessary to make modifications that will result in the creation of a more efficient strategy for their implementation. In such circumstances, knowledge management becomes vital, necessitating the creation and implementation of a strategy for processing, analyzing, assigning, and implementing the many features designed to maintain the level of contemporary advancements. The bulk of strategies are built on information; consequently, organizations compete over the source of knowledge, necessitating a more effective knowledge management environment. Goods and services are extraordinarily comprehensive, endowed with extensive informational parts favoring training and accomplishments of exceptional durability and unwavering genuineness. Because minute inefficiency in administering information received and processed out facts would diminish a company's chances in its market of competence, there is a clear demand for managing the identified growing complexity. "The outcome of examining the benchmarking behavior of best practices can be incorporated into the design of a knowledge management system. The benchmarking behaviour analysis interpretation has intriguing implications for the government's knowledge management systems (Wimmer 2004, p.61). When discussing the need for knowledge management in business, it is impossible to disregard the reality that aggressive stress diminishes the level of labor vigor required to maintain costly trade expertise. Based on the preceding explanation of the concept of knowledge management, a brief case study has been explored. The case involves London ambulance service. Numerous other tasks inside a company are interconnected with the knowledge management system.

Link between knowledge management and London ASCAD

KM is increasingly regarded as crucial to important organization or business determinants. "Knowledge-related issues were explored from a systems science perspective. Using critical systems thinking, soft systems thinking, etc., a new systematic perspective on knowledge was proposed with the goal of providing practical knowledge users with a new way of thinking and a useful toolkit on the many levels and phases of knowledge management (Gao, Li & Nakamori 2002).

In the case of the London Ambulance Service Computer Aided Despatch System (ASCAD), this is a classic illustration of how a KM or Information system failed to meet the aims and objectives for which it was designed, resulting in system failure. Moreover, analysis of information systems from a purely technological perspective is extremely limiting in its approach, as the failure of this case may not be solely due to technological factors, but also to other underlying and multifaceted factors, such as non-cooperation of unions, barriers created due to a lack of understanding at workforce levels, and perceived threats to their jobs by the workforce. Employees resented bids to install ASCAD because they felt they would be replaced by these software technologies. Thus, despite the fact that KM was designed and implemented, its success was insufficient due to execution faults and a lack of comprehensive implementation methods. In addition, employee resentment was a crucial factor that contributed to the ultimate rejection of this system. In the instance of London ASCAD, perhaps a more deliberate and well-considered design for KM, incorporating all of its aspects, might have produced better results. In addition, both the technological and administrative systems must have worked in tandem, i.e., a seamless integration of KM and software systems was essential to the success of this project.

CAD System

Computer Aided Despatch System is defined as "under immediate supervision, receives and enters emergency telephone and radio communications for a country operated computerised dispatch system; operates an E-9-1-1 electronic telephone console; receives and dispatches information via telephone and radio; and performs other duties as required" (Communication dispatcher I n.d., p.1). This is especially true for small to medium-sized enterprises attempting to extend response capabilities with limited resources (Map- centric computer- assisted dispatch (cad) for speedier emergency response, n.d., p.1). It is mostly used to provide instructions and manage the dispatching process as a whole. It is a completely integrated system that effectively facilitates the dispatching process. "The computerized system has improved response times, recordkeeping, and personnel allocation" (Goldeston, Traynor & Corcoran 1980). Currently, the CAD system comprises the following activities that are already part of the organization:

Handling calls and verifying and accepting all information:

When a call is received at the central Ambulance Control, it is the responsibility of the Control Assistant to record all pertinent information and display it on paper. It also depicts the location of the event together with the map's reference coordinates. When the call is complete, the prepared form is placed on the conveyor belt and transported to a collection station that serves as the system's focal point. Other staff personnel collect these forms from this collecting place, and resource allocation is determined by reviewing these forms. The resource allocator performs the process of resource allocation. When the form is sent to the dispatcher, all resource-related information will be displayed. Identifying the resources and ambulance that must be delivered in a timely manner: The location information where the resource must be supplied on time are also verified. There will be a specified time frame for each work, and the products and services will be delivered based on their location and the money incurred. The mobilization of resources. When the ambulance is ready for use, the dispatcher will relay the instructions to the ambulance station and then to the radio operator. According to the quality standard, this entire procedure must be finished in three minutes. Communicating the details and determining which ambulance must be dispatched in the event of an emergency. Managing the ambulance resources, the equipment utilized for resource management, and the implementation of staff vehicles.

CAD systems are suitable for managing resources effectively, assessing performance to identify deviations, and aiding in both long-term and short-term planning.

Elements of the CAD System

The CAD system consists of both hardware and software for use in the dispatching procedure. The following are the components:

CAD software; CAD hardware; Gazetteer and mapping software; Communication interface (RIFS); Radio system; Mobile data terminals; Automatic vehicle locating system (AVLS)" (Finkelstein 1993, p.11).

Therefore, prior to adopting such a system within the business, the relevant information must be communicated to the organization's personnel. Both the system and the users were unprepared for the system's implementation within the organization. This opposition arose as a result of the incompleteness, improper tuning, and inadequate testing of the CAD program. Flexibility of the hardware was not thoroughly examined. If the CAD system to be implemented, the entire working system must be modified. The organization's senior management believed that this deployment would yield positive results for the organization. Within the organization, there was very poor communication between the workforce and the management, which led to mistrust. The adoption of this system in the organization will take four years to reach a decent position, and the organization is unable to improve the performance of LAS.

CAD and LAS

The delay in implementation is due to the failure of a prior effort to computerize both the LAS command and control system. The preparation of the necessary measurements that would lead to the implementation of the command and control system commenced. "The Computer Aided Dispatch system logs incident details and updates, prioritizes events, and determines which units are best suited to respond to each incident" (Computer aided dispatch 2010). The deployment of CAD at LAS has produced numerous advantages for them. The following are the advantages:

"Adaptability and personalization Reduce response time Comprehensive data collection Enhanced data exchange across agencies Comprehensive security design "continuous reporting" (Computer aided dispatch 2010).

The process of matching the needs of the agency will be an easier due to its flexibility and customization feature. Decrease in the response time refers to the effective utilization of

Human Resource Vs. Personal Management Scholarship Essay Help

Human Resource Management (HRM) and personal management are subfields of the same science, but their scopes and objectives differ. The primary distinction between HRM and personal management is that HRM focuses on organization, workplace, and employee interactions, whereas personal management focuses solely on personal relationships.

Critical academic theory of human resource management (created by Legge 2004 and Wilkinson 1998) examines its relationship to postmodernism, which views man as an individual. Beardwell et al 2004). The most significant drawback of the Critical Academic approach is that it views personnel and computers as subjects of organizational relationships.

A considerable lot of discussion and research in human resource management and industrial/organizational psychology emphasizes the significance of developing trust between management and employees (Campbell et al 1994). Perhaps this is a response to the drastically increased instability and decreased job tenure of workers.

On the other hand, it may be a knowledge that the productivity and quality required to compete in the global marketplace of the twenty-first century cannot be achieved and maintained without workers who have faith in their management to understand and address their demands. Numerous studies demonstrate that management is attempting to reconcile this understanding with the needs of the bottom line (Armstrong 2001).

The HRM literature is replete with cost-benefit studies of cooperative labor-management programs that exist outside the usual negotiating relationship, as well as those relating to cooperative contract negotiations (Armstrong, 2003). To yet, however, the role of the grievance procedure in labor-management cooperative ventures has not been thoroughly examined.

The Labor-Management Relations (LMR) model includes seven elements: boundary-role variables, background factors, environmental factors, grievance procedure, collaborative labor-management programs, contract negotiations, and labor-management results. Each of these components is examined briefly in the remainder of this chapter, with the exception of labor-management outcomes, which have already been introduced.

The LMR model assumes that interactions between labor and management can be classified along a continuum ranging from adversarial or uncooperative, in which at least one party takes a strong competitive stance against the other, to cooperative, in which an effort is made to work with the other side to find mutually satisfying solutions to problems.

Those who perceive collective bargaining as a win-lose showdown typically adopt an adversarial attitude where bargaining power predominate. Conversely, those who choose to participate in cooperation regard their connection as a win-win situation (Campbell et al 1994).

The boundary-role factors involve representational functions that appear to be in conflict at first appearance. In particular, grievance officials represent the positions and interests of their respective organizations to the opposing side; as a result, their negotiation orientations will be impacted by constituent demands and expectations.

However, they also represent the opposing view to their constituents, and as a result, they are likely familiar with the opposing side's priorities, strengths, limitations, and preferences (Armstrong, 2003). With this specialized expertise, they will undoubtedly alter their approach to the handling of complaints. Acceptance tends to percolate up the industrial relations hierarchy when plant-level grievances or difficulties are resolved peacefully or when collective bargaining outcomes are reached via collaboration and trust (Campbell et al 1994).

However, labor and management rarely view collective bargaining as having the possibility for cooperation; rather, they assume that it is an adversarial process designed to reconcile competing interests. Thus, the key to cooperation is to transform a win-lose relationship into one in which both parties stand to gain. Two important forms of incentives for cooperative collective bargaining will be examined in the remainder of this section: managing issues and developing and maintaining integrative frameworks (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 1999).

In contrast to HRM, personal management views personnel as the organization's most valuable assets. Today, it is standard practice for organizations to promote their vision and mission. Numerous organizations emphasize their human resources in their yearly reports. These glossy papers frequently describe the diversity of their workers and depict them in positions of authority. In addition, they frequently argue that their success and competitive position could not have been accomplished without their "excellent" people resources (Reed 2001).

This information must be included in an organization’s recruitment material because it reflects the organization’s principles, particularly as they pertain to adjusting themselves to the demands of specific parts of the work population. This information enables prospective employees to determine for themselves whether they can identify with the expressed values; it is, thus, a crucial part in facilitating self-selection (Bartlett and Ghosha 1999l).

Functional, Content-Specific, and Adaptive Each component has a unique origin and serves a unique purpose. Functional Skill derives from the individual's physical, mental, and interpersonal capacities and manifests in how individuals interact with Things, Data, and People in their environment.

These few “enabling skills” are necessary for processing an endless number of specialized content domains in the workplace. Specific Content Skills originate primarily in an activity context (work, study, or leisure) and are the competences required to master the standards and requirements of certain crafts and/or fields of knowledge (Rosow and Casner-1998).

Adaptive Skills derive from a person's experience of maturing and adjusting, and, like Functional Skills, enable a person to interact effectively with the physical, social, and interpersonal context in which tasks are performed. A second important assumption is that labor is an all-encompassing experience. Workers bring their entire self to work.

Each employee has a unique set of physical, mental, and interpersonal requirements and talents. Depending on the opportunities, resources, and difficulties presented by the job-worker environment, each worker juggles these needs and skills to attain equilibrium, fulfillment, and wholeness. (1999l)

This approach is similar in that it views the employee as the driving force behind productivity and effective performance. Much of the necessary labor involves a spectrum of talents ranging from low to high, from relatively little training and experience to a substantial amount. The skilled craftsperson effortlessly transitions from one level of competence to another when completing a task.

In some cases, more work can be completed and productivity is increased if competent workers have helpers who can assist with less specialized tasks (Campbell et al 1994). The majority of occupations in any field consist mostly of low- and medium-skilled labor, with a much smaller proportion of highly skilled labor (Schuler, 1998). Those performing lower-skilled job may be permitted to perform higher-skilled work if appropriately coached and supervised. This is how employees advance in their careers.

However, the compensation system (salary, bonuses, promotions) must reflect this in a fair and equitable manner. Employers are discovering they may increase efficiency by employing a flexible workforce as opposed to relying on specialists for certain tasks.

To achieve this higher level of productivity, management must maintain compensation, benefits, and working conditions commensurate with employees' rising worth to the firm. In such a work environment, employees naturally acquire increased skill and expertise. Thus, flexibility can be advantageous for both employee and company (Barham and Conway 1998; Storey,1989).

There is some evidence that successful personal management is favorably connected to job performance, but the relationship varies among samples and performance measures (Bartlett and Ghoshal,1999). The relationship between professional commitment and work performance is likewise inconsistent among studies, with some evidence indicating a favorable association.

However, observed connections between career commitment and work performance were weaker than those between (effective) organizational commitment and job performance. In addition, the affective organizational pledge is defined in terms of support for the organization, which should manifest itself in job performance (Reed 2001).

Consequently, the dually committed would be expected to have the highest levels of work performance, followed by organizations, careerists, and the uncommitted. Accessible evidence demonstrates that a negative link exists between job performance and commitment to continued employment. Therefore, the highest levels of job performance should be exhibited by careerists, followed by those who are dually committed, organizations, and the uncommitted (Campbell et al 1994).

Management and labor unions have sometimes engaged in cooperative efforts under less urgent conditions. The possible benefits of cooperative action between management and organized labor include a reduction in production costs and an improvement in product quality, which, in either case, increases the firm's competitive edge.

Particularly, programs linked with a more effective use of materials, a fall in accident and mistake rates, or an increase in output per unit of labor are likely to reduce production costs (Reed 2001). In contrast, initiatives focusing at quality control, innovation, and consumer concerns may improve product quality. The negative of cooperation for management includes both monetary and non-monetary costs.

Employee gains, such as increased job security, enhanced working conditions, and enhanced contact with management, are the primary personal benefits of labor-management collaboration. Moreover, presuming that these gains result from cooperative activity, union representatives may earn greater respect from their constituents.

Cooperation, as mentioned previously, is also likely to improve the general relationship between the union and management, thus opening up other channels for exchanges that are mutually beneficial (Armstrong 2003).

In conclusion, HRM may capitalize on this advantage, beginning with an open and healthy discussion in a focus group. However, personal management is viewed as merely the beginning of a trustworthy relationship between manager and employee. For personal management to be fully effective, a business must pour the focus group's energy into as many HRM applications as possible. In describing these applications, Fine and Cronshaw beyond the typical presentation of HR approaches.

Bibliography

Human Resource Management, published by Kogan Page in 2003. Armstrong, M.

Behavior. 2nd edn. Cambridge: Kent Publishing

1999. Bartlett, C., and Ghoshal, S. The Transnational Approach to Cross-Border Management. The second edition was published in London by Ramsden House.

Barham, K., and Conway, C. A mentoring method to developing worldwide business and people. The Ashridge Research Group.

Beardwell, I., L. Holden, and T. Claydon. Human Resource Management. London: Pitman Publishing, 2004.

Campbell, A., M. Goold, and M. Alexander. "Corporate Level Strategy." John Wiley, London, 1994.

Reed A. 2001. Innovative approaches to human resource management. Institute of Personnel and Development (Chartered).

1998. Rosow, J., and J. Casner-Lotto. The new labor-management strategy, People, Partnership, and Profits, Work in America Institute, New York.

Schuler, R. (1998). Human Resource Management. South-Western College Publishing is headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio.

New perspectives on Human Resource Management, Routledge, London, J. Storey, 1989.

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Nissan After Japan Tsunami And Earthquake In 2011 Scholarship Essay Help

Abstract

This study is based on an analysis of Nissan's instance, which illustrates the company's diverse operational tactics after the 2011 tsunami and earthquake in Japan. The article also focuses on various assessments of operational functions and their effective applications. The research of the Nissan case reveals that the corporation utilized the theory of limits and some fundamental principles of disruption risk management to address the issues caused by the 2011 natural disaster.

Aside from that, the investigation indicates that the organization prioritizes employee empowerment, information exchange, proper production management, and effective supply chain controls. Nissan uses a blend of JIT, Lean manufacturing, and TPS operations management as their primary operational strategy. The sustainability analysis indicates that the company has a triple bottom line approach, which is supported by a focused CSR strategy and the pursuit of ISO 14,000 accreditation.

Introduction

This article will examine a variety of operational management elements within the framework of Nissan Motor Company Ltd. These characteristics include, but are not limited to, examining the company's ability to produce value for its consumers, its operational management approaches and theories, its data and decision-making heuristics, and its sustainability.

Generating Value

Japanese automobile manufacturers such as Toyota, Nissan, and Hyundai have demonstrated the importance of competent management of operations functions. Toyota delivers products and creates value for its customers through developing the Toyota Production System (TPS), which stresses Just-In-Time production. In contrast to the TPS, Nissan utilized operation functions differently for manufacturing automobiles and delivering the company's fundamental value.

In lieu of tight inventory control, the company emphasizes the adaptability of the supply chain by establishing a decentralized network of regional suppliers who deliver inventory in accordance with production needs. In addition, the organization offers a centrally managed global distribution network for delivering client value. Nissan employs a build-to-stock approach for its most in-demand automobile models, which entails maintaining a specific stock of the specified automobile models, whilst for its less in-demand automobile models, the business produces the automobiles only when orders are received. For these techniques to be effective, the company employs its enormous, dispersed supply chain network that is tightly centralized.

The operation management functions can assist a business in gaining a competitive edge over its rivals. The resource-based approach posits that effective and efficient utilization of internal and external resources helps a company obtain a competitive advantage over its competitors (Hitt, Xu, & Carnes, 2016). While criticizing the sustainability of competitive advantage created by purchasing and supply chain management functions, Barney (2012) acknowledged that purchasing activities can sometimes provide a competitive advantage and that effective supply chain management has the potential to help a company gain a competitive advantage.

The case study demonstrates that Nissan has created a competitive edge by instituting a decentralized supply chain structure, integrating a diverse company culture, and appointing a lot of officers with international expertise. Nissan established a global network of efficient suppliers and distributors so that vendors can provide raw materials as required. The same holds true for the distribution system. The company creates a functional advantage by centrally administering the entire network.

As a result of the centralized administration of the supply chain, there is little to no inefficiencies in the company's value chain, which has enhanced product quality and the delivery system for value. In addition, the incorporation of a diverse corporate culture enabled the company to take advantage of regional opportunities and address regional constraints more effectively than its competitors, because diverse officials from various geographic locations provide invaluable insights into the regional business environment. Nissan's supply chain and corporate culture diversity contributed to the company's cheap production costs and efficient operational management.

There are many similarities between industrial and service operations. In all forms of operations, the ultimate objective is the same: to maintain firm operations. The selection of regional areas to serve is another task shared by both service management and operations management. Practices for risk identification and management should be identical.

Nissan's emphasis on early detection of hazards, analysis of identified risks, and execution of countermeasures should stay unchanged for service operations. Another significant similarity would be the cost management procedures. Nissan appears to have constructed a supply chain network that minimizes costs by acquiring low-cost regional raw materials. Likewise, a similar technique would be effective for service operations.

There are similarities between the two operations, but there are also substantial variances. Manufacturing operations conclude with the production of a tangible final product, whereas service operations conclude without the manufacture of tangible items. The case demonstrates that Nissan's operations conclude with the production of automobiles for consumers. Service operations are more tailored to the unique demands of consumers, whereas manufacturing activities provide standard items, e.g., Nissan manufactures finished automobiles or several models.

Theories and Methods

Materials resource planning (MRP) is utilized in an organization for improved customer feedback response, faster change reaction, and efficient labor and capacity utilization. The MRP calculates the optimal quantity of inventory using a master production schedule, capacity planning, bills of materials, lead time, buy specification data, and inventory information (Heizer & Render, 2014). To calculate the required materials, a company must compute both the gross and net requirements. The net requirements estimate the quantity of inventory required. The following formula is used to compute gross-to-net requirements:

The system calculates gross to net requirements to advise the supply chain manager of the required inventory for a particular production plan. The system is dynamic and its instructions must be modified whenever any of its variables change. In order to function as a centralized inventory management system, the system requires the development of the following files: master production schedule, bill of materials (BOM), production cycle, lead times, inventory, and a buy file.

Although MRP is thought to be an excellent technique, it does have several downsides. As Nissan's production manager, I would employ MRP with a finite capacity estimate for the optimal system outcome, since MRP's primary flaw is its assumption of limitless production capacity (Jodlbauer & Reitner, 2011). Then, the MRP system would provide more precise data for maintaining the optimal inventory level, and the supply chain would be more efficient and error-free.

The critical path method (CPM) and the program evaluation and review technique method (PERT) are the first important computerized decision support systems in project management. CPM is deterministic, whereas PERT focuses on developing and maintaining the project schedule in a stochastic environment (Trietsch & Baker, 2012). It is evident from Trietsch and Baker's description of the systems that CPM is designed to get a predetermined result from the operations, whereas PERT is designed to facilitate the completion of operations within a predetermined timeframe.

The functions of CPM are aimed at cost reduction and quality improvement, but the functions of PERT are aimed solely at time-efficient task scheduling, however it might be argued that PERT aids in cost reduction because it decreases time, and time is money. In addition to this primary distinction, there are additional distinctions between the two methodologies, such as the fact that CPM is activity-oriented and PERT is event-oriented, and that CPM measures precise timing whereas PERT predicts the approximate timing of occurrences.

Nissan should emphasize PERT above CPM for managing one-time events or projects, such as the post-Tsunami disaster management project, because the project is more pertinent in terms of time and effective allocation of limited resources for recovering from the disaster's negative effects. Nissan should favor CPM over PERT for managing regular production methods, such as build-to-stock and build-to-order, because CPM would help achieve both cost and time efficiency in the manufacturing process.

According to Heizer and Render (2014), there are four priority job sequencing criteria that assist the system in effectively scheduling project operations. These are the four precedence rules:

First-come, first-serve basis. As a matter of thumb, jobs should be scheduled so that the job that comes first is sequenced to be done first. It is good for Nissan if it is operating in a slow and pressure-free market or if it is selling only one type of car, but it could be detrimental if the company is facing a high demand for different models. Earliest due date. The task with the earliest due date should be finished before the tasks with the longest due dates. When the company receives a customized order from a distributor or vendor, the rule may be unfavorable. However, the rule is advantageous when creating multiple automobile models and delivering them on time to customers. quickest turnaround time The jobs requiring the quickest processing time should be completed prior to those requiring relatively longer processing times. It is the best rule when a corporation wants to effectively utilize its resources, however occasionally this procedure generates more WIP inventory than the other process. Critical ratio. The crucial ratio is computed by dividing the remaining percentage of the task by the remaining time for the task; the most important tasks should be scheduled to be completed first. Using the crucial ratio rule could be more effective if Nissan receives more custom orders; it would also be advantageous in times of crisis. The time-sensitive nature of the task may result in a lower-quality output, since the emphasis is shifted away from quality.

The theory of constraints procedure has five steps.

The first step in enhancing a manufacturing process is to determine the system's resource limitations. Once the limiting resources have been identified, it is necessary to ensure that they are optimally utilized to fulfill the production objectives. The next stage is to ensure that everything other than the constraints-resources is subordinate to it, which implies that the constraints process should not be permitted to have downtime. When the process has reached its maximum capacity, it is necessary to increase the constraining resources, which may indicate the purchase and installation of new facilities. With the resolution of one constraint, a new constraint will emerge that must be resolved by repeating the entire process.

The notion of limitations can be applied to Nissan's build-to-stock and build-to-order production processes. The application would be useful for increasing the company's manufacturing efficiency, particularly in the build-to-order phase, where it would guarantee on-time delivery and the quality of the product without exposing the company to production risks.

According to Hyndman and Athanasopoulos (2014), there are typically five fundamental phases involved in predicting. Identifying the problem or issue that will be projected is the initial phase of the forecasting process. The subsequent step is to collect information, which involves two sorts of data: I statistical data and ii) the competence of individuals who collect data. The subsequent phase of forecasting is the preliminary analysis or data exploration to get the required knowledge about the issue.

The subsequent stage involves selecting and adjusting the forecasting model. There are numerous available mathematical forecasting models. The final phase involves utilizing the specified forecasting model and evaluating its performance. Nissan can use the forecasting processes in a variety of ways: I to forecast the company's total sales; ii) to forecast the sales of particular car models. iii) for estimating regional demand for different automobile models iv) for forecasting the company's financial requirements In the following years, the company's best-selling products may experience an increase in demand, based on its projections.

Risk management in an organization is crucial for increasing a business's profits. The possibility of supply chain interruption is among the most serious hazards. Typically, operational risks – equipment malfunctions, unanticipated supply failures, HR-related concerns – and risks arising from natural disasters, terrorism, and political instability comprise disruption risks. The Nissan case study is an illustration of a danger of disruption. In response to the danger, the company has implemented several effective procedures that reflect the 10 principles proposed by Kleindorfer and Saad (2005).

Nissan has effectively adopted the first principle for managing profitable supplier relationships (SRM), internal supply chain management (ISCM), and customer relationship management. Nissan best exemplifies the second principle, which encourages diversity of the supply chain, by diversifying its supplier network. The third and fourth principles propose fixing the weak connections in the entire supply chain and identifying potential dangers as early as feasible, and the case study demonstrates that Nissan employs a similar risk management strategy. The sixth highlighted principle is that lean operations management causes system vulnerability.

In light of the fact that a flexible manufacturing process is advantageous, Nissan has definitely adhered to the sixth principle. Sharing information collaboratively increases the effectiveness of the supply chain and helps to reduce disruption risks (Principle 7); the case demonstrates that Nissan has stressed this principle to mitigate the risk generated by the 2011 Tsunami. The eighth principle recommends that a company should be aware of the maximum loss it could incur as a result of supply network disruption, and the ninth principle suggests that the production process design should accommodate supply chain disturbance to some level.

Nissan halted their production lines and allocated their supplies in accordance with the notion of limits. And the third principle for ensuring the strength of the supply chain is the implementation of comprehensive quality management concepts. Nissan employs six-sigma quality management, which is intended to enhance the company's supply chain. In addition to adhering to the aforementioned criteria, Nissan has empowered its staff to control supply chain risks.

There are production management theories that are regarded as highly effective in the twenty-first century. The just-in-time (JIT) idea, as described by Heizer and Render (2014), proposes that supplies arrive when and where they are needed. The principle proposes that an organization's vendors and suppliers should maintain an open communication network.

JIT can be segmented into the following five components: JIT partnerships, JIT inventory, JIT quality, JIT scheduling, and JIT capacity layout. Another widely used production system management is the Toyota production system (TPS) which follows the just in time operation management systems but it does provide

Customer Service As A Business Success Factor Scholarship Essay Help

Introduction

Marketing, both as a study and as a profession, has advanced in both theory and practice, as described in the available scholarly literature (Wind & Robertson 1983). Hollander, Rassuli, Jones, and Dix (2005) concur and argue that new ideas and paradigms have arisen as a result of the changing and dynamic marketing requirements of contemporary company. Jenkinson (2006) acknowledges Hollander, Rassuli, Jones, and Dix's (2005) claims, but adds that current businesses require innovative marketing strategies to harness contemporary markets.

Similarly, White (2010) acknowledges Jenkinson's (2006) claims on the evolution of marketing and adds that marketing is currently characterized by relationship building via social media and the internet, while Helfert and Vith's (1999) adds that marketing teams are useful for enhancing customer relationships. Kubina (2008) provides examples of modern marketing tools such as blogs, social networking sites, and WEB 2.0, whereas Pallas & Fredriksson (2011) examines specific social networking tools such as Twitter, Facebook, and MySpace and explains how they assist companies in network marketing. Thus, current marketing technologies such as Twitter, Facebook, and MySpace are altering its appearance.

Studies on the application and efficacy of nontraditional marketing tools by Kuwaiti entrepreneurs seem pertinent in light of the observable effect of nontraditional marketing tools on marketing. Al-Fadhli (2011) indicates that entrepreneurs in Kuwait are using Facebook, Twitter, and blogs as some of their most important marketing platforms. Al-Busaidi (2007) confirms Al-(2011) Fadhli's claims and adds that social media has enhanced the performance of the majority of enterprises in Kuwait.

Gibb (2011) notes in a rebuttal to the discussion on marketing in Kuwaiti that the old forms of door-to-door marketing, radio and television advertising, among others, are becoming increasingly obsolete. The usage of social media and technological advancements have altered the manner in which young Kuwaiti entrepreneurs conduct business (Gibb 2011).

This study acknowledges the need for additional research on the marketing effectiveness of social media. Because the existing research does not address the special potential available to Kuwaiti entrepreneurs through social media, this study seems pertinent and aims to fill this knowledge gap. As a result, the primary objective of this study is to investigate the marketing strategies utilized by Kuwaiti business owners. As a result, this research explores the impact of marketing tools on Kuwaiti entrepreneurs, specifically social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, MySpace, and blogs, as well as the motivations for adopting such resources. In this regard, the paper will attempt to achieve the following goals:

To identify market segments that the social media marketing tool targets. Determine the current marketing strategies employed by young Kuwaiti entrepreneurs in various market segments. To recommend ways in which the study may assist fill gaps in social media usage. To determine the factors that affect social media marketing. To determine the marketing tactics for young entrepreneurs in Kuwait. Determine and discuss the marketing roles of social media among Kuwaiti entrepreneurs. Describe the numerous business sectors that social media has penetrated and the benefits that young Kuwaiti entrepreneurs have realized through social media marketing.

This paper is structured into five key chapters in order to accomplish the goals indicated below. The first chapter is the introduction, which provides an overview of the study's rationale and pertinent background information. Chapter 2's Literature Review focuses on illuminating the issue by highlighting key points. Chapter 3 focuses on the methodology used to perform the study, while Chapter 4 covers the study's findings and commentary. The fifth chapter closes this study and provides recommendations for further research.

To achieve the aims of this study, an appropriate research approach must be identified. This study employs the deductive method, as described by Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill (2007), as it draws conclusions from general knowledge sources. In addition, as the purpose of the study is to contribute to the existing scholarly debate, it is quite objective in nature. This study relies on both primary and secondary sources for its data.

The analysis of secondary data derived from books, journals, literature, and magazines. Using questionnaires, individual in-depth interviews, group interviews, field studies, and information about the company histories of individual participants, primary data was obtained from focus groups composed of young entrepreneurs, experienced entrepreneurs, business owners, and customers.

This was required to determine the marketing practices of each respondent. Specifically, in-depth interviews were utilized to collect information from study participants. In-depth interviews were conducted with individuals, companies, and groups of Kuwaiti firms, as well as young entrepreneurs. The research focused on eight young business entrepreneurs between the ages of 22 and 39. The age of 22 was chosen since most young Kuwaitis graduate from college and then enter the workforce at this age (Maceli 2011). Since gender roles were not the focus of the study, the genders of the participants were disregarded.

The literature review explains that marketing tools have developed. New marketing tools, such as social media, offer significant benefits for modern businesses. Through the study methods detailed in the remainder of this article, it was discovered that social media tools offer numerous prospects for commercial success to Kuwaiti entrepreneurs. Technological developments that facilitate the use of social media like as Twitter, Facebook, and blogs have had a revolutionary effect on the business practices of Kuwaiti entrepreneurs.

Through social media, Kuwaiti entrepreneurs can grow their enterprises to GCC nations, offer new products and services, create connection with clients, and engage in Word Of Mouth marketing, among other advantages. The survey also revealed that a number of additional factors influence how business is conducted in Kuwaiti. Existing networks inside social media, cost effectiveness, and other factors are among the reasons why people prefer to use social media.

Literature Review

The development of marketing tools

According to Wind & Robertson (1983), the growth of marketing as a field has reached a plateau phase, during which there has been no major advancement in any theoretical underpinning that could alter how marketing is seen. The Wind & Robertson (1983) study was conducted twenty years ago and essentially disregards modern web marketing techniques. Day & Wensley hardly refer to the fact that new marketing tools such as online technology are vital in modern marketing (1983).

Even though Day & Wensley (1983) concur with Wind & Robertson (1983) that the development of marketing has reached a plateau, they add that there is a need for broader studies in research and theory development in order to generate new paradigms in marketing strategies, as there are a number of emerging marketing needs that cannot be met with traditional marketing tools.

Moreover, Wind & Robertson (1983) indicate that the new marketing strategy paradigms are centered on solving new marketing requirements that necessitate inventiveness for corporate sustainability. However, Goi (2009) disagrees with Wind & Robertson (1983) and contends that marketing theoretical frameworks have advanced significantly since the 1940s as the business world has evolved. This has resulted in the transition of marketing tactics from traditional to current IT-based marketing techniques.

Bouchard & Basso (2011) agree with Goi (2009) that marketing has evolved over time and underline that a variety of marketing techniques have also evolved. Wilson, Speare, and Ree (2002) concentrate on conventional marketing instruments such as items, prices, and locations. These components have been utilized for an extended period of time and attract the attention of purchasers. Traditional marketing techniques have been widely challenged for their perceived inadequacies, particularly in addressing emerging marketing dynamics, according to Moller (2006). Bernd (1999) contributes to the debate on the evolution of marketing tools by describing both conventional and unconventional marketing tools.

In his article, Bernd elaborates on the functions of traditional and online marketing tools and describes the evolution of marketing tools over time. In his explanation of the evolution of marketing tools by contrasting the roles of traditional and online marketing tools, Bernd's (1999) results have significant consequences for the field of marketing. Bernd notes that traditional marketing tools assist consumers in making reasonable judgments and adds that marketing tools have evolved as a result of the emergence of new marketing dynamics.

Bernd (1999) argues further that online marketing tools such as Web 2.3, social media, and others are much more strategic in generating a Gestalt-like holistic immersive marketing experience. In addition to assisting consumers in making rational decisions, these technologies generate emotional and enjoyable experiences. Moreover, online marketing technologies tend to exploit consumers' behaviors, lives, and social identities (Bernd, 1999).

According to Minhyung (2010), the Internet is the foundation of marketing strategy evolution. Web marketing is regarded as one of the most effective techniques for reaching both potential and real customers. Bernd fails to recognize contemporary marketing tools, however Kubina (2008) cites a variety of internet marketing tools. Kubina highlights a variety of contemporary marketing techniques, including blogs, social networking sites, and WEB 2.0, among others, in this article.

According to Pallas and Fredriksson (2011), marketing tools have undergone a complete transformation, and social networking platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, and MySpace are among the most effective online marketing tools since they promote a company's capability in specific areas through networking. Welsh, Alon, and Falbe (2006) concur with this view and add that the use of social networks for business reasons is an evolution in marketing that helps entrepreneurs to boost their sales and profits by utilizing existing social networks.

Al-Busaidi (2007) adds that many companies are resorting to social media not only to sell their products, but also to monitor consumer behavior. Kaplan and Michael (2010) disregard the evolution of marketing tools and say that social networking platforms are far more beneficial for small businesses. Kaplan & Michael (2010) and Young & Tavares (2004) explain the limitations of utilizing social media, but conclude that the network of individuals generated by social networks offers growth prospects for small businesses. As a result, as Bernd (1999) argues, marketing tools have undergone significant modification due to the emergence of current commercial marketing needs.

In conclusion, the advent of new marketing platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace is a result of new marketing requirements. According to Al-Busaidi (2007), many firms are resorting to social media not just to sell their products but also to monitor consumer behavior. This study will focus on the variables that influence social media marketing.

Facebook social media networks

Facebook is one of the largest and most effective non-traditional marketing tools, according to Tsai (2010). Tsai contends that since the platform has more than 500 million active subscribers, businesses must include it as one of their primary marketing channels. However, Tsai is concerned because the most recent trend displays alarming figures. Many businesses are hesitant to sell their products on Facebook for a variety of reasons. The majority of marketing managers view Facebook as only a means to boost the number of company fans. However, this need not be the case, as innovative marketing strategies can be employed to convert these followers into potential purchasers of the company's products.

Regarding the usage of Facebook by businesses, Tsai (2010) suggests that among other strategies, Facebook marketing should give discounts to consumers who order through Facebook. Loceff (2010) concurs with Tsai (2010) that Facebook provides an excellent chance for companies to sell their products. However, according to Loceff (2010), merely being on Facebook should not be considered social network marketing.

According to Loceff (2010), several businesses have successfully utilized Facebook as a marketing tool. This has been accomplished by identifying the precise individuals with whom these businesses are communicating, how they are communicating, and the message they are communicating. Story (2007) concurs, but adds that Facebook has enormous potential for marketing a company's products. Realizing the great power of advertising, Facebook administrators now permit businesses to share information about their products for free within the network. According to Story (2007), Facebook intends to employ network marketing strategies.

Thus, Facebook fans of a company will be able to contribute information about products and services. Companies such as Blockbuster, Condé Nast, and Coca-Cola have recognized Facebook's advertising potential and are reaping substantial rewards. Maurer (2011) does not include companies that have effectively marketed with Facebook, but he does emphasize that Facebook is arguably one of the new marketing technologies that have found widespread application in contemporary marketing.

With the assistance of the Facebook administrator, Facebook has been adopted by large corporations such as Blockbuster, Condé Nast, and Coca-Cola. Through Tsai (2010), Loceff (2010), and Story (2007), this study will help fill in the gaps about the use of Facebook and other social media. Moreover, Facebook can now utilize these platforms' software-as-a-service capabilities (SaaS). Maurer (2011) advises Kuwaiti entrepreneurs who wish to market via Facebook to employ the following three strategies: place links with special offers on news feeds, determine the optimal times to post these links, and also create a website about various products and link it to its Facebook fans page.

Twitter

Wall Street Journal ran an online survey to test the idea that marketing on Twitter and Facebook is effective for small businesses (Wall Street Journal, 2011). The poll posed the question, "Do you believe that marketing businesses on Twitter and Facebook is effective?" to gauge the readers' opinions on social networking marketing. 64.5 percent of respondents believed that social networking marketing is effective for small businesses.

In addition, the pollster explains that small businesses are becoming increasingly interested in marketing on Twitter and Facebook. Teresa (2009) concurs with the poll's findings and adds that Twitter is among the social networks that contribute to the development of sustainable customer connections. Twitter is one of the most successful marketing channels for artists, according to Teresa (2009). Twitter now allows artists to upload their work.

This attracts a large number of followers who share an interest in their work. While Cunningham (2011) thinks that Twitter is a very valuable tool for marketing by small businesses, she also recommends those small firms who have not yet used Twitter as a marketing channel to do so, since Twitter's 200 million users present opportunities for new company. In her post, Cunningham (2011) takes a more cautious approach to marketing on Twitter and urges small business owners to experiment with marketing on social network while avoiding simple errors.

Cunningham (2011) enumerates ten common errors that entrepreneurs are prone to make, including the following:

Authentic Leadership In Organizations Scholarship Essay Help

Introduction

Several examples of behavior based on religious beliefs have been presented in the contemporary business sector. In addition, it is crucial to recognize that not all leaders, regardless of their leadership styles, are good, and acknowledging this truth is the first step toward greater corporate leadership. This resulted in the emergence of authentic leadership as a topic of study among both leaders and academics. Authentic leadership is viewed as real leadership whose decisions are based on ideals that have the capacity to direct people toward the greater good. This study tries to analyze authentic leadership in terms of its key components, the behaviors that define authentic leaders, and its applicability in real-world circumstances.

The value of Genuine Leadership in Organizations

Multiple studies have demonstrated that authentic leadership effects organizational characteristics including commitment, culture, and eventually performance. (Rukh, Sharukh & Iqbal, 2018; Hyang, Khiye & Enjung, 2019). They are more committed to accomplishing company goals and objectives ( (Rukh et al., 2018). Employees have a tendency to view their leaders as role models; therefore, when their leaders exhibit positive, real leadership characteristics, the employees imitate them. Consequently, personnel will be devoted to the organization, which will result in enhanced organizational performance (Hyang et al., 2019).

Components of genuine leadership

To comprehend authentic leadership, it is necessary to first comprehend what authenticity entails. Authentic leadership is demonstrating authenticity via actions and behaviors rather than through self-proclamation. Consequently, true leaders can quietly affect their employees. Self-awareness, an internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency are the four fundamental components of authentic leadership (Northouse, 2019). Self-awareness refers to a person's awareness of their inner and outer attributes and how it connects to their leadership abilities. It manifests itself in a variety of ways, including awareness of one's underlying values, emotions, identity, and motivations, knowledge of one's strengths and shortcomings, and faith in one's emotions. In authentic leadership, flaws are considered as life lessons to be realized during the process of self-actualization, which may eventually materialize as triumphs.

The second implication of the internalized moral perspective is doing the right thing. Authentic leadership is intimately related to ethics, especially in regards to justice. There is a considerable association between the moral and psychological aspects of this leadership style. Moreover, in this setting, an individual's morals are not based on external circumstances; rather, they are viewed as self-imposed, therefore operating as self-regulatory behavior. Thirdly, balanced processing pertains to the capacity to be impartial by incorporating the perspectives of others into the decision-making process. This approach is founded on an atmosphere in which opinions are both encouraged and appreciated, hence reducing bias. Lastly, relational transparency revolves around the principle of honesty. A genuine leader attempts to foster an environment in which everyone is conscious of their values. However, this does not necessarily imply allowing emotions to rule. As a leader, it would be inappropriate to disclose everything that comes to mind; yet, sharing thought processes is crucial.

Conduct of a Genuine Leader

Authenticity as a leader presents itself in a variety of ways; nevertheless, according to the leadership characteristic model, authentic leaders understand their mission, have strong values, build trusted connections, are self-disciplined, and are compassionate (Northouse, 2019). Authentic leaders are expected to be self-aware of their positive and negative traits in order to comprehend their role. In order for a leader to possess strong values and self-discipline, he or she must be result-oriented, task-driven, and focused. These executives recognize the organization's goals and are able to maintain focus in the face of various circumstances. In addition, they attempt to fulfill organizational objectives by fostering teamwork. Thirdly, real leadership necessitates honesty in order to facilitate the formation of trustworthy connections. Authentic leaders do not attempt to conceal their true selves or alter their actions. Individuals can swiftly determine whether or not another individual is being truthful. Furthermore, honest leaders inspire compassion and empathy. This is because these leaders are typically more interested with assisting others than with their own achievement or recognition. In addition, they possess a greater level of emotional intelligence that helps them to comprehend the needs of others readily and by putting themselves in their shoes.

An Instance of a Globally Recognizable Authentic Business Figure

Unlike other leadership theories, authentic leadership is founded on character rather than style. Consequently, real leaders are genuine and possess high levels of integrity. Ed White, the chief executive officer of General Motors, is a genuine leader. In 2008, when he joined the company, it was undergoing its most severe financial difficulties, which culminated to its bankruptcy filing. Within one year, he was able to fulfill his pledge to restore the vehicle manufacturer to its former glory. His genuine style of leadership enabled him to reach this milestone. The style was evident in his interactions with subordinates and clients, in which he strove to develop confidence by appearing in advertising and offering cashback alternatives.

Personal Evaluation

I consider myself to be an authentic leader based on the aforementioned characteristics and characteristics of authentic leadership. I am confident in my own skin and have no qualms about showing it to others. Moreover, I am compassionate since I do not see other people around me suffering, and I am willing to do everything it takes to restore their smiles. Lastly, I am a firm believer in the importance of fairness and personal integrity in all situations of decision-making. From elementary school through high school, I was elected by my classmates to numerous leadership positions in which I succeeded. However, I have determined that my interpersonal skills require improvement. If a person performs poorly on a task that I have allocated to them, I usually do it myself rather than instructing them again on how the job should be done.

Conclusion

Leadership is defined by service to others. There are numerous theories that describe the various types of leadership; nevertheless, only the authentic leadership theory has successfully fulfilled the definition of leadership. Authentic leadership is a notion developed in response to the limitations of the business world. Its emphasis provides an in-depth demonstration of the moral and ethical challenges confronting organizations; CEOs are more concerned with their own well-being than the collective good. It has been demonstrated that authentic leadership favorably impacts organizations in terms of their performance, culture, and employee dedication. Therefore, it is imperative that leaders begin to embrace it.

References

Hyang, B., Khiye, H., & Enjung, R. (2019). The moderating influence of nurse tenure on genuine leadership, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment Web site: Journal of Nursing Management, 00, 1-9.

P. Northouse (2019). Leadership: theorem and application (8th ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publishers

Effect of authentic leadership on organisational commitment: The moderating role of job satisfaction. 7(3), 2-10, Journal of Entrepreneurship and Organization Management. Web.

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Primary Research And Management In The 21st Century Scholarship Essay Help

Methodology Primary Investigation

Saunders et al. (2003) describe primary data as "data collected specifically for an ongoing research project."

Due to the changing nature of technology and the business environment, it is difficult for managers and supervisors to comprehend the optimal strategy to run firms. Therefore, it is crucial that managers support frequent primary research within and outside their firm to obtain information that can be useful in these areas, as opposed to relying on previous research works or information (Timm & Farr 1994). Observation, interviews, and the distribution of questionnaires are examples of methods used in primary research.

Management studies in Sheffield and New Castle

In order to collect primary data, questionnaires were distributed as part of the research. This is due to the fact that questionnaires are an effective instrument for collecting quantitative data used to test hypotheses (Koshy, 2005). According to Koshy, questionnaires are particularly significant since they allow researchers to collect data easily and prior to intervention. In addition, questionnaires are essential for assisting the researcher in developing questions that can be utilized in personal interviews or observations. After New Castle went live and provided RM training, the RM project created the questionnaire utilized. To preserve consistency in data collection, the same questionnaires as before were employed.

Sheffield management and New Castle were to conduct interviews, however due to management limits, this was not possible. The research management plans detailed the goal to conduct interviews with the personnel. The technique is advantageous because it helps researchers minimize ambiguity in respondents' queries and responses (Kvale 1996). Interviews also enable the researcher to better comprehend the respondents' answers by analyzing their body language (Gubriom & Holstein, 2002).

After the RM was live, a follow-up survey was distributed. This allowed the researcher to comprehend the respondent's genuine emotions and experiences. During the training, pilot studies were conducted to test the feasibility of the research and the suitability of the planned instruments. As there was insufficient time to conduct a full pilot investigation, the pilot study was conducted on the training colleagues.

The questionnaires contained three distinct components. (Appendix-). At each level of the study process, these distinct components were crucial in facilitating a more thorough examination.

A second section of the questionnaire consisted of an in-depth questionnaire that was administered after the RM system in order to examine how effectively the system had been outfitted for optimal performance. In this survey, questionnaires were also utilized to verify system-wide homogeneity.

The final step involves an administrator selecting a random sample of responders by entering data into an Excel spreadsheet. Random sampling ensures that each respondent has an equal and independent chance of being selected, thereby accurately representing the population (Baker, 2001). In addition, random sampling and administrator participation in sample selection helped to eliminate researcher bias. The sample comprised a total of (indicate number of distributed questionnaires)… respondents. This was ideal because there are several instances of non-respondents in many research studies (Survey Value Inc.) In light of the inaccuracies that could have resulted from non-response, this sample allowed for the avoidance of bias.

In April, desk research was conducted to assess the organization's current activities, in order to review the organization's current activities. In addition, an observational study was conducted to see how the staff were adapting to the training. Observation is a technique that reveals firsthand information about the subject of study and minimizes research errors (Robin & Babbie 2005.) Finally, a presentation was given to a subset of Sheffield's personnel to determine how they would like blended learning to be implemented. Presentation was picked since it appeals to a greater number of individuals (Truelove, 1997).

Secondary Analysis

Saunders et al. (2003) define secondary research as "data used for a research project that were initially collected for another purpose." Secondary research serves as a baseline for primary research and provides excellent guidance to the researcher when conducting research.

Green's 2003 research was one of the materials utilized for comparative purposes in secondary research. The study was conducted as part of the CIPD program. Other secondary sources were survey strategy, the intranet, and staff and management informational talks. This helps to provide an outline of the topic under study.

The results were then analyzed using (specify technique)… This analysis method is advantageous since it allows qualitative and quantitative results to be discussed and contrasted. The results were then discussed, leading to the offered conclusions.

Literature Review

The use of technology as a tool for learning and instruction dates back to the 1920s. Thomas Edison believed at this time that motion pictures will replace textbooks in classrooms (Rosenberg 2001). American soldiers preparing for the Second World War were trained with the earliest examples of contemporary technology. After the war, the soldiers continued their research on the same technology in an effort to improve it. The research was expanded in partnership with institutes of higher education.

The research led to the creation of employing computers rather of television. The widespread use of the World Wide Web has made it easier for students and teachers to obtain information than in the past (Holmer & Gardner 2006). Information regarding business enterprises is also readily available. In addition to business information, technology may be used to educate and train employees. According to Harrison (2006), when learning and business are intertwined, the firm can use the development of its personnel to implement its strategy. Utilizing employees' knowledge and talents can give an organization a competitive advantage. Smith, Araujo, and Burgoye (1999) suggested that both the individual and the organization need to learn for the organization's benefit, particularly in accomplishing organizational goals. When favorable conditions are in place, an individual is able to learn and ultimately affect the organization's knowledge. There are numerous steps involved in the act of learning. accordance with (Lehaney, 2004.),

Knowledge management encompasses the people, processes, activities, technology, and larger environment that enable the identification, development, communication, or sharing, and utilization of corporate and individual knowledge. It refers to the mechanisms that control the transmission and use of knowledge to achieve organizational goals (pp 13).

Consequently, knowledge management entails the generation, codification, and transfer of information and ideas from one source to another. According to Lehaney, knowledge management has become an essential part of all enterprises, and a Web search will yield hundreds of results in this field. To transfer knowledge from one source to another, both the trainer and the pupil must find the techniques appealing.

In terms of presentation style, for instance, training has become essential. The presentation will determine the trainer's caliber. According to Truelove (1997), a visual presentation can help a person overcome anxiety, particularly in the beginning of a presentation, when trainees will be hooked to the screen, allowing the presenter time to relax and acquire confidence. Presenting information with an overhead projector is prevalent today. They are significant because they allow for the inclusion of graphs and visual information when presenting. A person who is not an effective trainer can communicate with trainees through presentation.

This technique has led to significant improvements in management and the general work environment. A technique that can improve every part of an organization attracts a large number of individuals (Hardingham 2000).

Many individuals respond positively to various learning stimuli (Thorne, 2003). Therefore, businesses giving any type of instruction or training should strive to make the learning environment engaging for students.

Blended learning has been utilized to give an individual with a rich and interesting learning experience. This learning approach has prompted numerous organizations to invest in adult education, as they believe that experienced adults can be more useful to the organization. However, many adults are not yet prepared to study due to the difficulty of education. Swanson, Holton, and Knowles (1998) state that "adults who are willing and able to learn are valued members of society… Corporations recognize that their ultimate value comes in the untapped intelligence of their staff… However, many adults are unwilling to learn or have trouble doing so (pp 180).

To prevent a negative attitude toward learning, companies must adopt a pull strategy rather than a push approach. (2001, Pardo, Steed, & Wilson) This can be accomplished by managers who aid staff in incorporating newly acquired ideas. According to Sloman (2007), the learner's comprehension and drive to acquire new knowledge will reflect the success of a process and, ultimately, enable the firm to achieve its business goals.

The majority of alternative trainings have replaced conventional courses. According to the CIPD (2006) research, "only a third report that managers are trained in the appropriate skills to support the development of their teams, and only a fifth report that efforts are made to determine what motivates employees to learn" (Sloman 2007, pp 137). It has been determined that technology is necessary to improve e-learning. The technology must provide learners with simple access to information and make it ubiquitous. And, from the teacher's perspective, technology should complement modularization tactics and facilitate administration (Hoffman, 2005). This can be accomplished by removing obstacles to training and providing the necessary intervention (Stolovitch, 2006). This type of organizational intervention may involve identifying practices and obstacles that must be eliminated. The practices may be factors to bad learning attitudes. Trainers must comprehend the theory before engaging in practice (Epic Thinking 2002).

Bibliography

Alpha Books, ISBN 0028639871, The Complete Idiots Guide to Business Statistics, by S. Baker, 2001.

Web publication of Epic Thinking (2002).

Gubrium, J. F., and Holstein, J. A. (2002). Handbook of Interview Research: Context and Method.

A. Hardingham, Psychology for Trainers (Beekman Books, Inc., 2000), ISBN: 0846451379

Harrison R. (2006). Learning and Development. Janico Publishing House. ISBN: 8179924441.

Concepts and practice of e-learning. Sage Publications, Inc., ISBN 1412911117.

Building an e-learning organization, Web, S. Hoffman (2005).

Koshy, V. (2005). Action for enhancing Practice: A Practical Guide.

An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing, Sage Publications Inc., 1996, ISBN: 080395820X.

Beyond knowledge management, ISBN 159140181X, Idea Group Inc., Lehaney B. (IGI).

Building E-learning into Your Organization, ISBN 0566084171, Gower Publishing Ltd., Pardo, Steed, and Wilson, 2001.

Research Methods for Social Work by A. Robin and E. R. Babbie, ISBN 053462109, Thomson Wadsworth, 2005.

E-learning: Strategies for Delivering Knowledge in the Digital Age, ISBN 0071362664, McGraw-Hill Profession, 2001, by M. J. Rosenberg.

Sloman, M. (2007). The Changing World of the Trainer: Emerging Best Practice. Elsevier. ISBN: 0750680539.

Smith M.E., L. Araujo, and J. Burgoyne (1999). Organizational Learning and the Learning Organization: Advances in…

ISBN 076195165, published by Sage Publications Inc.

Beyond Training Ain't Performance Fieldbook: Strategies, Tools, and Guidance's, ASTD, 2006, ISBN: 1562864076.

Survey Value Inc. (n.d.): Don't Let These Common Sampling Problems Sink Your Research Investment. Web.

Swanson, R. A., E. F. Holton, and M. S. Knowles, The Adult Learner: The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human, Gulf Professional Publishing, 1998, ISBN: 0884151158.

Timm, C. F., and R. C. Farr, Business Research: An Informal Guide, Thomson Crisp Learning, 1994, ISBN 1560522496.

Truelove. S. (1997): Training in practice, ISBN 063120251X, Blackwell Publishing.

Thorne K (2003): Blended learning: How to Integrate online and Traditional learning, ISBN 07494391017 Kogan page.

[supanova question]

Primary Research And Management In The 21st Century Scholarship Essay Help

Methodology Primary Investigation

Saunders et al. (2003) describe primary data as "data collected specifically for an ongoing research project."

Due to the changing nature of technology and the business environment, it is difficult for managers and supervisors to comprehend the optimal strategy to run firms. Therefore, it is crucial that managers support frequent primary research within and outside their firm to obtain information that can be useful in these areas, as opposed to relying on previous research works or information (Timm & Farr 1994). Observation, interviews, and the distribution of questionnaires are examples of methods used in primary research.

Management studies in Sheffield and New Castle

In order to collect primary data, questionnaires were distributed as part of the research. This is due to the fact that questionnaires are an effective instrument for collecting quantitative data used to test hypotheses (Koshy, 2005). According to Koshy, questionnaires are particularly significant since they allow researchers to collect data easily and prior to intervention. In addition, questionnaires are essential for assisting the researcher in developing questions that can be utilized in personal interviews or observations. After New Castle went live and provided RM training, the RM project created the questionnaire utilized. To preserve consistency in data collection, the same questionnaires as before were employed.

Sheffield management and New Castle were to conduct interviews, however due to management limits, this was not possible. The research management plans detailed the goal to conduct interviews with the personnel. The technique is advantageous because it helps researchers minimize ambiguity in respondents' queries and responses (Kvale 1996). Interviews also enable the researcher to better comprehend the respondents' answers by analyzing their body language (Gubriom & Holstein, 2002).

After the RM was live, a follow-up survey was distributed. This allowed the researcher to comprehend the respondent's genuine emotions and experiences. During the training, pilot studies were conducted to test the feasibility of the research and the suitability of the planned instruments. As there was insufficient time to conduct a full pilot investigation, the pilot study was conducted on the training colleagues.

The questionnaires contained three distinct components. (Appendix-). At each level of the study process, these distinct components were crucial in facilitating a more thorough examination.

A second section of the questionnaire consisted of an in-depth questionnaire that was administered after the RM system in order to examine how effectively the system had been outfitted for optimal performance. In this survey, questionnaires were also utilized to verify system-wide homogeneity.

The final step involves an administrator selecting a random sample of responders by entering data into an Excel spreadsheet. Random sampling ensures that each respondent has an equal and independent chance of being selected, thereby accurately representing the population (Baker, 2001). In addition, random sampling and administrator participation in sample selection helped to eliminate researcher bias. The sample comprised a total of (indicate number of distributed questionnaires)… respondents. This was ideal because there are several instances of non-respondents in many research studies (Survey Value Inc.) In light of the inaccuracies that could have resulted from non-response, this sample allowed for the avoidance of bias.

In April, desk research was conducted to assess the organization's current activities, in order to review the organization's current activities. In addition, an observational study was conducted to see how the staff were adapting to the training. Observation is a technique that reveals firsthand information about the subject of study and minimizes research errors (Robin & Babbie 2005.) Finally, a presentation was given to a subset of Sheffield's personnel to determine how they would like blended learning to be implemented. Presentation was picked since it appeals to a greater number of individuals (Truelove, 1997).

Secondary Analysis

Saunders et al. (2003) define secondary research as "data used for a research project that were initially collected for another purpose." Secondary research serves as a baseline for primary research and provides excellent guidance to the researcher when conducting research.

Green's 2003 research was one of the materials utilized for comparative purposes in secondary research. The study was conducted as part of the CIPD program. Other secondary sources were survey strategy, the intranet, and staff and management informational talks. This helps to provide an outline of the topic under study.

The results were then analyzed using (specify technique)… This analysis method is advantageous since it allows qualitative and quantitative results to be discussed and contrasted. The results were then discussed, leading to the offered conclusions.

Literature Review

The use of technology as a tool for learning and instruction dates back to the 1920s. Thomas Edison believed at this time that motion pictures will replace textbooks in classrooms (Rosenberg 2001). American soldiers preparing for the Second World War were trained with the earliest examples of contemporary technology. After the war, the soldiers continued their research on the same technology in an effort to improve it. The research was expanded in partnership with institutes of higher education.

The research led to the creation of employing computers rather of television. The widespread use of the World Wide Web has made it easier for students and teachers to obtain information than in the past (Holmer & Gardner 2006). Information regarding business enterprises is also readily available. In addition to business information, technology may be used to educate and train employees. According to Harrison (2006), when learning and business are intertwined, the firm can use the development of its personnel to implement its strategy. Utilizing employees' knowledge and talents can give an organization a competitive advantage. Smith, Araujo, and Burgoye (1999) suggested that both the individual and the organization need to learn for the organization's benefit, particularly in accomplishing organizational goals. When favorable conditions are in place, an individual is able to learn and ultimately affect the organization's knowledge. There are numerous steps involved in the act of learning. accordance with (Lehaney, 2004.),

Knowledge management encompasses the people, processes, activities, technology, and larger environment that enable the identification, development, communication, or sharing, and utilization of corporate and individual knowledge. It refers to the mechanisms that control the transmission and use of knowledge to achieve organizational goals (pp 13).

Consequently, knowledge management entails the generation, codification, and transfer of information and ideas from one source to another. According to Lehaney, knowledge management has become an essential part of all enterprises, and a Web search will yield hundreds of results in this field. To transfer knowledge from one source to another, both the trainer and the pupil must find the techniques appealing.

In terms of presentation style, for instance, training has become essential. The presentation will determine the trainer's caliber. According to Truelove (1997), a visual presentation can help a person overcome anxiety, particularly in the beginning of a presentation, when trainees will be hooked to the screen, allowing the presenter time to relax and acquire confidence. Presenting information with an overhead projector is prevalent today. They are significant because they allow for the inclusion of graphs and visual information when presenting. A person who is not an effective trainer can communicate with trainees through presentation.

This technique has led to significant improvements in management and the general work environment. A technique that can improve every part of an organization attracts a large number of individuals (Hardingham 2000).

Many individuals respond positively to various learning stimuli (Thorne, 2003). Therefore, businesses giving any type of instruction or training should strive to make the learning environment engaging for students.

Blended learning has been utilized to give an individual with a rich and interesting learning experience. This learning approach has prompted numerous organizations to invest in adult education, as they believe that experienced adults can be more useful to the organization. However, many adults are not yet prepared to study due to the difficulty of education. Swanson, Holton, and Knowles (1998) state that "adults who are willing and able to learn are valued members of society… Corporations recognize that their ultimate value comes in the untapped intelligence of their staff… However, many adults are unwilling to learn or have trouble doing so (pp 180).

To prevent a negative attitude toward learning, companies must adopt a pull strategy rather than a push approach. (2001, Pardo, Steed, & Wilson) This can be accomplished by managers who aid staff in incorporating newly acquired ideas. According to Sloman (2007), the learner's comprehension and drive to acquire new knowledge will reflect the success of a process and, ultimately, enable the firm to achieve its business goals.

The majority of alternative trainings have replaced conventional courses. According to the CIPD (2006) research, "only a third report that managers are trained in the appropriate skills to support the development of their teams, and only a fifth report that efforts are made to determine what motivates employees to learn" (Sloman 2007, pp 137). It has been determined that technology is necessary to improve e-learning. The technology must provide learners with simple access to information and make it ubiquitous. And, from the teacher's perspective, technology should complement modularization tactics and facilitate administration (Hoffman, 2005). This can be accomplished by removing obstacles to training and providing the necessary intervention (Stolovitch, 2006). This type of organizational intervention may involve identifying practices and obstacles that must be eliminated. The practices may be factors to bad learning attitudes. Trainers must comprehend the theory before engaging in practice (Epic Thinking 2002).

Bibliography

Alpha Books, ISBN 0028639871, The Complete Idiots Guide to Business Statistics, by S. Baker, 2001.

Web publication of Epic Thinking (2002).

Gubrium, J. F., and Holstein, J. A. (2002). Handbook of Interview Research: Context and Method.

A. Hardingham, Psychology for Trainers (Beekman Books, Inc., 2000), ISBN: 0846451379

Harrison R. (2006). Learning and Development. Janico Publishing House. ISBN: 8179924441.

Concepts and practice of e-learning. Sage Publications, Inc., ISBN 1412911117.

Building an e-learning organization, Web, S. Hoffman (2005).

Koshy, V. (2005). Action for enhancing Practice: A Practical Guide.

An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing, Sage Publications Inc., 1996, ISBN: 080395820X.

Beyond knowledge management, ISBN 159140181X, Idea Group Inc., Lehaney B. (IGI).

Building E-learning into Your Organization, ISBN 0566084171, Gower Publishing Ltd., Pardo, Steed, and Wilson, 2001.

Research Methods for Social Work by A. Robin and E. R. Babbie, ISBN 053462109, Thomson Wadsworth, 2005.

E-learning: Strategies for Delivering Knowledge in the Digital Age, ISBN 0071362664, McGraw-Hill Profession, 2001, by M. J. Rosenberg.

Sloman, M. (2007). The Changing World of the Trainer: Emerging Best Practice. Elsevier. ISBN: 0750680539.

Smith M.E., L. Araujo, and J. Burgoyne (1999). Organizational Learning and the Learning Organization: Advances in…

ISBN 076195165, published by Sage Publications Inc.

Beyond Training Ain't Performance Fieldbook: Strategies, Tools, and Guidance's, ASTD, 2006, ISBN: 1562864076.

Survey Value Inc. (n.d.): Don't Let These Common Sampling Problems Sink Your Research Investment. Web.

Swanson, R. A., E. F. Holton, and M. S. Knowles, The Adult Learner: The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human, Gulf Professional Publishing, 1998, ISBN: 0884151158.

Timm, C. F., and R. C. Farr, Business Research: An Informal Guide, Thomson Crisp Learning, 1994, ISBN 1560522496.

Truelove. S. (1997): Training in practice, ISBN 063120251X, Blackwell Publishing.

Thorne K (2003): Blended learning: How to Integrate online and Traditional learning, ISBN 07494391017 Kogan page.

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Steve Jobs And His Management Career Scholarship Essay Help

Introduction

In the contemporary business world, managers play a crucial role in ensuring that their contributions to success are sustainable. The manager's responsibility is to plan, organize, direct, and control an organization's resources in order to fulfill its goals and objectives (Erven, 1994). This study will examine Steve Jobs as one of the most successful company managers in history.

Steve Jobs has held the role of chief executive officer of Apple Inc. for many years. Apple Inc. is a manufacturer of computer hardware, computer software, and electronics in the computer industry. Due to its creative products, the company has been highly competitive on the market (Linzmayer, 2009). Steve Jobs's managerial career has been successful because he has been able to achieve Apple Inc.'s mission and objectives.

Detailed description of the work being performed by Steve

Steve Jobs was a co-founder of Apple Inc. in the 1990s and has extensive experience managing the company's resources. Apple Inc. was created in 1995 by Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne, and themselves with the intention of becoming one of the world's most inventive computer firms. Since 1997, Steve Jobs has served as Apple's president and has accomplished remarkable feats for the company. Tim Cook has served as acting president of the corporation while Steve Jobs recovers from his recent health issues. Under the leadership of Steve Jobs, the corporation has been able to develop breakthrough products and attain greater competitive heights (Linzmayer, 2009).

In 1976, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne founded Apple Inc. Later on, Ronald Wayne sold his interests to the remaining two partners and ceased to be a partner. Mark Markkula was provided with finances and knowledge throughout the establishment of the business. The company's headquarters are located in Cupertino, California. The company produces computer software, electronic components, and business servers.

The company's software offerings include of Final Cut Studio for the Mac OS X operating system, iWork, Aperture, iLife, Logic Studio, and iTunes. The company's computer hardware products include Macintosh PCs, iPhone, iPad, and iPods (Linzmayer, 2009). The corporation is governed by a board of directors who make the final decisions. There are committees elected to oversee firm projects. Workers are organized into teams, which serve as the fundamental operational unit. The executive team's decisions are implemented by the teams (Hubbard, 1992).

Application of Fayol's Key Administrative Roles

Planning

Planning is the managerial job of setting an organization's mission, goals, and objectives. Managers must determine how these goals, missions, and objectives will be fulfilled within a specified time frame. Planning is the practice of establishing attainable objectives. Plans are focused on the future, and managers are responsible for ensuring the firm meets its objectives (Erven, 1994).

Steve has been skilled in organizing the company's activities. Apple's market success can be attributed to its excellent response to market shifts. Apple devised the approach of developing items such as iPhones after understanding there was a significant demand for electronics. Thus, the corporation broadened its product line, and new products have been developed in addition to its core offerings. Apple has always produced computer software and hardware, but its management has realized that it must diversify into the creation of other items (Bach, 2007).

The company's objective is to create new products. Steve Jobs has built an environment that stimulates innovation among employees. This has led to the development of cutting-edge technologies. Apple has differentiated its products, which has drawn a large number of users in international markets. Apple Inc.'s objective is to achieve a dominant position on the worldwide market. To accomplish this, Steve Jobs devised the approach of selling the company's products in retail locations and online. Customers get easier access to the company's items through online retailers. The company's sales have increased since the launch of its online outlets (Bach, 2007).

Steve Jobs has been effective at acquiring and retaining customers. Apple has succeeded in capturing market share and customer loyalty. The majority of customers enjoy the company's items due to their distinctive qualities and the company's innovation. The company's brands are readily recognisable in the marketplace, and many customers are willing to purchase from the company again. In addition, the corporation is able to identify and meet the needs of its customers with its manufactured brands (Bach, 2007).

Organizing

Managers are responsible for establishing the internal structures of an organization. Additionally, they organize and direct tasks within the organization. Additionally, they govern the flow of information amongst all parties involved. Managers spread authority throughout the organization through the organizing process. A company's day-to-day performance is maintained by its managers. Managers coordinate activities to guarantee the achievement of predetermined goals and objectives (Erven, 1994).

Steve Jobs has designed Apple Company's internal systems to ensure that all employees be inventive. He assembled teams to work on the company's many strategic positions. These teams have team leaders, and team members are required to perform a proportional share of the work. Employees are organized into teams based on their respective occupations. This technique has increased performance since employees may create items that align with their performance lines (Apple Website, 2010).

Apple created the enterprise resource planning strategy as a means of enhancing communication between all parties involved. The ERP system enables managers to communicate with other stakeholders for effective resource management. Through the enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, managers may monitor all organization activities. By establishing teams, Steve Jobs has spread his authority throughout the firm. Each team has a leader who assigns responsibilities to junior staff. This technique was adopted so that upper management has less responsibilities for effective management. The top management provides sufficient resources to the teams so that they can conduct their operations optimally. Teams receive training to deliver the most up-to-date market information ( (Apple Website, 2010).

Staffing

This refers to the process of recruiting and retaining talented experts within a business. Managers are responsible for personnel recruitment, hiring, training, evaluation, and compensation (Erven, 1994). Steve Jobs possesses exceptional human resource management and leadership skills, which he has utilized to enhance the performance of his staff. Apple has been able to create unique goods by utilizing contemporary technologies.

The organization encourages its employees to use their talents to create items that meet market need. Employees have been urged to receive ongoing training to ensure they obtain the greatest skills and improve their abilities. Jobs created work teams within the firm as a means of fostering teamwork (O'Grady, 2008).

Steve Jobs implemented the strategy of offering competitive compensation in order to attract and retain qualified personnel. There are numerous different incentives supplied to firm personnel as a means of motivation. The company has collaborated with research centers to do technological research. This technique has enabled the corporation to create goods that meet market requirements (Apple Website, 2010).

The corporation provides many incentive programs for its employees. Among these tactics are staff training, paid time off, and promotions, among others. Steve Jobs devised a technique for motivating his employees in order to encourage them to create creative goods. By developing more effective incentive methods, Apple has been able to attract and retain individuals from other industries. This has been a component in the company's success because its diversity has increased its performance on the international market (Bach, 2007).

Controlling

Managers are responsible for establishing performance criteria based on the organization's goals and objectives. Managers are responsible for measuring and reporting actual performance. The manager should next take the necessary steps to verify the actual performance meets the established benchmarks (Erven, 1994).

All Apple employees sign performance contracts, indicating that the company's president has implemented control methods to ensure that employees meet the company's goals. There is an emphasis on teamwork, and each team has its own set of aims and objectives. There are sufficient control systems in place to guarantee that each team meets its objectives. Deviations from standard performance are examined and corrective actions are taken (Apple Website, 2010).

Apple has effectively controlled the expenses associated with the manufacturing and marketing processes. Apple has pursued cost leadership and differentiation initiatives, which have contributed to the company's improved sales volume. Diverse product suppliers have been enlisted to provide low-priced, high-quality goods as part of an effort to pursue cost leadership initiatives. Apple has created collaborations with many suppliers to supply the corporation with supplies. There are numerous suppliers, including Intel, General Electric, and others. The vendors have been regulated to guarantee that they supply reduced-cost, high-quality materials.

Due to the cheap cost of manufacture, the company's products are offered at lower costs. Apple has achieved commercial success by differentiating itself from larger competitors like as Microsoft and IBM, among others. iTunes, the iPhone, and other goods are examples of differentiated products. In all company departments, differentiation has been realized (Linzmayer, 2009).

The Greatest Obstacles Inherent to Steve's Job

Several business commentators have questioned Steve Jobs' choice to cease getting supplies from IBM. Steve Jobs devised this plan to replace IBM with Intel as a supplier of computer chips. In 2005, Apple's management unveiled a plan to switch from IBM to Intel as its supplier of computer chips. It is anticipated that the company will lose clients as a result of this issue. IBM has been the supplier of the chips for a long time, and switching suppliers would cause confusion amongst customers. This may impact the brand's image and client loyalty (Marketing teacher, 2010).

Steve Jobs has confronted the difficulty of guarding the company's trade secrets. Some employees of the organization are reportedly leaking company secrets, which is causing a great deal of chaos. This can be explained by the 2005 incident in which secret information pertaining to the introduction of the company's new products was leaked to bloggers. The company's employees had divulged information regarding Asteroid products. This is a clear indicator that a comparable catastrophe is still a risk for the organization in the near future (Datamonitor, 2006).

Performance of Steve

Jobs has been successful in his managerial career, since the organization has achieved success under his leadership. Steve Jobs's ability to effectively manage the company is evidenced by the fact that the most inventive items have been created during his tenure. With the company's introduction of online stores, the sales volume has increased. The company's products have been accessible to a large number of consumers through the usage of online systems. Apple's profits have improved as a result of the involvement of external suppliers in the marketing of its products.

In 2008, Apple's revenues climbed by 34.9% as a result of the introduction of iTunes web sales. This marked an increase in sales from 2007's $2.7 billion to 2008's $3.64 billion. iTunes' online store contains more than 2,500 films, 30,000 television episodes, and 10 million music (Linzmayer, 2009).

The corporation has made significant enhancements to the sale of iTunes, including the sale of new movies from major film studios on the same day as their DVD release. Using the user's existing digital music collection, compatible songs can be compiled. The corporation has decreased the price of iTunes songs, which are now accessible for only 69 cents while other music cost 99 cents each. New releases and hits are sold for $1.29 (Linzmayer, 2009).

Conclusion

Steve Jobs's managerial career has been successful because he has been able to achieve Apple Inc.'s mission and objectives. After Steve Jobs became leadership of Apple, the company has been able to create revolutionary goods. The organization has been able to control its costs by employing several cost-reduction measures. In order to reach as many people as possible, the corporation has centered its marketing efforts on its retail locations, internet stores, and other subsidiaries. Apple has achieved online retail success. This program enables buyers to purchase Apple products via online platforms. By advertising the company's products through its internet system, global strategies have been realized. This demonstrates that Steve Jobs is a superb manager, as the company's performance demonstrates.

References

Apple Website (2010). Web.

Bach, B. (2007). Cybermarketing: Implications of Enabling Technologies for Apple Inc., GRIN Verlag, ISBN: 3638810968, 9783638810968.

Datamonitor (2006). Website of Apple Computer, Inc.

Erven, B. L. (1994). The five management functions. Web.

Hubbard, D. (1992). Process of forecasting at Apple computer. Eleventh issue of the Journal of Business Forecasting Methods & Systems.

Linzmayer, R. W. (2009). No Starch Press. 2009. Web. Apple confidential: The true tale of Apple Computer, Inc.

Marketing instructor (2010). Web. SWOT Analysis of Apple.

O’Grady, J. D. (2008). ABC-CLIO, ISBN 0313362440, 9780313362446, Apple Inc.

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IBM Company: Assessment On The Innovation Capabilities Scholarship Essay Help

Since the beginning of the 20th century, developments in information technology have determined economic potential, brand distinctiveness, and corporate image. Innovation is simply the process of incorporating novelty into a production process or product. It consists of an idea, its execution, the authentic manufacture of the innovation, and market acceptability. Essentially, buyer response decides the innovation's success. Without acceptance, novel concepts and remedies cannot become innovations. IBM is one of the most prestigious computer businesses formed as an inventive business. IBM is a major firm with annual revenue of S$96 billion that is influenced by both customer and technological shifts (IBM Home page 2009).

Innovation's Key Drivers

IBM is a multinational computer business that was founded in 1889. Thus, the company's hardware and software businesses were established in the 1970s, when computers were being customized. Today's primary product categories are consumer electronics and software. Personal computers and media players, mobile phones, computer hardware and software are the primary items (IBM Home Page 2009). IBM achieves a stable market position due to its innovative products and entrepreneurial spirit in the software and computer industries.

This can be achieved most effectively by allowing divisions that specialize in certain areas the freedom to experiment, by promoting a culture that emphasizes a big hit, by creating compensation systems that reward individual and group creativity, and by implementing an accounting system that prioritizes business development. Internal and external success factors can be distinguished as the primary success drivers (Bellis, 2001; IBM Home Page, 2009).

External Success Factors

Customers and technology are the leading forces in this industry. Customers desire products that fulfill their requirements or enhance their productivity. IBM seeks to provide these advantages at a lower cost, smaller size, and faster performance. Personal computers and notebooks face a number of obstacles operating in an industry with such rapid development, including production costs, intellectual property owners, and monopolies. As predicted, IBM will continue to be one of the most profitable corporations in the future. IBM Corporation's strengths include expertise, relationships, sales, and history (Sterman, 2000).

The company's challenges are founded on the high quality of its products and services. Relationships are maintained by direct sales staff. High competition and a continuously changing technology industry are vulnerabilities. Innovative PC technology is expensive, thus not all potential buyers can currently afford it. IBM, in contrast to Dell Corporation, strives to maintain high service standards by presenting and selling (most importantly) high-quality products to its clients (Bennett et al 1994; IBM Corp. 2009).

IBM, as an innovative firm, faces a variety of potential marketing strategies. At one extreme, they can choose policies that maximize short-term profits and then decide to respond to competition as it occurs, such as a skimming pricing scheme. At the other extreme, businesses can create a solid market position by accepting low immediate profits and a longer period of time to recoup their outlays, so making it more difficult for new entrants to enter the market, as with a market penetration pricing policy (Kotler and Armstrong 2005).

They may opt to be compensated for their first expenditures while maintaining a competitive edge, and then exploit the advantage to raise volume and strengthen their market position. From a social standpoint, the merits of several inventions are frequently contested. Beneficial are fundamental inventions that generate something new in a physical sense. Acceptance of change, programmed perception of market demands, linking opportunity and corporate resources, identifying creative opportunities and tactics, and analyzing, determining, marketing, and insuring market acceptance are outlined using IBM as an example of the innovation process (Chase and Podlesnik 2006; IBM boosts sales productivity 2009).

Internal Success Factors

Internal success drivers include a unique understanding of market needs and desires, as well as creative and inventive engineering staff concepts. The most significant technological changes occurred between 1994 and 1997 and 1998 and 2005. These alterations and software modifications were driven by the rising competitiveness and global dominance of IBM's direct competitor, IBM. Thus, the business consistently employs the blue ocean approach, which enables IBM to remain competitive and profitable.

This strategy is characterized by ongoing innovation in all sectors and directions (Crawford 2003). Therefore, IBM must transition from the blue ocean strategy to the red ocean strategy based on the notion that the market is saturated with innovations and adapt to market conditions and products generated by competitors (IBM Home Page 2009). The senior leadership of a corporation is crucial to implementing the necessary reforms. Jobs's initial action is to conduct an organizational assessment of the company's strengths and weaknesses in terms of its entrepreneurial ability. The next phase, following the completion of the audit, is to design action plans for enhancing the company's entrepreneurial potential.

Typically, this entails an inventive planning exercise and maybe a management development program meant to assist managers in their transition from technical specialists to more entrepreneurially-minded general managers (Crawford 2003; IBM takes customer service to another level. 2009).

IBM's Strategic Enablers

IBM Inc. is a global private corporation. A market analysis of the existing and anticipated needs, behavior, perceptions, and preferences of consumers and intermediate marketing organizations (retailers, wholesalers, etc.) is essential for a company to find areas requiring creative solutions and unique products and services (Hollensen, 2007). There is no substitute for a thorough market study as a guide to understanding the firm's consumers, prospects, and distributors, as well as finding areas where creative solutions and novel products and services can be advantageous (IBM Home Page 2009).

Competitive benchmarking can serve two purposes for IBM: recognizing what creative and innovative things competitors are doing and determining who is the best in each area needing creativity and innovation. Once such a “benchmark” is established, whether in the firm’s business or another industry, it is beneficial to research the case thoroughly to determine what lessons may be drawn from the experience (Big-Bang, Technologies Converge at Last, 2004).

There are numerous ways to differentiate innovations. These are ranked according to significance, applicability, and impact. Innovations include the introduction of completely new items, product variations, the expansion of new services, new packages, new advertising campaigns, and different price structures. Exists a continuum of innovation, ranging from relatively little changes to completely new, significant developments that give rise to new industries. From the standpoint of the consumer, three types of product innovations can be distinguished: basic, functional, and adaptable.

The impact of fundamental breakthroughs is far bigger than that of adaptive innovations (Crawford 2003). IBM Inc. is an innovative company since it develops a novel approach to the computer industry and technologies (Rothaermel 2000). Wherever completely new products are invented, new industries emerge. Consequently, fundamental innovation may result in a temporary dominant position within an industry. The generation of primary demand is more vital for such novel products than for adaptations (Clarke 2001; IBM Business Consulting 2006).

Drucker's statement highlights the central importance of marketing in business. It implies that markets do not exist naturally and that effective demand is dependent on customers generated by marketing effort. It emphasizes that the consumer controls the fundamental directions and parameters of a firm. “The client is the cornerstone and lifeblood of a business, and society entrusts wealth-generating resources to the commercial enterprise in order to serve the customer.” (Drucker p. 54 cited Crawford 2003 p. 92).

IBM uses consumer-based techniques to the production of new product ideas as part of any innovation that seeks to find areas in need of creative solutions and unique products and services. In addition, similar methods can be applied to “internal consumers,” that is, all organizational members who utilize organizational products and services (Portfolio Management Capabilities Using IBM Rational Portfolio 2009).

Creativity and innovation in producing products and services as well as making any company decision can benefit immensely from marketing concepts and techniques. In this view, marketing is not only a function, but also a management perspective and philosophy that provides a collection of concepts and instruments that can increase an organization's creativity and innovation. Management has a higher chance of preparing the organization for the twenty-first century if it utilizes marketing principles and techniques to promote organizational creativity and innovation (Degraff and Lawrence 2002).

In functional innovations, the product or service remains mostly unchanged, while the mechanism for performing the function is altered. Such improvements may necessitate substantial adaptation on the part of customers. Adaptive innovations are the least complicated and involve modest changes to an existing product's packaging, color, design, form, and trim. The innovations that are adopted do not perform new functions for the user and do not necessitate new consumer skills or behavior patterns. The innovations of IBM have been adopted by a significant number of companies globally. Software solutions and computer technology are involved.

IBM defines entrepreneurship as the process of establishing a new firm within an existing organization. Alternatively, entrepreneurship is the act of launching a new firm (Mclagan, 2006). The entrepreneur establishes a new business as a separate, independent entity, whereas the marketer establishes a new business within or as a subsidiary of an existing business. IBM Computer represented enterprise, while IBM's renowned PC division represented innovation. Both situations demanded an entrepreneurial mindset (Winograd 1997). In businesses that support entrepreneurial action, managers have a tendency to adopt a very nondirective management style.

Under these conditions, the most effective style is a positive laissez-faire style in which the manager offers subordinates a large level of leeway in setting goals and achieving them. These bosses have a tremendous lot of confidence in their subordinates. The concept is that people understand their responsibilities, thus they will perform them with minimal direction. This allows subordinates a significant lot of creative freedom in achieving their objectives, which may result in the development of innovative goods, production processes, or procedures that boost the unit's efficiency (IBM Home Page 2009; Hophe and Woolf 2003).

Strategic Obstacles at IBM

Marketing is essentially a method for change. It fosters competition and generates changes in aspects such as products, prices, channels, and advertising in order to meet the changing demands of dynamic markets. This requires creativity and foresight in order to detect advancements along new frontiers. Nonetheless, when new horizons become apparent, risks and hazards also emerge. For circumstances that tax resources and technology, planning becomes challenging and the timing and benefits are unknown. IBM's innovations are favorable for the corporation because they represent its main business.

IBM's devices are distinguished by their color graphics, open architecture, and 5.25-inch floppy disk drive. Typically, design reasoning refers to the record of the analysis that led to the selection of the particular artifact or feature in issue (IBM Home Page 2009).

The most significant technological changes occurred between 1994 and 1997 and 1998 and 2005. These alterations and software modifications were driven by the rising competitiveness and global dominance of IBM's direct competitor, IBM. The year 2002 was noted by the introduction of a novel device, the Butterfly Grid. The following innovations appeared in 2005: nanotechnologies. Therefore, the principal paths that helped IBM become a global leader are scientific method, specialization, and scale intensity (Turkle, 1995).

The case of IBM strongly illustrates that change management requires the constant management of new market conditions and the solution of new difficulties. However, change is frequently perceived as a danger to established profitable businesses and goods. In actuality, the reverse is true (Mills and Grandy 2000). By identifying profitable possibilities in a state of constant change, businesses are able to overcome threats and achieve growth.

To effectively manage change, businesses must anticipate developments, anticipate logical repercussions, transform them into prospective possibilities, and devise strategies for capitalizing on profitable options. Therefore, marketing management must foster an environment in which market change is predicted, anticipated, and wanted (Keegan and Green 2003). To thrive, corporate systems must adapt to environmental changes and be adaptable enough to deal with their repercussions.

New products and services must be programmed and planned for development. The potential inherent in change must become the executives' primary emphasis. Therefore, management must foster an environment in which market change is predicted, anticipated, and sought. To thrive, corporate systems must adapt to environmental changes and be adaptable enough to deal with their repercussions. New products and services must be programmed and planned for development. The potential inherent in change must become the executives' primary emphasis (Kotabe and Helsen 2006).

Following technical changes in the computer sector and developing new solutions for professional users are challenges for the organization. Observers in the business expect that notebook CPUs will double in power every two years, reaching 12 GHz in five years. Disks will become smaller, and solid-state memory may replace them. Displays will become more lucid, brighter, more energy-efficient, and may even expand to desktop dimensions.

Perhaps not enough to keep up with power-hungry applications like as multimedia and cellular communications, battery efficiency will increase (Anthes, Brewin, 2002). For this reason, IBM's strategies should incorporate provisions for technology refresh early in the design phase of important systems and components to permit upgrades during system development, production, and operation. Cost leadership (Porter, 1980) is a source of sustainable competitive advantage if there are hurdles preventing other organizations from obtaining the same low costs.

It is incredibly difficult for every IT organization to avoid risks and losses related with market and environmental changes. IBM's technologies produce two types of forces: monopolistic and competitive. The monopolistic forces or the delayed action of competition provide incentives for innovation to the innovator. The competitive characteristics disseminate the advantages of prior inventions to the general public (Tischler, 2004).

Successful innovation management must emphasize the competitive component. Innovation is hence one of the business firm's competitive tools. It is a significant means of creating a comparative advantage, albeit occasionally temporary. It must be handled when reacting to change and seeking to fulfill market expectations, and scheduled innovation is becoming one of the pillars of company strategy (Portfolio Management Capabilities Using IBM 2009).

In order to promote and accelerate economic development, programmed innovation is a crucial process that necessitates large amounts of resources and work. The outcome of R&D is novelty and change, and hence market potential (Kotabe and Helsen 2006). They originate from both, with marketing playing an important part. Acceptance of the urgency and inevitability of change and innovation in an era of rapidly advancing technology is a fundamental management and organizational duty. This is essentially a directorship responsibility that requires an awareness on the part of top management

Professional Application Of Yield Management Scholarship Essay Help

The end goal of YM usage has been decided to be revenue expansion. Hotel management adopted the YM method from the aviation industry in order to make informed decisions for their operations. It has been argued that YM is divided into three managerial areas consisting of price, inventory, and consumer use length. These partitions ought to increase earnings. In circumstances of inefficient YM management, it is essential to recognize that there are system limits, such as a decline in visitor pleasure, brain damage, and RevPAR (revenue per available room) decline.

The management of occupancy and room rates are intertwined with YM through certain managerial practices, including as occupancy restrictions and inventory control. Exceptionally, the comprehensive implementation of YM is not essential and vital for occupancy management. Occupancy management necessitates that managers get an understanding of their products in order to ease the implementation of strategies for optimal room utilization. The anticipation of increased revenue is dependent on demand as well. Therefore, it is necessary to have a clear and unambiguous grasp of the various elements affecting demand and its reaction time.

Price has consequence effects that increase demand variety. In addition, price variation is delicate due to the ramifications it has on clients, resulting in various demand manipulations. A market-based pricing approach has the potential to generate substantial profits. However, achieving this objective requires management that comprehends market demand and competitiveness. Researchers have argued that the cost-based strategy for determining hotel room pricing is inadequate. The model is flawed because it does not account for market factors and differences, such as competition, price elasticity, and demand. Adoption of proactive management solutions is crucial for regulating demand and supply without diminishing revenue.

Through an understanding of discounts and various market groups, price adjustment tactics have been developed and emphasized. In their YM proceedings, hotel businesses could employ the giving of discounts. When demand is low or when supply exceeds demand, discounts boost the resulting yield. However, setting discounts should be done carefully by specifying the discount amount and duration. On the other hand, segmentation is crucial for maximizing revenue returns. This is seen in price discrimination that earns the hotel and/or service center more money. The basis of market segmentation is treating clients and their needs with respect and hospitality. This promotes the deployment of methods to meet the varying needs of customers through anti-competitive treatment and models of customer satisfaction.

Human resources are crucial to the successful implementation of YM and the achievement of desirable results. Yeoman (1996) determined that the system of yield management became obsolete without human interaction. Evaluation of human activity required the participation of a team that worked closely with the employees. Similarly, Daigle and Richard (2000) connect human activities and approach to the YM system. In addition, Hendler and Hendler (2004) discovered the association between managers' and employees' YM software proficiency. Therefore, hotel staff and managers must be encouraged, taught, and motivated to work towards the successful implementation of YM.

Utilization of the YM management program to differentiate inventory and customer pricing results in conflicts. These disputes undermine an organization's long-term objectives. When an organization imposes discriminatory prices, demand-based pricing, and off-peak pricing based on customers' ability to pay, disputes are inevitable. However, scholars have developed solutions for resolving these tensions. These tactics include fenced pricing, price bundling, classifying, the use of highly advertised prices and well-defined recovery schemes, as well as the spatial segregation of users. In the hotel sector, YM focuses on selling rooms and providing additional client services. Appropriate scheduling and reasonable (considerate) rates are required to do these jobs. In this instance, ‘right’ alludes to the essence of hoteliers' yield maximization and visitors' value maximizing (Choi & Miles, 2000). According to the assertions of some authors, websites play a crucial role in the sale of hotel rooms (Toh, Delay, and Raven, 2011). Due to their huge commissions, third-party websites such as Expedia, Travelocity, and Orbitz have influenced YM's target market (Toh, Delay, and Raven, 2011). In addition, the lowest costs are presented as the best selections on the websites. Consequently, revenue managers must consider the risk connected with websites and the effectiveness of hotel prices.

In general, the success or failure of a hotel is determined by the adoption of YM strategies effectively and appropriately. In order to achieve this, the manager must develop the skills necessary to provide services and engage with personnel effectively. The professional applications of YM have the ability to increase a hotel's revenue. Otherwise, the unprofessional use of YM could destabilize the total production and thwart the hotel's objectives. Therefore, vigilance is required with regard to this consideration.

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Financial Innovations: Impact On The Monetary Policies Scholarship Essay Help

Table of Contents
Financial Innovations and Monetary Policies: An Introduction Advantages of Financial Innovation Drawbacks of Financial Innovation Conclusion Bibliography

Introduction

Financial innovation is the emergence of novel types of institutions and novel financial instruments in the financial market (Noyer 1). According to Kogar, financial innovations generate unique technology tools (such as electronic cards) that allow economic agents (households and businesses) to conduct investment activities on the capital markets more efficiently (1). Consequently, financial markets gain from more efficient allocation of portfolio risks and allocation of financial assets (13). Some researchers have previously demonstrated the relevance of financial innovation with respect to monetary policy efficiency. In contrast, others have demonstrated that financial innovations pose risks associated with monetary policy implementation (Misati and Lucas 124). It is essential to note that monetary policies can only be successfully implemented in the near term. Despite this, the adoption of financial innovations in the financial industry may result in a number of drawbacks. For instance, the central bank may find it difficult to implement monetary policies in a capital market where financial innovations are prevalent. Moreover, the creation of new financial instruments needs the enactment of a new set of regulations to ensure the seamless execution of monetary policies in the financial sector.

Innovations in Finance and Monetary Policies

Misati and Lucas concur that financial innovations have resulted in the creation of new financial products that have drawn new investors to the financial sector (127). Moreover, financial advances have expanded the breadth of investment and funding opportunities available to prospective investors. These developments have also increased the portfolio and funding source diversification options. Consequently, financial innovations produce fresh instruments that promote the rapid transmission of monetary policy across the economy. Additionally, financial innovations increase investors' monetary and non-monetary assets while reducing bank lending instruments. This occurs as a result of the fact that financial innovations allow several borrowers to utilize financial marketplaces as their chosen supplier of financial help (Misati and Lucas 127).

In addition, Misati and Lucas analyzed the connections between financial innovation and monetary policy transmission mechanisms (128). They claimed that the financial process is fundamentally a monetary policy aiming at particular macroeconomic variables. In addition, the financial sector is seen as the conduit between the real economy and the monetary policy transmission method. According to Misati and Lucas, the asset channel, the exchange rate channel, and the interest rate channel are the three primary ways in which financial innovations affect monetary policy. For instance, economic agents can utilize unique financial instruments to enhance the inter-temporal exchange of revenue channels, counter fluctuations in the cost of funding, and maintain the current interest rates for financing future investments. In other words, current outlay is no longer controlled by the present income. Since financial advances enhance insurance prospect, the inter-temporal replacement of the monetary transmission mechanism is successfully managed (Misati and Lucas 128). (Misati and Lucas 128).

In addition, the introduction of e-money (electronic money) has the potential to replace traditional forms of currency. In addition, electronic payment could replace traditional bank demand deposits, diminishing the significance of the monetary transmission method. This occurs because the correlation between changes in real sector operations and bank deposit adjustments is weakened. If the demand for conventional forms of money decreases, the central bank will hold fewer reserves on behalf of commercial banks, resulting in a decline in the total amount of reserves held by the central bank. Widespread use of e-banking is an example of a financial innovation that played a significant effect in what was once believed to be a stable relationship between the aggregate nominal income and stock of money (Misati and Lucas 128).

The strength of financial markets and the kind of financial variety determine the worth of the monetary transmission technique. For instance, novel financial instruments attract a significant number of investors to the capital market since they can be utilized to accomplish investment objectives. In this approach, the introduction of technical improvements into the financial system affects the efficacy of monetary policy by increasing or decreasing delays caused by changes in the cost of money to economic units. When economic units (households and businesses) rely on alternative sources of funding, for instance, the transmission rate and strength of monetary policy rates to the real cost of financing may be affected. For instance, the monetary policies of the central bank may become irrelevant (to some extent) due to the various financial structures of these unique instruments (Misati and Lucas 129).

Benefits of Financial Innovation

According to the extant literature, there are two primary explanations for how financial innovations affect the efficacy of monetary policies. The first theory, for instance, says that financial innovations improve monetary policy in three significant ways. Initially, financial innovations expedite the dissemination of financial data within the financial sector. Second, financial innovations enhance the significance of anticipations. In other words, real and anticipated changes in interest rates can be easily transmitted to a variety of financial assets, manipulating long-term interest rates with consequences for investment and consumption. Thirdly, financial innovations provide investors with access to a variety of financial products that enables the hedging of interest rate risks. Consequently, shareholders can diversify their portfolios based on optimistic assumptions regarding the pass-through effects of policy rates (Misati and Lucas 124).

As stated previously, financial innovations not only promote rapid dissemination of financial information among important players, but also ensure that such information is incorporated into financial market prices in a timely manner. This is especially true in regards to monetary policy measures, as financial innovations increase the effectiveness of interest rate tools utilized by monetary policy. Since they minimize transaction costs, financial innovations also allow economic agents to invest in financial assets for longer periods. Moreover, financial innovations facilitate investment, funding, and risk management measures. Finally, financial innovations reduce information disparities because they enable economic agents to access securities markets (Misati and Lucas 128).

Repercussions of Financial Innovation

According to the second idea, reliance on new financial instruments (formed through financial innovation) can reduce the amount and rate at which monetary policies are transferred to the cost of borrowing. This occurs when the central bank's policy directions are incapable of manipulating new financial instruments due to their distinct funding structures. In addition, financial innovation can cause imbalances, particularly if policy instructions depart from shareholder expectations. If this occurs, financial markets may encounter disruptions that lead to increased volatility in asset prices and liquidity, which may lead to inefficiencies in policy directives implemented through the interest rate instrument (Misati and Lucas 125).

New dangers have been introduced to the administration and functioning of domestic and global financial systems as a result of financial innovations. The distinction between money markets and capital markets, for example, is diminished by financial advances. Moreover, financial developments prohibit central banks from achieving their objectives. However, financial innovations may prohibit central banks from reaching their macroeconomic and structural goals. In addition, financial innovations complicate the analysis of financial data, preventing the execution of monetary policy (Kogar 14).

Conclusion

As stated previously, financial innovations have a substantial impact on the operations and structures of financial systems. Misati and Lucas analyzed the connections between financial innovation and monetary policy transmission mechanisms (128). In addition, the financial sector is seen as the conduit between the real economy and the monetary policy transmission method. As stated previously, financial innovations not only promote rapid dissemination of financial information among important players, but also ensure that such information is incorporated into financial market prices in a timely manner. This is especially true in regards to monetary policy measures, as financial innovations increase the effectiveness of interest rate tools utilized by monetary policy. According to Misati and Lucas, the asset channel, the exchange rate channel, and the interest rate channel are the three primary ways in which financial innovations affect monetary policy. Additionally, financial innovations influence monetary policies in numerous favorable ways. For instance, financial innovations not only promote the rapid dissemination of financial information among important players, but also ensure that such information is timely incorporated into financial market prices. Nonetheless, financial innovations diminish the amount and rate of transmission of monetary policies to the cost of financing. This occurs when the central bank's policy directions are incapable of manipulating new financial instruments due to their distinct funding structures.

Sources Cited

Financial Innovations and Monetary Control, by Cigdem Kogar. The Republic of Turkey: The Central Bank of Turkey, 1995. Print.

Misati, Roseline, and Lucas Njoroge. "Financial Innovation and the Transmission of Monetary Policy in Kenya." International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, Volume 50, Number 3 (2010), Pages 123-136.

"Financial innovation, monetary policy, and financial stability," by Christian Noyer. BIS Review 42, no. 1 (December 2007): 1–6. Print.

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Comparison Of Financial Performance Of Premier Investment Limited And David Jones Limited Scholarship Essay Help

Executive synopsis

This study compares the financial performance of two companies operating in the same industry. The analysis utilizes Premier Investment Limited and David Jones Limited's financial data for a two-year period, from 2010 to 2011. The focus of the study is the history of the companies and ratio analysis (ratios on profitability, efficiency, financial stability and Liquidity). It compares the results to ideal settings and offers recommendations based on the findings. In addition, the disadvantages of ratio analysis as a method for assessing financial performance are discussed.

History of the firm

Australia is where Premier Investments Limited is located. Listed on the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX). This is effective December 15, 1987. Superior Investment Limited was founded "as an investment company to maximize growth in capital returns to shareholders through the acquisition of controlling or strategic shareholding in premier Australian companies with a particular focus on the retailing, importing, and distributing sectors" (Premier Investment Limited 2012b). Current brands owned by the company include Just Jeans, Jay Jeans, Portmans, Jacqui E, Peter Alexander, Dotti and Smiggle, Coles Myer Limited, and Just Group (Premier Investment Limited 2012b). The organization operates a number of speciality retail fashion chains in Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa via joint venture (Premier Investment Limited 2012a). In addition, the company holds investments in listed securities and money market deposits.

David Jones is an Australian corporation as well. The company's purpose is to "sell the finest and most exclusive products and maintain a stock that encompasses the needs of all mankind" (David Jones Limited 2012a). The company provides a variety of services, including corporate services, insurance, gift cards, flowers, a food hall, interior design, and the rose clinic, among others (David Jones Limited 2012b). Both businesses operate within the same industry. The objective of this study is to compare the financial performance of the two companies.

Evaluation of efficiency

Various stakeholders, including shareholders, the government, employees, the community, and creditors, use a company's audited financial statements. However, published financial statements provide potential consumers with a limited view of an entity's actual performance, strengths, and problems. This is because reported financial statements do not provide a comprehensive portrayal of an entity's performance (Siddiqui 2005). Such a thorough image of a company is required because it influences users' judgments regarding whether or not to continue their affiliation with an organisation. In addition, it would provide prospective investors with sufficient information to aid in their decision-making. Therefore, it is required to conduct an analysis of the financial statements in order to have a comprehensive picture of a company's performance and patterns throughout time. Thus, we arrive at the idea of financial analysis.

Ratio evaluation

Financial analysis is the process of assessing the investment viability of businesses, projects, budgets, and other finance-related papers. It is required to conduct exhaustive financial analysis in order to determine the stability, solvency, liquidity, or profitability of a business (Vance 2003). A financial analyst focuses on the statement of income, statement of financial position, cash flow statement, and statement of changes in equity when conducting financial analysis (Melicher & Leach 2009). Financial analysis relies heavily on ratio analysis. When extrapolating the current performance into the future, the time value of money must be accounted for. This section compares the 2010 and 2011 financial performance of Premier Investment Limited with David Jones via ratio analysis. Profitability

Profitability is an entity's capacity to generate income and sustain growth over the short and long terms. It assesses the efficiency with which a company uses its resources to generate profit. It also gauges the effectiveness of resource management. To determine profitability, an analyst employs ratios such as gross profit margin, operating profit margin, net profit margin, return on assets (ROA) ratio, and return on equity (ROE) ratio (Melicher & Leach 2009). The income statement analysis provides insight into the profitability of the two businesses. Appendix 1 provides profitability ratios for the two companies.

The table provides a summary of four profitability ratios. First is the profitability margin ratio. It is the ratio of sales to net profit after expenses have been deducted. It measures a company's profitability. It is recommended to have a large net profit margin. However, the net profit margin differs between industries. It is evident from the table above that Premier Investment had a higher net profit margin than David Jones in 2010. In 2011, however, David Jones had a larger net profit margin than Premier Investment Limited. Premier Investment's margin decreased from 16,11% in 2010 to 9.55% in 2011. In contrast, David Jones' margin increased from 12.11 percent in 2010 to 12.61 percent in 2011. It indicates that David Jones's net profit margin is substantially more steady than Premier Investment Limited's. Return on equity quantifies the rate of return on an investor's investment. Investors anticipate substantial returns from high-risk businesses. In 2010, David Jones provided its investors a higher rate of return than Premier Investments, which was 9.21%. Both decreased in 2011, to 4.35 percent for Premier Investment Limited and 21.45 percent for David Jones Limited respectively. Evidently, return on equity decreased for both corporations in 2011. Return on assets reveals how efficiently a firm utilizes its assets. Premier Investment Limited has a greater return on assets than David Jones. This may not necessarily indicate performance success. This is due to the fact that if a corporation has fully depreciated assets, the denominator would generally be small. This will lead to significant ratios. Therefore, the value of the assets must be included when comparing the return on assets (Nikolai, Bazley & Jones 2011). It is evident from the data above that David Jones Limited has a bigger profit margin than Premier Investment Limited.

Performance ratios

Efficiency ratios provide an indication of how well a corporation uses its resources, that is, how well a company employs its assets and liabilities to generate sales and profits (Brigham & Michael 2009). (Brigham & Michael 2009). In addition, it reveals an organization's level of activity as shown by its turnover ratios. Profitability and cash flow should improve as a result of efficiencies. Typical ratios include turnover of accounts receivable, turnover of accounts payable, and days payable (Haber 2004). The following appendix summarizes efficiency ratios.

According to the table, asset turnover assesses the return on investment a company receives from its fixed assets. A high number shows an entity's effective utilization of its assets. It also indicates that the organization is generating a high sales revenue per asset unit (Tutor2u 2012). During the two-year period, David Jones had a higher asset turnover than Premier Investment Limited. However, asset turnover decreased between 2010 and 2011. Inventory turnover is the number of times per year that a business sells and restocks its inventory. This is the number of stock bundles sold annually. The stock turnover, expressed in days, indicates the number of days that inventory is maintained pending sales. A high turnover rate indicates quicker stock clearance. This in turn accelerates the release of cash and profit (Vandyck 2006). It reduces stock holding expenses and reduces the danger of obsolescence. During the two-year period, David Jones had a greater stock turnover than Premier Investment.

The debtors' collection period indicates the number of days it takes for an entity's debtors to pay the amount owed. A high ratio suggests that a company is less effective at collecting payments on schedule from its debtors. In order to identify the issue, it is necessary to examine a number significantly larger than the thirty-day payment period. Conversely, a little number of days indicates that a company is efficient at collecting debts (McDaniel & Gitman 2008). The aforementioned debtor ratios imply that both companies are quite effective at recovering their debts. All are under the age of five. David Jones is more effective than Premier Investment Limited, though. Therefore, it is evident from the comparisons above that David Jones is more efficient than Premier Investment Limited.

Financial stability

Financial stability indicates an organization's susceptibility to risk. For instance, it indicates the level of protection afforded to the company's debt. Several ratios, such as debt-to-equity, can be used by an analyst to determine the stability of a corporation (Missouri 2011). Appendix 3 provides a summary of financial stability ratios.

The debt-to-equity ratio is the proportion of owner-invested capital to money advanced by creditors. A high ratio indicates increased creditor risk (Missouri 2011). For the two-year period, David Jones has a higher debt-to-equity ratio than Premier Investment. This could suggest that Premier Investment is more secure than David Jones.

The ratio of debt to assets indicates the extent to which assets cover debt. A high ratio is good since it implies that the company's assets effectively pay its debts. David Jones has a greater debt to asset ratio than Premier Investment. Finally, multiply profits by interest earned to demonstrate the number of times profits cover interest. It demonstrates an entity's capacity to pay both the principal and interest on a loan. A high ratio is an indication of success. David Jones has a greater times interest earned ratio than Premier Investment. Even though David Jones' debt-to-equity ratio is lower than Premier Investment's, a debtor is adequately protected at David Jones. This is due to the fact that assets and profits adequately support debt and interest. Therefore, David Jones is clearly more financially stable than Premier Investment.

Appendices

Appendix 1: Ratios of profitability

David Jones Limited Premier Investment Limited

Ratios 2010 2011 2010 2011

1 Gross margin profit 59.09% 59.51% 39.73% 39.11%

16.11 % net profit margin 9.54% 12.11% 12.62%

3 Return on equity 9.24 percent 4.35 percent 22.91% 21.45%

4 Profit on assets 9.81% 5.72% 20.81% 20.39%

Appendix 2: Performance proportions

David Jones Limited Premier Investment Limited

Ratios 2010 2011 2010 2011

1 Asset turnover 0.61 0.60 1.72 1.62

2 Inventory Turnover (Days) 73 74 83 days 88 days

3 Debtors turnover (days) 4 days 3 days 1.5 days 2 days

31 days 24 days 35 days. 30 days

Appendix 3: Ratios for Financial Stability

David Jones Limited Premier Investment Limited

Ratios 2010 2011 2010 2011

1 Debt Asset Ratio (Total Debt) 15.96% 18.35% 37.72% 35.33%

2 Debt-to-Capital Ratio (Total Debt) 18.99% 22.47% 60.56% 54.63%

Threefold Interest Earned (Times) 17.99 times 8.69 times 35.21times 31.79times

Bibliography

Fundamentals of financial management. South-Western Cengage Learning, United States, 2009.

New York: American Management Association, J. Haber, 2004, Accounting Simplified.

Financial management theory and practice, South-Western Cengage Learning, United States, 2009.

David Jones Limited, About David Jones, Website, 2012a.

David Jones Limited, Annual Report, Website, 2012b.

McDaniel, G., and Gitman, L. (2008). The essentials of the future of business. Cengage Learning, United States of America.

2009, Entrepreneurial finance, Joe Sabatino, United States of America, Melicher, R., and C. Leach.

Nikolai, L., Bazley, J., and Jones, J. (2011). Intermediate Accounting. United States: Rob Dewey.

Premier Investment Limited, Annual report 2011 (Web) in Premier Investment Limited, 2012a, Annual report, 2012.

Premier Investment Limited, Home, Website, 2012b.

Managerial economics and financial analysis. New Delhi: New Age International (P) limited, 2005.

Accounting and finance: efficiency ratios, Tutor2u website, 2012.

Missouri University 2011, Financial ratio, 2012, Web.

McGraw-Hill publications, United States of America, 2003. Vance, D. Financial analysis and decision making: tools and approaches to solve.

Financial ratio analysis: a practical guide, Trafford Publishing, United States of America, 2006.

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Strategic Marketing: Bates Farms And Dairy Scholarship Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Marketing Mix Changes Developing and Managing a Powerful Brand Using Efficient Marketing Communication Techniques Measuring Marketing Success Conclusion Bibliography

Introduction

When entering a new market, businesses must consider a variety of obstacles connected to brand-customer relationships and the unique characteristics and expectations of each community. The previously discussed plan was for Bates Farms and Dairy, a British dairy company, to join the United States market with its fresh milk and dairy products. Here, it is essential to discuss the brand's current image and whether any of its aspects must be adopted for the new field of competition. This report will focus on Bates Farms and Dairy's marketing initiatives in the United States. First, the brand's marketing mix will be evaluated to see what changes are required to join the new market. Second, the brand's presentation will be handled in order to retain and attract customers. The study will then examine three effective communication strategies that should be implemented. Finally, measurement tools for Bates Farms and Dairy's marketing success will be presented.

Marketing Mix Changes

The dairy component of the food market is well developed. Milk has been a family staple for centuries, and it is used both on its own and as an ingredient in beverages and meals. As a result, milk demand is often strong, particularly in nations such as the United States and the United Kingdom where many cultures view milk as a necessity (Ahmadi Kaliji et al., 2019). Such fierce market rivalry necessitates that Bates Farms and Dairy balance its marketing strategy in order to thrive in the United States.

Typically, the marketing mix consists of four elements: product, venue, pricing, and promotion. The company currently manufactures milk and cream, but it also provides these components to cheese and yoghurt manufacturers and sells these products. Some milk kinds are supplied in recyclable glass bottles, while others are packed in recyclable plastic bottles. Milk (whole, semi-skimmed, and skim) is offered in pints, according to the company's website (About Bates Dairy, 2020). Similarly, the company offers a variety of cream and butter in various sizes, including wholesale alternatives and large containers for large families and enterprises. Dairy goods have a limited shelf life, and glass is more difficult to transport than plastic-lined cartons, therefore the packaging for these products may require modification for the US market. Alternately, in order to keep the organic picture, the corporation may adapt other components of the blend.

In this instance, the location of distribution is crucial to the success of the brand. Bates Farms & Dairy has multiple local routes for product distribution, including door-to-door delivery, retail stores, and wholesale suppliers. To complement the first strategy on the new market, the corporation can prioritize its online store. However, Bates Farms and Dairy must first interact with US businesses to get its products to local stores — larger retail chains can be proposed to boost public knowledge of the products. In the United States, different milk brands are sold in various states and retail outlets. The UK brand may not be able to compete by opening its own stores, but it can appeal to import-focused retailers.

The second issue is price; the recommendation is to incorporate geographical pricing to account for potential tariffs, taxes, and shipping expenses. To enter the market, Bates Farms and Dairy might offer its products to customers using a number of special price promotions. Overall, the pricing must be based on severe competition, needing psychological methods to ensure that the price is neither too low nor too high in order to balance the image of sustainability and value with cheaper alternatives.

In conclusion, the brand must pay close attention to its promotion. Many advertising campaigns in the United States are aggressive, with corporations reaching people via television and the Internet (Venaik and Midgley, 2019). Bates Farms and Dairy should prioritize these avenues to communicate with specific customers. Consider direct marketing for wholesale partnerships, employing email and PR firms. Internet marketing provides global corporations with a substantially less expensive means of reaching a large audience than paper-based and other traditional media.

Building and Managing a Strong Brand

The presence of numerous competitors and Bates Farms and Dairy's position as an importer necessitate that the company cultivate a strong brand image to attract loyal customers. Using the Customer-Based Brand Equity model as the basis for this study, the initial stage is to establish a brand identity. Current foundations of Bates Farms and Dairy are its close relationship with customers and its commitment to local, sustainable methods. It is also a family business that has been established and operated for decades by members of the Bates family.

When selling dairy goods, many customer categories can be addressed. People interested in deliveries, sustainability, and responsible wholesale enterprises appear to be one of the groups that connect with Bates Farms and Dairy. Thus, the brand is associated with the delivery of fresh milk to one's home or local grocery. This depiction is reminiscent of customers' sentiments of nostalgia, and US consumers may have comparable desires when considering dairy goods. In addition, clients concerned with packaging and sustainability may see the brand as a viable option to carton-packaged milk and businesses with a murky supply chain.

These points can be utilized for the second step, which is establishing the company's meaning in the United States. The brand might use this information to portray a company that is committed to providing organic items and values customer feedback. According to Li, Peterson, and Xia (2018), the demand for natural products is constantly increasing, and consumers frequently consider the actions and beliefs of businesses about animals, the environment, and health. Therefore, Bates Farms & Dairy's strength is its ongoing commitment to sustainability. Bates Farms and Dairy should continue to exhibit concern for the environment and highlight their usage of recyclable materials, particularly glass bottles.

The simplistic design of the products, the usage of simple visuals, and minimalistic typefaces and images are consequently preferred in order to emphasize the concept of simplicity and nostalgia. The brand can be associated with traditional door-to-door delivery, electric milk floats, and recycling in order to attract younger clients concerned with environmental preservation. Noting that the corporation deploys electric milk floats in the United Kingdom indicates that it has experience with environmentally responsible methods and customer appreciation. To build this connotation in the United States, Bates Farms and Dairy can partner with local recycling plants and spearhead campaigns for cleanup, package return, and environmental consciousness.

There may be an issue as a result of the transportation difficulties faced by businesses that use sustainable products. Glass is heavier and more brittle than plastic and paper, necessitating greater care during packaging, handling, and transport. Nonetheless, this can be sold as the company's dedication to sustainability, justifying a price increase compared other milk brands that employ non-sustainable components and are less expensive. As the company's reputation for providing natural and fresh products is stable in the United Kingdom, this message should be carried over to the foreign market.

The next phase for the brand is to assess the response of customers to the brand's message and products. Bates Farms and Dairy should emphasize its extensive history in the dairy business in this instance. In addition, it should discuss their potential to remain a family-owned organization that services businesses and individuals with similar values. In evaluating the relevance of Bates Farms and Dairy's milk and cream, customers have specific dietary preferences and environmental concerns. In addition, people have varying access to dairy products, with some preferring supermarkets and others small shops or local markets. The brand's strategy with deliveries and partnership with smaller stores can generate a sense of relevance for these client groups, while the brand's heritage should increase its reputation.

The final step in the concept is brand resonance, which refers to the connection and loyalty of customers. Here, the company's objective is to engage customers and ensure that they would return and recommend its products to others. If Bates Farms and Dairy successfully establishes itself in the United States and receives positive feedback for its sustainable practices, the company will be able to focus on this phase and expand its community involvement. Nonetheless, the brand should begin fostering brand loyalty early on through social media engagement and programs that reward repeat purchases. The first campaign should generate active participation and brand awareness. Included are online dialogues, reviews, raffles, actual events, and social media updates. (Gürhan-Canli, Hayran and Sarial-Abi, 2016). The second has the ability to develop a sense of community and reduce the competitive advantage of rivals.

Effective Methods of Marketing Communication

(Finne and Gronroos, 2017) Integrated marketing communications (IMC) proposes that a company should use several channels to contact its customers and be aware of their interconnection in the eyes of the public. For greater success, three channels are recommended for Bates Farms and Dairy. First and foremost is internet marketing, which includes both online advertising and public relations management (Finne and Gronroos, 2017). The internet is one of the most accessible platforms for sharing information in real-time, and many individuals shop online, including for groceries.

In addition, this channel is unaffiliated with large media corporations, and Bates Farms and Dairy's image as a family-owned business would benefit from utilizing platforms that offer a direct connection with the public. Social media platforms that let the publication of links, information, and communication with clients serve as the primary instrument for this strategy. (Finne and Gronroos, 2017) Several platforms, like Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram, offer advertising opportunities to promote content to users based on their location and interests. Additionally, Bates Farms and Dairy can upgrade its online store and connect it to its social media profiles to improve accessibility.

The second potential strategy of marketing is promotions that might improve brand recognition for a new product. These can be online or offline and include limited deals, giveaways, and event-related bundles. For instance, an online opening event can be conducted in which the first set of people to place a delivery order receive a discount or a present. Next, physical establishments that offer Bates Farms and Dairy products may hold a limited-time sale to attract new customers. These promotions are important to overcome the barrier of uncertainty that certain buyers may experience while contemplating an alternative to a familiar product.

The final recommended communication method for Bates Farms and Dairy is public relations. In this instance, the corporation establishes a standard for a news or magazine piece that promotes the product and introduces the brand. Due to its unique approach to distribution and packaging, Bates Farms and Dairy can adopt this strategy. Publications with an interest in sustainability may pick up the news of the new market entry and promote the information to the general public and companies with similar values. However, this sort of communication carries the danger of bad coverage and reader comments, which could ultimately harm the brand.

Marketing Achievement Evaluation

Bates Farms and Dairy should use both short- and long-term data analysis to determine the marketing performance of their products. The first tool is Return on Investment (ROI), which measures the revenue generated by each marketing effort (Liang, Gao and Ding, 2018). As Bates Farms and Dairy has a website and accepts online orders, it can utilize the Conversion Rate and Purchase Funnel for advertising purposes. Customer Lifetime Value is an important metric for analyzing customer retention and loyalty over the long term. The brand must utilize several computations to identify potential issues and flaws in each marketing strategy. Social media and traditional advertising each offer tools that indicate which channel should be prioritized in the future.

In the future, the company's marketing performance will depend heavily on whether or not its brand image matches to the identity it intended to convey. People may respond badly on the Internet to a message or image that does not correspond with their view of the brand. The reach of online services is significantly greater than that of traditional media, particularly in instances of negative coverage (Liang, Gao and Ding, 2018). Bates Farms and Dairy must address sustainability and how it can continue to attract clients in this demographic.

Conclusion

The US market entry marketing plan for Bates Farms and Dairy requires the organization to evaluate its brand image and marketing mix components. Upon entering, the brand should prioritize promotional price that draws attention without diminishing the product's worth. Bates Farms and Dairy can provide distinctive product distribution, hence diminishing the influence of competition. Bates Farms & Dairy should emphasize the durability of its brand and its commitment to sustainability in its company presentation. The corporation should reach out to the public through contemporary means such as social media and public relations marketing. Additionally, Bates Farms and Dairy should investigate a number of success measuring measures to discover the most efficient communication channels.

Bibliography

Web page about Bates Dairy (2020).

Ahmadi Kaliji, S., Mojaverian, S.M., Amirnejad, H., and Canavari, M. (2019). "Factors influencing consumers' preferences for dairy products," AGRIS on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 11(2), pp. 3-11.

Communication-in-use: customer-integrated marketing communication. European Journal of Marketing, 51(3), pp. 445–448.

AMS Review, 6(1-2), pp. 23-44. Gürhan-Canli, Z., Hayran, C., and Sarial-Abi, G. (2016). "Customer-based brand equity in a technologically fast-paced, connected, and constrained environment."

Demand for organic fluid milk across marketing channels. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, 47(3), 505-532, 2018.

Liang, X., Gao, Y., and Ding, Q.S. (2018). "What you measure is what you get"? : Exploring the effectiveness of marketing performance measurement approaches.

Venaik, S., and D.F. Midgley. (2019). "Archetypes of marketing mix standardization-adaptation in MNC subsidiaries." European Journal of Marketing, 53(2), pp. 3660399.

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Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises Survival Scholarship Essay Help

Tiny and Medium-Sized Businesses (SMEs) are relatively small companies with a restricted number of employees. In addition, they have a limited amount of sales volume. There are regional variations in the classification of firms according to size (Bruno, & Leidecker, 1988, p. 34). However, it is generally accepted that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) represent the smaller end of the business size classification, as defined by operating scale and personnel count. The importance of SMEs globally is significant (Land, 1975, p. 232). Analysts estimate that SMBs contribute approximately 99 percent of the global economy. They employ a comparable number of individuals. (Bowler & Dawood, 1996, p. 45). In light of the scope of their operations across several industries, they are a significant source of innovation, and this is a major engine of the global economy (Huysamen, 1994, p. 87). In light of this, there is a need for governments and other organizations to promote the growth of these small firms by assisting with their launch and continuing to provide assistance to assure their success (Said, & Hughey, 1977, p. 324). This is due to the fact that they recognize the importance of the SME sector and recognize that any endeavor to improve the economy must constantly take this sector's struggle into account (Dutton & Jackson, 1987, p. 87). This study will examine factors that contribute to the demise and survival of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) over their first decade of operation.

According to Ulmer and Nielsen (1947), business failure is defined as a company that declares bankruptcy or ceases operations, leading creditors to incur losses (Land, 1975, p. 232). This indicates that a business that ceases operations for reasons other than bankruptcy is not considered to have failed. The sale of a business does not necessarily indicate failure. On the other hand, Cochran (1981) defines the failure of a SME as "the inability of the business entity to take full advantage of business opportunities when they arise" (Bowler & Dawood, 1996, p. 45). This meaning is significantly broader and focuses on quality management as opposed to straightforward financial performance (Land, 1975, p. 232). However, business failure is commonly understood to be the company's dissolution or cessation as a legal entity (Huysamen, 1994, p. 87). This signifies the end of an organization's existence. It is similar to killing a natural person (Cochran, 1981, p. 32). This factor of dissolution due to the incapacity to continue operations is the most measurable indicator of failure (Dutton & Jackson, 1987, p. 87). According to global estimates, the failure rate of small and medium-sized enterprises is roughly 55% within the first decade of operation. This means that an average of only 45 percent of new businesses are unable to sustain operations for more than ten years (Said, & Hughey, 1977, p. 324). However, proportions fluctuate depending on the economic realities of the country under consideration (Leedy & Ormrod, 2005, p. 67). This high rate of failure is the primary worry of governments and other supporting institutions.

Small and medium-sized enterprises typically launch with deficits in the most crucial business sectors. They span from finance to production, marketing, and general business management competencies (Bruno, & Leidecker, 1988, p. 39). These characteristics make this market segment significantly more susceptible than more established businesses (Leedy & Ormrod, 2005, p. 65). Small firms are vulnerable to failure due to both internal and external variables that are unique to them (Berryman, 2001, p. 30).

In general, the macroenvironment consists of a multitude of circumstances that are safely exterior to the company but have the effect of restricting entrepreneurial components early in the lives of SMEs as well as during their whole lifecycle. The elements present firms with genuine obstacles and opportunities, regardless of their background or business plan. Market conditions, social demography, legal, institutional, political, and cultural issues are frequent external factors (King, 1982, p. 234). Other factors include technical improvements and the physical infrastructure supporting the business's specific industry (Bannock, 2000, p. 78).

Market circumstances are characterized by the supply and demand elements that influence the pricing strategies to be implemented by firms in the industry (Reynolds, 2006, p. 42). In a market dominated by large firms with powerful brands, it is extremely difficult for a small business to succeed with a product that competes with those of the larger firms, as the larger firms have greater financial resources to outspend the smaller ones in marketing activities such as advertising and other promotions (Cochran, 1981, p. 32).

Social and cultural factors can have a significant impact on the success of small firms (King, 1982, p. 234). Small enterprises frequently develop products for a certain segment of the population. Thus, cultural concerns are likely to have a big effect on the small market size, causing the business to fail. The same holds true for political factors (Bannock, 2000, p. 78). There may be large corporations capable of influencing the political elite. Political class refers to the people in power, such as government ministers responsible for the implementation of policies, as opposed to the enterprises that operate at a lower level (Reynolds, 2006, p. 49).

In addition, technical progress is an ongoing concern for the SME business group (Storey, 1989, p. 780). This is due to the fact that they may take longer to adapt to developing technology, primarily as a result of limited resources required to fund rapid technological growth (Dutton, & Ottensmeyer, 2000, p. 34). This implies that small enterprises are frequently pushed out of the market by large corporations due to the adoption of improved technologies in production, which not only results in higher quality but also more competitive price (Storey, 1989, p. 789). Also, the sector is supported by the availability of physical infrastructure (Dutton, & Ottensmeyer, 1987, p. 34). In some instances, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are founded with the expectation that the relevant authorities will act to improve infrastructure for future efficiency (Kent, 2001, p45). Such anticipations are more likely to result in failure in the future (Cressy, 2006 p. 110).

The macroeconomic variables may apply to all businesses, but they have a greater impact on the SME sector. Inflationary forces essentially imply that wealth loses value over time (Kent, 2001, p. 45). Clearly, the rate of wealth generation in SMEs is lower than in large companies. Therefore, the instability has the greatest impact on the ability of these smaller firms to survive. The rate of interest is also a significant issue. Interest rates determine the cost of borrowing, which in turn determines the extent of loan access (Carter, & Howard, 2006, p. 495). Access to credit is a critical factor of how successfully SMEs are able to grow and expand, hence boosting their ability to survive over a much longer period (Chaganti, 1983, p. 16). This is accomplished by investing in risk-reduction measures like as product diversification and market expansion (Chaganti, 1983, p. 20).

Transportation expenses are often cited as a significant business impediment for SMBs. It is known that transportation expenses account for as much as forty percent of the price of providing numerous products to clients (Hall & Young 1991, p. 982). Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are unable to benefit from economies of scale to the same extent as giant corporations since they produce in lower quantities. Consequently, unit costs may be compelled to rise despite innovation and technical progress (Hall & Young 1991, p. 982).

Taxation is also a significant impediment to the development of business. Taxation siphons funds from SMEs to finance public expenditures (Storey, 1989, p. 243). It is notable, however, that the funds are frequently utilized to build the infrastructure necessary for the company to operate more efficiently (Berryman, 2001, p. 34). All of these variables are beyond the control of any commercial entity. The success of small and medium-sized enterprises is primarily dependent on the management's capacity to build effective mechanisms for coping with or identifying survival strategies. However, not everything is lost for SMBs (Storey, 1989, p. 243). Globally, they are recognized to benefit from a plethora of government-created survival aids (Chaganti, 1983, p. 23). In countries such as the United States, there are various special considerations for small and medium-sized enterprises that provide them with significant relief from the full impact of some policies and regulations. A contribution exemption for small businesses to insurance plans is one example (Small bone, 1999, p. 230). Such concessions not only encourage the formation of new businesses, but also boost the growth rate of small and medium-sized enterprises and increase their ability to survive (Holmes & Nicholls 1988, p. 21).

It is also true that a number of internal factors influence the ability of SMEs to survive. The first and most significant internal factor is the available managerial talents. There is evidently little separation between ownership and management. This indicates that finance and a company idea are the most crucial factors (Holmes & Nicholls 1988, p. 23). As a result, a significant proportion of those establishing a business lack the skills necessary to operate it effectively over the long term (Small bone, 1999, p. 232). The problem is exacerbated by the inability of small enterprises to attract the most skilled workers, as they cannot compete with larger companies who can provide more competitive compensation.

Despite the multiple obstacles faced by SMBs, there are a number of intervention strategies that can be utilized to reduce the effects of both external and internal obstacles. Capacity development through the provision of managerial training in an effort to provide managers with the skills necessary to run SMEs most effectively has been acknowledged as the most essential support program for SMEs in the globe (Reynolds, 2006, p. 59). In addition to a stable macroenvironment, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) should have access to credit through appropriate channels, as this minimizes uncertainty and increases their chances of survival.

References

Bannock, G. (2000). The Economics of Small Firms: Return from the Wilderness. Oxford, England: Basil Blackwell.

Berryman, J., 2001, "Small Business Failure and Bankruptcy: A Literature Review,"

EuropeanSmall Business Journal, volume 1, issue 4.

Bowler, A., and M. Dawood, "Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management," 1996, Jute, Pretoria.

Bruno, A., and T. Leidecker. "Causes of New Venture Failure: 1960s versus 1980s." Business Horizons, vol. 31, no. 6, 1988.

Small Firm Bankruptcy. Journal of Small Business Management, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 493–512, 2006. Carter, R., and V. Howard.

Cressy, R., 2006. Why Do Most Businesses Fail Early? 103-116. Journal of Small Business Economics, Volume 26, Number 2

R. Chaganti, "A Profile of Profitable and Unprofitable Small Businesses," 1983.

Vol. 21, No. 3 of the Journal of Small Business Management

Cochran, Alfred B. (1981). “Small Business Mortality Rates: A Literature Review, Journal of Small Business Management, volume 19, number 4

David B. & Mahmood, T., 1995. New Results Using a Risk Function for Business Survival 97-103. The Review of Economics and Statistics, Volume 77, Number 1

Dutton, J., & Jackson, S. 1987. Categorizing strategic issues: organizational action connections Volume 12, Number 1 of the Academy of Management Review

Dutton, J., & Ottensmeyer, E. 1987. Form, function, and content of strategic problem management systems Volume 12, number 2 of the Academy of Management Review

Young, G. and B. Hall (1991). International Small Business Journal, vol. 9, no. 2, "Factors Associated with Insolvency among Small Firms"

An Analysis of the Use of Accounting Information by Australian Small Business, Holmes, S., and D. Nicholls (1988).

Journal of Small Business Management, April, pages 57-68.

Methodology for the social and behavioral sciences, G. Huysamen, 1994. International Thomson's Halfway House

"Management Advisory Services and the Financial Performance of Clients," International Small Business Journal, vol. 12, no. 4, P. Kent (2001).

Utilizing strategic issue analysis King, W. Long Range Planning, Vol 15, No.4.

Too Much Emphasis on Management Assistance?, Journal of Small Business Management, vol. 13, no. 3, 1975. Land, N.

2005. Leedy, P., and J. Ormrod. Practical research, planning, and design. The New Jersey location of Pearson-Prentice Hall.

Reynolds, P. (2006). "New Firms Societal Contribution Versus Survival Potential." Journal of Business Venturing, Volume 2, Issue 2.

K. Said and J. Hughey (1977). Journal of Small Business Management, volume 15, number 1, "Managerial Problems of the Small Firm."

Small bone, D. (1999). Success and Failure in the Launch of New Businesses, International Small Business Journal, Volume 8, Number 2

Storey, R., 1989. “Firm Performance and Size: Explanations from the Small Firm Sectors,

” Small Business Economics. Vol. 1, No. 3.

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Pepsi: Consumer Behaviour Report Scholarship Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Variables of Segmentation Analyses Analysis of References Used in Appeals

Introduction

Pepsi is a beverage firm that began operations in the late 1980s following a merger with Frito Lay Company and supplies beverages to people worldwide. Pepsi competes with Coca-Cola, RC Cola, Dr. Pepper Snapple, and Real Cola, amongst others, in the beverage sector. Pepsi was one of the first corporations to bring customer-friendly plastic bottles and premium beverages to its customers. The adoption of Pepsi's distinctive brand has resulted in increasing consumer willingness to associate with it. Moreover, the brand's consistency creates a perception of firm stability in the eyes of consumers who have acquired trust in the organization. The consistency of the brands that organizations establish is vital for fostering consumer confidence (Manzano, Rivas, & Bonilla 2012). To grab the attention of target consumers, Pepsi employs distinctive commercials that appeal to all consumer segments. Consequently, few Pepsi advertising are unviewed or ignored.

In the supplied advertisement, Pepsi uses female gladiators to attract the attention of target consumers and raise awareness about a Pepsi product. In contrast to the widespread idea that gladiators are men, Pepsi's advertisement features women. It is clear from the advertisement that Pepsi seeks to enhance the degree of awareness across all client demographics, particularly women. To illustrate the significance of Pepsi in unity, the advertisement also portrays female gladiators as united and united together. As the crowd consisted primarily of men who cheered female gladiators singing, this represents gender equality. According to Paracha, Waqas, Khan, and Ahmad (2012), advertisements must represent demographic characteristics, cultural views, and gender orientations in order to effectively market their products. Consequently, the advertisement highlights the benefits of Pepsi beverages in fostering unity and togetherness, particularly between men and women during festivities. It is clear from the advertisement that Pepsi targets both male and female potential customers. In addition, the corporation uses the advertisement to market its products to consumers of all classes and social standings. The presence of the king, noble individuals, and the crowd, as well as their communal joy while drinking the beverage, is a factor that promotes the beverage to all members of the society.

Variables of Segmentation Analyses

Analysis of the advertisement reveals that it incorporates market segmentation criteria such as gender, age, culture, and social standing. Typically, companies sell their products based on these criteria and adjust them to the interests and expectations of their target client segments (Hassan & Craft 2012). In the advertisement, Pepsi markets its beverages using criteria such as gender, socioeconomic status, and culture. The presence of people from various socioeconomic classes in the crowd demonstrates that Pepsi targets folks from all social classes. Furthermore, the usage of female gladiators as opposed to male gladiators illustrates that both men and women can consume Pepsi goods because the beverage does not discriminate based on gender. Pepsi emphasizes the idea that people of all ages can purchase and consume the beverage, given that the audience is comprised of persons of various ages.

According to the market segmentation hypothesis, organizations can efficiently subdivide their consumers through market segmentation. Using gender, culture, social position, and education as variables, the subdivision differentiates between a vast array of consumers. According to Burton, Gary, and Brian (2012), market segmentation theory enables marketing businesses to use the concept of market segmentation to identify their target consumers and their interests and preferences in terms of behavior. Thus, Pepsi effectively applies the principle of segmentation by creating a separation between the audience and the gladiators seen in the advertisement. Notably, significant market research and consumer surveys are indispensable when intending to implement consumer segmentation, as they provide a knowledge of the preferences and preferences of potential clients. The element of customer survey and research is visible in the Pepsi advertisement, as the product is creatively and effectively marketed to the target audience.

Analysis of Appeal Strategies

The advertisement for Pepsi exploits the pleasure-seeking nature of mankind. According to Pepsi's advertisement, female gladiators would fight in front of a large crowd eager to watch their battles. Instead, the gladiators begin singing, to the delight of the spectators. Female gladiator performances and the applause of the crowd best illustrate the hedonistic theory. According to the hedonistic theory, humans are pleasure-seekers; hence, advertisements that appeal to the sensations of pleasure are appealing (Kumar 2009). The singing, cheering, bangs, and movements in the advertisement appeal to human senses. The usage of utilitarian theory in the advertisement is clear as the crowd gathers to see and enjoy the gladiator performance for the good of all individuals. Advertisements should adhere to the utilitarian concept, which promotes the equitable sharing of benefits among all parties (Hunt & Arnett 2004). In the advertisement, the crowd, the monarch, noble individuals, and gladiators are in a celebratory atmosphere as they enjoy the beverage and the entertainment.

The advertisement considers individuals' cultural perspectives, which include pop and gladiator cultures. In essence, the crowd and the king appreciate gladiator cultures because they applaud the female gladiators' performances. Britney Spears, Beyonce Knowles, and Alecia Moore (Pink) are portrayed as three gladiators singing "we will rock you" in the advertisement. By addressing the culture of individuals, the advertisement demonstrates an awareness of the many perspectives of people. Pepsi's advertisement demonstrates the incorporation of cognitive theory that outlines the range of individuals' cognitive and conceptual capacities through its portrayal of understanding and care. Pepsi has, over time, continued to produce advertisements that are unique and outstanding to potential consumers. According to Hassan and Craft (2012), in order to produce unique advertisements that appeal to contemporary culture, marketers need combine traditional and unconventional aspects. In the advertisement, Pepsi combines gladiator culture and modern pop music, an enticing combination for potential customers. Consumer behavior theory is represented by the fact that the advertisement leaves viewers eagerly anticipating the performance's conclusion.

It is evident from the advertisement that Pepsi uses hedonistic, utilitarian, cognitive, and consumer behaviour theories to promote its products to all consumer segments in a unique manner. The originality and creativity of an advertisement best indicates its relevance in reaching all customer categories in terms of their cultural, social, and emotional perspectives (Hunt & Arnett 2004). The mix of pop and gladiator cultures in the advertisement boosts customer interest in purchasing and consuming Pepsi goods. Thus, the advertisement is quite influential in influencing the beverage purchasing decisions of potential customers. In essence, the unique quality of the advertisement improves Pepsi's capacity to persuade the appropriate market demographics, which include women of all ages and social classes. In addition, the advertisement leverages the principles of customer relationship management to promote its beverages without compromising the beliefs and attitudes of potential customers.

References

Burton, P., Gary P., and Brian L. (2012). 42 Rules of Product Marketing: Learn the Rules of Product Marketing from the World's Leading Experts.

Examining international market segmentation and brand positioning strategies, Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 344-356, S. Hassan and S. Craft, 2012.

Australian Marketing Journal, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 7–25, 2004. Hunt, S., and D. Arnett. "Market Segmentation Strategy, Competitive Advantage, and Public Policy: Grounding Segmentation Strategy in Resource-Advantage Theory."

New Delhi: Pearson, 2009. Kumar, R., Consumer Behaviour and Branding: Concepts, Readings, and Cases: The Indian Context.

Manzano, N., Rivas, L., and Bonilla, G. (2012). Explanatory models of consumer behavior change applied to social marketing. IBusiness, 4(1), pp. 246-255.

Paracha, A, Waqas, M, Khan, A, & Ahmad, S 2012, ‘Consumer Preference Coca-Cola versus Pepsi-Cola’, Global Journal of Management and Business Research, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1-6.

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Emotional Intelligence And Management At Workplace Scholarship Essay Help

Introduction

In order to efficiently manage human resources and organize all activities inside a firm, it is vital to pay close attention to workplace practices. Along similar lines, scholars and practitioners are focusing on understanding and using the notion of emotional intelligence as managers' and employees' capacity to recognize, utilize, and control their emotions to facilitate effective interactions.

The actual importance of emotion management in working processes, employee relationships, and workplace activities is still the subject of controversy. Some managers and scholars, for instance, do not acknowledge that emotional intelligence might be as significant as cognitive intelligence (Schutte and Loi 135). The subject debated in the contemporary literature on organizational behavior concerns the workplace relevance of emotional intelligence and management. When advertising a company's benefits, it is crucial to analyze how emotional intelligence can be implemented in the workplace.

The objective of this paper is to give a literature review on the topic and to draw conclusions on the applicability of emotional intelligence and emotional management to the workplace using real-world examples and survey findings.

Literature Review

Only by analyzing multiple sources on the importance of emotional intelligence in the workplace is an effective examination of the topic likely to occur. For this objective, scholarly articles and online publications were analyzed to determine the breadth of the literature on the topic and to focus on recent developments in the discussion of the issue. Recent research on organizational behavior and management defines emotional intelligence as the capacity to regulate emotional functioning in interactions, adapt and manage emotions, and perceive and comprehend the emotions of others (Cole 32).

Emotional intelligence is the ability to recognize and express emotion, integrate emotion and thought, comprehend and reason with emotion, and manage one's own and others' emotions (qtd. in McCleskey 78). From this perspective, emotional intelligence is comprised of self-regulation, self-awareness, and empathy, with a focus on and ability to respond to the emotions of others. In addition, it is essential to emphasize that this term is not operationalized in the literature, and scholars continue to refine it.

Along with emotional intelligence, researchers discover emotional management that is closely tied to the context of the workplace. Typically, emotional management is defined as the act of analyzing how specific emotions affect performance and implementing strategies to manage these emotions in order to reach a specific objective (Robbins and Judge 218–222).

Therefore, emotional management is essential for managing one's emotions and addressing the emotions of employees in the workplace. Despite the fact that scholars are actively debating the significance of emotional intelligence and emotional management for leaders, they hold divergent views regarding the applicability of these concepts to the workplace. In another area of this report, the researchers' arguments and opinions must be provided in detail.

Workplace Importance of Emotional Intelligence: Arguments and Suggestions

In the literature, there are two opposing viewpoints about the relevance of emotional intelligence and emotional management in the workplace. Opponents of the concept of relevance argue that, as a result of Goleman's work, the importance of this component is grossly exaggerated in the current literature (McCleskey 78–79). In contrast, numerous academics have demonstrated in their studies the significance of employing emotional intelligence and emotional management in the workplace in order to encourage employee interactions and activities. The discussion of existing opinions should begin with an examination of the opposing viewpoint.

One set of researchers emphasizes that the concept of emotional intelligence is difficult to apply to the comprehension of organizational processes and workplace practices due to conceptual flaws. Thus, the concept of emotional intelligence can be considered as oxymoronic, since the fundamental definition of intelligence entails logical, emotionless thought (McCleskey 83).

In addition, emotional intelligence is difficult to quantify in order to understand the impact it has on people's activities and interactions. In addition, analyzing the precise consequences of this type of intelligence on workplace performance or leadership is problematic, making it impossible to draw conclusions regarding the applicability of this notion to organizational behavior. Nevertheless, contrary to the claims of those who deny the relevance of the studied phenomenon to the workplace, a substantial body of data highlights the importance of emotional intelligence in affecting relationships in the workplace.

The position supported by this report should be stated as follows: emotional intelligence and emotional management are highly relevant to the workplace because these factors affect the quality of interactions between managers and employees and the atmosphere of the workplace, resulting in specific positive and negative outcomes. According to Ovans, emotional intelligence as a developed skill in recognizing and controlling emotions helps to increased productivity and effectiveness in the workplace due to an individual's ability to successfully manage negative emotions and behaviors.

In addition, Humphrey et al. claim that by employing emotional management strategies, individuals can communicate with their coworkers more effectively while understanding their feelings and intentions and reducing potential conflict triggers (750). Consequently, workplace communication becomes constructive, founded on the principles of empathy and support, sensitive, and even more productive.

Modern literature on the subject devotes a great deal of attention to the notion that leaders must strengthen their emotional intelligence and management abilities in order to motivate their subordinates to work more efficiently. Therefore, it is argued that the quality of communication directly influences the enhancement of performance and the quality of outcomes (Maidique and Hiller). Thus, experts suggest that emotional intelligence and management can influence organizational atmosphere, collaborative effectiveness, and the individual performance of employees (Humphrey et al. 751).

Cole argues in his paper that it is necessary to cultivate this form of intelligence because it is crucial for employees to believe that their supervisors and leaders care about them and that their feelings and emotions are a topic of discussion for managers (32). Therefore, according to Ovans, the use of emotional intelligence concepts in the workplace is frequently related with consultations, methods for delivering praise, and specific awards and benefits in order to address employee motivation and stimulate worker actions.

From this vantage point, the research provides evidence supporting the notion that emotional intelligence is relevant in the workplace due to its direct and indirect effects on the behaviors, interactions, feelings, and productivity of employees. For instance, employees who do not perceive their coworkers and bosses as caring about their needs, interests, and emotions would struggle to build the necessary level of dedication and will therefore be unable to realize their full working potential.

Thus, according to studies, leaders who disregard the importance of emotional intelligence in the workplace frequently miss opportunities to increase their teams' productivity and creativity by emphasizing employee engagement (Schutte and Loi 135–136). Humphrey et al. acknowledge that research supports the importance of emotional intelligence in enhancing employees' communication (750). Those who have mastered the ability to recognize and manage their own emotions and those of their coworkers, for instance, can achieve greater results in negotiation, decision-making, and problem-solving.

The reviewed literature on the subject provides a variety of arguments in support of the notion that it is crucial to apply emotional intelligence and emotional management in the workplace through the development of communication and cooperation skills. Individuals' productivity in the workplace depends not only on their ability to complete professional tasks, but also on their interpersonal skills (McCleskey 77; Robbins and Judge 138). Therefore, emotional intelligence-related knowledge plays a crucial role in assisting employees to better their collaboration in the context of fostering a healthy work environment.

For instance, employees with higher emotional intelligence feel less stress and fewer communication issues, which favorably impacts their performance (Humphrey et al. 751). When employees in the workplace, as well as their supervisors and managers, develop skills in managing their emotions and addressing the emotions of others, they are able to successfully discuss problematic issues, meet all potential challenges and problems constructively, and concentrate on the positive aspects of cooperation.

Case illustrations and the Survey

The results expressed by researchers in their publications regarding the great relevance of emotional intelligence to the workplace are confirmed by real-world business situations and instances of firms that have effectively incorporated the concepts of emotional intelligence. There is the example of a well-known bank in North America that faced productivity issues in its IT department.

The problem was that the IT department, which was responsible for executing creative ideas and strategies, had lower staff productivity than other departments, and employees appeared disengaged from active work and cooperation (Institute for Health Human Potential 4–5). Comparing the assessments and outcomes of the bank's various divisions revealed that investment in material resources and a focus on skill development alone were insufficient to produce the desired beneficial outcomes.

It was necessary to provide more pertinent approaches to solve the issue. Consequently, 'the bank revealed that managers who were more emotionally aware and able to manage their emotions in the time were better able to respond correctly and productively in challenging situations – the foundation of emotional intelligence' (Institute for Health Human Potential 5). It was discovered that emphasizing characteristics of emotional intelligence such as listening, understanding, coaching, and support in employee relationships enhanced productivity and performance.

The findings in this case can serve to clarify the significance of emotional intelligence in the workplace by demonstrating how different approaches to implementing this principle in different departments of a single organization can influence employee interactions, productivity, and overall performance.

Although some may believe that emotional intelligence and management are less important than the professional qualities of employees, this example demonstrates that a great deal of attention should be paid to the interactions, emotions, and perceptions of individuals in order to achieve greater success in the workplace. The instance indicates that ignoring the role of emotions, self-regulation, and empathy in interpersonal work is unsuccessful. Therefore, this case supports the thesis of this paper: emotional intelligence and management are highly relevant in the workplace.

In addition, there are cases of other businesses that have emphasized the application of emotional intelligence in the workplace. In the restaurants of the UK Whitbread company, managers with high emotional intelligence exhibited greater profit growth, more customer happiness, and reduced turnover. In addition, L'Oreal sales representatives with highly developed emotional management skills contributed significantly to the company's revenue rise of over $2,550,000.

Moreover, as another example, emotional intelligence training at Motorola led to a considerable improvement in staff productivity, as more than 90% of employees increased their output (Institute for Health Human Potential 5–8). These real-world examples support the notion that a focus on emotional intelligence in the workplace is crucial for enhancing not only employee relationships but also the overall effectiveness of a business.

The findings are also reinforced by the results of a web-based survey that asked how the concepts of emotional intelligence were implemented in various firms and what outcomes were noticed. The survey sample consisted of 19 individuals from diverse organizations who were recruited using the approach of purposive sampling. It was shown that 89% of the participants thought that emotional intelligence is crucial in the workplace because it promotes a positive and well-managed environment.

In addition, 77% of participants reported that they had attempted to work more effectively when they perceived that their feelings and interests were acknowledged and encouraged by managers and supervisors. Participants in managerial positions reported that their own developed emotional intelligence skills assisted them in establishing positive and effective connections with employees.

Conclusion

The research on the usefulness of emotional intelligence and emotional management in the workplace reveals two competing perspectives on the application of these talents inside organizations. Still, the literature contains further arguments promoting the value of emotional intelligence. Consequently, the objective of this paper was to promote the notion that incorporating emotional intelligence in the form of empathy, self-awareness, self-control, the management of emotions, and sensitivity into an organization's culture is a crucial success factor.

The following explanations are provided by scholarly sources and real-world examples: Emotional intelligence in the workplace facilitates the development of strong, cooperative connections among employees, thereby preventing misunderstandings and conflicts and fostering positive attitudes. Leaders might be motivated to measure the emotional intelligence of their staff and then provide training to build their talents in order to increase productivity, commitment, and performance. As a result, one can anticipate favorable changes in employee communication, an improvement in team or group performance, and a reduction in employee attrition.

Sources Cited

Graham Cole. "Emotional Management in the Workplace: Key Influences of Age and Experience." 2015, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 31-42 in Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal.

"The Bright Side of Emotional Labor." Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 36, no. 6, 2015, pp. 749-769. Humphrey, Ronald H., et al.

Institute for Human Potential Health The Business Case for Emotional Intelligence Executive Summary. 2014. Web.

Modesto A. Maidique and Nathan J. Hiller. The attitudes of a leader. MIT Sloan Management Review, 2018. Web.

"Emotional Intelligence and Leadership: A Review of Progress, Controversy, and Criticism," by Jim McCleskey. 2014 Volume 22, Number 1 of the International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Pages 76-93.

How Emotional Intelligence Became a Key Leadership Skill, by Andrea Ovans. 2015 Harvard Business Review website.

Robbins, Stephen P., and Timothy A. Judge. Pearson, 2017. Organizational Behavior, 17th edition.

Schutte, Nicola S., and Natasha M. Loi. "Emotional Intelligence and Workplace Thrive." Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 66, 2014, pp. 134-139.

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BHP Billiton Limited Stock Market Prices Analysis Scholarship Essay Help

Introduction

This research discusses the effects of providing accounting information to the public; it analyzes BHP Billiton stock market prices and the effect of disclosing accounting information to the public, as well as investor reactions to positive and negative news. The share prices of BHP Billiton's competitors, Ampella Mining Limited and Altura Mining Limited, are evaluated in order to compare their returns and cumulative residuals with those of BHP Billiton. The announcement was favorable to investors because the cumulative residuals were positive, causing the share price to rise. The announcement included an increase in earnings as a result of the company's ability to control costs, and it was also efficient in its use of investor funds, indicating that the corporation achieved its primary goal of maximizing shareholders' wealth. This research recommends that the corporation try to be more efficient in order to produce higher returns for both speculators and investors by undertaking more hazardous projects that would generate higher dividends and capital gains as a result of big share price swings.

Objectives

This report's primary purpose is to demonstrate the effects of disclosing profit accounting information to the public by demonstrating how BHP Billiton Limited's accounting-linked information influences investor or investor behavior through share prices. In addition, it will highlight the influence of additional factors when examining the causal links and firm-specific aspects behind the company's success.

Company profile

BHP Billiton Limited is a multinational mining, gas, and oil corporation with its headquarters in Melbourne (Australia) and its principal management office in London (United Kingdom) (Bhpbilliton.com, 2011). The company is the largest mining company in the world based on revenue, and since February 2011, it has been the third-largest in terms of market capitalization (Answers.com, 2011).

In 2001, Anglo-Dutch Billiton Plc and Australian Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited (BHP) merged, resulting in the formation of a dual-listed company (Bhpbilliton.com, 2011). Billiton and BHP continue to operate as independent organizations despite their merger. In Australia, BHP Billiton Limited is the main shareholder, is listed on the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX), and has the largest market capitalization (Bhpbilliton.com, 2011). BHP Billiton Plc is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is included in the FTSE 100 Index in the United Kingdom; it is also listed on the New York Stock Exchange (Answers.com, 2011).

The corporation is involved in the coal, aluminum, ferroalloys, copper, titanium, iron ore, diamond, silver, and nickel mining industries, as well as the gas, liquefied natural gas, and oil markets (Bhpbilliton.com, 2011).

The firm earned roughly $25,000,000,000 in revenue in 2004; its primary activities are divided into five divisions: BHP Minerals, BHP Copper, BHP Petroleum, BHP Services Companies, and BHP Steel (Answers.com, 2011). BHP Billiton appears to be the most well-known international firm in terms of natural resources. The company puts together a unique combination of competencies to integrate technologies and resources for the benefit of communities and customers worldwide. The organization is committed to the development of its workers, the continuous delivery of value to its customers, the enhancement of the surrounding community, and the preservation of the environment; it also places a premium on integrity, excellence, and safety in all that it does (Bhpbilliton.com, 2011).

A-cap resources Limited, A1 Minerals Limited, ABM Resources NL, Abra Mining Limited, Accent resources NL, Adelaide Brighton Limited, Adelaide Resources Limited, Altura Mining Limited, Ampella Mining Limited, and other firms in the Mining industry are BHP Billiton's principal competitors (Bhpbilliton.com, 2011). Minerals in which producers and explorers are active at all levels, including gold, base metals, precious metals, diamonds, mineral sands, steel, and iron ore, are the focus of the industry (Bhpbilliton.com, 2011). Only Altura Mining Limited and Ampella Mining Limited will be considered in this study (Answers.com, 2011).

Altura's portfolio includes lithium, iron ore, uranium, Zinc, lead, copper, silver, and gold in addition to industrial garnet. Altura has amassed a substantial foundation of precious metals and minerals commodities from exploration to close to production (Alturamining.com, 2011). Ampella, on the other hand, is committed to becoming the world's leading gold producer in the near future by systematically examining its portfolio (Ampella.com.au, 2011).

Announcement

On February 16, 2011, the business released its half-year report for the fiscal year that ended on December 31, 2010, which contained a consolidated report of the BHP Billiton Group, consisting of BHP Billiton Plc and BHP Billiton Limited, and a comparison of these results to the same time in 2009. (Bhpbilliton.com, 2011). The report conforms to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and is presented in US dollars (Asx.com.au, 2011).

Profits before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization (EBITDA) climbed by 60% to $17,300 million, while earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) increased by 74% to $14,800 million, and attributable profit increased by 88% to $10,700 million (Asx.com.au, 2011). The announcement also reflected a rise in returns and margins, with the basic EBIT margin reaching 46% and the return on capital reaching 41%. (Bhpbilliton.com, 2011). Consistent investment in high-quality development schemes generated output records across five enterprises and three commodities for a period of six months. The functional cash flow and unlevered balance sheet sustain a significant investment in the development of organic that is projected to exceed $80 billion over the next five years. In addition, the company declared an interim dividend of 46 cents per share and an increase of 10% per share (Bhpbilliton.com, 2011).

Impact anticipated from the announcement

The growth in EBITDA, EBIT, and profit by 60%, 74%, and 88%, respectively, was predicted to lead to a rise in the share price following the company's announcement.

Additionally, the rise in dividends declared may have contributed to the share price gain. The investors, both speculators and long-term investors, who desire dividend payments were driven to purchase the company's shares, resulting in an increase in demand and a rise in the share price.

Stock Market report

On January 17, 2011, the stock price of BHP Billiton Limited peaked at $45.83 and closed the day at $43.0 with a volume of 8,854,561 shares traded (Tradingroom.com.au, 2011). The company stock's lowest price between January 17 and February 15 was $44.25 and its highest price was $47.36, representing a price range of $3.11; therefore, a speculator who purchased one share at $44.25 on January 31, 2011 and sold it on February 15, 2011 would have realized a $3.11 capital gain (Tradingroom.com.au, 2011).

When the announcement was issued on February 16, 2011, the share began at $46.92, had a high of $47 and a low of $46.41, and completed the day at $46.59 with a trading volume of 17,002,700 shares (Tradingroom.com.au, 2011). The stock opened on February 17 at $46.66 and finished at $46.64 with a high price of $46.80 and a trading volume of 9,144,588 shares (Tradingroom.com.au, 2011). From February 17 to March 17, the highest and lowest closing prices were $47.25 and $42.97, respectively. This may suggest that there was a great deal of trading activity as speculators sold their shares and others bought them, bringing the price down to $42.97. (Tradingroom.com.au, 2011).

The graph below depicts the rates of return for BHP Billiton and the market, indicating that the company's stock is going in the same direction as the market over time, relative to their respective individual means.

BHP returns in Graph 1

As shown below, the returns on the company's competitor Ampella Mining suggest that the competitor's returns movement relative to the market was less than those of BHP Billiton.

Similar to Ampella Mining, Altura Mining's returns movements compared to the market were not as powerful as BHP Billiton's, as indicated in the table below (Tradingroom.com.au, 2011).

Graph 5: Return of AJM

The aforementioned return movements of competitors can be linked to the companies' poor profits, which discourage investors from investing in them. Furthermore, these two companies do not pay dividends to their long-term investors, whose primary motivation is to receive dividends. Therefore, it is possible that only speculators purchased their shares, and the companies may be financing long-term growth, which may be the reason why they are not paying dividends at the moment. Comparing Ampella Mining and Altura Mining to BHP Billiton, which pays dividends to its shareholders, suggests that it may have a large proportion of long-term investors; hence, the firm returns movement relative to the market is significant. Based on the covariance between each company's return and the market, it can be concluded that their returns move in the same direction, i.e., they are all above their respective averages. But a negative covariance is preferable over a positive one, and Ampella Mining (0.00003) has nearly zero covariance compared to BHP Billiton (0.00007) and Altura Mining (0.00016). (Tradingroom.com.au, 2011).

This suggests that Ampella Mining may be moving in the opposite direction of the market, while BHP Billiton is in the middle of the pack compared to its two competitors. Therefore, Ampella Mining investors get more capital gains than BHP Billiton and Altura Mining investors, with BHP Billiton investors obtaining average returns. The cumulative residual of BHP Billiton is depicted in the graph below, with a positive trend indicating that investors reacted favourably to the announcement because it was excellent news. Additionally, the cumulative residual does not finish in zero, indicating that the company's returns were not random.

BHP Cumulative Residual in Graph 2

In contrast, Ampella Mining investors may have gotten unfavorable news during the course of the company's activities, most likely between January 20, 2011 and March 3, 2011, resulting in negative cumulative residuals for the time. This company's returns are not dispersed randomly, as the cumulative residual did not end at zero.

AMX Cumulative Residual Graph

Altura Mining's cumulative returns are depicted in Graph 6, which reveals that investors reacted to the unfavorable news they received from the company for nearly the whole six-week period and that the company's returns were more or less randomly distributed.

6. AJM Cumulative Residual Graph

Financial ratios

Ratios

BHP Billiton Limited

2010 2009

Liquidity ratio

Present ratio

Current assets/Current liabilities 1.93 1.90

Performance ratios

Return on Investment

Net profit after tax / Total Assets 14.32% 7.46%

Net income Margin

Net profit after tax/Sales 25.99% 11.70%

Return on investment

Profit after tax minus any preferred dividends / Equity* 100 26.22% 14.71%

debt to income ratio

debt to income ratio

Long term debt / invested capital* 100 29.80% 33.27%

Operating profitability ratio

ratio of fixed asset turnover

Sales/Total fixed assets 0.83 0.89

In 2010, BHP Billiton had a current ratio of 1.93, which is 1.93 times greater than in 2009, when the ratio was 1.9. This indicates that the company was more solvent in 2010 than in 2009; in 2010, the company was more efficient in utilizing its assets, as measured by return on assets, which was 14.32% in 2010 compared to 7.46% in 2009; as a result, investors got greater returns in 2010. The company was also able to control its sales, operating, production, and finance expenses in 2010, as its net profit margin increased to 25.99% from 11.70% in 2009.

In 2010, BHP Billiton had a return to equity ratio of 26.22%, which was a significant increase from 2009's ratio of 14.72%.

In both years, the debt ratio is below 50%, therefore the company is not overly leveraged. However, in 2010, the firm is less leveraged with a debt ratio of 29.80%, compared to 33.27% in 2009. This indicates that the company may have repaid a portion of the debt owed to external finance providers. In 2010, the company generated fewer sales through the utilization of its fixed assets, as indicated by the fixed asset turnover ratio. This indicates that the company's fixed asset utilization efficiency decreased by 0.06 times, to 0.83 times.

Conclusion

Compared to its competitors Ampella Mining and Altura Mining, BHP Billiton stock prices are performing averagely in the market. Furthermore, the announcement made on February 16, 2011 was good news for investors, as many investors were drawn to acquire and sell additional shares of the firm. The announcement included an increase in earnings attributable to the company's ability to control its costs, including operating, cost of sales, production, and financing costs, as well as its efficient use of investor funds, indicating that the company achieved its primary goal of maximizing shareholders' wealth. The corporation should strive to be more efficient in order to provide higher returns for both speculators and investors. This can be accomplished by undertaking more riskier initiatives that generate higher dividends and capital gains as a result of volatile share prices.

References

Alturamining.com (2011). About Altura. Web.

Ampella.com.au (2011). Web-based company information.

Responses.com (2011). BHP Billiton. Web.

Asx.com.au (2011). For market announcement purposes. Web.

Bhpbilliton.com (2011). About ourselves. Web.

Stockanalysis-on.net (2011). Financial statements. Web.

Tradingroom.com.au (2011). Web-based quotes and charts.

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Human Resource Strategy Introduction Scholarship Essay Help

Introduction

The essential factors that determine an organization's growth include sound decision making, the type of leadership, employee motivation, the working environment, the quality and quantity of work completed, and strategic human resource management. Instances in which an organization is on the decline relative to its beginning state may be caused by a number of circumstances, including employee neglect of duties, demoralization, economic slump, corruption, lack of transparency, and, most frequently, poor management. In such a scenario, management should return to the drawing board to establish the actions to be taken to streamline the company. From past experiences, it is obvious that Human Resource Management has had a minimal influence and low importance within this organization. Regarding this, it is essential to assess the organization's labor force. It has been determined that the employees of this particular organization are discouraged due to their poor performance while performing their duties. It has been discovered that discrimination and perceived inequity against female employees are the primary source of this problem. The other concern that has been mentioned is employee overwork, which has resulted in some of them exhibiting signs of uncontrolled emotions and burnout. Aside from that, it has been noted that the majority of staff in certain departments lack essential abilities for doing their responsibilities.

Therefore, the organization can acknowledge the significance of its employment policies, such as the need for a stable workforce that reduces labor costs, the need for worker cooperation in production by encouraging workers to exercise responsible autonomy at work, and the internalization of policies such as a guarantee of long-term employment and paying the employees more than the market rate or providing fringe benefits. Thus, the key social influences that shape the form and breadth of people's participation with paid employment are job security, evidence of equality in the workplace, compensation, job satisfaction, and job-related benefits.

Therefore, this essay will evaluate the need for a Human Resource Strategy in a company where the Human Resource Manager has little effect. It will study the relationship between strategic management and strategic Human Resource Management, the relationship between organizational strategy and human resource strategy, and the relationship between strategic human resource management and organizational performance. The analysis will accomplish this by elucidating credible academic theories for a comprehensive comprehension of the points addressed.

Strategic administration and strategic human resource administration

There is a connection between strategic management and human resource strategy. Needle (2004) defines strategic management as the evaluation of a company's strengths and weaknesses and its response to opportunities and threats, whereas human resource strategy is the formulation and implementation of Human Resource policies and practices in order to produce competent employees who can assist the company in achieving its strategic goals (Dessler, 2009). There are numerous methods to strategic management, including the classical logical approach, the evolutionary approach, the creative approach, the behavioral approach, and the systemic approach.

Methodologies for strategic management

The evolutionary approach entails the development of strategy through an evolutionary process in which managers rely on the market to maximize profits; that is, the market, not the managers, will select the dominant strategies. This matter will require a rigorous and exhaustive assessment of the market before decisions can be made. For instance, when there is a surge in demand for a certain product, the market will determine whether a corporation has to boost production. The creative method, on the other hand, asserts that as the workplace environment becomes more complicated and more difficulties develop, managers will be compelled to be creative. Here, the decision-makers are the driving force behind the company's pursuit of its aims and objectives. In this sense, managers should be able to think logically and clearly, given that they are the company's drivers. The behavioral method relies strategy formulation on senior management's personalities and guiding concepts. The majority of strategy formulation occurs during collective bargaining agreement and labor union sessions. During such gatherings, the rights of the labor force are established, together with the working hours and pay rates of both seasonal and permanent personnel. The purpose of worker's unions is to represent and fight for the workers' rights in times of complaints or inequality. According to the systemic perspective, strategy is influenced by its surrounding social context, such as culture. Lastly, the rational approach asserts that strategy is decided through a formal and reasonable decision-making process, while assuming that profit maximization is the only objective that drives the organization and the market's competitiveness is clearly articulated. Organizations do develop strategies to enhance performance and realize their objectives. However, such strategic management approaches may fail on occasion due to a variety of circumstances.

For example, this company has a preliminary plan for planning its approach to achieving its goals. To do this, it developed a creative strategy in which the values of the organization's decision-makers are upheld, as they are the driving force behind its competitive advantage. The business picked this strategy because it recognized the value of sound decision-making for its advancement, as well as the significance of a dynamic environment that will always stimulate the creativity of decision-makers. However, this strategy did not appear to be implemented. This failure is primarily attributable to the fact that the market is composed of entities with similar logic. When there is a demand for a commodity on the market, the company decides to boost production of that commodity. However, there are further organizations that rely on the market to make decisions and enhance productivity in a similar fashion. In the long run, the market gets flooded with the commodity, and the demand decreases. Therefore, relying on the market to make significant decisions seems unreliable, as the market is an independent entity that is subject to volatility and oscillations. Therefore, a new plan should be created.

The most likely causes of Human Resource Management's limited influence are ineffective leadership, employee discrimination, overwork, a lack of competent personnel, and bad performance. The leader must possess good communication and interpersonal abilities, particularly when interacting with employees, as well as the management skills required to run the firm. In addition, many female employees have complained of discrimination; since most males make more than they do, they lack the motivation to work harder. This position is reinforced by Taylor (2002), who notes that this has been a typical occurrence on the British market; nevertheless, successive governments have attempted to reduce these persistent disparities in earnings between men and women. According to the theory on the relationship between human resources and economic success, the Human Resource system can influence employee skills in such a way that employees can be motivated, made more productive, and creative, thereby enhancing the firm's performance, resulting in profitability and growth (Wright & Haggerty 2005). It is noteworthy to note that all types of employment involve some form of emotional management, and the Human Resources department should address incidents when employees experience prejudice or overwork in order to eradicate them.

Implementing a Human Resources Strategy

There are numerous reasons why this organization should implement a Human Resource Strategy. Such a strategy will unquestionably resolve the numerous difficulties facing this organization, while also addressing the Human Resource Manager's low priority and lack of authority. In the truest sense, the organization should implement a strategy that takes into account management and working environment standards.

Internal company strengths and weaknesses

The Resource-Based Theory discusses how business owners construct their companies based on their resources and what they now possess or can acquire (Dollinger 1999). It was intended that the term "resources" refer to the strength or weakness of a corporation or organization. This idea goes on to argue that if an organization is able to acquire and develop its unique resources, it can outperform other organizations or firms in the market. A comprehensive examination of successful businesses will demonstrate that resources are the sole predictor of success. Management skills, qualified staff, strategic planning, and tacit knowledge are examples of such resources (Polanyi 1962). According to these instances, intangible resources can qualify as such, and they can be coupled with tangible resources such as money, people, and technology to generate either strengths or weaknesses, leading to competitive advantage. Moreover, if a company has many capabilities, it can be certain of profitability, rapid expansion, and survival. Human Resource Management appears to be lacking in this instance, which means that management skills resources are either ineffective or have not yet been utilized. This counts as a significant company weakness, necessitating effective human resource management. The organization's strength is that its personnel, as a tangible resource, possess excellent performance potential; all they require is the drive to be productive. As stated in the Resource-Based Theory, management and a Human Resource Strategy can ensure rapid growth and an improvement in performance by investing in these competencies.

The Function of Human Resource Management

Human Resource Management has historically had a low focus and minimal impact on the organization, as is evident. First and foremost, it is essential to recognize that managerial abilities are a firm asset and one of the aspects that will define the company's overall performance. It is crucial that managers in the Human Resource function understand the economic impact of their work. In other words, their jobs involve dealing with the company's tangible resources, such as the personnel, encouraging them, and ensuring that they are in a position to achieve exceptional performance.

According to the Open Systems Theory, the organization is easily influenced by its surrounding environment. In this context, the environment refers to other organizations on the market that present economic and social obstacles and provide access to resources that would help the organization's sustainability, so causing a change in the workforce (Talbert 2001). There is hence a need for a Human Resource Strategy that will assist the organization in accomplishing its objectives by taking into account how the surrounding environment influences the Human Resource function's decisions and how they provide economic and social difficulties to the business.

Employee motivation

Research indicates that the more motivated a person is, the greater their output, whereas an unmotivated employee is unlikely to perform. It is essential to recognize that Human Resource practices influence employee ability and motivation, which in turn impacts the success of the firm. Employees, like any other human being, must like their employment; they must anticipate each morning of work rather than feeling tense even before they arrive. As shown in this essay, the demoralization of workers is a result of low compensation and a boss who does not appear to care about the issues they bring. Another possible explanation is that the organization should consider implementing overtime pay for employees who work beyond their scheduled hours. This will be a significant step towards boosting employee motivation, and they will be encouraged to work more in the long run. In addition, departments that perform well should receive rewards, while the management should be able to recognize and acknowledge the efforts of the hardest working employee.

Employee Talent

The human capital hypothesis emphasizes the impact that variance in employee abilities will have on performance and has thus concluded that a positive relationship exists between the two variables (Whitley 1999). The theory's applications center on the abilities, skills, and knowledge of individuals inside organizations. In essence, the human resource strategy should incorporate as one of its guiding principles the enhancement of employee skills in order to increase the organization's capabilities and, consequently, its competitive advantage. The management of this particular organization must address the company's greatest problem, which is a lack of leadership abilities. Any leader of an organization should strive for the company he or she oversees to reach its fullest potential for growth and profit. A CEO of a major organization who is aware of his employees' problems but chooses to bury his head in the sand is not devoted to growth. This leader lacks insight and has no goals or concentration. Either the organization this leader oversees must be streamlined or the management must be trained.

Employee Development and Training

Training entails providing employees with knowledge of fundamental abilities to be applied on the job. The primary objective of training is to improve the efficiency with which employees perform their tasks. They can be taught both complicated and basic skills, such as first aid and how to respond to a fire outbreak. This training will enhance their work performance, work ethics, and work quality. The training will also boost the employees' salaries and provide them with access to fascinating professions. The two methods to training are voluntarist and educational. The educational approach implies that it is in the company's best interest to have skilled workers, while the voluntarist approach assumes that organizations would invest in training in response to market pressure. This firm should spend in training its personnel, as some have demonstrated insufficient technological proficiency. In a world where technology is always evolving, it is crucial that employees keep pace with these changes. This will allow them to be productive in an efficient manner. Therefore, management can monitor progress using either a task or performance analysis. In addition, the acquisition of soft skills such as communication and problem resolution is essential, for instance, for receptionists so that they can complete responsibilities on time, leading to enhanced performance. Therefore, one may conclude that human resource practices are the litmus test for training, and that trained employees can be armed with immense capacities for their own development and the organization's benefit.

Conclusion

The direction of this organization is ultimately defined by the attitude of its employees and the leadership abilities of its management. It was not an accident that the Human Resource Manager has less power and lower priority. There are significant causes for this, and hence, a Human Resource Strategy must be designed to address this difficulty. By altering the company's environment, such as by hiring new employees and appointing new leaders with diverse qualifications and experiences, difficult problems will undoubtedly surface, but in a constructive way. This will encourage the leader of this organization to generate more ideas for addressing these issues, so enhancing his creativity. Motivating the employees, teaching them, recognizing their abilities, and listening to and addressing their concerns will result in more competent employees at the organization. In turn, this will result in the organization attaining its strategic goals and objectives. Therefore, a Human Resource Strategy is essential for propelling this organization to explosive growth and stability.

References

Human Resource Management. International edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Web. Dessler, G. (2009).

Dollinger, MJ.,1999. Entrepreneurship Resources and Strategies Prentice Hall is headquartered in Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

2004: Needle, D., Business in Context, fourth edition, Thomson, London.

Personal knowledge: Towards a post-critical philosophy, published by Chicago University Press in 1962.

2001. Schoolteaching in Context. Talbert, J. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

The diversity of the British labor market. Economic and social research council, web page, Swindon.

Wright, P.M., and J.J. Haggerty, 2005. Time, causation, and persons are missing variables in theories of strategic human resource management. Web site of Cornell University

Whitley, R.D., 1999. Oxford University Press: Divergent Capitalisms: The Social Structuring and Change of Business Systems.

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Mexico Scholarship Essay Help

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Introduction to the report

This report is going to describe the main features of Mexico, including background information, geographical features, politics, economy and social indicators.

1.2 Background of Mexico

Mexico is the cradle of various highly developed Amerindian civilizations, including the Olmec, Maya, Toltec, and Aztec (Country Watch, 2014).It is also the most populous Spanish speaking country in the world (Baird et al, 2009; Country Watch, 2014). It was conquered and colonised by Spain for three centuries and declares its independence in 1821 (Baird et al, 2009; CIA, 2014). In 1836, Mexico lost Texas and from 1846 to 1848 after the Mexican War of territory flight with the U.S., it lost the territory in the northern Rio Grande (Boardman, 2006; Infoplease, 2005). In 1994, The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) takes effect among Mexico, the U.S. and Canada (Scholastic, 2014; O’Neil, 2014).

2.0 Geographical features

2.1 Location & size

Mexico is located in the North America, between the northern border with the United States (3,141 km) and southern border with Belize (250 km) and Guatemala (962km), as well as bordering the North Pacific Ocean, the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico (Baird et al, 2009; CIA, 2014; STRATFOR, 2012). It is fully accessible by air, sea, car, taxi, bus and passenger train (Baird et al, 2009; Frommer’s, 2014a; Frommer’s, 2014b; Visit Mexico, 2012).

Mexico is vaguely less than three times the size of Texas and ranked 14 in the world (CIA, 2014). The total surface area is 1,964,375 square kilometres which is compounded of 1,943,945 sq km land area and 20,430 sq km water area (CIA, 2014). It also has a total of 9,330 km coastline (CIA, 2014).

Map 1. Map of Mexico. Source: CIA (2014)

2.2 Weather & time zone

Mexico’s climate varies from tropical to desert in accordance to its varied geography (see map2) . It has two main climate seasons: rainy (May to mid-Oct) and dry (mid-Oct to Apr) (Frommer’s, 2014c). Hurricane season (June to October) affects weather on the Yucat??n Peninsula and the southern Pacific coast (Frommer’s, 2014c).

There are three time zones in Mexico: the Northeast, the Pacific and Central time zone (see map3).

Map 2. Climate Zones of Mexico (ERM, 2014)

Map 3. Mexico time zone map (Time temperature, 2014)

3.0 Social indicators

According to HDI 2012, Mexico is a high human development country in terms of life expectancy, education, and income (UNDP, 2013). However, there is still a high degree of income inequality and disproportional benefit from the economy growth among certain socio-economic groups such as health care (Leiner et al, 2012; Mckee and Todd, 2011; Ruiz-Beltran and Kamau, 2001; Van Ginneken, 1979). According to the World Bank (2014f), more than half of Mexican live at national poverty line. The uneven geographical spread of benefit from economic growth is due to rapid urbanisation (Durr, 2012; UN data, 2014).

4.0 Economic indicators

The economic indicators below illustrated a steady growth of the country’s economy (see table 1). However it doesn’t reflect the income distribution and real currency value within a country such as urban/rural.

Mexico is a one of the ten largest oil producer and exporter in the world (EIA, 2012). Since NAFTA takes effect, intraregional trade has multiplied from roughly $290 billion in 1993 to over $1.1 trillion in 2012 (O’Neil, 2014). United States is Mexico primary export partner account for 78 percent of total exports and they share a 2,000-mile border (CIA, 2014; BWHA, 2013; O’Neil, 2014). The main industries in Mexico are food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables and tourism (CIA, 2014; IHS Global, 2013; Wilson, 2008).

2009 2010 2011 2012 Source

GDP per capita (current US$) 7,691 8,885 9,717 9,749 World Bank (2014d)

Gross national income per capita, PPP (current international $) 13,800 14,600 15,800 16,450 World Bank (2014e)

Table 1 Summary of economic indicators

5.0 Politics

Mexico is a federal republic, governed by the Institutional Revolutionary Party (CIA, 2014). It consists of 31 states and 1 federal district of which is also the capital, Mexico City (CIA, 2014).

Since 2010, Mexico has plagued by rampant violence and crime (Baird et al, 2009; BBC, 2013; Country Watch, 2014; Gov.uk, 2014; STRATFOR, 2012; Watt and Zepeda, 2012).Narco-trafficking is one of Mexico’s biggest sources of revenue, as well as its most crime with over 12,000 drug-rated executions in 2011 (Baird et al, 2009; Watt and Zepeda, 2012). The new president announced a new national police force in early 2013 due to increasing concern of security. However, it will take several years before it takes effect (BMI, 2014).

6.0 Conclusion

Mexico is relatively accessible with rich natural resources such as oil, as well as its diverse cultures. It has excellent economic performance. However, its economic benefit is disproportionally spread. Moreover, its economy is too dependent on the U.S. market. The other major concern is its security.

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Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks compare and contrast essay help

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

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WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation essay help

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) rice supplement essay help

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior persuasive essay help

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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Book Report Essay: The Last Song Scholarship Essay Help

Ronnie is a girl that lives in New York, together with her mother and little brother.

She hasn’t had any contact with her dad for the last three years. This summer, everything will be different. Together with her little brother, Ronnie will spend the summer in Wilmington, North Caroline, by her dad.

At the start of the summer, Ronnie is a rebellious girl who is being annoyed that she is being forced to spend the summer with her father. She ignores everybody.

On her first day in Wilmington, Ronnie decided to go to the beach. While walking on the beach, Will, a handsome beach volleyball player, ran into her. She was not into him. But he’s into her, and he’s not giving up. He tried to make her being into him.

While walking on the beach, Ronnie found endangered turtle eggs laying on the sand. Ronnie tried to protect them so the turtle eggs won’t be eaten by the raccoons. Ronnie fell asleep on the beach. Will later sees her sleeping on the beach protecting the turtle eggs, and decided to sleep next to her on the beach. At this point, they were falling in love with each other.

Later on, Ronnie found out that her dad has cancer. He had kept it a secret to everybody.

When the church burned down, Ronnie’s brother and her dad tried to repair the church window. They were working on it the whole summer, but the dad couldn’t finish the job because of his sickness. He was too sick to finish the job. That’s when Will decided to help the family and finished the job together with Ronnie’s brother.

When Ronnie’s mother arrived to pick up Ronnie and her little brother, Ronnie’s thoughts about her dad had totally changed. Ronnie has fought for her dad the whole summer and now decided to stay with him. Besides that, she had fallen in love with Will.

The book ends when Ronnie’s dad passed out because of the cancer. During the funeral Ronnie played a song on the piano that her father had written for her. He had never finished the song so Ronnie did finish it for him.

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Learning Theory Behaviorism (Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme) free college essay help

2.0 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme

Teori Behaviorisme merupakan satu pendekatan pemikiran yang menekankan peranan pengalaman dalam mengawal tingkah laku. Pengasas teori ini adalah J.B Watson yang popular dengan teori Little Albert. Namun, selain daripada J.B Watson terdapat tokoh lain yang turut mengkaji tentang teori ini. Mereka adalah Skinner, Thondike dan Pavlov. Teori pemerolehan bahasa Behavioris pada zaman sebelum ini lebih menekankan tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat sahaja. Bagi mereka perkara yang berlaku dalam otak manusia tidak dapat dikenalpasti. Mereka membuat analogi otak manusia sama seperti sebuah kotak hitam yang gelap. Oleh itu mereka tidak mementingkan peranan otak dalam pemerolehan bahasa.

Golongan mazhab ini menolak pendapat yang menghubungkan operasi kognitif dengan pemerolehan bahasa. Seseorang dianggap telah belajar sesuatu jika dia dapat menunjukkan perubahan perilakunya. Menurut teori ini dalam belajar yang penting adalah input yang berupa stimulus dan output yang berupa reaksi (respond). Stimulus adalah apa saja yang diberikan guru kepada pelajar, sedangkan respon berupa reaksi atau tanggapan pelajar terhadap stimulus yang diberikan oleh guru tersebut. Proses yang terjadi antara stimulus dan respon tidak penting untuk diperhatikan kerana tidak dapat diamati dan tidak dapat diukur. Yang dapat diamati adalah stimulus dan respon. Oleh sebab itu, apa yang diberikan oleh guru iaitu stimulus dan apa yang diterima oleh pelajar iaitu respon harus dapat diamati dan diukur. Teori ini mengutamakan pengukuran kerana pengukuran merupakan perkara yang penting untuk melihat terjadi atau tidak perubahan tingkah laku tersebut.

2.1 Teori Behaviorisme menurut J.B Watson

J.B Watson (1878-1958), seorang ahli psikologi di Amerika Syarikat, merupakan orang pertama mencipta istilah behaviorisme untuk menghuraikan tingkah laku manusia. Kajian banyak dipengaruhi oleh Teori Pelaziman Klasik Pavlov. Kajian beliau, yang terkenal ialah mengenai emosi kanak-kanak dengan menggunakan Model Pelaziman Klasik. Mengikut Watson, tingkah laku manusia merupakan reflex terlazim iaitu suatu gerak balas yang dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman klasik. Dengan kata lain, semua pembelajaran adalah pelaziman klasik Watson berpendapat gerakan-gerakan refleks yang mudah misalnya berkelip mata, bersin apabila hidung gatal dan sebarang tindakan yang dilakukan secara semulajadi adalah tingkah laku yang diwarisi dan tidak perlu dipelajari. Selain daripada tingkah laku, Watson pula menjalankan kajian tentang pembelajaran emosi semula jadi iaitu takut, marah, dan kasih saying. Emosi manusia atau perubahan dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman.

2.1.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran J.B Watson

Menurut beliau, semua tingkah laku boleh dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman. Tingkah laku positif boleh diajarkan melalui ransangan yang sesuai. Seterusnya, untuk menguasai kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah, pelajar perlu belajar cara perhubungan gerak balas secara sistematik. Selain itu, teori ini memberi implikasi untuk mengukuhkan apa yang telah dipelajari dalam ingatan, latihan- latihan hendaklah dijalankan secara kerap. Dalam proses pengajaran,guru hendaklah menggunakan rasangan yang boleh memotivasikan murid untuk minat belajar dan mengelakkan pengunaan ransangan yang membawa kepada kesan negatif.

2.2 Teori Behaviorisme menurut Thorndike

Menurut Thorndike, belajar adalah proses interaksi antara stimulus dan respon. Stimulus adalah apa yang merangsang terjadinya aktiviti belajar seperti fikiran, perasaan, atau hal-hal lain yang dapat dikesan melalui pancaindera. Manakala, respon adalah reaksi yang muncul apabila peserta dididik ketika belajar, dan yang dapat pula adalah berupa fikiran, perasaan, gerakan atau tindakan. Jadi, perubahan tingkah laku akibat kegiatan belajar dapat dikategorikan sebagai konkrit, iaitu yang dapat diamati, atau tidak konkrit iaitu yang tidak dapat diamati. Meskipun aliran behaviorisme sangat mengutamakan pengukuran, tetapi tidak dapat menjelaskan bagaimana cara mengukur tingkah laku yang tidak dapat diamati. Teori Thorndike ini disebut pula dengan teori koneksionisme. Thorndike berjaya membentuk tiga hokum iaitu Hukum kesediaan, Hukum latihan, Hukum kesan. Hukum kesediaan merupakan keupayaan persiapan seseorang individu di dalam kendirinya untuk memulakan sesuatu aktiviti pembelajaran. Manakala hokum latihan pula menyatakan bahawa semakin byak latihan yang dijalankan semakin bertambah kukuh ikatan gerak balas yang tertentu dengan ransangan yang berkaitan. Hukum kesan menyatakan bahawa ikatan ransangan dengan gerak balas akan bertambah kukuh sekiranya individu memperolehi kesan yang memuaskan selepas gerak balasnya dihasilkan.

2.1.2 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike

Antara implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike ialah untuk meningkatkan tahap kesediaan belajar, guru harus menggunakan motivasi yang sesuai. Selain itu, ia juga dapat mengukuhkan pertalian antara ransangan dengan gerak balas pelajar dengan memperbanyak aktiviti latihan, ulangkaji, aplikasi serta pengukuhan dalam keadaan yang menyeronokkan. Seterusnya memberikan ganjaran atau peneguhan untuk respon antau gerak balas yang betul daripada pelajar. Memberi peluang kepada pelajar untuk menikmati kejayaan dalam pembelajaran mereka.

2.3 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Pavlov merupakan salah seorang daripada ahli teori Behavioris selain daripada Skinner, Thondike dan Watson. Beliau dilahirkan pada 14 September 1849 di Ryazan, Rusia Tengah. Beliau telah meninggal dunia pada 27 Februari 1936 di Leningrad Rusia ketika berusia 86 tahun. Ivan Pavlov merupakan ahli fisiologi, psikologi dan ahli fizik berbangsa Rusia. Sebagai seorang yang sangat mencintai bidang fisiologi beliau telah meminta seorang pelajar duduk di sebelah katilnya dan merekodkan perihal kematiannya. Beliau terkenal dengan orang pertama yang mendeskripsikan fonomena pelaziman klasik atau pelaziman responden. Teori pelaziman klasik adalah tentang tingkah laku pembelajaran yang telah dipelopori oleh Ivan Pavlov ( 1849-1936). Pada tahun 1980-an. Pavlov mengkaji fungsi pencernaan pada anjing dengan melakukan pemerhatian pada kelenjar air liur. Dengan cara itu, beliau dapat mengumpulkan, menyukat dan menganalisis air liur haiwan itu dan bagaimana ia dapat diberikan makanan pada keadaan yang berbeza. Beliau sedar anjing akan mengeluarkan air liur sebelum makanan sampai ke mulutnya dan mencari hubungan timbal balik antara air liur dengan aktiviti perut. Pavlov hendak melihat rangsangan luar dapat mempengaruhi proses ini. Oleh itu contoh paling awal dan terkenal bagi pelaziman klasik melibatkan pelaziman air liur pada anjing kajian Pavlov.

2.4 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme B.F Skinner

Manakala menerusi B.F Skinner pula, beliau mengutarakan teori behaviorisme adalah teori. Menurut Nana Sudjana, 1990 pendekatan Skinner adalah operant conditioning, yang merupakan penerusan dan perluasan secara tepat dari hokum Thorndike. Ia mengakui adanya fenomena conditioning yang klasik dari Pavlov dalam perilaku manusia dan binatang, tetapi itu tidak dianggap terlalu penting.

2.4.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran B.F Skinner

Sesuatu kemahiran atau teknik yang baru dipelajari hendaklah diberi peneguhan secara berterusan dan diikuti secara berkala supaya kemahiran atau teknik itu dapat dikukuhkan dan dikekalkan. Selain itu, penggunaan peneguhan positif yang membawa keseronokan adalah lebih berkesan daripada peneguhan negative yang membawa kesakitan. Seterusnya, prinsip penghapusan melalui proses pelaziman operan adalah sesuai digunakan untuk memodifikasikan tingkah laku pelajar yangtidak diingini, misalnya menghentikan peneguhan yang diberikan dahulu sama ada peneguhan positif atau negatif

2.5 Kelebihan teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Kelebihan yang pertama yang kami perolehi melalui teori ini adalah teori ini sangat sesuai untuk melatih atau mendidik kanak-kanak yang masih memerlukan bantuan daripada orang dewasa di sekeliling mereka. Sebagai contoh kanak-kanak tadika memerlukan bimbingan dan perhatian yang khusus daripada orang di persekitarannya terutamanya guru-guru mereka kerana mereka mudah mengikuti apa yang diajar dan disuruh selain suka meniru perlakuan orang di sekelilingnya. Selain itu, mereka juga suka dengan bentuk-bentuk penghargaan yang diberi kepadanya seperti pujian dan melalui bentuk penghargaan tersebut ianya dapat membangkitkan semangat ingin belajar dalam diri mereka.

Kelebihan yang kedua adalah guru tidak perlu mengambil masa yang lama untuk memberi penerangan yang panjang tentang pembelajaran kepada murid-murid. Hal ini kerana murid-murid akan dibiasakan belajar dengan sendiri kecuali sekiranya murid menghadapi sesuatu masalah dan memerlukan penjelasan yang lebih daripada guru. Dalam hal ini guru perlu memberikan penerangan dengan jelas.

Selain daripada itu, teori ini juga menekankan kemahiran lisan berbanding kemahiran membaca dan menulis. Melalui aspek kemahiran lisan yang ditekankan dapat memberikan kelebihan kepada murid kerana aspek lisan iaitu mendengar dan bertutur penting dalam situasi harian murid. Boleh dikatakan bahawa kemahiran ini adalah kemahiran terkerap yang digunakan manusia untuk berkomunikasi antara satu sama lain.

2.6 Kelemahan Teori Behaviorisme

Dari segi kelemahan pula, penerapan teori behavioris yang kurang tepat dalam sesuatu situasi pembelajaran boleh mangakibatkan berlakunya proses pembelajaran yang tidak kondusif bagi murid-murid kerana pembelajaran berlaku dalam keadaan sehala dimana ianya berpusatkan kepada guru sahaja. Guru hanya mengajar dan melatih murid manakala murid hanya menerima apa yang diajar oleh guru mereka tanpa memberi sebarang maklum balas. Malah dalam teori pembelajaran ini murid berperanan sebagai pendengar dan mereka menghafal apa yang didengar dan dipandang sebagai cara belajar yang efektif. Penggunaan hukuman merupakan salah satu cara untuk guru mendisiplinkan murid dan hal ini akan mendatangkan akibat buruk kepada murid.

Kelemahan yang kedua ialah proses pembelajaran dikatakan kurang memberikan gerak balas yang bebas bagi pelajar untuk berinteraksi serta untuk mengembangkan idea. Hal ini kerana sistem pembelajaran tersebut lebih tertumpu kepada rangsangan dan gerak balas yang ditunjukkan. Sekiranya tiada rangsangan maka tindak balas tidak akan berlaku. Sebagai contoh, guru akan memberi rangsangan dalam bentuk hadiah dan daripada situ barulah murid akan memberikan jawapan yang dikehendaki oleh guru. Sekiranya perkara ini berlaku secara berterusan dikhuatiri murid akan terlalu bergantung terhadap rangsangan dari luar sedangkan murid harus memiliki rangsangan dari dalam diri mereka sendiri sebagai satu cara pembelajaran.

Kelemahan yang ketiga menurut teori ini adalah penambahan ilmu pengetahuan lebih tertumpu kepada buku teks. Hal ini kerana mereka belajar mengikut urutan kurikulum yang sangat ketat sehinggakan buku teks merupakan buku wajib dalam pembelajaran mereka malah mereka juga perlu dikehendaki memahami dan mempersembahkan kembali isi pembelajaran di dalam buku teks tersebut dengan baik. Hal ini boleh mendatangkan kesan buruk kepada pelajar kerana ilmu pengetahuan yang mereka peroleh tidak begitu berkembangan dengan hanya tertumpu kepada satu buah buku sahaja.

2.7 Implikasi teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Yang pertama ialah guru perlu sedar bahawa kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balas boleh dilazimkan iaitu dipelajari. Sebagai contoh apabila guru ingin menyuruh murid-murid beratur ketika waktu rehat di kantin sekolah guru boleh mengaitkannya dengan cara untuk berjaya dalam kehidupan. Implikasi yang seterusnya ialah kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balasdapat dikukuhkan melalui latihan. Semakin kerap rangsangan itu dikaitkan dengan sesuatu gerak balas, semakin kukuh gerak balas terlazim itu. Sebagai contoh guru ingin murid-murid supaya tidak mengaitkan mata pelajaran matematik dengan kesukaran, dengan memberi mereka latihan- latihan yang mudah dan apabila mereka beransur mahir menyelesaikan masalah yang sukar maka guru bolehlah menukar aras pembelajaran kepada tahap yang sederhana sukar dan seterusnya ke aras pembelajaran yang sukar.

Di samping itu, dalam proses pembelajaran, generalisasi boleh berlaku. Ini bermakna perkara yang dipelajari dalam situasi A boleh dipindahkan ke situasi B. Sebagai contoh guru mata pelajaran sains mengaitkan kejadian pencemaran alam sekitar yang mengakibatkan kemusnahan alam semula jadi dengan kemusnahan alam yang berlaku seperti tsunami yang melanda Bandar Acheh.

faktor motivasi memainkan peranan yang penting bagi menghasilkan gerak balas yang diinginkan. Dalam hal ini pemberian ganjaran perlu diberi perhatian. Sebagai contoh ketika murid menjawab soalan yang diberikan oleh guru dengan betul maka guru boleh memberikan pujian kepadanya atau dengan memberikannya hadiah supaya pada waktu pembelajaran yang seterusnya pelajar tersebut akan lebih menumpukan perhatian di dalam kelas untuk memperoleh pujian yang diingini. Namun sekiranya pelajar tersebut tidak dapat menjawab soalan yang diberi maka guru perlulah membimbing pelajar tersebut supaya mereka tidak berasa terpinggir dan seterusnya dapat bersama-sama memahami tajuk pembelajaran pada ketika itu.

Selain itu juga, dalam proses pembelajaran tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat, diamati, diukur dan dikawal hendaklah diberi perhatian. Hal ini kerana melalui perubahan tingkah laku yang ditunjukkan oleh murid guru boleh mengambil sebarang tindakan sekiranya ianya di kesan lebih awal. Sebagai contoh sekiranya seseorang murid menunjukkan tingkah laku yang negatif seperti tidak faham tentang apa yang diajar oleh guru maka guru boleh membuat pemulihan terhadap dirinya. Dalam pembelajaran, penghapusan boleh berlaku jika peneguhan tidak diberikan. Ini bermakna, sekiranya sesuatu tingkahlaku tidak diperkukuhkan melalui ganjaran, tingkahlaku itu mungkin akan terhapus begitu sahaja. Konsep pemulihan serta-merta juga dapat membantu seseorang guru meningkatkan keberkesanan pembelajaran

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Research design writing an essay help

2.7 RESEARCH DESIGN USED :

The conception of research design plan is the critical step in the research process. The design ,of the study constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. In other words the research design is a conceptual structure with in which,h research is conducted.

2.8 DATA COLLECTION METHODS :

Primary Data: – Primary data are those data which are collected for the first time, and thus hap,pen to be original in character. It is extracted with the help of discussions co,nducted with senior managers with respect to factors affecting the performance.,

Secondary Data: – Secondary data are those data which are already collected by someone else ,and which have already passed through the statistical process. These data are g,athered by Books, Lectures, Notes, and Official Websites etc.

The study make,s extensive use of secondary data. ‘Secondary data are those which have already,y been passed through the statistical process’. The data which is pre-essential for ,this study relating to comparative analysis of Balance Sheet and PROFIT AND L,OSS A/c was based on secondary source of data. This data will be collected fro,m materials provided by Rakshitas Pvt. Ltd., discussions conducted with store m,anagers and some essential

Financial Accounts books.

2.9 LIMITATIONS :,

‘ Data provided is very limited due to the subjectivity of it being highly confidential.,

‘ The data taken for interpretation is for a limited period.

‘ Assumptions, are to be taken into consideration while doing analysis and interpretation, of data.

‘ Due to limited, information, depth analysis could not be made.

2.10 RESEARCH MEASURE TOOLS :

Various financial techniques and statistical tools are used to measure the data used in the study. Column graphs, pie chart etc. is used to highlight the statistical inference,s. The study cannot be completed without balance sheet and profit and loss a/c. ,Therefore three years balance sheet and profit & loss a/c has been taken out for ma,king proper research.

2.11 ANALYSIS OF DATA :

The data collected is secondary, and it’s compiled, classified, tabulated and then analyzed u,sing financial techniques and statistical tools. Graphs and charts are used to hig,hlight the statistics. Based on this data and analysis, inferences are drawn accor,dingly.

2.12 OVER VIEW OF THE CHAPTER :

The Project I,s Presented in the following chapter :-

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

This chapter includes introduction to finance, theorectical back ground for the study of the ,various performance, introduction to finance, definition of retail industry and di,fferent type of industry.

CHAPTER 2 : DESIGN OF THE STUDY

This chapter I,ncludes the projects introduction of the subject background, statement of the, problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, need and purpose of study,, research methodology, research design, data collection method primary and seco,ndary data, limitations, research measure tools and analysis of data.,

CHA,PTER 3 : PROFILE OF THE COMPANY

This c,hapter contains the profile of the company, its origin and background, board of directors, number of branches and organization structure.

CHAP,TER 4 : DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This ch,apter consists of Table, Graphs, Analysis and Interpretation based on the question,nairies.

CHAPT,ER 5 : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCULSIONS AND RECOM,MENDATIONS

This chap,ter includes findings based on objectives of the study, conclusion drawn from the f,indings and recommendations given from the analysis.

Chapter:-3

PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION

COMPANY PROFILE

RAKSHITAS PVT.LTD.

Rakshitas business con,cept is to offer a broad and varied range of apparels that allows customers to fin,d their own personal style to choose from more than 150 remiums national and int,ernational brands.

Rakshitas is aimed at everyone in the family with an interest in modern basics, fashion, quality and affo,rdable pricing. Customers should always be able to find clothes and accessories ,at Rakshitas for every occasion. The collections are extensive and new arrivals, being launched week after week in each of the 4 floors spread across 20,000 s,q. ft. for Men, Women, Kids and Teen’s casual wear, formal wear, denim wea,r, ethnic and Kancheevaram silks etc. The range and collections are supplemen,ted by matching costume jewellery, premium international watches, perfumes, ,lingerie’s.

Mission

Our mission is to achieve excelle,nce in the products and services we offer, in the methods we employ and in the res,ult we produce.

Products

Menswear: menswear,r means clothing for men. Rakshitas provide various brands for menswear which ,includes formal shirts, casual shirts, trousers, jeans etc. of several variety of int,ernational as well as national brands, for example: -levis, pepe jeans, killer, lee, w,rangler etc.

Women’s wear: Women’s wear means ,clothing for women. Rakshitas provides the best options for women’s apparel rang,ing from skirts to ethnic, casuals as well as formals.

Kids wear: Kids wear are meant only for kids or children ranging below age of 12 years. Rakshitas provides awesome collection for kids which include children formal wear, kurtas, shirt,s etc.

Party wear: Party wear dresses are meant for wearing in parties, functions, special occasions etc. Rakshitas provides variety ranges of party wear which includes lehngas, wedding dresses, traditional indian dress etc.

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Control and organisational behaviour (pengendalian dan perilaku organisasi) my essay help uk

PENGENDALIAN DAN PERILAKU ORGANISASI

PERILAKU ORGANISASI

Untuk membuat dasar yang nantinya dapat digunakan manajemen dalam menyusun system pengendalian manajemen, maka kita perlu mengetahui lebih dalam mengenai perilaku organisasi. Berikut ini adalah beberapa penjelasan mengenai teori akuntansi sebagai bentuk pemahaman terhadap organisasi.

Definisi Organisasi

Secara umum, organisasi diartikan sebagai sekumpulan orang yang melakukan kerjasama demi mencapai tujuan ‘ tujuan yang telah ditentukan bersama. Organisasi tercipta ketika orang ‘ orang bergabung dan melakukan sesuatu untuk berbagai tujuan dan organisasi dapat mencakup segala aspek dalam kehidupan. Organisasi dapat bersifat formal dan informal. Pekerjaan di dalam suatu organisasi dapat dibagi ‘ bagi dan dikoordinasi sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan keahlian tiap ‘tiap anggota organisasinya untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi tersebut. Suatu organisasi haruslah going concern, dalam arti organisasi tersebut diasumsikan akan hidup selamanya.

Teori Perilaku Organisasi (Theory of Organization Behaviour)

Ada beberapa teori yang menjelaskan mengenai mengapa dan bagaimana orang ‘ orang berperilaku dalam organisasi. Berikut ada dua penjelasan mengenai teori tersebut :

1. Teori jenjang kebutuhan

Teori ini menjelaskan bahwa setiap manusia memiliki kebutuhan yang banyak dan harus dipenuhi dan kebutuhan serta keinginan tersebut tersusun secara rapih, sehingga apabila ada satu kebutuhan terpenuhi maka setelah itu ia akan berusaha memenuhi kebutuhannnya yang lebih tinggi. Dalam teori ini tersirat bahwa system pengendalian manajemen juga didasarkan pada kebutuhan manusia yang terkoordinasi dan dilakukan sesuai dengan tujuan organisasi.

2. Teori motivasi pencapaian

Teori ini lebih mengacu pada perilaku atasan atau manajer dalam perannya saat berorganisasi. Untuk mencapai keberhasilan dan mendapat sebuah kekuasaan, maka manajer tersebut juga perlu memiliki keinginan yang kuat agar dapat menghasilkan prestasi dalam organisasi.

TEORI ORGANISASI

Pengetahuan yang dalam mengenai organisasi sangatlah diperlukan oleh para pelaku organisasi dalam pelaksanaan system pengendalian manajemen organisasi tersebut. Para pelaku organisasi harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui semua poin dalam organisasi termasuk sejarah organisasi, tujuan organisasi, bagaimana perilaku para pelakunya hingga reaksi organisasi tersebut terhadap lingkungan.

Tak berbeda dengan teori perilaku akuntansi, dalam teori organisasi juga terdapat banyak teori yang membahas mengenai organisasi. Dan disini akan dibahas mengenai dua teori juga tentang organisasi, yaitu :

1. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Dalam

Banyak organisasi dianggap indepen dan tidak terlalu memperhatikan lingkungan luar oleh beberapa teori. Teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam ini banyak dijadikan dasar oleh sebagian besar system pengendalian manajemen dalam suatu organisasi hal tersebut didasarkan karena dalam teori ini mencakup tanggung jawab dalam pengambilan keputusan yang berlaku menurut proyek ‘ proyek, program ‘ program serta komponen ‘ komponen fungsionalnya.

2. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Luar

Teori ini adalah teori kebalikan dari teori sebelumnya yaitu teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam. Teori ini beranggapan bahwa suatu organisasi selalu berhubungan dengan lingkungan di sekitarnya. Ada dua jenis organisasi yang menganut teori organisasi yang berorientasi keluar ini, yaitu :

– Organisasi system umum terbuka

– Organisasi system manajemen

TIPE ORGANISASI

Ada tiga jenis atau tipe organisasi, yaitu :

1. Organisasi Fungsional

Dalam tipe organisasi ini, penekanan lebih ditujukan kepada manajer yang sangat harus bertanggung jawab terhadap suatu fungsi tertentu, seperti fungsi produksi, fungsi pemasaran dan fungsi lainnya yang diterapkan dalam organisasi tersebut. Fungsi ‘ fungsi tersebut dapat dihimpun oleh fungsi yang lebih tinggi dalam organisasi itu juga. Organisasi ini berpotensi membuat efisiensi perusahaan yang lebih baik karena menggunakan masukan ‘ masukan dari manajerial yang lebih tinggi.

2. Organisasi Divisi

Dalam organisasi ini, semua manajer harus bertanggung jawab terhadap hamper keseluruhan fungsi dalam proses produksi serta distribusi lini pada organisasi tersebut. Orientasi organisasi divisi lebih terbuka yang berarti lebih menekankan bahwa para manajer harus peka terhadap pengaruh ‘ pengaruh yang dating dari luar yang mungkin dapat mempengaruhi kinerja organisasi.

3. Organisasi Matriks

Ada dua struktur organisasi dalam organisasi matriks, yaitu ditata berdasarkan fungsi dan ditata berdasarkan program. Pada organisasi matriks, para manajer bertanggung jawab penuh atas profitabilitas dari lini produk organisasi tersebut dimana proses produksi dilakukan oleh unit ‘ unit organisasi fungsional.

Teori Kemungkinan (Contingency Theory)

Untuk mengendalikan suatu manajemen menggunakan tiga macam pendekatan, antara lain :

1. Pendekatan tradisional

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada perencanaan, pendekatan dan pengendalian.

2. Pendekatan system

Pendekatan ini menekankan padapenggunaan sumber daya manusia sebagai pertimbangan dalam pengambilan keputusan.

3. Pendekatan perilaku

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada pengendalian manusia termasuk di dalamnya motivasi dan prediksi.

PERILAKU MANAJEMEN

Organisasi dan sistemnya yang rumit akan mempengaruhi perilaku manusia menjadi rumit pula.

Konsep Fundamental

Agar suatu organisasi ‘terkendali’ maka para anggota organisasi harus mengetahui dengan baik apa sebenarnya yang diinginkan oleh manajemen. Untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut, dapat menggunakan banyak informasi yang telah disediakan oleh manajemen organisasi seperti anggaran hingga kebijakan organisasi. Tujuan organisasi dibuat oleh para manajer senior dan dilaksanakan oleh manajer operasional untuk selanjutnya para manajer senior menerapkan system pengendalian manajemen untuk mengontrol organisasi tersebut.

Persepsi Tujuan

Para manajer operasional harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui apa tujuan organisasi. Para manajer operasional tersebut dapat secara mudah mendapatkan informasi ‘ informasi yang mereka butuhkan dari berbagai sumber baik dari dokumen maupun percakapan informal saja. System pengendalian manajemen yang efektif dapat menguatkan kepastian suatu perusahaan.

Organisasi Informal

Adanya organisasi informal di dalam organisasi formal sering menyebabkan adanya salah persepsi mengenai tindakan yang diharapkan. Hubungan pada organisasi informal tidak tercantum di dalam bagan organisasi, padahal hal tersebut cukup penting untuk pemahaman system pengendalian organisasi tersebut.

Motivasi

Reaksi pada pelaku organisasi terutama manajemen terhadap organisasi dapat berbeda tergantung pada motivasinya. Motivasi dapat bermacam ‘ macam, misalnya kenaikan gaji, promosi, pujian dan lain ‘ lain. Motivasi timbul dari dalam pribadi masing ‘ masing, tetapi motivasi dapat dipengaruhi oleh rangsangan dari lingkungan sekitarnya.

Keselarasan Tujuan (Goal Congruence)

Setiap manusia memiliki tujuan pribadi, begitu juga dengan organisasi yang juga memiliki tujuan bersama. Salah satu tugas penting system pengendalian adalah menyelaraskan kedua tujuan tersebut serta mencapainya demi mendapatkan kepuasan bersama. Semakin kuat hubungan antara tujuan pribadi dan tujuan organisasi, maka ssistem pengendalian organisasi tersebut akan semakin kuat juga.

Kerjasama dan Konflik

Suatu organisasi tidak akan berjalan dengan baik apabila para anggotanya tidak bekerjasama dengan baik secara terkoordinasi, untuk itu di dalam organisasi sangat dibutuhkan kerjasama yang terkoordinir dan selaras. Selain itu, organisasi juga harus menjaga koordinasi dan keselarasan tersebut agar tidak terjadi konflik yang dapat mengganggu kinerja organisasi. Konflik tersebut dapat terjadi karena berbagai alasan, salah satunya adalah dengan adanya persaingan didalam organisasi tersebut.

Iklim Organisasi (Organizational Climate)

Secara singkat, iklim organisasi dapat diartikan sebagai hasil kombinasi dari struktur formal dan struktur informal pada suatu organisasi. Dan menurut pemahaman saya iklim organisasi merupakan suasana di dalam organisasi dimana tiap pelaku organisasi di dalam organisasi saling membantu, saling menilai, dan memahami antara satu dengan yang lain. Iklim organisasi ikut mengambil bagian penting dalam organisasi. Keduanya saling mempengaruhi satu sama lain.

Tipe Pengendalian

Pelaku pengendalian Sumber arah pengendalian Macam ‘ macam Pengendalian

Ukuran prestasi dan tingkah laku Isyarat untuk tindak koreksi Imbalan untuk prestasi Hukuman untuk kegagalan

Organisasi formal Rencana organisasi, strategi, tanggapan atas persaingan Anggaran, biaya standar, target penjualan penyimpangan Penghargaan manajemen, insentif uang, promosi Minta penjelasan

Kelompok informal Keterikatan bersama cita’cita kelompok Norma-norma kelompok penyimpangan Pengakuan rekan, keanggotaan, kepemimpinan Ejekan, pengasingan, permusuhan

Perorangan Tujuan pribadi, aspirasi Harapan pribadi, target antara Dugaan akan kegagalan di masa yang akan dating, target tak tercapai Kepuasan karena ‘terkendali’ kegembiraan Merasa gagal

Sumber : Disarikan dari Gene W. Dalton dan Paul R. Lawrence, Motivation and Control in Organizations (Homewood, III. : Richard D. Irwin, 1971). Hak Cipta 1971 oleh Richard D. Irwin Inc.

Variasi dalam Pengendalian

Hakekat system pengendalian manajemen dibedakan menurut sifat pekerjaan, macam organisasi, lingkungan daan peran manajer. Berikut adalah tiga dimensi yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penggunaan dan pengembangan system pengendalian manajemen :

1. Besar keleluasaan manajemen

2. Besar interdependensi

3. Rentang waktu pelaksanaan

FUNGSI KONTROLER

Kontroler dapat diartikan sebagai petinggi atau pejabat yang bertanggung jawab atas apa yang telah direncanakan oleh organisasi dan bagaimana pengoperasiannya. Tanggung jawab para kontroler berbeda ‘ beda di tiap organisasi bahkan di tiap divisinya. Tanggung jawab kontroler didasarkan pada posisinya masing ‘ masing. Tanggung jawab tersebut dilaksanakan secara langsung. Selain tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian tersebut, berikut ini adalah fungsi lain dari kontroler :

a. Menyiapkan laporan kepada pihak pemerintah serta pihak ‘ pihak luar lainnya.

b. Mempersiapkan pengembalian pajak.

c. Mempersiapkan dan melakukan analisa terhadap laporan prestasi keuangan.

d. Membantu para manajer dengan cara melakukan analisa sertab menafsirkan laporan ‘ laporan tersebut.

e. Menggunakan prosedur pemeriksaan intern dan pengendalian akuntansi, memastikan validitas informasi, menetapkan usaha perlindungan yangcukup terhadap berbagai penyimpangan serta melakukan pemeriksaan operasional.

f. Melakukan pengembangan kepada orang ‘ orang yang ia pimpin serta berperan langsung dalam penambahan pengetahuan mengenai fungsi kontroler

g. Mengadakan manajemen kas, asuransi serta kegiatan ‘ kegiatan lainnya demi pengamanan kekayaan perusahaan.

Hubungan dengan Organisasi Lini

Kontroler juga memiliki hak untuk membuat kebijakan ‘ kebijakan dalam organisasi. Namun keputusan ‘ keputusan tersebut merupakan realisasi pelaksanaan kebijakan ‘ kebijakan yang telah dibuat oleh manajer lini. Dengan kata lain, terdapat keselarasan antara kedua belah pihak. Hal tersebut tentunya sangat baik untuk menjaga kelancaran jalannya organisasi tersebut.

Kontroler Divisi

Kebanyakan perusahaan atau organisasi membagi organisasinya tersebut menjadi beberapa divisi yang dikepalai oleh seorang manajer. Manajer divisi tentu juga memiliki kontroler divisi. Dalam hal ini, kontroler divisi harus patuh kepada manajer divisi dan juga kontroler perusahaan yang terkadang beda kepentingannya. Penilaian prestasi terhadap kontroler divisi dapat dilakukan dengan menilai beberapa poin, antara lain :

– Laporan akuntansi dan keuangan

– Pengetahuan mengenai operasi divisi

– Sasaran dan pelaksanaan kepatuhan terhadap kebijakan

– Kontribusi manajemen

– Pengetahuan terhadap akuntansi

– Kejujuran dan profesionalisme

– Kemauan bekerjasama

– Organisasi dan staf

– Inisiatif dan semangat

HUBUNGAN LINI-STAF

Seorang manajer divisi dapat dikatakan tidak memiliki staf maupun asisten pribadi. Manajer tersebut mendapatkan bantuan dari :

1. Tenaga yang ditugaskan untuk membantunya dari staf umum, insinyur serta petugas pembelian

2. Staf pusat yang dapat dimintai bantuan kapan saja sebanyak mungkin.

HUBUNGAN MANAJER DIVISI ‘ KONTROLER

Untuk mencapai kesuksesan organisasi dalam hubungannya dengan manajer divisi, maka organisasi perlu membina kerjasama yang baik dan solid di tiap ‘ tiap manajemen. Berikut merupakan beberapa factor yang dapat mempengaruhi hubungan baik adalah :

1. System akuntansi yang seragam dan terpusat

2. Sasaran ‘ saasaran keuangan yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya untuk tiap ‘ tiap divisi.

(Pertumbuhan penjualan serta besar laba penjualan)

3. Pembagian laba antara kontroler dan manajer

SISTEM AKUNTANSI

Selain memiliki tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian organisasi, divisi kontroler juga memiliki kewenangan atas system akuntansi yang akan digunakan oleh organisasi tersebut termasuk di dalamnya menetapkan cara dan jenis pos ‘ pos yang harus mereka awasi. Sistem akuntansi dijadikan dasar dalam penyusunan laporan keuangan beserta analisisnya.

SASARAN ‘ SASARAN DIVISI

Seperti yang telah disebutkan pada bagian sebelumnya, perusahaan atau organisasi memiliki sasaran keuangan, yaitu pertumbuhan penjualan dan tingkat laba. Tingkat laba dalam organisasi atau perusahaan ditetapkan sebaga persentase penjualan. Berikut ini adalah beberapa factor penentu target laba penjualan :

1. Kemungkinan pematenan produk

2. Besar laba atas investasi yang diinginkan

3. Besar laba industry bersangkutan

4. Besar laba investasi bersangkutan

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Business notes: Creative problem solving aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

1 Unit 1 – Creative problem solving

1.1 Introduction

A business leader is expected to identify problems, implement solutions and find business opportunities. To do so, they must learn to plan, analyse situations, identify and solve problems (or potential problems), make decisions, and set realistic and attainable goals for the business/unit. These are the fundamental thinking/creative requirements for leadership, and these set direction to a successful future. Without this critical competence, you will have to rely on others to do your thinking for you, or you will simply have to learn to nurture your creative thinking skills which will help you on your journey towards successful business.

Creative thinking forms part of this continuous problem solving process, and is the fundamental basis for facilitating in the development of solutions, new initiatives, products or services. In an entrepreneurial context, the end result of this process should be directly linked to a feasible opportunity in the market environment.

Quote – What lies behind us and what lies before us, are tiny matters, compared to what lies within us. – William Morrow

The creative problem solving process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Problem analysis

‘ Solution analysis

‘ Decision analysis

‘ Solution implementation

1.2 The process

The creative problem solving process consists of an important core process, namely the idea generation process see figure 1. This is an important step, especially if you need to come up with creative ideas for products, services, and processes, to solve a consumer problem. The idea generation process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Step 1 – Generating ideas

‘ Step 2 – Developing ideas into a concept

‘ Step 3 – Converting a concept into a tangible or intangible product

‘ Step 4 – Finally protecting the tangible or intangible product

Figure 1 – The process of creative thinking (idea generation)

Initially you need to understand the problem and find the root cause of the problem. Many techniques are available to find the causes of problems, you can use the 5 Why technique in this case, if you are familiar with it. The more advanced courses will describe how to use the major problem identification techniques, but this course will focus on the idea generation process.

1.3 Where to start

In the entrepreneurial phase, the best way to start the idea generation process is when you are required to come up with a new product or service, to identify a potential consumer problem. Initially, focus on identifying problems in the area of your expertise (your knowledge base).

If you have no knowledge of the problem, the product development stage could be a challenge for you.

You will learn in the next section that not all problems are opportunities, and entrepreneurs should be careful as to how they approach this stage, when generating ideas in trying to identify a new product or service.

1.4 Problem versus opportunity

In most cases, the idea-generation phase in the creative problem solving process is neglected. Individuals normally identify a problem or an opportunity (which may seem like an opportunity, but is actually just an idea), and then develop a new product in line with the new assumed idea or opportunity. It is therefore important to distinguish between an idea and an opportunity. Resources may be wasted if a mere idea is incorrectly perceived as an opportunity.

Any opportunity is initially problem based (e.g. a coffee shop in a destination where there is a lack thereof, this creates several problem situations and potentially feasible opportunities for the entrepreneur). The creative thinking (idea generation process) involved, is the means to solving these problems, and bring forth solutions to the market problems, which create further opportunities.

1.4.1 Difference between problem and opportunity

There is, however, a critical difference between a problem and opportunity. Consider the following:

‘ Is it an idea or an opportunity to develop a high speed train between two major cities which are not far from each other? Some may say it is a great idea, but when you need to pay R200 a day to make use of it, it is simply not an opportunity. Only a few people would make use of the service, resulting in a negative impact on the market.

‘ If it is possible to transport people between the two cities for a lower cost, say R10, it would possibly be a more feasible opportunity.

Here is a good example of an opportunity – Around the turn of the twentieth century, a shoe manufacturer sent a representative to Africa, to open up a market in the undeveloped area in that continent. After exploring the culture for a month, the rep sent a telegram to the home office shouting,

‘Disaster! Disaster! These people do not wear shoes. Bring me home immediately!’

A short time later, another shoe company sent their agent to Africa for the same purpose. A month later his home office also received a telegram:

‘Opportunity! Opportunity! These people do not wear shoes! Triple production immediately!’

Quote – Every situation contains the potential for disastrous problems or unprecedented success. The event is what we perceive it to be. Unknown

Now the question arises: How do I distinguish between an idea and an opportunity? Looking at above examples, every problem is not an opportunity, and it really depends at how you are looking at the problem. If you see a viable opportunity in a problem then you are looking at the problem with a different perception than most people (the glass is half full or half empty). From a business perspective all opportunities are not necessarily a viable opportunity, the market determines the available opportunities. Without the knowledge to interpret the market conditions, you could miss it totally in terms of your opportunity analysis.

Table 1 shows the different industries in South Africa, the level of entrepreneurial activity, and how the same opportunity differs in each of these market areas.

1.4.2 The global entrepreneurship monitor

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor ‘ specifically identified the entrepreneurial activity in the various industries of South Africa. It can be generalized to state that an industry with a high level of entrepreneurial activity, gives away more business opportunities (e.g. manufacturing, retail, hotel, restaurant and business services), while one with a lower level will indicate far less opportunities (e.g. agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing, finance, insurance, real estate and health, education and social services).

If we analyse just one ‘high-opportunity’ industry, for instance manufacturing, it may be an opportunity today to manufacture a final product, and export it to an international market. A ‘low-opportunity’ industry, for instance insurance (especially in the market entry phase), may be negative as having an extremely high crime rate and insurance companies have to pay out claims at an alarming rate. It is also evident that low-opportunity industries may create feasible opportunities.

An entrepreneur should therefore be wary of following a fad, (latest trend) and exploiting assumed opportunities in a ‘popular’ industry.

Percentage of Entrepreneurs

ISIC Category Start-ups New Firms Total

Agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing 1,3 2,6 1,6

Mining, construction 9,7 5,0 4,1

Manufacturing 14,3 19,1 13,8

Transport, communications, utilities 9,8 0,7 8,0

Wholesale, motor vehicle sales, repairs 6,0 6,5 6,3

Retail, hotel, restaurant 40,8 47,7 43,5

Finance, insurance, real estate 0,3 5,2 1,4

Business services 10,1 7,9 9,4

Health, education, social services 2,6 0,7 2,3

Consumer services 11,0 3,5 9,7

Source: Driver. Wood, Segal & Herrington, 2001

Table 1 – The percentage of entrepreneurs in the different industries in South-Africa

1.4.3 What is an opportunity?

What exactly is an opportunity and how does an entrepreneur exploit a feasible opportunity? According to Hesrich & Peters (2002), an opportunity is the process whereby the entrepreneur assesses whether a certain product, service or process, will yield the necessary earnings based on the resource inputs that are required to manufacture and market it.

The nature of opportunities needs to be assessed – thus, what leads to the existence of an opportunity? The following factors may result in an opportunity:

‘ General and specific problems faced by consumers

‘ Market shifts

‘ Government regulations

‘ Competition

There are two equally important criteria in the assessment of an opportunity. Firstly, the size of the market – will the number of customers reward the input and energy required, to create and deliver the product?

Secondly, the length in terms of the frame of the opportunity (window of opportunity). For example, is the demand for this product only a short fashionable phenomenon or is it based on sustainable business, or how long will it take before someone else (a competitor), to grab the opportunity?

These two aspects should also link directly to the personal skills and competence of the entrepreneur. For example, entrepreneurs with no skills or interest in information technology will not necessarily achieve their personal goals. They should rather venture into an opportunity which suits their experience and personality.

1.4.4 Transform opportunity into a business

Table 2 shows how the development of a business plan links to the identification and evaluation of opportunities, the determination of the resources required and the eventual management of the enterprise. All of these factors play a significant role in the correct assessment of the business opportunity.

This means that the business plan must explain in sufficient detail how the business will exploit the situation, to transform the opportunity, into solving a problem for the consumer, which generates extraordinary profits for the people involved.

Identify and evaluate the opportunity Develop the business plan Determine the resources needed Manage the enterprise

Creation and length of opportunity

Real and perceived value of opportunity

Risk and returns of opportunity

Opportunity versus skills and goals

Competitive situation Title page

Table of contents

Executive summary

Description of business

Description of industry

Marketing plan

Financial plan

Production plan

Organisational plan

Operational plan

Summary

Appendices Existing resources of the entrepreneur

Resource gap and available supplies

Access to needed resources Management style

Key variables for success

Identification of problems and potential problems

Implementation of control systems

Source: Hisrich, R.D. & Peters, M.P. 2002: 40. Entrepreneurship. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Table 2 – Link between Opportunity and business plan

1.5 Instruction

Exit and resume to your current page.

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The importance of employee engagement in an organization best college essay help

1.4 Literature Review

Mark Kilsby and Stephen Beyer (1996) ‘ Engagement and Interaction : A comparison between supported employment and acts’. This research study was conducted with the help of interaction and commitment patterns of 13 supported employees and 38 regular adult training center attainders of the organization. Direct observation was used as method of data collection, within the 13 employment sites and a representative sample of ATC organized activities. Because of the higher level of task specific dialogue between individuals and the service of the organization it is found that there is more of social interaction in ACT. Interaction of employees with public within office hours was the cause for this as per the study conducted.

Douglas R. May, Richard L, Gilson and Lynn M . Harter (2004) ‘The Psychological Conditions Of Meaningfulness ,Safety And Availability And The Engagement Of The Human Spirit At Work’. This shows the study about a U.S western company which explored the determinants and mediated the effects of tree psychological conditions they are meaningful, safe and available. The above studies shoes that all the three factors (meaningfulness, safety and availability) have a positive relation with the engagement of an employee in the organization. In other words they are completely associated with the psychological safety where as loyalty to co worker norms and self- consciousness are negatively related.

Despoina Xanthopaolou, Arnold B, Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti and Wilmar B.Schaufeli (2009) ‘Work Engagement And Financial Returns : A Diary Study On The Role Of The Job And Personal Resources’. The above study shows that how daily fluctuations in job can affect the level of personal resource , financial returns and work engagement. Different level of analysis revealed that day level job resources had an effect on work engagement through the day level personal resources. When there was a control for the general level of personal resources and organizational engagement Day level work engagement showed a positive way towards day level training, which in turn showed the financial returns.

Dan-Shang Wang and Chia ‘Chun Hsieh (2013) ‘The Effect Of Authentic Leadership On Employee Trust And Employee Engagement’ they have examined the genuine leadership on employee engagement through employee trust. They have collected data from 386 employees from top 1000 manufacturing companies and top 500 service companies in Taiwan. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis on the employees. Later on the results shows that the consistency between the supervisors , words and actions as well as their moral perceptions are optimistically related to employee engagement , when only supervisors are consist between the words and actions in positively related employment trust. The study shows how employee engagement had a positive trust on employee. Employee trust has a partial link between authentic leadership and employee engagement.

Benjamin J.C, Yuan and Michael B.H. Lin (2012) ‘Transforming Employee Engagement Into Long-Term Customer Relationships: Evidence From Information Technology Salespeople In Taiwan’. This article shows that when information sales people in Taiwan have perceived more transformational leadership and they were more expected to show increased development in work engagement. Over a period of time it was found that increased development in work engagement influenced the increased customer relationship. It showed how employee engagement is indirectly co related with customer relationship.

Xander M.Bezuijen, Karen Van Dam, Peter T . Van Den Berg and Henk Thierry (2010) ‘How Leaders Stimulate Employee Learning : A Leader ‘ Member Exchange Approach’. This study investigated how the three factors as such as leader member exchange, goal setting, and feedback are related to employee engagement in the learning activities. Here, two different mechanisms were proposed , first one a mediating mechanism telling that leader member exchange shows specific leader behavior. The second one is it as a moderating mechanism , holding that leader member exchange will strengthen the effect of leader behavior from 7 organizations a sample of 1112 employees was taken , to measure the leader member exchange approach. 233 of the direct leaders answered that they find difficulty in rating employee engagement in learning activities.

Maureen F.Dollard and Arnold B. Bakker (2010) ‘Psychosocial Safety Climate As A Precursor To Conducive Work Environment , Psychological Health Problems , And Employee Engagement’. This article shows the gap between work psychology and psychosocial working condition. Where we construct a psychosocial working condition PSC. It explains how PSC influences the senior management in psychological working conditions and in psychological health and engagement. They use the job demand and resources as a frame work and uses a multi level thinking into their explanation

James R.Jones (2009) ‘Comparative Effects On Race/Ethnicity And Employee Engagement On Withdrawal Behavior’. This study have added knowledge on the basis of effects on employee attachment. In addition to that it provides more evidence on looking at all types of employees as a single entity which can lead to false results.

Shane Crabb ( 2011) ‘The Use Of Coaching Principles To Foster Employee Engagement’. The above article focuses on the human condition that leads to the happiness of fulfillment and flourishing of employee engagement. Where positive psychology results in so many questions from traditional psychological approaches .Which have mean to focus on a different model of human functioning with healing people fail. In another way positive psychology takes additional holistic approach to human life. Seeing the positive and negative aspects of context when establishing what is right , working and good of people.

Roberta A . Neault and Deidre A .Pickerel (2011) ‘Career Engagement : Bridging Career Counseling And Employee engagement’ . this article is showing that employee counselors helps individuals in maximizing their career engagement at any career stage of an individual. When you facilitate career engagement it contributes to employee engagement which employee are looking for. They even encourages others to use the career engagement and employee engagement models as vehicles to combine the employers to interest in engagement counselors to create interest in supporting the development of employee an motivate them to work.

2.1 Title: A Cross Sectional Study Of Employee Engagement In Apollo Hospitals.

2.2 Objectives:

1. To determine the level of Employee Engagement in Apollo Hospitals.

2. To identify the factors of Employee Engagement.

3. To analyze and suggest strategies for improvement.

2.3 Research Methodology:

I had adopted descriptive research design for the purpose of this

Survey on employee engagement. The primary data was collected from the 100 employees conveniently selected from Apollo Hospitals Bangalore, through structured questionnaire.

2.4 Limitations:

1) The survey was carried out for a sample sized of 100 working staff only.

2) Findings and suggestion of this research are applicable only to Apollo Hospitals.

3) As an fact finding study advanced statistical tools or analysis are not used.

Table 1.1 Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

X 1 2 3 4 5

I have adequate opportunities for professional growth in this organization. (X1) 10 20 32 19 19

I receive the training I need to do my job well.(X2) 2 52 22 16 08

My manager is actively interested in my professional development and advancement.(X3) 32 21 12 18 17

My manager encourages and supports my development (X4) 08 10 40 18 24

I am encouraged to learn from my mistakes (X5) 52 23 16 04 05

My work is challenging, stimulating, and rewarding(X6) 28 14 33 16 09

X1 ?? XI X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5 X6 ?? X6

10 50 2 10 32 160 08 40 52 260 28 140

20 80 52 208 21 84 10 40 23 92 14 56

32 96 22 66 12 36 40 120 16 48 33 99

19 38 16 32 18 36 18 36 04 08 16 32

19 19 08 08 17 17 24 24 05 05 09 09

TOTAL 283 TOTAL 324 TOTAL 333 TOTAL 260 TOTAL 413 TOTAL 336

Table 1.2 Calculation Of Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

283/100 2.83 324/100 3.24 333/100 3.33 260/100 2.60 413/100 4.13 336/100 3.36

RANKED 6 RANKED 4 RANKED 3 RANKED 5 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.3 Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Opportunities for growth

INFERENCE

The above table shows that the employees are encouraged to learn from their mistakes that is 4.15 out of 5.the work is stimulating rewarding and challenging is ranked 2nd.the manager is actively interested in employees professional growth is

ranked 3rd.the level of opportunity for professional growth shows the least ranking.

Table 1.4: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 20 32 19 19 100

Chart 1.1: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

Interpretation:

32% of the employees from the given population says that they have a neutral opportunity to grow where as 10 % stands in the outstanding category and 20% of them in good category. An equal no of employees disagree to the fact in the other hand that is 19% of the given population.

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 52 22 16 8 100

Table 1.5: Showing Training

Chart 1.2: Showing Training

Interpretation:

In the given sample 52% of the employees agrees to the fact that they receive good training in order to do their job efficiently and 2% strongly agrees. where 22 % is neutral to the situation given.16 % of them do not get proper training they required to do their jobs and 8 % strongly disagree to it. It is clear that the organization is giving a proper training to employees to make their work effective.

Table 1.6: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 21 12 18 17 100

Chart 1.3: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

Interpretation:

Most of the employees agree that their manager takes attention in their professional development steps. 32 % to 25 of the employees from the given sample have strongly agreed and agreed to it respectively. whereas 12 % is neutral to it . but 18% to 17% disagrees and says that they are not taken care in respective of their advancement in profession.

Table 1.7: Showing Encouragement And Support

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 10 40 18 24 100

Chart 1.4: Showing Encouragement And Support

Interpretation:

From the above graph its clear that 40% of the employees neither agree or disagree that management encourage them or support them. 8% to 10% agrees that they have been supported by the management . but 18 % to 24 % disagree to the fact that management supports them .

Table 1.8: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

52 23 16 4 5 100

Chart 1.5: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

Interpretation:

More than half , 52% of the employees states that they have a challenging stimulating and rewarding work. A very few of them disagree to it 4 % to 5% . and 23 % of them agrees t it there is a majority of people agreeing to it.

Table 1.9: Showing Encouragement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

28 14 33 16 9 100

Chart 1.6: Showing Encouragement

Interpretation:

There is a 28% of people agreeing to it. And 16 % to 9 % disagreeing to the fact that they are not encouraged to learn from their mistakes .

Table 1.10: Showing Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

X 1 2 3 4 5

My manager understands the benefits of maintaining a balance between work and personal life. (X1) 02 13 08 48 29

My job does not cause unreasonable amounts of stress in my life. (X2) 30 13 08 48 29

The amount of work I am asked to do is reasonable. (X3) 40 20 12 14 14

I am able to satisfy both my job and family/personal responsibilities. (X4) 27 12 08 09 44

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4

02 10 30 150 40 200 27 135

13 52 13 52 20 80 12 48

08 24 08 24 12 48 08 24

48 96 48 96 14 28 09 18

29 29 29 29 14 14 44 44

TOTAL 211 TOTAL 351 TOTAL 370 TOTAL 269

Table 1.11: Showing Calculation Of Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

Table 1.12: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace

211/100 2.11 351/100 3.51 370/100 3.7 269/100 2.69

RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2 RANKED 3

INFERRENCE

By analysing the given data using weighted average method that the level of stress reduced in the employees is 3.51 out of 4 , and the amount of work the employee is asked to do is 3.7. the employee is able to balance between family and personal responsibility is 2.69 . the managers understanding in the benefits and maintaining balance between work and personal life should be taken care because it is got only 2.11 which have least rank

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 13 8 48 29 100

Table 1.13: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Chart 1.7: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Interpretation:

Only 2% of the employees says that there is a balance between work life and personal life. 13% of them agrees to it and 8% is neutral to it.but 48% of the sample disagrees and 29 % of them strongly disagrees to it.

Table 1.14: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

30 13 8 48 29 100

Chart 1.8: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

Interpretation:

30% of the employees strongly agrees that the job doesn’t cause much stress where 13% of them agrees and 8% is neutral to it. But 48%of them disagree nd 29% strongly disagrees and states that job causes stress in their life.

Table 1.15: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.9: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

Interpretation:

40% of them strongly agrees that they have sufficient amount of work and they do not feel any stress where 20 % of them agrees. 12% of the sample is neutral.14% of them disagrees they don’t have suffient amount of work or they are overloaded with the work given.

Table 1.16: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.10: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

Interpretation:

44% of them strongly disagree that they are not able to complete their job, family and personal responsibilities. 27 % to 12 % agrees to it and 8% is neutral to that. It shows that employees are not satisfied with the amount of work given to them.

Table 1.17: Showing Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X 1 2 3 4 5

My ideas and opinions count at work. (X1) 03 18 19 32 28

I am comfortable sharing my opinions at work. (X2) 10 08 28 42 12

We work to attract, develop, and retain people with diverse backgrounds. (X3) 10 13 09 56 12

Senior management is genuinely interested in employee opinions and ideas. (X4) 24 23 36 07 10

People with different ideas are valued in this organization. (X5) 20 18 40 13 09

Table 1.18: Calculation Of Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

3 15 10 50 10 50 24 120 20 100

18 72 08 32 13 52 23 92 18 72

19 57 28 84 09 27 36 108 40 120

32 64 42 84 56 112 07 14 13 26

28 26 12 12 12 12 10 10 09 09

TOTAL 234 TOTAL 262 TOTAL 253 TOTAL 344 TOTAL 327

234/100 2.34 262/100 2.62 253/100 2.53 344/100 3.44 327/100 3.27

RANKED 5 RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.19: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Personal Expression / Diversity

INFERRENCE

By analysing the above table it shows that senior management is interested in personal opinions which shows the rank 1. And people with different ideas are valued in the organisation are considered 3.27 out of 5. Employees are free to share their ideas 2.62. the employees work in such a manner to attract and retain others 2.53 ,which has got the 4th rank. Ideas counted at work has got the least rank where they have to work on that part.

Table 1.20: Showing Idea And Opinion Count

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

3 18 19 32 28 100

Chart 1.11: : Showing Idea And Opinion Count

Interpretation:

Only 3% of the employees agree that the management listens to their ideas and opinions. 18% of them agree to it as well. 19 % is neutral to the situation. Whereas there is a huge no of the sample size that is32% to 28% who is disagreeing to it. Their opinions and ideas are not taken seriously by the management.

Table 1.21: Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 8 28 42 12 100

Chart 1.12 : Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

Interpretation:

The conducted shows that onl10% to 8% employees are comfortable in sharing their problems with the upper management. Rest of the sample that is 42% is disagreeing that they are not comfortable in sharing their ideas or problems.12% of them strongly disagrees.

Table 1.22: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 13 9 56 12 100

Chart 1.13: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

Interpretation:

56% of the employees disagrees that they don’t work to attract ,develop or retain customers. Where 10% to 13% agrees to the statement . a little sample size of 12% strongly disagrees to the statement .

Table 1.23: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

24 23 26 7 10 100

Chart 1.14: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

Interpretation

The management shows interest in taking employees ideas and opinions.24% of them agrees and 23% of the strongly agrees to the statement. A huge sample ,36% id neutral to the statement. But a little sample, 7% to 10% disagrees to the statement.

Table 1.24: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

20 18 40 13 9 100

Chart 1.15: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

Interpretation:

20% to 18% of the employees agree that people with different ideas are well accepted in the organization. 40% to the employees are neutral to the statement. 13 % to 9% of the sample disagrees to the statement on the other hand.

Table 1.25: Showing Weighted Average On Compensation

X 1 2 3 4 5

I am paid fairly for the work I do. (X1) 19 42 12 25 2

My salary is competitive with similar jobs I might find elsewhere.(X2) 32 12 28 23 5

My benefits are comparable to those offered by other organizations.(X3) 8 29 28 32 3

I understand my benefit plan. (X4) 42 15 19 9 15

I am satisfied with my benefit package. (X5) 58 12 11 6 13

Table 1.26: Calculation Of Weighted Average On Compensation

X1 vX1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

19 95 32 160 08 40 42 210 58 290

42 168 12 48 29 116 15 60 12 48

12 36 28 84 28 84 19 57 11 33

25 50 23 46 32 64 09 18 06 12

02 02 05 05 03 03 15 15 13 13

TOTAL 351 TOTAL 343 TOTAL 307 TOTAL 360 TOTAL 396

Table 1.27: Showing The Rank Of Each Component Of Compensation

351/100 3.51 343/100 3.43 307/100 3.07 360/100 3.60 396/100 3.96

RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 5 RANKED 2 RANKED 1

INFERENCES

The above table shows that the employees are satisfied with the benefit package they are given 3.96 out of 5.the employees understand their plan is 3.60. the fair pay is ranked 3rd.the employees salary is competitive with others is ranked 4th. The salary is not comparable with salary with others which has been ranked the least, rank 5.

Table 1.28: showing Fair Pay

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

19 42 12 25 2 100

Chart 1.16: Showing Fair Pay

Interpretation:

19% to 42% of the Employees agree that they are paid fairly according to the amount of work they do. But 25% to 2% of the sample size disagrees to the statement. And 12% is neutral to it.

Table 1.29: Showing Salary Competitiveness

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 12 28 23 5 100

Chart 1.17: Showing Salary Competitiveness

Interpretation:

32% of the employees agrees that they get a competitive salary when compared to other organizations with same designation. 12% of them strongly agrees to it .28% of them are neutral to the statement. 23% to 5% is disagrees to the statement in the other hand.

Table 1.30: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 29 28 32 3 100

Chart 1.18: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

Interpretation:

There is balance, 29% of the employees agrees and 32 % of them strongly disagrees that they have a comparable benefits.28% of them are neutral in the other hand.

Table 1.31: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

42 15 19 9 15 100

Chart 1.19: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

Interpretation:

42% of the employees agrees that they understand their benefit plan. 15% strongly agrees ,where 19% is neutral.9% to 15% disagrees to the fact and says they don’t understand the benefit plans they are given.

Table 1.32: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

58 12 11 6 13 100

Chart 1.20: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

Interpretation:

58% of them are satisfied with their benefit package. 12% strongly agrees. Whereas little sample of 6% to 13% disagrees to the statement. Or they are not happy with their benefit package.11% is neutral to it.

Summary of Findings

‘ Most of the employee’s ability state the opinion firmly and positively is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability in exercising the professional duties without assistance is better than acceptable standard.

‘ The Emotional Stamina of the majority of the employees is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the Employee’s Ability to work co-operatively and collaboratively to achieve common goal is better than acceptable.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to effectively guide a group through an appropriate process to help to achieve their desired outcomes is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to clarify and establish with a group roles and responsibilities, common goal and plan to achieve them and group behavioural is outstanding.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to deal with multiple issues and details, alertness and learning capacity is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to see and think beyond the obvious and formulate original solution is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to present ideas, concept, plan and procedure clearly to the target group is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Concern for excellence of the majority of the employee’s is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s Aware of what is going on in the workplace and responds in a suitable manner to situations as they is better than acceptable.

‘ The understanding between the top level and employees are in good terms.

‘ Employees do understand their benefits and opportunities given by the organisation.

‘ The employees are paid fairly according to the work done.

‘ Freedom of sharing new ideas and opinions are welcomed in the organisation.

‘ The employees are able to make a balance between personnel and work life. which reduces the amount of stress in them.

‘ The organisation encourages the employee to learn from their mistakes.

‘ Recommendations

‘ In this organization employee engagement study must be regularly done in order to check the level of employee effectiveness.

‘ Since many of the employees are performing different jobs to what they were doing at the time of their joining they need training to perform the new work allotted them.

‘ Different sources of employee engagement tactics must be encouraged in employees.

‘ The top management should support the lower level employees since it is considered a major hurdle in effective employee engagement and the employees must also be made aware of importance of engagement at work system

‘ The employees should be then and there motivated for work.

‘ The understanding between management and employees should be increased.

‘ Level of stress in work should be reduced.

‘ Better benefit package should be given to the employees.

Conclusion

In the report we have discussed the importance of employee engagement in an organization and how it affects the efficiency of work and productivity. Employment counselors should help individuals to maximize their career engagement at any stage of their career. Basically employee engagement should be a buzz word for the employee engagement and a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization. Employee engagement is gaining its importance and popularity in work places and its impact in many ways. It emphasis on the importance of employee engagement in a organization, an organization should thus give more importance for its employees than any other variable as they are the powerful contributors to a company’s competitiveness. Thus it shows that employee engagement should be a continues process for learning, improvement, measurement and action of an employee.

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The limitations of the Chit Acts essay help writing

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The financial system assumes strategically a very important role in channelling the funds from surplus units to deficit units. The financial system here refers to the group of institutions, markets and instruments which helps in formation of capital and thus accelerates to the pace of economic development.

The base of this study stems from the fact that there exists a gap between gross capital formation and gross domestic savings in India. So, there exists the need to augment the growth rate of voluntary domestic savings. This goal can be realized by widening and strengthening the working of different financial intermediaries which will result in mobilizing savings from various income level categories. .It is in this context that the role of the Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries like Chit Finance should be appreciated in supplementing the functions of the Banking Institutions.

Chit funds are Chit funds are the Indian equivalent of the Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCA). ROSCAs are famous in many parts of the world and is seen as an instrument to ‘save and borrow’ simultaneously. ROSCAs basically started as a way to help in fulfilling the needs of the low-income households as it enables the people to convert their small savings into lump sums. The concept of chit funds originated more than 1000 years ago. Initially it was in the form of an informal association of traders and households within communities, wherein the members contributed some money in return for an accumulated sum at the end of the tenure. Participation in Chit funds was mainly for the purpose of purchasing some property or, in other words, for ‘consumption’ purposes. However, in recent times, there have been tremendous alterations in the constitution and functioning of Chit funds. A significant difference between Chit Funds and ROSCAs are that in most places ROSCAs are user-owned and organized informally, but chit funds have been formally institutionalized in India. (Chit Funds-An innovative access to finance for low income households, 2009)

1.1.1 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY CHIT FUNDS?

Chit fund is a savings-cum-borrowing instrument. The basic aim of this instrument is to pool small amount of savings by all the members which is then managed by a foreman. The foreman has the responsibility to act as a trustee-cum-supervisors for the process of collection and allotment of the pooled amount.

Chit funds represent a traditional form of saving-cum-credit institution evolved before the bank system was introduced in rural India. There are many who avail themselves of this avenue for saving for a reasonable return.

1.1 NEED AND RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Despite the growth of a wide range of savings avenues and the widespread network of banks and other financial institutions, it has been found that Chit scheme still forms an important part in the asset portfolio of many households and firms in India and especially in South India including Karnataka. Also, the review of literature shows that there are only a few studies on Chit Finance. Therefore, the need to conduct the study stems from the requirement to understand Chit Funds in Bangalore.

1.2 NEED TO CONDUCT THE STUDY

The research titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study tries to point out the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests feasible recommendations for improving the working of such institutions.

.3.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’.

VARIABLES UNDER INVESTIGATION

1. Age

2. Occupation

3. Monthly income

4. Gender

5. Bank loan

6. Regular participation in chit fund

7. Membership in multiple chit schemes

8. Cause for participating in multiple schemes

9. Preferred avenue of saving

10. Preferred source of finance

11. Safety

12. Better service

13. Flexibility

14. Timely Payment

15. Low commission

16. Personal contact

17. Unregistered chit funds membership

18. Cause for participating in unregistered chit funds

19. Cause for not participating in unregistered chit fund

3.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

3.5.1 OBJECTIVE(PRIMARY)

1. To understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members.

2. To identify the important predictors behind chit fund participation

3.5.2 OHER OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

1. To estimate interest rates in registered chit funds.

2. To compare the relative ratings of Chit subscribers towards registered and unregistered chit funds on

3. To estimate the return on Chit Funds.

3.6 HYPOTHESIS

There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

1. Null hypothesis

2. Alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

.

3.8 SAMPLING METHOD

Members of four registered chit fund companies in Bangalore. The four registered chit fund companies were selected due to the large size of their subscriber base.

3.8.3 SIZE OF SAMPLE

150 respondents

3.9 MECHANISM OF STUDY

3.9.1 PRIMARY RESEARCH

Questions relating to behaviour and financial pattern will be found out through questionnares

3.9.2 SECONDARY RESEARCH

‘ Reports on chit fund industry

OVERVIEW OF INDIAN CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

4.1.1 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CHIT FUND COMPANIES:

According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on 31st December, 2013:

Volume of registered chit companies: 5412

Volume of chit companies in Karnataka: 703

Number of chit fund companies in Bangalore: 315

UNREGISTERED CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

Although unregistered chits are an informal source of finance but still they are a significant part of the chit fund industry. Though they are more easily accessible as compared to registered chit funds.

4.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ attempt in The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study also examines the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests suitable recommendations for improving the functioning of such institutions.

4.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY

‘ Unwillingness of the members to share their income and financial details made the task of data collection somewhat difficult.

‘ Collecting data became difficult since I don’t know the regional languages.

5.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis is done on the primary data collected from 150 chit funds members in Bangalore

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

5.4.1 Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.070a 16 .013

Likelihood Ratio 35.945 16 .003

Linear-by-Linear Association 8.809 1 .003

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .455 .013

Cramer’s V .228 .013

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=31.070 was p=.013, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (Phi and Cramer’s V -0.455).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. This means that different age groups of the chit fund members have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As can be seen from the table above that those who belong to ’36-45 years’ have saving as the predominant reason to participate whereas members of other age groups do not have any dominant reason to participate.

5.4.2 Hypothesis 2:

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

. Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 10.018a 4 .040

Likelihood Ratio 10.478 4 .033

Linear-by-Linear Association 6.876 1 .009

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .258 .040

Cramer’s V .258 .040

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=10.018 was p=.040, less than 0.05.

.We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (0.258)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis. This means that males and females have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As it can be seen that males participate in chit funds for business and personal consumption purposes apart from saving whereas women predominantly participate to save.

5.4

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 82.176a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 97.665 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 15.696 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .740 .000

Cramer’s V .427 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (0.740)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the self-employed members mainly participate to avail for business reasons whereas salaried employee participate mainly for personal consumption purposes.

Hypothesis 5:

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 66.691a 20 .000

Likelihood Ratio 43.579 20 .002

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.804 1 .028

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .667 .000

Cramer’s V .333 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=66.691) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong (0.667)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the members of age group’36-45 years’ are more interested in bidding for business related purposes where members of other age groups bid mainly for emergency needs.

5.4.6 Hypothesis 6:

. Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.167a 5 .209

Likelihood Ratio 7.885 5 .163

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.120 1 .290

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .219 .209

Cramer’s V .219 .209

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.167) was p=.209, more than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.7 Hypothesis 7:

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 180.915a 15 .000

Likelihood Ratio 160.460 15 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 28.379 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.098 .000

Cramer’s V .634 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that self-employed people bid in chit scheme mostly for business purposes, salaried people for emergency needs and housewives for household purposes.

5.4.8 Hypothesis 8:

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 123.331a 35 .000

Likelihood Ratio 106.298 35 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.957 1 .026

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=123.331) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.907)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that low income members bid mostly for consumption reasons whereas higher income members bid for business related and emergency purposes.

SUMMARY:

Reason to bid in chit fund has the strongest association with the occupation of the chit fund members as the probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000 and the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098).

5.4.

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 21.702a 16 .153

Likelihood Ratio 23.775 16 .095

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.397 1 .122

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=123.331) was p=.153, more than 0.05. Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.10 Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 20.510a 4 .000

Likelihood Ratio 29.038 4 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 7.062 1 .008

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .370 .000

Cramer’s V .370 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=20.510) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (.370).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis.

5.4.11 Hypothesis 11:

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 67.261a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 60.380 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.507 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .670 .000

Cramer’s V .387 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=67.261 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong(.670).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to cause in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. Salaried people save their money in chit fund with no particular purpose. But self-employed people are equally interested in saving for house purchase as well as for general purpose.

SUMMARY:

chit fund is most closely associated with occupation of the chit fund members as it has the highest value of chi-square statistic and Phi coefficient.

5.4.12 Hypothesis 12:

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 56.697a 3 .000

Likelihood Ratio 67.900 3 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 36.400 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=56.697) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (.615).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘membership in multiple chit schemes are related to differences in ‘having currently bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that those members currently having bank loan have invested in only one chit scheme whereas those members who do not have availed bank loan have invested in more than one chit schemes.

5.4.13 Hypothesis 13:

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 96.660a 7 .000

Likelihood Ratio 85.378 7 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 59.577 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell(10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.08.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=96.660 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.803).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘participation in unregistered chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that mostly low- income members have participated in unregistered funds. This is because the registered funds have become expensive due to the increase in their operational cost as a result of stringent regulations.

5.2.14 Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 28.049a 5 .000

Likelihood Ratio 31.806 5 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.967 1 .085

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 2 cells (15.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.79.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .432 .000

Cramer’s V .432 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=28.049) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (.432).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to prefer chit fund over bank’ are related to differences in ‘having bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that members who have bank loan have preferred chit fund over bank mainly due to better dividends. But those who do not have bank loan prefer chit fund over bank mainly due to better service in terms of more personalized service.)

5.2..15 Hypothesis 15: To identify significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds using Binary Logistic Regression

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 0 Constant -1.046 .186 31.574 1 .000 .351

Model Summary

Step -2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R Square Nagelkerke R Square

1 37.170a .533 .576

a. Estimation terminated at iteration number 6 because parameter estimates changed by less than .001.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a bank_loan(1) 1.068 1.265 14.715 1 .000 11.720

reason_2 2.286 4 .683

reason_2(1) 1.336 1.077 1.540 1 .215 3.805

reason_2(2) .134 2.239 .004 1 .952 1.143

reason_2(3) -.559 1.896 .087 1 .768 .572

reason_2(4) .731 1.347 .294 1 .588 2.076

reason_3 4.874 5 .431

reason_3(1) 1.188 .924 1.652 1 .199 3.279

reason_3(2) 1.661 2.048 .658 1 .417 5.263

reason_3(3) -1.654 1.228 1.813 1 .178 .191

reason_3(4) .404 1.192 .115 1 .735 1.497

reason_3(5) -17.379 20.722 .000 1 .700 .000

reason_4 .355 4 .986

reason_4(1) -1.047 1.850 .320 1 .571 .351

reason_4(2) -.839 1.979 .180 1 .672 .432

reason_4(3) -.932 1.637 .324 1 .569 .394

reason_4(4) 3.519 4.199 .000 1 .600 3.746

reason_5 8.553 5 .128

reason_5(1) -.254 1.768 .021 1 .886 .776

reason_5(2) -19.245 9.890 .000 1 .999 .000

reason_5(3) 1.420 1.338 1.126 1 .289 4.136

reason_5(4) -.747 1.306 .327 1 .567 .474

reason_5(5) .561 1.342 .174 1 .676 1.752

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a Safety -.075 .320 4.377 1 .011 0.928

Flexi -.178 .426 3.337 1 .021 0.837

commision -.185 .188 1.868 1 .026 0.831

payment -.267 .178 1.657 1 .097 0.766

service -.859 .412 1.348 1 .083 0.424

personal -1.122 .163 .996 1 .079 0.329

Constant 3.058 2.440 1.571 1 .010 21.291

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: : bank_loan, reason_2, reason_3, reason_4, reason_5.imp1, imp2, imp3, imp4, imp5, imp6.

INTERPRETATION:

‘ -2 Log Likelihood statistic is 37.170. This statistic how poorly the model predicts the decisions — the smaller the statistic the better the model. Since, 37.170 is a relatively small number therefore, this model is able to predict the decisions in a better way.

‘ Here Cox & Snell R Square statistic indicates that 53.3% of the variation in the regular participation in chit funds is explained by the logistic model.

‘ In our case Nagelkerke R Square is 0.576, indicating a moderate relationship of 57.6 % between the predictors and the prediction.

‘ If it is less than .05 then, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

‘ In this case, we can see that bank loan, safety, flexibility and low commission have contributed signi’cantly to the prediction of regular participation in chit funds but other variables are not significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds.

‘ Since only bank loan has p=.000, therefore we can say that bank loan is the most significant predictor

among other significant predictors. This is followed by safety (p=.011), flexibility (p=.021) and low commission (p=.026).

‘ Here, the EXP (B) bank loan is 11.727. Hence when bank loan is availed by one unit (one person) the odds ratio is 11 times as large and therefore people are 11 more times likely not to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) with safety is .928. Hence when safety is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .928 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) flexibility is 837. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .837 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) low commission is .831. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .831 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

SUMMARY

Bank loan is the most significant predictor of regular participation in chit funds. This is followed by safety, flexibility and low commission.

Instalment no No of months remaining Monthly subscription Prize amount PV of monthly subscription(PV of outlow at 10%) PV of Prize amount(PV of inflow at 10%) Net Present Value(PV of inflow – PV of outflow)

1 24 2000 50000 2000 50000 10444.9

2 23 1500 35000 1488.1 34723.1 -4832.0

3 22 1500 35000 1476.4 34448.4 -5106.7

4 21 1500 35000 1464.7 34175.9 -5379.2

5 20 1500 35000 1453.1 33905.5 -5649.6

6 19 1500 35000 1441.6 33637.3 -5917.8

7 18 1500 35000 1430.2 33371.2 -6183.9

8 17 1500 35000 1418.9 33107.2 -6447.9

9 16 1620 38000 1520.3 35660.6 -3894.5

10 15 1620 38000 1508.2 35378.5 -4176.6

11 14 1700 40000 1570.2 36945.9 -2609.2

12 13 1700 40000 1557.8 36653.6 -2901.5

13 12 1780 42000 1618.2 38181.8 -1373.3

14 11 1780 42000 1605.4 37879.8 -1675.3

15 10 1780 42000 1592.7 37580.1 -1975.0

16 9 1860 44000 1651.1 39058.2 -496.9

17 8 1860 44000 1638.0 38749.2 -805.9

18 7 1860 44000 1625.1 38442.6 -1112.5

19 6 1940 46000 1681.6 39872.1 317.0

20 5 1940 46000 1668.3 39556.6 1.5

21 4 1940 46000 1655.1 39243.7 -311.4

22 3 1940 46000 1642.0 38933.2 -621.8

23 2 1940 46000 1629.0 38625.2 -929.8

24 1 1940 46000 1616.1 38319.7 -1235.4

25 0 1940 46000 1603.3 38016.5 -1538.6

39555.1 934465.9 -54411.4

[supanova_question]

Merit goods history essay help

Merit goods are goods which will be under-provided by the market, therefore they will be under-consumed. They are thought by the governments to be good for the populations and so the governments want them to be consumed to a great extent. They increase the private and social benefits and cause the social benefit be higher than the private one. The best examples of them, apart from all the public goods, can be the education, health care, sports facilities and the opera.

Although the majority of the merit goods is provided by the private sectors, not all the people can afford buying them, therefore they will be under-consumed. That is why the government is needed to destroy the market failure increasing the supply and consequently raising the consumption.

To explain the reasons for government to provide the merit goods, I need to apply some examples of them. The first one can be the education. It is significant for the governments to provide it so that the society would be well-educated. Governments determine the period of education required for people (the compulsory education) to maintain the proper level of education of the society. The governments find education an important aspect that should be available for everyone as it cause the whole country to have better both economic growth and economic development.

Considering another example such as health care, the situation is quite similar. The governments want to provide the population with it because they care about the high states of health of society in their country. To gain these, the countries need to have high quality of health care. Governments often offer people unpaid programs consisting of preventative medical examination which contribute to maintain the high number of healthy people. This is also connected with the problems of the labour market. The healthier people are, the more efficient their work is, the greater revenue firms have and countries are more developed because of taxations.

Other examples like sport facilities or the opera are meant for people to become physically and culturally developed but their availability is not as important as in the case of the previous examples. That is why they are not as much provided by the governments as the rest of the merit goods.

Although most of the merit goods provided by the governments are free, the fact is that they are paid through the taxes that the societies pay. The number of the merit goods of particular types that the governments provide or subsidize depends on the necessity of them. If they are provided, the societies’ benefits get higher and so is the public treasury of the countries.

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Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father online essay help

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.

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Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks writing an essay help

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

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WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation essay help for free

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) essay help us

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior college essay help service

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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