Why Did The US Enter The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)?

In order to understand why the United States entered the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), as well as if we have benefited from entering it, we must first understand what NAFTA is. As previously stated, NAFTA is the North American Free Trade Agreement, consisting of the United States, Canada and Mexico, based off of European Economic Community due to its’ success. The overall objective of the Agreement was to eliminate tariffs between the three biggest North American countries in order to stimulate trade. With this in mind, NAFTA wants North America to be a free-trade area that would bring increased trade and production to all North American countries (Bondarenko, 2019, p. 1). Broken down further, NAFTA is split up into six in-depth objectives. These objectives, or provisions, consist of eliminating trade barriers in respective territories while facilitating the movement of goods and services cross-border, promoting conditions for fair competition within the free trade area, increasing investment opportunities substantially in the territories of all participating parties, providing effective enforcement and protection of intellectual property rights, creating procedures for the application and implementation of the Agreement, and establishing a framework for trilateral expansion and benefit enhancement of this Agreement (“tcc.export.gov,” n.d., p. 1). Now that we know generally what the purpose behind NAFTA is, why did the United States decided to enter into NAFTA?

The United States decided to join NAFTA for essentially all of the previously listed reasons. First, as a country we wanted to stimulate tariff-free trade across borders with our neighboring countries. If there are trade barriers in place restricting new businesses from joining the market, as well as remaining costly for existing businesses to continue, then removing these would increase trade. For example, when Mexico eliminated all non-tariff barriers alongside trade-distorting restrictions, it allowed U.S. exporters to ship more products into Mexico as well as exporting was now cheaper due to burden of obtaining import permits no longer being there. The next reason the United States joined NAFTA is for more-fair trade conditions. Without NAFTA in play, Mexico would’ve been able to raise their tariffs up to 50% because of the international trade rules. Prior to NAFTA, Mexican tariffs were 2.5 times higher than that of U.S. tariff rates. After NAFTA, Mexican tariffs on all goods entering from the United States were eliminated entirely (“iatp.org”, n.d., p.1). Although we could’ve hiked up tariffs on Mexico, we import too many necessities that we can’t risk not receiving including vehicles, electrical machinery, machinery, agricultural products, oil and other mineral fuels, and optical and medical instruments. Overall, imports from Mexico accounted for 13.7% of the United States’ total imports in 2017 and is the United States’ third largest two-way trading partner for goods (“Mexico”, n.d., ¶ 1-9).

A few more big reasons that coincide with each other and have influenced the United States’ decision to join NAFTA are the elimination of investment conditions, the removal of investment barriers and fairness for investors. Prior to NAFTA, foreign investors looking to invest in Mexico were required to export a specified level or percentage of all goods and services, to use goods and services that are domestic to Mexico, to transfer technology used to competitors, and to limit imports so that they don’t exceed a certain percentage of exports. The elimination of these investment conditions allows Mexican companies to have more freedom in buying U.S. parts alongside having less of an incentive to export to the United States. In terms of providing fairness to all investors, NAFTA now ensures that U.S. investors are treated the exact same as domestic firms in Canada and Mexico. Some of the rights given to U.S. investors were the right to send profits and capital back to the United States, the right to fair compensation in expropriation circumstances, and the right to an international arbitrator in disputes that have monetary damages (“iatp.org”, n.d., p.1). These are just some of the main reasons that encouraged the United States to join NAFTA, but did we benefit from joining? At first glance from statistics, it seems as if this deal was overall beneficial for all parties involved. I don’t want to make any assumptions, so we need to look at the overall pros and cons for NAFTA.

There are six main advantages coming from NAFTA, the first one being the amount of trade done in North America since enactment. According to a report done by the Congressional Research Service, based on data from the Department of Commerce in 2017, trade between the United States, Mexico, and Canada has tripled (Amadeo, n.d., ¶ 3; “fas.org”, n.d., p. 11). Secondly, overall economic output has increased due to greater trade. It is hard for experts to get an exact figure due to the plethora of factors involved, but it is estimated once NAFTA has been implemented entirely that the United States growth would increase by about 0.5% per year (Amadeo, n.d., ¶ 4). Thirdly, the growth of free trade has supported over 5.4 million jobs directly while the trade supported 17.7 million jobs throughout Canada and Mexico (Amadeo, n.d., ¶ 5; “uschamber.com”, p. 2). The fourth pro, and probably the biggest, is the massive and continuous increase in foreign direct investment (FDI) between countries. Due to the United States joining NAFTA, from 1993 to 2012 the United States’ FDI in Mexico increased by 586.8% while Mexico’s foreign direct investment in the United States increased by over 1,283%. On top of that, the United States FDI in Canada increased by 404.9% while Canada’s FDI in the United States increased by 911%. In both time frames, the United States got substantially more investments, in terms of percentages, from Canada and Mexico than we invested into them (Amadeo, n.d., ¶ 6-7). Fifth on the list is the most recognized yet unknown benefit, lower oil prices. What I mean by this is that the vast majority of consumers utilize this benefit without even knowing it comes from NAFTA. Because NAFTA got rid of the tariffs between the U.S. and Mexico, the U.S. doesn’t hold as big of a reliance on the Middle East for oil (Amadeo, n.d., ¶ 8). Lastly, the sixth pro of NAFTA is that the agreement made government contracts for each nation available to suppliers in each of the three countries. Due to this, it lowered costs and increased competition (Amadeo, n.d., ¶ 10).

Over the more recent years, statistics show that foreign direct investment rates are still increasing continuously. If the United States are continuing to receive more and more investments every year, as well as exporting more goods and services, then how could this be a bad deal for the United States? Well with every international agreement there are cons that have significant weight in comparison to the pros. For there being six main advantages to NAFTA, there are also six main disadvantages. The first con, and most disappointing one, is in 2011 it was estimated that NAFTA actually lost the United States in between 500,000 and 750,000 jobs. These jobs were mainly in the manufacturing industries such as automotive, computer manufacturing, and electrical appliances (Amadeo, n.d., ¶ 12). When you compare this to the previously stated remark about our biggest imports from Mexico, it actually makes perfect sense. If we were manufacturing these products because importing them costed too much and then tariffs got eliminated, there’d be no reason to not import them again for cheaper. Secondly, wages were suppressed due to job migration. Companies were threatening to move to Mexico and prevent workers from joining unions that way they couldn’t bargain for increased wages (Amadeo, n.d., ¶ 13). The next three disadvantages go hand in hand with one another being Mexican farmers going out of business due to American subsidized prices which caused illegal immigration for jobs, unemployed Mexican farmers working in substandard conditions for U.S. companies to assemble and export products cheaply back to the United States, and the degradation of the Mexican environment. The environmental regulations in Mexico weren’t as strict as the United States’ so agricultural companies used more fertilizers and chemicals (Amadeo, n.d., ¶ 14-17). Lastly, NAFTA provisioned Mexican trucks access into the U.S., but since they’re not held to the same standards, the U.S. congress never allowed it to go into effect.

Given all of the information provided above, I have concluded that overall the United States has benefited from joining NAFTA. Although there are some disadvantages that need to be taken seriously, they seemed to have posed as problems early on and not so much in recent years. All three of the major nations involved have economic growth that continues to increase due to the provisions in place within NAFTA. With some environmental, immigration, and economical regulations, I believe that NAFTA will continue to succeed given that President Trump doesn’t do anything drastic with it, such as pull the United States out of it.

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Resistance of integration in America

Despite some Americans’ accepting and welcoming attitude, many Americans had a difficult time accommodating to the idea of integration. Due to the countless years of discrimination and dehumanization against minority races, Caucasian citizens of the states struggled to remain cordial and friendly towards their new equals. The two class system American society created caused the Caucasians to believe they were superior to the minority races due to their lighter skin tone. This ultimately caused Caucasians to relentlessly fight for their title of superior, even though integration was inevitable. Although the tensions between the races spread all throughout America, the issue of resistance was clearly more evident in communities in the South compared to the North. As displayed in the Civil War, the Southern states had continuously opposed any government actions to permit rights to African Americans, even after slavery had been abolished for decades. When integration began spreading, Southerners desperately tried to resist the transition and refused to respect or tolerate the members of the Black race considering they deemed themselves superior. During The Civil Rights Movement, many southern Americans struggled to acclimate to integration as a result of the normalization of discriminating African Americans that had transpired for several decades prior to the 1960s. This struggle resulted in both positive and negative effects on society that have continued to affect African Americans for many years after the movement has come to an end. The toxic societal norms of this era ultimately led to the resistance that some Americans portrayed when segregation began spreading around the states, especially in the South. Even to this day African Americans continue to find adversity being accepted by individuals of the white race as a result of the tremendous societal corruption between races dating back for centuries.

Prior to the Civil Rights movement, segregation had been a dilemma America had been facing for several years, and had become the country’s overall normal standards. It had taken white American citizens centuries to realize the equality of all races, which was especially disregarded during the early times of slavery. Most early settlers were depicted to believe the Africans were beneath them, “British settlers regarded Africans as ‘black’—a term symbolizing darkness and evil, and themselves as ‘white’—which symbolized purity or divinity. Cultural chauvinism also placed Africans at a disadvantage: The British regarded themselves as Christian and ‘civilized,’ while Africans were ‘heathen’ and ‘barbarian.’ Moreover, as Africans assumed increasing responsibility for menial labor in the colonies, British settlers came to associate such work with Africans.” (Crowther 802). The depicted words and phrases white settlers would use against the Africans and other minorities first began the shift in status between the different races. Since the majority of civilized people in America were from Central Europe, they were primarily caucasian, and therefore started to degrade any non-whites, such as Africans and the Native Americans that originally lived in North America. This harsh attitude was only the beginning of a tedious journey of discrimination for American minorities. Although the early settlers were capturing Africans as slaves to work for them, the behavior had changed only slightly approaching the 20th century. White people were still considered superior, but the status of the discriminated minorities had only improved by barely a sliver over all this time. Even though slavery was abolished by the 1890s, new laws were introduced to discriminate African-Americans, “The 1890’s were especially harsh for African Americans, as repressive new Jim Crow Laws were passed. These laws resulted in the segregation of every societal institution in the South. The U.S. Supreme Court endorsed legal segregation with Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896. In this decision the Court upheld the constitutionality of permitting public carriers, in this case the railroads, to remand African Americans to a separate section of the train or separate cars, away from white passengers.” (Jewell 27). During this time period, African Americans that had been set free from slavery now were faced with even more discriminations in their everyday life. Passing the Jim Crow Laws was another way to secure white supremacy in America now that slavery had been abolished and deemed illegal. Even though these laws were mostly endorsed in the Southern states, African Americans in the Northern states were not completely accepted into society and were still heavily discriminated. The harsh societal conditions revolving around segregation had punished American minorities for centuries, which ultimately resulted in the Civil Rights Movement fighting for equal rights for every race.

The Civil Rights Movement was sparked by many African Americans and those who supported equal rights, and had caused controversy all throughout America during this era. During the integration of schools, Americans were forced to integrate their society as a whole, “As construed by the Supreme Court, the equal protection clause required not simply that further efforts at official segregation cease, but that local school districts actively undertake the difficult task of transforming segregated schools into integrated ones. Federal district courts, the lowest level of courts in the federal judicial system, were charged with initial attempts to accomplish desegregation. In pursuit of this goal, the Supreme Court found that federal courts need not remain color-blind in fashioning remedies for segregated school districts.” (Hall 303). Americans soon realized they would have to adapt to new societal circumstances than they had to in the past. For several centuries, white citizens held a self-given title of superiority and believed any other races were beneath them and were not near equal to them. It was not until these minorities started realizing their power, that they demanded to obtain equal rights to the white caucasians who had done them harm for all their lives. Since white Americans were acclimated to the normal status of being superior, they resisted this societal change due to the support of the African Americans for equal rights. Even though the Northern states were already more accepting than the Southern states, African Americans in the North still received negative and discriminatory attitudes from Caucasians. The South had attempted endless schemes to try to derail or avoid integration, “In early 1959 Governor J. Lindsey Almond, Jr., stated that all efforts to maintain segregation had been “exhausted” and some integration would soon be “inevitable.” The state repealed its compulsory-attendance laws, arguing it could not force students to attend integrated schools, and funds for tuition grants to private schools were increased. Efforts to resist the integration of Virginia’s student population continued at the beginning of the 1959-1960 school year. However, black students slowly worked their way into the public schools and the program of ‘massive resistance’ gradually broke down.” (‘Desegregating Education’ 127) The resistance of many Southern states resulted in inevitable integration, even though they tried to ignore and avoid it. The white Southerners had to now acclimate to a new society where everyone was equal, rather than the past where they were the superior race. Even though the majority of America wanted to resist the integration, some of the Caucasian citizens were very accepting and understanding of African Americans, after seeing first hand their harsh discrimination. The resistance of desegregation not only existed in the South, but some of these resisting tactics were used in several Northern states as well. The South was primarily more racist and prejudice towards the African Americans and minorities surrounding them, and refused to think of them as equal to themselves. The overall resistance of integration spread throughout America during the Civil Rights movement due to the bigotry and discriminatory attitude many citizens had towards African Americans.

Overall, the resistance America showed towards integration during the Civil Rights Movement clearly has had long-term effects on society that have been demonstrated throughout history. The contributions made by African Americans in their struggle for civil rights have served as a catalyst for other groups also attempting to overturn discrimination. Other disenfranchised groups who have challenged social inequities include American Indians, women, people with disabilities, and the elderly. Throughout the decades of the 1970’s, 1980’s, and 1990’s many of the gains that African Americans registered during the 1950’s and 1960’s have been challenged as unconstitutional, and labeled by some as reverse discrimination.” (Jewell 28). It is evident that the events of integration made an enormous impact on society, as well as inspired other minorities to fight for their own rights. The resistance America showed towards integration was only one obstacle African Americans had to surpass to reach their freedom and be seen as equal. This demonstrates how other groups can realize that whatever is stopping them is only an obstacle, and they can fight for what they believe is right. The Civil Rights Movement was dedicated on providing equality for all races, but there was several bumps in the road that these individuals had to experience before they reached their goal. This impacted society positively and provided a beacon of hope to those who were still being oppressed. There was so much hope and excitement spreading from the integration laws, that some people forget about the negative effects that came out of this experience. “Affirmative action, according to the official government definition, involved action to overcome past or present barriers to equal opportunity. Establishing quotas of minority members or women to be hired or admitted to educational programs, or creating “set-asides,” positions reserved for minority members or women, were two of the most obvious ways of overcoming such barriers, but these met with challenges by white males, who charged that they were suffering from reverse discrimination” (Bankston 219). After integration spread, there were some negative effects despite it being a step forward for society. For example, reverse discrimination is likely a similarity to the resistance shown by Caucasians during the spread of desegregation. When white Americans resisted desegregation, they were fighting to remain as the superior race which was an advantage, similar to when white people have used reverse discrimination, they are most likely trying to use it to their advantage. Reverse racism has been used by some white people to try to blame minorities for discriminating them, as if they are too good to receive the same hate and negative behavior that they give to the minorities. The desegregation of America heavily impacted society in the long run, both positively and negatively after the Civil Rights Movement.

To conclude, the American society went through intense and drastic changes during the Civil Rights Movement, which most Caucasian Americans resisted due to their past ideals and beliefs. Even though it is hard to acclimate to a society far different than what you’re used to, the resistance of integration in America was extremely damaging to the accepting and welcoming society that African Americans hoped to be an equal part of. America has come very far since the Civil Rights Movement, and thankfully have become much more accepting of minorities and have successfully integrated them into our society. Unfortunately, even in 2019 there are still many forms of racism and discrimination in America towards the minorities we have been equal to for over fifty years. This discrimination is portrayed today in police brutality, immigration controversy, stereotypes, and other more general aspects. This resistance is not nearly as strong as how it was during desegregation in the 1960s, but still remains a huge problem in today’s society. My grandmother sadly is not here with us today, but I know if she was she would be extremely disappointed in America and our society to see all of this hate and racism still causing a problem. It is very disheartening to know that many people who fought for their rights to be equal are still partially fighting to be accepted by all after these many years. I may not have witnessed the same prejudice that my grandma did during the Civil Rights Movement, but there is still so much hate in front of me on the news, social media, and in real life that all prove that the resistance against integration is still evident in today’s society.

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Impact of tobacco crop on America and its economy: writing essay help

There’s nothing that boosted America economically in its beginnings more than tobacco. It was the driving factor of immigration to the New World, as its riches promised financial security or, to many, land and freedom. It turned a profit in the new world through direct sales of the crop itself, and also demand for more labor and land. Without the introduction of the cash crop, it is unlikely that America would have had the rapid growth it did, giving them the strength to become its own nation and eventually a global power.

The New World was advertised as a paradise in England. They did their bests to paint the land across the water as a place of new beginnings, financial opportunities, and gold. Unfortunately, in the beginning, Virginia did not have those to offer, namely the last one. Colonizers searched for ways to make money in the rough, new environment. They tried various industries, including ones such as glassblowing, vineyard cultivation, and silkworm farming. The many failures lead to the Virginia Company of London beginning in 1618 to encourage different attempts at new industries in the colony, but soon they found their match. Tobacco, an addictive product made of the leaves of a tobacco plant, was introduced to the British when they stole it off of Spanish merchant ships. Back then, although many people didn’t care for the smoke, tobacco was a popular substance for snuff and there were still many people who believed it was beneficial. In 1571, a Spanish doctor claimed that tobacco was a cure for 36 different health problems. Once it began being grown in the colony, it didn’t take off right away. This tobacco was taken from the native Indians, who had already grown their own form of it in America. Those who bought it from England claimed that it hit too harshly, and they much preferred the tobacco being grown in the West Indies. John Rolfe, an early English settler, fixed this issue by importing tobacco seeds directly from the West Indies. These new seeds were a huge success and by 1630, tobacco became the leading cash crop of Virginia and over a million and a half pounds of it was being exported from Jamestown every year.

The economic impact that the cash crop had on America was massive. Not only was it being shipped out in tons for cash, but it also helped the economy in other ways. Tobacco is a plant that is rough on its environment. It takes away large amounts of nutrients from the soil and because of this, it can’t be planted on the same spot of land repeatedly without a drastic decrease in quality or inability to grow at all. In order to prevent this overproduction, the General Assembly began limiting settlers to only 1,500 plants at a time. Farmers were forced into a system of planting it for three seasons in a row, and then letting the land regrow naturally for another three years before planting it again. This process meant that farmers now needed double the amount of land in order to maintain steady yields. Virginians began seeking approval from the General Assembly to reach further into America to take more farm land and by 1648, tobacco land had spread all the way out to above the York River. Another problem that arose from tobacco was that fact that it was very labor intensive and required a lot of people to farm it. The settlers solved this problem by introducing indentured servants. These were often people who were very poor or in jail in England and were brought to the New World. Their boat fares were paid for in exchange for usually 4-7 years of work on a tobacco plantation. This relatively cheap labor allowed Virginia to rapidly increase the rate at which they were exporting tobacco, overall growing the economy even more. The plant’s growth continued to spread out as the American colonies expanded, but in the 1680s, prices dropped. Before this, tobacco exports were often sold directly to English merchants, allowing planters to turn a profit right away, but now this was no longer an option due to the low demand. They now had to turn to commission agents, who would keep the tobacco until it sold and then would pay the farmer then, while also taking a chunk of the profit.

While tobacco’s impact on colonial America had obvious positive effects, today the plant serves as a menace. Tobacco use is the single largest preventable cause of death and disease in the United States, killing more than 480,000 Americans every year. It’s impact as a driver of the United States economy decreased throughout the years as new science and technologies discovered the dangers behind it, such as in 1826 when the highly addictive substance nicotine was discovered and 1836 when Samuel Green discovered that smoking too much of it can have fatal consequences. The CDC estimates that tobacco smoking costs the United States more than $300 billion dollars a year, $170 billion of that involving direct medical care and $156 billion of it in loss of productivity from the drastic loss of health in those who smoke it.

Despite the dramatic change of pace and public opinion of tobacco, it still had a massive impact on America’s economy. Both positive and negative effects have come from its presence in the United States, particularly in colonial times. Without it, America would probably not be where it is today.

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How did immigration to Portugal affect the Portuguese economy? (draft)

In recent years in Portugal, the economy has fluctuated greatly and this is due to the increase in immigration. Since portugal introduced the golden visa program in 2012, there has been a great increase in immigration as foreigners especially from Brazil and China. This research question better extends the idea of people being attracted to the EU citizenship which they can obtain after 6 years with golden visa program.

Portugal has always been a country that has welcomed all types of immigrants from all over the globe. The first recent mass immigration was in 1974 after the 1974 revolution that overthrew the portuguese dictator, António Salazar, and his government. The retornados was the name the was given to all the immigrants that fled to Portugal from old Portuguese colonies such as Angola, Mozambique, and São Tomé e Principe. This was a great way for Portugal to welcome the new government as in the years leading up to April of 1974 there was a significant decrease in population in Portugal due to the mass migration of Portuguese people to countries such as France and Germany. The second most recent mass immigration increase in Portugal was when the Golden Visa program was introduced in 2012. This is a program which allows immigrants from all over the globe to obtain a residence visa in Portugal by buying property over 500,000 euros or over 350,000 if the property is older than 30 years old. After 6 years, one can obtain citizenship from portugal which allows them visa free entry to 174 countries.

Answering this question is important because the immigration in Portugal, especially in Lisbon, is affecting the portuguese people. The housing market has increased massively and portuguese people are having to move out from major cities in order to find cheaper property. The city is also transforming with a much more international culture and this is affecting the Portuguese culture. It is important to understand this massive immigration really helps the economy or not.

This question is a great way to understand not only how the portuguese economy is affected by immigration, but also how any other international economy is affected by immigration, because in a sense all economies work the same way. Through this question one will be able to conclude that the immigration has a great effect on the economy. Immigrants bring money and they bring new ideas which all affect the economy. Once an immigrant trades in a country, they become automatically part of that countries economy. Since the economy is affected by everyone, hence the reason that the economy is greatly affected by the immigration.

The recent growth in immigration in Portugal has had both positive and negative effects on the economy due to the Golden Visa program and the increase in labour force.

In 1974, Retornados was the first mass immigration of portugal that had a major increase in the labour force and a huge effect on the economy.

JSTOR- The Impact of 1970s Repatriates from Africa on the Portuguese Labor Market

“The Portuguese government set up a generous resettlement program for the retornados.”

“Portugal’s population grew by 5% in both 1974 and 1975 and by another 2% in 1976.”

The Labour force in Portugal grew roughly 10% over the period of 3 years.

Over the period of 1974-1977 the labour force had a massive increase, and this directly influenced the economy. Portugal was at a time of depression and the economy was at it lowest since it was recovering from a dictatorship regime. The mass immigration of returning long time emigrants was a b oost to the economy as they were willing to do the jobs that the portuguese people didn’t want to do.

These conclusions help support how does the immigration support the economy and influence it. The 1974 Retornados was the first example of mass immigration in Portugal in recent years. This helps understand the research question because although, the most effective change in the economy due to immigration was in recent years, the retornados has also affected the economy since 1974 and it is still impacting the Portuguese labour force today.

ARGUMENT 2

NOTE: This does not have to be one paragraph but may, instead, be a series of smaller paragraphs.

TOPIC SENTENCE

What is the first argument I will make to support my thesis?

The biggest reason why Portugal had to start implementing economic strategies in order to attract external wealth and economic growth was dues to the huge economic recession in 2007, that resulted in the worst Portuguese crisis in recent years. When the golden visa program was implemented in 2012, the economy saw a drastic growth overall.

RESOURCES

Which resources will support me in making this argument? List the titles of the resources you are using.

Gale: A New Sickman of Europe; The Portuguese Economy.

Book: Sustainability and the City

QUOTES

Which specific quotes will I use from these resources?

“LOOK at any table of European economic data and Portugal stands out. GDP growth last year, at 1.3%, was the lowest not just in the European Union but in all of Europe.”

“Portugal was the first country threatened with sanctions by the European Commission for breaching the euro zone’s stability and growth pact, which sets ceilings for euro members’ budget deficits.”

CONCLUSIONS

What conclusions and inferences can I make from these resources?

In 2007 the government of Portugal was really struggling to bring the GDP down below the EU established and set ceiling of 3%.

This was a direct impact of the Portuguese socialiste prime minister, José Socrates who was thought to be stealing from the government and in a sense his ideas was what really recessed the economy.

During his time as the prime minister, Socrates raised the VAT in the country from 19% to 21% and also raised the minimum retirement age from 60 to 65. This caused chaos among the labour force which decreased and also took the streets in protest especially those in the public sector.

Researchers say that the difference between Portugal and Its neighbor Spain in 2007 was that Spain’s economy has been extremely boosted by the rise in immigration which only started coming into Portugal in 2012-2015

In portugal the housing prices increased 22.3% between 2012 and 2015. I n lisbon the prices of the housing market upscaled a massive 105.9% between 2012 and 2015.

In lisbon, in the year of 2015 there was a total of 2,199 sales registered that in total, it was worth over 709 million euros.

The golden visa program is a program that encourages non-european citizens to invest at least 500 thousand euros in Portugal, generally in real estate property. This allows then to obtain the residence permit which they can change to citizenship after 5 years.

According to one of the most trustworthy consulting firms, Cushman and Wakefield the average price per square meter in Lisbon was 3000 euros at the end of 2015.

Meanwhile the supply of houses for the permanent portuguese resident in Lisbon’s historic center dropped in order to make way for the new incoming foreigners and tourist apartments.

APPLICATION

How do these conclusions specifically develop an answer to my research question?

With this argument we can clearly see how the economy was in 2007 until 2012, and how it was due to the portuguese prime minister at the time. With the argument we can also conclude that there was a drastic change in the economy in terms of growth and especially with the housing market as it was hugely affected by the golden visa program in 2012.

ARGUMENT 3

NOTE: This does not have to be one paragraph but may, instead, be a series of smaller paragraphs.

TOPIC SENTENCE

What is the first argument I will make to support my thesis?

Although there was a lot of immigration in Portugal in recent years that affected the economy and the housing market, the chinese immigration was what had the biggest impact. Since the golden visa program was implemented, the chinese have seen it as a opportunity to invest. The chinese people are attracted to foreign housing in portugal for a number of reasons.

RESOURCES

Which resources will support me in making this argument? List the titles of the resources you are using.

“Third Countries Migration and the Immigrant Investor Programs in the EU – the Case of the Chinese Immigrants in Portugal.

QUOTES

Which specific quotes will I use from these resources?

“The Golden residence permit program is valid for one year with the possibility to renew the„Golden visa“ for two more periods of two years. After five years of temporary residence, one is eligible to apply for a permanent residence permit.”

“Non-Habitual residence regime provides a flat income tax rate of 20% for qualifying employment and self-employment income, and a tax exemption for different foreign-source income. To be considered as a tax resident, applicants must remain in Portugal for more than 183 days during the relevant fiscal year or have a dwelling in Portugal on December 31 of that year, with the intention of holding it as a habitual residence.”

CONCLUSIONS

What conclusions and inferences can I make from these resources?

The golden visa program is a program that encourages non-european citizens to invest at least 500 thousand euros in Portugal, generally in real estate property. This allows then to obtain the residence permit which they can change to citizenship after 5 years.

The main reason why these immigrants apply for the golden visa program is because they can get a residence visa which allows them to roam free through europe.

The residents with the golden visa only have to be physically in portugal for a period of 7 days per year.

One of the main reasons why the chinese want to apply with the golden visa is because the chinese passports are only eligible to travel to 25 countries visa free, while on the other hand the portuguese passport can travel to 170 countries visa free.

The second reason why the chinese are so keen in buying property in Portugal is because since China is such an unstable country politically, the top 1% want to have a back up plan in case of chaos in China and will have somewhere to go live.

The third reason is that in portugal, there is a regime which is the Non-Habitual residence regime which is when one has property in Portugal but resides outside of the country for a period longer than 183 days per year. This regime is eligible for the investor to only pay 20% of the flat bases taxes over the property.

There is also the reason of the clean air. China is a country known to have great pollution in the major cities. This is a huge opportunities to have somewhere to go where they can get fresh air and enjoy the nature which is something that doesn’t exist in China.

APPLICATION

How do these conclusions specifically develop an answer to my research question?

This is a direct impact on the research question as the point supports with evidence exactly how the economy has been impacted by the chinese immigration. It is no secret that the biggest immigration in Portugal was dies to the chinese. To this day they are still buying and selling property and this has caused the portuguese economy to grow massively.

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The Weimar Republic: college application essay help

The Weimar Republic (1918–1933) of Germany was established as the new liberal constitutional monarchy after World War I (1914–1918) to replace the German Empire (1871–1918), and it fulfilled the wishes and demands of multiple groups—including the German people, the Allied Powers, and the German military class. However, this system of democracy was not the success it was expected to be, mainly because the republic’s development required a stable international context, which wasn’t available due to the fluctuating world economy and paradigm shifts in European and world politics that arose with the aftermath of the war. Robert Roswell Palmer—in A History Of The Modern World—says that the Weimar Republic “arose because the victorious enemy demanded it, because the German people craved peace, because they wished to avoid forcible revolution, and because the old German military class, to save its face and its future strength, wished at least temporarily to be excused” (Palmer, 680). These demands—which had broader goals and visions for the new settlement—were brought together into one consolidated vision.

The fall of the Weimar Republic was proof that the state’s political instability and the conflicts that resulted from it also endangered and negatively affected the stability of the settlement itself. The republic was a sudden change for Germany and a stark contrast from the system of government that presided over the nation before World War I. The German Empire—the imperial state that existed from the time of Germany’s unification in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II (1859–1941) in 1918—was a federal monarchy, whereas the Weimar Republic was a representative democracy. Although the German Empire was “the strongest and most obvious of the new structures which armed power had reared” (Palmer, 657), it eventually collapsed due to the events and turnout of World War I as well as the decline in authority as demonstrated by the incompetent leadership of Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg (1856–1921).

Because of the conflicts between the various political groups—the Communists and Social Democrats on the left; the Democratic party, the Catholic Center Party, and the People’s Party in the center; and the German Nationalist Party and the National Socialist Party (the group that would later form the Nazis) on the right—after the war, different parties at the time had different goals and visions for what the new settlement would look like, and the Weimar Republic emerged as the most convenient compromise that allowed the war to end and a new German state to emerge. Liberals, democrats, and socialists had been demanding peace and democratization for the German Empire towards the end of the war, and General Erich Ludendorff (1865–1937) realized that “the German cause was hopeless” and he hoped that “a new government be formed in Berlin, reflecting the majority in the Reichstag, on democratic parliamentary principles” (Palmer, 680). This epiphany led to the calling for immediate peace negotiations, which Ludendorff and his associates hoped would provide them with more time to regroup and launch another offensive on the Allies (Palmer, 680). Later, Prince Maximilian of Baden (1867–1929) led a cabinet that ended the Bismarckian alliance system and eventually got Kaiser Wilhelm II to abdicate the throne. Palmer, in discussing the founding of the republic that followed his abdication, wrote, “The fall of the empire in Germany, with the consequent adoption of the republic, did not arise from any basic discontent, deep revolutionary action, or change of sentiment in the German people. It was an episode of the war” (Palmer, 680).

Returning to Palmer’s explanation of the republic’s founding, we can see that it was actually a compromise between the people, the Allied Powers, the military, and both the old and new systems of government. With all these groups and political views involved, there was no easy solution that could cater to everyone’s wants and needs. The Weimar Republic obviously did not end up how it was intended to be and resulted in a collapse, but it was a huge step for Germany since a new type of government was established for the first time. However, as much of a step Germany’s democratization, the Weimar Republic ultimately failed—which was representative of the tenuousness that many post-war democracies possessed because of the instability created after the war.

The Treaty of Versailles presented at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 prescribed agreements that Germany would have to fulfill as the aggressor (and loser) in the war. These agreements included accepting the war guilt clause and paying for all of the losses and damages sustained by other nations involved in World War I. However, if Germany were to pay off these debts adding to 132 billion marks, the international economy and its balance would be thrown off; the failure of the Allies to recognize that the international market could become unstable suggests that the victorious parties only cared about getting their money and was either negligent of this possibility or didn’t care about international stability (Palmer, 690). Germany, trying to make reparations, offered to send their people to make repairs and rebuild nations, but the Allied Powers insisted on receiving monetary payments because they wanted to keep jobs in their country for their citizens (Palmer, 690). “The Treaty of Versailles was designed to put an end to the German menace,” Palmer writes. “It was not a successful treaty.” (Palmer, 693) From what Palmer wrote about the terms and drafting of the treaty, it can be inferred that no nation intended to follow the terms set forth, and no one really expected Germany to fully live up to the consequences (Palmer, 693). This shows the redundancy and uselessness of the treaty; it was simply an agreement to end the war, and the terms and conditions it set forth for Germany were just meant to weaken them—which the French especially wanted.

Although Germany did not pay off their debts completely, they still ended up in an economic crisis that directly led to the fall of the Weimar Republic. Between 1921 and 1923, a hyperinflation of the German Papiermark (the currency of the Weimar Republic) created significant economic and political instability throughout the nation. This phenomenon started mainly because of Germany’s failure to fulfill one of their payments, which resulted in the occupation of the Ruhr industrial area by France and Belgium in 1923 and created a “disabling effect” on the German economy. The United States, an Allied Power that had little interest in collecting reparations from Germany, decided that they would help Germany with their financial struggles so that they could secure a payment of over $10 billion from the Allies, which they had loaned to the European forces over the course of World War I. The Dawes Plan was proposed in 1923 by the Reparation Commission of the United States. Led by Charles G. Dawes, the team offered the plan as a solution to Germany’s economic hardships. Over the next few years, American banks made significant efforts to loan the Germans money so that they could pay off their debts to the Allies, and in return, America would get their repayment.

The Great Depression of 1929, one of the most important events of American history, had an unimaginable impact on Germany’s economy. The nation, reliant on loans from the United States, was suddenly cut short of the money they needed to pay off their debts. To make matters even worse, the United States pressed Britain and France to pay off their own debts, who then pressured Germany into paying off their debts to them. This chain of events ultimately caused an economic depression that affected the international market. According to The Holocaust Encyclopedia provided by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, “[t]he German government faced the classic dilemma: cut government spending in an attempt to balance the budget or increase it in an attempt to jumpstart the economy.” Chancellor of the Weimar Republic at the time, Heinrich Brüning (1885–1970) decided to go with the first option, which was “the deeply unpopular option.” This decision marked one of the many turning points in the quick collapse of the Weimar Empire.

Only fifteen years after its founding, the Weimar Republic fell due to its many economic hardships and political struggles. Was this collapse inevitable, or was it merely a result of the conditions that emerged after the war? From the perspective of someone from the 21st-century, it seems as though the Nazi events and Holocaust that followed the collapse of the Weimar Republic could not have been avoided. It seems that the National Socialist German Workers’ Party would have gained traction at some point in time whether or not the Weimar Republic existed. With the republic in place, it made it easier for the party to take advantage of the failures and struggles of the settlement; however, without the republic, the German economy was still bound to lose stability after a while because of the reparations they were forced to pay. It can be concluded, therefore, that the Weimar Republic was a catalyst for the process of transitioning from a strong pre-war empire to a modernized post-war nation.

Less than two decades after World War I and the founding of Germany’s new Weimar Republic, Adolf Hitler (1889–1945) seized power in the German government as the new chancellor by taking advantage of the economic and political confusion that resulted from the Great Depression and international economic depression. It could be argued that if the German settlement had not been such a failure, Hitler’s regime would not have been able to gain as much popularity as it did; the Nazis were so popular because they were able to appeal to all groups and appeared to have solutions for all of Germany’s problems (“Nazi Rise to Power”). According to an article on BBC about the rise of the Nazis, the party appealed to each of the groups by proposing different solutions: (a) the Socialists were promised that farmers would be given their land, pensions would improve, and public industries would be owned by the states; (b) the Nationalists were assured that all German-speaking people would be unified under one state, the Treaty of Versailles would be abandoned, and there would be new, special laws for foreigners; (c) racists were guaranteed that immigration would be discontinued and Jews would not be granted German citizenship; (d) fascists were told that a strong central government would hold power and newspapers would be controlled; (e) the middle class was promised remilitarization and business contracts as well as protection from communists; and (f) the lower class and unemployed were assured that more jobs would become available and wages would be increased. Hitler, an experienced speaker, knew exactly how to act and what to say to the Germans to persuade them that the Nazis could solve their problems. With Hitler’s appointment to the position in 1933, the events of World War II were set in motion, and the world would change forever.

As we can see in this case study of the Weimar Republic and its economics and political systems, democracy was not as successful as it should have been, in part because the Weimar Republic lacked international and domestic stability. For a nation to implement a completely new system of government, they need to grow and develop in an environment where they aren’t paying off debts and suddenly being forced to democratize. World War I, having enormous impacts on the economies and politics of multiple nations, created an unstable setting that would lead to devastating events like the Great Depression, and this instability was one of the main factors in the collapse of the Weimar Republic. Although Germany’s democratization and implementation of the federal monarchy contributed greatly to democracy as a whole, there were too many negative impacts and events that reversed its successes and set back the progress that had been made.

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Philip Larkin’s The Less Deceived (1955): writing essay help

Although Britain had emerged from World War Two as victorious, the cost of this victory became increasingly apparent in the years that followed. Labour’s success in the 1945 General Election resulted in a series of social and political reforms which tapped into a national desire for change, with the establishment of the National Health Service in 1948 and widespread nationalisation of industry. However, these changes were not sufficient to combat the devastating economic and ideological effects of World War Two. As Mark Jackson summarises,

When the Second World War ended in 1945, British people, like those of many other nations, were struggling to reconcile themselves to the appalling consequences of war: over 450,000 British soldiers and civilians had been killed and many more severely wounded; families and communities had been destroyed; cities and homes had been reduced to rubble; and welfare services were struggling to cope with the burden of physical and psychological illness, not only amongst members of the armed forces but also amongst civilian populations.

As Jackson suggests, in these immediate post-war years, the national outlook of England was dominated by a profound sense of disillusionment and despair.

Philip Larkin’s The Less Deceived (1955) is fundamentally concerned with these conditions of post-war society. For example, the title, a subversion of Ophelia’s declaration in Hamlet that ‘I was the more deceived’ (III. i. 120) immediately suggests a determination to resist illusion in this difficult post-war period; ‘an attitude of wary suspiciousness and worldly scepticism’, as Andrew Swarbrick notes. An important aspect of this ‘worldly scepticism’ and Larkin’s suspicious approach to post-war society is the poet’s continued engagement with Romanticism. Throughout these poems, Larkin uses Romantic imagery as a vehicle to press against the social and political conditions of post-war England, subverting these often idealistic concepts of transformation and transcendence to explore a cultural condition of disillusionment and despair.

Michael O’Neill has evidenced the way in which the Romantic metaphor of air enables ‘twentieth century poets to enter into sustaining dialogue with the great Romantic poets’ especially regarding the issues of transformation and transcendence. Instead of an affirmative vision of these tropes, the Romantic metaphor of air in Larkin’s ‘Triple Time’ (1954) becomes a symbol of ‘worldly scepticism’ as the speaker bemoans

This empty street, this sky to blandness scoured,

This air, a little indistinct with autumn

Like a reflection, constitute the present —

A time traditionally soured,

A time unrecommended by event. (1-5).

Though Larkin’s engagement with the metaphor of air is shadowed by Percy B. Shelley’s ‘Ode to the West Wind’ (1820), each of these poets use this symbol in very different ways. Whereas Shelley’s idealistic ‘wild West Wind, thou breath of Autumn’s being’ (1) is an agent of transformative process and change, Larkin’s ‘air, a little indistinct with autumn’ subverts this metaphor to become a symbol of his speaker’s own disenchantment with post-war England. This change from the driving rhythms of Shelley’s alliterative line to Larkin’s limp syntax of indifference especially enacts this deflation of Romantic ideals and the resulting sense of ‘worldly scepticism’. The jarring repetition of ‘time’ and Larkin’s selection of ‘bells’, which ironically fails to chime with the corresponding rhyme of ‘else’ (6), also articulates this disillusionment regarding a ‘time traditionally soured, | A time unrecommended by event’.

‘Wires’ (1953) is also primarily concerned with this national outlook and has been repeatedly labelled as an allegory for the social and political conditions of post-war society. Larkin’s speaker describes how

The widest prairies have electric fences,

For though old cattle know they must not stray

Young steers are always scenting purer water

Not here but anywhere. Beyond the wires

Leads them to blunder up against the wires

Whose muscle-shredding violence gives no quarter.

Young steers become old cattle from that day,

Electric limits to their widest senses. (1-8).

The continued rationing and economic restrictions which dominated the late 1940s and early 1950s are easy to locate within the form and imagery of the poem. Larkin’s ABCD DCBA rhyme scheme is particularly suggestive of enclosure and the enjambment between the first and second stanza, which offers the hope of finding purer waters ‘Beyond the wires’, only ‘Leads them to blunder up against the wires’ once more. Although ‘Wires’ is not itself engaged with the themes and tropes of Romanticism, this sense of relentless frustration at a lack of freedom and restriction prefigures the distinctly Romantic desire to transcend these social conditions in ‘Here’ (1961), from The Whitsun Weddings (1964).

Though published almost a decade later, The Whitsun Weddings is also concerned with these challenging conditions of post-war society, as England struggled to come to terms with the full-ranging political and social effects of World War Two. Since the publication of The Less Deceived, the restrictions and rationing explored in ‘Wires’ had been lifted and the country’s economy had shown significant signs of recovery. However, despite this newfound relative “affluence” for some, a different set of problems began to emerge during this period. For example, with an unprecedented rise in immigration, urbanisation and growing concerns over the topic of political consensus, the issues of cultural cohesion, integration and social inequality were widespread in post-war society, as evidenced throughout The Whitsun Weddings. This issue of class tensions and a sense of what Jason Harding refers to as the ‘social alienation’ of the period, is also reflected in the wider literature of this era such as in the works of “The Angry Young Men”, a group of writers with which Larkin has literary and personal links.

Philip Larkin’s ‘Here’ is clearly situated within the post-war context of this collection, as the poem opens with a journey through this landscape

Swerving east, from rich industrial shadows

And traffic all night north; swerving through fields

Too thin and thistled to be called meadows,

And now and then a harsh-named halt, that shields

Workmen at dawn; swerving to solitude. (1-5).

Following this opening verbal participle, the first sections of ‘Here’ are dominated by its restless syntax, the repeated conjunctions and a resulting sense of overwhelming enumeration. Larkin repeats these techniques throughout the poem in order to consolidate this effect. For example, the syndetic listing of the numerous aspects of post-war society is complemented by the breathless enjambment in the poem’s third stanza, which describes

A cut-price crowd, urban yet simple, dwelling

Where only salesmen and relations come

Within a terminate and fishy-smelling

Pastoral of ships up streets, the slave museum,

Tattoo-shops, consulates, grim head-scarfed wives. (17-21).

Michael O’Neill has argued that the concept of ‘difference’ and the poet’s ‘troubled recognition of this’ is central to Larkin’s poetic method in The Whitsun Weddings. In ‘Here’, this ‘troubled recognition’ of ‘difference’ is evident in the speaker’s exhausting attempts to summarise and reconcile the disparate nature of post-war society with its ‘cut-price crowd’, ‘meadows’ and ‘industrial shadows’. In doing so, Larkin gives expression to the growing concerns over these issues of cultural cohesion and social inequality.

These concerns are shadowed by Larkin’s reference to ‘the slave museum’ which subtly raises issues of freedom and prosperity, linking back to the themes of The Less Deceived and ‘Wires’, in particular. This issue is particularly pertinent to the ‘residents from raw estates’ (12) and that ‘cut-price crowd’, the presumably working-class individuals of the poem. At the linguistic level, Larkin’s use of consonance creates a sense of uniformity and repetition associated with these individuals, which perhaps gestures towards the monotonous realities of working-class life and this issue of restrictive freedoms. Equally, this jarring repetition of sound may also represent a dismissive view of this class, suggesting their exclusion and resulting sense of ‘social alienation’, as voiced in the literature of “The Angry Young Men”. Either way, as the collection’s opening poem, ‘Here’ offers a troubling snapshot of the progression of post-war society, even into the 1950s and 60s, and gestures towards the difficulty of Larkin’s task in gathering and reconciling these differences in The Whitsun Weddings. Moreover, these issues of freedom, suggested by the reference to ‘the slave museum’, create an alarming parallel with a poem such as ‘Wires’ and raises further questions surrounding ideas of progression, development and disillusionment in post-war society.

With its central concerns of liberty and transformation, it is unsurprising that the final movements of ‘Here’ turn to Romanticism and this notion of transcendence. In these closing lines, Larkin’s speaker asserts that

[…] Here silence stands

Like heat. Here leaves unnoticed thicken,

Hidden weeds flower, neglected waters quicken,

Luminously-peopled air ascends;

And past the poppies bluish neutral distance

Ends the land suddenly beyond a beach

Of shapes and shingle. Here is unfenced existence:

Facing the sun, untalkative, out of reach. (25-32).

The ‘Luminously-peopled air’ and ‘bluish neutral distance’ of sea and sky, subtly registers these notions of transcendence, linking to Michael O’Neill’s Romantic metaphor of air. Larkin’s acceleration of language and syntax in these closing lines therefore lifts readers ‘beyond’ these troubling conditions of post-war society and momentarily into the exhilarating realm of transcendence. However, unlike Wordsworth’s and Shelley’s view of individual transcendence, the language and syntax of Larkin’s closing lines in ‘Here’ are of integration and community. For example, O’Neill explains how ‘cutting across all these differences’ explored throughout the poem is the repeated use of ‘here’, a word which has an odd, slightly disconcerting effect in the poem; it implies that everywhere is ‘here’ for somebody, a recognition that blurs any clear-cut sense of distinctions between localities.

Larkin’s repetition of the emphatic ‘Here’ in this realm of transcendence therefore carries with it, these disparate communities and individuals of post-war England into this glorious ‘unfenced existence’. Andrew Swarbrick’s notion of the ‘accumulative syntax’ explored throughout the poem can also be considered in relation to this ‘accumulative’ transcendental vision. This ‘existence’, which so explicitly recalls the ‘electric fences’ and hopeless attempts to move ‘Beyond’ the ‘Wires’, articulates the speaker’s communal desire for a society in which such restrictions, inequalities and differences are no longer present. Larkin therefore engages with, and extends, this Romantic legacy, in his communal vision of transcendence ‘beyond’ the restrictive conditions of post-war society.

Unfortunately, this ongoing sense of ‘worldly scepticism’ means that, despite the pause created by the colon of ‘unfenced existence:’, this vision of transcendence cannot be truthfully sustained. As such, the broken syntax of this final line ‘Facing the sun, untalkative, out of reach’ painfully enacts the speaker’s failing grip on this transcendental, communal vision and the inevitable return to reality. Stephen Regan explains how

Given that there can be no final or permanent sense of release, the ultimate direction of the poem is not forward (since it can only gesture towards transcendence) but back, with renewed awareness of the extremes of isolation, into the communities it left behind.

This failure of transcendence not only heightens this longing but, as Regan suggests, it also illuminates the pathos of this return to a desperate society struggling with issues of cultural cohesion and faltering progression. In ‘Here’ therefore, Larkin presses against the themes and tropes of Romanticism in order to deepen the understanding of, and sense of sympathy for, this post-war society of disillusionment and despair.

The 1960s and early 70s, the period with which High Windows is concerned, is often characterised by a return to ‘idealism’ and hope. Technological advances, newfound sexual liberation and the emergence of the first generation free from conscription has led to an array of idealising, cultural narratives concerning the 1960s, in particular. For instance, depictions of the “Swinging Sixties” are often marked by the radiance of music, fashion and youthful exuberance.

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Modern liberal countries and immigration

The rise of modern liberalism in the 21st century became a catalyst for the amplification of globalism. The mass influx of migrants throughout western Europe has made immigration a major issue in European politics. Yet, because each country adheres to a distinct set of ideologies and policies in regards to how they interact with migrants, having an international solution is impossible. For example, the United Kingdom follows a multiculturalist approach, while France vouches for assimilation. Additionally, there are countries such as Germany that fall somewhere in between the two. Both systems are systematically different which leads to vastly different consequences. For example, the definition of freedom in education is interpreted in a very different manner between such countries. However, they do share one major similarity; both multiculturalism and assimilation fail to develop a common identity which leads to violence and seclusion.

National identity has always been a key point in European policy-making. Choosing between multiculturalism and assimilation is primarily an effort to protect such an aspect of society. For example, although nationalism is encouraged in Britain, migrants are not expected to give up their culture, religion or language. That is because “liberal states have multiculturalism, because they have given up on the idea of assimilating their members beyond basic procedural commitments” (Joppke 449). In stark contrast, the French identity is protected and immigrants must assimilate into their culture, secularity, and language. Although assimilation has changed over time, the “final goal was still absorption into the dominant culture” (Castles 268). Lastly, Germany is one of the only European countries that embrace aspects of both systems. For example, after World War II, Germany enabled the migration of “guest-workers” into their country. Such migrants were “to be temporarily incorporated into certain aspects of society (above all the labor market) but denied access to others (especially citizenship and political participation)” (Castle 266). The German identity was now directly correlated to one’s citizenship and political participation regardless of one’s time, experiences, and family in such a country.

Modern liberal countries still use antiquated principles to define a country’s identity. The belief of Jus sanguinis (right of blood) and Jus soli (right of the soil) are still the most influential ideas regarding citizenship. For that reason, both multiculturalism and assimilation fail at developing a national identity. In fact, since multiculturalism divides the population into cultural “boxes” instead of uniting the population, it only emphasizes their differences. Additionally, politicians “tend to assume minorities’ true loyalty is to their faith or ethnic communities” (Malik 16). The purely political relationship created between the state and minority communities creates a sense of hostility and distrust between them. Furthermore, many minority groups in England fear reaching out to the government, as multicultural policies have made other minority groups their opponents and therefore enemies. For example, in the late 1970s, Ugandan Asians were allocated public-sector housing which led to “racial hostility […] at a time where 10,000 people on the city’s housing waiting list […] fear of physical attacks also deterred many from seeking council accommodation” (Marett 7). Germany, on the other hand, uses their multicultural policies to avoid calling immigrants their equals. This was especially clear with the introduction of the Gastarbeiter system (guest-workers) as migrants were allowed access to the labor system, but not granted citizenship. Consequently, the emergence of parallel communities arose in Germany. The Turkish community was especially ignored even though many of them consider Germany their true home. The national identity that Germany has constructed forces Turkish individuals to feel like outsiders. In fact, “out of the three million people of Turkish origin in Germany today, only some 800,000 have managed to acquire citizenship” (Malik 22). Lastly, assimilation in France not only leads to seclusion for minorities, but it also causes violent revolts. Such struggle dates back to the colonial and post-colonial relationship between “secular” France and “Muslim” Algeria. The French state has not allowed proper sociopolitical integration to occur due to the historical tendency of labeling north African communities as Muslims instead of “true” French citizens. Such mislabeling has led to a series of revolts in France. For example, in October of 2005, “a series of riots broke out in the suburbs of Paris […] sparked by the death of two young men being chased by the police [they] had become increasingly angry at the police presence in their neighborhoods and frustrated by the lack of opportunity and stifling conditions [caused by the] “xenophobic rhetoric of conservative politicians” (Fellag 5). As such, although multiculturalism and assimilation are entirely different political systems, the negative consequences that arise from them are quite similar. The state’s inability to create a uniting national identity forces an individual to revolt against the government.

The importance of education in liberal democracies is crucial in the development of children and teenagers. Yet, in an increasingly globalized world, the importance and purpose of education can be unclear; especially, in determining what freedom is in the classroom. The United Kingdom emphasizes the importance of a multicultural society by allowing citizens and immigrants to preserve their cultural identity. Yet, in their public-school system, many disregard such policies and teach only what they believe fits with their national identity. For example, Maureen Stone is a school teacher in Leicester who said that “supplementary education should be devoted to basic skills and not to education in different cultures” (Rex 8). The undermining of globalization in her statement suggests that learning and appreciating different cultures is irrelevant for children in the United Kingdom. Therefore, the extent to which they can exercise their cultural identities in the classroom is highly questioned. Students are allowed to exercise freedom of religion in the classroom yet, many of them are unable to study different cultures, ideologies, and mindsets that may go against traditional British values. However, they are not the only European country that struggles with the concept of freedom. In Germany, their multicultural policies allow freedom of religion to occur. Yet, all public schools in Germany have “compulsory religious education […] which has to be paid for by the state” (Muehlhoff 439). The separation of Church and state in Germany is not as drastic as other European countries and therefore, Christianity is still part of the curriculum. Although students can opt out of taking such class, a public school in Cologne last year, punished a child named Paul for doing homework during this class even though the law allows children to have “free time” if they wish to not partake in such course. This case is not uncommon either, in fact, there’s “10, 12 cases [like Paul’s] each year, different cases, some which stretch over years […] it begins in primary schools and continues into the secondary level” (Isenson 13). Therefore, although the law explicitly allows freedom of religion to take place in school, students are still being punished by their professors. France however, has a very distinct set of laws against religion in public schools. The definition of freedom of religion doesn’t fit well with their secular state. For example, “in October 1989 three teenage girls, two of Moroccan and one of Tunisian descent, were suspended from school because they refused to take off their head scarves” (Lucassen 171). Their inability to freely wear such clothing goes against any multicultural policy in both Germany and the UK. As such, these countries have major ideological differences in regards to how they deal with freedom in education. The United Kingdom allows students to practice their religion freely at schools but they refuse to study all globalization has to offer. Germany has compulsory Christianity classes in every public school which can lead to segregation for individuals who don’t wish to comply. Lastly, France doesn’t allow freedom of religion to take place in their secular state as religious practices such as the hijab are banned in public schools.

The inclination to justify the political system in every state has led to the development of obstructive conservative ideals. Globalization is now an essential and natural aspect of every society in the world. Therefore, systems such as multiculturalism and assimilation need to be reevaluated and improved. Their inability to produce a national identity will create more violence and parallel communities in European countries. Additionally, although their ideologies regarding freedom are undeniably different, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany have not created a positive, accepting environment for minorities in their communities. Embracing, learning and encouraging diversity in a modern liberal state is the foundation for a united group of citizens.

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Leisure and the Industrial Revolution: custom essay help

In a country that values production and is future-oriented, the hectic life of a citizen of the United States is seen as normal and is actually valued by family, employers, friends, and everyday people. However, in other cultures, such as Mediterranean and Arab countries, importance is placed on self-reflection and regulation. Not every waking moment of the day is filled to the brim with work and chores. In fact, life in other cultures is typically oriented around the family; work and monetary success are not indicators of one’s fortune, value, and happiness. During the early days of colonial America, the family was also the center of life, although hard work and grit were still valued. Success equaled survival, and it was necessary for Americans to work for their basic needs. As America progressed and began to industrialize, the components of family life and values changed. While survival still meant hard work, the components of that work were different. Although daily work schedules changed according to the times, with the rise of the middle class through the 19th century, there was a natural increase in leisure time and corresponding activities. In the early half of the 19th century, leisure time remained consistent of that before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, and in the latter half of the 19th century leisure time greatly increased as the Industrial Revolution came to its height.

The Industrial Revolution, which occurred from the eighteenth to nineteenth centuries, was a period amid which dominatingly agrarian, provincial social orders in Europe and America become modernized and moved towards urban lifestyles. Preceding the Industrial Revolution, which started in Britain in the late 1700s, and production of tools, textiles, and necessary household items was regularly done in individuals’ homes, utilizing hand instruments or fundamental machines. Industrialization denoted a move to a fueled economy, predominantly driven by the use of specialized machines, manufacturing plants and large scale production. The iron and material ventures, alongside the advancement of the steam motor, assumed focal jobs in the Industrial Revolution, which likewise observed improved frameworks of transportation, correspondence, and banking. While industrialization achieved an expanded volume and assortment of made merchandise and an improved way of life for a few, it additionally brought about regularly horrid business and living conditions for poor people and common laborers. Prior to the coming of the Industrial Revolution, the vast majority lived in little, provincial networks where their day was developed around cultivating. Life for the normal individual was troublesome, as livelihoods were pitiful, and malnourishment and sickness were normal. Citizens, mainly farmers, manufactured most of their own supplies and food, dress, furnishings, and instruments.

The first phase of the Industrial Revolution is signified as the advancement from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy. This change, or rather phase, of the revolution, took place in the United States between the 1790s and 1830s. The first industrial mill in the United States was opened by Samuel Slater, and according to most, signified the start of the Industrial Revolution in America. Samuel Slater’s mill was similar to those used in Great Britain, just as much of the revolution was modeled from Britain and England. Slater’s technology was considerably more efficient than the old methods in which cotton thread could be spun into yarn. While he introduced a vital new technology to the United States, the economic takeoff of the Industrial Revolution required several other elements before it would transform American life. Another key to the rapidly changing economy of the early Industrial Revolution were new organizational strategies to increase productivity. This had begun with the “outwork system” whereby small parts of a larger production process were carried out in numerous individual homes. This organizational reform was especially important for shoe and boot making. However, the chief organizational breakthrough of the Industrial Revolution was the “factory system”, where work was performed on a large scale in a single centralized location. The rise of wage labor at the heart of the Industrial Revolution also exploited working people in new ways. The first strike among textile workers protesting wage and factory conditions occurred in 1824 and even the model mills of Lowell faced large strikes in the 1830s.

The first phase of the Industrial Revolution changed leisure time and activities in many ways. Since the Industrial Revolution was so new at the end of the 18th century, there were initially no laws to regulate new industries. For example, no laws prevented businesses from hiring seven-year-old children to work full time in coal mines or factories. No laws regulated what factories could do with their biohazard waste. Free-market capitalism meant that the government had no role in regulating the new industries or planning services for new towns. And those who controlled the government liked it that way—only a small minority of people, the wealthiest, could actively participate in politics and economic ventures. So during the first phase of the Industrial Revolution, between 1790 and 1850, American society became an example of what happens in a country when free-market capitalism has no constraints. The working class—who made up 80% of society—had little or no bargaining power with their new employers. Since the population was increasing in Great Britain at the same time that landowners were enclosing common village lands, people from the countryside flocked to the towns and the new factories to get work. This resulted in a very high unemployment rate for workers in the first phases of the Industrial Revolution. As a result, the new factory owners could set the terms of work because there were far more unskilled laborers and those who had few skills and would take any job. Desperate for work, the migrants to the new industrial towns had no bargaining power to demand higher wages, fairer work hours, or better working conditions. Worse still, since only wealthy people in Great Britain were eligible to vote, workers could not use the democratic political system to fight for rights and reforms. In 1799 and 1800, the British Parliament passed the Combination Acts, which made it illegal for workers to unionize, or combine, as a group to ask for better working conditions. For the first generation of workers—from the 1790s to the 1840s—working conditions were very tough, and sometimes tragic. Most laborers worked 10 to 14 hours a day, six days a week, with no paid vacation or holidays. Life in the factory was most challenging for the first generation of industrial workers who still remembered the slower and more flexible pace of country life. Factory employers demanded a complete change of pace and discipline from farm life. Workers could no longer easily communicate with their peers and friends, as they would have done while working in the country. They could not return to the village during harvest time to help their families unless they wanted to lose their jobs. Instead, they were no longer their own bosses; foremen and overseers supervised a new working culture to ensure that workers’ actions were focused and efficient. In the first sixty years or so of the Industrial Revolution, working-class people had little time or opportunity for recreation. Workers spent all the light of day at work and came home with little energy, space, or light to play sports or games. The new industrial pace and factory system were at odds with the old traditional festivals which dotted the village holiday calendar. Plus, local governments actively sought to ban traditional festivals in the cities. In the new working-class neighborhoods, people did not share the same traditional sense of a village community. The first phase of the industrial revolution clearly lacked proper leadership and regulation, which severely limited men and women of all ages, making leisurely activities impossible but for the rich.

The second Industrial Revolution, also known as the American Industrial Revolution, brought about significant change in the lives of the working class. After the 1850s, however, recreation improved along with the rise of an emerging the middle class. Music halls sprouted up in big cities. Sports such as rugby and cricket became popular. Football became a professional sport in 1885. By the end of the 19th century, cities had become the places with opportunities for sport and entertainment that they are today. Soon massive immigration from England, Britain, and other countries took place. This process of urbanization stimulated the booming new industries by concentrating on workers and factories together. New industrial cities became sources of wealth for the nation. Aristocrats born into their lives of wealth and privilege, and low-income commoners born in the working classes. n this new middle class, families became a sanctuary from stressful industrial life. The home remained separate from work and took on the role of emotional support, where women of the house created a moral and spiritual safe harbor away from the rough-and-tumble industrial world outside. Most middle-class adult women were discouraged from working outside the home. They could afford to send their children to school. As children became more of an economic burden, and better health care decreased infant mortality, middle-class women gave birth to fewer children. This new lifestyle was promoted by the massive immigration into urban cities of the United States. With more workers, there began to be reform movements which made industrial life much safer, and soon weekends became established. actions began to be regularly offered to workers, although they were usually unpaid ones. The monotony of specialized industrial work and the crowding of urban expansion also created a desire in the worker to have leisure time away from his or her job and away from the bustle of the city. The Progressive movement was another factor which contributed to the increased value of leisure time for workers, as their health and well-being received more attention. Within cities, people attended vaudeville shows, which would feature a multitude of acts. Motion pictures also served as entertainment during leisure time for urban audiences. After the Civil War, the popularity of sports as leisure activities grew as people began to see the importance of exercise to health. While initially only the wealthy could partake of most sporting events, the opening of publicly available gymnasiums, courts, and fields allowed the working and middle classes to participate also. Athletic clubs such as the New York Athletic Club were organized and the YMCAs began to institute sports programs. These programs mostly focused on track and field events, instituted by communities of Scottish and English descent, and gymnastics, heavily influenced by German athletics. Gymnasiums, which featured exercises using Indian clubs, wooden rings, and dumbbells, were opened in many Eastern Cities. By the end of the second phase of the Industrial Revolution, there were many activities that were extremely popular among all citizens. These activities included biking, basketball, swimming, baseball, fairs, expositions, and many other affairs. The second phase of the Industrial Revolution clearly impacted the leisure of many citizens, a much bigger increase compared to the first phase of the Industrial Revolution

Societal values have changed drastically through global and American history. Today, hard-work and determination are required in order to be successful in the United States, however, the circumstances in which that success is achieved has changed for the better. Leisure of American citizens before and after the Industrial Revolution greatly increased as a result of reformation movements and family values.

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Write an argument in favour of the border wall (US/Mexico)

Many criminals, possibly unknown to the U.S. Government, are able to freely come into this country through the U.S.- Mexican border, bringing in drugs as well as participating in others crimes such as human trafficking, etc. For a great deal of this chaos to end, the Mexican border wall should be built. It should also be built because of the good it will do for the American economy, lowering of the U.S. crime rates, and for the American people in general. The wall will improve the economy by providing more job opportunities for the American people already in the U.S. living here lawfully. The wall will also combat drug smugglers and criminals that enter through the border every day through unguarded areas. Building a wall can counter these criminals from entering our country. Lastly, the wall will help the American people not only feel safer, but actually be safer. People coming across our border who are not registered are illegal aliens and we do not know who they are. The best way to secure the American people from these criminals is to build a wall. The wall is a necessity for it is the Government’s duty to protect those who cannot protect themselves against criminals who could enter this country through the areas of the border that are unprotected.

The wall is completely misunderstood to the average American. People sometimes believe that it will be some massive stone wall, complete with guns at the top, denying entry to anyone who may want to immigrate to this country. Although, at times it may sound and feel that the border wall would look like that, it most definitely will not. The wall is really just a figure of speech for what the American people really want, which is better security, fewer drugs and the crime associated with them, and a better way to defend against the illegal entry of some of these criminals. The wall also needs to be built in order to help stop the opioid crisis, minimize the impact of Mexican drug cartels, and the unlawful money flowing out of our country and into cartel members pockets. The wall needs to be built there is simply no way around it.

Opponents of the wall say that it simply will not work. Yuma, Arizona as well as Naco, Arizona are prime examples that walls do work as well as being very effective. “In Naco, Arizona for 10 years. We didn’t have physical barriers in Naco, and illegal immigration and drug smuggling was absolutely out of control” (Remarks on). Naco was besieged by illegal immigrants as well as an influx in drugs in the area. Officials built a wall and the flood of crime in both Naco and Yuma dropped significantly. Brandon Judd, President of the National Border Patrol Council, says, “We built those walls… and illegal immigration dropped exponentially. Anywhere that you look, where we have built walls, they have worked. They have been an absolute necessity for Border Patrol agents in securing the border” (Remarks on). The wall can improve people’s lives as well as give them new business ventures, all while protecting them at the same time. Yuma, Arizona and Naco, Arizona “serves as a prime example of home investments in personnel, technology, and a wall can turn a tide against a flood of illegal immigration” (Elaine).

Some opposed to a border wall might think that the wall is a complete waste of resources as well as representative of a discriminatory monument for all of the world to see. They view Donald Trump is extremely discriminatory and racist as he has insulted the Mexican people with phrases like “Bad Hombres” and referring them as “Illegals”. They believe he is trying to deport millions of innocent people so he can make his middle and upper class voters feel more secure and content which could result in more votes for himself in the upcoming 2020 election. They cite that the wall should not be built because “building walls has rarely has achieved its intended effect, and may result in wasted resources and lost opportunities for the United States” (Phil’s Why). Trump and the Republican party think that many illegal immigrants are a cartel or gang member here to commit crimes and or deal drugs drugs on the streets. Trump promotes the idea that every illegal alien has crossed some territory over the border that is completely unguarded even though that is not the case at all. “As many as half of unauthorized immigrants in the United States are people who overstay their visas, not border crossers” (Phil’s Why). Thus, they believe that the border wall will not achieve its intended goal, resulting in millions of dollars being wasted as well as endangering the U.S. economy.

This argument is completely false, because the wall, if imposed correctly, can be a huge economic booster for the United States. A wall can provide many initial jobs to build it and then additional jobs to help maintain it. As stated, the wall can be “a bold ambitious, forward-looking plan to massively increase jogs, wages, incomes, and opportunities for the people of our country’’ (Kolhatkar).

One of the greatest threats to the American people at the moment is unfortunately the opioid crisis. People sometimes say that much of the opioids coming into this country are arriving through seaports and airports, but in reality “90% of heroin in the US comes through its southern border’’ (Remarks After). These drugs are being sneaked through tunnels, unguarded areas, and high population areas, making it nearly impossible to track down and catch the drug dealers. “Ignoring this crisis diminishes the Americans and migrants who have fallen victim to the crimes committed by illegal aliens, or are harmed because of illegal drugs flowing across the border” (Border Tour). American people can be easily harmed and exploited by drug traffickers as these people enable and make deadly drugs readily available to people with serious addictions. “Criminal organizations operate sophisticated drug and human trafficking networks and smuggling operation on both sides of the southern border, contributing to a significant increase in violent crime and US deaths from dangerous drug” (Border Security). By just being in the U.S., illegal aliens can endanger the country and its citizens. Thus, the U.S. can be very limited in what it can do when an illegal alien commits murder or manslaughter as they may have no jurisdiction over the person. This is a problem that has to be stopped and only a wall can fix that.

“Ranchers shared stories about the day to day reality of illegal aliens using their land as drug and human trafficking routes” (Border Tour). These people are using hard working taxpayers property to make millions of dollars while using land that is not even theirs. Human trafficking is a crime that is an unfortunate reality that can occur on the U.S. – Mexican border. Human trafficking is the buying and selling of people, mainly women and young children, to be used as slaves or even raped or tortured for entertainment. These criminals are kidnapping mainly women from all ages, and boys or girls to be sold around the world for profit. These cartels are so dangerous that “Bystanders, people who refused to join cartels, migrants, journalists and government officials have all been killed” (Phil’s This).

The amount of people in this country illegally is astounding. “ every day, nearly 2,000 people are apprehended or stopped to come into our country… Last year alone, 17,000 individuals with previous criminal records were apprehended attempting to come across our southern border” (Remarks After). These 17,000 were just the people who were actually caught, and for all the government knows, there could be twice or three times as many people in the country who haven’t been caught. These people are sometimes thought to be refugees although they are the opposite, as refugees are people fleeing a country because of discrimination or war, of which there is neither in Mexico. Although these aliens may be extremely poor and are trying to have a better life in America, they are going about it the wrong way. The people that are here illegally do not pay taxes because the government does not know of their existence. They also can take jobs from American citizens and Legal Aliens who have earned the right to have the jobs over illegals. “In 2017, 3700 known or suspected terrorists tried to enter into the country through the Southern border”(Remarks). Even though not all people crossing the border illegally are dangerous, many of them are here for illegal activities and not just looking for jobs.

Right now there is “about 650 miles of the 1,900 mile-long border are already fenced” (Border Wall). These people just walk right over the border without any documentation. A common opposing question regarding the border wall is, “Since the Canada-America border is just as open if not more open than the Mexico-America border, why not build a wall there?” This question can be easily deflected because the standard of living between Canada and the US is much more comparable, and there are many less occurences of drug and human trafficking on this border. Right now more than 50% of the border is unguarded and literally just inviting criminals to invade our country.

The border wall must be built to provide safety to our legal residents, to protect our way of life, to help control the flood of drugs and associated crimes and to protect the many law enforcement professionals working in that region of the U.S. The wall is a necessity for America that should have been constructed many years ago as many Presidents and past administrations, both Democratic and Republican, have failed to do what is right for this country and its citizens.

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The American Dream, today

It’s no exaggeration to say that just about every American has at least heard of the term – the American Dream since this concept has always been a popular and dominant theme in United States society. It is the center of the national culture and reflects people’s optimism about equality between individuals. In this report, I will analyze the ideology of the American Dream and its meaning in society presently.

As Sally Edelstein (2013) stated in her article that the seed of the American Dream was planted during the dark days of the Great Depression when a nation that had once been viewed as the land of opportunity was now mired, and germinated at the New York World’s Fair of 1939. The seed was nurtured and cultivated during the sacrifices and deprivations of World War II. By 1945 when the war ended, it was ready to be harvested and it would blossom into full bloom in the Post War years and beyond. It is difficult to define exactly the American Dream because it can be subjective and may mean different things to different people. Generally, the American Dream is usually understood as the perspective that all people are created equally with the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It is a set of principles basing on the notion that each person has the right to seek for prosperity and happiness, regardless of where or into what circumstances they were born, meaning that anyone can become financially successful and socially upwardly mobile through sacrifice, risk-taking, and hard work, rather than by chances. This concept has long become the driving force for many U.S. citizens, motivating them to work hard toward creating a better life for their families and themselves.

The person often receives credit for first popularizing this term was the historian James Truslow Adams (Patrick J. Kiger, 2011). According to Adams, he explained the American Dream in his best-selling book in 1931 “The Epic of America” as it is not a dream of motorcars and high wages merely, but a dream of an equal society in which each man or woman could be able to reach their achievement and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of their circumstances of birth or position. However, the root of the American Dream could be much deeper. The tenets of this term were stated, even though not directly in the Declaration of Independence,

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.”

In the past, the American Dream was only for white people and used to have some basic ideas such as owning a home, a safe and secure neighborhood, or having a business that makes a profit and contributes to the national economy. When someone seems to have it all, including a well-paying job they love, a loving family they can provide for, a home they are proud of and can afford, and extra money to enjoy vacations and the other events that make life enjoyable, even if they aren’t wealthy, they are said to be living the American dream. However, nowadays, there are many different opinions in people’s perspectives when they have to talk about the American Dream as the meaning of the term has been changing over the past many years throughout history, depending on the context. On the one hand, some people believe that the American Dream means land of opportunity where anyone can become rich, successful, and respected if he or she works hard. For example, many immigrants migrate to the United States because the place has many big firms and multinational companies which can provide a variety of jobs and more chances of success in comparison with that in their home country. Another memorable event was on November 4, 2008, Senator Barack Obama of Illinois defeated Senator John McCain of Arizona to become the 44th U.S. president as well as the first African American in history to be elected to the White House. On the other hand, many see the American Dream as freedom and equal rights since they can do whatever they are passionate about without being judged. For instance, in general, the United States has very relaxed federal gun control laws in comparison with other developed nations such as Canada, Switzerland, and Japan — a mix of wealthy countries with similar and varying cultural backgrounds.

In this day and age, many citizens are now of the view that there is a need for a new definition of this dream which should also take into consideration the modern needs of the citizens as well as the core beliefs on which the US was founded. The American Dream which was more accessible to attain back in the days, however, had transformed, especially in the 21st century as economic inequality has increased over the years. Although it is still possible for people to live a happy and lucrative lifestyle through their perseverance, the lives of many average middle-class Americans and immigrants still have countless difficulties due to the lack of improvement in social mobility in society, making the American Dream seemed less attainable. The federal treasury is in danger, and the government, as well as policymakers, do not show any commensurate solution to the problems. This results in some people no longer believing in the American Dream and it is just an expectation.

Nowadays, with changing governments and overhauling global conditions, new virtues have been included in the American Dream as well as the meaning of this ideal has changed to aim different things to different generations. However, the concept of the American dream is still the very soul of the American nation, which is the ultimate idea that any citizen could have the right to pursue their notion of happiness, to follow their dreams, and achieve upward mobility or success if they put in the hard work. This ultimate idea is undoubtedly part of the American ethos, and likely always will be. As the world is changing every day, the American Dream will continue to evolve in response to the alteration and influence of the national economy with entrepreneurship and individual ambition, infusing a motivated perception to anyone trying to be successful in the United States.

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Closing of Indian Embassy at Kabul – Is it Really Questionable?: online essay help

The Government has decided to pull out its entire staff from the Indian Embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan. This act of India has raised several questions from the experts and the analysts. It has been discussed that all the major powers, including Russia, China, and Iran, are present there and are maintaining their task; why not we? It should be better to have stayed there and help our citizens instead of leaving them in distress. India has also been advised to keep a consular of CE at its airport, similar to America. In the news, it has also been in the news that the Taliban has requested India to remain and also assured its safety. These are some of the significant factors that influenced India to leave its embassy in Kabul.

Position of India in Afghanistan:

Firstly, India is not one of the superpowers, especially when it comes to Afghanistan. India has never followed any national-based or any independent policy towards this particular Country. It is also true with any previous government of India. In short, India is not a significant player related to this Country like the USA. All we have done is to support what the Government of Kabul(whether Hamid Karzai or Ashraf Ghani) and America to what they have to do in the Country. It is entirely wrong to put all the eggs in Ghani’s basket; it means he can be considered suitable for sustaining the authority to maintain any developing country. But he cannot be perfectly said to be a good administrator. India has successfully invested nearly $3 billion worth of small and medium projects in the Country. It has also earned the goodwill of the citizens of Afghanistan through this. Still, it never got any prominent role and right to consult in the political matters of Afghanistan neither any negations from the stakeholders.

In short, India never got any significant role in matters related to this Country. Indian Government has been criticized for not establishing contacts with the Taliban. But as per media reports, they were engaged with the Taliban, but it was too late, and talk was little. It was essential to talk at the greater level with the Taliban as other superpowers such as Russia and China did. Even Iran, which is a Shia-majority country, was engaged with the Taliban. America, too, started to talk with the Taliban without any hesitation, ignoring that it’s a terrorist group that has killed over 2,500 American soldiers since 2001.

India did not want to upset Ashraf Ghani and could not talk to the Taliban as they refused to talk with the Indian Government. However, engaging does not mean endorsing, which Vivek Katiju said as an Ambassador. He further said that it is a severe lapse as we have to talk to people we consider distasteful, whether they are Pakistan, China or the Taliban. It is also the fact that nearly everyone is afraid of the gun-toting fighters of the Taliban, and it is pretty risky to talk or deal with them. The Government has even cancelled all the issued visas, which indicates rendering of consular assistance.

Even if the Taliban approaches the Indian Government and asks not to shut the Indian embassy in Kabul, what will be their reliability and proof will be that they will stay on their words? Also, India does not have any means to force or control them. If it was the USA in such a case, they could easily cause massive harm to their troops.

What About Other Groups:

Taliban is not the only reason why India has quit its Embassy in Kabul. The presence of other groups such as Lashkar-e-Taiba, the Jaish-e-state in Khorasan (ISIS k, or ISK) is also threatening. In reports, these groups have given thousands of fighters to the Taliban in their Jihad to fight with the foreign powers. So they can be an equal and potential threat to India like the Taliban. But, on the other hand, the Taliban has also demonstrated its suicide bombing activities on 26 August that has killed nearly 13 military persons of the USA and a more significant number of Afghans. If such a scenario happens with a single Indian, there would have been a severe outcry.

The Approach of Foreign Policy:

One can easily criticize the Indian Government for some foreign policies, such as aligning closely with the US. This has made Russia unhappy, and due to which it started maintaining its relationship with one of our major enemy China. Giving importance to Quad(a group containing India, Japan, Australia, and the US) is also one of the questionable decisions to ask for. The formation of the Quad is the American manoeuvre so that it can contain China. It is clearly an anti-china arrangement in which India’s involvement was not much crucial.

Finally, it can be said that the closing of the Indian embassy in Kabul is not at all a questionable decision as all the above parameters indicate that the Indian Government would not have survived happily at this place.

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Racism in America (speech)

Have you ever been considered less than human or regarded as a possession or object based off of something you have no control over? Unfortunately, many people in America can honestly say that they have, which is entirely unacceptable in today’s world. Hello! I’m Sophia. I’ve been researching the topic of racism in America for the past few weeks and I’m excited to share what I’ve learned. Ever since America was founded, racism has been heavily present in our society, and that is something that needs to change as soon as possible. I’m going to be going over topics like civil rights, influential figures in black history, and the impact that modern anti-racist organizations have had in today’s world.

There has always been a fight for racial equality in America. Ever since the first Americans settled on the East Coast and kicked Native Americans off the land they’d had for centuries, there was a fight. And even now, hundreds of years later, we still see that fight in action – through our actions, through our words, and through amazing people. From the Emancipation Proclamation to the Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1968 to the Black Lives Matter movement in 2020, people have not stopped fighting for their God-given rights to life.

Now, there are several important figures I’d like to mention who were catalysts for racial equality movements. First, and probably the most well-known, Martin Luther King, Jr. He was a civil rights activist who certainly changed our world for the better. He was assassinated on his own hotel room balcony, April 4, 1968. Next, George Floyd. He was one of the main reasons for the resurgence of the Black Lives Matter movement in mid-2020. He was suffocated to death under the knee of a police officer, May 25, 2020. Lastly, Tamir Rice. He was a twelve-year-old boy from Cleveland, Ohio carrying a toy gun. He was shot on sight by a police officer who felt “threatened”, November 22, 2014. Do any of these deaths seem justified to you? They shouldn’t, because they aren’t. And these are far from the only examples of people whose lives were needlessly taken from them because of their race.

Fortunately, there is a positive side to this story. The Black Lives Matter movement is an organization founded in 2013 shortly after the shooting of seventeen-year-old Trayvon Martin. The group is committed to fighting to end racially charged police brutality and trying to make the world a safer place for black youth. Their message particularly took off in mid-2020 after the murder of George Floyd, and they used that momentum to bring light to other police brutality killings and emanding justice for these needless deaths: names such as Breonna Taylor, Ahmaud Arbery, and Elijah McClain to list a few. Their impact extends far beyond just the 2020 resurgence, though. Today, nearly a year after the death of George Floyd, that message is still being taught, learned, and shared all over the US and the rest of the world.

I hope you enjoyed my speech. I also hope you come away from it with some more knowledge about racism and injustice in America, the people who helped shape our modern views on civil rights, and what we are doing to raise awareness for these things. Remember: racism hasn’t gone away, and it likely won’t for a long time, unless we as a country do something to make it better. Thank you!

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The Effectiveness of Civil Disobedience in the Modern World: college application essay help

Law is the fundamental pillar of government, and it is a social construct that defines the boundaries of society. Although it protects the rights of the people, like all things created by humans, the law is not always perfect. Clarence Darrow, a famous American lawyer in the 1900s, once said, “As long as the world shall last there will be wrongs, and if no man objected and no man rebelled, those wrongs would last forever.” For centuries, civil disobedience has been a way for people to resist injustice and inspire change. Inequality, discrimination, and prejudice have been sources of protest because of the unjust laws that preyed upon minorities. As the world continues to evolve, humanity must adjust its laws based on the ever-changing demands of society. In the modern world, civil disobedience remains an effective way for people to voice their opinions on problems such as; data privacy, climate change and gun-control, along with economic disparity to ensure that the law remains fair and moral as the world changes.

Data privacy is a concern for people all over the world because of the amount of information that is collected through government surveillance. Edward Snowden, a former contractor in the National Security Agency (NSA), became known as a whistle-blower when he leaked thousands of documents proving how government agencies are abusing their authority by collecting personal information (“Edward Snowden, Whistle-Blower”). In 2013, he proved that phone calls, emails, and most online activity were actively being monitored by the NSA without the consent of millions of people. In violation of the Espionage Act, Snowden faced multiple criminal charges in the United States but sojourned in Moscow, Russia to avoid punishment for his actions. Furthermore, at an interview in Hong Kong with Glenn Greenwald, Snowden remarked,

“I do not want to live in a world where everything I do and say is recorded. That is not something I am willing to support or live under… I would rather be without a state than without a voice” (qtd. in Francis).

Snowden’s efforts have brought the insidious and unconstitutional actions of organizations like the NSA to the public eye. As a result, ongoing debates on how to ensure the protection of personal information are an important source of contention for new legislation. For example, when companies like Facebook or Google became involved in data privacy scandals, Snowden’s actions brought attention to new legislation such as the General Data Protection Regulation. Many of Snowden’s supporters praise him for trying to bring justice. However, others deem him as a traitor because of his ignorance of national security. Nevertheless, his acts of civil disobedience have brought positive change to society by alerting the world about the dangers of data theft. Although Snowden’s actions broke federal laws, not all forms of civil disobedience have to go to such extreme lengths.

Young activists are taking a stand against world issues like climate change and gun control. For instance, Greta Thunberg, an 18-year-old Swedish activist, has provided a voice for many recent generations, and was the youngest person to be named Time magazine’s Person of the Year in 2019. Her fight against climate change began with a simple act of civil disobedience in the summer of 2018. She “sat alone each Friday outside the Swedish parliament, quietly protesting with a handmade sign that read: Skolstrejk for Klimatet. School strike for climate” (Dennis). Thunberg has garnered the attention of millions of people by leading marches and giving speeches in over 123 countries around the world. In addition, she has established an immense social media following, engaged in debates with former President Trump and Russian President Vladimir Putin, and received a nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize. World leaders cannot ignore the impacts of carbon emissions, fossil fuels, and pollution on the Earth. Likewise, there are several other young leaders taking initiative for the betterment of society.

One example is Emma González, a 21-year-old student activist, who led an anti-gun rally in Fort Lauderdale three days after a school shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High. Many students, parents, and teachers continue to suffer from the lasting effects of these traumatic experiences. She believes that people cannot afford to let these mass shootings become another forgotten tragedy, but they must be prevented altogether. At the anti-gun rally, González took a stance on the gun control debate:

Politicians who sit in their gilded House and Senate seats funded by the NRA telling us nothing could have been done to prevent this, we call BS. They say tougher gun laws do not decrease gun violence. We call BS. They say a good guy with a gun stops a bad guy with a gun. We call BS. They say guns are just tools like knives and are as dangerous as cars. We call BS. They say no laws could have prevented the hundreds of senseless tragedies that have occurred. We call BS. That us kids don’t know what we’re talking about, that we’re too young to understand how the government works. We call BS. (qtd. in Pires)

González and other gun-control activists achieved success when many state legislators enacted 50 laws throughout many states to restrict the access of guns. Ergo, nonviolent rallies have demonstrated that they have the power to inspire others, establish legitimate change, and shift opinions on ethical issues. On the other hand, once violence is introduced, protests can get out of hand resulting in people getting injured or even killed.

Additionally, around late 2018, a movement called the yellow vests swept across France. The supporters of the movement mostly consist of middle-to-low class citizens who barely were able to cover food, rent, utilities, and clothing expenses. When the French government raised the gas tax, these protestors turned their anger towards the government and called for taking French President Emmanuel Macron out of office. The main controversy around these protests include the use of violence by the government in response to these demonstrations. In fact, according to the French Ministry of Interior, by the end of 2019, 11 people had died while 1,900 peaceful protestors and 1,200 law enforcement officers were injured (McAuley).

In December 2019, Jean-Marc Michaud participated in a demonstration near the Place du Parlement to protest economic inequality, but he was seriously injured when a rubber ball fired by the police damaged his right eye. Michaud responded by saying, “The government claims that we are looters and violent protesters, but so many of us are just peaceful civilians… The government isn’t listening to us, and now they are trying to silence us with repression in the streets” (qtd. in Peltier). As French police officers resorted to violence to quell these demonstrations, a nationwide outcry fueled the yellow vest movement even further.

Despite the movement slowing down in 2020 due to the pandemic, many French supporters are far from giving up, and they believe that they still have the power to cause change. Already a group of yellow vests are planning to have a few candidates participate in the European Parliament elections. A French polling and market research firm estimated that 7.5 percent of the population would be willing to vote for yellow vest political candidates, and 40 percent sympathize with the movement in some way (McAuley). Therefore, dissatisfied French citizens are continuing to fight against the government to achieve justice for citizens facing economic hardship.

For years to come, civil disobedience is a potent method for people to fight against injustices such as data theft, environmental destruction, policies on gun-control, and economic inequality.

2021-4-25-1619388385

The Fight for Equality in “Battle Royal”: writing essay help

“Battle Royal” challenges equality throughout the narrator’s speech. People need to be shown equality because in this short story, the blacks were seriously injured when the whites made them go to boxing matches and they were tased/electrocuted when they took the money the whites left for them. The author Ralph Ellison shows in “Battle Royal” that there is an issue between race and the people need equality and social responsibility, so both races can be equal with one another.

The thesis shows the way that people need equality, so the blacks and whites can respect one another. The whites state, “We mean to do right by you, but you’ve got to know your place at times” (Ellison 11). This explains the way the whites are showing equality towards the narrator and soon it might happen to all of the blacks.

The short story shows symbolism with the dancing blonde woman, boxing match, blindfolds, the coins, and the speech. The “speech” symbolizes social responsibility between the white and black races. For example, the narrator of this story is wanting to read the speech about the way that people need to treat one another, but the whites did not listen to the speech until the end. The boxing match, the coins, and the blindfolds symbolize the suffering of the blacks. The boxing match symbolizes the way the blacks were in pain and suffering, while the whites were being comfortable and enjoyed watching the suffering of the blacks. The blindfold symbolizes the way the blacks suffered by getting knocked out in the boxing match.The narrator says, “Blindfolded, I could not control my motions” (Ellison 5). This discusses the fact that the narrator is blindfolded and he cannot control his mind and his display of knowledge for the speech. The coins symbolize greed by the whites. The whites gave the coins to the blacks, who are in need of money. But once they held a hand on the coins, they will be electrocuted. The dancing blonde woman symbolizes that the blacks cannot marry a white woman because there was a law that prevented interracial marriage, which is known as the “Loving vs Virginia” law case that prevented marriage from blacks and whites, according to the story’s historical content. The blonde woman has an American flag tattooed on her belly which symbolizes the way blacks were prevented from intermarriage between races in America. The narrator states “and yet to stroke where below the small American flag tattooed upon her belly her thighs formed a capital V”(Ellison 3). This explains where the American flag tattoo is located on her body and it relates to how the dancing blonde woman can be symbolized and the way she is a way to be used as the American dream.

The race experience explains that the whites treat all the blacks as animals by putting them in boxing matches and the whites were being forceful and brutal to the blacks by yelling to them and forcing them to punch one another. It shows how violent the boxing match really is, “In one comer I glimpsed a boy violently punching the air and heard him scream in pain as he smashed his hand against a ring post” (Ellison 6). Another race experience in this short story is that this story discusses mostly about the dancing blonde woman. The reason that this shows race experience is that this woman is trying to make all the white men be in love with her and they feared looking, were not disgusted so the narrator wants to read the speech and it is not about how people should treat one another. The short story discusses the way that blacks cannot be in an interracial marriage because it is a law for them not to break according to the culture that they are living in.

The background of this short short story discusses the historical content between the Reconstruction era to Jim Crow law era. The reason that the story occurred during the Reconstruction era is that the grandfather is discussing to his grandson about the way he was being in a relationship with the whites during the Reconstruction era and he was treated horribly by the whites being brutal to him. The prologue of this story discusses grandpa about his experience with the whites during the Reconstruction era: “I never told you, but our life is a war and I have been a traitor all my born days, a spy in the enemy’s country ever since I give up my gun in the Reconstruction” (Ellison 1). Afterwards, it continued around the Jim Crow law, when the whites were in contempt with the blacks, who are in suffering at boxing matches, shootings, fist fighting, or anything that the whites find that is considered violence. This quote explains how the blacks suffered in the boxing match as the whites were being soothed in this short story: “The harder we fought the more threatening the men became” (Ellison 6). This explains as the blacks are fighting one another they are suffering by being abused brutally. Another part of the quote, “the more threatening the men became” explains the men as the whites were making the blacks threatening one another as a form their race’s entertainment (Ellison 6).

In the short story, the narrator’s experience is calm in the beginning of the short story, then his experience was abhorrent, atrocious, gruesome, and cruel in the plot of the story, and his experience was then calm again. This promise the grandfather tells to the narrator of the story: “On his deathbed he called my father to him and said, “Son, after I’m gone I want you to keep up the good fight”” (Ellison 1). This shows an explanation about the narrator’s grandfather giving him a promise that he discussed that he had a lot of trouble with his lifetime despite the fact of his race experience between the whites and blacks and he does not want it to happen to anyone, especially his grandson. Throughout the events of the narrator’s experience is that he is in a bad experience because he is in a boxing match and he may be afraid to go in the boxing match. During the boxing match, the narrator is fearful in this short story, when he is set in a boxing match: “I stumbled like a baby or a drunken man” (Ellison 5). So, the narrator decided to make a speech similar to what Martin Luther King Junior did with his “I Have a Dream” speech.

The narrator creates the speech, so the whites to listen about the way they are needing to get along with the blacks, because the speech can make them understand equality. They did not listen until the end. Then, the experience of the narrator seems to be exciting because he seems excited when he is reading the speech and the whites are listening to every word of this essay. Once he was done with his speech, the whites had given him a scholarship to college, congratulating him for his way to be helpful to the people that were living in all of America. This quote explains one of the things that was used in this speech: “When ever I uttered a word of three or more syllables a group of voices yelled at me to repeat it” (Ellison 10). This quote says when the narrator is reading the essay, the whites were yelling at him to repeat because they want to listen to what he is saying for this essay so they want to know what he is talking about and they might end their conflict with the whites and blacks once he finishes his speech.

In “Battle Royal”, equality is discussed for the whites and the blacks and why they are in an opposite relationship with each other. The analysis says that the blacks and whites need to be in a fair relationship. Equality should matter because this short story explains why the blacks and whites should be equal with one another and the blacks are wanting to stop being threatened by the whites.

2019-2-15-1550252529

Issues faced by society – gun violence, racism and religion

When our reality becomes so unsightly, we tend to deny the outcomes because we are ashamed to see the mess we have made. Reality has become too hard to accept because the issues in our nation have brought us to not be able to agree to disagree with our opinions. In today’s society, we find ourselves never being able to talk about issues that affect us negatively, but rather starting something chaotic because we get so caught up in our own points of view—but in our communities, we should come together and address these problems, such as gun violence, racism, and religion, as best as we could, so they can get fixed and not continue to grow. But our biggest question right now, is how? How do we get everyone to understand and listen to one another?

As we get into our most sensitive topics of today’s issues, one of our biggest problems is not taking into consideration what others have already been through. The word racism has been flourishing in the media for what we can consider, too long. African Americans have been dealing with racial profiling, attacks, teasing, and death because of their skin color. In an article shared from CNN, explains that “a white student at Yale called police because a black student was napping in a dorm building.” (Yan) When a small issue like this happens to someone, it is hard to believe that there is room for the slightest change. Aside from someone you catch on the street saying something disrespectful, our president, Trump “appears to be unifying America — unifying Americans in their denial. The more racist Mr. Trump sounds, the more Trump country denies his racism, and the more his opponents look away from their own racism to brand Trump country as racist. (Kendi) Making it more difficult for us to see our faults as a nation. Rachel Godsil, a researcher apart of an organization who helps reduce discrimination explains, “There are enormous health consequences to those experiencing these everyday harms… because of the constancy of this stress.” For those who have never experienced such a thing cannot relate to what these people go through. Racism is a never-ending cycle that has to be addressed before we have more people suffering this pain that brings us this rage that no one can understand.

People do not seem to realize how closely each of these issues relate to one another. We reached the era where nearly 40,000 people have died from guns in the United States. In an article it states, “this is the highest than any other since at least 1968, according to new data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention.” (Mervosh) Which I believe will dramatically continue to grow. “Pro-gun advocates see guns as our best defense against armed criminals. Anti-gun advocates see the wide availability of guns as a greater threat than criminal violence. The issue seems to come down to what you fear more: criminals or guns.” (Gutting) Coming into the problem of, who is right, and who is wrong? People believe that the ones who should be allowed to carry a gun be certified, but even the ones who are supposed to be “protecting” us from the criminals, are the ones shooting us for no reason. So, when we come down to think of where we can come together and think of a solution, that is where most of us fail to agree to disagree.

As case numbers go up from unjustified police shootings, to mass killings, it brings us to a difficult decision whether guns should be allowed at all or not. After the school shooting in Parkland, Florida, “House of Representatives held its first hearing on gun violence in eight years.” (Collins) Where it was thought to make it harder for people to purchase guns without well done background checks. “Senator Murphy believes the endless rejection of any gun legislation looks like a kind of “moral green light” to potential killers: “I truly believe these young men who have something very dark happening in their minds watch our silence and interpret it as an endorsement.” Meaning, if we keep these guns that is a way of lessening our crime rate for the next following years. People feel safe with guns but when will it be okay to own one without abusing your right to own one? We have heard these stories of people using their gun way too often it’s no surprise anymore.

Religion is an issue that ties to many problems emotionally. Not so long ago, our president, Donald Trump has brought attention to whether the government will continue to fund planned parenthood. Aside from planned parenthood being one of the top places specifically where young women go to have an abortion, they allow you to get a screening for any STI, plan B pills, birth control pills, and most importantly, where they get access to health care services. The biggest problem with why they do not want to keep funding is because of the abortion service. There has been discussion on “Pro-life or pro-choice.” Watson, author of Scarlet A: The Ethics, Law, and Politics of Ordinary Abortion states, “We should be able to acknowledge the complexity of private decision making, without threatening the right of private decision making.” Meaning, us as a community should find ways in which we can accept what is going on without having to do things like, defund because we are not happy with a decision. For example, in an article published in 1989, Lucy Killea, who was running for California State Senate, put in her campaign that she supports the right to abortion. Bishop Leo T. Maher later wrote her saying she could no longer receive communion. Looking at this example from years ago, and now seeing that Trump is defunding Planned Parenthood shows that throughout the years, nothing exactly changes. The people who agree with Trump, who in a study from Mary Rezac, showed that 47% of Catholics are pro-life, will continue to support his ideas but what about the other half? Where do they fall in this discussion? Abortion is up to the women, her body, her choice and if we cannot find a way to talk about how these issues are affecting us, the government will not fund what is helping these girls who get pregnant.

Another growing issue within religion is the number count of r**es within the Vatican. People see the church as a sacred place to go for a time of help or to praise our savior, Jesus Christ, but recently they have found the priests, the ones we should trust, have been r**ing the altar servers. Pope Francis took the issue into his own hands, and people were not satisfied with the outcome of his speech. Before he can even finish what was being said, the ones who were victims of such abuse were expressing their anger and failure to address the problem. This brings out attention to the issue that we in reality, need. Without people expressing how they feel, how will anyone know it needs to be done? Victims need to come together and express what happened to them so justice can be done. Anna Barrett Doyle states, “As the world’s Catholics cry out for concrete change, the pope instead provides tepid promises, all of which we’ve heard before.” This becomes an issue when trying to solve problems because as soon as we get the idea that something will happen and it doesn’t, that starts even bigger problems like riots and controversial articles. As a community we fail at trying to express our feelings towards an issue. When one encounters someone with the opposing view, we tend to find ourselves loss of words when they don’t agree with what we believe. If we do not get to the root of the problem, the problem will never be able to go away. Pope Francis believes he is making a change, but he is only making it more difficult for Roman Catholics to believe what is really going on within the church.

In result, we have found that one of our biggest issues as a nation is coming together and seeing our most troublesome issues embellish when we least expect. If we do not try to come together and resolve these problems, we will never see the end of racism, gun violence, or our biggest issues in religion. We are always going to be so caught up in our own point of view that no matter how we try to end the controversy, it will continue to grow right in front of our eyes. We need to be willing to agree to disagree to even begin to address these problems. Most of these issues correlate with one another, so if we begin to eliminate as time progresses, these issues shouldn’t be as big as a problem as they are today. We are in a time of need for help. We need to keep working together.

2019-2-25-1551077395

Historical design development and impacts of new and emerging technologies: college essay help online

The origins of 3D printing trace back further than you might expect. In 1860 the photo-sculpture method was explored by Francois Wilhelm when he captured an object in 3 dimensions using cameras surrounding the subject and in 1892 Blanther proposed a layering method of producing topographical maps. Fast forward to 1972 Mastubara of Mitsubishi motors proposed photo-hardened materials (photopolymers) to be used to produce layered parts.

The 3D printer came about in the 1980’s. In the early 1980’s, Dr. Hideo Kodama, a Japanese researcher first invented the innovative layer approach to stereolithography through using a single-beam ultraviolet light laser to set photosensitive polymers. This was used as a means for rapid prototyping. Unfortunately, Dr. Kodama didn’t fulfil the application for a full patent due to a funding issue. In 1984, a group of French researchers, Jean-Claude André, Alain le Méhauté and Olivier de Witte came together to file a patent for the stereolithography process. Witte realisation was that when 2 lasers cross each other, a monomer liquid can become a solid polymer, the basic principle of the 3D printer. However, the application for their patent was abandoned by their French technology company due to a lack of proper funding.

Later in 1984, Charles (Chuck) Hull filed his patent for the process. He patented it as a method of consecutive thinly printed layers using UV light which pointed at a vat filled with a liquid photopolymer. This method bonded one polymer to the next with the help of CAM/CAD software to guide the path until a desired 3D object was produced. Stereolithography was such revolutionary innovation as it allowed designers to create ideas using digital data programs that could be uploaded to the printer to produce a tangible object. Hull’s patent was granted in 1986. Following this success, Hull co-founded the world’s first 3D printing company, called 3D Systems, to further commercialise it. This process of stereolithography established the basis of all 3D printing we know today. In 1987, they released their first commercial product the SLA-1 and is now classified as a transformative impact in engineering and manufacturing. Fused deposition modelling (FDM) process, another type of 3D printing processes, was developed by Scott Crump in 1989. Crump then founded the company Stratasys also in 1989, which is a global leader in 3D printers and 3D printer systems. In 2009, the company’s FDM printing patent expired, which offered the market FDM 3D printers, usually referred to as fused filament fabrication (FFF) for companies other than Stratasys 3D printers and open to public domain. Another key development was the RepRap Project (Replicating Rapid Prototyper) established in 2004 by UK Adrian Bowyer who established an open source project aimed to build a 3D printer that can print most of its own components and then could share with people all around the world.

The new millennium saw several success stories using the 3D printer in exciting medical innovations such as the first working kidney in 2000, the first prosthetic limb in 2008, the first prosthetic jaw in 2012 and in 2014 it was used to help reconstruct the face of a motorcyclist after a serious road injury. Testing of bio materials for regenerative medicine using a patient’s cell allowing 3D printing of small body parts (like ears and noses) have also increased media attention.

In recent years 3D printing has been able to assist with disaster relief. US not for profit ‘Field Ready’, were able to print spare parts such as pipe fittings to help repair broken pipelines after the severe earthquake in Nepal in 2015. A Japanese 3D printed drone was designed for search and rescue missions for disaster hit areas. 3D printed houses have similarly been used in disaster relief situations and now also a possible option for low income housing. In 2014 in China, a giant cement 3D printer was used to print 10 houses in just one day.

In the field of fashion 3D printing has opened the possibilities to expand beyond the traditional boundaries of design, allowing fashion designer to turn challenging design concepts into reality. From traditional production methods designers are now able to 3D print their own garments as one such young textile designer Danit Peleg with the first fashion collection 3D printed at home in 2014.

While there have been many positive developments as cited above, the first 3D printed gun in 2013 by Cody Wilson and the uploading of the blueprint for same has posed many questions as to where this might end.

Factors affecting success

Despite the 3D printer having been in existence since the early 1980’s its commercial viability and success has really only gained momentum over the past decade or so. This can be attributed mostly to timing, IP, pricing and market demand. In 2013 Obama’s State of the Union address claimed that the 3D printer had “the potential to revolutionize the way we make almost everything”. Faced with the rise of China’s dominance in manufacturing, there has been increased pressure for countries to produce products more efficiently and cost effectively. Manufacturers have been forced to explore the possibilities offered by new technologies to try to maintain their competitive edge. For example, the U.S Government’s investment in NAMII (National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute) as an incubator for 3D printing technology and the commitment of companies such as General Electric, United Technologies Corporation, Hewlett-Packard, 3M, Boeing, Stratasys, MIT and 3D Systems in investing in innovations using 3D printing helped promote this success. A window of opportunity was also created with the lapsing of certain patents around 2009 and subsequently there was a decline in litigation cases coupled with licensing activity showing steady growth. Pricing was also a key factor. At first 3D printers were not only expensive to produce but were also expensive to purchase and run. 3D printer prices have dropped (about 90% since 2009), from over $10,000 to less than $1,000 and this has also created a larger reach in the market for a more consumer friendly 3D printer that was a cost- effective option. So not only did larger companies have access to this technology, but basis this new affordability, more entrepreneurs and people with an appetite for experimentation have had a chance to explore new applications of 3D printing across different platforms and given the market’s increased demand for customisation these factors have all worked to give the 3D printer the status it enjoys today.

Role of agencies

There have been many agencies which have played a significant role in the innovation of the 3D printer particularly given the potentially huge benefits 3D printing has on manufacturing. NASA (National American Space Agency) has developed The Zero G 3D printer which manufactured the first 3D printed object in space and was active in lodging patents since 2009. The US Government recognised the upside of this phenomenon and funded the establishment of National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute in 2012 (also referred to America Makes) which is an initiative to try and promote the application of 3D printer across different disciplines. Big industrials such as GE (General Electrics) with its new ‘Multi Modal” facility in India and its fuel nozzle and BAE (British Aerospace) utilising 3D printed metal parts in its fighter jets both are pushing the boundaries. Other smaller yet still significant players are Bureau Services such as Shapeways and iMaterialise which have offered companies access to a wider customer by being able to harness a central service with printers located around the world and within a few days able to receive their 3D printed part in the post. With regards to IP, one of the main legislative challenges about 3D printing is that its users are able to copy almost any object, with or without the authorization of those who hold rights to that object. This makes it hard to regulate and govern the legal rights and ownership to the copyrights or patents. 3D printing is challenging the government and patent agencies to transform the way in which they monitor and control issues of surrounding ownership as well as IP infringements.

Entrepreneurial activity

We need entrepreneurs in the world as it is their creative, innovative, daring and out of the box thinking that has been so vital to evolution of ideas. Entrepreneurial activity has been significant to 3D printer design taking it beyond the realm of its initial purpose for rapid prototyping. Entrepreneurial activity has assisted with the acceleration and dissemination of ideas and in this respect, there have been some truly unique and ground-breaking applications on both a local and an international scale having enormous impacts socially, economically and environmentally. Initially the 3D printer used plastic, but this has now expanded to include finished items made from ceramic, metal, resin, concrete, silver, gold, stainless steel, food and bio material. The breadth of ideas range from prosthetics, dental implants, internal organs, customisation of jewellery, cake decorations to being able to 3D print cars, houses and spare parts. For example, Adidas and Parley for the Oceans, an organisation dedicated to reducing plastic wastage in the ocean, have collaborated to create a 3D printed sneaker made from plastic recycled from the ocean. Without entrepreneurs pushing the boundaries, 3D printing would not have had the transformative impact on our world today.

2019-2-26-1551177198

Mass shootings – changes needed to gun regulation

On April 20, 1999 a massacre took place at Columbine High School in Jefferson County Colorado. The two teen shooters Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris killed 13 people and wounded over 20 others. After, the two perpetrators turned the guns on themselves ending their own lives. At the time this was the worst high school shooting in US history. This event induced a governmental on school safety and gun control.

Following the shootings, a large amount of schools decreed zero tolerance policies. For those cases which regarded threatening behavior and violence on school grounds. This tragedy brought light to the importance of identifying risk factors for youth violence, as well as the need for the development and enactment of programs based on the early detection of these risk factors and prevention of school violence.

Researchers from the University of Northern Colorado have been examining the changes that schools have made since 1999 to prevent future incidents like Columbine. Surveys were sent out asking schools about mental health services and violence prevention programs before and after the event. The surveys showed the help after the shooting had increased by a large amount. A 20% increase in schools with crisis plans. 10% increase in group counseling. 9% of more schools had a crisis plan. 7% more schools offered social skills training. A larger number of schools not only increased their counseling but also school security. About 63% of schools had more advanced mechanism. 40% instilled stricter discipline. 17% started doing locker searches. 13% increased mental health providers.

Though this will make a big difference it’s not enough. Regardless of these changes many mental health professionals needed to be available in schools. Mainly to put together conflict resolution programs with students and parents. Sadly lack of funds were a major issue and the availability of people to help out. Thankfully many changes have been made in public high schools all over the US since the tragedy. Less is known about individual high schools across the states but as a whole safety has increased. Furthermore preventing youth violence is not only a responsibility of the school but also parents and students.

A large number of risk factors for the violence has been identified as history of aggression, history or mental illness, substance use, abusive childhood, bullying, depression, bad parenting, and violence in the media. Many places have been exposed to risk factors and early warning signs from the APA which expands on reasoning for the violence.

Not only have schools changed their ways of responding to situations like these but law enforcement as well. “Before the Columbine schooling no one knew what the term active shooter mean” (James Gagliano FBI) “Within 13 minutes of the first 911 call, Klebold and Harris fatally shot 12 students and a teacher and wounded 23 other people before killing themselves with gunshot wounds to the head. SWAT teams entered the school 47 minutes after the gunfire erupted. An exhaustive FBI review of the police response at Columbine led to more rapid response strategy during active shooter situations.” After this the responding officers learned they would have to set up a secure perimeter around the crime scene before moving on the suspect. “The tactic, known in law enforcement circles as rapid deployment involving the first officer at the scene, began in earnest after the Columbine shooting.” (CNN)

A fine training program has helped the enforcements lower the threat. “The lessons learned from Columbine led the US Justice Department and other federal agencies to partially fund an active shooter program known as Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training, or ALERRT, Schweit wrote.

The training, which was developed by the San Marcos, Texas, Police Department and the Hays County, Texas, Sheriff’s Department and adopted by Texas State University in San Marcos, includes a 16-hour course that “prepares first responders to isolate, distract and end the threat when an active shooter is engaged,” ( Schweit)

“Another key lesson of Columbine: We need to prepare students and teachers better for an emergency. The Columbine shooters caught their high school unprepared. We’re less naïve now. Most kids and their teachers are now drilled on lockdowns and evacuations. Police departments have up-to-date floor plans and alarm codes.”

“No one can say for sure why Klebold and Harris committed such a horrific crime. Many people have come up with theories including being picked on in school, violent video games , violent movies, music, racism , Goth, problematic parents, depression, and more.

It is hard to pinpoint one trigger that started these two boys on a murderous rampage. They worked hard to fool all those around them for over a year. Surprisingly, about a month before the event, the Klebold family took a four-day road trip to the University of Arizona, where Dylan had been accepted for the following year. During the trip, the Klebold’s didn’t notice anything strange or unusual about Dylan. Counselors and others also didn’t notice anything unusual.

Looking back, there were telltale hints and clues that something was seriously wrong. Videotapes, journals, guns, and bombs in their rooms would have been easily found if the parents had looked. Harris had made a website with hateful epithets that could have been followed up on.

The Columbine Massacre changed the way society looked at children and at schools. Violence was no longer just an after-school, inner-city occurrence. It could happen anywhere”.

Even though this tragic event struck the community in such an extensive way there is still no end to these tragedies. There have been more than a dozen more shootings and we still haven’t learned our lesson till this day we still have no gun control and no sense of urgency toward this matter examples such as

2007 Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, Va. — 33 deaths
2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School, Newtown, Conn. — 27 deaths
2018 Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School, Parkland, Fla. — 17 deaths
2015 Umpqua Community College, Roseburg, Ore. — 10 deaths
2018 Santa Fe High School, Santa Fe, Tex. — 10 deaths
2005 Red Lake Senior High School, Red Lake, Minn. — 7 deaths
2012 Oikos University, Oakland, Calif. — 7 deaths
2006 West Nickel Mines School, Bart Township, Penn. — 6 deaths
2008 Northern Illinois University, Dekalb, Ill. — 6 deaths
2014 Marysville Pilchuck High School, Marysville, Wa. — 5 deaths

After columbine you would imagine that things couldn’t get worse. In the 19 years since Columbine rocked America to its core, the country has seen so many more mass shootings that the attack isn’t even among the 10 deadliest mass shootings in modern US history.

“Three of the five deadliest shootings have occurred in just the last year and a half. Let alone school shootings the lack of gun control has brought upon us”

The Harvest Music Festival: 58 killed
Pulse nightclub: 49 killed
First Baptist Church in Sutherland Springs: 26 killed
Luby’s Cafeteria: 23 killed

This list can go on and on. This is where I have issue with both the NRA and our Federal, State and Local Governments. The NRA has made too many concessions and given away too many freedoms in order to effect a compromise. They continue to do this. I feel there needs to be a Criminal Background Check, and a Medical History Background Check to confirm whether someone that is a danger to society or mentally ill or unstable are not able to purchase firearms. Meaning they have not been diagnosed with Paranoid Schizophrenia, or any other mental illness that requires drugs to maintain their “normal”. The problem seen in the states is first and foremost the culture around guns and gun ownership. What could be of some use to start to change that is tighter gun restrictions on who can own a gun and who can buy ammo etc. Some say that it’s easy to get a gun illegally which is true BUT most mass shootings seem to happen when a unstable person has easy access to guns. That is the major problem. I am not in support of banning guns necessarily but there is something to be said for countries that have. The statistics show where there are tighter restrictions on guns such as Canada and the UK there are less shootings and gun crimes in general. So my conclusion in not to ban all guns, or to make harsher punishments for people that commit gun crimes in order to deter future criminals; My point is mainly to say the government and other agencies need to help change the culture around guns and make it harder for people to get guns, especially automatic rifles and pistols. If everyone has guns there will be more gun violence not the other way. The logic behind the saying “the only thing that will stop a bad man with a gun is a good man with a gun” is simply not correct. This could be argued all day but I want to end on that note. The culture needs to change. Change has to be made in order to make progress we have to do better with who we let bear these weapons.

2019-2-26-1551198753

Gun Control – The Unforeseen Dangers of Unchecked Firearms

To say that guns are dangerous and need to be controlled is putting our situation mildly. Every year, 36,000 Americans die from guns, that is nearly 100 people killed every day (America’s Background Check 2019). The American situation is dire, with the need for reform on gun control increasing everyday. School shootings, gun related homicides, and gun related suicides can all be reduced or avoided with the help of more complex legislation. The second amendment needs to be amended as militias are not relevant anymore, and therefore, making it constitutional to pass advanced legislation to have more comprehensive background checks and restrict the American public from buying assault rifles.

Gun control has been an incredibly controversial topic for years, with many affected from gun violence every year and the need to be protected in one’s own home, many have clashing opinions. These opposing viewpoints have created many organizations that are for and against gun control. These organizations include the Brady Campaign which fights for more comprehensive background and checks and the National Rifle Association which want to keep the second amendment the way it is. These values have spawned many arguments about the pros and cons of guns, and if they need to be taken away from the hands of civilians. As stated earlier, many people are affected by gun violence, with mass shootings becoming one of the ultimate causes of fear. On December 14th, 2012, A shooter opened fire inside Sandy Hook elementary school. Adam Lanza, the shooter, fatally shot 20 children and adults. The police investigated what could have caused this to happen, as it turned out, Lanza had several mental health issues (Sandy Hook Elementary 2012). He also had access to these deadly weapons and mixed with his mental health, he become disturbed enough to become a shooter. Gun control activists say that this is why we need to restrict the sales of guns, meanwhile, pro gun activists say that this is why we need more guns to protect people from shooters.

The second amendment is a vastly outdated part of our constitution, as it merely states, “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State…”. In 1791, when this amendment became part of the Bill of Rights, there was no guaranteed safety by federal officials. People were forced to protect themselves from foreign and local threats. Yet, we now have organized police forces and a very powerful military, ensuring our safety from many perils. However, most militias do provide a sense of security for some local neighborhoods and families. Many patrol the Mexico-America border, stopping illegal immigrants from crossing (Bauer 2016). Yet, since militias are made up of private citizens, the government does not sanction their actions or beliefs. In fact, many of these groups are anti-government. A powerful and influential militia organization the Three Percenters warned, “all politics in this country now is just dress rehearsal for civil war” (Nuckols 2013). Such a rhetoric has been embraced by many other Militias, with many calling for training against government threats. These militias are afraid that the American government will/have been invaded by foreigners and will force them to give away all of their firearms. It is argued that the second amendment was created to keep the government from becoming tyrannical and dangerous. Although such an argument is very hard to make, considering the United States military is much more advanced and better equipped. Some of these militias have more discreet goals, such as instilling fear in the hearts and minds of immigrants. For example, three Kansas militia men were convicted of plotting to bomb a mosque and the homes of Somali immigrants. Luckily, they were thwarted by another member of their group who ended up telling authorities about the planned attack (Kansas militia men 2019). These groups do keep some people feeling safe and protected, yet, they instill fear in those who do, in fact, believe that these groups are legitimate in their goals and claims.

Complex legislature and revision to the second amendment would prove to keep Americans much safer than they already are. Among these emendations would be more complex and universal background checks. As stated by the Brady Campaign, “97% of Americans support an expanded background check system” (America’s Background Check 2019). A major error in our background check system is the private sale gap loophole. Private sellers do not need to use background checks, in fact, 1 in 5 guns are sold by private sellers, avoiding background checks completely (America’s Background Check 2019). Such a loophole can put american in serious danger, and closing this loophole would be welcomed by the majority of America. Currently, the Brady Campaign is fighting to keep Americans safe, but is met with resistance from groups such as the National Rifle Association (NRA).

Assault rifles in the hands of untrained, unprepared civilians is a fatal mistake for America. Assault rifles are fun to shoot for some, yet, many of the same guns are used by the United States military (Cook, Goss 2014). Such powerful weapons must be kept away from the untrained hands of the American public. Assault rifles, used by the military, are created to inflict the most amount of casualties the fastest. While many are not automatic and only fire one bullet every time the trigger is pulled, they are still incredibly dangerous (The Gun Control Debate 2019). Compared to various pistols and handguns, these assault rifles have much more power and many have additions, such as silencers, that can be added onto them. Such weapons include the AR15, a deadly variation of the military’s M16. The M16 is a common gun used by the United States government, meanwhile the AR15 is the civilian version. This gun is a semi-automatic weapon, however, it is legal to add a “bump stock”, effectively turning a semi-automatic weapon into an automatic assault rifle. In fact, in 1994 president Bill Clinton signed an assault rifle ban, which prohibited guns such as the AR15. In the following years, the amount of mass shootings did drop, however, they did not end (Myre 2018). Unfortunately, the ban expired in 2004, allowing the American public to buy these weapons of mass destruction again.

2019-3-6-1551913738

The ‘International’, the ‘Global’ and the ‘Planetary’: essay help free

What are the key differences between the ‘International’, the ‘Global’ and the ‘Planetary’? Why are these important?

Introduction

The “International”, the “Global”, and the “Planetary” represent the stages of evolution of the discipline of International Relations, which was shaped by theories diverging on “the relationship between agency, process, and social structure” (Wendt, 1992, p422). This essay will attempt to identify, critique and reflect upon the most fundamental differences between the three. I identified their key differences to be: the conceptualisations of the international arena, types of politics, driving motivation behind their politics, types of actors, quality of dynamics, identities and interests, and security. In the subsequent sections, I will critically expose each of these concepts in the framework of the “International”, the “Global”, and the “Planetary”, and speculate on their relevance.

The International Paradigm

The discipline of International Relations, also known as IR, has always been divided by many theories on how to theorise the world, and whether or not elements such as history, philosophy, morals and politics played a significant role in it. The many theories which scatter across IR give to the aforementioned elements different grounds of importance, or no importance at all. In the realm of the discipline of IR, Realism is the Queen theory. The other approaches mostly had the merit of adding elements which the discipline acquired and assimilated through its evolution over the centuries. Nonetheless, the school of thought of Realism is the theory which provided the discipline with its foundation, structure and precise conceptualisation of the actors who rule the discipline of International Relations.

Realism states that the ground stage on which the international actors interact is within a timeless sphere of anarchy, in which States base their relations on Realpolitik, power politics. As a result, the quality of the elapsing exchanges is permeated by overbearingness and selfishness, prevarication of interests of the “stronger” State upon the “weaker” State, distrust, disloyalty, and so on. IR, according to Realism, conceptualises the international arena within Realpolitik, which means applying the original concept of Realpolitik to the international system. Realpolitik is a concept which was coined in Germany in the Nineteenth Century to indicate the pursuit of pragmatic politics, without taking much into account morals and ethics when making a policy decision. Applying the concept of Realpolitik to the international arena meant conceptualising an international system of relations which is more concerned with the pursuit of pragmatic objectives, of selfish politics which would benefit the single State who is pursuing it, rather than the international system. Therefore, the quality of the exchanges happening between States, in turn, did not offer fertile soil for the establishment of international cooperation between States or leagues of States.

It is an international system founded on, and functioning through, power politics. Because of the assumption that Anarchy governs the international system, the only possible actor who is strong enough to survive and interact with the system to pursue and defend its interests, is the State. Therefore, there is only space for State-based politics and the conception of the “International” is an inter-State system exclusively. This is the State-based paradigm of International Relations, and, as the only actors in the international system, they are depicted as rational and autonomous, acting in a static, and consequences-less anarchy. States come into the international arena already equipped with an identity and a set of interests. Therefore, a conception of pre-made identities and interests characterises the international arena, and the only objective of their interactions is power, to gain more and to protect what amount of power one has.

The Origins of The Discipline

To genuinely comprehend the discipline of IR and its mission, one must dive into its origins and subsequent evolution. Different philosophical beliefs and paradigms oppositely approached international relations through conceptualisations of study, politics, dynamics and instruments. IR finds its roots in historical, theoretical, philosophical, political frameworks which, once combined, coined the discipline, whose development culminated with its sudden fall after the end of the Cold War.

To further explain the historical, theoretical, philosophical, political origins of my previous statement I will refer to the work of International Relations scholar, Martin Wight, who was a professor at the London School of Economics.

Wight started studying International Relations when the discipline was gaining momentum and celebrity status in the United States in the 1950s, under the denomination of “A Theory of International Relations”. The scientific or behaviourist movement of the United States developed the belief that if you were to study behaviours attentively enough, one could explain the events that have intersected the faiths of countries in the past, present, and even predict future political intersections between States. This belief gave birth to Modern International Relations, as a rejection of “old” Realist views on the matters of International Politics. Therefore, this wave of Neo-Realism tried to move past the “obsolete methodology of existing general works about International Relations, especially those of Realist writers such as E. H. Carr, George F. Kennan and Hans Morgenthau, which formed the staple academic diet of the time” (Bull, 1976, p 103).

It is imperative to take in mind the element of history if one wants to genuinely understand why the theory of Neo-Realism, which undoubtedly represents an oversimplified framework of the exchanges between States, gained such relevance. This view on International Relations was developed right after the end of World War II, in a post-war world that had lost many things to a conflict which many, if not most, deemed useless, and, above all, evitable. Even the mere idea of a discipline which could avoid the repeating of such events, through the detailed analysis of everyday political events and politicians national and international behaviours, was sufficient justification or motivation for a world that had starved many years for hope.

Wight argued that “it is no accident that international relations have never been the subject of any great theoretical work, that there is “a kind of disharmony between international theory and diplomatic practice, a kind of recalcitrance of international politics to being theorised about” (Bull, 1976, p 114). Therefore, in an effort to alleviate this disharmony, he developed his vision to contribute to the debate, and he based it on the commingling of history, philosophy, morals, and politics. Wight “saw the Theory of International Relations […] as a study in political philosophy or political speculation pursued by way of an examination of the main traditions of thought about International Relations in the past” (Bull, 1976, p 103).

He initially decided to divide it into three main categories, each one representing a great thinker of the past. Later on, he identified a possible fourth category, the Inverted Revolutionists, based on a pacifist current inspired by Christianism, Leo Tolstoy and Mahatma Gandhi.

The three main categories are the Machiavellians, from Niccolò Machiavelli’s ideals; Grotians, from Hugo Grotius’s; and the Kantians’, from the work of Immanuel Kant. Each one of them ideated their interpretations on the conception of human nature, the critical units of analysis of the international system, its dynamics and instruments, and the definition of political space and its characteristics.

Machiavelli theorised that the human nature is only driven by self-interest and permeated with greediness. He identified that the critical unit of analysis for understanding the international arena is the recognition of its state of anarchy, which is dominated by dynamics of warfare, power, security and gathering of resources. The political space, exactly like the human nature, is filled only with self-interest and no morality. Machiavelli provided the base on which Realist theories laid their foundations.

Grotius, unlike Machiavelli and the subsequent most fervent Realists, considers the human a rational being who operates within the State, which subsequently engages in international relations in an international system which, like men, runs on rationality. Everything about Grotius’s theory is permeated with rationality, and the quality of the dynamics of the international arena is a reflection of such. Indeed, he believed that the dynamics of the international arena are ruled by diplomacy, negotiations, institutions and norms because the political space is dominated by institutions and by order. Grotius represents moderation and the voice of reason for the successful establishment of an international system based on rationality and cooperation, not on violence and distrust like the system painted by Machiavelli in his most famous works, The Prince and Discourses in the First Decade of Titus Livy. Grotius speculates on the doctrine of an international system based on a society of states working together towards common goals, he dreams of an international society, in direct opposition with the sharp, realist concept of national societies above all. It is “the idea […] that international politics is not just a matter of relations between states, but also a matter of so-called “transnational” relations among the individuals and groups that states compose” (Bull, 1976, p112).

Kant theories that the human nature is good, peaceful, a supporter of solidarity and cooperation. He believed in a global community and in an ideal man who would contribute to its flourishment. The dynamics revolve around policies for cooperation, international trade and exchange, and they would eventually enable the development of a political space represented by a cosmopolitan society. In one of his works, “Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch”, he goes as far as developing a plan for governments of the world to follow to establish peace for the world, because peace has to come above all. He dreams of a political space which is characterised by the emancipation from State and by an international confederation and the disruption of geographical boundaries.

Moreover, Wight believed that “the truth about international politics had to be sought not in any one of these patterns of thought but in the debate among them” (Bull, 1976, p 110). Machiavelli’s theory is also most notoriously known as Realism. Grotius represents Rationalism, and Kant is Revolutionism, and each one is a founding brick of the discipline of International Relations. Each theory went through transformative changes over the decades. For example, Machiavelli’s Realism turned into Neo-Realism in the 1970s and 1980s and turned into Modernist or Positivist in the 1990s. Grotius’s Rationalism found a new key of interpretation in the English School, between the 1940s and 1960s. Kant’s Revolutionism went from Idealism in the 1920s – 1930s to Neo-Liberalism and Neo-Institutionalism in 1970s and 1980s .

The State-Based Approach to Security

I end this excursus on the origins of the discipline of international relations here, and I catch this occasion to list another key aspect which sets the International paradigm apart from the global and the planetary. And it is its State-based approach to security, which meant that only the State was in charge of taking the necessary measurements aimed at safety, preservation and survival of a country. This implied a severe limit at the protection of one’s nation because “weak” nations did not possess a force of power tantamount to the one of a “strong” country. Therefore, a “weak” state was in the thrall of the anarchic international system, and if a nation wanted to exercise its power to gain more resources, it could attack it, without an international community which would defend it or even dissuade a predator country from invading it.

Methodological Nationalism

The theory of Methodological Nationalism offered a base to understand and organise the life and cycles of IR. It provided the discipline with a source of legitimacy. “Methodological Nationalism […] equates societies with nation-state societies, and sees states and their governments as the cornerstones of social-scientific analysis. It assumes that humanity is naturally divided into a limited number of nations, which internally organise themselves as nation-states and externally set boundaries to distinguish themselves from other nation-states” (Beck, 2003, p 453). It’s the perfect theory to justify the Realist approach to IR. It combined realist accents with the belief that there is only one-world World, everything else merely points at other ways to look at the same one-world world. Methodological nationalism is founded on six core beliefs: a plurality of Societies; Societies are subordinated to the Nation-State; States run on territorial “State-constructed” boundaries (Beck, 2003, p454); State and Society both determinate themselves through a circular belief: the nation is creator and protector of Society’s plethora of rights, and the individuals of the Society organize themselves in movements to influence the actions of the Nation-State, which, in turn, also legitimises the State again; “both States and Societies are located within the dichotomy of national and international” (Beck, 2003, p454); the state is the provider of social order and provides the scholars of multiple disciplines with the data about the country necessary to them. (Beck, 2003). Moreover, the core elements of this theory engage in constant activities which result in continuous determination and further legitimisation of one and the other, without leaving any room for the introduction of new elements.

The Decline of legitimacy of the Discipline

The international paradigm of the discipline experienced a major setback after the end of the Cold War, which left everyone baffled. Also, it left everyone unprepared for the events which followed it. The discipline of IR lost credibility as a predictor of events because all of the academics and IR contemporary theorists indeed failed at predicting one of the most history-shaping events of last century. Moreover, even the assumptions of State-based politics faltered, especially after the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers of September 11th, 2001. The discipline was built upon the framework of conceiving the world from the point of view of a State, indeed a State-based approach, preferably a white, Western one.

The end of the Cold War put into question the sounding of the reasoning behind the discipline, and the terrorist attack struck the final hit. It forced scholars, and politicians alike, to recognise the existence of worlds beyond the “Western World”. I am not here to speculate on whether or not the terrorist attack would have happened if the united states had not imposed their ways in the Middle East for years on end. But I am here to point out that the terrorist attack lifted the veil and it made it impossible for the discipline to ever go back to its original frameworks.

I believe that, at this Realist stage, the discipline used to run on such limited territorial lines that its failure had always been around the corner. Proof of this is that it only took a major event such as the abrupt end of the Cold War for it to crumble and for the scholars to put its frameworks into question altogether. Nonetheless, I do believe that the ultimate cause for the failure of the discipline has to be found on the terrorist attack, which slashed the core beliefs of many, terrorised an entire world, and scarred a whole generation forever. The fear that came afterwards paralysed the world for a moment. Somehow, the introduction of an undefinable enemy turned the discipline of IR on its head. State-based politics, as flawed as they were, were easily graspable and easily manageable: they played alongside the rules of an accepted framework. But 9/11? What was that? Under what category would it fall in the limited structures “allowed” by the discipline? A terrorist attack from an undefinable actor was inconceivable; it did not fit even in the corner of the discipline. The discipline was lacking something. The discipline was wrong.

A Critique of IR, and The Rise of the Global

Eventually, what were the core beliefs of the discipline of International Relations, turned out to be their very own self-limiting beliefs which did not allow the discipline to evolve with time into a comprehensive and complete discipline which provides an adequate understanding of the world and the exchanges which elapse within it.

“The fact that worlds of power politics are socially constructed […] does not guarantee they are malleable”, which is one of the flaws which contributed to the fall of IR, and “through practice agents are continuously producing and reproducing (the same) identities and interests. (Wendt, 1992, p411).

It’s a discipline based on seeing, experiences and conceptualising the world from a State-based only perspective, which results into the provision of a partial and meagre framework of understanding of the exchanges occurring in the world. It is a very limited perspective which lent a voice only to the white, Western Elite.

At the break of the new century, people started looking for other outlooks to replace entirely the failure that the “International” represented. In this time of international (relations) crisis, talks about what will come to be known as the ‘Global’ sprung everywhere. They will bring into the conversation a mixture of concepts which classical IR theories did not cover: Constructivism, gender issues, the need for Morals, Critical Discourses, Post-colonialism, and subsequently, the rise of the Anthropocene.

The Main Paradigms of the “Global”: Social Constructivism and Critical Thinking

“The cosmopolitan perspective dismisses the either-or principle of realism: either the State exists, albeit only as an essential core, or it does not exist at all; either there is national sovereignty – a zero-sum game between national and international competence – or there is no sovereignty at all. From a cosmopolitan perspective, “Realism” is a kind of political irrealism because it neglects the possibility and reality of a second “Great Transformation” of the global power game” (Beck, 2003, p457).

These words from Ulrich Beck, one of the most significant theorists of the Global, summarise the stark contraposition between the “International” and the “Global”. In the 1990s, debates about the Global came in to dismantle the limiting beliefs at the core of the discipline, which flawed for its lack of inclusiveness and overbearingness. The arrival of the global represented the fall of the exclusive domain of binary Left and Right politics as well.

The opening of the discipline of IR to a Global Era brings a new opportunity to engage with the world from a non-State-based position, through the development of many, pluriversal approaches: Constructivist, Critical and Cosmopolitan approaches. The Global Era represents a commingling of these new approaches, and the final result portrays how “the cosmopolitan perspective opens up negotiation spaces and strategies which the national viewpoint precludes. […] The negotiation space the cosmopolitan viewpoint opens up contradicts the absence of alternatives.” (Beck,2003, p466).

They introduce new ways of seeing and thinking about politics, global interests, and global concerns. The Global aims at creating a universal vision to build a liberal and global community, in which the States are not the centre of IR speculation anymore. The international arena is also positively shaken up by the appearance of new international actors which are not states: it’s the rise of the global civil society and Non-Governmental Agencies (Kaldor, 2003). Moreover, through the development of new international dynamics, Nation-States become the product, not the subjects, of the international arena (Jackson, 1990; Krasner, 1999).

Two paradigms of thought especially shaped this evolutionary period of IR: the social constructive/liberal and the critical/deconstructive.

The maintenance of the inter-State system, alongside the rise in popularity of theories of Global sovereignty, characterise the new international order. The emergence of the Global requires a new understanding of the mechanisms of the international arena because “It is the collective meanings that constitute the structures which organise our actions” (Wendt, 1992, p397). Therefore, with the evolutionary passage towards a new stage of the discipline of IR, scholars and citizens alike require a new framework of concepts. Social Constructivism achieves just that by providing a sociological understanding of interactions which challenge previous IR thinking. Alexander Wendt, a leading Constructivist theorist, explains how Constructivists believe that the international system and its frameworks are socials constructs, not beliefs that should be taken as “a given” (Wendt, 1992). Therefore, the significance of everything regarding IR comes “out of interaction” (Wendt, 1992, p403). According to Realism, States come into the international arena already equipped with an identity and a set of interests. Alexander Wendt, in direct opposition to Realism, speculates on “how knowledgeable practices constitute subjects”, and how Constructivism can contribute to “identity and interest formation” (Wendt, 1992, p394). They elaborate on the idea that the creation of an identity and set of interests happen through the elapsing exchanges between States in the international arena. “Actors acquire identities by participating in such collective meanings” (Wendt, 1992, p397). Therefore, actors do not enter the international arena with pre-formed identities, but they create one during their contacts with other states. And the same goes for their interests, which are formed while experiences these exchanges. Different exchanges will show how countries can have a variegated set of interests, depending on the circumstances (Wendt, 1992). Therefore, identities and interests are not a given, and their establishment happens during the socialisation process.

The paradigm of the Critical thinking supported the rise of the global because it opened the door for the emancipation of security from the state-based approach. (Booth, 1991). Critical theorists, alongside Constructivists, discuss the treatment of human security and how the obstacles to human security are constructed. The particular interests of States are a barrier to a universalist liberal approach to global rights and justice. Instead, supporters of Foucauldian critics see the rise of the global as a negative shift. The pursuit of global liberal “governmentality” and “biopolitics” are a negative aspiration for the security of States, which will end up having to rely on the international community. “The undermining of the politics of state-based representation and the globalisation of regulatory power has become the starting assumption for the postructuralist “scaling up” of Foucault in critiques of global governmentality” (Chandler, 2009, p536). Lemke (2001) shows how Foucault used concepts regarding governmentality in a way closer to realism than constructivism, which indicates a critique of the doctrine and its “obsession” with subjectification.

Another fundamental difference of the Global, in opposition with the International, is highlighted attention on Morals and Ethics, which have to have a more profound impact on the decisions of the Nation-State. Indeed, the rise of humanitarian aid actions and acts of global cooperation are proof of that. The global perspective introduces a new critical theory of social inequalities which shines a light on the need to provide aid to nations, minorities or whoever is in considerable need (Beck, 2003). Beck (2003) critics how the original IR used methodological nationalism to remove from its agenda the tackling of global inequalities. “Thus, the bigger blind spots – and sources of error- of methodological nationalism linked to research on inequality will only be recognisable by means of a systemic switch from the national to the cosmopolitan perspective. It is only within the framework of such a new critical theory of social inequality that the fundamental asymmetry of inequality perception […] can be unravelled” (Beck, 2003, p459). Nonetheless, he highlights also how the shift to a global perspective is still not enough to put a real fight against inequalities. Until “there is no global jurisdiction and reporting institution to survey global inequalities, these will remain disintegrated into a motley pattern of national-state inequalities” (Beck, 2003, p461).

International cooperation also brings a Decentring of State-based approaches to security, which in turn, produces more equilibrium and guarantees more safety to “weak” nations. The global brings about the creation of a “cooperative security system, in which states identify positively with one another so that the security of each is perceived as the responsibility of all” (Wendt, 1992, p400).

A Critique of Methodological Nationalism

Globalisation theorists deeply criticise Methodological Nationalism, a stream of thought which profoundly shaped the direction of the original discipline of IR, through the definition of its narrow frameworks. Ulrich Beck, one of the most famous theorists of the cosmopolitan approach, offers a brilliant critique of it. Methodological nationalism only manages to produce a continuous cycle of self-limiting beliefs which do not allow room for adaptation to new contemporary challenges. It is tiring and continuous contraposition between them or us, north or south, weak or strong. Its concepts are not appropriate anymore in the rise of the global age. He calls for a “paradigmatic reconstruction and redefinition of social science from a national to a cosmopolitan perspective [which] can be understood as […] a broadening of horizons for social science research” (Beck, 2003, p456). “Social science must be re-established as a transnational science of the reality of denationalisation, transnationalisation, and “re-ethnification” in a global age – and this is on the levels of concepts. Theories, and methodologies as well as organizationally. This entails a re-examination of the fundamental concepts of “modern society” (Beck, 2003, p458).

The cosmopolitan age requires a redefinition of the understanding of sovereignty in both the national and international context (Beck, 2003). Therefore, he states that “traditional conceptualisations of terms and the construction of borders between the “national” and the “international”, domestic and foreign politics, or Society and the State are less and less appropriate to tackling the challenges linked to the global age” (Beck, 2003, p456). Therefore, the main focus on the debate of globalisation has to be “on gaining a new cosmopolitan perspective on the global power field, pushing new actors and actors’ networks, power potentials, strategies. And forms of organisation of debonded politics into the field of vision” (Beck, 2003, p 467). Nonetheless, Beck (2003), stresses the importance of not mistaking the critique of this theory for the end of the nation-state theory: nation-state will always exist or will evolve into a new concept close to a possible transnational states theory.

The new Era of Planetary Politics of the Anthropocene

From the 2010s, discussions about a new concept called Anthropocene replaced the Global, which had declined in popularity because the translation of the global theories into reality did not appear to focus on achieving global forms of liberal governments anymore, nor did its original aim seemed to carry a positive connotation anymore. Furthermore, “the lack of strategic engagement […] (was) fundamental to the appeal of the Global Ideology” (Chandler, 2009, p540). Therefore, the rise of depreciative theories of the global made the world of scholars look for another direction. The crisis of the global did not produce a return to the past of IR, but rather a perspective of the problematics of IR.

The rise of the Anthropocene is strictly connected with the development of theories on pluriversalism, multiple universes. Blaney and Tickner (2017) discuss how an ontological turn of IR could exorcise “singular world logics introduced by colonial modernity” and allow the discipline to interact with the conception of pluriversalism. By studying on various sources, they develop “the potentials of a politics of ontology for unmaking the colonial universe, cultivating the pluriverse, and crafting a de-colonial science.” (Blaney and Tickner, 2017, p293). They suggest the presence of alternative world realities, which could produce “multiple and hybrid “reals”” (Blaney and Tickner, 2017, p295).

Both Global and Planetary do not see the world in terms of State-based theories of strategy and interests. Therefore, there is no intern-national theory. The predominant discussions of these two theories are about the how we understand and see the world beyond the strict assumptions of the discipline of IR.

Bruno Latour (1993) goes as far as to say that the modern society is stuck in “great divides”, mainly in the frameworks of nature/culture, human/non-human, facts/values, mind/body. These separations allow Western society “to claim to represent a singular reality in a unified science untainted by political interest, power or culture. […] Nature and culture are not discrete categories but intertwined in a multiplicity of hybrid assemblages […] modernity’s particular mode of representing reality is not universally shared. […] many communities do not sharply distinguish humans and other entities, so that animals, plants, and spirits are as much “people” (with consciousness, culture and language) as “we” are” (Blaney and Ticker, 2017, p296). The western societies start paying attention the profoundly original ways of seeing the world, which come from cultures that they had ignored. From them they take new eyes to look at the world: they discern how human activities never separated themselves from the earth’s ecosystem. It is the explosion of a real global conscience with the birth a planetary community, who is aware of the environment and the consequences of humanity’s actions on the planet. This also brought the awareness of agencies that had always been ignored by western society in the international arena: the equal presence of Human and non-human actors; nature declined in many agencies: water, air, etc., and cosmos.

The Planetary is aware that humankind with its actions has changed the planet we live in: the ecosystem, flora and fauna. And the planetary politics have started addressing these problems and, thanks to the rise of a planetary sense of community, governments of many countries have started doing something about it.

The era of the Anthropocene in IR is still relatively new; therefore, there is not as much debate about is as there has been for the International and the Global, but it is visible how planetary seems to have taken away the biggest concern of original IR, which is the gain of power. The race for power which has theorised the first conception of the discipline has come very close to destroying our world and the most recent “update” on IR now works on how to “fix” the unfixable. Planetary politics can be regarded as the least optimistic era of our history, and the only stream of thought which has offered a possible way to save our planet comes from the cultures the western society had tried to crash and integrate within it for centuries.

Conclusion

I will conclude by stating that identifying the key differences between the international, global and planetary is crucial because they show the development of the frameworks within which humankind moved and evolved, over the centuries, the conflicts and the scientific developments. Therefore, these differences provide the world with a reflection of the changing times and the world’s rejection of a one-world World, hegemony and lack of representation of multiple identities, interests, and beliefs. We have only recently entered the phase of planetary politics, although 8 years in IR provide a discreet amount of material; therefore, it is too soon to speculate on whether or not the attempts operated by the Anthropocene of preserving our planet will be fruitful, but it is definitely an improvement from the “International” paradigm of IR.

Bibliography

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Blaney, D. L. and Tickner, A. B. (2017). Worlding, Ontological Politics and the Possibility of a Decolonial IR, Millennium, 45 (3), 293-311. Available from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0305829817702446
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2018-4-12-1523522615

Organisational Behaviour: An Analysis Of A Team-Based Approach To Working In The Case Of Phil Jones

Abstract

The aim of this essay is to discuss at length and critically evaluate group and team development and behavioural theories in practice, with reference to the case study concerning Phil Jones and his Gulf Project Team, within Engineering Co, evaluating if a team based approach to work is effective within organisations. It firstly establishes to what extent Phil Jones’ analysis of his group’s current situation is accurate, referring Tuckman and Jensen’s stages of group development in evaluating this. Then it discusses the possible interventions that could be made by Phil to allow his team to get back on track, and reach the performing stage of team development. It is then noted that a possible intervention that could assist the team in reaching this stage is to become a virtual team. The potential issues facing virtual teams are then evaluated, and are contrasted with the issues faced by Phil Jones’ team, with possible solutions offered to issues facing such virtual teams and virtual team leaders, allowing them to reach the performing stage. Finally this essay critically analyses the strengths and weaknesses of a team-based approach to work as a whole, drawing from Phils Jones’ case, a range of literature, and anecdotal experience to conclude that the use of a team-based approach to work can be an effective way of working, through the use of strong e-leadership skills and technology to manage teams virtually.

Introduction

In contemporary society a team-based approach to working is becoming evermore common (Callanhan, 2004), and has become prominent among project teams in the engineering industry (Schaffer et al, 2012). Hence it is unsurprising that a project team; a group of individuals whom come together for an individual task, disbanding after its conclusion (Poel, Stoker and Van der Zee, 2014), is used in Phil Jones’ case for the Gulf Project within Engineering Co. Despite the high popularity of a team-based approach to project work, it is debatable if such approaches are the most efficient way of working, due to the myriad of issues which can arise amongst a team due to poor leadership, leading to them struggling to perform. However when teams succeed the benefits of a team-based approach to project work are reaped (Terry, 1999). Hence through an analysis of group and team development, discussion of interventions made to aid team development, and an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of a team-based approach, with reference to Phil Jones’ case, it can be established if a team-based approach to project work is effective within organisations in modern society.

Tuckman and Jensen’s Stages of Group Development in the Case of Phil Jones

Initially Phil Jones lacked the training to deal with people issues amongst the group and lead his team. Initially it must be noted that teams and groups are defined differently. A group consists of a number of individuals all of whom accomplish their tasks independently, which have a similar purpose (Gilley and Kerno Jr, 2010). Smith (1967) also gives the description of a group saying that it is two or more individuals who collaborate, share common objectives and norms and have a communal identity. Although different researchers, both give a similar description of a group in that individuals still have common goals. The definition of a team is very similar to a group, however; a group may not be a team but a team may be a group. Hence these terms cannot be used interchangeably. Baldwin et al (2008) defined a team as a group of individuals who have a great amount intercommunication and interdependence, sharing equal responsibility in their appointed objective. The clear difference between a group and a team is therefore the higher level of interdependence and equal responsibility a team has in achieving their objective.

To remedy his teams’ issues, to make them stop working as a group and start working as a team, Phil read about the stages of group development (Tuckman 1965). Tuckman and Jensen (1977), defined five group development stages, the initial two of which are; forming (Tuckman 1965); when team members get to know each other; unlikely to disagree with their teammates to avoid conflict at an early stage, and storming; defined by Bonebright (2009), as involving disagreements; with frictions in the group as the individual roles and tasks of team members can be unclear, leading to work moving slower than anticipated and team tensions. Phil concluded his group was stuck at the storming stage, and struggled to see how to resolve conflict and reach stages three, four and five defined by Tuckman and Jensen (1977) as; norming; where group members understand their roles and goals, feeling belonging among the team; storming; where the group works effectively as one, building on each others strengths and weaknesses, and finally adjourning; where the group completes their project, evaluates and disbands.

Using Tuckman and Jensen’s 1977 stages of group development conclusively Phil’s diagnosis of the situation is correct, as there are similarities between the storming stage of group development and Phil’s teams position. The case study exemplifies the transition of the team from the forming stage to the storming stage. Phil generated competition within the team, as in his opinion a team needs disagreements to achieve creative innovative ideas. Phil’s point of view is that teams need some debate, as this is what happens among teams in the storming stage, in order to reach the norming stage. Instead of this, the team ended up with more issues than accomplishments, getting stuck in the storming stage, resulting in Phil having to deal with more disputes between team members than project developments. This is common; according to Gersick (1988) many teams end up being stuck in the storming stage, never moving onto the performing stage due to poor management of disputes by leaders like Phil. Hence the project is falling behind due to the lack of clarity of instruction regarding team members roles from Phil as a leader, leading to multiple members completing the same work, resulting in a waste of capital and time. Fapohunda (2013) claims clarity is one of the main elements that concerns team members at storming stage, stating it is often the cause of all disputes regarding roles within in the team. This suggests that due to poor leadership from Phil through misguided attempts to bring the group together through conflict, to gain a sense of belonging as found in the norming stage, interventions are needed to overcome mistakes made by Phil to get out of the storming stage.

Hackman’s Team Leadership Mistakes In the Case Of Phil Jones

Hackman’s work (1998) is used to show the common mistakes made with teams, all of which are a common feature in the Gulf Project Team at Engineering Co. One of the obvious mistakes defined by Hackman (1998) and displayed by Phil Jones is attempting to build a team by managing them as individuals, encouraging members to lack communication with each other, hampering the norming stages characteristic of team spirit. In Phil’s team this is difficult to avoid, as the physical distance of the members placed in different locations hampers any attempt from Phil to motivate members not only communicate with him; the only member to have physically met everyone, but to communicate with each other to gain a sense of team belonging. This leads to another mistake featured in Hackman’s 1998 work, exemplified by The Gulf Project Team; a lack of agreement regarding roles, authority, and boundaries for all team members. This issue is also difficult to avoid within Phil’s team, as it is harder for the team to agree on limitations, delegation and boundaries if they can’t physically meet and work things out, suggesting that distance has again hampered the teams communication and sense of belonging. This exemplifies a further mistake made on Phil’s part featured in Hackman’s 1998 work; a clear lack of planning and execution of tasks. To resolve this Phil must show organisational skill, delegating work effectively, to stop time being wasted through duplicated work, fracturing the teams’ sense of belonging further.

The final mistake shown by Phil Jones featured in Hackman’s 1998 work, is assuming all the members of the ‘team’ have the necessary skills to work together, despite being a diverse group from multiple cultural backgrounds, who are unknown to each other. Phil shows poor leadership regarding his cultural awareness surrounding his authority and responsibility in decision-making, and is naïve, being “sure everything would somehow have fallen into place as at first people appeared to be committed to the project and the team”. The forming stage is crucial to team development. By distancing himself from this stage, encouraging team conflict over team belonging despite members’ diversity in the teams’ early stages, he has created a fractured team. He must rectify this; as workplace diversity is becoming increasingly important in society (Parham and Muller, 2008). Phil must not see this as an issue to progress, and accept today’s workforce is diversified. Instead of taking a Laissez-Faire approach, he must look to use this as an advantage, working to integrate cultures to produce the end result.

Phil is correct that his team is still in the storming stage of Tuckman’s stages development; hence he must address such mistakes. Phil must show leadership in the initial stages of getting the team back on track ensuring that until the team is norming it does not control itself, accepting delegation and clarity of roles and working practice. Once the team has a better understanding of each other he can allow them more freedom, as Matsudaira (2016) states “being a good leader means allowing the people around you to be experts in their domains”. Hence through understanding his team members and delegating efficiently Phil can get the best out of everyone, by drawing on motivation theories using social identity to get the best out of the team, giving each member a task suited to their skills they can be proud of. Lewis (2011) states social identity “refers to the desire of individuals to strive to maintain some perceived distinctiveness”. Hence if through interventions all dispersed group members can be motivated to take pride in the work through motivational leadership and a feeling of belonging through their role in the team, there will be no duplication of work and less conflict. Hence a key intervention Phil Jones could use to remedy all such issues and allow team to perform, and hence work as a team efficiently is the use of a virtual team.

The Use Of Virtual Project Teams To Reach The Performing Group Development Stage

A virtual team is defined as “a group of people who interact through interdependent tasks guided by common purpose and work across space, time, and organizational boundaries with links strengthened by information, communication, and transport technologies” (Gassman and Von Zedtwitz, 2003 p.244). Hence though leading a team in person is difficult (Lilian 2014), virtual project team leaders face greater issues. Kayworth and Leidner (2002) found virtual project teams face similar issues to traditional teams, more strongly in virtual settings, coupled with challenges linked to dispersion of members, high reliance on technology and strong communication. Consequently specific leadership strategies are needed. The strategy utilized by managers of virtual teams is e-leadership, defined as “a social influence process, mediated by advanced information technologies, to produce a change in attitudes, feelings, thinking, behaviour and/or performance with individuals, groups or organisations” (Avolio, Kahai and Dodge, 2001 p.617). Hence e-leaders utilize technology to resolve virtual team issues by influencing team behaviour, as the goals of leadership; motivation, vision, determination and innovation (Spicker, 2012) are unchanged, however the mediums implemented to resolve issues are vastly different in virtual project teams.

The initial issue e-leaders face when managing a virtual project team is distance. Distance in a virtual team is established by geography, time zone, and familiarity among team members. In Phil’s case, geography and time zone impeded the team’s success, as though cultural differences were the reason why Phil was the key communicator in the team, to some extent the issue of coordinating an appropriate time for group communication due to differing time zones hampered simultaneous work, proving detrimental in motivating the team to communicate with each other individually. Studies show this assumption. Cummings (2011) found differing work hours caused by time zones burdens team members and leaders. Such levels of dispersion of team members as in Phil’s case can hinder team members familiarity with each other, as he is the only person on the team to have communicated with all team members, reducing social familiarity, which is important to how teams operate (Zaccaro and Bader, 2002). To remedy this e-leaders can address distance by responding quickly to distance specific issues regarding deadlines, then finding a good time to use virtual meeting software, enhancing feelings of closeness through diverse technologies, achieving team performance and greater organisational values. Hence in Phil’s case making the team virtual would be positive in this aspect, as the use of technology would aid the team’s success as schedules and deadlines could easily be accessed by all. Furthermore greater feeling of closeness among team members through the use of virtual meetings could be made, allowing team members to contact each other directly, rather than through Phil.

Though physical distance can be remedied through this, cultural diversity regarding national culture, and values caused by dispersion requires other strategies to be taken. Diversity can be problematic as like in Phil’s case cultural expectations regarding work ethic, work execution and job roles can vary regionally (Burnelle, 2012), causing friction, misunderstandings and fractured communication in the team, with further difficulties when there is a language barrier. E-leaders can solve issues related to cultural diversity by designing team-building sessions through technological mediums to ensure team members understand each other’s cultural differences. They can also address ambiguous online communications, ensuring no misunderstandings. Furthermore promoting a sense of belonging in a virtual team keeps members engaged and stops feelings of isolation from the rest of the team, reducing in and out groups (Leonard, 2011). Therefore through accommodating diversity through teambuilding and technology Phil would be best making his project team virtual as it reduces cultural frictions, and improves members sense of belonging.

Though diversity can cause communication errors within a virtual team, such errors can also be caused by technological breakdowns and, as in Phil’s case; a lack of clarity given by leaders regarding the roles and behavioural expectations of team members, leading to work being completed incorrectly. Hence if the qualities of effective communication; “quantity, frequency and accuracy of information exchange” (Gallenkamp et al 2011, p.8) are unfulfilled, communication breakdowns occur, causing frictions and hampering the team’s success as in Phil’s team. Communication is difficult in a virtual team, as face-to-face communication is omitted from most communicative mediums, potentially deterring emphasis on certain points. The lack of face-to-face contact may cause interactions to lose social or contextual information (Purvanova and Bono, 2009), such as a member’s higher professional status, or higher level of expertise on a subject. Hence to resolve such issues, e-leaders must ensure it becomes habit to team members to maintain continuous contact with each other, and analysing communications to ensure clarity is given regarding roles and expectations. Video-chat technologies can mediate this issue. Hence by making his team virtual Phil could resolve his teams and his own communicative issues.

Hence by improving communication e-leaders create social belonging within a virtual team, eventually creating trust. Trust is important within virtual teams as it motivates individual members to fulfil their role, building dependability (Uber Grosse, 2002). If trust is not achieved conflicts and low group satisfaction occur, deterring the team’s chance of success, as in Phil’s case. E-leaders can create trust through video-chats and electronic meeting systems, promoting communication, joint-efforts and a shared understanding of team issues. Hence through motivating his team to communicate effectively and hence building trust through technological mediums, over-coming distance and diversity, Phil could bring his team to performing stage as a virtual team, by becoming an e-leader. Therefore the use of project teams can be effective within modern society, should a virtual team be used due to recent technological innovations.

Strengths and Weaknesses Of A Team Based Approach to Work

However even when using a virtual team there are strengths and weaknesses of a team based approach to work, within a group of individuals. Some may say a team-based approach to work is far more effective than accomplishing a complex task individually. This is because several people can divide the work up, decreasing individual workload and providing many different ideas to cope with the complexity of a task. Wageman (1997) stated several viewpoints are more suitable when the task is complicated. This is also supported by Klein (2005) stating multiple people are required to carry out a task if the workload is extravagant. Working in a team on a complex task also increases levels of creativity when completing a task. Amabile, et al. (1996) states teamwork increases creativity, as members all have different and diverse backgrounds, combined with the fact that members’ ideas are challenged by others within the team to reach common goals. Furthermore Moreland (2006) explains that working in a team will increase the ability of members’ to specifically remember and recall important project information to reach common goals. This is because members of a group are aware of each other and remember different pieces of information better than other members would. If a member forgets a piece of information another may remember and be able to recall it due to goal interdependence. The degree of goal interdependence will have a significant impact on all members of a team. If there is a high level of objective interdependence, this will enhance team members’ execution of current tasks (Emans, et al., 2001). The authors believe that a high degree of goal interdependence promotes cooperation amongst group members, hence improving performance when carrying out projects. Furthermore Emans, et al. (2001) states that this greater execution of interdependent tasks is positively correlated to group members job satisfaction.

However using a team is not always the most efficient method to complete a task, as each member of the team has a different perspective. Therefore, in team discussions, each team member will have different perceptions, which makes decision time-consuming. Hinsz, et al. (2003) noted how teams are very contemplative in operation; hence their time to make a decision is very slow; whereas an individual’s decision-making process is much faster. Cognitive thinking is also impeded due to the way people communicate in teams (Cooke, et al., 2013). Diehl and Stroebe (1987) elaborated saying that communication of ideas and knowledge interrupts cognitive thinking by preventing other team members from creating ideas. This is so as one person in a team talks at a time, hence planting their idea first and mitigating others thoughts. Members also suffer from being able to challenge a group decision once it is already being carried out. Hence even if the decision is working out poorly, group individuals will generally fail at proposing alternative strategies. Hinsz (2015) stated that teams cause members to lose their own self-awareness and even if a member has knowledge that a team decision is incorrect, or working ineffectively they will not query it.

One of the most substantial disadvantages of working in a team is social loafing. Usually one member of a large team tends to exert much less effort than the rest of the team. This not only causes frustration in other members, but also reduces the quality of the project. Harkins, et al. (1979) found that in larger groups the average performance of each person decreased, with the explanation that some individuals felt like they could slack whilst remaining undetected using the group. However now more than ever it is difficult for individuals not to be called out on ‘social loafing’ in a group, if a project team is managed effectively through technology. With the innovation of cloud based constantly editable software such as Google Docs, e-leaders such as Phil Jones can continuously check on the pace of work uploaded by his team members, ensuring work is completed accurately, creativley and at an appropriate pace to ensure deadlines are met, and furthermore giving such leaders the ability to know which individual team members are doing the majority of the work, allowing social loafers to be pulled up through virtual devices.

Conclusions

Conclusively a team-based approach to work though popular, can be inefficient if team leaders fail to assert their authority and leadership skills in early group formation ad storming stages, hindering their team from reaching the performing group development stage as defined by Tuckman and Jensen’s stages of group development. However should interventions be put in place such as a virtual team, teams can overcome the variety of social and communicative challenges that can face a failing dispersed team as defined by Hackman’s work, and as exemplified in The Gulf Project Team. Hence virtual teams can allow teams to perform effectively, with a review of literature concluding the use of a team-based approach to project work is effective within organisations in modern society, due to recent technological advances.

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2017-3-2-1488475252

Construction of identity and images of the communion in post-colonial Indonesia: college essay help online

Coexist with colonist; Construction of identity and images of the communion in post-colonial Indonesia.

Subject area, aims and objectives

Subject Area

Britain, Dutch and Japan are the three empires which politically colonised Indonesia for more than 100 years. After gaining their independence in 1945, Indonesia began constructing their identity to state their power and gain recognition from other countries. However, during the transition period, there are possibilities that the formation of identity may produce by doing assimilation with former colonist country by adjusting and adapting the existing colonist identity legacy. The relationship during colonial period between the individual and socio-cultural space is as follows shaped in a dual hybrid position, a hybrid that represents the identity of Indonesian communion.

This research would like to examine the visual representation of Indonesian communion. The visual identity used by the state such as the national emblem, currency design, military crest, and maps–which the latest considered as Western imperial’s science and technology gifts– is a construction of the national identity through the symbolism which represents Indonesia’s in international circumstance.

Aims

Examining the identity formation and transition in pre and post-colonial Indonesia (a decade between 1940– 1950), which may generate some insight about how the hybrid of two visual identities–Indonesia’s and Colonist–coexist and later build the images of the communion in Indonesian minds.
Utilizing graphic design studies to excavate the complexity of identity construction during the postcolonial period which cannot be understood by conventional history narrative.

Objectives

Examine and exploring the founded sources idea, and learn the method of combining the visual identification such as in symbols, colour or visual style which considered share universal visual language and mutual value for both sides.
Deconstruct how the product such as technology and science perceived and accepted by the natives and later adapted it as their identity. (Such as Map)
Experimenting and do iterative process with deconstruction method.
Examine the tools used by the government to certifies the identity and nationality during decades of transition. (contemporary: Passport)
Identify how national identity intertwined and influence with personal details (such as ID Card, Passport) which developed the image as a part of the community.

Historical context

Postcolonial History

The research begins with the studies and history of postcolonialism, which commonly understand as an aftermath of Western colonialism or various form of imperialism, both represented in the historical period or state of affair. However, some argue that, etymologically, postcolonialism frequently misunderstood as a temporal concept; the time after colonialism has ceased, or the time following the politically determined Independence Day on which a country breaks away from its governance by another state. Gilbert and Tompkins (1996) suggested that a theory of post-colonialism must, then, respond to more than the merely chronological construction of post-independence, and to more than just the discursive experience of imperialism. The postcolonial theory thus establishes intellectual spaces for subaltern peoples to speak for themselves, in their voices, and thus produce cultural discourses of philosophy, language, society and economy, balancing the imbalanced us-and-them binary power-relationship between the colonist and the colonial subjects.

The Postcolonialism studies indicate a possible future of overcoming colonialism, anticipating the potential new forms of the global empire and new forms of domination and subordination (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2018).

Postcolonial Theory

Postcolonialism aimed at destabilising these theories (intellectual and linguistic, social and economic) employing which colonialists “perceive”, “understand”, and “know” the world. The postcolonial theory thus establishes intellectual spaces for subaltern peoples to speak for themselves, in their voices, and thus produce cultural discourses of philosophy, language, society and economy, balancing the imbalanced us-and-them binary power-relationship between the colonist and the colonial subjects.

Postcolonial Identity

Decolonized people develop a postcolonial identity that based on interactions between different identities (cultural, national, and ethnic as well as gender and class-based) which are committed varying degrees of social power by the colonial society. In postcolonial literature, the anti-conquest narrative analyses the identity politics that are the social and cultural perspectives of the subaltern colonial subjects—their creative resistance to the culture of the coloniser. How such cultural resistance complicated the establishment of a colonial society; how the colonisers developed their postcolonial identity; and how neocolonialism actively employs the Us-and-Them binary social relation to view the non-Western world as inhabited by The Other.

However, postcolonial theory is somehow problematic. John Lye (1997) argues that while the theory deals with the reading and writing of literature written in previously or currently colonised countries, or literature written in colonising countries which deals with colonisation or colonised peoples. The post-colonial theory focuses particularly on;

The way in which literature by the colonising culture distorts the experience and realities, and inscribes the inferiority, of the colonised people
literature by colonised peoples which attempts to articulate their identity and reclaim their past in the face of that past’s certain otherness.

It can also deal with the way in which literature in colonising countries appropriates the language, images, scenes, traditions and so forth of colonised countries.

Marxist Scholar Vivek Chibber (2013) express that postcolonial theory will remember for its revival of cultural essentialism and its acting as an endorsement of orientalism, rather than being an antidote to it. It is essentialized cultures, painting them as fixed and static categories and presents the difference between East and West as unbridgeable. On his book Postcolonial Theory and the Specter of Capital, Chibber focusing mainly on the strain of postcolonial theory known as subaltern studies. He makes a strong case for why we can — and must — conceptualise the non-Western world through the same analytical lens that we use to understand developments in the West.

Contemporary Context

Nina Katchadourian

Hand-held Subway, Geographic Pathologies, Finland’s Longest Road, Finland’s Unnamed Islands, Head of Spain. 1996-2008.

Various work from Nina Katchadourian which exploring the cartographic works. She deconstruct an existing maps and atlas of New York subway system, Finland’s highway, Spanish paper road map to create a new possibility of creating meaning and generates a new ways of seeing things.

Meta Haven Sealand Identity Project

Meta Haven collaborate on the Sealand Identity Project, which was to conceive a national identity for the Principality of Sealand, which is a self-proclaimed nation on a former war platform near the coast of the UK.

Sealand Identity Project was really a combination of this idea of sovereignty, self-proclaimed nationhood, in combination with this flawed entrepreneurial dream of starting an offshore business onboard Sealand.

Theoretical Context

Critical Theory

History of Politics and Identity

Jonathan Friedman (1994) points out there were two aspects of the relation between social identification and the making of history. The first concerned the relationship between the social conditions of identity formation and the production of culturally viable past. The second introduced so-called scientific constructions of other people’s past into the same frame argument.

On the Journal of the Society for Cultural Anthropology, Friedman (1992, p.41) acknowledges that history and discourse about the making of history are positional, that is, it is dependent upon where one located in social reality, within society, and within the global process. The idea is even applicable to the present discourse, which in no way represents an attempt to stand in some objective truth-sphere above or outside of the goings-on of the world. Objective history, just as any other history, is produced in a definitive context and is a particular kind of project.

Besides, he suggested that the discourse of history as well as of myth is simultaneously a discourse of identity; it consists of attributing a meaningful past to a structural present. Objective history produced in the context of a particular kind of selfhood, one that based on a radical separation of the subject from any particular identity, and which objectifies and textualises reality.

Imagined Community

A country which merely liberated from their former colonist would be struggling in defining their own political identity and build their image of communion. As they build the identity on the top of the ruins of existing colonist structure, it would be unavoidable to eradicate their former identity. Even the previous one is arguably an already hybrid of different cultures. However, it was understood that images of the communion were built not only taking the references from the community itself, but also construct by external influence. Benedict Anderson’s theory regarding the identity of a community would be very fit to depict the condition of emerging, newly independent nation.

Anderson (1983, p.6) defines the nation as, “an imagined political community – and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign…It is imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives the image of their communion”. Anderson sees the nation as a social construct, an “imagined community” in which members feel a commonality with others, feel a “horizontal” comradeship with each other even though they may not know them. It could be said that the lasting appeal and political resilience of nationalism of newly independence nation affirm the strength of patriotic feeling and the enormous sacrifices people have made on behalf of their nation.

In the chapter “The Origins of National Consciousness”, where he argues that the convergence of capitalism, printing, and the diversity of vernacular languages led to the birth of national consciousness. Popular nationalism threatened to exclude the European monarchies from the new imagined communities, as the dynasties had dubious and often conflicting national credentials. They responded with what Anderson terms “official nationalism,” a Machiavellian appropriation of nationalist ideas to secure dynastic legitimacy and suppress ethnolinguistic subject groups within their realms. In the European colonial empires, official nationalism served as a tool of the imperial administration.

Census, Map, Museum.

In the more specific topic, Anderson introduces three institutions of powers– Census, Map, Museum–that profoundly shaped the way in which the colonial state imagined its dominion and the legitimacy of its ancestry. As the research emphasises on more pragmatic visual based identity, the writer considered it would be more fruitful on profoundly examining the Map topic. However, the assumption made after thoughtfully deal with the capacity of the author, which couldn’t afford further research on Census and Museum.

It could be said that the Mercatorian map, which brought in by the European colonisers via print, was beginning to shape the imagination of Southeast Asians, including Indonesia (Anderson, 1983, p. 247) Regarding most communication theories anti-common sense, a map is a scientific abstraction of reality. A map merely represents something which already exists objectively “there”. Anderson (1983) points out, “In the history, I have described, this relationship was reversed. A map anticipated spatial reality, not vice versa. In other words, a map was a model for, rather than a model of, what it purported to represent… It had become a real instrument to concretise projections on the earth’s surface… The discourse of mapping was the paradigm which both administrative and military operations worked within and served”

Map as a Logo

As an administrative and military tool, maps acknowledge the ability as the second avatar of one nation or empire, the map-as-logo. Its origins were reasonably innocent— the practice of the imperial states of colouring their colonies on maps with an imperial dye. British colonies were usually pink-red. French purple-blue, Dutch yellow-brown, and so on. (Anderson, 1983, p. 250) The map becomes a pure sign, no longer compass to the world. As the map then entered an infinite reproducible series, available for transfer to posters, official seals, letterheads, magazine which made them instantly recognisable and visible–the logo-map penetrated deep into the popular imagination, forming a powerful emblem for the anticolonial nationalism.

One of the most known examples of this process is what happened on the island of New Guinea. Dutch Empire settlement in Indonesia was made on the island of New Guinea and succeed to incorporate it into Netherland Indies in 1901 and made it in time for Dutch logoization. Dutch colonial logo-maps sped across in the colony, showing a West New Guinea with nothing to its East, unconsciously reinforced the developing imagined ties among Indonesian nationalist. Even Indonesian nationalist was struggling and made as a national sacred site in the national imagining, they never actually saw New Guinea with their own eyes until the 1960s.

Anderson (1983, p. 251) then relates that “the prestige of the colonial state was accordingly, now intimately, linked to that of its homeland superior.” As more and, more Europeans were being born in Southeast Asia, and being tempted to make it their home. The old sacred sites were to be incorporated into the map of the colony, and their ancient prestige (which, if this had disappeared, as it often had, the state would attempt to revive) draped around the mappers.

The “warp” of this thinking was a totalizing classificatory grid, which could be applied with unlimited flexibility to anything under the state’s real or contemplated control: peoples, regions, religions, languages, products, monuments, and so forth. The effect of the grid was always to be able to say of anything that it was this, not that; it belonged here, not there.

Parallel Theory

Cartography

To provide a profound understanding of Map and its influence on the construction of national identity, the writers realised that the study of cartography is one of the best ways to explain it. While map in the previous point bears the capacity to become a witness of powers, the map also can produce their language. Polish-American philosopher Alfred Korzybski’s theory of general semantics states that; human knowledge is limited by our physical being as well as the structure of language. Though the human experience of reality is limited, yet increasingly see the world through more maps, bigger maps of more data, and more maps of bigger data.

Huffman and Matthews (2014) endorse that, “Cartographers have always been storytellers. This metaphor works well for thematic maps, but topographic or reference maps also tell stories: of the landscape, of the settlement, and of the shape of the natural and human-modified world that surrounds us… Cartographers take data and wrestle it before applying some graphical treatment that provides the narrative. They codify the story in a visual language that they hope speaks to people.”

While cartography has the ability to promoted scientific objectivity over artistic representation and vice versa, the scientific objectivity did not always go the actual representation, a metaphor involved in this work, such map does not always mean the territory. Like any other tools that generate knowledge, maps are informative, but they also can be deceptive, even threatening. At one time or another, it probably safe to say that all of us have been misled by a map designed to hide something the mapmaker did not want us to know, or drawn in such a way that we jump to false conclusions from it.

H. J. de Blij (1996, p. xi-xii) points out that Map crosses the line between information and advocacy. In which later he added that in the world of changing political and strategic relationships and devolving nation-sites, maps become propaganda tools. Some national government even go so far as to commit cartographic aggression, mapping parts of neighbouring countries as their own. Turkish Cypriots, Sri Lankan Tamils, Crimean Russians publish maps that proclaim their political aspirations, fuelling nationalism that spell disaster for the state system.

When the research go further in finding the capability and possibility of a map in manipulating or altering the fact, the research leads to an exciting book written by Dr Mark Monmonier, How to Lie with Maps. In this book, Monmonier (1996, p.2) acknowledges that in showing how to lie with maps, he want to make readers aware that maps–like speeches and paintings–are authored collections of information and also are subject to distortions arising from ignorance, greed, ideological blindness, or malice. The idea seems uncomfortable and uneasy to accepted as it lot of sense of offensiveness. However, he provides a stunning yet straightforward analogy. He offers the idea of the relationship of Map and Scale and its capability on defining the truth.

He took the example as follows; the square inch on the large-scale map could show inch on the ground in far greater detail than the square inch on the small-scale map. Both maps would have to suppress some details, but the designer of the 1:10,000,000-scale map must be far more selective than the cartographer producing the 1:10,000-scale map. In the sense that all maps tell white lies about the planet, the small-scale map has a smaller capacity for truth than large-scale maps.

That is the softball of how maps tell lies, then what about the other possible one? Such as Maps for political propaganda. A good propagandist knows how to shape opinion by manipulating maps. Political persuasion often concerns territorial claims, nationalities, national pride, borders, strategic position, conquests, attacks, troop movements, defences, spheres of influence, regional inequality, and other geographic phenomena conveniently portrayed cartographically. (Monmonier, 1996, p. 87).

People trust maps, and intriguing maps attract the eye as well as connote authority. The map is a perfect symbol of the state and an intellectual weapon–in disputes over territory. Naïve citizens willingly accept as a truth map based on a biased and sometimes crooked selection of facts.

Maps as Symbols of Power and Nationhood

The string of newly independent states formed after World War II, such as Indonesia, revived the national atlas as a symbol of nationhood. In the service of the state, maps and atlases play dual roles. Monmonier (1996, p.89) research confirmed that although a few countries in western Europe and North America had state-sponsored national atlases in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, these served mainly as reference works and symbols of scientific achievement. However, between 1940 and 1980 the number of national atlases increased from fewer than twenty to more than eighty, as former colonies turned to cartography as a tool of both economic development and political identity.

Even tiny maps on postages stamps can broadcast political propaganda. Postage stamps bearing maps are useful propaganda tools for developing nations and ambitious revolutionary movements. In mail interest, it is useful to keep aspirations alive domestically and to suggest national unity and determination internationally. Postage stamps maps afford a small but numerous means for asserting territorial claims (Monmonier, 1996, p. 91). The war claims between India, Pakistan and China offer us an excellent example of this. Official government tourist maps show Kashmir as a part of India, on the other hand as a part of Pakistan. In reality, India controls the southern part of the state of Kashmir, Pakistan controls the northwestern part, and China controls three sections along the eastern margin. The other example is the Ligitan and Sipadan dispute. It was a territorial dispute between Indonesia and Malaysia over two islands in the Celebes Sea, namely Ligitan and Sipadan. The dispute began in 1969 as Malaysia put them on their official passport and tourism map. Thus it was mostly resolved by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in 2002, which opined that both of the islands belonged to Malaysia as British Empire, their former colonist, has already settled administrative work since 1930 on both islands.

The latest example given probably slightly capture how the state intervenes-wars, colonialism and national planning intertwined on mapping activities. However, these activities of the major powers not confined to their colonial territories, the very existence of which had left them with global rather than local strategic preoccupations. On Maps and Air Photographs, Dickinson (1979, p. 48) states that; stimulated by various motives, among which the discovery of potentially exploitable areas and resources and the complete delineation of boundaries against possible counter-claimants are two obvious ones, most European nations with colonial possessions carried out various surveys in them often very actively. At first, both the maps themselves and the bodies that produced them were slightly varied.

Methodology

The initial stage of the research would emphasize on experimental design, as this approach is a careful balancing of several features including “power”, generalizability, various forms of “validity”, practicality and cost. A thoughtful balancing of these features in advance will result in an experiment with the best chance of providing useful evidence to modify the current state of knowledge in a particular design field. The goal is to actively design an experiment that has the best chance to produce meaningful, defensible evidence, rather than hoping that proper statistical analysis may be able to correct for defects after the fact.

In the realm of experimenting, the deconstructive method would be the fittest one to tackle the question and inquiry of this research. It is a strategy of critical form-making which performed across a range of artefacts and practices, both historical and contemporary. Deconstruction was born to uncover the meaning of a literary work by studying the way its form and content communicate essential humanistic messages.

Lupton and Miller (1994) argue that deconstruction offer the mode of questioning through and about the technologies, formal devices, social institutions, and founding metaphors of representation. That deconstruction belongs to both history and theory. In Derrida’s theory, deconstruction asks how representation inhabits reality. How does the external image of things get inside their inner essence? How does the surface get under the skin?

While examining the construction of the identity of the communion, it is important to trace its source, find the authenticity and telling of a story viewed as a passive record of events. The research foresees to gain a vast amount of result and new insight by studying the meaning of a sign and its relationship to other signs in a system. This principle is the basis of structuralism, an approach to language which focuses on the patterns or structures that generate meaning rather than on the “content” of a given code or custom (Lupton, E. and Miller, J. A., 1994)

How does the theory relate to the practical experimentation?

By experimenting with deconstruction would benefit the research in doing widespread disruption, founded on a challenged and remodelled idea of what existing idea/design can do and bring.

What is the theory for?

As a platform on the iterative process. The fundamental principle of deconstruction and how deconstructive method work help to maintain the system while doing experiment and records thought for future transmissions.

What process of experimentation will be used?

Experimenting by deconstructing existing visual material and try a different approach to generate the possible outcome and utilise the basis of structuralism, an approach to language which focuses on the patterns or structures that generate meaning rather than on the “content” of a given code or custom.

How the project recorded and keep track of what have been done.

Documentation by photograph, video, scanned artefact and scheduled digital/printed publication.

Visual evidence

1st Iteration on deconstruction method: Deconstruction of Indonesia’s National Emblem.
2nd Iteration on deconstruction method: The study of Colonized and Colonist Map.

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Niccolo Machiavelli’s The Prince – leadership and power: essay help site:edu

Niccolo Machiavelli’s, The Prince, is one of the most controversial books of its time. Because of its contents, Machiavelli is seen by many as symbol for evil and vice. The book was thought to be so abhorrent that it was banned by the Catholic church, and harshly critiqued by many of Machiavelli’s contemporaries. The Sixteenth Century treatise was meant as an advice book for princes on how to gain power and maintain it, but the methods he proposed for achieving these aims were unsavory to many. In the years following its publication, The Prince, horrified and shocked the general populace due to its challenging of the current view that a leader had to be virtuous and moral, asserting that it was better for a leader to be feared than loved, challenging the idea that a ruler gained his power from divine right alone, and its proposition that a ruler might employ unethical actions to secure his position and better his country.

One of the first of things that Machiavelli tried to do in his treatise is to separate ethics from princes. While, many of his contemporaries believed that a successful prince would be one filled with the usual virtues, like honor, purity, and integrity, Machiavelli threw this idea out a window. He did not believe that being simply having the “right” value system would grant a leader power and security. In fact, he argued that often, being tied down by such morals would be counterproductive to one maintaining their position. Moreover, “if a ruler wishes to reach his highest goals he will not always find it rational to be morale” (Skinner 42).

So, what characteristics did Machiavelli think would actually make a strong leader? His ideal prince is one who is cunning and ruthless. Machiavelli believed that, “a ruler who wishes to maintain his power must be prepared to act immorally when this becomes necessary” (26). A ruler should also not be worried about being miserly, for overall this will help rather than hurt his control (Mansfield). If a prince is too generous his people will also become accustomed to such generosity and be angered when it is not forthcoming, and in the long run he will have to tax his people to make up for what he has given away. Such ideas went directly against the Christian and humanist ideas about morality in Machiavelli’s time.

Another major point of interest that Machiavelli discussed throughout The Prince was the concept of fortune and its role in a princes rule. He believed that it was of the utmost importance that a prince try to win fortune to his side as best he can. Here again, Machiavelli differentiates from his predecessors. Many past philosophers believed that fortune would smile upon a ruler who was just and virtuous. Machiavelli disagreed with such notions. Morales had nothing to do with pleasing fortune. Instead, it was the more violent and ambitious ruler, who would seize the moment, that would have a better chance of winning fortune (Spencer). Machiavelli went so far as to compare fortune to a woman and stated that, “If you want to control her, it is necessary to treat her roughly” (87).

While Machiavelli did not think it was in a prince’s best interest to always be kind and good, he did note the importance of his subjects thinking him to be so. It is very hard to hold control a region, in which the people believe their ruler to be completely immoral. However, they may put up with questionable actions of a ruler if once in a while he does something that appears to be in their best interest. The crueler a ruler is the more crucial it is to appear to the public as being the opposite. Once the people are convinced of a ruler being virtuous, he will be able to get away with the most unscrupulous behavior.

Most people would consider it essential for a ruler to keep his promises and appear trustworthy, maintaining a good relationship with his subjects, not Machiavelli. Sometimes it is not realistic for a ruler to be able to make good on every promise. It may even be better for the people in the long run if he does not. A prince should not have qualms about breaking his word, “plausible reasons can always be found for such failure to keep promises” (Machiavelli 62). Moreover, if a prince prides himself on always keeping his word the people will always expect this. When unfortunate circumstances force him to deviate from what he swore to do, the people will be outraged, whereas if they expect promises to be broken it will not garner as much anger.

Another stable argument of Machiavelli’s book is the power of fear. Machiavelli believes fear is one of the best way to keep subjects in line. Fear is strongest of all the emotions and will give a ruler the most control. Striving for the people’s love is not as fruitful, due to mankind’s fickle nature. Andrew Curry of the Washington Post notes that for Machiavelli, “ Man’s weak nature was a constant as unchanging as the bright sun that rose above his beloved Tuscan hills.” A leader who relies on love to gain loyalty from his subjects, will find his people nowhere to be found when hard times come. Men tend to what they think is best for them, and due to this they will changes sides quickly. They will adopt a new prince quickly and shed their old one if they believe it will be prosperous for them. However, if the subjects greatly fear their leader they are more likely to obey him. If they believe their ruler to be lax they will think they can get away with some disobedience, but if a prince has made it clear that the consequences will be great they will hesitate (Machiavelli .

One of the main ways Machiavelli demonstrates the power of fear, is through generals and their handling of the troops under them. He praises the Carthaginian general, Hannibal, for his ability to lead such a large army of various peoples with little discord or trouble among his troops. Despite going through many lands unknown to his soldiers, and enduring times of trial, Hannibal was able to keep his soldiers in order because of their respect and fear of him (Machiavelli 60). How did Hannibal make his troops fear him? Through great cruelty, which made him the perfect Machiavellian leader. It was this cruelty that was key of his success according to Machiavelli. He argued that, “if he had not been so cruel, his other qualities would not have been sufficient to achieve that affect” (60).

Scipio was another general of the same period as Hannibal. Like Hannibal he was a brilliant military mind, and one of the greatest leaders of the era. Unlike Hannibal however, he did not exercise brutality with his troops to keep them in check. Whereas Hannibal’s troops would have never dreamed of revolting, for fear of the consequences, Scipio did lose control over his soldiers at fort Sucro, in Spain. Machiavelli harshly critiqued Scipio for this mutiny and no one else. It was Scipio’s easiness with his soldiers that had caused them to grow rebellious. Had he have been more severe in his command they would have been better disciplined (Machiavelli 60). Machiavelli praises Hannibal’s cruelty, while condemning Scipio’s friendliness with his soldiers.

Another aspect of the power of fear, which Machiavelli touched on was with the capturing of new regions. Under most circumstances successfully maintaining control over a newly vanquished city, and keeping its citizens in check can be quite difficult. However, in cases where subduing a city takes great force and bloodshed it will actually be much easier to keep. Most would think the opposite to be true, but Machiavelli argues that those who have been defeated will be to imitated to revolt, due to knowing what the conquerors are capable of (Mansfield). Machiavelli has complete faith in the power of fear. Essentially he believes that a prince should not be concerned about being excessively brutal when trying to defeat the defenders of a town, because in the long run it may actually help him keep dominances over said town. With advice like this, advising one to be cruel, it is no surprise that Machiavelli’s contemporaries were so shocked by his treatise (Spenser).

All of Machiavelli’s pondering about fear begs the question how far should a ruler go to be feared by his people? Machiavelli does acknowledge that there is a lined that can be crossed. A prince must strive to be feared without being completely hated by his subjects (Machiavelli 59) . It is fine for a leader to exercise extreme ruthlessness for the greater good as long as he is able to redeem himself in the eyes of the people. At a certain point, if pushed too far, a prince’s subject’s fear of their ruler will turn to anger and they will grow unruly. Therefore it is important for a prince to be calculated with his cruelty, and not just unnecessarily brutal.

A major issue during Machiavelli’s time was that of Divine right to rule. Essentially, king’s could justify their rule by it supposedly being God’s will, and they had to answer only to him. Only those chosen by God could rule. Machiavelli did not fully agree with this doctrine. He thought that almost anyone should have the right to rule as long as they were cunning enough to do so. Machiavelli cares most about leaders being competent. The foxes and lions should rise above the lambs. That is the best way for country to be assured of gaining strong leaders. With divine right there is no guarantee that a prince will be capable of ruling, and do what is best for his people. In his own region of Florence Machiavelli wanted a ruler who was effective, not one that was supposedly endowed by the creator. All of the advice given in the book is a challenge against divine right, as it shows how someone may gain power by his own actions and not divine right.

Machiavelli’s key argument against any sort of right to rule is that it is power alone that guarantees a prince his control. “a Machiavellian perspective directly attacks the notion of any grounding for authority independent of the sheer possession of power. For Machiavelli, people are compelled to obey purely in deference to the superior power of the state” (Nederman). Simply having the right virtues, divine right, or any other quantifiers of rule do not matter if one does not have true power. A prince’s subjects will stay in line if they know he has great power over them, but not always so if he his relying on their respect of his “divine right” alone.

One of the main themes running throughout all of Machiavelli’s advice seems to be that the ends always justify the means. Now even though Machiavelli never directly states this, he comes very close, and despite his advice being a bit more nuance than that simple phrase, it is not out of line to say that it represents his key ideas on princeship. Machiavelli was one of the first pessimistic realists of his time, and he based his advice on the negative side of humanity. He argued that a prince’s subjects will not always do the moral thing and so a prince should not either. Instead, he should take what actions he believes to be best for securing his rule and his province. Sacrificing a few is a necessary evil if it guarantees the safety of many (Machiavelli 58).

Machiavelli base much of his advice on the topic on real life rulers of his time. History.com points this out saying, “Machiavelli’s guide to power was revolutionary in that it described how powerful people succeeded—as he saw it—rather than as one imagined a leader should operate.” While his contemporaries where dreaming up the qualities of an ideal leader, Machiavelli believed he was giving a guide based on those he had seen be successful. Almost all of the leaders Machiavelli studied, he found to have exercised cruelty and brutality. Mansfield says thus of Machiavelli’s points on necessary evil, “The amoral interpretation fastens on Machiavelli’s frequent resort to “necessity” in order to excuse actions that might otherwise be condemned as immoral.”

One of the main ruler’s who Machiavelli based much of his advice on was Cesare Borgia. Borgia was the perfect Machiavellian leader. He was, “a crude, brutal and cunning prince of the Papal States” (History.com Editors). He lived in a chaotic time, and the entirety of his rule was face with challenges and uncertainty. Machiavelli admired his ability to handle the problems of his times with such decisive ferocity. He embodied all the traits the Machiavelli was advising the readers of his book to adopt.

Cesare was a man with many enemies and part of his genius lay in his ability to get rid of them. Where others would hesitate to move against powerful men, Borgia did not. He would kill remorselessly if he thought it would help him maintain his land. One of the main examples Machiavelli used to point out Borgia’s cunning, was his luring of the Orsini leaders to the town of Senigallia. He lured them with lavish gifts and lulled them into a false sense of security, promising treaties of peace, but once they had delivered themselves into his hands he killed them (Machiavelli 25). Machiavelli praised this exploit thinking it an exceptionally clever deception.

Borgia also proved his competence as a leader to Machiavelli in his handling of the land he inherited from his father, Pope Alexander VI. The people dwelling there were disorderly and defiant. They had not been well disciplined by their previous ruler, and were not used to really having to obey a leader. Borgia set out to right this wrong. He put an utterly ruthless man, Remirro de Orco, in charge of the area (Machiavelli 26). Many rulers would have told Orco to use caution when dealing with the subjects of the region. He should slowly begin to discipline them so that they would grow use to it over time. However, Borgia did the exact opposite. He gave his new governor complete control to be as severe and merciless as he saw necessary. He new that the cruelty the people would endure under de Orco would be for the better down the road as there would be more order and less lawbreakers.

Even the he knew that it was necessary to use brutality when dealing with his newly acquired land, Borgia did not plan on taking the blame for that cruelty. de Orco’s harsh regime had served to bring discipline to the region, but Cesare Borgia was not blind to the growing anger in those who were suffering under it. Here, in Machiavelli’s mind, Borgia showed his true genius and heartlessness. He killed de Orco and displayed his body in a town, successfully wining the favor of his subjects and getting rid of a possible rival. It Borgia who had put de Orco in charge in the first place, knowing fully well that he was a cruel man, and told him to be a harsh ruler, but the people seemed to forget this and saw Borgia as a hero for killing their oppressor. Those subjects who still had a dislike for Borgia, where too terrified by the execution to cause any discord (Machiavelli 26). So Borgia was able to make his people both love and fear, Machiavelli’s ideal situation. It is clear that much of Machiavelli’s arguments for doing immoral things comes from him having observed Borgia and his callous methods.

Borgia may have been brilliant in the handling of his lands and his enemies, but it was not his own cleverness that gained him his territory in the Romagna. Instead it was the cunning of his father, Pope Alexander IV. Alexander wanted to give his son a state in Italy to help him grow more powerful and, hopefully, eventually make him into a great ruler. However, he knew that he would not be able to do this through peaceful negations, as there were too many other factions who would have been opposed to it. Instead, the Pope would have to use force to size a state. First he sought out to make the states of Italy unstable, by aiding a French invasion of Milan. Doing this helped cause chaos, and the French gave the Pope troops to conquer the Romagna with. The Pope was able his transfer the newly captured states to his son (Machiavelli 24). These actions by the Pope where highly immoral; he helped sow ruin in his own country of Italy to gain a province for Cesare to rule, and he misused the power given to him by his position as Pope to do so. However, Machiavelli praises his ability to take actions that are deemed unethical by society to attain success.

In one chapter of his treatise, Machiavelli addresses those who gained the power from evil deeds. The first example he gives is of Agathocles, of Syracuse. Agathocles is the epitome of doing whatever it takes to get what you want. He was a mere ordinary man, but by his own actions he was able to rise to a position of power in the city of Syracuse. Wanting to become the king of Syracuse he began scheming how this could be accomplished. Eventually he was able to execute a successful coup, and have all his soldiers kill any opposers. He was dishonorable, a murderer, and a traitor, but he did achieve what he set out to do. Machiavelli does point out that these methods wont exactly win someone glory and fame, or at least not the positive kind, but he did commend Agathocles ability to gain power. He also mentions that Agathocles used evil “well” since he had to use it at all (Machiavelli 30-33). Statements like this, that a murdering traitor used evil admirably, are what make Machiavelli’s writing so controversial.

Machiavelli did not stop with Agathocles, he also gave an example more current with the time of a similar situation. Oliverotto of Fermo. Oliverotto had the same cunning and ambition as Agathocles. He too wanted to become the ruler of his hometown Fermo. So, with his mentor he conspired to overthrow the current ruler, his own uncle, Giovanni Fogliani. Oliverotto used his relation to Fogliani to lure him into a trap where he assassinated him, as well as the other leaders of Fermo. With no one else in his way he took control of the region. His immoral actions would have been condemned by most, but Machiavelli’s main issue seems to be that he was not able to keep the power that he gained, as he was killed himself later on. Oliverotto did not use evil well as Agathocles did (Machiavelli 32-32).

Few books have the ability to stir up as much controversy as The Prince. With it Machiavelli tried to set a new example how a prince should act and think, but one that would be found troubling by many in the decades that followed its publication. Its readers would shun it, ban it, mock it, and even go so far as to say that it was satire, because surely there was no way that Machiavelli had actually meant what he wrote. The main cause of all animosity towards the book, came from Machiavelli’s attempt to separate ethics from politics. In the treatise he argued that princes need not be virtuous, and that fear was a great tool to be used to control one’s subjects, better even than love. Furthermore, the book challenged divine right, which put at odds with the churches of the time, and lastly, it promoted the idea of using scrupulous methods to gain power. It is the combination of these four arguments, that were so against the current ideologies of the sixteenth century, that caused many to look at the book with disgust, and the reason why Machiavelli became known as an embodiment of evil.

2019-2-12-1549980013

Organizational change – responding to internal drivers

Organizational change in any business organisation is predominantly influenced by two forces called internal drivers and external drivers. Both can cause favourable as well as unfavourable impacts on organisational change. However, this essay will argue that it is more beneficial for the organisations to introduce changes based on its internal drivers because they are within the organisation and control of the management in bringing the change. Where as the external drivers are beyond the control of the organisation.

In this intensely competitive and globalised world ( Mdletye, Coetzee and Ukpere 2014) of business and management organisational change is very critical and indispensable for numerous competitive advantages. Therefore, companies of all kinds must either initiate change or if not face the natural death (Kotter and Cohen 2008). Hence, although change is task fraught with complexity and challenge (Graetz et al. 2011, p.2) it has become the inevitable phenomena for the successful survival of organization in this modern world.

Organisational change is the continuous process of renewing the firm direction, structure, capabilities, operations, systems and processes to meet the ever-changing needs of external and internal customers (Soosay and Sloan 2005 p.10). It is the movement of an organization away from its present state of status quo (Smith 2005) toward some desired future state to increase its effectiveness (Lunenburg 2010). Nevertheless, as most researchers have found out that, in reality, adopting new changes in the organisation is very difficult and doubtful of success (Robbins 2003 and Raftery 2009 as cited in Beshtawi and Jaaron,2014; p.129) and often land up with failure (Olaghere,n.d p.1; Gilaninia, Ganjinia and Mahdikhanmahaleh 2013). Therefore, in this increasingly uncertain and risky environment (Zhou, Tse and Li, 2006, p.248) it is very crucial to know how to adapt and change according to the environment and to change successfully has become a critical and timeless challenge for any organization ( Feldman, 2004; Pettigrew et al., 2001; Piderit, 2000) for continuous survival and success.

Organisational Change in an organisation is influenced dominantly by two factors called internal factors or internal drivers and external factors or external drivers (Esparcia and Argente (n.d) and Olaghere n.d, p.1).These factors are responsible for triggering the change in the system, policies, product, structures, services, management, performance among many other areas in the organisation (Senior 2002) (as cited in McGuire and Hutchings 2006). Ivancevich and Matteson (2002) consider technology, economic forces and socio-political and legal factors as important external drivers that cause organisational change. However, they argue that these external drivers of change are beyond management’s control and cause a significant impact compelling the organisation to adjust internal processes and systems (McGuire and Hutchings 2006). Conversely, internal drivers are those forces existed within the organisation that influence changes. They are system, structure, management style, leadership, resources, processes, products of the organisation (Esparcia and Argente, n.d).

However, internal factors are more critical to driving organisational change. Ivancevich and Matteson (2002) maintain that human resource issues and process considerations are the most common forces for change within the organisation. They argue that internal factors are generally within the control of management, although sometimes be more difficult to recognise and diagnose than external factors (McGuire and Hutchings 2006).

The external factors are more diversified and intractable compare to internal drivers (Yu and Zhang, 2010, p.3). The internal divers of change are easily influenced by external environments like politics, economy, technology, legal and society.

The external factors helps to determine the opportunities and threats that the company would face, but the internal factors help the company to identify its strengths and weaknesses (Ibrahim and Primiana, 2015, p.285) . Marcus (2005) (as cited in Ibrahim and Primiana, 2015, p.285) noted that organisations should be aware of its strengths and weaknesses and analyzed the extent to which companies can accommodate the opportunities and threats existed in its the external environment.

Anderson and Anderson (n.d) asserted that the most common reason for the failure of managing change with the organizations is the inadequate attention to the less tangible, yet very important, internal drivers such as culture, leader and employee behaviour and their mindset. So, it is very much evident the benefits of concentrating of internal drivers rather than external drivers. This is supported by Kotter and Cohen (2008; p.61) that managers must instigate change by creating the sense of urgency by touching the emotions of employees instead of reasons based on facts and figures. This is possible only through change in internal factors of business enterprise.

Many scholars have consented that internal factors are the key determinants of an organization’s performance (Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kibera 2014, p. 289) as they provide enabling environment to achieve its goals and objectives. Internal environmental forces provide strengths and weaknesses to the business (Tolbert & Hall, 2009) (cited in (Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kiber 2014, p.) Fr example, from their study on the effect of internal drivers on community-based HIV and AIDS organizations in Nairobi County, Kenya, Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kiber (2014) found out that the internal drivers such as organisational structure, strategy, skills, staff, shared values as well as systems helping the organisation to achieve their objective. As a result enhanced the employee performance.

The Resource-based view (RBV) theory, propounded by Penrose (1959) ( as cited in Kute & Upadhyay, 2014,p.68) supported that organizations can gain competitive advantage by concentrating on their internal factors such as abilities, skills, knowledge, capabilities and competencies with reference to technological changes. This is because of strengths and weakness in these areas can be managed and thus the need of enhancing these qualities within the employees can be determined and can be enhanced through continuous organizational learning culture. Furthermore, the following factors such as mission and goals, leadership quality, organisational structure, human resources, technology capacity, organisation culture, employees behaviours and attitude, and organisational performance has to be considered while introducing change in the organisation.

Organisation Vison, Mision, Goals and objectives

Every business organisation is being guided by its mission, goals and objectives pertaining to development philosophy and direction, planning, prioritizing programs, policies, management, organisational structures and everyday responsibilities (Emeka and Eyuche 2014). In nutshell the performance of the company depends on the mission, goals and objectives. Therefore, change in these domains would compel the firm to undertake organisational change to achieve their mission and objectives.

Leadership

Leadership is one of the very important internal factors in an organisation change (Lunenburg 2010). The leaders have the important role in maintaining the measure of control over the environment of the organisation (McGuire and Hutchings 2006, p.197). The sixteenth century political scientist, Niccolo Machiavelli, stressed that the leader’s vision and future plans are critical in determining the shape and structure of the organisation (McGuire and Hutchings 2006, p.198). According to the organisational change models Cummings and Worley (1993) further recognizes that any change can be implemented successfully only by strong leadership who can garner commitment and readiness to change within the employees through shared vision and strategies to achieve the proposed new change and outcome. The way the managers or leaders establish the internal working structure and systems has influence on the performance of the organisation (Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kiber 2014, p.285).It means the structures and systems should be very favourable for the employees to work collaboratively everyday towards the shared goals of the organisation. Conversely, poor leadership and management would result in the failure of enterprise in the implementation of change processes and risking the orgainsation to disastrous consequences (Shiamwama, Ombayo and Mukolwe 2014, p.148). Effective leaders help organisations to surpass any internal obstacles and bring changes through envisioning the desired goals and objectives, energizing the employees, and enabling the resources and conditions (Zhou, Tse and Li 2006, p.253) which are paramount to overcome any external inhibitors of change and improve performance.

For instance, Steve Jobs, the founder of APPLE Computers, was eased out of the business because of poor management. He later went back into the business and was absorbed as a mere employee just to tap his original idea (Cole, 2004). in (Shiamwama, Ombayo and Mukolwe (2014)

Organisation Structure

Change in organizational structure involves redefining and regulating the organizational roles and relations by expanding or reducing audition, determining the decision making authority, selecting decentralised or central management type, regulating communication channels within the organisation ( İkinci, S.S.2014,p.123).It is another internal factor that act as driver of change. It is the way how jobs are allocated, coordinated and supervised through the system that facilitates communication and efficient work processes among the employees in the organisation (Elsaid, Okasha and Abdelghaly, 2013, p.1). In fact the successful execution and implementation of any plans and programs depends on it. The flat bureaucratic structure with decentralised decision-making system and horizontal reporting system among the teams and various managers are more preferred by the employees (Ohlson, 2007).This fosters faster and effective decision and action thus enhancing the efficiency and productivity of the employees and organisation as whole. The tall hierarchical system of organisation characterised by long bureaucratic steps to follow in execution and communication is rather a hindrance to the effectiveness of the performance (p.23). Decentralised administrative structures and processes thus enable a firm to better meet the new environmental conditions and effectively handle environmental turbulence (Damanpour and Evan, 1984)

Human resources

Human resource in the organisation consists of the knowledge, skills, competencies, attitude and behaviours the workers possess ( İkinci, S.S.2014, p.123). Nurturing theses aspect of human resources will lead to personal growth and development which can alter an individual’s perceptions of organisational change, reducing the level of resistance (Bovey and Hede, 2001, p.546). It is the very critical asset that helps organisation to gain competitive advantage (Husso and Nybakk, nd, p.9).This is because they have the capacity to operate all the activities and in turn help to achieve the aims and objective (Mdletye, Coetzee, and Ukpere (2014) which otherwise would not be able to function at all. The researchers emphasized that human resource is the most important aspect, indeed the backbone of every organization and it is also the main source of resource for the effective function of the organization ( Wanza and Nkuraru,2016; p.192) and main strategic resource to gain sustainable competitive advantage in this age of globalization(Kute & Upadhyay, 2014). For example, the management’s emphasis on the human resource management such as employing highly skilled and educated people, providing professional training and encouraging learning from advanced technologies and skills made the employees more competent to achieve Huawei’s internationalization process more successful ( Yu and Zhang, 2010, p.23) .

Organisational culture

Organisational culture is defined as the values, beliefs, norms, customs and behaviours that guide the employees towards the common goals (Awadh & Saad, 2013,) and that set the rule of decision making processes, structure and power (Wambugu, 2014, p. 80). Wambugu (2014) further noted that organisational culture empower the employees to do thing which deemed right and rewarding both at personal and organisational level. According to Wanza and Nkuraru ( 2016, p.195) and Awadh & Saad, (2013, p.168 ) organisational culture has strong bearing on the performance of the employees which is considered as the backbone of development of the organisation. The culture established as system in the organisation enhances employees’ commitment thus improves their input eventually achieving the desired productivity and profitability (Wanza and Nkuraru, 2016, p.193). They concluded from their research that a strong organizational culture acts as the source of synergy and momentum for teamwork and uplift employee performance (p.197).Thus it is worthy of developing organizational culture for sustainable future. For example, one of the internal factor that drive Huawei Technologies Company, a very small local IT company of China, to very successful internationalisation was the corporate culture, such as team work, adaptation, learning and customer-oriented service, being embedded in the behaviours of the Huawei’s employees ( Yu and Zhang, 2010, p.23)

Innovation culture

Innovation is the main strategy to adapt to change, overcome organisational weaknesses, and add value to organization’s products and services in the ever-changing business environment (Sund 2008, p. 2). Being entrepreneurial with creativity and innovation helps organisation to gain competitive advantage (Ireland et al. 2003). Abdelgawad et al. (2013) proposed that entrepreneurial capability is instrumental for realizing a firm’s game-changing strategies for sustainable success in future. For example, Google, Amazon and Apple companies were once just start-ups grown to attract global market through their innovation (EBRD, 2014; p.1). Internal organizational drivers such as resources, experimentation, collaboration, administrative support play a significant role during this innovation process (Agolla and Van-Lill, 2013). So, establishing innovative culture in an organisation will drive the organisation towards favorable and successful change.

Attitude and Commitment

Most of the researches have shown that employees need to develop their attitude and behaviours for successful organizational performance (Bernerth, 2004). Therefore, it is indispensable for the organizational managers to develop and nurture employees’ commitment towards embracing change by bringing positive change in their attitude and behaviour. However, Anderson and Anderson (n.d) stressed that employees’ mindset, which is the root cause of one’s feelings, decisions and actions, has to be changed to bring organizational change. When introducing change people aspect is more critical than just about changes in systems and processes. Rather it is about people believing in change and wanting it to happen (Soosay and Sloan (2005 p.4). Since organisational change requires the participation of people, those involved must first undergo personal change for the success of organisational change (Evans, 1994).

Organisation Performance as drivers

Both the present and past performance are also drivers of organisational change. Some earlier researchers have pointed out that poor performance, that creates the gap between managerial aspirations and achievements, is an extra impetus for the firms to improve further (Greve, 1998; Tushman and Romanelli, 1985). On the other hand some researchers argue that successful companies continuously draw motivation from their success to improve and perform better for sustainable future, especially they face an uncertain environments ( Feldman, 2004; Tsoukas and Chia, 2002).in (Zhou, Tse and Li, 2006). The better a firm performs, the more likely it will invest in new product development and technology advancement to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage (Zhou, Tse and Li, 2006; p.251). As Brown and Eisenhardt (1997) observe, many successful firms, such as Intel, 3M, Hewlett-Packard, and Gillette, have undertaken constant, rapid changes, particularly in their new product development. For example companies like Apple, Microsoft and Samsung companies have undergone continuous rapid changes in development of new product.

Conclusion

The main purpose of this essay was to prove the advantages of responding to internal drivers than to external drivers while introducing change in the organisation. From this study it was found out that internal drivers are within the organisation that has direct impact on its everyday performance. Therefore, they are within the control and management capacity of the organization. If the internal performance, system, culture and resources of an organisation are excellent it is certain that any obstacles posed from the external environments can be nullified leading to very successful organizational change. Whereas external drivers are existed in the external environment of the firm and those are beyond the control and reach of the organisation. Yet, they can affect the internal functions of the organisation causing instability. Hence the external drivers are not to be undermined rather internal drivers must be activated towards meeting change in line with external drivers.

2016-11-25-1480063659

The Classical World: essay help online

The Classical Era, which flourished from the 8th century BC to the 5th century AD, saw the birth and spread of Greco-Roman ideas. These ideas became the basis for western civilization and laid a foundation of culture that has remained as relevant now as it was in ancient times. Ancient Greece, and later Ancient Rome, cemented their own ideals in the universal consciousness as the cultural standard to which all later societies were held to, and continue to shape contemporary perspective on art, architecture, and government, and other facets of modern society. Despite the core differences of modern and classical times and the centuries that have passed since, the knowledge and perspectives passed down by the Ancient Greeks and Romans remain an essential part of contemporary society and culture, while inspiring western civilization’s greatest accomplishments.

The cultural impact of Ancient Greece and Rome begins most tangibly with the Renaissance, a movement beginning in Florence and spanning through the 14th and 17th centuries. This period is seen as a revival of classical antiquity, with Renaissance scholars, artists, philosophers, and writers attempting to emulate what they considered to be a “golden age,” taking inspiration directly from their Greco-Roman forefathers, with their presence increasingly regarded as an intellectual heritage to be mined for contemporary use. The Florentine author Niccolò Machiavelli, for example, described his nightly retreats into his library in these memorable words:

“At the door I take off my muddy everyday clothes. I dress myself as though I were about to appear before a royal court as a Florentine envoy. Then decently attired I enter the antique courts of the great men of antiquity. They receive me with friendship; from them I derive the nourishment which alone is mine and for which I was born. Without false shame I talk with them and ask them the causes of the actions; and their humanity is so great they answer me. For four long and happy hours I lose myself in them. I forget all my troubles; I am not afraid of poverty or death. I transform myself entirely in their likeness.”

Francesco Petrarca, commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar who rediscovered the letters of Cicero, a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher and one of Rome’s greatest orators and prose stylists. This rediscovery is considered to have initiated the Renaissance, as scholars became interested in learning how the ancients developed their human faculties, powers, and culture, and in turn attempted to apply their findings to their contemporary societies. Through this discovery, Petrarch became the “Father of Renaissance humanism,” humanism being a Renaissance cultural movement that turned away from medieval scholasticism and revived interest in ancient Greek and Roman thought. Petrarch firmly believed that classical writings were not just relevant to his own age but saw in them moral guidance that could reform humanity, a key principle of Renaissance Humanism. The humanists of the Renaissance believed that their mission was to revive the high Roman style of writing pure and eloquent Latin. When that flourished, they believed, art would as well.

The republican elites of Florence and Venice and the ruling families of Milan, Ferrara, and Urbino hired humanists to teach their children classical morality and to write elegant, classical letters, histories, and propaganda. Eventually, the humanism inspired by the study of the Greco-Roman world would bleed into the Catholic Church, a formidable and almost omnipotent deity of the Middle Ages. In the course of the fifteenth century, the humanists convinced most of the popes that the papacy needed their skills. Sophisticated classical scholars were hired to write official correspondence and propaganda to create an image of the popes as powerful, enlightened, modern rulers of the Church and to apply their scholarly tools to the church’s needs, including writing a more classical form of the Mass. Scholars wrote Latin letters and histories on behalf of the popes, and they even tinkered with the church’s traditional liturgy, trying to make prayers and hymns attractively classical. Humanist secretaries and popes wrote dazzling Latin. Though humanism, and therefore classical thinking, never truly permeated the Catholic Church fully, there was an influence of Ancient Greece and Rome on the Church and its leaders.

An easier and far more blatant appreciation of classical antiquity was seen clearly in the art and architecture of the Renaissance. Contrapposto, a sculptural scheme which was revived during the Renaissance, was originated by the Ancient Greeks. It is used when the standing human figure is poised in such a way that the weight rests on one leg (called the engaged leg), freeing the other leg, which is bent at the knee. With the weight shift, the hips, shoulders, and head tilt, suggesting relaxation with the subtle internal organic movement that denotes life. The Greeks invented this formula in the early 5th century BC as an alternative to the stiffly static pose—in which the weight is distributed equally on both legs—that had dominated Greek figure sculpture in earlier periods. Italian Renaissance artists such as Donatello and Andrea del Verrocchio revived the classical formula, giving it the name contrapposto, which suggests the action and reaction of the various parts of the figure, and enriching the conception by scientific anatomical study.

Donatello borrowed from the ancients with his bronze sculpture of David, the biblical hero known for defeating Goliath. Donatello’s David was the first freestanding bronze cast statue of the Renaissance era as well as the first nude sculpture of a male since the classical sculptures of ancient Greece. In Middle Ages, nudity was not used in art except in certain moral contexts, such as the depiction of Adam and Eve, or the sending of souls off to hell.  In the classical world, nudity was often used in a different, majestic context, such as with figures who were gods, heroes, or athletes.  Here, Donatello seems to be calling to mind the type of heroic nudity of antiquity, since David is depicted at a triumphal point in the biblical narrative of his victory over Goliath. In any case, Donatello’s David is a classic work of Renaissance sculpture, given its Judaeo-Christian subject matter modeled on a classical sculptural type.

Another artwork inspired heavily by ancient antiquity would be Botticelli’s painting titled, Birth of Venus. The theme of the Birth of Venus was taken from the writings of the ancient poet, Homer.  According to the traditional account, after Venus was born, she rode on a seashell and sea foam to the island of Cythera.  In the painting, Venus is prominently depicted in the center, born out of the foam as she rides to shore.  On the left, the figure of Zephyrus carries the nymph Chloris (alternatively identified as “Aura”) as he blows the wind to guide Venus. On shore, a figure who has been identified as Pomona, or as the goddess of Spring, waits for Venus with mantle in hand.  The mantle billows in the wind from Zephyrus’ mouth.The story of the Birth of Venus is well described below by a Homeric hymn but its relevance to the painting is disputed as the poem was only published, by the Greek refugee Demetrios Chalcondyles, in Florence in 1488 (five years after the painting was completed as a wedding gift for Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de’ Medici in 1483).

Of august gold-wreathed and beautiful

Aphrodite I shall sing to whose domain

belong the battlements of all sea-loved

Cyprus where, blown by the moist breath

of  Zephyros, she was carried over the waves

of the resounding sea on soft foam.

The gold-filleted Horae happily welcomed her

and clothed her with heavenly raiment.

The model for Venus in this painting has traditionally been associated with Simonetta Vespucci – who had been a muse for Botticelli,  and was seen as the model for female beauty throughout Florence – especially for the Medici family for whom this painting had been created. There is added credence to this suggestion from the fact that she was born in the Ligurian fishing village of  PortoVenere – called Port of Venus because there was a little Temple to Venus there from 1st Century BC.

The other model for the pose of Venus in the painting was possibly the Medici Venus, a first century BC statue depicting Aphrodite in a Venus pudica pose. It is actually a marble copy of an original bronze Greek sculpture that Botticelli would have had an opportunity to study whilst visiting the sculpture school or the Platonic Academy which flourished at the family home of the Medici in Florence.

The demand for this type of scene, of course, was humanism, which was alive and well in the court of Lorenzo d’Medici in the 1480s.  Here, Renaissance humanism was open not only to the use of a pagan sculpture as a model, but also a pagan narrative for the subject matter, and although the Birth of Venus is not a work which employed Renaissance perspectival innovations, the elegance of the classical subject matter was something that would have intrigued wealthy Florentines who patronized this type of work.

The discovery of particular texts had enormous implications on Renaissance architecture. For example, with the discovery of the works of Vitruvius, an architect at the time of Augustus, there was an explosion of interest in ancient building. Vitruvius wrote an extremely important volume, De architectura libri decem (Ten books on architecture), where he introduced three principles to architecture: Firmatis  (durability), Utilitas (utility), and Venustatis (beauty). Vitruvius talked about ancient buildings in a very significant way, not only in terms of practicality, but in an abstract way which emphasized what the buildings represented in both art and society. Similarly to how ancient texts could be applied to the values and aesthetics of contemporary Italians in the 15th century, so could ancient buildings be reduced to an essence, or a set of principles and ideals, that could be applied to the needs of 15th-century Italians, despite their differences from 1st-century Romans.

In particular, we can see in the career of Leon Battista Alberti, who was born in 1404 and died in 1472, how these ideas could be distilled into a set of principles that could apply to the conditions of the Italian world. Alberti wrote De re aedificatoria, or On Building. His work can be considered highly derivative, but Alberti’s purpose was quite different: to take an ancient text and apply it to the needs of his own time. Not only did he write a theoretical treatise on architecture, but he then went out and built buildings. In particular, in Florence, he designed the facade of the Palazzo Rucellai from 1452 to 1470, in which, again, the Vitruvian orders appear and in which the ideas of ancient building are made useful to a Florentine palace for a wealthy merchant.

In the more modern world, there is a wealth of Greco-Roman influence over the inception of the United States of America and its government. For example, the men who inspired the American Revolution and wrote the American Constitution were heavily influenced by the classical Greek and Roman world. The American founding fathers were well educated individuals, and they all had significant experience with ancient Greek and Roman authors since childhood. Historian Bernard Bailyn states, “knowledge of classical authors was universal among colonists with any degree of education.” Thomas Jefferson, writer of the Declaration of Independence, was taught Greek and Latin from the age of nine, and Benjamin Franklin received instruction in Latin at grammar school and became proficient in both Latin and Greek later in life. In Franklin’s Autobiography, frequent references are made to classical western figures, such as Cicero and Cato. James Madison learned Greek and Latin as a child, and “immersed himself in the histories of Greece and Rome.”

With classical schooling such an integral part of the founding fathers’ education, America’s first political leaders studied the works of the great Greek Philosophers, including Plato and Aristotle. Polybius, a less celebrated but still influential thinker, also left his mark upon the American framers of the Constitution. Through Polybius, the founding fathers were introduced to the Roman Republic as the “mixed government” described by Plato and Aristotle. They used Greek philosophy and the model of Roman Republican government in order to form a new nation based on ancient principles.

Philosophers from classical Greece proposed the separation of powers in government, an idea that the American founders adopted for their new nation. In addition, The Roman Republic  (509-27 BC) served as a direct model of government for the writers of the constitution.  Greek and Roman political thought was critical in shaping the government of the United States of America.

Plato writes that that a strong state should contain elements of both democracy and tyranny, so that the state has a mixed government. His political philosophy, particularly his idea of a “mixed” constitution, would have far reaching effects among later philosophers. His mixed government would ultimately be brought to life in the American Constitution.

Aristotle believed that a mixed government, like the one described by Plato, would halt the decline of government into anarchy. In Aristotle’s mixed constitution, defined in his work The Politics, there were to be three branches of government: “All constitutions have three elements, concerning which the good lawgiver has to regard what is expedient for each constitution…There is one element which deliberates about public affairs [“legislative” branch]; secondly, that concerned with the magistrates [“executive” branch]…and thirdly that which has judicial power.”

This three-tiered mixed government of Aristotle would ultimately find its way into the Constitution. Aristotle also established the principle that the rulers of a state should be subject to the same laws as the rest of the populace; to Aristotle, the rule of law is better than the authority of “even the best man.” This concept of a “ruling official subject to the law” is an integral idea to modern government, where all political figures are supposed to be subject to the same legal code as the average citizen.

In addition to the foundation of government inspired by the ancient world, the influence of classical antiquity can be seen in some of America’s most iconic architecture. Prevalent between about 1780 and 1830, Federal style drew inspiration from the Greco-Romans. The influence of Ancient Greek architecture is apparent in the use of columns and colonnades. Thomas Jefferson was an architect during the Federal period, and he designed not only his own home, Monticello, but the campus of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville in this style.

Greek Revival architecture also became widespread in the U.S., and in the middle of the 19th century it became known as the national style, as it was used extensively in houses and smaller public buildings of that time. This style generally featured the Doric Order in larger buildings, and simpler Doric columns topped with a small pediment (without a frieze) in houses. The first major public building built in this style was the Second Bank of the United States, built in Philadelphia between 1819 and 1824, though most famous is the Lincoln Memorial, its exterior echoing that of the Parthenon.

The heritage of the classical world has been one which later societies have taken and made relevant to their own contemporary aesthetics, visions, and ambitions. From the Renaissance to the formation of the United States, Greco-Roman ideals have paved the way and inspired art, architecture, and civic duty, all the while remaining the standard for which culture strains to meet. Despite its antiquity, the classical world has remained both relevant, adaptable, and innovative, inspiring some of western civilization’s greatest feats.

2018-12-4-1543886056

Power dynamics in psychotherapy – reflective literature review

Choice of topic

On receiving the assessment paperwork for my client, I felt overwhelmed and challenged by her status, and that she had previously worked with my placement director. My first reaction, was that I would not be good enough for her as a trainee.

When discussing my responses with my supervisor, she helped me to identify where this had come from, and the skills and knowledge that I had would be beneficial to this client.

To build up a working alliance, Finlay (2016), p.15, with this client, who I will refer to as Kirsty, (not her real name), the progress was slow, and I became very aware of my own counter- transferential feelings. There were areas of her narrative which I felt really in contact with.

Conducting the search

An on-line search Google scholar, using terms like, ‘The Dance of Power’ which returned results of 51, 200,000. Further searches were conducted which brought back similar figures

I then altered the search criteria to ‘The Dance of the Counter-transferential Phenomena’ which brought back 34 Items and this search was done via Wiley on-line Library. This appeared more manageable, and a further search via the same library with a different search term, ‘Undoing Trauma’ brought back just one result. This still was not what I was looking for, so I chose to remain with the search criteria of power within the therapeutic relationship.

So, within the literature, Webster’s dictionary defines power as; ‘the ability to act’ and ‘the capacity to produce and effect’ and ‘the possession of control, authority or influence over others’

Proctor (2017) states how she defines power as being related to how society is formed, and groups of people, who differ from the ‘norm’ have less access to power. These groups could be women, disabled, Black minority ethnic (BME) or working-class people, gay or lesbians. Male or females, young or old.

She suggests that these groups could be oppressed members of society who may have experienced violence or intimidation and who have little experience of power within the relationship.

The history of power within the therapeutic relationship dates to Machiavelli in the 16th century and Hobbes in the 17th century as cited by Proctor, (2017). These two theorists had different views when talking about power. It was not until the twentieth century that Hobbes view of a modernist theory was favoured. Clegg (1989) Hobbes theory of power influenced the basis of thinking around power from a modernist and structural viewpoint.

The modernists view.

This was a new form of expression that was developed in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This was the era when counselling and psychotherapy developed. McLeod (2009) p. 37

The Structural Theories.

These theories lie within the context of modernism and take a single point of view, that is concrete and belongs to a person. It is assumed that power is an experience that can be found in the form of economic, social, physical, or psychological capacity. For instance, Day (2010) cites Robert Dahl (1957) as, “A has the power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would not otherwise do”.

These theories have emphasised the controlling, oppressive and negative angle of power. These structural theories have been critiqued as it assumes that the power is always ‘power over’ another.

Lukes, (1974) argued that it is the ability of one person, to get another, to do something that (s)he might not otherwise do. He argues that this power is a result of conflict between actors to determine who wins and who loses.

However, Arendt, (1963) saw power as being related to people joining together and making unbreakable promises. Arendt observed a difference between ‘power’ within relationships and ‘authority’ that is given to an individual because of their role. Hindess, (1996) suggests that this moves power towards a relational process and relying on the consent of others.

Post-Modern Theories

Elias, (1978) suggests that power is not something a person owns, but it is a trait of human relationships. This view is supported by Lukes, (1974). Elias further suggests that power relations are formed in relationship and that it is a result of living together and interdependence. This phenomenon is like a game of tug of war; a trial of strength between two sides pulling against each other. Oxford English Reference Dictionary (1996), p. 1548

Foucault

Foucault suggested that power follows the concepts of Nietzsche in that knowledge and thought, theories and discourses are penetrated by values, Daudi, 1986 as cited by Proctor 2017. This approach formed the basis of Foucault’s work. He sees this power relationship as not responding to others, but on their actions. Thus, it is an action upon an action. Day, (2010).

This view of power suggests that power is inherent in all relationships so it both enables and limits actions, thereby helping individuals to broaden their boundaries, Hayward, (1998)

From this perspective, “Power is everywhere…because it comes from everywhere”. Foucault (1980). Power is involved in all social interactions, because ideas operate behind all language and action. Lukes (1974).

Foucault focused on how power was used in society, such as sexuality, (1976), madness, (1967) or criminality, (1977). He looked at the aims of those involved and the tactics they used to achieve those aims and the counter actions of others to achieve the same objective. In his deconstruction of the power within these institutions, he defines ‘disciplinary power’. He defines this as “comprising a whole set of instruments, techniques, procedures, levels of application, targets”. Foucault, (1977), p.215. He emphasised the ‘struggle’ that occurs between individuals and groups in society as the discord is taken up in response to the behaviours of others. Day, (2010) suggests power operates systematically within a society not from above.

Perspectives of Power in the Psychotherapy Relationship

Whilst searching the literature, I struggled to find any published research. Where references have been uncovered, these have been philosophical or theoretical perspectives on the subject; or individual accounts of personal and professional experience. Sanders, c (2017), Totton,(2009), Amitay, (2017), Lazarus, (2015).

Positions of Power

From the literature, there appears to be four philosophical positions:

Power as a destructive and oppressive force in the psychotherapy relationship;
The psychotherapy Relationship as a process of liberation and empowerment of the client.
Power as a relational, inter-subjective process in the psychotherapy relationship; and
The denial of the existence of power in the psychotherapy relationship.

At the end of the 1980’s, the central thoughts about how the imbalances between the therapist and client can result in oppressive and destructive outcomes for clients. The following debates concentrated on the abuse of sexual boundaries and forms of discrimination and prejudice against minority groups. Bates, (2006); Lago, (2006); Masson, (1989); Smail, 1995. The way the psychotherapeutic relationship exists between the client and therapist means that there is a potential for abusive relationships in the dialogue between the client and therapist. Spinelli, (1994). This reflects a structural position on power, Day, (2010), Proctor, (2017). So, the therapist in these circumstances, has ‘power over’ the client which renders them ‘powerless’ and vulnerable.

Within the literature, Masson (1989), describes power in the therapy room as having destructive elements and that the therapy could be a form of abuse. Another form of destructive power, could be therapist abusing the client by disrespecting the sexual boundaries, Chesler, (1972), Sonne and Pope, (1991) and Gabbard, (1996).

It is suggested that these destructive ways can operate at an unconscious level thus leaving the client vulnerable to past, negative experiences. Herman, (1992) believes that it is important for the therapist to avoid using their ‘power over’ Proctor, (2017), p. 13 the client for their own needs or to direct the client’s life decisions. Day, (2010).

The British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, (BACP) state that under their Ethical Framework, the counsellor has a commitment to avoid harm towards the client, (2015).

It is assumed from this point of view that power is dangerous and destructive to those who are powerless. Often power is viewed from an ethical or moral basis, looking at what is right or wrong. In simple terms, power is either ‘good’ or ‘bad’. Furggeri, (1992). This view assumes that is a possession, that is in limited supply and this then forms a structural perspective of power. The client is seen as powerless and the therapist powerful. It could be argued that this is an extreme form of domination and repression. Thus, power is viewed as monolithic, unitary and unidirectional. Procter, (2002)

Psychotherapy as Empowerment for the Client.

An alternative perspective of power is seen as positive with the therapist power being good. Psychotherapy is an empowering process for the client and thus enables the client’s autonomy. This line of argument is seen in humanistic literature, feminist literature. Brown, (1994). The British Psychological Society’s (BPS), 2009 division of counselling psychology, states explicitly that it works to ‘empower the client’.

Carl Rogers was one of the first proponents of this. Rogers suggested that the therapist’s role was to avoid power over the client and also refrain from making decisions for them. Rogers supported the client’s autonomy and how they achieved this. So, the decisions are made by the client for themselves. Rogers, (1978)

Bozarth, (1998) argues that the crux of this theory is that the therapist does not intervene. Natiello, (1990), states, “…. Offers a morality of power as well as a methodology for arriving at that morality”. (p 268). She maintains that the person-centred approach offers the client the opportunity to claim his or her own personal power rather than being reliant on the power of others.

Similarly, Freud theories of psychoanalysis argue for the analysist to use their power of rational authority to free the mind of the client.

Fromm, (1956) argues that over the duration of therapy, the client frees and cures themselves from an attachment to irrational authority. Benjamin,(1995) challenged Freud’s position states “ Already idealised for his knowledge and power – his power to know her – the analyst is now internalised in the relationship of knowledge as power over self, a practice in the domination of self whose meaning Foucault (1980) has made unforgettably problematic” p. 154

Frosh, (1987) states that object relations, like psychoanalysis, sets itself up in the feeing of a person’s psyche. He argues that its objectives are to free the client from fixations created by ‘bad’ experiences and to promote internalisation of the more nurturing possibilities experienced in the relationship with the therapist.

This assumes the client is powerless and vulnerable and the therapist has the power to empower the client. Client’s therefore are viewed as powerless. This could be seen as a structural position where power is either ‘good’ or ‘bad’ and one either has it or not. A moral argument could be where one form of power is ‘right’ and others are ‘wrong’.

A Relationship of Mutuality

The psychotherapeutic relationship is viewed as one of mutuality. Aron, (1996) views this as involving mutual generation of data, mutual regulation of the relationship, mutual recognition of the others autonomy and openness on the part of the therapist as to their client’s impact upon them. Aron argues that power is dynamic that is constantly struggled with in therapy and therefore needs ‘to be continually examined, articulated and worked through’, p151. He suggests that therapists need to question their decisions with regards to ethics as well as questioning their authority and domination in the relationship, referenced in Proctor, (2002) p 133.

Frosh, (1987) believes that the objectives for therapy is to allow the client to explore the power in therapy as it copies and reminds the client of internalised introjects from their formative years. He suggests that an approach which is politicised and recognises the reality of social structures. He argues that part of the difficulties relating to change is that people need to identify, re-experience and re-frame these introjects to help to give them a new meaning in their life. Totton, (2000) argues that it is the therapist’s role to help the client find another genuine and authentic psycho- political position. The relational position, therefore sees the power dynamics as being central in the therapeutic relationship. It is suggested that power is aligned to knowledge and neither the client or the therapist can ‘know’. Thus, it is thought that it is present in all relationships rather than being a possession of the client or therapist. It is therefore unavoidable and potentially both positive and negative. Proctor, (2002) it could be argued that this view, might undermine the role of structural differences in power in society reducing it to an intersubjective process.

Concluding thoughts of the literature

Relational perspectives in psychotherapy have started to think about ‘power’ as dynamic and inevitable. Proctor, (2017). However, despite this recognition of power, the discourse on the power dynamics in psychotherapy has remained at a philosophical level. Much of the literature can be seen as a critique of other psychological therapy or it attempts to show how therapists can misuse the power differential with their clients. The question to be explored and researched further would be how psychotherapists experience the phenomenon of power with their client’s and how it can be worked with in a clinical setting.

2018-4-8-1523186705

Moral Universalism And Other Theories

Moral Relativism

Moral relativism is a theory that deals with morals being relative to your culture. An example of this is women showing skin in some middle-eastern countries. In their culture relative to them, this is horrible and unimaginable. In America (our culture) it is not out of the norm to see a girl or boy at the beach wearing close to nothing. There are many arguments that agree with moral relativism because there are so many different cultures and it is not our place to judge others because they do not follow the same moral rules that we do in America. There are also arguments against moral relativism because some believe that morals are universal and what is morally wrong in one place should also be morally wrong in others. An example of this is murder, in some cultures murder is acceptable under certain terms or when someone breaks the law and there are other cultures where murder is always considered morally wrong. My view of this theory is somewhat mixed. I believe in both sides, there should be some things that are moral universal laws and some things that are relative to your culture. I find it hard to think everyone should conform to one set of norms.

Moral Universalism

Moral universalism is a theory that deals with certain situations that could fall under universal code of conduct. This means that there are situations that everyone on the planet would or should agree is morally acceptable or the opposite. An example of this is a person being raped, no matter your sex, race, nationality, etc. most would agree that rape is horrible and is absolutely morally unacceptable. An argument for moral universalism seems pretty obvious, it is a great way of determining truly good and truly evil deeds because everyone would be able to point out and agree as to what is right and wrong. Arguments against include things like moral relativism. It would be impossible for us to universally agree on what is right and wrong because there are so many different kinds of people. I agree completely that there are certain things that are universally accepted as being immoral but I can only see it from the vantage point of my own background and culture. It is easy to point out immoral doings when everyone around you in your own culture agrees. The true challenge is bringing in all kinds of diversity and different backgrounds

Ethical Egoism

Ethical egoism is a theory that states that we should put our own self-interests above all else. Ethical egoism says that by putting ourselves ahead of everything else we are morally right as well as ethical. Ethical egoism differs from psychological egoism because psychological egoism states that we don’t have a choice to put our own self-interests first and the selfishness is a part of human nature. Ethical egoism states that we do have a choice. Like every concept, some people agree and others do not. Some say that ethical egoism is the only way to be successful and if everyone always acted in their own self-interest we would know what to expect out of people’s decisions. There are also some people that think part of our overall happiness involves helping others and acting selflessly. I would have to agree that it brings people a lot of joy to be able to help others and I do not believe people should always just act in their own self-interest.

Utilitarianism

Utilitarianism is the idea that we should maximize overall net happiness for everyone involved and minimize pain. This theory says that even if you were faced with a decision that would really hurt yourself, if it would help others more overall, you would make the decision that hurts yourself. There are many famous philosophers that strongly support utilitarianism because they say if the overall outcome is more happiness then it has to be the best option. An argument against this theory is pretty simple; most people would not choose to hurt someone that they love if it means making overall net happiness increase. Also, would it actually be possible to foresee every possible party that will be involved with the decision and accurately measure the amount of happiness or pain that will occur? Personally, I don’t think it is possible to accurately measure these aspects of the world and that is why I don’t support utilitarianism.

Kantian Deontology

Kantian Deontology is a theory that teaches if the outcome justifies your action, you are morally correct. An example of this was shared with us in class. The situation involved torturing a little girl in order to save millions of lives from an exploding bomb in a major city. Kantian Deontology says that it is acceptable to torture her because the outcome would justify your action. An argument against Kantian deontology states that it is never acceptable to hurt someone or act immorally no matter what outcome lies ahead. Others would argue with that statement and say that if you go the outcome that you wanted based on your action, it is a justified and moral action. In my opinion, there are times when the outcome justifies the conclusion. In the case of torturing the little girl to save millions of lives, I agree, in the case of lying and getting away with it to get the conclusion that you wanted, I do not believe it is moral.

Libertarianism

Libertarianism is a political stance that wants to limit government interference and allow people to be more autonomous. According to libertarianism, taxation of the people is the government stealing money. Libertarians want complete political freedom and no power at all to the state. Some possible problems and arguments against libertarianism deal with the formation of monopolies and problems within the market. When there are no regulations on monopolies it becomes impossible for there to be any competition. There are also some strong arguments for libertarianism. An example of an argument in favor of libertarianism involves our rights as citizens and the government taxing and taking from people is morally wrong and it violates our rights. I personally believe that there should be less government involvement than there is in our system now but I believe the government needs to play a role in society and things would go to chaos without them.

Rawlsian Liberalism

Rawlsian liberalism is a theory that deals with distribution of things such as wealth and goods. Rawls says that if we were behind a veil of ignorance and we did not know which socioeconomic status we would fall into in life, we would always try to maximize the minimum and give the lowest tier the highest number possible. Critiques and arguments against Rawlsian Liberalism say that there will always be large gaps in people’s socioeconomic status because people have extremely different skill sets and it is impossible to truly fill the gap. Arguments to support this theory are very obvious. If you had to make the decision you would always follow the maximin rule and maximize the category that is worse off. I am in support of Rawlsian liberalism and think that it is always important maximize the minimum even if you know your socioeconomic status.

Socialism

Socialism is a theory that attempts to bring everyone to the same origin or starting point and compensate for inborn inequalities. Socialism works to lower or possibly eliminate economic class and its influence. In socialism, the state owns means of production instead of people owning means of production privately. Workers work and produce to the best of their ability and then everyone reaps the benefits of that hard work equally. The reason socialism works on paper but has never been successful in any country leads back almost solely to corruption within the government. This is the main argument against socialism because the corruption has been seen multiple times throughout history. Those in support of socialism argue the looks of it on paper and how well it would truly work if completed without corruption. There are some aspects in America that have socialist ideologies like nation-wide healthcare and services such as the police department. I believe that socialism sounds like a great idea when you read about it but the bottom line is, people suck. When someone has a lot of power, they abuse it. This corruption has repeated itself time and time again throughout history.

Shareholder Capitalism

Shareholder capitalism deals with profit maximization. This view is concerned with making the most money possible and making whatever decision is necessary to continue to maximize profit. There are a lot of times when workers deserve their salaries raised or a renovated break room but that money is given to the shareholders instead. According to shareholder capitalism, the decision that maximizes profit is the morally and ethically correct decision. The strongest argument against shareholder capital is a bad work environment and possibly negative effects on the environment if pollution of dangerous chemicals is the cheapest route for a company. When there is extra money and workers needs are not being met, it will lower morale. The argument in support of shareholder capital is that since the shareholders are taking the risk and using their money, they are entitled to the profits of the company. From my experience, when workers feel like they matter and morale is high, that is when the most work gets done. That is why I feel shareholder capital is not the best system to operate on.

Stakeholder Capital

Stakeholder capital is a much broader view of operation in business and is concerned with worker morale as well as harming the environment around them. Stakeholder capitalists believe that if the reinvest into their company and their workers it will pay off in the long term because worker morale will boost and as a result, worker productivity will increase. The arguments against stakeholder capital include people believing that the investors deserve all of the dividends because they are the ones taking the risks. Those who support it say that it is important to look at the long term and make worker morale a priority. I believe the broader view is extremely important. When workers feel as though the bosses truly care about them, they feel their job is important and work harder.

Mandating a “Living Wage”

A living wage is the amount of money that full-time employees need to afford the necessities of life and also live above the poverty line. A living wage supporter would argue that someone should not be able to work forty hours per week and still live below the poverty line. The consequences of raising the minimum wage to a living wage are that firms would likely fire employees to maintain their salary cap and so that their cost does not increase. Also, a living wage would hurt small businesses and cause them to raise their prices, which in the end affects everyone and causes everyone to pay more. Personally, I agree that someone should not be working full-time and still be living in poverty but I also believe raising minimum wage is useless and would make the cost of almost everything else increase.

Affirmative Action

Affirmative action takes action on group of people who tend to suffer discrimination. For example, colleges will set aside a certain number of spots for minorities so that they have a more level playing field when it comes to getting in to college. According to the supreme court, setting quotas for the number of certain minorities accepted into college and not filling those spots if there is not enough eligible applicants is unconstitutional (Bakke vs. Regents of the University of California). An argument in support of affirmative action is that it can help minority students who don’t have the same opportunity level to succeed and attend college as other non-minority students. An argument against affirmative action deals with people who are qualified applicants and get turned away so that someone less qualified that is a minority can get in to a certain school. In this case, the decision would be based solely on race and in my opinion could be seen as discrimination. I understand why affirmative action is important but I believe it should not play a large role when admitting qualified applicants.

2018-12-13-1544721679

The stigma surrounding mental illness: essay help free

Mental illness is defined as a health problem resulting from complex interactions between an individual’s mind, body and environment which can significantly affect their behavior, actions and thought processes. A variety of mental illnesses exist, impacting the body and mind differently, whilst affecting the individual’s mental, social and physical wellbeing to varying degrees. A range of psychological treatments have been developed in order to assist people living with mental illness, however social stigma can prevent individuals from successfully engaging with these treatments. Social or public stigma is characterized by discriminatory behavior and prejudicial attitudes towards people with mental health problems resulting from the psychiatric label they possess (Link, Cullen, Struening & Shrout, 1989). The stigma surrounding labelling oneself with a mental illness causes individuals to hesitate in regards to seeking help as well as resistance to treatment options. Stigma and its effects can vary depending on demographic factors including age, gender, occupation and community. There are many strategies in place to attempt to reduce stigma levels which focus on educating people and changing their attitudes towards mental health.

Prejudice, discrimination and ignorance surrounding mental illnesses results in a public stigma which has a variety of negative social effects towards individuals with mental health problems (Thornicroft et al 2007). An understanding of how stigma can be gained through the Attribution Model which identifies four steps involved in the formation of a stigma (Link & Phelan, 2001). The first step in the formation of a stigma is ‘labelling’, whereby key traits are recognized as portraying a significant difference. The next step is ‘stereotyping’ whereby these differences are defined as undesirable characteristics followed by ‘Separating’ which makes a distinction between ‘normal’ people versus the stereotyped group. Stereotypes surrounding mental illnesses have been developing for centuries, with early beliefs being that individuals suffering from mental health problems were possessed by demons or spirits. ‘Explanations’ such as these, promoted discrimination within the community, preventing individuals from admitting any mental health problems due to a fear of retribution (Swanson, Holzer, Ganju & Jono, 1990). The final step in the Attribution model described by Link and Phelan is ‘Status Loss’ which leads to the devaluing and rejection of individuals in the labelled group (Link & Phelan, 2001). An individual’s desire to avoid the implications of public stigma causes them to avoid or drop out of treatment for fear of being associated with negative stereotypes (Corrigan, Druss and Perlick, 2001). One of the main stereotypes surrounding mental illness, especially depression, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is that people with these illnesses are dangerous and unpredictable (Wang & Lai, 2008). Wang and Lai carried out a survey whereby 45% of participants considered people with depression as dangerous, however these results maybe subject to some reporting bias, yet a general inference can be made. Another survey found that a large proportion of people also confirmed that they were less likely to employ someone with mental health problems (Reavley & Jorm, 2011). This study highlights how public stigma can affect employment opportunities, consequently creating a greater barrier for anyone who would benefit from seeking treatment.

Certain types of stigma are unique and consequently more severe to certain groups within society. Approximately 22 soldiers or veterans commit suicide every day in the United States due to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and depression. A study was performed surveying soldiers and found that out of all the people who met the criteria for a mental illness, only 38% would be interested in receiving help and only 23-30% actually ended up receiving professional help (Hoge et al, 2004). There is an enormous stigma surrounding mental illness within the military, due to their high values in mental fortitude, strength, endurance and self sufficiency (Staff, 2004). A soldier who admits to having mental health problems is deemed as not adhering to these values thus appearing weak or dependent, therefore placing a greater pressure on the individual to deny or hide any mental illness. Another contributor to soldiers avoiding treatment is a fear of social exclusion as it is common in military culture for some personnel to socially distance themselves from soldiers with mental health problems (Britt et al, 2007). This exclusion is due to the stereotype that mental health problems make a soldier unreliable, dangerous and unstable. Surprisingly, individuals with mental health problems who seek treatment are deemed more emotionally unstable than those who do not, thus the stigma surrounding therapy creates a barrier for individuals to start or continue their treatment (Porath, 2002). Furthermore, soldiers are also faced with the fear that seeking treatment will negatively affect their career, both in and out of the military, with 46 percent of employers considering PTSD as an obstacle when hiring veterans in a 2010 survey (Ousley, 2012). The stigma associated with mental illness in the military is extremely detrimental to the soldiers’ wellbeing as it prevents them from seeking or successfully engaging in the treatment for mental illnesses which have tragic consequences.

Adolescents and young adults with mental illness have the lowest rate for seeking professional help and treatment, despite the high occurrence of mental health problems. (Rickwood, Deane & Wilson, 2007). Adolescents’ lack of willingness to seek help and treatment for mental health problems is catalyzed by the anticipation of negative responses from family, friends and school staff. (Chandra & Minkovitz, 2006). A Queensland study of people aged 15–24 years showed that 39% of the males and 22% of the females reported that they would not request help for emotional or distressing problems (Donald, Dower, Lucke & Raphael, 2000). A 2010 survey of adolescents with mental health problems found that 46% described experiencing feelings of distrust, avoidance, pity and prejudice from family members. This portrays how negative family responses and attitudes impact an individual by creating a significant barrier to seeking help (Moses, 2010). Similarly, a study on adolescent depression also noted that teenagers who felt more stigmatized, particularly within the family, were less likely to seek treatment (Meredith et al., 2009). Furthermore, adolescents with unsupportive parents would struggle to pay expenses for treatment and transportation, further preventing successful treatment of the illness. Unfortunately, the generation of stigma is not unique to just family members, adolescents also report having felt discriminated by peers and even school staff (Moses, 2010). The main step to seeking help and engaging in treatment for mental illness is to acknowledge that there is a problem and to be comfortable enough to disclose this information to another person (Rickwood et al, 2005). However, in another 2010 study of adolescents, many expressed fear of being bullied by peers, subsequently leading to secrecy and shame (Kranke et al., 2010). The role of public stigma in generating this shame and denial is significant and thus can be defined as a factor in preventing adolescents from seeking support for their mental health problems. A 2001 study testing the relationship between adherence to medication (in this case, antidepressants) and perceived stigma levels determined that individuals who accepted the antidepressants were found to have lower perceived stigma levels (Sirey et al, 2001). This empirical data clearly illustrates the correlation between public stigma levels and an individual’s engagement in treatment, thus inferring that stigma remains a barrier for treatment. Public stigma can therefore be defined as a causative factor in the majority of adolescents not seeking support or treatment for their mental health problems.

One of the main strategies performed by society to assist in the reduction of the public stigma surrounding mental illness is education. Educating people about the common misconceptions of mental health challenges the inaccurate stereotypes and substitutes them with factual information (Corrigan et al., 2012). There is sufficient proof that people who have more information about mental health problems are less stigmatizing than people who are misinformed about them (Corrigan & Penn, 1999). The low cost and far-reaching nature are beneficial aspects of the educational approach. Educational approaches are often carried out on adolescents as it is believed that by educating children about mental illness, stigma can be prevented from emerging in adulthood (Corrigan et al., 2012). A 2001 study testing the effect of education on 152 students found that levels of stigmatization were lessened following the implementation of the strategy (Corrigan et al, 2001). However, it was also determined that by combining a contact based approach with the educational strategy would yield the highest levels of stigma reduction. Studies have also shown that a short educational program can be effective at reducing individuals’ negative attitudes toward mental illness and increases their knowledge on the issue (Corrigan & O’Shaughnessy, 2007). The effect of an educational strategy varies depending on what type of information is being communicated towards people. The information provided should deliver realistic descriptions of mental health problems and their causes as well as emphasizing the benefits of treatment. By delivering accurate information to people, the negative stereotypes surrounding mental illness can be decreased and the publics views on the controllability and treatment of psychological problems can be altered (Britt et al, 2007). Educational approaches mainly focus on improving knowledge and attitudes surrounding mental illness and do not focus directly on changing behavior. Therefore, a link cannot be clearly made as to whether educating people actually reduces discrimination. Although this remains a major limitation in today’s society, educating people at an early age can ensure that in the future discrimination and stigmatization will decrease. Reducing the negative attitudes surrounding mental illness can encourage those suffering from mental health problems to seek help. Providing individuals with correct information regarding the mechanisms and benefits of treatment, such as psychotherapy or drugs like antidepressants, increases their own mental health literacy and therefore increases the likelihood of seeking treatment (Jorm and Korten, 1997). People who are educated about mental health problems are less likely to believe or generate stigma surrounding mental illnesses and therefore contribute to reducing stigma which in turn will increase levels of successful treatment for themselves or other individuals.

The public stigma surrounding mental health problems is defined by negative attitudes, prejudice and discrimination. This negativity in society is very debilitating towards any individual suffering from mental illness and creates a barrier for seeking out help and engaging in successful treatment. The negative consequences of public stigma for individuals is to be excluded, not considered for a job or for friends and family to become socially distant. By educating people about the causes, symptoms and treatment of mental illnesses, stigma can be reduced as misinformation is usually a key factor in the promotion of harmful stereotypes. An individual will more likely engage in successful treatment if they are accepting of their illness and if stigma is reduced.

2016-10-9-1475973764

Frederick Douglass, Malcolm X and Ida Wells

Civil Rights are “the rights to full legal, social, and economic equality” . Following the American Civil War, slavery was officially abolished December 6th, 1865 in the United States of America (US). The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments established a legal framework for political equality for African Americans; many thought that this would lead to equality between white and blacks however this was not the case. Despite slavery’s abolition Jim Crow racial segregation in the South meant that blacks would be denied political rights and freedoms and they would continue to live in poverty and inequality. It took nearly 100 years of campaigning until the Civil Rights and Voting Rights Acts were passed, making it illegal to discriminate based on race, colour, religion, sex or national origin and ensuring minority voting rights. Martin Luther King was prominent in the Modern Civil Rights Movement (CRM), playing a key role in legislative and social change. His assassination in 1968 marked the end of a distinguished life helping millions of African Americans across the US. The contribution played by black activists including political Frederick Douglass, militant Malcolm X and journalist Ida Wells throughout the period will be examined from a political, social and economic, perspective. When comparing their significance to that of King, consideration must be given to the time in which activists were operating and to prevailing social attitudes. Although King was undeniably significant it was the combined efforts of all the black activists and the mass protest movement in the mid-20th century that eventually led to African Americans gaining civil rights.

The significance of King’s role is explored through Clayborne Carson’s, ‘The Papers of Martin Luther King’ (Appendix 1). Carson, a historian at Stanford University, suggests that “the black movement would probably have achieved its major legislative victory without King’s leadership” Carson does not believe King was pivotal in gaining civil rights, but that he quickened the process. The mass public support shown in the March on Washington, 1963, suggests that Carson is correct in arguing that the movement would have continued its course without King. However, it was King’s oratory skill in his ‘I have a Dream’ speech that was most significant. Carson suggests key events would still have taken place without King. “King did not initiate…” the Montgomery bus boycott rather Rosa Parks did. His analysis of the idea of a ‘mass movement’ furthers his argument of King’s less significant role. Carson suggests that ‘mass activism’ in the South resulted from socio-political forces rather than ‘the actions of a single leader’. King’s leadership was not vital to the movement gaining support and legislative change would have occurred regardless. The source’s tone is critical of his significance but passive in the dismissal of King’s role. Phrases such as “without King” are used to diminish him in a less aggressive manner. Carson, a civil rights historian with a PhD from UCLA has written books and documentaries including ‘Eyes on the Prize’ and so is qualified to judge. The source was published in 1992 in conjunction with King’s wife, Coretta, who took over as head of the CRM after King’s assassination and extended its role to include women’s rights and LGBT rights. Although this may make him subjective, he attacks King’s role suggesting he presents a balanced view. Carson produced his work two decades after the movement and three decades before the ‘Black Lives Matter’ marches of the 21st century, and so was less politically motivated in his interpretation. The purpose of his work was to edit and publish the papers of King on behalf of The King Institute to show King’s life and the CRM he inspired. Overall, Carson argues that King had significance in quickening the process of gaining civil rights however he believes that without his leadership, the campaigning would have taken a similar course and that US mass activism was the main driving force.

In his book ‘Martin Luther King Jr.’ (Appendix 2) historian Peter Ling argues, like Carson, that King was not important to the movement but differs suggesting it was other activists who brought success and not mass activism. Ling believes that ‘without the activities of the movement’ King might just have been another ‘Baptist preacher who spoke well.’ It can be inferred that Ling believes King was not vital to the CRM and was just a good orator.

Ling’s reference to activist Ella Baker 1903-86 who ‘complained that “the movement made Martin, not Martin the Movement”’ suggests the King’s political career was of more importance to him than the goal of civil rights. Baker told King she disapproved of his being hero worshipped and others argued that he was ‘taking too many bows and enjoying them’. Baker promoted activists working together, as seen through her influence in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Clearly many believed King was not the only individual to have an impact on the movement, and so Ling’s argument that multiple activists were significant is further highlighted.

Finally, Ling argues that ‘others besides King set the pace for the Civil Rights Movement’ which explicitly shows how other activists working for the movement were the true heroes, they orchestrated events and activities yet it was King that benefitted. However King himself suggested that he was willing to use successful tactics suggested by others. The work of activists such as Philip Randolph who organise the 1963 March highlights how individuals played a greater role in moving the CRM forward than King. The tone attacks King using words such as ‘criticisms’ to diminish King’s role. Ling says that he has ‘sympathy’ for Miss Baker showing his positive tone towards other activists.

Ling was born in the UK studying History at Royal Holloway College and a MA in American Studies, Institute United States Studies, London. This gives Ling an international perspective, making him less subjective as he has no political motivations nevertheless this makes his interpretation limited in that he has no primary knowledge of civil rights in the US. The book was published in 2002 consequently this gives Ling hindsight making his judgment more accurate and less subjective as he is no longer affected by King’s influence. Similarly, his knowledge of American history and the CRM makes his work accurate. Unlike Carson who was a black activist and attended the 1963 March, White Ling was born in 1956 and was not involved with the CRM and so will have a less accurate interpretation. A further limitation is his selectivity; he gives no attention to the successes of King, including his inspiring ‘I had a dream speech’. As a result, it is not a balanced interpretation and thus its value is limited.

Overall, although weaker than Carson’s interpretation, Ling does give an argument that is of value when understanding King’s significance. Both revisionists, the two historians agree that King was not the most significant reason to gaining civil rights however differ on who or what they see as more important. Carson argues that mass activism was vital in success whereas Ling believes it to be other activists.

A popular pastor in the Baptist Church, King was the leader of the CRM when it gained black rights successes in the 1960s. He demonstrated the power of the church and NAACP in the pursuit of civil rights His oratory skills ensured many blacks and whites attended the protests and increased support. He understood the power of the media in getting his message to a wide audience and in putting pressure on the US government. The Birmingham campaign 1963, where peaceful protestors including children were violently attacked by police and his inspirational ‘Letter from Birmingham Jail’ that King wrote were heavily publicised. US society gradually sympathised with the black ‘victims’. Winning the Nobel Peace Prize gained the movement further international recognition. King’s leadership was instrumental in the political achievements of the CRM, inspiring the grassroots activism needed to apply enough pressure on government, which behind the scenes activists like Baker had worked tirelessly to build. Nevertheless there had been a generation of activists who played their parts often through the church publicising the movement, achieving early legislative victories and helping to kick-start the modern CRM and the idea of nonviolent civil disobedience. King’s significance is that he was the figurehead of the movement at the time when civil rights were eventually given.

Pioneering activist Frederick Douglass 1818-95 had political significance to the CRM holding federal positions which enabled him to influence government and Presidents throughout the Reconstruction era. He is often called the ‘father of the civil rights movement’. Douglass held several prominent roles including US Marshall for DC. He was the first black to hold high office in government and in 1872 the first African American nominated for US Vice President particularly significant as blacks’ involvement in politics was severely restricted at the time. Like King he was a brilliant orator, lecturing on civil rights in the US and abroad. When compared to King Douglass was significant in the CRM. He promoted equality for blacks and whites, although unlike King he did not ultimately achieve black civil rights this was because he was confined by the era that he lived.

The contribution of W.E.B Du Bois 1868-1963 was significant as he laid the foundations for future black activists, including King, to build. In 1909 he established The National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP) the most important 20th century black organisation other than the church. King became a member of NAACP and used it to organise the bus boycott and other mass protests. As a result, the importance of Du Bois to the CRM is that King’s success depended on NAACP therefore Du Bois is of similar significance, if not more so than King in pursuing black civil rights.

Ray Stanard Baker’s article in 1908 for The American Magazine speaks of Du Bois’ enthusiastic attitude to the CRM, his intelligence and knowledge of African Americans. (Appendix 3) The quotation of Du Bois at the end of the extract reads “Do not submit! agitate, object, fight,” showing he was not passive but preaching messages of rebellion. The article describes him with vocabulary such as “critical” and “impatient” showing his radical passionate side. Baker also states Du Bois’ contrasting opinions compared to Booker T Washington one of his contemporary black activists. This is evident when it says “his answer was the exact reverse of Washington’s” demonstrating how he was different to the passive, ‘education for all’ Washington. Du Bois valued education, but believed in educating an elite few, the ‘talented tenth’ who could strive for rapid political change. The tone is positive towards Du Bois praising him for being a ferocious character dedicated to achieving civil rights. Through phrases such as “his struggles and his aspirations” this dedicated and praising tone is developed. The American Magazine founded in 1906 was an investigative US paper. Many contributors to the magazine were ‘muckraking’ journalists meaning that they were reformists who attacked societal views and traditions. As a result, the magazine would be subjective, favouring radical Du Bois’, challenging the Jim Crow South and appealing to its radical target audience. The purpose of the source was to confront the racism in the US and so would be political motivated making it subjective regarding civil rights. However some evidence suggests that Du Bois was not radical, his Paris Exposition in 1900 showed the world real African Americans. Socially he made a major contribution to black pride contributing to the black unity felt during the Harlem Renaissance. The Renaissance popularised black culture and so was a turning point in the movement, in the years after the CRM grew in popularity and became a national issue. Finally, the source refers to his intelligence and educational prowess; he carried out economic studies for the US Government and was educated at Harvard and abroad. As a result, it can be inferred that Du Bois rose to prominence and made a significant contribution to the movement due to his intelligence and his understanding of US society and African American culture. One of the founders of the NAACP his significance in attracting grassroots activists and uniting black people was vital. The NAACP leader Roy Wilkins at the March on Washington highlighted his contribution following his death the day before, and said, “his was the voice that was calling you to gather here today in this cause.” Wilkins is suggesting that Du Bois had started the process which had led to the March.

Rosa Parks 1913-2005 and Charles Houston 1895-1950 were NAACP activists who benefitted from the work of Du Bois and achieved significant political success in the CRM. Parks the “Mother of the Freedom Movement.” was the spark that ignited the modern CRM by protesting on a segregated bus. Following her refusal to move to the black area she was arrested. Parks, King and NAACP members staged a yearlong bus boycott in Montgomery. Had it not been for Parks, King may never have had the opportunity to rise to prominence or had mass support for the movement and so her activism was key in shaping King. Lawyer Houston helped defend black Americans, breaking down the deep rooted discriminative and segregation laws in the South. It was his ground-breaking use of sociological theories that formed the basis of the Brown v. the Board of Education 1954 that ended segregation in schools. Although compared to King, Houston is less prominent; his work was significant in reducing black discrimination gaining him the nickname ‘The man who killed Jim Crow ‘. Nonetheless had Du Bois’ NAACP not existed, Parks and Houston would never have had an organisation to support them in their fight, likewise King would never have gained the mass support for civil rights.

Trade unionist Philip Randolph 1890-1979 brought about important political changes. His pioneering use of nonviolent confrontation had a significant impact on the CRM and was widely used throughout 1950’s and 60’s. Randolph had become a prominent civil rights spokesman after organising the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters in 1925, the first black majority union. Mass unemployment after the US Depression led to civil rights becoming a political issue and US trade unions supported equal rights and black membership grew. Randolph was striving for political change that would bring equality. Aware of his influence in 1941 he threatened a protest march which pressured President Roosevelt into issuing Executive Order 8802 an important early employment civil rights victory. There was a shift in the direction of the movement focussing on the military because after the Second World War black soldiers felt disenfranchised and became the ‘foot soldiers of the CRM’ fighting for equality in these mass protests. Randolph led peaceful protests which resulted in President Truman issuing Executive Order 9981 desegregating of the Armed Forces showing his key political significance. Significantly this legislation was a catalyst leading to further desegregation laws. His contribution to the CRM, support of King’s leadership and masterminding of the 1963 March made his significance equal to King’s.

King realised that US society needed to change and inspired by Ghandi he too used non-violent mass protest to bring about change, including the Greensboro Sit-ins to de-segregate lunch counters. Similarly activist Booker T Washington 1856-1915 significantly improved the lives of thousands of southern blacks who were poorly educated and trapped in poverty following Reconstruction through his pioneering work in black education. He founded the Tuskegee Institute. In his book ‘Up from Slavery: An Autobiography’ (Appendix 4) he suggests that gaining civil rights would be difficult and slow, but all blacks should work on improving themselves through education and hard work to peacefully push the movement forward. He says that “the according of the full exercise of political rights” will not be an “overnight gourdvine affair” and that a black should “deport himself modestly in regard of political claim”. Inferring that Washington wanted peaceful protest and acknowledged the time it would take to gain equality, making his philosophy like King’s. Washington’s belief in using education to gain the skills to improve lives and fight for equality is evident through the Tuskegee Institute which educated 2000 blacks a year.

The tone of the source is peaceful, calling for justice in the South. Washington uses words such as “modestly” in an attempt for peace and “exact justice” to show how he believes in equal political rights for all. The reliability of the source is mixed. Washington is subjective as he wants his autobiography to be read, understood and supported. The intended audience would have been anyone in the US, particularly blacks whom Washington wanted to inspire to protest and white politicians who would advance civil rights. The source is accurate, it was written in 1901, during the Jim Crow South. Washington would have been politically motivated in his autobiography; demanding legislative change to give blacks civil rights. There would have also been an educational factor that contributed to his writing, his Tuskegee Institute and educational philosophy, having a deep impact on his autobiography.

The source shows how and why the unequal South should no longer be segregated. Undoubtedly significant, as his reputation grew he became an important public speaker and is considered to have been a leading spokesman for black people and issues like King. An excellent role model a former slave who influenced statesmen he was the first black to dine with the President (Roosevelt) at the White House showing blacks they could achieve anything. Activist Du Bois described him as “the one recognised spokesman of his 10 million fellows … the most striking thing in the history of the American Negro”. Although not as decisive in gaining civil rights as King, Washington was important in preparing blacks for urban and working life but also empowering the next generation of activists.

Inspired by Washington the charismatic Jamaican radical activist Marcus Garvey 1880-1940 arrived in the US in 1916. Garvey had a social significance to the movement striving to better the lives of US blacks. He rose to prominence during the ‘Great Migration’ when poor southern blacks were moving to the industrial North, making Southern race problems into national ones. He founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) which had over 2,000,000 members in 1920. He appealed to discontented First World War black soldiers who had returned home to violent racial discrimination. The importance of the First World War was paramount in enabling Garvey to gain the vast support he did in the 1920s. Garvey published a newspaper, the Negro World which spread his ideas about education and Pan-Africanism, the political union of all people of African descent. Garvey like King gained a greater audience for the CRM, in 1920 he led an international convention in Liberty Hall, and 50,000 parade through Harlem. Garvey inspired later activists such as King.

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Reflective essay on use of learning theories in the classroom: college application essay help

Over recent years teaching theories have been more common in the class room, all in the hope of supporting students and been able to further their knowledge by understanding their abilities and what they need to develop. As a teacher it is important to embed teaching and learning theories in the class room, therefore as teachers we can teach the students to their individual needs.

Throughout my research I will be looking in to the key differences of two different theories by comparing two theories used in class rooms today. I will also be critically analysing what the role of the teacher is in the life-long learning sector, by analysing the professional and legislative frameworks, as well as looking for a deeper understanding into classroom management, and why it is used and how to manage different class room environments, such as managing inclusion and how it is supported throughout different methods.

Overall, I will be linking this to my own teaching, at A Mind Apart (A Mind Apart, 2019). Furthermore, I will have the ability to understand about interaction within the classroom and why communication between fellow teachers and students is important.

The role of the teacher is known for been the forefront of knowledge. Therefore, this suggest that the role of the teacher is to pass their knowledge on to their students, known as a ‘chalk and talk’ approach, although this approach is outdated and there are various ways we now teach in the classroom. Walker believes that, ‘the modern teacher is facilitator: a person who assists students to learn for themselves’ (Reece & Walker 2002) I for one cannot say I fully believe in this approach, as all students have individual learning needs, and some may need more help than others. As the teacher, it is important to know the full capability of your learners, therefore lessons can be structure to the learner’s need. It is important for the lessons to involve active learning and discussions, these will help keep the students engaged and motivated during class. Furthermore, it is important to not only know what you want the students the be learning, but it is just as important that you know as the teacher, what you are teaching; it is important to be prepared and be fully involved in your own lesson, before you go in to any class, as a teacher I make my students my priority, therefore, I leave any personal issues outside the door so I am able to give my students the best learning environment they could possibly have; not only is it important to do this but keep updated on your subject specialism, I always double check my knowledge of my subject regularly, I find following this structure my lesson will normally run at a smooth pace.

Taking in to consideration the students I teach are vulnerable there may be minor interruptions. It is not only important that you as the teacher leave your issues at the door, but to make sure the room is free from distractions, most young adults have a lot of situations which are they find hard to deal with, which means you as the teacher are not only there to educate but to make the environment safe and relaxing for your students to enjoy learning. As teachers we not only have the responsibility of making sure the teaching takes place, but we also have the responsibilities of exams, qualifications and Ofsted; and as a teacher in the life-long learning sector it is also vital that you evaluate not only your learner’s knowledge, but you evaluate yourself as a teacher, therefore, you are able to improve your teaching strategies and keep up to date.

When assessing yourself and your students it is important not to wait until the end of a term to do this and evaluate throughout the whole term. Small assessments are a good way of doing this, it doesn’t always have to be a paper examination, you can equally you can do a quiz, ask questions, use various fun games, or even use online games such as Kahoot to help your students regain their knowledge. This will not only help you as a teacher understand your students’ abilities, but it will also help your students know what they need to work on for next term.

Alongside the already listed roles and responsibilities of being a teacher in the life-long learning sector, Ann gravels explains that,

‘Your main role as a teacher should be to teach your students in a way that actively involves and engages your students during every session’ (Gravells, 2011, p.9.)

Gravels passion is solely based on helping new teachers, gain the knowledge and information they need to become successful in the lifelong learning sector. Gravels’ has achieved this by writing various text books on the lifelong learning sector. Gravels’ states in her book ‘Preparing to teach in the lifelong learning sector’, (Gravells, 2011) the importance of the 13 legislation acts. Although I find each of them equally important as each other, I am going to mention the ones I am most likely to use during my teacher training with A Mind Apart.

Safeguarding vulnerable groups act (2006) – Working with young vulnerable adults, I find this act is the one I am most likely to use during my time with A Mind Apart. In summary, the Act explains the following: ‘The ISA will make all decisions about who should be barred from working with children and vulnerable adults.’ (Southglos.gov.uk, 2019)
The Equality act (2010) – As I will be working with different sex, race and disabilities in any teaching job which I encounter, I believe The Equality act (2010) is fundamental to mention. The Equality act 2010 covers discrimination under one legalisation.
Code of professional practice (2008) – This act covers all aspects of the activities we as teachers in the lifelong learning sector may encounter. Based around seven behaviours which are: Professional practice, professional integrity, respect, reasonable care, criminal offence disclosure, and reasonability during institute investigations.

(Gravells, 2011)

Although, all acts are equally important, those are the few acts I would find myself using regularly. I have listed the others below:

Children act (2004)
Copyright designs and patents act (1988)
Data protection act (1998)
Education and skills act (2008)
Freedom of information act (2000)
Health and safety at work act (1974)
Human rights act (1998)
Protection of children act (POCA) (1999)
The Further education teachers’ qualification regulations (2007)

(Gravells, 2011)

Teaching theories are much more common in classrooms today, however there are three main teaching theories which us as teachers are known for using in the classroom daily. Experiments show that we find the following theories work the best: behaviourism, cognitive constructivist, and social constructivist, taking these theories into consideration I will look at comparing skinners behaviourist theory and taking a look at Maslow (1987) ‘Hierarchy Of Needs’ which was introduced in 1954, and how I could use these theories in my teaching as a drama teacher in the life-long learning sector.

Firstly, looking in to behaviourism is mostly described as the teacher questioning and the student responds the way you want them to. Behaviourism is a theory, which in a way can take control of how the student acts/behaves, if used to its full advantage. Keith Pritchard (Language and Learning, 2019) describes behaviourism as ‘A theory of learning focusing on observable behaviours and discounting any mental activity. Learning is defined simply as the acquisition of a new behaviour.’ (E-Learning and the Science of Instruction, 2019).

An example of how behaviourism works, is best demonstrated through the work of Ivan Pavlov (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2019) Pavlov was a physiologist during the start of the twentieth century and used a method called ‘conditioning’, (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2019) which is a lot like the behaviourism theory. During Pavlov’s experiment, he ‘conditioned’ the dogs to make them salivate when they heard a bell ring, as soon as the dogs hear the bell, they associate it with getting fed. As a result of this the dogs were behaving exactly how Pavlov wanted them to behave, therefore they had successfully been ‘conditioned’. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2019)

During Pavlov’s conditioning experiment there are four main stages in the process of classical conditioning, these include,

Acquisition, which is the initial learning;
Extinction, meaning the dogs in Pavlov’s experiment may not respond, if no food is presented to them;
Generalisation, after learning a response, the dog may now respond to other stimuli, with no further training. For example: if a child falls off a bike, a injures their self, they may be frightened to get back on to the bike again. And lastly,
Discrimination, which is the opposite of generalisation, for example the dog will not respond in the same way to another stimulus as they did the first one.

Pritchard states ‘It Involves reinforcing a behaviour by rewarding it’ which is what Pavlov’s dog experiment does. Although rewarding behaviour can be good, it can also be negative, such as bad behaviour can be discouraged by punishment. The key aspects of conditioning are as follows: Reinforcement, Positive reinforcement, Negative reinforcement, and shaping. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2019)

Behaviourism is one of the learning theories I use in my teaching today, working at A Mind Apart, (A Mind Apart, 2019) I work with challenging young people. The A Mind Apart organisation, a performing arts foundation especially targeted at vulnerable and challenging young people, to help better their lives; hence, on the off chance that I use the behaviourism theory it will admirably inspire the students to do better. Using behaviourism with respect to the standard of improvement and reaction, behaviourism is driven by the teacher and is responsible for how the student will carry on and how it is finished. This theory came around in the early twentieth century and concentrated how individuals behave; with respect to the work I do at A Mind Apart, as a trainee performing arts teacher, I can identify with behaviourism limitlessly, every Thursday, when my 2 hour class is finished, I at that point take 5 minutes out of my lesson to award a ‘Star of the week’ It is an incredible method to urge students to carry on the way they have been, if behaving and influence them to endeavour towards something ion the future. Furthermore, I have discovered that this theory can function admirably in any expert subject and not just performing arts. The behaviourism theory is straightforward as it depends just on detectable conduct and portrays a few widespread laws of conduct. It’s positive and negative support strategies can be extremely effective. The students who we teach in general at A Mind Apart, are destined to come to us with emotional well-being issues, which is the reason most of the time these students find that it is hard to focus, or even learn in a school environment; we are there to give a comprehensive learning environment and utilize the time we have with them, so they can move forward at their own pace and take a leap at their scholarly aptitudes and socialising in the future when they leave us, to move on to college or even jobs, our work with them will also help them meet new individuals, and gain new useful knowledge by using behaviourism teaching theory. Despite the fact some of them may struggle with obstacles during their lives; although it is not always easy to manipulate someone in to thinking or behaving the way you do or want them to, with time, and persistence I have found that this theory can work. It is known that…

‘Positive reinforcement or rewards can include verbal feedback such as ‘That’s great, you’ve produced that document without any errors’ or ‘You’re certainly getting on well with that task’ through to more tangible rewards such as a certificate at the end’… (Information List of topics Assessment Becoming a teacher Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Embedding maths et al., 2019)

Gagne (Mindtools.com, 2019) was an American educational psychologist best known for his nine levels of learning; Regarding Gagne’s nine levels of learning, (Mindtools.com, 2019) I have done something in depth research, in just a couple of his nine levels of learning therefore I will be able to understand the levels and how his theory link to behaviourism.

Create an attention-grabbing introduction.
Inform learner about the objectives.
Stimulate recall of prior knowledge.
Create goal-centred eLearning content.
Provide online guidance.
Practice makes perfect.
Offer timely feedback.
Assess early and often.
Enhance transfer of knowledge by tying it into real world situations and applications.

(Mindtools.com, 2019)

Informing the learner of the objectives, is the one level I can relate to the most during my lessons, I find it important in many ways why you as the teacher, should let your students know what they are going to be learning during that specific lesson. This will help them have a better understanding throughout the lesson, as even more engage them from the very start. Linking it to behaviourism during my lessons, I tell my students what I want from them that lesson, and what I expect them, with their individual needs, to be learning or have learnt by the end of lesson. If I believe learning has taking place during my lesson, I will reward them with a game of their choice at the end of the lesson. In their mind they understand they must do as they are asked by the teacher, or the reward to play a game at the end of lesson, will be forfeited. As studies show, during Pavlov’s (E-Learning and the Science of Instruction, 2019) dog experiment that this theory does work, it can take a lot of work. I have built a great relationship with my students, and most of the time they are willing to work to the best of their ability.

Although Skinners’ (E-Learning and the Science of Instruction, 2019) behaviourist theory is based around manipulation, Maslow’s ‘Hierarchy Of Needs’ (Very well Mind, 2019) believes that behaviour and the way people act is based upon childhood events, therefore it is not always easy to manipulate in to the way you think, as they may have had a completely different upbringing, which will determine how they act. Maslow (Very well Mind, 2019) feels, if you remove the obstacles that stop the person from achieving, then they will have a better chance to achieve their goals; Maslow argues that there are five different needs which must be met in order to achieve this. The highest level of needs is self-actualisation which means the person must take full reasonability for their self, Maslow believes that people can go through to the highest levels, if they are in an education which can produce growth. Below is the table of Maslow’s ‘Hierarchy of needs’ (Very well Mind, 2019)

(Information List of topics Assessment Becoming a teacher Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Embedding maths et al., 2019)

In an explanation the table lets you know your learners needs throughout different levels, during their time in your learning environment, all learners may be at different levels, but should be able to progress on to the next one when they feel comfortable to do so. There may be knockbacks which your learners as individuals will face, but is the needs that will motivate the learning, although you may find that not all learners want to progress through the levels of learning at that moment in time, for example, if your learner if happy with the progress they have achieved so far and are content with life, they may find they want to stay at that certain level.

It is important to use the levels to encourage your learners by working up the table.

Stage 1 of the table is the physiological need – are your learners comfortable in the environment you are providing, are they hungry or thirsty? Your learners may even be tired; taking all these factors in to consideration, these may stop learning taking place. Therefore, it is important to meet all your learners’ physiological needs.

Moving up the table to safety and security – make your learners feel safe in an environment where they can relax, feel at ease. Are your learners worried about anything in particular? If so, can you help them overcome their worries.

Recognition – do your learners feel like they are part of the group? It is important to help those who don’t feel that they are part of the group bond with others. Help your learners belong and make them feel welcome. One recognition is in place your learners will then start to build their self-esteem, are they learning something useful, although your subject specialism may be second to none, it is important that your passion and drive shines through your teaching; overall this will result in the highest level: Self actualisation, are your learners achieving what they want to do? Make the sessions interesting and your learners will remember more about the subject in question. (Very well Mind, 2019)

Furthermore, classroom management comes in to force with any learning theory you use whilst teaching. Classroom management is made up of various techniques and skills that we as teacher utilize. Most of today’s classroom management systems are highly effective as they increase student success. As I am now a trainee teacher, I understand that classroom management can be difficult at times, therefore I am always researching different methods on how to manage my class. Although I don’t believe entirely that this comes from just methods, but if your pupils respect you as a teacher, and they understand what you expect of them whilst in your class, you should be able to manage the class fine; relating this with my placement at A Mind Apart, my students know what I expect of them and from that my classroom management is normally good…following this there are a few classroom management techniques I tend to follow:

Demonstrating the behaviour, you want to see – eye contact whilst talking, phones away in bags/coats, listen when been spoken to and be respectful of each other, these are all good codes of conduct to follow, and they are my main rules whilst in the classroom.
Celebrating hard work or achievements – When I think a student has done well, we as a group will celebrate their achievement, whether It be in education or out, a celebration always helps with classroom management.
Make your session engaging and motivating – This is something all us trainee teachers find difficult within our first year, as I have found out personally from the first couple of months, I have learnt to get to know your learners, understand what they like to do, and what activity’s keep them engaged.
Build strong relationships – I believe having a good relationship with your students is one of the key factors to managing a class room. It is important to build trust with your students, make them feel safe and let them know they are in a friendly environment.

When it comes to been in a classroom environment, not all students will adhere to this, therefore they may require a difference kind of structure to feel included. A key example of this is students with physical disabilities, you may need to adjust the tables or even move them out the way, you could also adjust the seating so a student may be able to see more clearly if they have hearing problems maybe write more down on the board, or even give them a sheet at the start of the lesson, which lets them know what you will be discussing and any further information they may need to know, not only do you need to take physical disabilities in to consideration but it is also important to cater for those who have behavioural problems, it is important to adjust the space to make your students feel safe whilst in your lesson.

Managing your class also means that sometimes you may have to adjust your teaching methods to suit all in your class and understand that it is important to incorporate cultural values. Whilst in the classroom, or even giving out home work you may need to take in to consideration that some students, especially those with learning difficulties, may take longer to do work, or even need additional help.

Conclusion

Research has given me a new insight into how many learning theories, teaching strategies and classroom management strategies there are, there are books and websites which help you achieve all the things you need to be able to do in your classroom. Looking back over this essay I looked in to the two learning theories that I am most likely to use.

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Synchronous and asynchronous remote learning during the Covid-19 pandemic

Student’s Motivation and Engagement

Motivation plays an important role in student engagement. Saeed and Zyngier (2012) contend that in order to assess student motivation, researchers should also have to examine engagement in and as part of learning. This manifests that there is a relationship between student motivation and engagement. As support to this relationship, Hufton, Elliot, and Illushin (2002) believe that high levels of engagement show high levels of motivation. In other words, when the levels of motivation of students are high that is when their levels of engagement are also high.

Moreover, Dörnyei (2020) suggests that the concept of motivation is closely associated with engagement, and with this he asserted that motivation must be ensured in order to achieve student engagement. He further offered that any instructional design should aim to keep students engaged, regardless of the learning context, may it be traditional or e-learning. In addition, Lewis et al (2014) reveal that within the online educational environment, students can be motivated by delivering an engaging student-centered experience consistently.

In the context of Student-Teacher Dialectical Framework embedded with Self-Determination Theory, Reeve, J. (2012) reveal three newly discovered functions of student engagement. First, is that engagement bridges students’ motivation to highly valued outcomes. Second, is that student engagement affects the future quality of learning environment especially in the flow of instruction, the external events it has, and the teacher’s motivating style. Third, is that student engagement changes motivation, which means that engagement cause changes in motivation in the future. This highlights that student motivation is both a cause and a consequence. This assertion that engagement can cause changes motivation is embedded on the idea that students can take actions to meet their own psychological needs and enhance the quality of their motivation. Further, Reeve, J. (2012) asserts that students can be and are architects of their own motivation, at least to the extent that they can be architects of their own course-related behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and agentic engagement.

Synchronous and Asynchronous Learning

The COVID-19 pandemic brought a great disaster on the education system around the world. Schools have struggled due to the situation in which led them to cessation of classes for an extended period of time and other restrictive measures that later on impede the continuance of face-to face classes. In consequence, there is a massive change towards the educational system around the world while educational institutions strive and put their best efforts to resolve the situation. Many schools had addressed the risks and challenges in continuing education amidst the crisis by shifting conventional or traditional learning into distance learning. Distance learning is a form of education through the support of technology that is conducted beyond physical space and time (Papadopulou, 2020). Distance learning is an online education that provides opportunities towards educational advancement and learning development among learners worldwide. In order to sustain the educational goal of our country, distance learning is a new way of providing quality education as much as possible among public and private institutions especially to those pursing in higher education. The instructional delivery in considering distance education can be through synchronous or asynchronous mode of learning, in which students can engage and continually attain quality education despite of the pandemic situation.

Based on the definition of Easy LMS Company (2020), synchronous learning refers to a learning event in which a group of participants is engaged in learning at the same time (e.g., zoom meeting, web conference, real- time class) while asynchronous learning refers to the opposite, in which the instructor, the learner, and other participants are not engaged in the learning process at the same time. Thus, there is no real-time interaction with other people (e.g., pre-recorded discussions, self- paced learning, discussion boards). According to article issued by University of Waterloo (2020), synchronous learning is a form of learning that is live presentation which allows the students to ask questions while asynchronous can be a recorded presentation that allows students to have time in reflecting before asking questions. Synchronous learning is a typical meeting of students in a virtual setting and there is a class discussion where everybody can participate actively. Asynchronous learning is the utilization of learning platform or portal where the teachers or instructors can post and update lessons or activities and student can work at their own pace. These types of class instruction are commonly observed in these times and students have their own preferences when it comes to what best works for them.

In comparing both of the types of learning, it is valuable to know the advantages and disadvantages in order to see how it will really be an impact towards students. Wintemute (2021) discussed synchronous learning has greater engagement and direct communication is present, but it requires strong internet connection. On the other hand, asynchronous learning is advantageous in schedule flexibility and more accessible, yet it is less immersive and the challenges in procrastination, socialization and distraction are present. Students in synchronous learning tend to adapt the changes of learning with classmates in a virtual setting while asynchronous learning introduced a new setting where students can choose when to study.

In the middle of the crisis, asynchronous learning can be more favorable than synchronous because most of us are struggling in this pandemic. One of the principal advantages of asynchronous online learning is that it offers more flexibility, allowing learners to set their own schedule and work at their own pace (Anthony and Thomas, 2020). In contrast, synchronous learning allows students to feel connected in a virtual world and it can give them assurance of not being isolated amidst studying lessons because they can have a live interactions and exchange of ideas and other valuable inputs for the class to understand the lessons well by the help of teachers. The main advantages of synchronous learning are that instructors can explain specific concepts when students are struggling and students can also get immediate answers about their concerns in the process of learning (Hughes, 2014). In the article of Delgado (2020), the advantages and disadvantages will not be effective if they do not have a pedagogical methodology considering the technology and its optimization. Furthermore, the quality of learning depends on good planning and design by reviewing and evaluating each type of learning modality.

Synthesis

Motivating students has been a key challenge facing instructors in the contexts of online learning (Zhao et. al 2016). In which motivation is one of the bases of the student to do well in their studies. When students are motivated, the outcome is a good mark. In short, motivation is a way to pushed them study more to get high grades. According to Zhao (2016) motivation in an online learning environment revealed that there are learning motivation differences among students from different cultural backgrounds. Motivation is described as “the degree of people’s choices and the degree of effort they will put forth” (Keller, 1983). Learning is closely linked to motivation because it is an active process that necessitates intentional and deliberate effort. Educators must build a learning atmosphere in which students are highly encouraged to participate both actively and productively in learning activities if they want to get the most out of school (Stipek, 2002). John Keller (1987) in his study revealed that attention and motivation will not be maintained unless the learner believes the teaching and learning are relevant. According to Zhao (2016), a strong interest in a topic will lead to mastery goals and intrinsic motivation.

Engagement can be perceived with the interaction between students and teachers in online classes. Student engagement, according to Fredericks et al. (2004), is a meta-construct that includes behavioral, affective, and mental involvement. Despite the fact that there is a broad body of literature on behavioral (i.e., time on task), emotional (i.e., interest and value), and cognitive engagement (i.e., self-regulation and learning strategies), what sets engagement apart is its capacity as a multifaceted strategy. While there is substantial research on behavioral (i.e., time on task), emotional (i.e., interest and value), and cognitive engagement (i.e., self-regulation and learning strategies what distinguishes engagement is its ability as a multidimensional or “meta”-construct that encompasses all three dimensions.

Motivation plays an important role in student engagement. Saeed and Zyngier (2012) contend that in order to assess student motivation, researchers should also have to examine engagement in and as part of learning.

Lewis et al (2014) reveal that within the online educational environment, students can be motivated by delivering an engaging student-centered experience consistently.

In the context of Student-Teacher Dialectical Framework embedded with Self-Determination Theory, Reeve, J. (2012) reveal three newly discovered functions of student engagement. First, is that engagement bridges students’ motivation to highly valued outcomes. Second, is that student engagement affects the future quality of learning environment especially in the flow of instruction, the external events it has, and the teacher’s motivating style. Third, is that student engagement changes motivation, which means that engagement cause changes in motivation in the future. Distance learning is an online education that provides opportunities towards educational advancement and learning development among learners worldwide. In order to sustain the educational goal of our country, distance learning is a new way of providing quality education as much as possible among public and private institutions especially to those pursing in higher education. The instructional delivery in considering distance education can be through synchronous or asynchronous mode of learning, in which students can engage and continually attain quality education despite of the pandemic situation.

According to article issued by University of Waterloo (2020), synchronous learning is a form of learning that is live presentation which allows the students to ask questions while asynchronous can be a recorded presentation that allows students to have time in reflecting before asking questions. Synchronous learning is a typical meeting of students in a virtual setting and there is a class discussion where everybody can participate actively. Asynchronous learning is the utilization of learning platform or portal where the teachers or instructors can post and update lessons or activities and student can work at their own pace. These types of class instruction are commonly observed in these times and students have their own preferences when it comes to what best works for them.

In comparing both of the types of learning, it is valuable to know the advantages and disadvantages in order to see how it will really be an impact towards students. Wintemute (2021) discussed synchronous learning has greater engagement and direct communication is present, but it requires strong internet connection. On the other hand, asynchronous learning is advantageous in schedule flexibility and more accessible, yet it is less immersive and the challenges in procrastination, socialization and distraction are present.

In the middle of the crisis, asynchronous learning can be more favorable than synchronous because most of us are struggling in this pandemic. One of the principal advantages of asynchronous online learning is that it offers more flexibility, allowing learners to set their own schedule and work at their own pace (Anthony and Thomas, 2020). In contrast, synchronous learning allows students to feel connected in a virtual world and it can give them assurance of not being isolated amidst studying lessons because they can have a live interactions and exchange of ideas and other valuable inputs for the class to understand the lessons well by the help of teachers.

2022-1-8-1641647078

‘Peak Oil’ – what are the solutions?

The ability to harness energy sources and put them towards a productive use has played a crucial role in economic development worldwide. Easily accessible oil helped to fuel continued expansion in the 20th century. Agricultural production was transformed by motorised farm equipment and petroleum-based fertilisers and pesticides. Cars, trucks and airplanes powered by oil products revolutionised the transportation of people and goods. Oil provides fuel for home heating, electricity production, and to power industrial and agricultural equipment. It also provides the source material for the construction of plastics, many fertilisers and pesticides and many industrial chemicals and materials. It is now difficult to find any product that does not require the use of oil at some point in the production process.

Oil has several advantages over other fossil fuels: it is easily transportable and energy-dense, and when refined it is suitable for a wide variety of uses. Considering the important role that oil plays in our economy, if persistent shortages were to emerge, the economic implications could be enormous. However, there is no consensus as to how seriously the treat of oil resources depletion should be taken. Some warn of a colossal societal collapse in the not-too-distant future, while others argue that technological progress will allow us to shift away from oil before resource depletion becomes an issue.

How much of a problem oil depletion poses depends on the amount of oil that remains accessible at reasonable cost, and how quickly the development of alternatives allows the demand for oil to be reduced. This is what the term ‘peak oil’ means the point of when the demand for oil outstrips the availability. Demand and supply each evolve over time following a pattern that is based in historical data, while supply is also constrained by resource availability. There is no mechanism for market on its own to address concerns about climate change. However, if policies are put in place to price the costs of climate change into the price of fossil fuel consumption, then this should trigger market incentives that should lead efficiently to the desired emission reductions.

A while ago the media was filed with stories about peak oil and it was even in an episode of the Simpsons. Peak oil in basic term means that the point we have used all the easy to extract oil and are only left with the hard to reach which in term is expensive to refine. There is still a huge amount of debate amongst geologist and Petro- industries experts about how much oil is left in the ground. However, since then the idea of a near-term peak in the world oil supplies has been discredited. The term that is now used is Peak Oil demand, the idea is that because of the proliferation of electric cars and other sources of energy means that demand for oil will reach a maximum and start to decline and indeed consumptions levels in some parts of the world have already begun to stagnate.

The other theory that has been produce is that with supply beginning to exceed demand there is not enough investment going into future oil exploration and development. Without this investment production will decline but production is not declining due to supply problems just that we are moving into an age of oil abundance and the decline in oil production seen if because of other factors. There has been an explosion of popular literature recently predicting that oil production will peak soon, and that oil shortages will force us into major lifestyle changes in the near future- a good example of this is Heinberg (2003). The point at which oil production reaches a peak and begins to decline permanently has been referred to as ‘Peak Oil’. Predictions for when this will occur range from 2007 and 2025 (Hirsch 2005)

The Hirsch Report of 2005 concluded that it would take a modern industrial nation such as the UK or the United States at least a full decade to prepare for peak oil. Since 2005 there has been some movement towards solar and wind power together with more electric cars but nothing that deals with the scale of the problem. This has been compounded by Trump coming to power in the United States and deciding to throw the energy transition into reverse, discouraging alternative energy and expanding subsidies for fossil fuels.

What is happening how

Many factors are reported in news reports to cause changes in oil prices: supply disruptions from wars and other political factors, from hurricanes or from other random events; changes in demand expectations based on economic reports, financial market events or even weather in areas where heating oil is used; changes in the value of the dollar; reports of inventory levels, etc. these are all factors that will affect the supply and demand for oil, but they often influence the price of oil before they have any direct impact on the current supply or demand for crude oil. Last year, the main forces pushing the oil market higher were the agreement by OPEC and its partners to lower production and the growth of global demand. This year, an array of factors are pressuring the oil markets: the US sanctions that threaten to cut Iranian oil production from Venezuela. Moreover, there are supply disruptions in Libya, the Canadian tar sands, Norway and Nigeria that add to the uncertainties as does erratic policymaking in Washington, complete with threats to sell off part of the US strategic reserve and a weaker dollar. Goldman Sachs continues to expect that Brent Crude prices could retest $80 a barrel this year, but probably only late in 2018. “production disruptions and large supply shifts driven by US political decisions are the drivers of this new volatility, with demand remaining robust so far” Brent Crude is expected to trade in the $70-$80 a barrel range in the immediate future.

The OPEC

Saudi Arabia-and Russia-had started to raise production even before the 22 June 2018 meeting with OPEC that sought to address the shrinking global oil supply and rising prices. OPEC had over-complying with the cuts agreed to at the November 2016 meeting thanks to additional cuts from Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. The June 2018 22nd meeting decided to increase production to more closely reflect the production cut agreement. After the meeting, Saudi Arabia pledged a “measurable” supply boost but gave no specific numbers. Tehran’s oil minister warned his Saudi Arabian counterpart that the June 22nd revision to the OPEC supply pact do not give member countries the right to raise oil production above their targets. The Saudis, Russia and several of the Gulf Arab States increased production in June but seem reluctant to expand much further. During the summer months, the Saudis always need to burn more raw crude in their power station to combat the very high temperatures of their summer.

US Shale oil production

According to the EIA’s latest drilling productivity Report, US unconventional oil production is projected to rise by 143,000 b/d in August to 7.470 billion b/d. The Permian Basin is seen as far outdistancing other shale basins in monthly growth in August, at 73,000 b/d to 3,406 million b/d. However, drilled but uncompleted (DUC) wells in the Permian rose 164 in June to 3,368, one of the largest builds in recent months. Total US DUCs rose by 193 to 7,943 in June. US energy companies last week cut oil rigs the most in a week since March as the rate of growth had slowed over the past month or so with recent declines in crude prices. Included with other optimistic forecast for US shale oil was the caveat that the DUC production figures are sketchy as current information is difficult for the EIA to obtain with little specific data being provided to Washington by E&Ps or midstream operators. Given all the publicity surrounding constraints on moving oil from the Permian to market, the EIA admits that it “may overestimate production due to constraints.”

The Middle East and North Africa

Iran

Iran’s supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, called on state bodies to support the government of president Hassan Rouhani in fighting US economic sanctions. The likely return of US economic sanctions has triggered a rapid fall of Iran’s currency and protests by bazaar traders usually loyal Islamist rulers, and a public outcry over alleged price gouging and profiteering. The speech to member of Rouhani’s cabinet is clearly aimed at the conservative elements in the government who have been critical of the President and his policies of cooperation with the West and a call for unity in a time that seems likely to be one of great economic hardship spread to more than 80 Iranian cities and towns. At least 25 people died in the unrest, the most significant expression of public corruption, but the protest took on a rare political dimension, with growing number of people calling on supreme leader Khamenei to step down. Although there is much debate over the effectiveness of the impending US sanctions, some analysts are saying that Iran’s oil exports could fall by as much as two-thirds by the end of the year putting oil markets under massive strain amid supply outages elsewhere in the world. Some of the worst-case scenarios are forecasting a drop to only 700,000 b/d with most of Tehran’s exports going to China, and smaller chares going to India, Turkey and other buyers with waivers. China, the biggest importer of Iranian oil at 650,000 b/d according to Reuters trade flow data, is likely to ignore US sanctions.

Iraq

Iraq’s future is again in trouble as protests erupt across the country. These protests began in southern Iraq after the government was accused of doing nothing to alleviate a deepening unemployment crisis, water and electricity shortages and rampant corruption. The demonstrations are spreading to major population centers including Najaf and Amirah, and now discontent is stirring in Baghdad. The government has been quick to promise more funding and investment in the development of chronically underdeveloped cities, but this has done little to quell public anger. Iraqis have heard these promises countless times before, and with a water and energy crisis striking in the middle of scorching summer heat, people are less inclined to believe what their government says. The civil unrest had begun to diminish in southern Iraq, leaving the country’s oil sector shaken but secure-though protesters have vowed to return. Operations at several oil fields have been affected as international oil companies and service companies have temporality withdrawn staff from some areas that saw protests. The government claims that the production and exporting oil has remained steady during the protests. With Iran refusing to provide for Iraq’s electricity needs, Baghdad has now also turned to Saudi Arabia to see if its southern Arab neighbor can help alleviate the crises it faces.

Saudi Arabia

The IPO has been touted for the past two years as the centerpiece of an ambitious economic reform program driven by crown prince Mohammed bin Salman to diversify the Saudi economy beyond oil. Saudi Arabia expects its crude exports to drop by roughly 100,000 b/d in August as the kingdom tries to ensure it does not push oil into the market beyond its customers’ needs.

Libya

Reopened its eastern oil ports and started to ramp up production from 650,000 to 700,000 and is expected to rise further after shipments resume at eastern ports that re-opened after a political standoff.

China

China’s economy expanded by 6.7 percent its slowest pace since 2016. The pace of annual expansion announced is still above the government’s target of “about 6.5 percent” growth for the year, but the slowdown comes as Beijing’s trade war with the US adds to headwinds from slowing domestic demand. The gross domestic product had grown at 6.8 percent in the previous three quarters. Higher oil prices play a role in the slowing of demand, but the main factor is higher taxes on independent Chinese refiners, which is already cutting into the refining margins and profits of the ‘teapots’ who have grown over the past three years to account fir around fifth of China’s total crude imports. Under the stricter tax regulations and reporting mechanisms effective 1 March, however, the teapots now can’t avoid paying a consumption tax on refined oil products sales- as they did in the past three years- and their refining operations are becoming less profitable.

Russia

Russia oil production rose by around 100,000 b/d from May. From July 1-15 the country’s average oil output was 11.215 million b/d an increase of 245,000 b/d from May’s production. Amid growing speculation that President Trump will attempt to weaken US sanctions on Russia’s oil sector, US congressional leaders are pushing legislation to strengthen sanctions on Russian export pipelines and joint ventures with Russian oil and natural gas companies. Ukraine and Russia said they would hold further European Union-mediated talks on supplying Europe with Russian gas, in a key first step towards renewing Ukraine’s gas transit contract that expires at the end of next year.

Venezuela

Venezuela’s Oil Minister Manuel Quevedo has been talking about plans to raise the country’s crude oil production in the second half of the year. However, no one else thinks or claims that Venezuela could soon reverse its steep production decline which has seen it losing more than 40,000 b/d of oil production every month for several months now. According to OPEC’s secondary sources in the latest Monthly Oil Market Report, Venezuela’s crude oil production dropped in June by 47,500 b/d from May, to average 1.340 million b/d in June. During a collapsing regime, widespread hunger, and medical shortages, President Nicolas Maduro continues to grant generous oil subsidies to Cuba. It is believed that Venezuela continues to supply Cuba with around 55,000 barrels of oil per day, costing the nation around $1.2 billion per year.

Alternatives to Oil

In its search for secure, sustainable and affordable supplies of energy, the world is turning its attention to unconventional energy resources. Shale gas is one of them. It has turned upside down the North-American gas markets and is making significant strides in other regions. The emergence of shale gas as a potentially major energy source can have serious strategic implications for geopolitics and the energy industry.

Uranium and Nuclear

The nuclear industry has a relatively short history: the first nuclear reactor was commissioned in 2945. Uranium is the main source of fuel for nuclear reactors. Worldwide output of uranium has recently been on the rise after a long period of declining production caused by uranium resources have grown by 12.5% since 2008 and they are sufficient for over 100 years of supply based on current requirements.

Total nuclear electricity production has been growing during the past two decades and reached an annual output of about 2,600TWh by mid-2000s, although the three major nuclear accidents have slowed down or even reversed its growth in some countries. The nuclear share of total global electricity production reached its peak of 17% by the late 1980s, but since then it has been falling and dropped to 13.5% in 2012. In absolute terms, the nuclear output remains broadly at the same level as before, but its relative share in power generation has decreased, mainly due to Fukushima nuclear accident.

Japan used to be one of the countries with high share of nuclear (30%) in its electricity mix and high production volumes. Today, Japan has only two of its 54 reactors in operation. The rising costs of nuclear installations and lengthy approval times required for new construction have had an impact on the nuclear industry. The slowdown has not been global, as new countries, primarily in the rapidly developing economies in the Middle East and Asia, are going ahead with their plans to establish a nuclear industry.

Hydro Power

Hydro power provides a significant amount of energy throughout the world and is present in more than 100 countries, contributing approximately 15% of the global electricity production. The top 5 largest markets for hydro power in terms of capacity are Brazil, Canada, China, Russia and the United States of America. China significantly exceeds the other, representing 24% of global installed capacity. In several other countries, hydro power accounts for over 50% of all electricity generation, including Iceland, Nepal and Mozambique for example. During 2012, an estimated 27-30GW of new hydro power and 2-3GW of pumped storage capacity was commissioned.

In many cases, the growth in hydro power was facilitated by the lavish renewable energy support policies and CO2 penalties. Over the past two decade the total global installed hydro power capacity has increased by 55%, while the actual generation by 21%. Since the last survey, the global installed hydro power capacity has increased by 8%, but the total electricity produced dropped by 14%, mainly due to water shortages.

Solar PV

Solar energy is the most abundant energy resource and it is available for use in its direct (solar radiation) and indirect (wind, biomass, hydro, ocean etc.) forms. About 60% of the total energy emitted by the sun reaches the Earth’s surface. Even if only 0.1% of this energy could be converted at an efficiency of 10%, it would be four times larger than the total world’s electricity generating capacity of about 5,000GW. The statistics about solar PV installations are patchy and inconsistent. The table below presents the values for 2011 but comparable values for 1993 are not available.

The use of solar energy is growing strongly around the world, in part due to the rapidly declining solar panel manufacturing costs. For instance, between 2008-2011 PV capacity has increased in the USA from 1,168MW to 5,171MW, and in Germany from 5,877MW to 25,039MW. The anticipated changes in national and regional legislation regarding support for renewables is likely to moderate this growth.

Conclusion

The rapid consumption of fossil fuels has contributed to environmental damage, the use of these fuels including oil releases chemicals that contribute to smog, acid rain, mercury contamination and carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption are the main drivers of climate change, the effects of which are likely to become more and more severe as temperature rise. The depletion of oil and other fossil resources leaves less available to future generations and increases the likelihood of price spikes if demand outpaces supply.

One of the most intriguing conclusions from this idea is that this new “age of abundance” could alter behavior from oil producers. In the past some countries (notably OPEC members) restrained output husbanding resources for the future, betting that scarcity would increase the value of their holdings over time. However, if a peak in demand looms just over the horizon, oil producers could rush to maximize their production in order to get as much value for their reserves while they can. Saudi oil minister Sheikh Ahmed Zaki Yamani was famously quoted as saying, “the Stone Age didn’t end for lack of stone, and the oil age will end long before the world runs out of oil.” This quote reflects the view that the development of new technologies will lead to a shift away from oil consumption before oil resources are fully depleted. Nine of the ten recessions between 1946 and 2005 were preceded by spikes in oil prices and the latest recession followed the same pattern.

Extending the life of oil fields, let alone investing in new ones, will require large volumes of capital, but that might be met with skepticism from wary investors when demand begins to peak. It will be difficult to attract investment to a shrinking industry, particularly if margins continued to get squeezed. Peak demand should be an alarming prospect for OPEC, Russia and the other major oil producing countries. Basically, any and all oil producers who will find themselves fighting more aggressively for a shrinking market.

The precise data at which oil demand hits a high point and then enters into decline has been the subject of much debate, and a topic that has attracted a lot of interest just in the last few years. Consumption levels in some parts of the world have already begun to stagnate, and more and more automakers have begun to ratchet up their plans for electric vehicles. But the exact date the world will hit peak demand misses the whole point. The focus shouldn’t be on the date at which oil demand peaks, but rather the fact that the peak is coming. In other words, oil will be less important when it comes to fueling the global transportation system, which will have far-reaching consequences for oil producers and consumers alike. The implications of a looming peak in oil consumptions are massive. Without an economic transformation, or at least serious diversification, oil-producing nations that depend on oil revenues for both economic growth and to finance public spending, face an uncertain future.

2018-9-21-1537537682

Water purification and addition of nutrients as disaster relief: college application essay help

1. Introduction

1.1 Natural Disasters

Natural disasters are naturally occurring events that threaten human lives and causes damage to property. Examples of natural disasters include hurricanes, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons, droughts, tropical cyclones and floods. (Pask, R., et al (2013)). They are inevitable and oftentimes, can cause calamitous implications such as water contamination and malnutrition, especially to developing countries like the Philippines, which is particularly prone to typhoons and earthquakes. (Figure 1)

Figure 1 The global distribution of natural disaster risk (The United Nations University World Risk Index 2014)

1.1.1 Impacts of Natural Disaster

The globe faces impacts of natural disasters on human lives and economy on an astronomical scale. According to a 2014 report by the United Nations, since 1994, 4.4 billion people have been affected by disasters, which claimed 1.3 million lives and cost US$2 trillion in economic losses. Developing countries are more likely to suffer a greater impact from natural disasters than developed countries as natural disasters affect the number of people living below the poverty line, and increase their numbers by more than 50 percent in some cases. Moreover, it is expected that by 2030, up to 325 million extremely poor people will live in the 49 most hazard-prone countries. (Child Fund International. (2013, June 2)) Hence, it necessitates the need for disaster relief to save the lives of those affected, especially those in developing countries such as the Philippines.

1.1.2 Lack of access to clean water

After a natural disaster strikes, severe implications such as water contamination occurs.

Besides, natural disasters know no national borders of socioeconomic status. (Malam, 2012) For example, Hurricane Katrina, which struck New Orleans, a developed city, destroyed 1,200 water systems, and 50% of existing treatment plants needed rebuilding afterwards. (Copeland, 2005) This led to the citizens of New Orleans having a shortage of drinking water. Furthermore, after the 7.0 magnitude earthquake that struck Haiti, a developing country, in 2012, there was no plumbing left underneath Port-Au-Prince, and many of the water tanks and toilets were destroyed. (Valcárcel, 2010) These are just some of the many scenarios of can bring about water scarcity.

The lack of preparedness to prevent the destruction caused by the natural disaster and the lack of readiness to respond claims to be the two major reasons for the catastrophic results of natural disasters. (Malam, 2012) Hence, the aftermath of destroyed water systems and a lack of water affect all geographical locations regardless of its socioeconomic status.

1.2 Disaster relief

Disaster relief organisations such as The American Red Cross help countries that are recovering from natural disasters by providing these countries with the basic necessities.

After a disaster, the Red Cross works with community partners to provide hot meals, snacks and water to shelters or from Red Cross emergency response vehicles in affected neighborhoods. (Disaster Relief Services | Disaster Assistance | Red Cross.)

The International Committee of the Red Cross/Red Crescent (ICRC) reported that its staff had set up mobile water treatment units. These were used to distribute water to around 28,000 people in towns along the southern and eastern coasts of the island of Samar, and to other badly-hit areas including Basey, Marabut and Guiuan. (Pardon Our Interruption. (n.d.))

Figure 2: Children seeking help after a disaster(Pardon Our Interruption. (n.d.))

Figure 3: Massive Coastal Destruction from Typhoon Haiyan (Pardon Our Interruption. (n.d.))

1.3 Target audience: Tacloban, Leyte, The Philippines

As seen in figures 4 and 5, Tacloban is the provincial capital of Leyte, a province in the Visayas region in the Philippines. It is the most populated region in the Eastern Visayas region, with a total population of 242,089 people as of August 2015. (Census of Population, 2015)

Figure 4: Location of Tacloban in the Philippines (Google Maps)

Figure 5: Location of Tacloban in the Eastern Visayas region (Google Maps)

Due to its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire (Figure 6), more than 20 typhoons (Lowe, 2016) occur in the Philippines each year.

Figure 6: The Philippines’ position on the Pacific Ring of Fire (Mindoro Resources Ltd., 2004)

In 2013, Tacloban was struck by Super Typhoon Haiyan, locally known as ‘Yolanda’. The Philippine Star, a local digital news organisation, reported more than 30,000 deaths from that disaster alone. (Avila, 2014) Tacloban is in shambles after Typhoon Haiyan and requires much aid to restore the affected area, especially when the death toll is a whopping five figure amount.

1.4 Existing measures and their gaps

Initially, there was a slow response of the government to the disaster. For the first three days after the typhoon hit, there was no running water and dead bodies were found in wells. In desperation for water to drink, some even smashed pipes of the Leyte Metropolitan Water District. However, even when drinking water was restored, it was contaminated with coliform. Many people thus became ill and one baby died of diarrhoea. (Dizon, 2014)

Long response-time by the government, (Gap 1) and further consequences were borne by the restoration of water brought (Gap 2). The productivity of people was affected and hence there is an urgent need for a better solution to the problem of late restoration of clean water.

1.5 Reasons for Choice of Topic

There is high severity since ingestion of contaminated water is the leading cause of infant mortality and illness in children (International Action, n.d.) and more than 50% of the population is undernourished. (World Food Programme, 2016). Much support and humanitarian aid has been given by organisations such as World Food Programme and The Water Project, yet more efforts are needed to lower the death rates, thus showing the persistency. It is also an urgent issue as malnourishment mostly leads to death and the children’s lives are threatened.

Furthermore, 8 out of 10 of the world’s cities most at risk to natural disasters are in the Philippines. (Reference to Figure _)Thus, the magnitude is huge as there is high frequency of natural disasters. While people are still recovering from the previous one, another hit them, thus worsening the already severe situation.

Figure _ Top 5 Countries of World Risk Index of Natural Disasters 2016 (Source: UN)

WWF CEO Jose Maria Lorenzo Tan said that “on-site desalination or purification” would be a cheaper and better solution to the lack of water than shipping in bottled water for a long period of time. (Dizon, 2014) Instead of relying on external humanitarian aid, which might incur a higher amount of debt as to relying on oneself for water, this can cushion the high expenses of rebuilding their country. Hence, there is a need for a water purification plant that provides potable water immediately when a natural disaster strikes. The plant will also have to provide cheap and affordable water until water systems are restored back to normal.

Living and growing up in Singapore, we have never experienced natural disasters first hand. We can only imagine the catastrophic destruction and suffering that accompanies natural disasters. With “Epione Solar Still” (named after the greek goddess of the Soothing of Pain), we hope to be able to help many Filipinos access clean and drinkable water, especially children who clearly do not deserve to experience such tragedy and suffering.

1.6 Case study: Disaster relief in Japan

Located at the Pacific Ring of Fire, Japan is vulnerable to natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunami, volcanic eruptions, typhoons, floods and mudslides due to its geographical location and natural conditions. (Japan Times, 2016)

In 2011, an extremely high 9.0 magnitude earthquake hit Fukushima, causing a tsunami that destroyed the northeast coast and killed 19,000 people. It was the worst-hit earthquake in Japan in history, and it damaged the Fukushima plant and caused nuclear leakage, leading to contaminated water which currently exceeds 760,000 tonnes. (The Telegraph, 2016) The earthquake and tsunami caused a nuclear power plant to fail, and radiation to leak into the ocean and escape into the atmosphere. Many evacuees have still not returned to their homes, and, as of January 2014, the Fukushima nuclear plant still poses a threat, according to status reports by the International Atomic Energy Agency. (Natural Disasters & Pollution | Education – Seattle PI. (n.d.))

Disaster Relief

In the case of major disasters, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) deploys Japan Disaster Relief (JDR) teams, consisting of the rescue, medical, expert and infectious disease response teams and also the Self-Defence Force (SDF) to provide relief aid to affected countries. It provides emergency relief supplies such as blankets, tents and water purifiers and some are also stockpiled as reserved supplies in places closer to disastrous areas in case disasters strike there and emergency disaster relief is needed. (JICA)

For example during the Kumamoto earthquake in 2016, 1,600 soldiers had joined the relief and rescue efforts. Troops were delivering blankets and adult diapers to those in shelters. With water service cut off in some areas, residents were hauling water from local offices to their homes to flush toilets. (Japan hit by 7.3-magnitude earthquake | World news | The Guardian. (2016, April 16))

Solution to Fukushima water contamination

Facilities are used to treat contaminated water. The main one is the Multi-nuclide Removal Facility (ALPS) (Figure _), which could remove most radioactive materials except Tritium. (TEPCO, n.d)

Figure _: Structure of Multi-nuclide Removal Facility (ALPS) (TEPCO, n.d)

1.7 Impacts of Case Study

The treatment of contaminated water is very effective as more than 80% of contaminated water stored in tanks has been decontaminated and more than 90% of radioactive materials has been removed during the process of decontamination by April 2015. (METI, 2014)

1.8 Lessons Learnt

Destruction caused by natural disasters results in a lack of access to clean and drinkable water (L1)

Advancements in water purification technology can help provide potable water for the masses. (L2)

Natural disasters weaken immune systems, people are more vulnerable to the diseases (L3)

1.9 Source of inspiration

Suny Clean Water’s solar still, is made with cheap material alternatives, which would help to provide more affordable water for underprivileged countries.

A fibre-rich paper is coated with carbon black(a cheap powder left over after the incomplete combustion of oil or tar) and layered over each section of a block of polystyrene foam which is cut into 25 equal sections. The foam floats on the untreated water, acting as an insulating barrier to prevent sunlight from heating up too much of the water below. Then, the paper wicks water upward, wetting the entire top surface of each section. This causes a clear acrylic housing to sit atop the styrofoam. (Figure _)

Figure _: How fibre-rich paper coated with carbon black is adapted into the solar still. (Sunlight-powered purifier could clean water for the impoverished | Science | AAAS. (2017, February 2)

It is estimated that the materials needed to build it cost roughly $1.60 per square meter, compared with $200 per square meter for commercially available systems that rely on expensive lenses to concentrate the sun’s rays to expedite evaporation.

1.10 Application of Lessons Learnt

Gaps in current measures

Learning points

Applications to project

Key features in proposal

Developing countries lack the technology / resources to treat their water and provide basic necessities to their people.

Advanced technology can provide potable water readily. (L2)

Need for technology to purify contaminated water.

Solar Distillation Plant

Even with purification of water, problem of malnutrition which is worsened by natural disasters, is still unsolved.

Solution to provide vitamins to young children to boost immunity and lower vulnerability to diseases and illnesses. (L3)

Need for nutrient-rich water.

Nutrients infused into water using concept of osmosis.

Even with the help of external organisations, less than 50% of households have access to safe water.

Clean water is still inaccessible to some people. (L1)

Increase accessibility to water.

Evaporate seawater (abundant around Phillipines) in solar still. (short-term solution)

Figure _: Table of application of lessons learnt

2. Project Aim and Objectives

2.1 Aim

Taking into account the loopholes that exist in current measures adopted to improve water purification to reduce water pollution and malnutrition in Ilocos Norte, our project proposes a solution to provide Filipinos with clean water by creating an ingenious product, the Epione Solar Still. The product makes use of natural occurrences (evaporation of water), and adapts and incorporates the technology and mechanism behind the kidney dialysis machine to provide Filipinos with nutrient-enriched water without polluting their environment. The product will be located near water bodies where seawater is abundant to act as a source of clean water to the Filipinos.

2.2 Objectives of Project

To operationalise our aim, our objectives are to:

Design “Epione Solar Still”

Conduct interviews with:

Masoud Arfand, from Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University to determine the projected percentage of water that Epione Solar Still can produce and the number of people it can provide for.

Qiaoqiang Gan, electrical engineer from Sunny Clean Water (his team innovated the technology of using fibre-rich paper is coated with carbon black to make process of water purification using the soalr still faster and more cost-friendly) to determine amount of time Epione Solar Still needed to produce sufficient water needed to support Fillipinos in Tacloban, Leyte as Epione Solar Still is a short-term disaster relief solution.

Dr Nathan Feldman, Co-Founder of HopeGel, of EB Performance, LLC to determine significant impact of nutrients-infused water to boost immunity of victims of natural disaster. (Project Medishare, n.d)

Review the mechanism and efficiency of using a solar still to source clean and nutrient-rich water for Filipinos.

3. Project Proposal

Investment into purification of water contamination in the form of disaster relief, which can provide Filipinos with nutrients to boost their immunity in times of disaster and limit the number of deaths that occur due to the consumption of contaminated water during a crisis.

3.1 Overview of Project

Our group proposes to build a solar distillation plant (Figure _) within a safe semi-underground bunker. The bunker will contain a generator to power certain parts of the plant. Then, seawater will be fed into the still via underground pipes from the sea surrounding the southern part of Tacloban. The purified water produced by the distillation process will be infused with nutrients to boost the immunity of disaster victims once consumed. Hence, not only will our distillation plant be able to produce potable water, it will also be nutritious so as to boost victims’ immunity in times of natural calamities. Potable water will then be distributed in drums and shared among Filipinos using .

Figure _: Mechanism of our solar distillation plant, Epione Solar Still

3.2 Phase 1: Water Purification System

3.2.1 Water extraction from the sea

Still is located near the sea where seawater is abundant. Seawater is extracted from low-flow open sea (Figure _) and then pumped into our solar still.

Figure _: Intake structure of seawater (Seven Seas Water Corporation, n.d.)

3.2.2 Purification of Seawater

Solar energy heats up the water in the solar still. The water evaporates, and condenses on the cooler glass surface of the ceiling of the still. Pure droplets of water slide down the glass and into the collecting basin, where nutrients will diffuse into the water.

Figure 6: Mechanism of Epione Solar Still

3.3 Phase 2: Nutrient Infuser

Using the concept of reverse osmosis (Figure _), a semi permeable membrane separates the nutrients and newly purified water, allowing the vitamins and minerals to diffuse into the condensed water. The nutrient-infused water will be able to provide nourishment, thus making the victims of natural disaster less vulnerable and susceptible to illnesses and diseases due to a stronger immune system. This will help the Filipinos in Tacloban, Leyte quickly get back on their feet after a natural disaster and minimise the death toll as much as possible after a natural disaster befalls.

Figure _: How does reverse osmosis work (Water Filter System Guide, n.d.)

Nutrient / Mineral

Function

Upper Tolerable Limit (The highest amount that can be consumed without health risks)

Vitamin A

Helps to form and maintain healthy teeth, bones, soft tissue, mucus membranes and skin.

10,000 IU/day

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Helps maintain healthy skin and nerves

Has cholesterol-lowering effects

35 mg/day

Vitamin C

(Ascorbic acid, an antioxidant)

Promotes healthy teeth and gums.

Helps the body absorb iron and maintain healthy tissue.

Promotes wound healing.

2,000 mg/day

Vitamin D

(Also known as “sunshine vitamin”, made by the body after being in the sun).

Helps body absorb calcium.

Helps maintain proper blood levels of calcium and phosphorus

1,000 micrograms/day (4,000 IU)

Vitamin E

(Also known as tocopherol, an antioxidant)

Plays a role in formation of red blood cells.

1,500 IU/day

Figure _: Table of functions and amount of nutrients that will be diffused into our Epione water. (WebMD, LLC, 2016)

3.4 Phase 3: Distribution of water to households in Tacloban, Leyte

Potable water will be collected into drums (Figure _) of 100 litres in capacity each, which would suffice 50 people since the average intake of water is 2 litres per person per day. These drums will then be distributed to the tent cities in Tacloban, Leyte, our targeted area, should a natural disaster befall. Thus, locals will get potable water within their reach, which is extremely crucial for their survival in times of natural calamities.

Figure _: Rain barrels will be used to store the purified and nutrient-infused water (Your Easy Garden, n.d.)

3.5 Stakeholders

3.5.1 The HopeGel Project

HopeGel is a nutrient and calorie-dense protein gel designed to aid children suffering from malnutrition caused by severe food insecurity brought upon by draughts (Glenroy Inc., 2014). HopeGel has been distributed in Haiti where malnutrition is the number one cause of death among children under five mainly due to the high frequency of natural disasters that has caused much destruction to the now impoverished state of Haiti. (Figure _) The implementation of Epione Solar Still by this company helps it achieve its objective to address the global issue of severe acute malnutrition in children as most victims of natural disasters lack the nourishment they need (HopeGel, n.d.)

Figure _: HopeGel, a packaged nutrient and calorie-dense protein gel (Butschli, HopeGel, n.d.)

3.5.2 Action Against Hunger (AAH)

Action Against Hunger is a relief organisation that develops and carries out programme for countries in need regarding nutrition, health, water and food security (Action Against Hunger, n.d) (Figure _). AAH also provides programs to be better prepared for disasters which aims to anticipate and prevent humanitarian crisis (GlobalCorps, n.d.) With 40 years of expertise, helping 14.9 million people across more than 45 countries, AAH is no stranger to humanitarian crises. The implementation of Epione Solar Still by this company helps it achieve its aim of saving lives by extending help to Fillipinos in Tacloban, Leyte suffering from deprivation of a basic need due to water contamination caused by disaster relief through purifying and infusing nutrients into seawater.

Figure _: Aims and Missions of Action Against Hunger (AACH, n.d.)

2017-7-11-1499736147

Analyse the use of ICTS in a humanitarian emergency

INTRODUCTION

The intention of writing this essay is to analyse the use of ICTS in a humanitarian emergency. The specific case study we have discuss in this essay is Multi-level functionality of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake written by Jung, J., and Moro, M. 2014. This report emphasis on the benefits of social media networks like twitter and face book can be used to spread and gather important information in emergency situations rather than solely utilised as a social network platform. ICTs has changed the way humans gather information during the disasters and social media specially twitter became important source of information in these disasters.

Literature Review

The case studies of using ICTs in a humanitarian emergency can have either technically rational perspective or socially embedded perspective. Technically rational perspective means what to do and how to achieve the given purpose, it is a prescription for design and action. Socially embedded means it focuses on the particular case and process of work is affected by the culture, area and human nature. In this article, we have examined different humanitarian disasters cases in which ICTS played a vital role to see if author consider technically rational perspective or socially embedded perspective.

In the article “Learning from crisis: Lessons in human and information infrastructure from the World Trade Centre response” by (Dawes, Cresswell et al. 2004) author adopts technical/rational perspective. 9/11 was very big incident and no one was ready to deal with this size of attack but as soon as it happened procedure start changing rapidly. Government, NGO and disaster response unit start learning and made new prescription, which can be used universally and in any size of disaster. For example, the main communication structure was damaged which was supplied by Verizon there were different communication suppliers suppling their services but they all were using the physical infrastructure supplied by Verizon. So VOIP was used for communication between government officials and in EOC building. There were three main areas where the problems were found and then new procedure adopt in the response of disaster. The three main areas were technology, information and inter layered relationships between the Ngo’s, Government and the private sector. (Dawes, Cresswell et al. 2004).

In the article “Challenges in humanitarian information management and exchange: Evidence from Haiti,” (Altay, Labonte 2014) author adopts socially embedded perspective. Haiti earthquake was one of the big disaster killing 500000 people and displacing at least 2 million. Around 2000 organisation went in for help but there was no coordination between NGO`s and government for the humanitarian response. Organisation didn’t consider local knowledge they assumed that there is no data available. All the organisations had different standards and ways to do work so no one followed any prescription. Technical aspect of HIME (humanitarian information management and exchange) wasn’t working because all the members of humanitarian relief work wasn’t sharing any humanitarian information. (Altay, Labonte 2014)

In the article, Information systems innovation in the humanitarian sector,” Information Technologies and International Development” (Tusiime, Byrne 2011) author adopts socially embedded perspective. Local staff was hired. They didn’t have any former experience or knowledge to work with such a technology, which slow down the process of implementing new technology. Staff wanted to learn and use new system but the changes were done on such a high pace that made staff overworked and stress, which made them loose the interest in the innovation. The management decided to use COMPAS as a new system without realizing that it’s not completing functional and it still have lots of issues but they still went ahead with it. When staff start using and found the problems and not enough technical support was supplied then they didn’t have any choice and they went back to old way of doing things (Tusiime, Byrne 2011). The whole process was effected by how the work is done in specific area and people behaviours.

In the article “Multi-level functionality of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake,” (Jung, Moro 2014) author adopts technically rational perspective. In any future humanitarian disaster situation, social media can be used as an effective source of communication method conjunction with mass media. After the disaster twitter was used more as a spreading and gathering information source instead of using as social media platform.

In the article “Information flow impediments in disaster relief supply chains,” Journal of the Association for Information Systems,10(8), pp. 637-660.(Day, Junglas et al. 2009) author proposed development of IS for information sharing based on hurricane Katrina. Author adopted TR perspective because need of IS development for information flow within and outside of organisation is essential. This developed IS will help to manage complex supply chain management. Supply chain management in disaster situation is challenging as compare to traditional supply chain management. Supply chain management IS should be able to cater all types of dynamic information, suggested Day, Juglas and Silva (2009).

Case study Description:

On the 11 march 2011 at the scale of 9.00 magnitude hit north-eastern part of japan. This was followed by tsunami. Thousands of people lost their lives and infrastructure was completely damaged in that area (Jung, Moro 2014). Tsunami wiped off two towns of the maps and the costal maps had to be redrawn (Acar, Muraki 2011). On the same day of earth quake cooling system in nuclear reactor no 1 in Fukushima failed because of that nuclear accident Japanese government issued nuclear emergency. On the evening of the earthquake Japanese government issued evacuation order for 3 km area around reactor (Jung, Moro 2014). On March 12 hydrogen explosion occurred in the nuclear reactor because of failed cooling system which is followed by another explosion after 2 days on March 14. The area of evacuation was 3 km in the start but was increased to 20 km so avoid any nuclear radiation. This was one of the big nuclear disaster for the country so it was hard for the government to access the scale of the disaster. As the government officials, didn’t came across this kind situation before and couldn’t estimate the damage occurred because of incident. Government officials were adding more confusion in people with their unreliable information. They declare the accident level as 5 on the international nuclear scale but later they changed it to 7 which was highest on international nuclear scale. Media reporting was also confusing the public. The combination of contradicting information from government and media increase the level of confusion in the public. In the case of disaster Mass media is always the main source of information normally they discontinue their normal transmission and focus on the disaster. Their most of the airtime is devoted for the disaster so they can keep the people update about the situation. Normally mass media provides very reliable information in humanitarian disaster situation but in the case of japan disaster media was contradicting each other news e.g. international media was contradicting the news from local media as well as local government so people start losing faith in the mass media and start relying on different source to get information. Second reason was that the mass media was traditional way of gathering information and because of changes in technology people start using mobile phone and internet. Third main reason people start looking to get the information from different mean because the infrastructure for mass media was damage and lot of people cannot access the services of Television, so they start depending on video streaming sites e.g. ustream and YouTube. People start using twitter on big scale to spread and gather news. There was 30 percent of users increased on twitter within first week of disaster and 60 percent of twitter user thinks that it was useful for gather or spread information.

Case Study Analysis:

Twitter is one of the social media platform and micro blogging website, you can have 140 character in one tweet. It is different from other social media plate form because any one can follow you and they don’t need your authorization. Only register member can tweet but to read a message registration is not required. The author of “Multi-level functionality of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake,” (Jung, Moro 2014) discuss about the five functionalities of twitter by the help of conceptual model of multi-level social media. The following figure describes the five primary function model in twitter very clearly.

Fig No 1 Source: (Jung, Moro 2014)

The five functionality was derived on survey and review of selected twitter timelines.

The first function was having tweets between individual it’s also known as interpersonal communication with others. It is micro level of conceptual model, in this level people from country and outside of a country were connecting other people who were is the affected area. The most of tweets were for checking safety of people that they are safe after the disaster, to inform your love ones if you were at affected area and needs any help or to inform people that you are safe. In the first three days high percentage of tweets were from micro level communication channel.

The second function was having communication channel for local organisation, local government and local media. It is meso level of conceptual model in this communication channel local governments open new accounts and re activate accounts which wasn’t used for a while to keep their local residents informed, the follower of twitter accounts increased very fast. People have understand the importance of social media and benefits of it after the disaster when the infrastructure was damaged and they were having electricity cut out but they were still able to get the information about the disasters and tsunami warnings. Local government and local media used twitter accounts to give different alerts and news e.g. the alert of tsunami was issued on twitter and after tsunami the reports of damage was released on twitter. Local media open new twitters channels and kept people informed about situation. Different organisation e.g. embassies of different countries used twitter to keep their nationals informed about situation about disaster and this was best way of communication between embassies and their nationals. Nationals can even let their embassy that they are struck in affected area and they need any help because they can be in very vulnerable situation as they are not in their country.

The third function was having communication of Mass media which is known as Macro level. Mass media used social platform to broadcast their news because the infrastructure was damage and people in effected area couldn’t access their broadcast. There were some people who were not in the country so they couldn’t access the local mass media news on television so they watching news on video streaming website as the demand increased most of mass media open the accounts on social media to fulfil the requirements. They start broadcasting their news on video streaming websites like YouTube, Ustream. Mass media was giving news updates several times a day on twitter as well and lot of people who were reading it also was retweeting them so information was spreading on very high speed.

The fourth function was information sharing and gathering which is known as cross level. Individual used social media to get the information about earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident. When someone try to find information they come across the tweets which were for micro level, meso level and macro level. This level is great use when you are looking for help and you want to know different people opinions if they were in that situation what would they have done. The research done on the twitter time line proofs that on the day of earthquake people were tweeting regarding the shelters available and information about transport (Jung, Moro 2014).

The fifth function was direct channels between individuals and the mass media, government and the public. This is also consider as cross level. In this level individual could inform government and mass media about the situation of effected area because of disaster there were some places where government and mass media couldn’t reach, so they didn’t know the situation. Mayor of Minami-soma city which was 25 miles away from Fukushima used you tube to tell the government the threat of radiation to his city, the video went viral and Japanese government have international pressure to evacuate the city. (Jung, Moro 2014)

Reflection:

There was gradually change in use of social media to use a communication tool instead of social media platform in event of disaster. The multi-level functionality is one of the important characteristic which connects it very well with existing media. This is complete prescription which can be used in and after any kind of disaster. Social media can be used with other media as an effective communication methods to prepare for emergency in any future disaster situation.

Twitter played a big role in the communication in the disaster in japan. It was used to spread information, gather information about earthquake, tsunami and nuclear reactor accident. It was used to help request, issue warning about earthquake, tsunami and nuclear reactor accident. It was also used for condolences. Twitter has lot of benefits but it has some drawbacks which has to be rectify. The biggest issue in tweets are unreliability, anyone can tweet any information and there is no check and balance on it, only the person who do that tweet is responsible for the authentic information. There is no control on false information and it spreads so fast that it can create anxiety in people because of contradicted information e.g. if the false information about the range of radiation was released by individual and retweets by other individual who didn’t had any knowledge about the effect of radiation and nuclear accident it would had caused a panic in people. In the case of disaster, it is very important that reliable and right information is released.

Information system can play vital role in humanitarian disasters in all aspects. It can be used in the better communication, it can be used to improve the efficiency and accountability of the organisation. The data will be available widely in the organisation so it can have monitoring on the finances. It helps to coordinate different operation in organisations e.g. transport, supply chain management, logistics, finance and monitoring.

Social media has played a significant role in communicating, disseminating and storing data related to disasters. There is a need of control of that information being spread over the social media since not all type of information is authentic or verified.

IS based tools needs to be developed for disaster management in order to get best result from varied range of data extracted from social media and take necessary action for the wellbeing of people in disaster area.

The outcome of using purpose built IS, will be supportive in making decisions to develop strategy to deal with the situation. Disaster management team will be able to analyse the data in order to train the team for a disaster situation.

2017-1-12-1484253744

Renewable energy in the UK: essay help

The 2014 IPCC report stated that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases have led to unprecedented levels of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in the environment. The report also stated that the effect of greenhouse gases is extremely likely to have caused the global warming we have witnessed since the 20th century.

The 2018 IPCC report set new targets, aiming to limit climate change to a maximum of 1.5°C. To reach this, we will need zero CO₂ emissions by the year 2050. Previous IPCC targets of 2°C change allowed us until roughly 2070 to reach zero emissions. This means government policies will have to be reassessed and current progress reviewed in order to confirm whether or not the UK is capable of reaching zero emissions by 2050 on our current plan.

Electricity Generation

Fossil fuels are natural fuels formed from the remains of prehistoric plant and animal life. Fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) are crucial in any look at climate change as when burned they release both carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) and energy. Hence, in order to reach the IPCC targets the UK needs to drastically reduce its usage of fossil fuels, either through improving efficiency or by using other methods of energy generation.

Whilst coal is a cheap energy source used to generate approximately 40% of the world’s electricity , it’s arguably the most damaging to the environment as coal releases more energy into the atmosphere in relation to energy produced than any other fuel source. Coal power stations generate electricity by burning coal in a combustion chamber and using the heat energy to transform water to steam which turns the propeller-like blades within the turbine. A generator (consisting of tightly-wound metal coils) is mounted at one end of the turbine and when rotated at a high velocity through a magnetic field, generates electricity. However the UK has made great claims to fully eradiate the use of coal in electricity generation by 2025. These claims are well substantiated by the UK’s rapid decline in coal use. In 2015 coal accounted for 22% of electricity generated in the UK, this was down to only 2% by the second quarter of 2017 and in April 2018 the UK even managed to go 72 hours powered without coal.

Natural gas became a staple of British electrical generation in the 1990s, when the Conservative Party got into power and privatised the electrical supply industry. The “Dash for gas” was triggered by legal changes within the UK and EU allowing for greater freedom to use gas in electricity generation.

Whilst natural gas emits less CO₂ than coal, it emits far more methane. Methane doesn’t remain in the atmosphere as long but it traps heat to a far greater extent. According to the World Energy Council methane emissions trap 25 times more heat than CO₂ over a 100 year timeframe.

Natural gas produces electrical energy in a gas turbine. Natural gas is mixed with the hot air and burned in a combustor. The hot gas then pushes turbine blades and as in coal plant, the turbine is attached to a generator, creating electricity. Gas turbines are hugely popular as they are a cheap source of energy generation and they can quickly be powered up to respond to surges in electrical demand.

Combined Cycle Gas Turbines (CCGT) are an even better source of electrical generation. Whilst traditional gas turbines are cheap and fast-reacting, they only have an efficiency of approximately 30%. Combined cycle turbines, however, are gas turbines used in combination with steam turbines giving an efficiency of between 50 and 60%. The hot exhaust from the gas turbine is used to create steam which rotates turbine blades and a generator in a steam turbine. This allows for greater thermal efficiency.

Nuclear energy is a potential way forward as no CO₂ is emitted by Nuclear power plants. Nuclear plants aim to capture the energy released by atoms undergoing nuclear fission. In nuclear fission, nuclei absorb neutrons as they collide thus making an unstable nucleus. The unstable nucleus will then split into fission products of smaller mass and emit two or three high speed neutrons which can then collide with more nuclei, making them unstable thus creating a chain reaction. The heat energy produced by splitting the atom is first converted can be used to produce steam which will be used by a turbine generator to produce electricity.

Currently, 21% of electricity generated in the UK comes from nuclear energy. In the 1990s, 25% of electricity came from nuclear energy but gradually old plants have been retired. By 2025, UK nuclear power could half. This is due to a multitude of reasons. Firstly, nuclear fuel is expensive in comparison to gas and coal. Secondly, nuclear waste is extremely radioactive and so must be dealt with properly. Also, in light of tragedies such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, much of the British public expressed concerns surrounding Nuclear energy with the Scottish government refusing to open more plants

In order to lower our CO₂ emissions it is crucial we also utilise renewable energy. The UK currently gets very little of its energy from renewable sources but almost all future plans place a huge emphasis on renewables.

The UK has great wind energy potential as the nation is the windiest country in the EU with 40% of the total wind that blows across the EU.

Wind turbines are straightforward machinery; the wind turns the turbine blades around a rotor which is connected to the main shaft which spins a generator, creating electricity. In 2017, onshore wind generated enough energy to power 7.25 million homes a year and generated 9% of the UK’s electricity. However, despite the clear benefits of clean, renewable energy, wind energy is not without its problems. Firstly, it is an intermittent supply – the turbine will not generate energy when there is no wind. Also it has been opposed by members of the public for affecting the look of the countryside and bird fatalities. These problems are magnified by the current conservative government’s stance on wind energy who wish to limit onshore wind farm development despite public opposition to this “ban”.

Heating and Transport

Currently it is estimated a third of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the UK are accounted for in the heating sector. 50% of all heat emissions in the UK exist for domestic use, consequently making it the main source of CO2 emissions in the heating sector. Around 98% of domestic heating is used for space and water heating. The government has sought to reduce the emissions from domestic heating alone by issuing a series of regulations on new boilers. Regulations state as of 1st April 2005 all new installations and replacements of boilers are required to be condensing boilers. As well as CO2 emissions being much lower, condensing boilers are around 15-30% more efficient than older gas boilers. Reducing heat demand has also been an approach taken to reduce emissions. For instance, building standards in the UK have set higher levels of required thermal insulations of both domestic and non-domestic buildings when refurbishing and carrying out new projects. These policies are key to ensure that both homes are buildings in industry are as efficient as possible when it comes to conserving heat.

Although progress is being made in terms of improving current CO2 reducing systems, the potential for significant CO2 reductions rely upon low carbon technologies. Highly efficient technologies such as the residential heat pump and biomass boilers have the potential to be carbon neutral sources of heat and in doing so could massively reduce CO2 emissions for domestic use . However, finding the best route to a decarbonised future in the heating industry relies upon more than just which technology has the lowest carbon footprint. For instance, intermittent technologies such as solar thermal collectors cannot provide a sufficient level of heat in the winter and require a back-up source of heat making them a less desirable source of heat . Cost is also a major factor in consumer preference. For most consumers, a boiler is the cheapest option for heating. This provides a problem for low carbon technologies which tend to have significantly higher upfront costs . In response to the cost associated with these technologies, the government has introduced policies such as the ‘Renewable Heat Incentive’ which aims to alleviate the expense through paying consumers for each unit of heat produced by low carbon technologies. Around 30% of the heating sector is allocated for industry use, making it the second largest cause of CO2 in this sector . Currently, combined heat and power (CHP) is the main process used to make industrial heat use more efficient and has shown CO2 reductions of up to 30%. Although this is a substantial reduction in CO2, alternative technology has the potential to deliver even higher reductions. For example, the process of carbon capture storage (CCS), has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 90% . However, CCS is a complex procedure which would require a substantial amount of funding and as a result is not currently implemented for industrial use in the UK.

Although heating is a significant contribution to CO2 emissions in the UK, there is also much needed progress elsewhere. In 2017 it was estimated that 34% of all carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the UK were caused by transport and is widely thought to be the sector in which least progress is being made, with only seeing a 2% reduction in CO2 emissions since 1990. Road transport contributes the highest proportion of emissions, more specifically petrol and diesel cars. Despite average CO2 emissions of new vehicles declining, the carbon footprint of the transport industry continues to increase due to the larger number of vehicles in the UK.

In terms of progress, CO2 emissions of new cars in 2017 were estimated to be 33.1% lower than the early 2000s. Although efficiencies are improving, more must be done if we are to conform to the targets set from the Climate Change Act 2008. A combination of decarbonising transport and implementing government legislation is vital to have the potential to meet these demands. New technology such as battery electric vehicles (BEV’s) have the potential to create significant reductions in the transport industry. As a result, a report from the committee of climate change suggests that 60% of all sales of new cars and vans should be ultra-low emission by 2030. However, the likeliness of achieving this is hindered by the constraints of new technologies. For instance, low emission vehicles are likely to have significantly higher costs and lack consumer awareness. This reinforces the need of government support in projecting new technologies and cleaner fuels. To support the development and uptake of low carbon vehicles the government has committed £32 million for the funding of charging infrastructure of BEV’s from 2015-2020 and a further £140 million has been allocated to the ‘low carbon vehicle innovation platform’ which strives to advance the development and research of low emission vehicles. Progress has also been made to make these vehicles more cost competitive through being exempt from taxes such as Vehicle Excise Duty and providing incentives such as plug in grants of up to £3,500. Aside from passenger cars, improvements are also being made to emissions of public transport. The average low emission bus in London could reduce its CO2 emissions by up to 26 tonnes per year subsequently acquiring the governments support in England of the ‘Green Bus Fund’.

Conclusion

In 2017, renewables accounted for a record 29.3% of the UK’s energy generation. This is a vast improvement on previous years and suggests the UK is on track to meet the new IPCC targets although a lot of work still needs to be done. Government policies do need to be reassessed in light of the new targets however. Scotland should reassess its nuclear policy as this might be a necessary stepping stone in reduced emissions until renewables are able to fully power the nation and the UK government needs to reassess its allocation of funding as investment in clean energy is on a current downward trajectory.

Although progress has been made to reduce CO2 emissions in the heat and transport sector, emissions throughout the UK remain much higher than desired. The committee of climate change report to parliament (2015), calls for the widespread electrification of heating and transport by 2030 to help prevent a 1.5 degree rise in global temperature. This is likely to pose as a major challenge and will require a significant increase in electricity generation capacities in conjunction with greater policy intervention to encourage the uptake of low carbon technologies. Although the likelihood of all consumers switching to alternative technologies are sparse, if the government continues to tighten regulations surrounding fossil fuelled technologies whilst the heat and transport industry continue to develop old and new systems to become more efficient this should see significant CO2 reductions in the future.

2018-11-19-1542623986

Is Nuclear Power a viable source of energy?: college application essay help

6th Form Economics project:

Nuclear power, the energy of the future of the 1950s, is now starting to feel like the past. Around 450 nuclear reactors worldwide currently generate 11% of the world electricity, or approximately 2500 TWh in a year, just under the total nuclear power generated globally in 2001 and only 500 TWh more than in 1991. The number of operating reactors worldwide has seen the same stagnation, with an increase of only 31 since 1989, or an annual growth of only 0.23% compared to 12.9% from 1959 to 1989. Most reactors, especially in Europe and North America, where built before the 90s and the average age of reactors worldwide is just over 28 years. Large scale nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl in 1986 or, much more recently, Fukushima in 2011 have negatively impacted public support for nuclear power and helped cause this decline, but the weight of evidence has increasingly suggested that nuclear is safer than most other energy sources and has an incredibly low carbon footprint, causing the argument against nuclear to shift from concerns about safety and the environment to questions about the economic viability of nuclear power. The crucial question that remains is therefore about how well nuclear power can compete against renewables to produce the low carbon energy required to tackle global warming.

The costs of most renewable energy sources have been falling rapidly and increasingly able to outcompete nuclear power as a low carbon option and even fossil fuels in some places; photovoltaic panels, for example, have halved in price from 2008 to 2014. Worse still for nuclear power, it seems that while costs of renewable energy have been falling, plans for new nuclear plants have been plagued with delays and additional costs: in the UK, Hinkley Point C power station is set to cost £20.3bn, making it the world’s most expensive power station, and significant issues in the design have raised questions as to whether the plant will be completed by 2025, it’s current goal. In France, the Flamanville 3 reactor is now predicted to cost three times its original budget and several delays have pushed the start up date, originally set for 2012, to 2020. The story is the same in the US, where delays and extra costs have plagued the construction of the Vogtle 3 and 4 reactors which are now due to be complete by 2020-21, 4 years over their original target. Nuclear power seemingly cannot deliver the cheap, carbon free energy it promised and is being outperformed by renewable energy sources such as solar and wind.

The crucial and recurring issue with nuclear power is that it requires huge upfront costs, especially when plants are built individually, and can only provide revenue years after the start of construction. This means that investment into nuclear is risky, long term and cannot be done well on a small scale, though new technologies such as SMRs (Small Modular Reactors) may change this in the coming decades, making it a much bigger gamble. Improvements in other technologies over the period of time a nuclear plant is built means that is often better for private firms, who are less likely to be able to afford large scale programs enabling significant cost reductions or a lower debt to equity ration in their capital structure, to invest in more easily scalable and shorter term energy sources, especially with subsidies favouring renewables in many developed countries. All of this points to the fundamental flaw of nuclear: that it requires going all the way. Small scale nuclear programs that are funded mostly with debt, that have high discount rates and low capacity factors as they are switched off frequently will invariably have a very high Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE) as nuclear is so capital intensive.

That said, the reverse is true as well. Nuclear plants have very low operating costs, almost no external costs and the cost of decommissioning a plant are only a small portion of the initial capital cost, even with a low discount rate such as 3%, due to the long lifespan of a nuclear plant and the fact that many can be extended. Operating costs include fuel costs, which are extremely low for nuclear, costing only 0.0049 USD per kWh, and non-fuel operation and maintenance costs which are barely higher at 0.0137 USD per kWh. This includes waste disposal, a frequently cited political issue that has no longer been relevant technically for decades as waste can be reused relatively well and stored on site safely at very low costs simply because the quantity of fuel used and therefore waste produced is so small. The fuel, uranium is abundant and technology enabling uranium to be extracted from sea water would give access to a 60,000 year supply at present rates of consumption so costs from ‘resource depletion’ are also small. Finally, external costs represent a very small proportion of running costs: the highest estimates for health costs and potential accident are at 5€/MWh and 4€/MWh respectively, though some estimates fall to only 0.3€/MWh for potential accidents when past records are adjusted to try and factor in improvements in safety standards; though these vary significantly due to the fact that the total number of reactors is very small.

Nuclear power therefore remains still one of the cheapest ways to produce electricity in the right circumstances and many LCOE (Levelised Cost of Energy) estimates, which are designed to factor in all costs over the life time of a unit to give a more accurate representation of the costs of different types of energy, though they usually omit system costs, point to nuclear as a cheaper energy source than almost all renewables and most fossil fuels at low discount rates.

LCOE costs taken from ‘Projected Costs of Generating Electricity 2015 Edition’ and system costs taken from ‘Nuclear Energy and Renewables (NEA, 2012)’ have been combined by the World Nuclear association to give LCOE for four countries to compare the costs of nuclear to other energy sources. A discount rate of 7% is used, the study applies a $30/t CO2 price on fossil fuel use and uses 2013 US$ values and exchange rates. It is important to bear in mind that LCOE estimates vary widely as many assume different circumstances and they are very difficult to calculate, but it is clear from the graph that nuclear power is more than still viable; being the cheapest source in three of the four countries and third cheapest in the fourth behind onshore wind and gas.

2019-5-13-1557759917

Decision making during the Fukushima disaster

Introduction

On March 11, 2011 a tsunami struck the east coast of Japan, which resulted in a disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. During the day commencing the natural disaster many decisions were made with regards to managing the crisis. This paper will examine these decisions made during the crisis. The Governmental Politics Model, a model designed by Allison and Zelikow (1999), will be adopted to analyse the events. Therefore, the research question of this paper is: To what extent does the Governmental Politics Model explain the decisions made during the Fukushima disaster.

First, this paper will lay the theoretical basis for an analysis. The Governmental Politics Model and all crucial concepts within it are discussed. Then a conscription of the Fukushima case will follow. Since the reader is expected to already have general knowledge regarding the Fukushima Nuclear disaster the case description will be very brief. With the theoretical framework and case study a basis for the analysis is laid. The analysis will look into the decisions government and Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) officials made during the crisis.

Theory

Allison and Zelikow designed three theories to understand the outcomes of bureaucracies and decision making in the aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. The first theory to be designed was the Rational Actor Model. This model focusses on the ‘logic of consequences’ and has a basic assumption of rational actions of a unitary actor. The second theory designed by Allison and Zelikow is the Organizational Behavioural Model. This model focusses on the ‘logic of appropriateness’ and has a main assumption of loosely connected allied organizations (Broekema, 2019).

The third model thought of by Allison and Zelikow is the Governmental Politics Model (GPM). This model reviews the importance of power in decision-making. According to the GPM decision making has not to do with rational/unitary actors or organizational output but everything with a bargaining game. This means that governments make decisions in other ways, according to the GPM there are four aspects to this. These aspects are: the choices of one, the results of minor games and of central games and foul-ups (Allison & Zelikow, 1999).

The following concepts are essential in the GPM. First, it is important to note that power in government is shared. Different institutions have independent bases and, therefore, power is shared. Second, persuasion is an important factor in the GPM. The power to persuade differentiates power from authority. Third, bargaining according to the process is identified, this means there is a structure in the bargaining processes. Fourth, power equals impact on outcome is mentioned in the Essence of Decision making. This means that there is a difference between what can be done and what is actually done, and what is actually done has to do with the power involved in the process. Lastly, intranational and international relations are of great importance to the GPM. These relations are intertwined and involve a vast set if international and domestic actors (Allison & Zelikow, 1999).

Not only the five previous concepts are relevant for the GPM. The GPM is inherently based on group decisions, in this type of decision making Allison and Zelikow identify seven factors. The first factor is a positive one, group decisions, when met by certain requirements create better decisions. Secondly, the agency problem is identified, this problem includes information asymmetric and the fact that actors are competing over different goals. Third, it is important to identify the actors in the ‘game’. This means that one has to find out who participates in the bargaining process. Fourth, problems with different types of decisions are outlined. Fifth, framing issues and agenda setting is an important factor in the GPM. Sixth, group decisions are not necessarily positive, they can lead to groupthink easily. This is a negative consequence and means that no other opinions are considered. Last, the difficulties in collective actions is outlined by Allison and Zelikow. This has to do with the fact that the GPM does not consider unitary actors but different organizations (Allison & Zelikow, 1999).

Besides the concepts mentioned above the GPM consists of a concise paradigm too. This paradigm is essential for the analysis of the Fukushima case. The paradigm exists of six main points. The first main point is the fact that decisions are the result of politics, this is the GPM and once again stresses the fact that decisions are the result of bargaining. Second, as said before, it is important to identify the players of the political ‘game’. Furthermore, one has to identify their preferences and goals and what kind of impact they can have on the final decision. Once this is analysed, one has to look at what the actual game is that is played. The action channels and rules of the game can be determined. Third, the ‘dominant inference pattern’ once again goes back to the fact that the decisions are the result of bargaining, but this point makes clear that differences and misunderstandings have to be taken into account. Fourth, Allison and Zelikow identify ‘general propositions’ this term includes all concepts examined in the second paragraph of the theory section of this paper. Fifth, specific propositions are looked at, these specify to decisions on the use of force and military action. Last, is the importance of evidence. When examining crisis decision making documented timelines and for example, minutes or other account are of great importance (Allison & Zelikow, 1999).

Case

In the definition of Prins and Van den Berg (2018) the Fukushima Daiichi disaster can be regarded as a safety case, this is because it was an unintentional event that caused harm to humans.

The crisis was initiated by an earthquake of 9.0 on the Richter scale which was followed by a tsunami, which waves reached a height of 10 meters. Due to the earthquake all external power lines, which are needed for cooling the fuel rods, were disconnected. Countermeasures for this issue were in place, however, the water walls were unable to protect the nuclear plant from flooding. This caused the countermeasures, the diesel generators, to be inadequate (Kushida, 2016).

Due to the lack of electricity, the nuclear fuel rods were not cooled, therefore, a ‘race for electricity’ started. Eventually the essential decision to inject sea water was made. Moreover, the situation inside the reactors was unknown. Meltdowns in reactors 1 and 2 already occurred. Because of explosions risks the decision to vent the reactors was made. However, hydrogen explosions materialized in reactors 1,2 and 4. This in turn led to the exposure of radiation to the environment. To counter the disperse of radiation the decision to inject sea water to the reactors was made (Kushida, 2016).

Analysis

This analysis will look into the decision or decisions to inject seawater in the damaged reactors. First, a timeline of the decisions will be outlined to further build on the case study above. Then the events and decisions made will be paralleled to the GPM paradigm with the six main points as described in the theory.

The need to inject sea water arose after the first stages as described in the case study passed. According to Kushida government officials and political leaders began voicing the necessity of injecting the water at 6:00 p.m., the day after the earthquake, on March 12. It would according to these officials have one very positive outcome, namely, the cooling of the reactors and the fuel pool. However, the use of sea water might have negative consequences too. It would ruin the reactors because of the salt in the sea water and it would produce vast amounts of contaminated water which would be hard to contain (Kushida, 2016). TEPCO experienced many difficulties with cooling the reactors, as is described in the case study, because of the lack of electricity. However, they were averse to injecting sea water into the reactors since this would ruin them. Still, after the first hydrogen explosion occurred in reactor one TEPCO plant workers started the injection of sea water in this specific reactor (Holt et al., 2012). A day later, on March 13, sea water injection started in reactor 3. On the 14th of March, seawater injection started in reactor 2 (Holt et al., 2012).

When looking at the decisions made by the government or TEPCO plant workers it is crucial to consider the chain of decision making by TEPCO leadership too. TEPCO leadership was in the first instance not very positive towards injecting seawater because of the earlier mentioned disadvantages, the plant would become unusable in the future and vast amounts of contaminated water would be created. Therefore, the government had to issue an order to TEPCO to start injecting seawater. They did so at 8:00 p.m. on 12 March. However, Yoshida, the Fukushima Daiichi Plant Manager already started injecting seawater at 7:00 p.m. (Kushida, 2016).

As one can already see different interests were at play and the outcome of the eventual decision can well be a political resultant. Therefore, it is crucial to examine the chain of decisions through the GPM paradigm. The first factor of this paradigm concerns decisions as a result of bargaining, this can clearly be seen in the decision to inject seawater. TEPCO leadership initially was not a proponent of this method, however, after government officials ordered them to execute the injection they had no choice. Second, according to the theory, it is important to identify the players of the ‘game’ and their goals. In this instance these divisions are easily identifiable, three different players can be pointed out. The different players are the government, TEPCO leadership and Yoshida, the plant manager. The Government has as a goal to keep their citizens safe during the crisis, TEPCO wanted to maintain the reactor as long as possible, whereas, Yoshida wanted to contain the crisis. This shows there were conflicting goals in that sense.

To further apply the GPM to the decision to inject seawater one can review the comprehensive ‘general proposition’. In this part miscommunication is a very relevant factor. Miscommunication was certainly a big issue in the decision to inject seawater. As said before Yoshida, already started injecting seawater before he received approval from his chiefs. One might even wonder whether or not there was a misunderstanding of the crisis by TEPCO leadership because of the fact that they hesitated to inject seawater necessary to cool the reactors. It can be argued that this hesitation constitutes a great deal of misunderstanding of the crisis since there was no plant to be saved anymore at the time the decision was made.

The fifth and sixth aspect of the GPM paradigm are less relevant to the decisions made. This is because ‘specific proposition’ refers to the use of force, which was not an option in dealing with the Fukushima crisis. The Japanese Self-Defence forces were dispatched to the plant; however, this was to provide electricity (Kushida, 2016). Furthermore, the sixth aspect, evidence is not as important in this case since many scholars, researchers and investigators have written to a great extent about what happened during the Fukushima crisis, more than sufficient information is available.

The political and bargaining game in the decision to inject seawater into the reactors is clearly visible. The different actors in the game had different goals, however, eventually the government won this game and the decision to inject seawater was made. Even before that the plant manager already to inject seawater because the situation was too dire.

Conclusion

This essay reviewed decision making during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster on the 11th of March 2011. More specifically the decision to inject seawater into the reactors to cool them was scrutinized. This was done by using the Governmental Politics Model. The decision to inject seawater into the reactors was a result of a bargaining game and different actors with different objectives played the decision-making ‘game’.

2019-3-18-1552918037

Tackling misinformation on social media: college essay help online

As the world of social media expands, the ratio of miscommunication rises as more organisations hop on the bandwagon of utilising the digital realm to their advantage. Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, online forums and other websites become the pinnacle of news gathering for many individuals. Information becomes easily accessible to all walks of life meaning that people are becoming more integrated about real life issues. Consumers absorb and take information in as easy as ever before which proves to be equally advantageous and disadvantageous. But, There is an evident boundary in which the differentiation of misleading and truthful information is hard to cross without research on the topic. The accuracy of public information is highly questionable which could easily lead to problems. Despite there being a debate about source credibility in any platform, there are ways to tackle the issue through “expertise/competence (i. e., the degree to which a perceiver believes a sender to know the truth), trustworthiness (i. e., the degree to which a perceiver believes a sender will tell the truth as he or she knows it), and goodwill”. (Cronkhite & Liska (1976)) Which is why it has become critical for this to be accurate, ethical and reliable for the consumers. Verifying information is important regardless of the type of social media outlet. This essay will be highlighting the importance of why information need to fit this criteria.

By putting out credible information it prevents and reduces misconception, convoluted meanings and inconsistent facts which reduce the likeliness of issues surfacing. This in turn saves time for the consumer and the producer. The presence of risk raises the issue of how much of this information should be consumed by the public. The perception of source credibility becomes an important concept to analyse within social media, especially in terms of crisis where rationality reduces and the latter often just take the first thing that is seen. With the increasing amount of information available through newer channels, the idea of releasing information from professionals of the topic devolve away from the producers and onto consumers. (Haas & Wearden, 2003) Many of the public is unaware that this information is prone to bias and selective information sharing which could communicate the actual facts much differently. One such example is the incident of Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s Fukushima No.1 nuclear power plant in 2011, where the plant experienced triple meltdowns. There is a misconception floating around that the food exported from Fukushima is too contaminated with radioactive substances making them unhealthy and unfit to eat. But the truth is that this isn’t the case when strict screening reveals that the contamination is below the government standard to pose a threat. (arkansa.gov.au) Since then, products shipped from Fukushima have dropped considerably in prices and have not recovered since 2011 forcing retailers into bankruptcy. (japantimes.co.jp) But thanks to the use of social media and organisations releasing information out into the public, Fukushima was able to raise funds and receive help from other countries. For example the U.S. sending $100,000 and China sending emergency supplies as assistance. (theguardian.com) This would have been impossible to achieve without the use of sharing credible, reliable and ethical information regarding the country and social media support spotlighting the incident.

Accurate, ethical and reliable information open the pathway for producers to secure a relationship with the consumers which can be used to strengthen their own businesses and expand their industries further whilst gaining support from the public. The idea is to have a healthy relationship without the air of uneasiness where monetary gains and social earnings increase. Social media playing a pivotal role in deciding the route the relationship falls in. But, When done incorrectly, organisations can become unsuccessful when they know little to nothing about the change of dynamics in consumers and behaviour in the digital landscape. Consumer informedness means that consumers are well informed about products or services available with precision influencing their willingness in decisions. This increase in consumer informedness can instigate change in consumer behaviour. (uni-osnabrueck.de) In the absence of accurate, ethical and reliable information, people and organisations will make terrible decisions with no hesitation. Which leads to losses and steps backwards. As Saul Eslake (Saul-Eslake.com) says, “they will be unable to help or persuade others to make better decisions; and no-one will be able to ascertain whether the decisions made by particular individuals or organisations were the best ones that could have been made at the time”. Recently, a YouTuber named Shawn Dawson made a video that sparked controversy to the company ‘Chuck E. Cheese’ for their pizzas slices that do not look like they belong to the whole pizza. He created a theory that part of the pizzas may have been reheated or recycled from other tables. In response Chuck E. Cheese responded in multiple media outlets to debunk the theory, “These claims are unequivocally false. We prep the dough daily for our made to order pizzas, which means they’re not always perfectly round, but they are still great tasting.” (https://twitter.com/chuckecheeses) It is worth bringing up that no information other than pictures back up the claim that they reused the pizza. The food company has also gone far to create a video showing the pizza preparation. To back as the support, ex-employees spoke up and shared their own side of the story to debunk the theory further. It’s these quick responses that saved what could have caused a small downfall in sale for the Chuck E. Cheese company. (washintonpost.com) This event highlights the importance on the release of information that can fall in favour to whoever utilises it correctly and the effectiveness of credible information that should be taken to heart. Credible information is good and bad especially when it has the support of others whether online or real life. The assumption or guess when there is no information available to base from is called a ‘heuristic value’ which is seen associated with information that has no credibility.

Mass media have been a dominant source of finding information (Murch, 1971). They are generally thought and assumed to provide credible, valuable, and ethical information open to the public (Heath, Liao, & Douglas, 1995). However, along with traditional forms of media, newer media are increasingly available for information seeking and reports. According to PNAS (www.pnas.org), “The emergence of social media as a key source of news content has created a new ecosystem for the spreading of misinformation. This is illustrated by the recent rise of an old form of misinformation: blatantly false news stories that are presented as if they are legitimate . So-called “fake news” rose to prominence as a major issue during the 2016 US presidential election and continues to draw significant attention.” This affects how we as social beings perceive and analyse information we see online compared to real life. Beyond just reducing the intervention’s effectiveness, failing to deduce stories from real to false increase the belief of false content. Leading to biased and misleading content that fool the audience. One such incident is Michael Jackson’s death in June 2009 where he died from acute propofol and benzodiazepine intoxication administered by his doctor, Dr. Murray. (nytimes.com) It was deduced from the public that Michael Jackson was murdered on purpose but the court convicted, Dr. Murray of involuntary murder as the doctor proclaimed that Jackson begged him to give more. A fact that was overlooked by the general due to bias. This underlines how information is selectively picked from the public and not all information is revealed to sway the audience. A study conducted online by Jason and his team (JCMC [CQU]) revealed that Facebook users tended to believe their friends almost instantly even without a link or proper citation to a website to backup their claim. “Using a person who has frequent social media interactions with the participant was intended to increase the external validity of the manipulation.” Meaning information online that can be taken as truth or not is left to the perception of the viewer linking to the idea that information online isn’t credible fully unless it came straight from the source. Proclaiming the importance of credible information to be released.

Information has the power to inform, explain and expand on topics and concepts. But it also has the power to create inaccuracies and confusion which is hurtful to the public and damages the reputation of companies. The goal is to move forward not backwards. Many companies have gotten themselves into disputes because of incorrect information which could have easily been avoided through releasing accurate, ethical and reliable information from the beginning. False Information can start disputes and true information can provide resolution. The public has become less attentive to mainstream news altogether which strikes a problem on what can be trusted. Companies and organisations need their information to be accurate and reliable as much as possible to defeat and reduce this issue. Increased negativity and incivility exacerbate the media’s credibility problem. “People of all political persuasions are growing more dissatisfied with the news, as levels of media trust decline.” (JCMC [CQU]) In 2010, Dannon’s ‘Activia Yogurt’ released an online statement and false advertisement that their yogurt had “special bacterial ingredients.” A consumer named, Trish Wiener lodged a complaint against Dannon. The yogurts were being marketed as being “clinically” and “scientifically” proven to boost the immune system while able to help to regulate digestion. However, the judge saw this statement as unproven. As well as many other products in their line that used this statement in their products. “This landed the company a $45 million class action settlement.” (businessinsider.com) it didn’t help that Dannon’s prices for their yogurt was inflated compared to other yogurts in the market. “The lawsuit claims Dannon has spent “far more than $100 million” to convey deceptive messages to U.S. consumers while charging 30 percent more that other yogurt products.” (reuters.com) This highlights how inaccurate information can cost millions of dollars to settle and resolve. However it also showed how the public can easily evict irresponsible producers from their actions and give leeway to justice.

2019-5-2-1556794982

Socio-political significance of Turkey’s emergent neo-Ottoman cultural phenomenon

Over the last decade, Turkey’s cultural sphere has witnessed a motto of Ottomania—a term describing the recent cultural fervor for everything Ottoman. Although this neo-Ottoman cultural phenomenon, is not entirely new since it had its previous cycle back in the 1980s and 1990s during the heyday of Turkey’s political Islam, it now has a rather novel characteristic and distinct pattern of operation. This revived Ottoman craze is discernable in what I call the neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble—referring to a growing array of Ottoman-themed cultural productions and sites that evoke Turkey’s Ottoman-Islamic cultural heritage. For example, the celebration of the 1453 Istanbul conquest no longer merely takes place as an annual public commemoration by the Islamists,[1] but has been widely promulgated, reproduced, and consumed into various forms of popular culture such as: the Panorama 1453 History Museum; a fun ride called the Conqueror’s Dream (Fatih’in Rüyası) at the Vialand theme park; the highly publicized and grossed blockbuster The Conquest 1453 (Fetih 1453); and the primetime television costume drama The Conqueror (Fatih). It is the “banal”, or “mundane,” ways of everyday practice of society itself, rather than the government or state institutions that distinguishes this emergent form of neo-Ottomanism from its earlier phases.[2]

This is the context in which the concept of neo-Ottomanism has acquired its cultural dimension and analytical currency for comprehending the proliferating neo-Ottoman cultural phenomenon. However, when the concept is employed in contemporary cultural debates, it generally follows two trajectories that are common in the literature of Turkish domestic and foreign politics. These trajectories conceptualize neo-Ottomanism as an Islamist political ideology and/or a doctrine of Turkey’s foreign policy in the post-Cold War era. This essay argues that these two conventional conceptions tend to overlook the complexity and hybridity of Turkey’s latest phase of neo-Ottomanism. As a result, they tend to understand the emergent neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble as merely a representational apparatus of the neoconservative Justice and Development Party’s (AKP; Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi) ideology and diplomatic strategy.

This essay hence aims to reassess the analytical concept of neo-Ottomanism and the emergent neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble by undertaking three tasks. First, through a brief critique of the concept of neo-Ottomanism, I will discuss its common trajectories and limitations for comprehending the latest phase of neo-Ottoman cultural phenomenon. My second task is to propose a conceptual move from neo-Ottomanism to Ottomentality by incorporating the Foucauldian perspective of governmentality. Ottomentality is an alternative concept that I deployed here to underscore the overlapping relationship between neoliberal and neo-Ottoman rationalities in the AKP’s government of culture and diversity. I contend that neoliberalism and neo-Ottomanism are inseparable governing rationalities of the AKP and their convergence has engendered new modes of governing the cultural field as well as regulating inter-ethnic and inter-religious relations in Turkey. And finally, I will reassess the neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble through the analytical lens of Ottomentality. I contend that the convergence of neoliberal and neo-Ottoman rationalities has significantly transformed the relationships of state, culture, and the social. As the cases of the television historical drama Magnificent Century (Muhteşem Yüzyıl) and the film The Conquest 1453 (Fetih 1453) shall illustrate, the neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble plays a significant role as a governing technique that constitutes a new regime of truth based on market mentality and religious truth. It also produces a new subject of citizenry, who is responsible for enacting its right to freedom through participation in the culture market, complying with religious norms and traditional values, and maintaining a difference-blind and discriminatory model of multiculturalism.

A critique of neo-Ottomanism as an analytical concept

Although the concept of neo-Ottomanism has been commonly used in Turkish Studies, it has become a loose term referring to anything associated with the Islamist political ideology, nostalgia for the Ottoman past, and imperialist ambition of reasserting Turkey’s economic and political influence within the region and beyond. Some scholars have recently indicated that the concept of neo-Ottomanism is running out of steam as it lacks meaningful definition and explanatory power in studies of Turkish politics and foreign policy.[3] The concept’s ambiguity and impotent analytical and explanatory value is mainly due to the divergent, competing interpretations and a lack of critical evaluation within the literature.[4] Nonetheless, despite the concept being equivocally defined, it is most commonly understood in two identifiable trajectories. First, it is conceptualized as an Islamist ideology, responding to the secularist notions of modernity and nationhood and aiming to reconstruct Turkish identity by evoking Ottoman-Islamic heritage as an essential component of Turkish culture. Although neo-Ottomanism was initially formulated by a collaborated group of secular, liberal, and conservative intellectuals and political actors in the 1980s, it is closely linked to the consolidated socio-economic and political power of conservative middle-class. This trajectory considers neo-Ottomanism as primarily a form of identity politics and a result of political struggle in opposition to the republic’s founding ideology of Kemalism. Second, it is understood as an established foreign policy framework reflecting the AKP government’s renewed diplomatic strategy in the Balkans, Central Asia, and Middle East wherein Turkey plays an active role. This trajectory regards neo-Ottomanism as a political doctrine (often referring to Ahmet Davutoglu’s Strategic Depth serving as the guidebook for Turkey’s diplomatic strategy in the 21st century), which sees Turkey as a “legitimate heir of the Ottoman Empire”[5] and seeks to reaffirm Turkey’s position in the changing world order in the post-Cold War era.[6]

As a result of a lack of critical evaluation of the conventional conceptions of neo-Ottomanism, contemporary cultural analyses have largely followed the “ideology” and “foreign policy” trajectories as explanatory guidance when assessing the emergent neo-Ottoman cultural phenomenon. I contend that the neo-Ottoman cultural phenomenon is more complex than what these two trajectories offer to explain. Analyses that adopt these two approaches tend to run a few risks. First, they tend to perceiveneo-Ottomanism as a monolithic imposition upon society. They presume that this ideology, when inscribed onto domestic and foreign policies, somehow has a direct impact on how society renews its national interest and identity.[7] And they tend to understand the neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble as merely a representational device of the neo-Ottomanist ideology. For instance, Şeyda Barlas Bozkuş, in her analyses of the Miniatürk theme park and the 1453 Panorama History Museum, argues that these two sites represent the AKP’s “ideological emphasis on neo-Ottomanism” and “[create] a new class of citizens with a new relationship to Turkish-Ottoman national identity.”[8] Second, contemporary cultural debates tend to overlook the complex and hybrid nature of the latest phase of neo-Ottomanism, which rarely operates on its own, but more often relies on and converges with other political rationalities, projects, and programs. As this essay shall illustrate, when closely examined, current configuration of neo-Ottomanism is more likely to reveal internal inconsistencies as well as a combination of multiple and intersecting political forces.

Moreover, as a consequence of the two risks mentioned above, contemporary cultural debates may have overlooked some of the symptomatic clues, hence, underestimated the socio-political significance of the latest phase of neo-Ottomanism. A major symptomatic clue that is often missed in cultural debates on the subject is culture itself. Insufficient attention has been paid to the AKP’s rationale of reconceptualizing culture as an administrative matter—a matter that concerns how culture is to be perceived and managed, by what culture the social should be governed, and how individuals might govern themselves with culture. At the core of the AKP government’s politics of culture and neoliberal reform of the cultural filed is the question of the social.[9] Its reform policies, projects, and programs are a means of constituting a social reality and directing social actions. When culture is aligned with neoliberal governing rationality, it redefines a new administrative culture and new rules and responsibilities of citizens in cultural practices. Culture has become not only a means to advance Turkey in global competition,[10] but also a technology of managing the diversifying culture resulted in the process of globalization. As Brian Silverstein notes, “[culture] is among other things and increasingly to be seen as a major target of administration and government in a liberalizing polity, and less a phenomenon in its ownright.”[11] While many studies acknowledge the AKP government’s neoliberal reform of the cultural field, they tend to regard neo-Ottomanism as primarily an Islamist political agenda operating outside of the neoliberal reform. It is my conviction that neoliberalism and neo-Ottomanism are inseparable political processes and rationalities, which have merged and engendered new modalities of governing every aspect of cultural life in society, including minority cultural rights, freedom of expression, individuals’ lifestyle, and so on. Hence, by overlooking the “centrality of culture”[12] in relation to the question of the social, contemporary cultural debates tend to oversimplify the emergent neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble as nothing more than an ideological machinery of the neoconservative elite.

From neo-Ottomanism to Ottomentality

In order to more adequately assess the socio-political significance of Turkey’s emergent neo-Ottoman cultural phenomenon, I propose a conceptual shift from neo-Ottomanism to Ottomentality. This shift involves not only rethinking neo-Ottomanism as a form of governmentality, but also thinking neoliberal and neo-Ottoman rationalities in collaborative terms. Neo-Ottomanism is understood here as Turkey’s current form of neoconservatism, a prevalent political rationality that its governmental practices are not solely based on Islamic values, but also draws from and produces a new political culture that considers Ottoman-Islamic toleration and pluralism as the foundation of modern liberal multiculturalism in Turkey. Neoliberalism, in the same vein, far from a totalizing concept describing an established set of political ideology or economic policy, is conceived here as a historically and locally specific form of governmentality that must be analyzed by taking into account the multiple political forces which gave its unique shape in Turkey.[13] My claim is that when these two rationalities merge at the cultural domain, they engender a new art of government, which I call the government of culture and diversity.

This approach is therefore less concerned with a particular political ideology or the question of “how to govern,” but more about the “different styles of thought, their conditions of formation, the principles and knowledges that they borrow from and generate, the practices they consist of, how they are carried out, their contestations and alliances with other arts of governing.”[14] In light of this view, and for a practical purpose, Ottomentality is an alternative concept that I attempt to develop here to avoid the ambiguous meanings and analytical limitations of neo-Ottomanism. This concept underscores to the convergence of neoliberal and neo-Ottoman rationalities as well as the interrelated discourses, projects, policies, and strategies that are developed around them for regulating cultural activities and directing inter-ethnic and inter-religious relations in Turkey. It pays attention to the techniques and practices that have significant effects on the relationships of state, culture, and the social. It is concerned with the production of knowledge, or truth, based on which a new social reality of ‘freedom,’ ‘tolerance,’ and ‘multiculturalism’ in Turkey is constituted. Furthermore, it helps to identify the type of political subject, whose demand for cultural rights and participatory democracy is reduced to market terms and a narrow understanding of multiculturalism. And their criticism of this new social reality is increasingly subjected to judicial exclusion and discipline.

I shall note that Ottomentality is an authoritarian type of governmentality—a specific type of illiberal rule operated within the structure of modern liberal democracy. As Mitchell Dean notes, although the literature on governmentality has focused mainly on liberal democratic rules that are practiced through the individual subjects’ active role (as citizens) and exercise of freedom, there are also “non-liberal and explicitly authoritarian types of rule that seek to operate through obedient rather than free subjects, or, at a minimum, endeavor to neutralize any opposition to authority.”[15] He suggests that a useful way to approach to this type of governmentality would be to identify the practices and rationalities which “divide” or “exclude” those who are subjected to be governed.[16] According to Foucault’s notion of “dividing practices,” “[t]he subject is either divided inside himself or divided from others. This process objectivizes him. Examples are the mad and the sane, the sick and the healthy, the criminals and the ‘good boys’.”[17] Turkey’s growing neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble can be considered as such exclusionary practices, which seek to regulate the diversifying culture by dividing the subjects into categorical, if not polarized, segments based on their cultural differences. For instance, mundane practices such as going to the museums and watching television shows may produce subject positions which divide subjects into such categories as the pious and the secular, the moral and the degenerate, and the Sunni-Muslim-Turk and the ethno-religious minorities.

Reassessing the neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble through the lens of Ottomentality

In this final section, I propose a reassessment of the emergent neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble by looking beyond the conventional conceptions of neo-Ottomanism as “ideology” and “foreign policy.” Using the analytical concept of Ottomentality, I aim to examine the state’s changing role and governing rationality in culture, the discursive processes of knowledge production for rationalizing certain practices of government, and the techniques of constituting a particular type of citizenry who acts upon themselves in accordance with the established knowledge/truth. Nonetheless, before proceeding to an analysis of the government of culture and diversity, a brief overview of the larger context in which the AKP’s Ottomentality took shape would be helpful.

Context

Since the establishment of the Turkish republic, the state has played a major role in maintaining a homogeneous national identity by suppressing public claims of ethnic and religious differences through militaristic intervention. The state’s strict control of cultural life in society, in particular its assertive secularist approach to religion and ethnic conception of Turkish citizenship, has resulted in unsettling tensions between ethno-religious groups in the 1980s and 1990s, i.e. the Kurdish question and the 1997 “soft coup.” These social tensions indicated the limits of state-led modernization and secularization projects in accommodating ethnic and pious segments of society.[18] This was also a time when Turkey began to witness the declining authority of the founding ideology of Kemalism as an effect of economic and political liberalization. When the AKP came to power in 2002, one of the most urgent political questions was thus the “the limits of what the state can—or ought for its own good—reasonably demand of citizens […] to continue to make everyone internalize an ethnic conception of Turkishness.”[19] At this political juncture, it was clear that a more inclusive socio-political framework was necessary in order to mitigate the growing tension resulted in identity claims.

Apart from domestic affairs, a few vital transnational initiatives also took part in the AKP’s formulation of neoliberal and neo-Ottoman rationalities. First, in the aftermath of the attacks in New York on September 11 (9/11) in 2001, the Middle East and Muslim communities around the world became the target ofintensified political debates. In the midst of anti-Muslim and anti-terror propaganda, Turkey felt a need to rebuild its image by aligning with the United Nations’ (UN) resolution of “The Alliance of Civilizations,” which called for cross-cultural dialogue between countries through cultural exchange programs and transnational business partnership.[20] Turkey took on the leading role in this resolution and launched extensive developmental plans that were designated to rebuild Turkey’s image as a civilization of tolerance and peaceful co-existence.[21] The Ottoman-Islamic civilization, known for its legacy of cosmopolitanism and ethno-religious toleration, hence became an ideal trademark of Turkey for the project of “alliance of civilizations.”[22]

Second, Turkey’s accelerated EU negotiation between the late 1990s and mid 2000s provided a timely opportunity for the newly elected AKP government to launch “liberal-democratic reform,”[23] which would significantly transform the way culture was to be administered. Culture, among the prioritized areas of administrative reform, was now reorganized to comply with the EU integration plan. By incorporating the EU’s aspect of culture as a way of enhancing “freedom, democracy, solidarity and respect for diversity,”[24] the AKP-led national cultural policy would shift away from the state-centered, protectionist model of the Kemalist establishment towards one that highlights “principles of mutual tolerance, cultural variety, equality and opposition to discrimination.”[25]

Finally, the selection of Istanbul as 2010 European Capital of Culture (ECoC) is particularly worth noting as this event enabled local authorities to put into practice the neoliberal and neo-Ottoman governing rationalities through extensive urbanprojects and branding techniques. By sponsoring and showcasing different European cities each year, the ECoC program aims at promoting a multicultural European identity beyond national borders.[26] The 2010 Istanbul ECoC was an important opportunity for Turkey not only to promote its EU candidacy, but also for the local governments to pursue urban developmental projects.[27] Some of the newly formed Ottoman-themed cultural sites and productions were a part of the ECoC projects for branding Istanbul as cultural hub where the East and West meet. It is in this context that the interplay between the neoliberal and neo-Ottoman rationalities can be vividly observed in the form of neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble.

Strong state, culture, and the social

Given the contextual background mentioned above, one could argue that the AKP’s neoliberal and neo-Ottoman rationalities arose as critiques of the republican state’s excessive intervention in society’s cultural life. The transnational initiatives that required Turkey to adopt a liberal democratic paradigm have therefore given way to the formulation and convergence of these two forms of governmentalities that would significantly challenge the state-centered approach to culture as a means of governing the social. However, it would be inaccurate to claim that the AKP’s prioritization of private initiatives in cultural governance has effectively decentralized or democratized the cultural domain from the state’s authoritarian intervention and narrow definition of Turkish culture. Deregulation of culture entails sophisticated legislations concerning the roles of the state and civil society in cultural governance. Hence, for instance, the law of promotion of culture, the law of media censorship, and the new national cultural policy prepared by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism explicitly indicate not only a new vision of national culture, but also the roles of the state and civil society in promoting and preserving national culture. It shall be noted that culture as a governing technology is not an invention of the AKP government. Culture has always been a major area of administrative concern throughout the history of the Turkish republic. As Murat Katoğlu illustrates, during the early republic, culture was conceptualized as part of the state-led “public service” aimed to inform and educate the citizens.[28] Arts and culture were essential means for modernizing the nation; for instance,the state-run cultural institutions, i.e. state ballet, theater, museum, radio and television, “[indicate] the type of modern life style that the government was trying to advocate.”[29] Nonetheless, the role of the state, the status of culture, and the techniques of managing it have been transformed as Turkey undergoes neoliberal reform. In addition, Aksoy suggests that what distinguishes the AKP’s neoliberal mode of cultural governance from that of the early republic modernization project is that market mentality has become the administrative norm.[30] Culture now is reconceptualized as an asset for advancing Turkey in global competition and a site for exercising individual freedom rather than a mechanism of social engineering. And Turkey’s heritage of Ottoman-Islamic civilization in particular is utilized as a nation branding technique to enhance Turkey’s economy, rather than a corrupt past to be forgotten. To achieve the aim of efficient, hence good, governance, the AKP’s cultural governance has heavily relied on privatization as a means to limit state intervention. Thus, privatization has not only transformed culture into an integral part of the free market, but also redefined the state’s role as a facilitator of the culture market, rather than the main provider of cultural service to the public.

The state’s withdrawal from cultural service and prioritization of the civil society to take on the initiatives of preserving and promoting Turkish “cultural values and traditional arts”[31] lead to an immediate effect of the declining authority of the Kemalist cultural establishment. Since many of the previously state-run cultural institutions now are managed with corporate mentality, they begin to lose their status as state-centered institutions and significance in defining and maintaining a homogeneous Turkish culture that they once did. Instead, these institutions, together with other newly formed cultural sites and productions by private initiatives, are converted into a market place or cultural commodities in competition with each other. Hence, privatization of culture leads to the following consequences: First, it weakens and hollows out the 20th century notion of modern secular nation state, which sets a clear boundary confining religion within the private sphere. Second, it gives way to the neoconservative force, who “models state authority on [religious] authority, a pastoral relation of the state to its flock, and a concern with unified rather than balanced or checked state power.”[32] Finally, it converts social issues that are resulted from political actions into market terms and a sheer matter of culture, which is now left to personal choice.[33] As a result, far from a declining state, Ottomentality has constituted a strong state. In particular, neoliberal governance of the cultural field has enabled the ruling neoconservative government to mobilize a new set of political truth and norms for directing inter-ethnic and inter-religious relations in society.

New regime of truth

Central to Foucault’s notion of governmentality is “truth games”[34]—referring to the activities of knowledge production through which particular thoughts are rendered truthful and practices of government are made reasonable.[35] What Foucault calls the “regime of truth” is not concerned about facticity, but a coherent set of practices that connect different discourses and make sense of the political rationalities marking the “division between true and false.”[36] The neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble is a compelling case through which the AKP’s investment of thought, knowledge production, and truth telling can be observed. Two cases are particularly worth mentioning here as I work through the politics of truth in the AKP’s neoliberal governance of culture and neo-Ottoman management of diversity.

Between 2011 and 2014, the Turkish television historical drama Magnificent Century (Muhteşem Yüzyıl, Muhteşem hereafter), featuring the life of the Ottoman Sultan Süleyman, who is known for his legislative establishment in the 16th century Ottoman Empire, attracted wide viewership in Turkey and abroad, especially in the Balkans and Middle East. Although the show played a significant role in generating international interests in Turkey’s tourism, culinary, Ottoman-Islamicarts and history, etc. (which are the fundamental aims of the AKP-led national cultural policy to promote Turkey through arts and culture, including media export),[37] it received harsh criticism among some Ottoman(ist) historians and warning from the RTUK (Radio and Television Supreme Council, a key institution of media censorship and regulation in Turkey). The criticism included the show’s misrepresentation of the Sultan as a hedonist and its harm to moral and traditional values of society. Oktay Saral, an AKP deputy of Istanbul at the time, petitioned to the parliament for a law to ban the show. He said, “[The] law would […] show filmmakers [media practitioners] how to conduct their work in compliance with Turkish family structure and moral values without humiliating Turkish youth and children.”[38] Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (Prime Minister then) also stated, “[those] who toy with these [traditional] values would be taught a lesson within the premises of law.”[39] After his statement, the show was removed from in-flight-channels of national flag carrier Turkish Airlines.

Another popular media production, the 2012 blockbuster The Conquest 1453 (Fetih 1453, Fetih hereafter), which was acclaimed for its success in domestic and international box offices, also generated mixed receptions among Turkish and foreign audiences. Some critics in Turkey and European Christians criticized the film for its selective interpretation of the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople and offensive portrayal of the (Byzantine) Christians. The Greek weekly To Proto Thema denounced that the film served as a “conquest propaganda by the Turks” and “[failed] to show the mass killings of Greeks and the plunder of the land by the Turks.”[40] A Turkish critic also commented that the film portrays the “extreme patriotism” in Turkey “without any hint of […] tolerance sprinkled throughout [the film].”[41] Furthermore, a German Christian association campaigned to boycott the film. Meanwhile, the AKP officials on the contrary praised the film for its genuine representation of the conquest. As Bülent Arınç (Deputy Prime Minister then) stated, “This is truly the best film ever made in the past years.”[42] He also responded to the questions regarding the film’s historical accuracy, “This is a film, not a documentary. The film in general fairly represents all the events that occurred during the conquest as the way we know it.”[43]

When Muhteşem and Fetih are examined within the larger context in which the neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble is formed, the connections between particular types of knowledge and governmental practice become apparent. First, the cases of Muhteşem and Fetih reveal the saturation of market rationality as the basis for a new model of cultural governance. When culture is administered in market terms, it becomes a commodity for sale and promotion as well as an indicator of a number of things for measuring the performance of cultural governance. When Turkey’s culture, in particular Ottoman-Islamic cultural heritage, is converted into an asset and national brand to advance the country in global competition, the reputation and capital it generates become indicators of Turkey’s economic development and progress. The overt emphasis on economic growth, according to Irving Kristol, is one of the distinctive features that differentiate the neoconservatives from their conservative predecessors. He suggests that, for the neoconservatives, economic growth is what gives “modern democracies their legitimacy and durability.”[44] In the Turkish context, the rising neoconservative power, which consisted of a group of Islamists and secular, liberal intellectuals and entrepreneurs (at least in the early years of the AKP’s rule), had consistently focused on boosting Turkey’s economy. For them, economic development seems to have become the appropriate way of making “conservative politics suitable to governing a modern democracy.”[45] Henceforth, such high profile cultural productions as Muhteşem and Fetih are of valuable assets that serve the primary aim of the AKP-led cultural policy because they contribute to the growth in the related areas of tourism and culture industry by promoting Turkey at international level. Based on market rationality, as long as culture can generate productivity and profit, the government is doing a splendid job in governance. In other words, when neoliberal and neoconservative forces converge at the cultural domain, both culture and good governance are reduced to and measured by economic growth, which has become a synonym for democracy “equated with the existence of formal rights, especially private property rights; with the market; and with voting,” rather than political autonomy.[46]

Second, the AKP officials’ applause of Fetih on the one hand and criticism of Muhteşem on the other demonstrates their assertion of the moral-religious authority of the state. As the notion of nation state sovereignty has become weakened by the processes of economic liberalization and globalization, the boundary that separates religion and state has become blurred. As a result, religion becomes “de-privatized” and surges back into the public sphere.[47] This blurred boundary between religion and state has enabled the neoconservative AKP to establish links between religious authority and state authority as well as between religious truth and political truth.[48] These links are evident in the AKP officials’ various public statements declaring the government’s moral mission of sanitizing Turkish culture in accordance with Islamic and traditional values. For instance, as Erdoğan once reacted to his secular opponent’s comment about his interference in politics with religious views, “we [AKP] will raise a generation that is conservative and democratic and embraces the values and historical principles of its nation.”[49] According to his view, despite Muhteşem’s contribution of generating growth in industries of culture and tourism, it became subjected to censorship and legal action because its content did not comply with the governing authority’s moral mission. The controversy of Muhteşem illustrates the rise of a religion-based political truth in Turkey, which sees Islam as the main reference for directing society’s moral conduct and individual lifestyle. Henceforth, by rewarding desirable actions (i.e. with sponsorship law and tax incentives)[50] and punishing undesirable ones (i.e. through censorship, media ban, and jail term for media practitioners’ misconduct), the AKP-led reform of the cultural field constitutes a new type of political culture and truth—one that is based on moral-religious views rather than rational reasoning.

Moreover, the AKP officials’ support for Fetih reveals its endeavor in a neo-Ottomanist knowledge, which regards the 1453 Ottoman conquest of Constantinople as the foundation of modern liberal multiculturalism in Turkey. This knowledge perceives Islam as the centripetal force for enhancing social cohesion by transcending differences between faith and ethnic groups. It rejects candid and critical interpretations of history and insists on a singular view of Ottoman-Islamic pluralism and a pragmatic understanding of the relationship between religion and state.[51] It does not require historical accuracy since religious truth is cast as historical and political truth. For instance, a consistent, singular narrative of the conquest can be observed in such productions and sites as the Panorama 1453 History Museum, television series Fatih, and TRT children’s program Çınar. This narrative begins with Prophet Muhammad’s prophecy, which he received from the almighty Allah, that Constantinople would be conquered by a great Ottoman soldier. When history is narrated from a religious point of view, it becomes indisputable as it would imply challenge to religious truth, hence Allah’s will. Nonetheless, the neo-Ottomanist knowledge conceives the conquest as not only an Ottoman victory in the past, but an incontestable living truth in Turkey’s present. As Nevzat Bayhan, former general manager of Culture Inc. in association with the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (İBB Kültür A.Ş.), stated at the opening ceremony of Istanbul’s Panorama 1453 History Museum,

The conquest [of Istanbul] is not about taking over the city… but to make the city livable… and its populace happy. Today, Istanbul continues to present to the world as a place where Armenians, Syriacs, Kurds… Muslims, Jews, and Christians peacefully live together.[52]

Bayhan’s statement illustrates the significance of the 1453 conquest in the neo-Ottomanist knowledge because it marks the foundation of a culture of tolerance, diversity, and peaceful coexistence in Turkey. While the neo-Ottomanist knowledge may conveniently serve the branding purpose in the post-9/11 and ECoC contexts, I maintain that it more significantly rationalizes the governmental practices in reshaping the cultural conduct and multicultural relations in Turkey. The knowledge also produces a political norm of indifference—one that is reluctant to recognize ethno-religious differences among populace, uncritical of the limits of Islam-based toleration and multiculturalism, and more seriously, indifferent about state-sanctioned discrimination and violence against the ethno-religious minorities.

Ottomentality and its subject

The AKP’s practices of the government of culture and diversity constitute what Foucault calls the “technologies of the self—ways in which human beings come to understand and act upon themselves within certain regimes of authority and knowledge, and by means of certain techniques directed to self-improvement.”[53] The AKP’s neoliberal and neo-Ottoman rationalities share a similar aim as they both seek to produce a new set of ethnical code of social conduct and transform Turkish society into a particular kind, which is economically liberal and culturally conservative. They deploy different means to direct the governed in certain ways as to achieve the desired outcome. According to Foucault, the neoliberal style of government is based on the premise that “individuals should conduct their lives as an enterprise [and] should become entrepreneurs of themselves.”[54] Central to this style of government is the production of freedom—referring to the practices that are employed to produce the necessary condition for the individuals to be free and take on responsibility of caring for themselves. For instance, Nikolas Rose suggests that consumption, a form of governing technology, is often deployed to provide the individuals with a variety of choice for exercising freedom and self-improvement. As such, the subject citizens are now “active,” or “consumer” citizens, who understand their relationship with the others and conduct their life based on market mentality.[55] Unlike the republican citizens, whose rights, duties, and obligations areprimarily bond to the state, citizens as consumers “[are] to enact [their] democratic obligations as a form of consumption”[56] in the private sphere of the market.

The AKP’s neoliberal governance of culture hence has invested in liberalizing the cultural field by transforming it into a marketplace in order to create such a condition wherein citizens can enact their right to freedom and act upon themselves as a form of investment. The proliferation of the neo-Ottoman cultural ensemble in this regard can be understood as a new technology of the self as it creates a whole new field for the consumer citizens to exercise their freedom of choice (of identity, taste, and lifestyle) by providing them a variety of trendy Ottoman-themed cultural products, ranging from fashion to entertainment. This ensemble also constitutes a whole new imagery of the Ottoman legacy with which the consumer citizens may identify. Therefore, through participation within the cultural field, as artists, media practitioners, intellectuals, sponsors, or consumers, citizens are encouraged to think of themselves as free agents and their actions are a means for acquiring the necessary cultural capital to become cultivated and competent actors in the competitive market. This new technology of the self also has transformed the republican notion of Turkish citizenship to one that is activated upon individuals’ freedom of choice through cultural consumption at the marketplace.

Furthermore, as market mechanisms enhance the promulgation of moral-religious values, the consumer citizens are also offered a choice of identity as virtuous citizens, who should conduct their life and their relationship with the others based on Islamic traditions and values. Again, the public debate over the portrayal of the revered Sultan Süleyman as a hedonist in Muhteşem and the legal actions against the television producer, are exemplary of the disciplinary techniques for shaping individuals’ behaviors in line with conservative values. While consumer citizens exercise their freedom through cultural consumption, they are also reminded of their responsibility to preserve traditional moral value, family structure, and gender relations. Those who deviate from the norm are subjected to public condemnation and punishment.

Finally, as the neo-Ottomanist cultural ensemble reproduces and mediates a neo-Ottomanist knowledge in such commodities as the film Fetih and Panorama 1453 History Museum, consumer citizens are exposed to a new set of symbolic meanings of Ottoman-Islamic toleration, pluralism, and peaceful coexistence, albeit through a view of the Ottoman past fixated on its magnificence rather than its monstrosity.[57] This knowledge sets the ethical code for private citizens to think of themselves in relation to the other ethno-religious groups based on a hierarchical social order, which subordinates minorities to the rule of Sunni Islamic government. When this imagery of magnificence serves as the central component in nation branding, such as to align Turkey with the civilization of peace and co-existence in the post 9/11 and ECoC contexts, it encourages citizens to take pride and identify with their Ottoman-Islamic heritage. As such, Turkey’s nation branding perhaps also can be considered as a noveltechnology of the self as it requires citizens, be it business sectors, historians, or filmmakers, to take on their active role in building an image of tolerant and multicultural Turkey through arts and culture. It is in this regard that I consider the neo-Ottoman rationality as a form of “indirect rule of diversity”[58] as it produces a citizenry, who actively participates in the reproduction of neo-Ottomanist historiography and continues to remain uncritical about the “dark legacy of the Ottoman past.”[59] Consequently, Ottomentality has produced a type of subject that is constantly subjected to dividing techniques “that will divide populations and exclude certain categories from the status of the autonomous and rational person.”[60]

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Public Transportation In Malaysia

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION OF STUDY

1.1 Introduction

Public transportation in Malaysia is increasing and expanding to fulfill the demand of customer to travel from one place to another (Nursitihazlin, 2006). Public transportation play a big role in transportation industry that is became as an option for a public people to move and to improve an infrastructure, to provide mobility for those who need, create better transport planning and also to reduce congestion that will contribute into pollution to the earth. Stated by Crabtree (2007) conclude that better for the environment and safer, public transport is the best option, when available and practical taking into account the nature of your journey, whether you can organize a day around fixed timetables, and whether you are feeling sociable.

Most of the public transport runs based on the scheduled or timetable with the most frequent services running to headway. The urban public transport can be provided by one or more private transport or by a transit authority. Generally, the public transport usually funded by fares changed to each passenger.

Taxi is one of the public transport popular in Malaysia. Taxis service that were offer to support the other transportation service such as buses and trains. Taxi service is more comfortable vehicle for travelling and provides the door to door service. Taxi service is suitable for passenger that do not like to waiting in long time to get the public transport. It is because the other type of public transport such as bus the route based on the schedule and the bus must be full before can do the journey. That is difference for taxi, the passenger does not need to waiting until the car full and as long as the driver willing to go the destination, they can reduce the waiting time.

1.1 Background of Study

Taxis services provide a flexible form of public transportation with the flexibility to provide a variety of access needs and unlimited range of location throughout a metropolitan area. Demanding of public transport in Johor Bahru area also increases based on the economic location and population growth. Therefore, the public transport such as taxi service was rising and it is because of the demand of residents who need the transportation as to go to a destination. Nowadays, people have more choice to using taxi to go any destination. It’s because taxi service more comfortable and easy to access any destinations compare to buses. Another reasons, some people are do not like to waiting the public transportation. They choose to using taxi for reduce waiting time.

Based on the survey conducted by The Expat in a June 2008, estimated 200 foreigners from around 30 countries, Malaysia’s taxis were found the lowest ranking in services from 23 countries based on the survey. Majority of the respondents gave bad impression to Malaysian taxi drivers. From the LondonCabs.co.uk, Malaysia’s taxis services is the top one of the worst drivers in the world. On the top of that, passengers often encounter rude taxis who refuse to use the meter and charge extra rates. The behavior of the offending taxis drivers has tarnished the image of Malaysia.

Generally, most of the taxis were charge their passenger based on the meter rates, but some of the driver have bad reputation of behavior and that will disturbing the other big company that provide the same service. Based on this situation, the number of taxis can accommodate the customer demand, but it is unable meet the customer needs. That is the problem when passengers using the taxis without any application can trace the charge of taxis services.

Nowadays, passengers can trace the taxis with the application in smartphone. That application is easy to trace the rates of charge when using the taxis also can access driver’s information when using the taxis services. MyTeksi application was develop by Anthony Tan, a grandson of Tan Chong Motor Holdings Bhd co-founder Tan Sri Tan Yuet Foh. He is the son of Datuk Tan Heng Chew, Tan Chong’s executive deputy chairman and group managing director (B.K. Sidhu, 2014)

MyTeksi is a Malaysian startup that aims to revitalize the taxi industry. That want to improve the safety and efficiency of town taxis by leveraging on advancements in GPS and mobile technology. MyTeksi application is mobile application system for Android Operating System, IPhones Operating System (IOS) also Windows Operating System. This application is a mobile application that helps customers to deliver taxi-calling requests to taxi drivers through the application. With an application, it can assist the user to encounter the problem. MyTeksi is available in 24 hours days and most of these fares are based on the meters. MyTeksi was establish at a few countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam and Indonesia. In that countries, the application also known as GrabTaxi.

Since from 2012, MyTeksi as the taxi-booking online application develop as a new alternative for make reservation taxis in Malaysia. It is because the systems will traceable taxi rides and licensed of the taxis drivers. Other of the advantages when using the application, passengers will know the estimated fare before book a taxis. MyTeksi also will give the driver’s details including name, mobile numbers, vehicles registration number and photo once the booking is confirmed. That is for safety and information to passenger. MyTeksi helps users deliver their requests directly to the nearest drivers through Internet. It greatly saves the trouble calling to service center and waiting reply from it.

At Malaysia, the application can be used at the urban areas especially in Klang Valley, Putrajaya, Cyberjaya, Seremban, Malacca, Johor Bahru, Kuching, Kota Kinabalu also Penang. The main reasons of application can be running in that areas because of demanding passengers when using the taxis as the transportation.

In addition, MyTeksi also have competitors of the application such as UberX and EasyTaxi, but the number of users of MyTeksi applications is highest compare to UberX and EasyTaxi. It is based in the Lowyat.net forum, users of both applications make comparison between UberX, EasyTaxi and MyTeksi, and most of them prefer using MyTeksi application for make booking taxis especially in peak hours.

In this research, we will analyze the level of passenger’s satisfaction of using the MyTeksi. However, this is very important to improve the taxi service because the Malaysian taxi is lowest rank of quality, courtesy, availability and expertise.

1.2 Problem Statement

MyTeksi application is a new way of the strategies in implementation of taxis services. In Malaysia, awareness of using the MyTeksi application by passengers in Johor Bahru is still limited although the applications has develop early 2012.

Problems faced by customers are the application are can’t be accessed in a peak hour. Then, another problems that the application are difficult for detection the customers when booking the taxis. The problems are found in the a few website, observations and feedback from customers when using that MyTeksi application.

From the rumors and my own self observation, some passenger is satisfied with the services provided, but some passenger still not satisfied with taxi service provided based on certain factors. Even taxi services have been many changes, but still unable to meet the needs of passenger. By identifying the level of passenger satisfaction, we can make improvement to the MyTeksi application and also taxi service at Johor Bahru area. Therefore, this project will analyse the satisfaction level of MyTeksi application service provided toward passengers at Johor Bahru.

1.3 Purpose of Research

The purpose of this study is to increase satisfaction level towards passengers when using MyTeksi application. Besides that, it intends to make improvement of taxis services in terms quality, courtesy, availability and expertise. The study is limited to users of MyTeksi applications.

1.4 Objective of Research

The objective of this study can help to improve the image of the driver and taxis services in Malaysia, especially in Johor Bahru area. That can also can help the MyTeksi Sdn. Bhd. to make the improvement of that application based on identify customer needs. There are the objectives of the research:

i. To define all the factors of satisfaction level of using MyTeksi at Johor Bahru areas.

ii. To analyze the significance factors of satisfaction level toward the passengers on MyTeksi applications.

iii. To give suggestion for improvement on MyTeksi application at Johor Bahru areas.

1.5 Research Question

To achieve the objectives in this study, several research questions have been developed. There are:

i. What are the factors of satisfaction level of using MyTeksi at Johor Bahru areas?

ii. What are the significance factors of satisfaction level contribute of MyTeksi passengers?

iii. How to improve the MyTeksi applications towards passengers at Johor Bahru areas?

1.6 Significant of Research

There are several important for complete this project as it resolve the problem that currently facing by some of user who are not satisfied with the services provided by MyTeksi applications and drivers. The important are:

i. This project will help MyTeksi Sdn. Bhd. to identify the level of passenger satisfaction of the taxis service at Johor Bahru area.

ii. This project will help to improve the performance of MyTeksi application through this form research.

iii. This project will help other taxis-booking applications such as UberX and EasyTaxi as guide for any improvement through their application.

1.7 Scope of Research

This research is focused on the user or passenger of MyTeksi have using the application service. The location for this research, we are focused at the area of:

i. Larkin Central

ii. JB Central.

Conclusion

This chapter contains the introduction to the issues which the research is concerned, the problem statement of issue being studied, the aims and objectives of the study and the rationale and significance of the study. The research is about customer satisfaction level of MyTeksi implementation towards passengers at Johor Bahru. This is related with the objective of the research which is to find out customer level of satisfaction towards passengers of MyTeksi application. This research also will give an advantage for the MyTeksi Sdn. Bhd. to make improvement of their application. This research will be targeted at Johor Bahru area focused to Larkin Central and JB Central.

Critical review II: The Dependency theory

Latin American countries have always been exposed to western influence. With its neo-liberalist stance the west encourages Latin America to open up its trade and cooperate with the west. During the 1960s many countries wanted to keep Western influence outside because they were convinced that this would negatively influence their development. A consequence of this attitude was the development of a theory that criticized the western liberalist stance; the dependency theory. Dependency theory criticizes western modernity. This critical stance can be explained by the fact that Latin America is historically exposed to the political, economic, cultural and intellectual influence of the US and its recurrent attempt to diminish US domination (Tickner 2008:736). The region, being part of the non-core, wants their understanding of global realities to be explored. (Tickner 2003b). However, the theory has been influenced by the west and thereby has lost strength. Moreover, its empirical validity has been questioned. For the above mentioned reasons the theory is hardly used anymore. It should not be forgotten, however, that the theory has some qualities which do contribute to the field of international relations. First this essay will discuss the post-colonial argument that dependency theory is not critical enough and gives an explanation why the theory is Eurocentric. Afterwards it will discuss its empirical validity and finally it addresses the theory its contribution to the field of international relations. Dependency theory originated in the 1960s in Latin America. Frank, the leading theorist, argues that due to the capitalist system, developing countries are underdeveloped and development is impossible as long as they remain in the capitalist system (Frank 1969). Opposed to Frank, Cardoso and Faletto argue that development is possible despite structural determination and that the local state has an important role, they call it associated dependent development ((1979:xi). Yet, both Frank and Cardoso and Falleto eventually argue that dependency paths need to be broken by constructing paths toward socialism. The dependency theorists are thus critical of Western liberalism. As mentioned above, dependency theory attempts to criticize western-modernity. Post-colonialism, however, argues that dependency theory is not counter-modernist and not critical enough. Post-colonial theorists, in contrast to many conventional theorists, state that attention to colonial origins is needed to get a better understanding of the expansion of the world order (Seth 2011). Dependency theory does pay attention to its colonial origins. For example, Frank argues that dependency occurred historically through slavery and colonialism and continues today through western dominance of the international trading system, the practices of multinational companies and the LDC’s reliance on Western aid (Frank 1969). However, post-colonialism does criticize the way how dependency theorists address the colonial origins. The first critique stems from the fact that the homogenizing and incorporating world historical scheme of dependency ignores, domesticates, or transcends difference. It does not take into account the differences in histories, cultures and peoples (Said, 1985: 22).The second critique stems from the fact that to get a sufficient understanding of the emergence of the modern international system, it should not be examined how an international society that developed in the West radiated outwards, but rather the ways in which international society was shaped by interactions between Europe and those it colonized. (Seth 2011:174). Pos-colonalists, however, argue that dependency theory is Eurocentric. Dependency theorists are not aware of the way in which culture frames their own analysis. While trying to look at imperialism from the perspective of the periphery, dependistas fail to do this (Kapoor 2002:654). For dependistas the ‘centre’ continues to be central and dominant so that the West ends up being consolidated as sovereign subject. Dependency’s ethnocentrism appears in its historical analysis as well. Dependistas use the way how capitalism developed in Europe as a universal model that stands for history and see developing countries as examples of failed or dependent capitalism. (Kapoor 2002:654) Post colonialism thus would argue that while challenging the current capitalist system, dependency theory is not critical enough because it does not adequately address history and culture and is Eurocentric. Tickner (2008) may provide an explanation of why dependency theory is not critical enough and why it is described in terms of adherence to the capitalist system dominated by the west. IR thinking in Latin America is influenced by -among other things- US intellectual knowledge. As Tickner argues, dependency theory is not a genuine non-core theory but it is influenced by US analysts. According to Cardoso (1977) this led to severe distortions in its original contents because it local internal problems of greatest concern to social scientists in Latin America became invisible and external factors such as US intervention and multinational corporations were prioritized. Furthermore, IR thinking in that region has been influenced by conventional theories. For example, through the influence of realism in Latin America, much attention was paid to the role of the elite and furthermore, theorists were concerned with the concept of power but replaced it with a more suitable concept autonomy (Tickner 2008:742).Thus the influence of US IR knowledge and conventional theories may have contributed to the fact that dependency theory is not critical enough and has lost its influence. Although post-colonialism addresses dependency’s problem – that is does not sufficiently addresses culture because of its sole focus on capitalism – it should be noted that not only culture is not taken into account but a whole range of other factors which could help explain underdevelopment are left out the theory as well. This shortcoming clarifies why dependency theory is empirical invalid.For example, dependency does not address local, physical, social or political forces that might have had a role in the inability to generate industrial development and does not acknowledge that imperialism is only partly responsible for underdevelopment (Smith 1981). As Smith argues; ”dependency theory exaggerates the explanatory power of economic imperialism as a concept to make sense of historical change in the south” (1981:757). Smith rightly points out that in some instances dependistas do recognize the influence of local circumstances but this is only so to reaffirm ultimately the overriding power of economic imperialism. Moreover, the theory does not pay any attention to the positive effects that the contact with the international system can provide for developing countries. Thus, dependistas solely look at economic power and state that as long as countries remain part of the international capitalist system development is impossible. The only way to escape is to isolate from this system or if the colonizer relinquishes political power. (Kapoor 656) However, South-Korea’s development shows the invalidity of this argument. South-Korea experienced rapid growth during the 1970s despite its dependency on the US. The case of South-Korea shows that development is possible despite dependency and that dependency can have positive effects. Another case which shows dependency’s invalidity is Ghana. During the 1980s Ghana adopted dependency policies that were consistent with the denial of the relevance of the western economic principles and tried to keep western influence outside. However, instead of bringing prosperity and greater independence for the Ghanasian economy, these policies caused poverty and greater dependence on international aid or charity (Ahiakpor 1985:13). The dependency policies did not support Ghana’s development because it only focused on capitalism without taking other factors into account. The theory thus has significant shortcomings which explains its loss of influence. However, it should be noted that the theory has some qualities as well. Despite its homogenizing and Eurocentric history, the theory is aware that history is an important factor. The advantage of dependency’s structural-historical perspective is that broad patterns and trends can be recognized. Moreover, it allows one to learn from past mistakes to change the future (Kapoor 2002:660). On top of that, as Wallerstein argues ”One of the crucial insights and contributions of dependency is the conceptualization of the unicity of the world system” (1974:3). It clearly describes how the world is incorporated in the capitalist system and it shows the importance of economic considerations on political issues. Furthermore, it addresses the importance of local elites and foreign companies to the internal affairs of weak states whereby it provides an analytical framework. (Smith 1981:756). For example, Cardoso and Faletto argue that if there is no strong local state, the ruling elite may ally themselves with foreign companies pursuing their own interests and this way upholding dependency and underdevelopment. This analysis is applicable to Congo and shows for example that Congo’s development is restrained because a strong local state is absent and the local elite allies with foreign companies pursuing their own interests (Reno 2006). In short, dependency theory has lost influence because – from a post-colonial perspective – it is not counter-modernist and not critical enough. It does not adequately address history and culture and is Eurocentric. Moreover, it is empirically invalid because it solely focuses on capitalism without taking other factors into account. In contrast to what dependistas argue, dependent development is possible within the capitalist system and the proposed isolation from this system may even worsen the economy instead of bringing prosperity. However, the theory did influence foreign policymakers and analysts not only in Latin America but also in Africa between the 1960s and the 1980s and it is still useful because it provides an analytical framework on which other analysts can elaborate.

Data Acquisition and Analysis – Curve fitting and Data Modelling: college application essay help

1 Part 1: Track B: Linear Fitting Scheme to Find Best-Fit Values

Introduction

In a linear regression problem, a mathematical model is used to examine the relationship between two variables i.e. the independent variables and dependent variable (the independent variable is used to predict the dependent variable).

This is achieved by using the least square method using excel plotting data values and drawing a straight line to derive the best fit values. A nonlinear graph was obtained on plotting the data points provided but the least square method applied obtained a linear graph with a straight line which estimated and minimized the squared difference between the total sum of the data values and model values.

Aim

The aim of this coursework Part1, Track B is to carryout data analysis assessment with respect to linear model fitting by manual calculation working obtaining the best-fit values with the decay transient data provided in table 1 below which is implemented using excel.

Time (sec) Response (v)

0.01 0.812392

0.02 0.618284

0.03 0.425669

0.04 0.328861

0.05 0.260562

0.06 0.18126

0.07 0.1510454

0.08 0.11254

0.09 0.060903

0.1 0.070437

Table 1.1: data for decay transient

Methodology

The data in the table 1.1 above represents decay transient which can be modelled as an exponential function of time as shown below:

V(t)=V_0 exp'(-t/??) ”””””””””””””’ (1.1)

The equation above is nonlinear; to make it linear the natural logarithm method is applied

Logex = Inx ”””””””””””””””. (1.2)

From the mathematical equation of a straight line

Y = mx + c”””””””””””””””. (1.3)

Y = a0 + a1x + e””””””””””””””. (1.4)

Y = Inx”””””””””””””””’… (1.5)

In this case

Y = InV”””””””””””””””’… (1.6)

So,

InV = InV0 + Ine(-t/??) ””””””””””””’. (1.6)

But Inex = x; eInx = x

InV = InV0 ‘ t/”””””””””””””’??. (1.7)

Applying natural logarithm method to the equation obtained two coefficients InV0 and t/?? which represent a0 and a1 respectively from equation (1.4)

The normal equation for a straight line can be written in matrix form as:

[‘(n&’[email protected]’xi&”xi’^2 )] {‘([email protected])} = {‘(‘[email protected]’xiyi)} ”””””””””.””. (1.8)

This is separated to give

[‘(‘(1&1)&’&[email protected]'(xi&x2)&’&xn)] [‘(‘([email protected])&'([email protected])@’&’@1&xn)]{‘([email protected])} = [‘(‘(1&1)&’&[email protected]'(x1&x2)&’&xn)] [‘(‘([email protected])@’@yn)] ””’.””. (1.9)

From (1.9) the general linear least squares fit equation is given as

[[Z^T ] [Z]]{A}= {[Z^T ] {Y}}

The main purpose is to calculate for {A} (InV0 and t/??) which are the coefficients of the linear equation in (1.7). Matrix method using excel is used to achieve this by finding values for [Z],[Z^T ],[Z^T ][Z],[Z^T ][Y],’and[[Z^T ] [Z]]’^(-1).

The table below shows the calculated values for InV when natural logarithm was applied to the response V using excel.

Table 1.2: Excel table showing calculated values for InV

[Z]= [‘(1&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&0.1) ]

The transpose of [Z] is given as

[Z]= [‘(1&1&1&1&1&1&1&1&1&[email protected]&0.02&0.03&0.04&0.05&0.06&0.07&0.08&0.09&0.1)]

The product of [Z^T ][Z] is given as

[Z^T ][Z] = [‘(10.0000&[email protected]&0.0385)]

The inverse [[Z^T ] [Z]]^(-1) of the matrix [Z^T ][Z] is given as

[[Z^T ] [Z]]^(-1) = [‘(0.4667&[email protected]&121.2121)]

The product of the transpose of [Z], [Z^T ] and [Y] (InV) is given as

[Z^T ][Y] = [‘([email protected])]

To obtain {A} the product of [[Z^T ] [Z]]^(-1) and [Z^T ][Y] was calculated to give

{A} = [‘([email protected])]; {A}= [‘([email protected]/??)]

Where;

InV0 = a0; and – 1/?? = a1

{A} = [‘([email protected])]

So,

InV0 = 0.0626; and 1/?? = -28.8434

V0 = exp(0.0626) = 1.0646; and ?? = 1/-28.8434 = 0.03467

Then,

V(t)=1.0646exp'(-t/0.03467)

Since Y = InV(t)

Y = 1.0646exp'(-t/0.03467)

Table 1.3: Excel table showing calculated values for InV [Y] and InV(t) [Y]

Table 1.4: Diagram of Excel calculation for curve fitting

Figure 1.1: Diagram of transient decay for response V and response V(t)

Figure 1.2: Diagram of transient decay for response V and response V(t)

Conclusion

The solutions to this linear regression exercise was achieved by manually calculating the generalized normal equation for the least square fit using the matrix method and Microsoft excel program obtaining the unknown values of the coefficients V0 and ??. The method provides accurate results and the best fit values obtained show the relationship between the straight line response and the transient line response shown in figure above and is seen to have given

2 Part 2: Track B: Type K thermocouple

INTRODUCTION:

The thermocouple is a sensor that is used to measure temperature and is commonly used in many industries. For this lab work, a Type K thermocouple is used to acquire a first order transient data (non-linear) response to a temperature change, a signal conditioning element called the AD595 thermocouple amplifier is used to improve thermocouple signal since it produced a low voltage output proportional to the input temperature, a data acquisition device the NI-USB 6008 is used to acquire signals from the signal conditioning circuit, a resistor-capacitor (RC) low-pass filter is built for reduce the frequency and noise of the signal generated and further investigations and analysis are carried out. In this part, the non-linear regression was used to obtain the transient response of thermocouple signal using Labview program

Aim

The aim of the assignment is to produce a Labview program which can obtain transient real data values from a Type K thermocouple which is a sensor that produces voltage by the differential temperature its conductors sense (i.e. a first order response) followed by a non- linear model fitting procedure which allows the user capture the thermocouple initial first order response to a rising input temperature and an appropriate response function model to the transient response. The program displays the transient data, fitted model response and calculated model parameters.

Reason of the choice of model response

The model output transient response obtained from the input (temperature) of the Type K thermocouple was a first order can be defined as having only s to the power of one in the first order transfer function which is characterised with no overshoot because the order of any system is determined by the power of s in the transfer function denominator and has a transfer function as 1/(??s+1) for a unit step signal of 1/s in the Laplace transform domain or s domain and is given as

Y(s) = 1/(s(??s+1)) ””””””””””””””’… (2.1)

Partial fraction method is used to find the output signal Y(t) to give

Y(s) = A/s+B/(??s+1) ””””””””””””””’ (2.2)

A = [s * Y(s)] for s = 0 = 1

B = [(??s+1) * Y(s)] for s = (-1)/?? = -1

Y(s) = 1/s-1/(??s+1) ””””””””””””””’ (2.3)

Therefore the output signal in the time domain is given as:

Y(t) = L-1 [1/s-1/(??s+1)] ”””””””””””””’ (2.4)

Y(t) = U(t) – e^((-t)/??) ”””””””””””””’ (2.5)

Y(t) = 1- e^((-t)/??) where t’0 ””””””””””” (2.6)

Substituting the output response V(t) for Y(t) , the equation (2.6) can also be re-written as:

V(t) = 1- e^((-t)/??) ”””””””””””””’ (2.7)

Assuming for a given input temperature T0 an output response V0 was derived and for a given increase in temperature T1 an output response voltage V1 was derived, so therefore the output voltage for the change in voltage relative to the change in temperature is given as:

V(t) =(V1 ‘ V0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) ”””””””””””. (2.7)

V(t) =V0 + (V1 ‘ V0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) (thermocouple voltage response) ”””’. (2.8)

V(t) = (V1 ‘ V0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0 ””””””””””. (2.9)

Where (V1 ‘ V0) = ??V

V(t) = ??V ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0 ”””””””””””. (3.0)

T(t) = ??T ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + T0”””””””””””. (3.1)

T(t) = a ( 1- e^((-t)/b) ) + c

Equation (3.1) is similar to the general nonlinear model given as:

F(x) = a ( 1- e^((-t)/b) ) + c ”…””””””””””’. (3.2)

Where,

F(x) = V(t) ; a = ??V; b = 1/??; and c = V0

The thermocouples voltage output is nonlinear given a first order response curve (Digilent Inc., 2010)

V(t)

0 (-t)/??

Table 2:1: showing thermocouple output voltage first order response curve

Explanation on the principles of non-linear regression analysis

The principle of non-linear regression is a method that can be used to show how the response and the unknown values (predictors) relate to each other by following a functional form i.e. relating Y as being a function of x or more variables. This is to say that the non-linear equation we are trying to predict rely non-linearly mainly upon one or more variables or parameters. The Gauss Newton Method is a method used to solve non-linear regression by applying Taylor series expansion to express a non-linear expression in a linear for form.

A non-linear regression compared to a linear regression cannot be manipulated or solved directly to get the equation; it can be exhausting calculating for this as an iterative approach is used. A non-linear regression model is given as:

Yi = f(xi, a0, a1) + ei

Where,

Yi = responses

F = function of (xi, a0, a1)

ei = errors

For this assignment the non-linear regression model is given as

f(x) = a0(1 ‘ e-a1x) + e

Where,

F(x) = V(t) ; a0 = ??V; b = (-t)/??; and e = V0

T(t) = (T1 ‘ T0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + T0 ””””””””””. (3.3)

V(t) = (V1 ‘ V0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0 ””””””””””. (3.4)

Where (V1 ‘ V0) = ??V

V(t) = ??V ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0 ”””””””””””. (3.5)

Description of measurement task

The intent of the measurement experiment was to seek, identify, analyse the components of that make measurement task and to examine the transient response from the Type k thermocouple. It analyses the method, instruments and series of actions in obtaining results from measurements. Equipment such as the Type K thermocouple, NI-PXI-6070E 12 bit I/O card, AD595 thermocouple amplifier, and a Labview software program which was used for calculation of model parameters were used to carry out this task.

The measurement task is to introduce the Type K thermocouple sensing junction in hot water to analyse the temperature change and the corresponding voltage response is generated and observed on a Labview program. This activity is executed frequently to acquire the best fitted model response and parameters.

Choice of signal conditioning elements

The choice of a signal conditioning element used in measurement is important because the signal conditioning element used can either enhance the quality and efficiency of a measurement system or reduce its performance.

The AD595 thermocouple amplifier is the choice signal conditioning element used with the Type K thermocouple for this experiment because it is has a built in ice-point compensation (cold junction compensator) and amplifier which is used as a reference junction to compare and amplify the output voltage of the Type K thermocouple which generates a small output voltage corresponding to the input temperature. AD595AQ chip used is pre-calibrated by laser trimming to correspond to the Type K thermocouple characteristic feature with an accuracy of ??3oC, operating between (-55 oC – 125 oC) and are available with 14 pins/low cost cerdip. The AD595 device resolves this issue by providing amplification of low output voltage (gain), linearization of the nonlinear output response of the thermocouple so as to change to the equivalent input temperature, and provide cold junction compensation to improve the performance and accuracy of thermocouple measurements.

Equipment provided for measurement

There were three equipment provided for the measurement exercise and they include:

Type K thermocouple

The Type K thermocouple (chromel/alumel) is the most commonly used transducer to measure temperature with an electromotive force (e.m.f) of 41 microvolts per degree(??V/ oC) which is nonlinear and the voltage produced between its two dissimilar alloys changes with temperature i.e. the input temperature corresponds to the output voltage it generates. It is cheap to buy with the ability to perform in rugged environmental conditions and is calibrated to operate at wide temperature range of about -250 oC to 1370 oC. It is made of a constituent called nickel which is magnetic and its magnetic component may change direction or deviate when subjected to a high enough temperature and can affect its accuracy.

Signal connector signal conditioner

Thermocouple

Cold junction ‘([email protected])

Figure 2.2: Circuit diagram of a thermocouple, signal connector and signal conditioner

NI-USB 6008

The NI-USB 6008 is a National Instrument device that provides DAQ functionality for some applications like portable measurements, data logging and lab experiments. It is cheap for academic purposes and is used for more complicated measurement tasks. It has a ready to run data logger software which allows the user to perform quick measurements and can be configured by using Labview National Instruments software. It provides connection to 8 analog single-ended input channels (AI), 2 analog output channels (AO), 12 data input and output (I/O) channels, 32 bit counter bus with a very quick USB interface and are compatible with Labview 7.x, LabWindowsTM/CVI, and Measurement Studio DAQ modules for visual Studio.

Figure 2.3: NI-USB 6008 pin out

AD595 thermocouple amplifier

The AD595 thermocouple amplifier is a thermocouple amplifier and a cold junction compensator on a small chip of semiconductor material (microchip or IC) which produces a high output of 10 mV/oC from the input signal of a thermocouple as a result of combining a cold junction reference with a pre-calibrated amplifier. It has an accuracy of ??10C and ??30C for the A and C performance grade version respectively and can be powered by a supply including +5V and a negative supply if temperatures below 00C are to be measured. It laser trimmer is pre-calibrated so as to conform to the Type k thermocouple specification and is available in 14-pin side brazed ceramic dips (Devices, 1999).

Figure 2.4: Block diagram showing AD595 in a functional circuit

Configuration of the I/O channel(s)

The I/O channel(s) provide a way (path) for communication between the input device (thermocouple sensor) and the output device (DAQ). The thermocouple senses temperature as input and sends the data to the DAQ which receives the data and displays the information through a computer on the Labview front panel graph.

The following explain the configuration of the DAQ for the thermocouple measurement:

Channel Settings: this is used to select an I/O channel in the DAQ device either AI0 or AI1 can be chosen and rename to suit user

Signal Input Range: this is used to select the minimum and maximum voltage of the AD595 thermocouple amplifier which also helps to achieve better resolution of the NI-USB 6008 Data Acquisition Device

Scale Units: this is used to select the scale unit of the analog signal generated and since the thermocouples output signal measured corresponding to temperature is Voltage, then the Scaled unit chosen will be ‘Volts’

Terminal Configuration: this is used to choose terminal on the DAQ for which the signal conditioning circuit is connected

Custom Scaling: No scale was chosen since no custom scale was adopted

Acquisition Mode: this is used to select how the sample are played, the continuous samples was chosen because it allows the DAQ to collect data signals continuously from the circuit until the user decides to stop

Samples to Read: this allows the user to choose how many samples to read depending on the frequency of the input signal generated. It is important to choose at least twice the frequency signal to acquire all the desire signals. One thousand (2K) samples was chosen

Rate (Hz): this allows the user to choose the rate of the sample signals generated. Rate (Hz) 1k was chosen.

Connection of Circuit to DAQ and Configuration of I/O channel(s)

The connection of the circuit to the NI-USB 6008 data acquisition device was carried out by connecting two wires from the output voltage and ground of the signal conditioning unit i.e. the AD595 device.

The red wire from the signal conditioning unit was connected to the positive port of the analog input channel 0 (+AI0) of the DAQ device and the black wire from the ground was connected to the negative port of the analog input channel 0 (-AI0) of the DAQ. The diagrams below show the connections between the signal conditioning circuit and the connector block (DAQ).

Figure 2.5: Picture showing the connection of the signal conditioning circuit with the DAQ

Description of the Labview VI

Labview is a National instrument programming system design software that is optimal for control measurements and provides an engineer with tools to test, solve practical problems in a short amount of time, and the design of control systems. It is less complex and very easy to use compared to other programming simulation applications. The Labview Virtual Instrument (VI) program includes the Front Panel and the Block diagram and for this lab experiment, it is used to examine and determine the thermocouple frequency response and to carry out an analysis of the noise present in the filtered and unfiltered signal of the thermocouple voltage generated, displaying the result on its Graph indicators. The description of the Labview VI Front Panel and Block diagram are as follows:

Figure 2.6: Block diagram of the Labview design

Block diagram:

It is where a user can create the basic code for the Labview program. The program can be created when the block diagram is active by using the functions palette which contains objects like structure, numeric, Boolean, string, array, cluster, time and dialog, file I/O, and advanced functions which can be added to the block diagram.

Front Panel:

It is a graphic user interface that allows the user to interact with the Labview program. It can appear in silver, classic, modern or system style. The controls and indicators are located on the controls palette and used to build and add objects like numeric displays, graphs and charts, Boolean controls and indicators etc. to the front panel.

DAQ Assistant:

It allows a user to configure, generate and acquire analog input signals from any one of the data acquisitions (DAQ) input channel. For this experiment the signal conditioning circuit was connected to the analog input 0 channel of the NI-USB 6008 data acquisition device and the DAQ assistant is used to configure to DAQ so as to be able to acquire signals from the AD595 thermocouple amplifier.

For Loop:

The For loop like the while loop allows codes to be executed repeatedly by executing a subdiagram a required number of times (N). The For loop is found on the structure palette and can be placed on the block diagram. It is made up of the count and iteration terminal.

Trigger and Gate VI:

It is used to take out a part (segment) of a signal and its mode of operation is either based on a start or stop condition or can be static.

Curve Fitting VI:

It is used to calculate and determine the best fit parameter values that best depict an input signal. It can be used for linear, non-linear, spline, quadratic and polynomial models type. It minimizing the weighted mean squared error between the initial and best fit response signal generated. For this experiment initial guesses were made for the coefficients of non-linear model used.

Graphs:

It is a type of special indicator accepts different data types and used to display an array of input data or signals. In this case a waveform graph was used.

Numeric Function:

It is used to carry out mathematical and arithmetic actions on numbers and converts numbers from one data type to another. The multiply numeric function was used to return the products of inputs.

Figure 2.7: Configuration of Trigger and Gate

Figure 2.8: Curve fitting configuration

The diagram in figure 2.8 above is a window showing the configuration for curve fitting and the configuration steps are as follows:

Model Type: Non-linear model was chosen because the signal observed is a first order response (non-linear) curve.

Independent variable: t was the independent variable chosen

Maximum iterations: The default maximum iterations 500 is chosen.

Non-linear model: The equation for the non-linear model a*( 1- exp'(-t/b)) ) + c

Initial guesses: Values for a, b, and c were chosen to get the best fitting values for the curve. The values for a, b, and c are 15.000000, 0.040000, and 29.000000 respectively.

Figure 2.9: Transient response of the thermocouple for best fit 1st measurement

Figure 3.0: Transient response of the thermocouple for best fit 2nd measurement

Figure 3.1: Transient response of the thermocouple for best fit 3rd measurement

The diagrams in figures 2.9, 3.0 and 3.1 above show the transient response of the thermocouple after being inserted in warm water to get the best fit curve i.e. to replicate the actual thermocouple response curve. It is observed that with the use of the Trigger and Gate Express VI, the delay experienced in the in the three graphs were removed making the thermocouples signal response more appropriate providing a more decent best fit curve result. Carrying out multiple measurements to get the best fit curve reduces the time constants and produces a better response curve compared to taking one measurement. The table below shows the results from the three measurement activities with their residual and mean squared error values.

Model Parameters First Measurement(1st) Second Measurement(2nd) Third Measurement(3rd)

a (0C) 21.4671 10.2373 8.60708

b (sec) 0.0232065 0.039578 0.0432934

c (0C) 32.1068 29.661 29.4745

Residual 0.666461 0.0357227 0.124069

Mean Squared Error 0.431833 0.0181012 0.0227711

Table 2.1: Showing results from the three measurements with best fit parameters mean squared error and Residual for curve fitting.

From Table the second measurement was observed to have the best fitting curve with the minimum residual and Mean Squared error that are closest to zero compared to the 1st and 3rd measurements. The best fit parameter results of the second measurement will be inserted in the non-linear model equation which is given as:

y = a*( 1- exp'(-t/b)) ) + c””””””””””””(3.6)

T(t) = ??T ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + T0””””””””””””…(3.7)

Where,

a is the change in temperature of thermocouple (??T)

b is the time constant (??)

c is the initial temperature of the thermocouple (T0)

t is the time

Substituting values for a, b, and c of third measurement in the equation

T(t) = 10.2373( 1- exp'(-t/0.039578)) ) + 29.661”’..”””””..(3.8)

Equation 3.7 above is the non-linear model equation with best fit parameters for the thermocouple response signal at every value of time (t).

To achieve the output voltage response, the change in temperature and the initial temperature values from equation 3.7 need to be converted to volts this can be obtained by dividing the temperature value by 100 since 100oC is equal to 1V. So the resulting output voltage of the thermocouple is as follows:

V(t) = ??V ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0”’..””””””””””'(3.9)

Where,

a = ??V; b =1/??; and c = V0

V(t) = 0.102373( 1- exp'(-t/0.039578)) ) + 0.29661””””””’.(4.0)

Conclusion

The curve fitting experiment using the Type K thermocouple, the AD595 signal conditioning device, and the NI-USB 6008 to acquire and display signals using Labview software was carried out successfully. Curve fitting of the transient response signal of the thermocouple was achieved by analysing and obtaining the transient response of the thermocouple and using a non-linear model implementing best fit values to replicate the response curve by subjecting the thermocouple to temperature. This can be used to obtain the behaviour of an input response signal and improve efficiency for control systems.

References

Cimbala, J. M., 2013. Dynamic System Response. [Online]

Available at: https://www.mne.psu.edu/me345/Lectures/Dynamic_systems.pdf

[Accessed 10 March 2014].

Devices, A., 1999. Analog Devices. [Online]

Available at: http://www.analog.com/media/en/technical-documentation/data-sheets/AD594_595.pdf

[Accessed 2 March 2015].

Digilent Inc., 2010. Introduction to First Order Responses. [Online]

Available at: http://www.digilentinc.com/Classroom/RealAnalog/text/Chapter_2p4p1.pdf

[Accessed 6 March 2014].

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Job evaluation

Job evaluation is defined as a method for determining the worth of a job in comparison to the different jobs in the organization. To establish a justified pay structure for all the employees of the organization, job evaluation gives a means to compare the quality of the work in a particular job, in other words, the worth of a job.

It is different from job analysis; rather job evaluation is done after the stage of job analysis in order to obtain some information about the concerned jobs. Job analysis is defined as a process of determining the skills, duties and responsibilities, in a systematic way, required for a particular job. Thus job evaluation is a method which commences from job evaluation from job analysis but it ends at a point where the worth of the job is determined by ensuring internal as well as external pay equity. In this competitive business environment, it is essential to maintain pay equity otherwise the organization may lose its crucial talent.

Equity:

Overpayment Inequity (Positive Equity):

Underpayment Inequity (Negative equity):

Where,

Input: Any value that person brings to a job.

Outcome: any sort of benefit that an employee is awarded from his/her job.

Objectives of job evaluation

‘ To build a systematic, reasonable, deliberate structure of jobs based on their worth to the organization.

‘ To support a current pay rate structure or to build up one that accommodates internal equity.

‘ To support in setting pay rates that are tantamount to those of in comparable jobs in different organizations to contend in market place for best talent.

‘ To give a balanced premise to arranging pay rates when bargaining collectively with a recognized union.

‘ To guarantee the reasonable and fair remuneration of workers in connection to their obligations.

‘ To guarantee equity in pay for jobs of comparable efforts, responsibility, efforts and working conditions by utilizing a framework that reliably and precisely surveys contrasts in relative quality among jobs.

‘ To create a system of techniques to determine the grade levels and the resulting pay range for new jobs or the jobs which have advanced and changed.

‘ To distinguish a ladder of progression for future development to all workers who are interested in enhancing their remuneration.

‘ To comply with equal pay legislation and regulations deciding pay contrasts as indicated by job content.

‘ To add to a base for merit or performance-related pay.

Characteristics of job evaluation

The essential goal of job evaluation is to figure out the value of work; however this is a quality which differs occasionally and from spot to place affected by certain economic pressure. The principle features of job evaluation are:

‘ To supply bases for compensation arrangement established on realities as opposed to on dubious moderate thoughts.

‘ It endeavors to assess jobs, not individuals.

‘ Job evaluation is the yield given by job analysis.

‘ Job evaluation does not plan pay structure, it helps in supporting the framework by decreasing number of separate and diverse rates.

‘ Job evaluation is not made by people rather it is carried out by gathering of specialists.

‘ Job evaluation decides the estimation of job. Further the estimation of each of the perspectives, for example, aptitude and obligation levels are additionally related and concentrated on regarding the job.

‘ Job evaluation helps the administration to keep up abnormal amounts of representative gainfulness and worker fulfillment.

Process of job evaluation

Job analysis describes the skills, duties and responsibilities required for a job. Job evaluation adds to an arrangement for contrasting jobs regarding those things the association considers vital determinants of job worth. This procedure includes various steps that will be quickly expressed here and afterward talked about all the more completely.

1. Job Analysis: The primary step is an investigation of the jobs in the association. Through job analysis, data on job substance is acquired, together with a valuation for worker prerequisites for effective execution of the job. This data is recorded in the exact, steady dialect of a job description.

2. Compensable Factors: The following step is choosing what the association “is paying for” – that is, the thing that variable or elements put one job at a more elevated amount in the job chain of importance than an alternate. These compensable elements are the measuring sticks used to focus the relative position of jobs. As it were, picking compensable components is the heart of job evaluation. Not just do these variables spot jobs in the association’s job progressive system, yet they additionally serve to advise job officeholders which commitments are remunerated.

3. Building up the Method: The third venture in job evaluation is to choose a technique for evaluating the association’s jobs as indicated by the factor(s) picked. The technique ought to allow reliable situation of the association’s jobs containing a greater amount of the elements higher in the job progression, than those jobs lower in the progressive system.

4. Job Structure: The fourth step is contrasting jobs with build up a job structure. This includes picking and relegating chiefs, arriving at and recording choices, and setting up the job progression.

5. Pay Structure: The last step is evaluating the job structure to land at a compensation structure.

Merits of job evaluation

Job evaluation is a procedure of deciding the relative worth of a job. It is a procedure which is useful actually for encircling remuneration arranges by the personnel manager. Job evaluation as a methodology is worthwhile to an organization from multiple points of view:

‘ Decrease in disparities in pay structure – It is discovered that individuals and their inspiration is needy upon how well they are being paid. Accordingly the primary target of job evaluation is to have outer and interior consistency in compensation structure so that imbalances in pay rates are lessened.

‘ Specialization – Because of division of work and subsequently specialization, an expansive number of endeavors have landed hundred positions and numerous representatives to perform them. Hence, an endeavor ought to be made to characterize a job and accordingly settle pay rates for it. This is conceivable just through job evaluation.

‘ Aides in choice of representatives – The job evaluation data can be useful at the time of determination of applicants. The elements that are resolved for job evaluation can be considered while selecting the workers.

‘ Amicable relationship in the middle of workers and administrator – Through job evaluation, agreeable and harmonious relations can be kept up in the middle of representatives and administration, so that a wide range of pay rates debates can be minimized.

‘ Institutionalization – The procedure of deciding the pay differentials for distinctive jobs get to be institutionalized through job evaluation. This aide in bringing consistency into compensation structure.

‘ Pertinence of new jobs – Through job evaluation, one can comprehend the relative estimation of new jobs in a worry.

Demerits of job evaluation

‘ In spite of the fact that there are numerous methods for applying job evaluation in an adaptable way, fast changes in innovation and in the supply of and interest for specific aptitudes, make issues of change that may need further study.

‘ At the point when job evaluation brings about considerable changes in the current pay structure, the likelihood of executing these progressions in a generally brief time may be limited by the money related breaking points inside which the firm needs to work.

‘ At the point when there is an extensive extent of motivating force workers, it might be hard to keep up a sensible and worthy structure of relative profit.

‘ The methodology of job rating is, to some degree, vague on the grounds that a portion of the components and degrees can be measured with precision.

‘ Job evaluation takes quite a while to finish, requires specific specialized staff and quite expensive.

Methods of job evaluation

Job Ranking:

As indicated by this technique, jobs are arranged from highest to lowest, in place of their worth or legitimacy to the organization. Jobs can likewise be organized by relative trouble in performing them. The jobs are analyzed in general instead of on the premise of essential considers the job; the job at the highest priority on the rundown has the most astounding quality and clearly the job at the base of the rundown will have the least esteem. Jobs are typically positioned in every division and afterward the office rankings are joined to build up an authoritative positioning. The variety in installment of compensations relies on upon the variety of the way of the job performed by the workers. The positioning technique is easy to comprehend and practice and it is ideally equipped for a little association. Its straightforwardness however attempts to its inconvenience in huge associations on the grounds that rankings are hard to grow in an extensive, complex organization. Besides, this sort of positioning is very subjective in nature and may outrage numerous workers. In this way, a more investigative and productive method for job evaluation is called for.

Job Classification:

As per this system, a predetermined number of job groups or job classes are built and jobs are allotted to these characterizations. This technique spots gatherings of jobs into job classes or job grades. Separate classes may incorporate office, administrative, administrative, work force, and so on.

Class I – Executives: Further order under this classification may be Office Manager, Deputy Office administrator, Office director, Departmental chief, and so forth.

Class II – Skilled workers: Under this classification may come the Purchasing partner, Cashier, Receipts assistant, and so forth.

Class III – Semiskilled workers: Under this classification may come Stenotypists, Machine-administrators, Switchboard administrator and so on.

Class IV – Unskilled workers: This classification may involve peons, delivery people, housekeeping staff, File agents, Office young men, and so forth.

The job reviewing system is less subjective when contrasted with the prior positioning strategy. The framework is straightforward and adequate to pretty much all representatives without a second thought. One in number point for the system is that it considers all the elements that a job involves. This framework can be viably utilized for a mixed bag of jobs. The shortcomings of the Grading technique are:

‘ Actually when the prerequisites of distinctive jobs contrast, they may be joined into a solitary class, contingent upon the status a job conveys.

‘ It is hard to compose all inclusive descriptions of a grade.

‘ The system distorts sharp contrasts between diverse jobs and distinctive evaluations.

‘ At the point when individual job depictions and grade portrayals don’t match well, the evaluators tend to characterize the job utilizing their subjective judgments.

The problems that foreign workers face in a host country: essay help online

According to the latest figures CSO (Central Statistical Office), the number of foreign workers in Mauritius has been constantly increasing and is now at approximately 39, 032. From those figures we can state that there are 27, 408 men and 11 624 women. This amount of expatriates is mainly made up of workers coming from Bangladesh, 18 429, from India, 9105, China, 4656 and Madagascar with 3596.

It is the manufacturing sector that employs the largest number of foreign workers, that is29 846, while the construction comes second with 6070 workers. Last September, the ministry of Labour took the decision to freeze the recruitment of foreign workers in the construction sector. In all case, the bar of 40 000 foreign workers in Mauritius will quickly be reached by the end of the year announcing an increase of 20% compared to 2008. Those workers are supposed to be treated the same way as local workers and to take advantage of the local welfare.. Though Mauritius did not signed ICRMW (International Convention on the protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers), the country needs to apply its own laws. Here, it is the Employees Rights Act (2008) which stipulates all the law concerning any work related issues. This causes the migrant workers to rebel in order to voice out through violent actions. Those persons are actually migrating to another country in order to get a better living conditions, also, promises are made but rarely respected. From the point of view of management, they prefer employing migrants as they are more hard-working, skilled and cheaper compared to a local worker. It is a fact that it is not always easy for the foreign workers to cope with the working conditions applied to them and moreover their cultures and those that we have in Mauritius are not always the same.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The research objectives of this study are:

‘ To explore the different difficulties that the expatriates face in the host country

‘ To explore the foreign workers’ opinions about the way they are treated

‘ Propose recommendations to those organizations who employ foreign workers to improve their working and living conditions.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Wilson & Dalton (1998) describe expatriates as, ‘those who work in a country or culture other than their own.’

Connerly et al. (2008) stated that ‘many scholars have proposed that personal characteristics predict whether individuals will succeed on their expatriate assignment.’ Due to globalization, there is the need for expatriates. Thus, companies dealing with external workers should find ways to solve problems faced by these workers and make them comfortable in their daily life so that they do not want to go back to their native country. (Selmer and Leung, 2002)

PROBLEMS FACED BY EXPATRIATES

1. Culture Shock

Hofstede (2001) defined it as ‘the state of distress following the transfer of a person to an unfamiliar environment which may also be accompanied by physical symptoms’.

According to Dr Kalvero Oberg, expatriates are bound to experience four distinct phases before adapting themselves to another culture.

Those four phases are:

1. A Honeymoon Phase

2. The Negotiation Phase

3. An Adjustment Phase

4. A Reverse Culture Shock

During the Honeymoon Phase, the expatriates are excited to discover their new environment. They are ready to lay aside minor problems in order to learn new things. But eventually, this stage ends somehow.

At the Negotiation Phase or the Crisis Period, the expatriates start feeling homesick and things start to become a burden for them. For example, they might feel discomfort regarding the local language, the public transport systems or the legal procedures of the host country.

Then the Adjustment Phase starts. Six to twelve months after arriving in the new country, most expatriates start to feel accustomed to their new home and know what to expect. Their activities become routines and the host country is now accepted as another place to live. The foreign worker starts to develop problem-solving skills to change their negative attitudes to a more positive one.

The final stage called the Reverse Culture Shock or Re-entry Shock. It occurs when expatriates return to their home country after a long period. They are surprised to find themselves encountering cultural difficulties.

There are physical and psychological symptoms of culture shock such as:

1. Physical factors

‘ Loss of appetite

‘ Digestion problems

2. Cognitive factors

‘ Feeling of isolation/ home sickness

‘ Accusing the host culture for own distress

3- Behavioural factors

‘ Performance deficits

‘ Higher alcohol consumption

2. Communication/ Language Barrier

Communication is crucial to both management and employees. Sometimes, due to this language barrier, employees do not understand what is expected from them. They thus tend to make mistakes at the workplace and conflicts arise between the parties concerned. Also, the language barrier is the major obstacle when it comes to the changing of environment for expatriates. These people usually feel homesick and lonely as they are unable to communicate with the local people they meet. This language problem becomes a barrier in creating new relationships. A special attention must be paid to one’s specific body language signs, conversation tone and linguistic nuances and customs. Communicative ability permits cultural development through interaction with other individuals. Language becomes the mean that promotes the development of culture. Language affects and reflects culture just as culture affects and reflects what is encoded in language. Language learners may be subconsciously influenced by the culture of the learned language. This helps them to feel more comfortable and at ease in the host country.

3. Industrial Laws

Laws are vital for the proper conduct of such activity as that of welcoming expatriates in Mauritius. The Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations and employment are meant to produce a ‘Guidelines for work permit application (February 2014)’ manual for those organisations which are engaged in this activity. This manual describes procedures that should be followed in case of a Bangladeshi, Chinese or Indian worker. Any breach of the law will lead automatically to severe sanctions.

For example, Non-Citizens (Employment Restriction) Act 1973 which provides, among others, that ‘a non-citizen shall not engage in any occupation in Mauritius for reward or profit or be employed in Mauritius unless there is in force in relation to him a valid work permit.’ A request to the government should be made if an organization wishes to recruit foreign workers in bulk.

Expatriates are human beings so they should have some fundamental ‘Rights’ in the host country. In Mauritius, the contract for employment of foreign workers stipulates all the necessary information concerning the expatriates’ rights, conditions of work, accommodation and remuneration amongst others. This contract is based on the existing Labour law and the contents of the contract are to large extent the same with some slight differences in conditions of work. Mauritius has adopted the good practices in relation to labour migration and has spared no efforts to develop policies and programmes to maximize benefits and minimize its negative consequences. However, there are still improvements to be brought to the living and working conditions of foreign workers.

4. Living Conditions

The NESC published a report in February 2007 which advocated that foreigners working in the island should enjoy the same rights as local workers. In reality, many foreign workers suffer from bad working conditions. Some workers have intolerable living conditions, sleeping in dormitories on benches without mattresses or in tiny bedroom containing many people. Those who intend to voice out or those considered as ‘ring leaders’ are deported.

In 2006, some workers from China and India who tried to form a trade union or to protest were deported. Peaceful demonstrations often turn into riots which the police brutally suppressed.

In August (2007) some 500 Sri Lankans were demanding better wages at the company Tropic Knits and in response, the Mauritian authorities deported 35 of them. At the Companie Mauricienne de Textile, one of the biggest companies of the island employing more than 5,000 people, 177 foreign workers were deported after taking part in an ‘illegal demonstration’ about the lack of running water, the insufficient number of toilets and poor accommodation.

During the year (2011) a visit at two of the Trend Clothing’s Ltd by (Jeppe Blumensaat Rasmussen) shows how several Bangladeshi workers were living under inhumane living conditions. Furthermore, workers were paid an hourly rate of Rs15.50, which was even less than the previous amount of Rs16.57 bringing the monthly salary to an amount of Rs3500 ‘ 5000 depending on overtime. One woman even said that she had work 43 hours and was paid only 32. The Bangladeshi workers were also living in dormitories containing several holes in the ceilings and signs of water damage next to electrical sockets. We also have the case of the migrant Nepal’s workers who decided to leave Mauritius due to their bad working and living conditions. They were living in an old production space which was turn into dormitories, hosting 34 migrants’ workers. There were no water connection in the kitchen and no running water to flush toilets. They also did not receive any allowance and their salary was decreased from Rs5600 to Rs5036 per month. On the 9th June 2011, eight workers wrote a letter to their boss, giving their employer a month notice.

In September (2013) more than 450 Bangladeshi workers working in the textile company, Real Garments, in Pointe-aux-Sables were on strike claiming for better working conditions. They also protested in the streets of Port-Louis and had gone to the Ministry of Labor to submit their claims one day before (L’Express; Mauritius). Fourteen Bangladeshi workers were considered as the main leaders and were deported by the authorities.

5. Foreign workers and Income

Foreign workers take the decision to leave their native country to work in other countries with the aim of making more money and then send it to their family. However, they did not predict that they will be paid less than that was promised to them before their departure to the host country. Some organisations pay them only half of what they were supposed to. Having already signed their contract, they are forced to work hard for a low salary. Many Bangladeshis, Indians or Chinese choose to leave the host country after their contract termination and the more courageous ones stay and renew their contract for more years. Despite their low paid jobs, it is still better than in their native country where they are even more exploited or where life is far more difficult for them.

The Employment Rights Act (2008) stipulate that if a local worker ‘works on a public holiday, he shall be remunerated at twice the national rate per hour for every hour of work performed.’

However, some expatriates who are forced to work on a public holiday are usually paid the same amount as a usual day. As human beings, they should be treated as any other worker either local or foreign, with the same rights and possibilities.

6. Unions

Unionism is about workers standing together to improve their situation, and to help others. Some unions are reactive, that is waiting for the employer to act and then choosing how to attack or respond and others are proactive, that is developing their own agenda and then advancing it wherever it’s possible. When unions and management fail to reach agreement, or where relations break down, the union has the option of pursuing industrial action through a strike, a go-slow, a work-to-rule, a slow-down, an overtime ban or an occupation.

However, the Expatriates are often not aware of the law protecting their rights (e.g. many migrant workers are not informed of the laws that provide them with the same level of protection as Mauritian nationals and Employers refused to recognize union representatives. It is also often difficult for unions to get access to and organize for foreign workers.

An ICFTU-AFRO (the African regional organization of the former International Confederation of Free Trade Unions) mission to Mauritius in February 2004 was told that the few men they saw were mainly supervisors who were said to be hostile to unions.

During 2006 there were a series of reports that workers from China and India who had tried to form a trade union or protest against their employers had been summarily deported. On 23 May 2006, policemen armed with shields and truncheons beat female workers from Novel Garments holding a sit-in in the courtyard of the factory in Coromandel protesting against plans to transfer them to other production units.

According to the MAURITIUS 2012 HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT, section 7: Worker Rights, a. Freedom of Association and the Right to collective Bargaining, the constitution and law provide for the rights of workers, including foreign workers, to form and join independent unions, conduct legal strikes, and bargain collectively With the exception of police, the Special Mobile Force, and persons in government services who were not executive officials, workers were free to form and join unions and to organize in all sectors, including in the Export Oriented Enterprises (EOE), formerly known as the Export Processing Zone.

Alzheimer's disease (AD): college essay help online

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and chronic neurodegenerative disorder among the aging population. Dementia is a syndrome characterized by progressive illnesses affecting memory, thinking, behavior and everyday performance of an individual. Dementia affects older people, but 2% of people starts developing before the age of 65 years (Organization 2006). According to the Worlds Alzheimer Report 2014, 44 million of people are living with dementia all across the globe and its set to get doubled by 2030 and triples by 2050 (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014). Its estimated that 5.2 million Americans have AD in 2014 (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). This includes 200,000 individuals under 65 age have early onset of AD and 5 million people of age 65 and above (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). Women are affected more than men in AD and other dementias (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). Among 5 million people of above 65 years of age, 3.2 million are women and 1.8 million are men (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). The Multiple factors that leads to AD are age, genetics, environmental factors, head trauma, depression, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and vascular factors. There are no treatments for AD that slows or stops the death and malfunctioning of neurons in the brain, indeed many therapies and drugs are aimed in slowing or stopping neuronal malfunction (Association 2014). Currently five drugs have been approved by the U.S food and Drug Administration to improve symptoms of AD by increasing the amount of neurotransmitters in the brain (Association 2014). It has been estimated that Medicare and Medicaid covered $150 billion of total health care for long duration care for individuals suffering for AD and other dementias (Association 2014).

Diagnostic criteria

Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke’Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS’ADRDA) in 1984 proposed a criteria which is as follows (1) clinical diagnosis of AD could only be designated as ‘probable’ while the patient was alive and could not be made definitively until Alzheimer’s pathology had been confirmed post mortem (McKhann, Drachman et al. 1984) and (2) the clinical diagnosis of AD could be assigned only when the disease had advanced to the point of causing significant functional disability and met the threshold criterion of dementia (McKhann, Drachman et al. 1984).

In 2007, IWG proposed criteria that AD could be recognized in vivo and independently of dementia in the presence of two features (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2007). The first criteria was a core clinical that require evidence of a specific episodic memory profile characterized by a low free recall that is normalized by cueing (Dubois and Albert 2004). The second is the presence of biomarker evidence on AD which include (1) structural MRI, (2) Neuroimaging using PET (18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET [FDG PET] or 11C-labelled Pittsburgh compound B PET [PiB PET]), and (3) CSF analysis of amyloid ?? (A??) or tau protein (total tau [T-tau] and phosphorylated tau [P-tau]) concentrations (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2007)

In 2011, the NIA and Alzheimer’s association proposed guidelines to help pathologist and categorizing the brain changes with AD and other dementias (Hyman, Phelps et al. 2012). Based on the changes absorbed, they classified into three stages (a) preclinical Alzheimer’s disease, (b) mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer’s disease, (c) Dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease (Hyman, Phelps et al. 2012). In pre-clinical AD, the individual have changes in the cerebrospinal fluid but they don’t develop memory loss. This reflects that Alzheimer’s related brain changes occur 20 years onset before the symptom occurs (Petersen, Smith et al. 1999, H??nninen, Hallikainen et al. 2002, Reiman, Quiroz et al. 2012). In MCI due to AD, individuals suffering from MCI has some notable changes in thinking that could be absorbed among family members and friends, but do not meet criteria for dementia (Petersen, Smith et al. 1999, H??nninen, Hallikainen et al. 2002, Reiman, Quiroz et al. 2012). Various studies show that 10 to 20% of individual of age 65 or above have MCI (Petersen, Smith et al. 1999, H??nninen, Hallikainen et al. 2002, Reiman, Quiroz et al. 2012). Its is estimated that 15% and 10% progress from MCI to dementia and AD every year (Manly, Tang et al. 2008). In Dementia due to AD, Individual is characterized by having problem in memory, thinking and behavioral symptom that affects his routine life (Association 2014).

In 2014, IWG proposed criteria for maintaining the principle of high specificity, based on the framework they classified as follows (1). Typical AD can be diagnosed in the presence of an amnestic syndrome of the hippocampal type, which could be associated with different cognitive or behavioral changes and having one of following changes in vivo AD pathology such as decreased A??42 together with increased T-tau or P-tau concentration in CSF or increased retention on amyloid tracer PET (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (2) Atypical AD could be made in the presence of the following, which includes clinical phenotypes that is consistent with one of the known atypical presentation and at-least one of the following changes indicating in-vivo AD pathology (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (3) Mixed AD can be made in patients with typical or atypical phenotypic feature of AD and presence of at-least one biomarker of AD pathology (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (4) Preclinical states of AD require absence of clinical symptoms of AD (typical or atypical phenotypes) and inclusion of at-least one biomarker of AD pathology for identifying the presence of asymptomatic at-risk state or the presence of a proven AD autosomal dominant mutation of chromosome 1, 14 or 21 for the diagnosis of presymptomatic change (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (5) To differentiate biomarkers of AD diagnosis from those of AD progression (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014).

Neuropathology

Dr. Alois Alzheimer, a German physician in 1906 observed pathologic abnormalities in autopsied brain of women who suffered from memory related problems, confusion and language trouble (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014). He found the presence of plaques deposits outside the neurons and tangles inside the brain cells (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014). Thus, the senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles have became two pathological hallmarks of AD (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014).

The histological hallmarks of AD in brain are intracellular deposition of microtubule-associated tau protein called neurofibrillary tangles (NTF) and extracellular accumulation of amyloid ?? peptide (A??) in senile plaques (Bloom 2014). A?? derived from the larger glycoprotein called amyloid precursor protein (APP) can processed through two pathways amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic (Gandy 2005) . In amyloidogenic pathway ??-secretase and ??-secretase proteolysis APP to produce soluble amyloid precursor protein ?? (sAPP??) and a carboxyl terminal fragment CTF?? (C99) to produce A?? peptides (Gandy 2005). Alternatively APP is proteolysed by the action of ?? and ??- secretase generating soluble amino terminal fragments (sAPP??) and a carboxyl terminal fragment CTF?? (C83) to produce non amyloidogenic peptide (Esch, Keim et al. 1990, Buxbaum, Thinakaran et al. 1998).

Figure 1. Amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways of APP

APP is cleaved by ??-?? secretases (amyloidogenic) releasing amyloid A?? peptide(s) or by ??-?? secretases (non-amyloidogenic), adapted from (Read and Suphioglu 2013)

The amino acid sequences of A?? include A??42 and A??40. During normal condition A??40 is 10-fold higher concentration level, when compared to A??42 central nervous system (CNS) (Haass, Schlossmacher et al. 1992). However during inflammation, stress and injury in the brain causes A??40 and A??42 for a dynamic change and leads to an upregulation of A??42. In AD A??42 accumulates as misfolded proteins in extracellular space (Gurol, Irizarry et al. 2006).

Tau is a microtubule-associated protein (MAP), most abundant in central and peripheral nervous system that help in assembly and stabilizing of microtubules that is crucial among the cellular morphology and trafficking (Tolnay and Probst 1999, Iqbal, Liu et al. 2010, Cohen, Guo et al. 2011). NFT is the major hallmarks of AD patients in brain. In AD, phosphorylation of tau leads to the loss of neuronal function and death. Degeneration of synapse strongly correlates with cognitive decline in AD, while soluble oligomeric tau contribute to synapse degeneration (Morris, Maeda et al. 2011). Although, the protein aggregating into NFT are unclear, number of NFT and the progression of neurodegeneration as well as dementia showed a significant positive correlation in AD (Cohen, Guo et al. 2011) (Arnaud, Robakis et al. 2006).

Figure 2. AD pathology

Deposition of A?? and tau in neurons. The boxes shows the different biomarkers which are used for examination, adapted from (Nordberg 2015)

Biomarkers

A characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic process or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention (Atkinson, Colburn et al. 2001).The pathology of neurodegenerative for individuals is provided by using imaging and fluid biomarkers (Dickerson, Wolk et al. 2013).

CSF Biomarkers

The CSF biomarkers play a major role in diagnosing probable AD. However, abnormality in the CSF is found long before the symptoms occur.

Amyloid beta (A??) is synthesized in brain and diffused into CSF. In cognitively normal individuals A?? appears in moderate condition, however for individuals suffering from AD has reduced A??42 in CSF which act as an useful biomarker during diagnosis (Sunderland, Linker et al. 2003). The low levels of A??42 appears at-least 20 years prior to clinical dementia in individuals with familial AD mutations (Ringman, Coppola et al. 2012). In addition, reduced levels of A??42 appear early in cognitively normal which precedes MCI by years (Fagan, Head et al. 2009). Therefore A??42 cannot be used individually as a specific biomarkers in discriminating from other dementia hence it should be combined with other biomarkers for determining specific dementia.

Tau in CSF relates with the progression of tau related pathology in cerebral cortex. Increased in the tau level in CSF for AD patients reflects the neuronal loss in brain (de Souza, Chupin et al. 2012). Similarly, like A??42 elevation in tau seems to occur at cognitive normal individuals (Fagan, Head et al. 2009). Hence its important to consider other biomarker for differential diagnosis of AD. Moreover, phosphorylated (p)-tau have 85% sensitivity and 97% specificity in discriminating AD from other neurological disorder (Tan, Yu et al. 2014). P-tau is therefore more superior to t-tau in differentiating diagnosis, thus helps in overcoming the short coming of A??42 and t-tau in differentiating diagnosis (Buerger, Zinkowski et al. 2002). CSF t-tau and p-tau occurs after A??42 initially aggregates and increases as amyloid accumulates (Buchhave, Minthon et al. 2012).

Imaging Biomarkers

Structural MRI

Structural MRI studies helps in subjects diagnosed with AD and MCI who consistently show change in atrophy in entorhinal cortex and hippocampus of medial temporal lobe (MTL) and cortical thinning in AD signature region are the MRI sign of emerging AD (Du, Schuff et al. 2001). MRI studies focus on normal subjects who have maternal history of AD, has reduced volume of MTL and precuneus (Berti, Mosconi et al. 2011). Voxel based analysis on whole brain determines the structural MRI could be used to identify the presence of brain atrophy in cortical regions up to 10 years before clinical symptoms of AD, with greater impact in MTL (Du, Schuff et al. 2001).

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

PET is based on the principle of spontaneous emission of positron by the nuclei of unstable radionuclide, whose number of protons exceeds that of electrons (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013). PET images in-vivo distribution of radiopharmaceutical substances with higher resolution and sensitivity (Fahey 2003). The positron which is a ??-particle with positive charge annihilates with an electron of negative charge, releasing equal number of gamma photons of same energy (511 keV) moving in 180 degree opposite to each other to conserve momentum (Kukekov and Fadeev 1986, Fahey 2003).

The components involved in the PET scanner are movable bed, detector, gantry and computer. The detector consist of multiple crystals attached with a photomultipliers (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013). The interaction among the gamma photon and crystal produces scintillation which induces electric impulse in the photomultipliers and could be detected and processed using computer (Khmelev, Shiryaev et al. 2004). If the two detectors are in coincidence, then the positron emitted along the line connects the detectors which is termed as line of response (LOR) (Fahey 2003).In most of the scanners the two detectors are in coincidence, if they are detected with in 10 seconds (Fahey 2003). The sensitivity of the PET can be increased by increasing the number of detectors into a ring. The data examined from the individual is acquired in computer in the form of sinogram. There are different techniques of reconstruction such as filtered back projection (FBP), Iterative Method, OSEM are used for reconstructing an image. In modern PET scanners, LSO crystals with minimum size are used which permits high resolving capacity, high resolution, effective algorithm for image reconstruction and field of view sufficient for single stage scanning of the brain or heart (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013).

The cyclotron, a particle accelerator provides the production of radionuclides for clinical use. Heavy particles are accelerated to a higher energy level of 5-100MeV using cyclotron (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013). The beam of particles is focused on the target substance by using radio magnetic lens. The target material is bombarded with heavy particle to generate the required radionuclide (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013).

The requirements of a good tracer which include higher affinity towards the target receptor, selectivity versus other receptors (Bmax / Kd of at least 10-fold,where Bmax is the density of the receptor and Kd is the concentration of the radiotracer) and good permeability (McCarthy, Halldin et al. 2009). The tracers has to be a poor substrate of p-glycoprotein if it has been developed for imaging targets in brain (Terasaki and Hosoya 1999). It has been found that low hydrogen bonding plays an important role in predicting good PET tracers (McCarthy, Halldin et al. 2009). For a good tracers, time to binding equilibrium should be long relative to washout of non-specifically bound tracer, but short relative to isotope decay (McCarthy, Halldin et al. 2009) .

Amyloid PET

PET imaging of amyloid binding agent Pittsburg compound B (PET-PiB) helps to determine the ??-amyloid (A??) and its distribution over the brain that were previously restricted to postmortem studies. The longitudinal study provided evidence relating with a direct relationship between PET-PiB and likelihood of conversion from clinical diagnosis of MCI to AD over three years (Klunk 2011). Since there is significant overlap between amyloid imaging and CSF- A??42, researchers attempt to address the areas where these two biomarkers may be equivalent and areas where one measurement could hold unique advantages (Vlassenko, Mintun et al. 2011). In addition, current hypothesis states that higher amyloid burden assessed by florbetapir 18F (18F-AV-45) amyloid PET is related with lower memory performance among clinically normal older subjects (Sperling, Johnson et al. 2013).

FDG-PET

FDG-PET (2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose) is one of the neurodegeneration biomarkers included in the new research criteria proposed for the various diagnosis of AD by the International working group (IWG) in 2007 and 2010, also in the new diagnostic criteria of AD by National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer Association (NIA-AA) (McKhann, Drachman et al. 1984, Dubois, Feldman et al. 2007, Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). FDG-PET measures the local glucose metabolism for neuronal activity at resting state to asses cerebral function. It is evident that AD individuals has reduced FDG uptake predominantly in tempoparietal association areas, precuneus and posterior cingulate region (Minoshima, Giordani et al. 1997). These changes could be observed in subjects from 1-2 year before the onset of dementia and are closely related to cognitive impairment (Herholz 2010). Although MRI is more sensitive in detecting and monitoring hippocampal atrophy (Fox and Kennedy 2009), FDG is more sensitive in detecting neuronal dysfunction in neocortical association areas. Hence FDG is well suited for monitoring the progression of the disease syndrome (Alexander, Chen et al. 2002).

Regional functional impairment of glucose metabolism in AD is related with the severity and progression of different cognitive deficits (Langbaum, Chen et al. 2009)

INDIAN NATIONALISM (1757-1947)

Great Britain had colonized the nation of India amid the 1700’s when East India organization picked up control of India in 1757 however the Company ruled India without impedance from British Government until 1800s With the measure of crude materials and the developing business for British products, the British government starts to build its control. In 1858, British government takes complete control of India after the Sepoy Mutiny and the British subdued and displayed bigotry against local Indians. Indian nationalistic developments, for example, ones drove by the Indian National Congress, had endeavored endeavors at lead toward oneself yet had never been entirely effective. The immense supporter of a free India, Gandhi, was influential in the Indian Pro-independence Movement. Known as the Mahatma, or the Great Soul, Gandhi constrained change and an end to British colonization through a strict approach of peacefulness, or detached resistance. This development picked up energy after the world war 1 however the llianwala Bagh Massacre where number of individuals had gathered at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar for going to the yearly Baisakhi reasonable were encompass by the armed force at the requests of General Dyer and opened fire on the swarm, slaughtering several individuals. The Aftermath of this slaughter brought about general hubbub when the swarms took to the roads in numerous north Indian towns. The British utilized ruthless suppression, trying to embarrass and threaten individuals. Individuals were flagellated and towns were besieged and this savagery constrained Gandhi to stop the development

A feeling of solidarity and patriotism was motivated by history and fiction, folktale and melodies, prevalent prints and images. Abanindranath Tagore’s picture of Bharat Mata and Bankim Chandra melody Vande Mataram united numerous individuals and groups During the Swadeshi Movement; a tri-shading (red, green and yellow) banner was outlined. It had eight lotuses speaking to eight regions of British India and a sickle moon, speaking to Hindus and Muslims In 1921, Gandhi had planned the tri-shading Swaraj banner (red, green and yellow) with the turning wheel at the focal point. This banner spoke to the Gandhian perfect of self improvement and turned into an image of resistance. This ingrained pride and united the Indians.

However Despite the impact of Gandhi, India fell into confusion. Hindu individuals needed an all-Hindu state and Muslims, drove by the Muslim League needed a different state. Gandhi was killed in light of this contention. In the end, Pakistan was framed as a different Muslim state. Along these lines, the quality and will of the basic individuals both attained to Indian autonomy and shredded India. The tale of Mahatma Gandhi and Indian patriotism is one of history’s most prominent ironies

PAN AFRICAN NATIONALISM

Soon after the end of World War II, most European countries were sometime during closure magnificent control of Africa. Skillet Africanism got to be overwhelming on the mainland of Africa. Container Africanism is a nationalistic development that requires the solidarity of all African countries. While is has immense impact, for example, the African National Council, it has never succeeded in uniting all of Africa. Difference and a hefty portion of the issues confronting Africa since the end of WWII into present-day can be faulted for European colonialism. Political defilement is uncontrolled in light of the fact that European colonialists left without making stable governments. Ethnic pressure exists in light of the fact that European fringes were made with no idea given to the tribal framework. Tribalism is one of the greatest impediments to Africa in light of the fact that conventional adversaries were contained inside one European-made outskirt. A decent sample of ethnic strain is the contention between the Hutus and Tutsis in which 1,000’s on both sides were slaughtered and numerous more fled to Zaire to look for shelter. Both the countries of Rwanda and Burundi had noteworthy populaces of Hutus and Tutsis, both customary tribes. Notwithstanding the mind-boggling issues, there have been some significant achievements where patriotism has brought about positive change.

The principal Arab-Israeli clash set two nationalistic developments against one another. The War for Independence (1948-49) was the disappointment of the Arab world to prevent Israel from being framed as a Jewish sovereign state. This war brought about Jerusalem falling under the control of the Israelis and the end to a proposed arrangement for a free Palestinian state to be shaped. The Suez War of 1956 brought about Nasser’s Egypt losing control of the Sinai Peninsula, debilitating the dependability of the immeasurably critical Suez Canal. The Six-Day War of 1967 saw large portions of the encompassing Arab countries assault Israel and afterward continue to lose region (the challenged ranges recorded above) to Israel in under a week. The Yom Kippur War of 1973 was an Egyptian assault over the Sinai and turned into a Cold War occasion as the Americans and Soviets got to be included. Nasser’s successor, Anwar al-Sadat, (envisioned here) was the first Arab pioneer to perceive Israel as a country. For this alone, he was killed, viably finishing any endeavors at enduring peace. The contention proceeds with today.

Ghana:

During the days of empire-building, the nation now called Ghana was called the Gold Coast, an English settlement. The nationalist leader Kwame Nkrumah called on the souls of the African people by renaming the obviously imperial European “Gold Coast” to something that back to the golden age of western Africa, the Empire of Ghana. As he was a believer in the principles of Gandhi. He established autonomy for Ghana through civil defiance and passive resistance. Through the superiority and bravery of Nkrumah and the Ghanaian people, Great Britain left. To quote the words of Nkrumah, “No people without a government of their own can expect to be treated on the same level as people of independent sovereign states. It is far better to be free to govern or misgovern yourself than to be governed by anybody else . . .

Kenya:

The situation in the British colony of Kenya was similar to Ghana. The exploitation of Kenyan resources and oppression of its people were the typical traits of British domination. The path to independence, however, was radically different. Kenya’s nationalist leader, Jomo Kenyatta, initiated his movement by means of passive confrontation. However, Great Britain refused to end its imperial rule of Kenya and had confined Kenyatta for paramilitary warfare he may or may not have asked for. Irrespective, the Mau Mau, Kenyan guerilla troops, resisted British troops until Great Britain released Kenyatta and left in 1963 with Kenyatta as the prime minister of a free Kenya.

South Africa:

The circumstance in South Africa was distinctive. It had encountered colonialism, however the nation had picked up self-rule when the new century rolled over. White setters called Afrikaners had control of the South African government and had forced a social structure known as apartheid. Apartheid comprised of two social classes, upper white and lower dark. The races were kept separate and unequal, with the dark populace enduring awful ill-uses. Illustrations of this misuse incorporate pass cards for blacks just, voting rights for whites just, and isolated reservations called Home Lands.

However the most acclaimed of all African patriot pioneers Nelson Mandela talked against these segregations and began his hostile to apartheid developments. Anyhow Mandela, because of taking a stand in opposition to apartheid, was detained for a long time and not discharged until the mid 1990’s. South African president F.W. De Klerk liberated Mandela and finished the bigot convention. In 1994, South Africa had its first free race and Mandela was chosen president. Mandela and De Klerk earned the Nobel Peace Prize together for their endeavors.

Canada Current Immigration Policies: essay help online free

A policy is a plan or course of action that an organized body undertakes to guide in decision making and other matters. Immigration policies are meant to guide the immigration of people into a country for which ever reason. Canada is a country found on the northern part of North America’s continent. It has ten provinces and three territories. Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a federal parliamentary democracy headed by queen Elizabeth II. It is a bilingual state that has a diverse cultural base owing to the large influx of immigrants to the country. The country’s economy is among the world largest since it depends on its natural resources and developed trade networks.

Canada has been shaped greatly by immigration in society and culture. With Its small population and large tracts of unoccupied Canada’s immigration policy was fuelled by the need for expansion with immigrants encouraged to settle in rural areas .In the early 20th century the country began to control the flow of immigrants using policies that excluded the applicants of non Europeans .1n 1976 new laws removed the ethnic criteria and it became a destination for all from a variety of countries.

There are three categories of immigrants the family class which consists of those closely related, independent immigrants who are admitted on the basis of skill capital and labor market requirements and refugees. When applying for settlement immigration officers are instructed to give priority to family reunifications and refugees before independent job seekers with skill or capital without families. Arrivals in the family category are usually unskilled or the skills they posses do not match the community they have settled in thus disrupting the labor market. This results to economic insecurity which might create disappointment and hostility among the immigrants or among Canadians who feel threatened by the newcomers.

Canada’s immigration policy encourages dispersal of immigrants across the country. Current policy has attempted to encourage immigrants to settle in smaller communities in the less-populated province of Canada. The organizations within the society that are tasked with the formulation of immigration policies and regulations are churches, employers, organized labor groups and community-based and ethnic organizations. Many of these organizations aims is to promote family reunification and to attain financial adjustment schemes.

Canada policy is non discriminatory to ethnicity however individuals suffering from diseases that pose a danger to the public, those with no clear means of financial support or criminals and terrorists are excluded. An undetermined number of persons in this undesired category have however gained entry through back doors while others who have been admitted rightfully on short term visas choose to remain by extending the time permitted by the Canadian law. The group of those entering the country illegally has grown for the recent and has become a major challenge to the government especially at border crossings and airports. This group usually operate in low tones and are unnoticed till they try to acquire some public service which will bring them to the attention of government authorities .the government is working towards sealing any loop holes that have facilitated the admission of persons not authorized under the current regulations and legislations. Claims falsified by refugees status trying to avoid normal overseas screening and processing constitute one of the more serious problems confronting immigration officials.

In accommodating the immigrants Canada provides immigrants with language training and access to Canada’s national health care and social welfare programs. However, the immigrants in the 80s do not match the economical success of those in the 90s and many find difficulty in finding jobs according to their qualifications. Other immigrants are not fluent in either English or French to be able to exploit their degrees while other qualifications are not recognized by the country.In employment a Canadian born income rises same as those of European origin individuals unlike the non -white Canadians who receive low income rates.

The admission of highly skilled professionals to Canada from less developed countries has continued to provoke controversy since the governments of these countries where these immigrants originate complain of poaching of people they cannot afford to lose. Canada has maintained the need for freedom of movements of people in the midst of the controversy that it should not encourage the outflow of trained individuals from the regions that require there services.

For the immigrants who are seeking asylum Canada is known for having a fairly liberal policy on asylum. Any person who arrives in Canada can apply for refugee status at any border, airport, or immigration office inside the country. Anyone who arrives and claims to be a refugee Canada will look at the claim even if they are could not be as considered to be a in other countries. The process is divided into two a claim is submitted to Citizenship and Immigration Canada . CIC determines within three days whether the claim is eligible to be referred to the Immigration and Refugee Board , the body that makes the final determination as to whether the applicant will receive protected status. After a person has received refugee status, he or she can apply for permanent residency. This system has been criticized as to encourage backdoor applications and posing a threat to security since after they apply they are free to move around as they wait for their determination

The Canadian policy is divide into two parts temporary entry to the country and permanent entry. Under the temporary entry one can apply while inside the country or outside the country. While outside the one applies for a visitor visa when they wish to visit the country as a tourist or a visitor. The purpose of such a visit should be to visit relatives, to attend a business meeting, to attend a conference or convention, pleasure trip or participating in a cultural show. the second class is the student authorization or the student visa which is granted to a person who wishes to come to the country to study as an international student. The third class is the employment authorization or work permit which is granted to one who wishes to come to Canada and work for a Canadian company. It is referred to work permit visa in many countries. Under any of this classes one can apply for an extension of their visas while they are within the country. While in the country one may apply for an immigrant visa as a conventional refugee also referred to as a political asylum work permit visa as a live-in-caregiver known as a domestic help, immigrant visa of Canada as a spouse granted to an application made if one gets married in Canada while on a temporary visa and immigrant visa of Canada under humanitarian and compassionate reasons. If an individual changes the visa status this may lead to permanent immigration visa of Canada.

One can apply for permanent immigration to Canada under three categories while outside Canada. In the independent class assessment is done based on a point system. It is a very popular class also called professional class or skilled worker class. This category is based on an individual’s desire to come to Canada based on qualification, work experience and knowledge of English or French. The other class is the entrepreneur class investor class or self employed class. It is also known as business migration class. Entrepreneur class and self employed is for individuals who wish to start a business in Canada while the investor class is for those who do not wish to start a business in Canada. Applying for immigrant visa to Canada under the family class is for those who have close relatives in Canada under family sponsorship.

Canadian citizens and permanent residents may make an application to sponsor their relatives under the class of family class relatives and private sponsorship for refugees. Another application is by a permanent resident if one wishes to stay outside Canada for more than six months and wants to return. It’s called a return resident permit. A person can be granted Canadian citizenship provided he or she is a permanent resident of Canada for more than three years. When applying for proof of citizenship, also called citizenship certificate the applicant may do this while within or outside of Canada.

Canada is currently a country of choice for many people from all over the world. That may not be the case in future, especially for highly skilled people. The current policies have both positive and negative effects to the society of Canada.. Some of the positive impacts of the current policies include refocusing the federal skilled worker program, an initiative to bring in skilled trades to the country who bring with them jobs and investments.

Increased protection for caregivers who come into the country for the nanny jobs or housekeeping. Those who go into foreign countries are usually abused by their workers at times and end up working in deplorable conditions such as working for long hours without time to rest, depriving them day-offs and confiscation of vital documents such as passports for the immigrants. Some also face sexual harassment which is against the laws .The immigrants are thus faced with difficult conditions yet they cannot report or if reported they cannot get help. The current policies have therefore come in handy to protect this individuals from such torture. Permanent resident status to be granted to eligible students. The students who apply for student visas and perform exemplary well will be granted permanent residency in Canada after completion of studies. This can enable students to acquire citizenship and settle in the country after completion of studies. This ensures a retention of skilled people to work towards the growth of the economy.

The current policies have helped in addressing the current short-term labor market needs for the country because of the small population of Canada which cannot meet its labor requirements. The immigrants solve the labor situation which otherwise the country would not have addressed.

These policies have their negative sides. In the long term Canada will be viewed as no longer welcoming as it was. These include decision to wipe out immigration application backlogs legislatively. The applications of immigrants to get visas for whatever reason has been denied by immigration officers thus preventing serious developments on either the job market or education sector. A suspension or delay on family sponsorships which will deny the coming in of family to reunite with the rest of the families. This will affect the status of those who seek to migrate to Canada for the fear of being isolated from their families.

Reliance on temporary foreign workers to meet labor market needs. These has affected the attitude of the skilled workers who jet into the country and have not been able to get jobs. The Canadian citizens at times feel insecure by the immigration of the people into the country since they view them as a threat to their jobs and opportunities in the country. Hostility has been reported against the immigrants to an extent of some losing their lives. Organized crime has been witnessed against the immigrants to scare them so as to instill fear in them.

Tightened citizenship requirements which has locked out a lot of people who have genuine reasons to apply for the citizenship. Some of the requirement has locked out skilled workers and potential job creators to get into the country. Jobs would have boost the economic state of the country but due to the being looked out vast opportunities are also shut out. A list of refugees tagged as safe whose claims would be checked vigorously to determine if the claims are true. This has affected those who genuinely seek to immigrate as refugees.

Mandatory detention of asylum seekers who arrive for the fear terrorist or criminal activities especially after the 9/11 attack on the us. The asylum seekers will not be allowed to walk freely before the determination of their pending applications. This usually creates unnecessary anxiety for the asylum seekers.

These policies are made in a flashy speed and the breadth of them is likely not to be understood by the masses. The way the policies interact with each other is also an issue that will impact negatively on the society.

Conclusion

The current policies on immigration has impacted the society of Canada in both negative and positive ways. Some have been very fruitful to the growth of the economy and the cultural state of the country. The cultural state of the country has been made diverse by the different origins of the immigrants. the economic growth has been made possible by the influx of highly qualified individuals to the job market and the coming in of investors and job creators.

Canada has however been accused of poaching of the best brains from less developed and still developing countries worldwide. In its defense however it has said that there is freedom of movement for all the people.

In general the current immigration policies have helped in several ways for the betterment of the society but has introduced some problems too to the people living in Canada.

Sex Offenders in the Community

The United States government has rules in place to register the names of sex offenders, but unfortunately seems to overlook the idea of sex offenders living near children. In that respect, there is an injustice in the fact that sex offenders live on the same streets as children without parole officers making this information explicit to the parents. There are many child molesters who, even if they do have a professional job, work near minors. The government has laws, which state that a sex offender must be registered, but there are no laws saying that a sex offender cannot live around children. I do not agree with the idea that sex offenders are allowed to live in communities near children. In order to keep our children safe, child molesters should be banned from living and working near a school.

Realistically, allowing sex offenders to continue living near school systems enables them to target individuals, the majority of which are adolescents. Unknowingly, I worked with a sex offender when I was sixteen. Between the ages of sixteen and eighteen, a different sex offender targeted me. Any child could come into contact with a situation in which she is vulnerable and unaware of the danger. As a young person, one should not have to worry about whether or not he or she will be a victim of rape or sexual assault. I was fortunate enough not to be a victim, but I could have been. There was another situation where I had to stay with my grandparents for a period of time because my parents were fearful of the child molester who lived nearby. These are perfect examples of why we need laws that regulate an offender’s proximity to young children. Individuals should not have to be frightened in their daily life.

According to Understanding Child Molesters, there are a number of ways in which a sex offender may be disciplined, including probation, parole, and incarceration. When an individual decides to assault another person, there are consequences, such as having a parole officer, experiencing felony or misdemeanor changes, and registering as a sex offender’among many other methods of discipline. Even though a sex offender has to register every year, he is able to continue living in the community. This registration is compiled into an online database, but some individuals may have difficulty accessing this information due to a lack of technology. Sometimes sex offenders even have jobs where they work with minors and this should be prevented to minimize the perpetuation of a reoccurring crime.

The Washington Department of Corrections goes into further detail regarding sex offenders who live in our communities. The sex offenders must allow their parole officers to know where they live, and the parole officers must visit the sex offender regularly. Parole officers must be notified if the sex offender moves, and the parole officer must also approve of where the offender lives. From this point, sex offenders must become registered and allow the neighborhood to know that they are living within the community (‘Rules’). Registration alone is not sufficient because having their name on list will not prevent sex offenders from committing future sexual assault.

After a person becomes known as a sex offender, he must follow precise supervision. A parole officer will then monitor the offender for a period of time that is determined by the court system. Then, the offender will register as a child molester, and continue to do so indefinitely. By order of the court, he cannot leave the state. A parole officer will make a determination of whether or not the sex offender is allowed to live in a particular location. If the offender decides to move, he must also get the approval of the parole officer (‘Rules’).

The offender’s parole officer will ensure that the offender does not have possession of a computer or any other forms of media. Having possession of magazines, computers, televisions, phones, or any similar item could enable the offender to have access to pornography. The offender must also ensure not to attend any events partaking in an adults’ club. Essentially, the offender must stray from any type of pornography or sexual setting. If an offender decides to date or marry, the potential candidate must be notified of the offender’s criminal history (‘Rules’).

In addition to notifying the potential dating or marriage partner, a sex offender must also alert family and friends of the incident. Once a person becomes labeled as a sex offender, the neighborhood must be aware that there is a sex offender living amongst the community (‘Rules’). The public is only notified via a website they can visit if they choose, but this information should be presented to them more explicitly. There are many individuals who do not know how to use a computer. A parole officer should visit the neighbors to discuss safety protocol and other warnings. The offender’s address should be shared with all of the local residents, as well as individuals who find the offense report on the internet. Having the offender’s information online is not sufficient. In order to protect children, we must make better efforts to notify the community in a better way. Making sure that the public is aware of sex offenders in the community is crucial, and may save the lives of many children.

Sex offenders may be required to attend counseling sessions, for the duration of time determined by the court system. The offender must continue to update the parole officer to ensure proper attendance of the sessions. A polygraph may be used on the offender, if necessary. He is required to submit to the polygraph, as well as any drug tests that may be administered. With that being said, the offender must refrain from consuming alcohol or using drugs. Taking a polygraph and being drug-free are required to show that the offender is making changes in his life. Ideally, making these requests is to ensure that the offender will not sexually assault another child.

The offender cannot, by any means, contact the victim of the crime. Possible contact of the victim is one of the reasons as to why the offender cannot have a phone or a computer. Offenders cannot have any methods of communication with the victim, but the offenders still live in communities, near children. Since the offenders cannot contact their victims, it is essential that the offenders not be able to contact other innocent children. Seeking Justice in Child Sexual Abuse explains that, ‘Child abuse is one of the most difficult crimes to detect and prosecute, in large part because there often are no witnesses except the victim,’ (Staler 3). Unfortunately, many times when a minor is sexually assaulted, there are no witnesses. Having a sex offender near school districts enables more children to possibly be harmed and ultimately, there may not be any witnesses.

Through Civil Disobedience, Thoreau argues that breaking laws is sometimes necessary. Thoreau goes on to justify his argument, saying that breaking the law can often be the only thing that changes the mindsets of individuals. In a parallel example of Thoreau’s theory, we must break the misconception that having sex offenders living near children is perfectly acceptable. Change will not happen unless we, as a community, do something drastic to make a change happen (Thoreau).

Unfortunately, children are still placed in danger when sex offenders live near the school systems. In Martin Luther King Jr’s Letter From the Birmingham Jail, he makes a comment that his children are afraid of their surroundings. In today’s society, children are still afraid of their environment. Martin Luther King Jr. has the idea that one should break a law, if he or she deems it as ‘unjust.’ (King). I completely agree with King, and in this situation, I feel as though it is completely unjust to have sex offenders live near children. Ultimately, we cannot simply remove sex offenders from the communities, because they must live somewhere. But, as Martin Luther King Jr. was calm and rational in his approach, I believe that is the best method for the nation to make a difference.

Martin Luther King Jr. and Henry David Thoreau are very similar in the sense that they both want to take a stand for the people, and essentially, do what is morally right. They both agree that if a law is unjust, it needs to be broken. And both men stay determined to break the laws that they deem ‘unjust.’ Neither man is willing to give up on what he believes, yet both men face imprisonment for doing the right thing. If these men can be incarcerated for doing the right thing, perhaps sex offenders can have more severe punishments for doing horrendous acts to children (Thoreau, King).

Both of these men are true inspirations as to how we can handle our disagreements in a rational manner. I do not feel comfortable having sex offenders live near children. We cannot completely remove child molesters from our streets, but there are many other ways to reduce the amount of rapes and sexual abuse. The first possibility is that sex offenders stay imprisoned indefinitely. Yes, that is an unfortunate experience, but the children that are raped are emotionally scarred for the rest of their lives. So, maybe it would be rational for sex offenders to stay in prison indefinitely.

Another alternative may be to have a ban, where sex offenders cannot live within a certain radius of schools. Either way, a list of sex offenders will still be posted to notify the community. But, in my proposal, there will be more ways of warning everyone. These registries will be abundantly clear, even to those who may not have access to the existing lists. Not everyone has access to the internet, or knows how to operate a computer. Perhaps, in addition to being posted online like they are now, the lists will also be given to each homeowner in a more noticeable method. Advising the community is the first step in making this situation better. Maybe we cannot eliminate sex offenders from our streets, but we can take better precautions.

I believe that, in order to protect innocent adolescents, it is necessary to make a stand. We, as a community, should make every effort to ensure that children are not put into a situation where they are harmed. No child should be raped, sexually assaulted, or murdered. There are simple changes that this country can take at this very moment to ensure better safety of children. Law enforcement can improve methods of notifying the public that there is a sex offender present. Sex offenders can have a ban on how close they live to a school system, or they can be incarcerated indefinitely. Child sex abuse is a very serious issue that we could possibly eliminate, or reduce the number of victims.

Facebook as a learning platform

Abstract

The past decade has seen a growing popularity of social networking sites and out of all that is available, Facebook is the one that stands out for being unique and offering a range of user-friendly features. This site has frequently topped the ranks with record number of memberships and daily users. Facebook is often considered as a personal and informal space for sharing pictures, information, webpages, forming ‘Groups’, participating in discussions and debates, and providing comments on wall posts etc. The aim of this paper is to explore the use of Facebook as learning and teaching tool. It will highlight some of the theoretical debates and existing research to understand the effectiveness of this site as an informal and learner driven space, and ways in which it empowers students and stimulates their intellectual growth. The conclusion highlights the on-going contested nature of technological advances and its influences on traditional ideas of teaching and learning.

Keywords: Facebook; Situated Learning Theory; Community of Practice; Connectivist Approach; Personal Learning Environment; Informal Learning; Criticical Thinking; Creativity; Communicative Confidence; Collaborative Learning.

Introduction

Over two decades ago, theorists Jean Lave & Etienne Wenger (1991) introduced a theory of learning called ‘situated learning’ and the concept of community of practice (CoP from here on), so as to describe learning through practice and participation. The CoP can be bracketed as a group of individuals who share a common interest and a desire to learn from and contribute to the community. Wenger (2010) elaborated the idea by stating that:

Communities of practice are formed by people who engage in a process of collective learning in a shared domain of human endeavor: a tribe learning to survive, a band of artists seeking new forms of expression, a group of engineers working on similar problems, a clique of pupils defining their identity in the school, a network of surgeons exploring novel techniques, a gathering of first-time managers helping each other cope. In a nutshell: Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly.

According to Wegner, the CoP needs to meet three essential characteristics i.e. domain, community and practice. The CoP has an identity defined by a shared domain of interest. Therefore, membership implies a commitment to that particular domain, and a shared competence that distinguishes members from other individuals (namely non-members). The community then becomes a way through which members can pursue interest in their domain, engage in collaborative activities and discussions, provide assistance to each other, and share or disseminate information. They build a co-operative relationship that enables them to learn from each other. Wegnner terms the members of a CoP as practitioners ‘ as they develop a shared repertoire of resources, experiences, stories, tools, and ways of addressing repetitive problems. This in short can be called a shared practice, which takes time and sustained interaction. It is the combination of these three components constitutes a CoP, and it is by developing these in parallel that one cultivates such a community (ibid).

Social networking sites are often seen as promoting CoP. In simple terms, these sites can be defined as: ‘web-based services that allow individuals to (1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system.’ (Boyd and Ellison, 2008: 211). What makes social networking sites unique is not whether they allow individuals to meet new people, but rather that they enable users to articulate and make their social networks visible (ibid). Therefore, social networking can be seen as ‘the practice of expanding knowledge by making connections with individuals of similar interests’ (Gunawardena et al. 2009:4). Researchers have frequently concluded that social networking sites are at the core of what is described as online CoP (Watkins, and Groundwater-Smith, 2009).

According to Wong et al. (2011), growth in technology and social networking sites have contributed to an increase in the opportunity to operate in an improved learning environment through enhanced communication and incorporation of collaborative teaching and learning approaches. Amongst all the social networking sites, Facebook (FB from hereon) is the one that stands out the most. There are a number of reasons as to why FB can be used for building an online CoP and ways in which its features are considered as unique and suitable for Higher Education purposes:

1) Ability to create a ‘Group’: FB is equipped with dynamic features, such as, messaging, and ability to post videos, weblinks and pictures. However, Group is one of the most powerful features on the site, and it can encourage and enhance collaborative learning. Learners can create a Group or join an existing Group related to their interest, and they can use the site features for sharing information and performing variety of tasks. FB Group features can build an online CoP, as they meet the three fundamental components of communities (i.e. domain, community and practice). (ibid: 319)

2) Share information: FB features, such as, Groups, Chats and Docs enable sharing of information. Learners can form groups for a specific purpose, and post messages, have discussions/debates and share resources on a specific domain within the group. The members of a CoP are practitioners, and they can develop a shared repertoire of resources.(ibid:319)

3) Encourage collaborative tasks: ‘Docs’ feature on FB site can help with collaborative tasks, and it can allow Group members to work collectively (if required). Any/all group members can view, edit, add or remove sections of the ‘Doc’. (ibid:319)

While the above shows the ways in which FB can be useful in building an online CoP, a more careful analysis is required, in order to establish its usefulness as learning and teaching tool in Higher Education. Therefore, rest of this paper will draw upon theoretical debates and evidence from within the literature, so as to explain the ways in which FB could be a powerful tool ‘ one that could enhance learning and criticality amongst learners, and also boost their communicative confidence.

Why Facebook?

Created in 2004, by the end of 2013 FB was reported to have more than 1.23 billion monthly active users worldwide, and 24 million Britons logged on to the site each day (The Guardian, 2014). Due to its ease of use and availability in the form of mobile applications, FB has now become integral part of its users social lifestyle ‘ conventional estimates suggest that a typical user spends around 20 minutes a day on the site, and 2/3 of users log in at least once a day (Ellison et al. 2007). Since its creation, FB has been subjected to immense academic and scholarly scrutiny, especially for its uses within the educational settings. The initial literature largely focused on the negative aspects associated with its use, such as, identity presentation and lack of privacy (See Gross & Acquisti, 2005). It was argued that, amount of information FB users provide about themselves, (somewhat) open nature of the information, and the lack of privacy controls could put users at risk online and offline, for e.g. bullying, stalking and identity theft (Gross and Acquisti, 2005). However, constant changes made to the privacy settings have subsequently reversed these concerns. The users can control the release of information by changing the privacy settings. Issues surrounding student perceptions of lecturer presence and self-disclosure (Mazer, Murphy, & Simonds, 2007), and inconsistent patterns of use were also highlighted as potential causes of concern (Golder, Wilkinson, & Huberman, 2007). However, the positive effects of social networking tools in teaching and learning soon took precedence, as these computer-mediated communication modes are often seen as lowering barriers to interaction and encouraging communicative confidence amongst students. For instance, during a qualitative study at the Yale University, the members of staff praised FB for breaking the barriers between themselves and students, and it also encouraged students to feel part of the same academic community (mentioned in Bosch, 2009). Similarly, a study conducted by Ellison et al. (2007) explored maintained social capital, which assesses one’s ability to stay connected with members of a community. They concluded that FB usage amongst students is linked to psychological well-being, and it could especially be of benefit to students with lower self-esteem and low life satisfaction. It could also trigger a process, whereby goal attainment amongst students is significantly increased.

The above uses of FB in Higher Education and as a tool for enabling the maintenance of social capital, can be contrasted with its value as a learning environment. Selwyn (2009) has strongly cautioned against the use of FB for teaching and learning, as students might be reluctant to use it for learning purposes, shifting its focus away from being an academic tool and becoming considered purely as a site for socialisation and sharing mundane information. Selwyn presented an in-depth qualitative analysis of the FB ‘wall’ activity of nearly 1000 students in a British educational establishment, and his study offered a very pessimistic conclusion. He noted that students did not use this site for educational purposes and their interactions were limited to offering negative comments on learning/lecture/seminar experiences, casual comments about events, sharing factual about teaching and assessment requirements, seeking moral support for assessment or learning, and even boasting oneself as being academically incompetent and/or disengaged (2009:157). The evidence from this study suggests that, FB in Higher Education must be approached with severe caution and lecturers need to use it in a considered, strategic, logical and objective manner (ibid).

It is likely that FB could clash with traditional pedagogical models. Nevertheless, it can provide channels for informal and unstructured learning. For instance, Bugeja (2006:1) suggested that, social networking offers the opportunity to ‘re-engage’ individuals with learning, and promote ‘critical thinking’, which is one of the traditional objectives of education (explained further in subsequent paragraphs). Siemens (2005) connectivist approach also recognises these impacts of technology on learning and ways of knowing. According to him, learning in the digital age is no longer dependent on individual obtaining/storing/retrieving knowledge, but instead relies on the connected learning that occurs through interaction with various sources of knowledge and participation in communities of common interest, including social networks, and group tasks (Brindley et al. 2009). The shift of focus to group and network as the epicentre of learning relies on a concept of learning based on ‘exploration, connection, creation and evaluation within networks that connect people, digital artefacts and content’ (Manca and Ranieri, 2013:488). This type of learning through socialisation can foster student interest in the subject material. Duffy (2011) proposed that FB could be used for teaching and learning, as it enables students to share knowledge and information with the ‘Group’ members’ and the associations between them. Duffy (2011) further argued that FB provides a range of educational benefits by: Allowing students to demonstrate critical thinking, take creative risks, and make sophisticated use of language and digital literacy skills, and in doing so, the students acquire creative, critical, communicative, and collaborative skills that are useful in both educational and professional contexts. (p. 288). This in turn will also help to achieve the Abertay Graduate Attributes ‘ and encourage development of students’ intellectual and social capacity, give them tools to find creative solutions to real world problems, and work within a complex and interdisciplinary contexts. It could trigger intellectual, communicative and collaborative confidence amongst students, train them to take creative risks and help them broaden their knowledge base.

What is particularly fascinating about FB is the fact that it encourages a creation of Personal Learning Environment (PLE) ‘ which is an emerging pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning, supporting self-regulated learning, and empowering students intellectually (these values are also outlined in the Abertay Strategic Plan). According to Attwell (2010):

PLEs are made-up of a collection of loosely coupled tools, including Web 2.0 technologies, used for working, learning, reflection and collaboration with others. PLEs can be seen as the spaces in which people interact and communicate and whose ultimate result is learning and the development of collective know-how. A PLE can use social software for informal learning which is learner driven, problem-based and motivated by interest ‘ not as a process triggered by a single learning provider, but as a continuing activity.

PLEs are spaces for the modern learner to create, explore and communicate, and they are characterised as an approach to learning rather than a set of computer assisted applications (Dalsgaard 2006:2). The use of PLEs can help to reinforce classroom learning by extending communication outside of the classroom hours (but at the same time not creating classroom outside of the classroom), and thinking about topics beyond the weekly seminar sessions both individually and in collaboration with classmates through posting materials (like files, website links, notes etc.) and leaving comments. This type of engagement can result in the development of (informal) communities of learning. Whereas, collaborative learning can lead to deeper level learning, critical thinking, and shared understanding (Kreijns, Kirschner and Jochems, 2003). A study conducted by Churchill (2009) highlighted that ‘online-blogs’ can foster a learning community, and it makes learners feel as an important part of the classroom. The best is achieved from such blogs when they are designed to facilitate student access of course material, posting reflections on learning tasks and commenting on peer contribution. Taking into account that FB is one of the most popular network and method of community building, through which students today are communicating ‘ it can prove an useful tool in collaborative student-led learning (in prove equal or more beneficial than blogs). Downes (2007) argues that FB is distinctive when compared to other forms of computer-mediated communications because it has stronger roots in the academic community. One of the reports by the UK government body for technology in learning lists several potential uses of FB in education, and for developing communities of practice, communication skills, e-portfolios, and literacy ‘ all of which are essential aspects of the Abertay Graduate Attributes.

FB can be used not only to gain knowledge and information, but also to share information, as and when needed. McLoughlin and Lee (2007;2010) have pointed out that ‘learning on demand’ is becoming a type of lifestyle in modern society, and learners are constantly seeking information to solve a problem or to satisfy their curiosity. Learners should therefore not be considered as passive information consumers, but as active co-producers of content. This also makes learning highly independent, self-driven, informal and integral part of University life (ibid). Formal learning is described as highly structured (one that happens in classrooms), whereas informal learning happens through observation, listening to stories, communicating with others, asking questions, reflecting and seeking assistance. Informal learning rests primarily in hands of the learner and use of FB could allow learners to create and maintain a learning space that facilitates self-learning activities and connections with classmates and other academic/educational networks (ibid). However, informal learning outside of the classroom must be considered as a continuum, rather than either/or dichotomy (Attwell, 2007). The informal learning can be used to supplement formal learning (not substitute) and PLE as a pedagogical tool should be viewed as intentioned merger of formal and informal learning spaces.

PLEs are increasingly becoming effective in addressing issues of learner control and personalization that are often absent in the University Learning Management Systems, such as, Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) or Blackboard ( Dabbagh and Kitsantas, 2011). VLEs do not accommodate social connectivity tools and personal profile spaces, and they tend to replicate traditional models of learning and teaching in online environments. They create a classroom outside of the classroom, which may explain as to why educators ‘can’t ‘ stop lecturing online’ (Sheely, 2006). Also, VLEs are largely considered as tutor dissemination tools (for lecture notes, readings and assessment related information), over student learning tools. The University faculty and administrators control VLEs, and learners cannot maintain learning space that facilitates their own learning activities, and connection with and fellow classmates (Dabbagh and Kitsantas, 2011:2). When FB is employed as a learning tool, it moves away from this very hierarchical form of learning and empowers students through designs that focus on collaboration, connections and social interactions. It is much more dynamic and evolved in this sense.

It has been long argued that VLEs have had only a relatively slight impact on pedagogy in higher education, despite their commercial success (Brown, 2010). However, FB has the potential not only to fundamentally change the nature of learning and teaching but, through the creation of learner-controlled devices, it may challenge the role of traditional institutions in a way that previous technologies could not. Brown (2010:8) imposes a crucial question regarding VLE (such as Blackboard), and that it is ‘reasonable to wonder how much longer the return on investment will stand up to scrutiny’ (Brown 2010:8).

Conclusion

FB is increasingly becoming a popular learning platform that has a true potential in HE. A FB ‘Group’ can facilitate learning, by increased interaction between students and staff. The research has so far (despite being plausible in nature) indicated FB can be used to enhance the literacy, critical thinking, and collaborative and communicative skills amongst students. Some researchers have argued that social networking sites, such as, FB could offer ‘the capacity to radically change the educational system’ to better motivate students as engaged learners rather than learners who are primarily passive observers of the educational process’ (Ziegler 2007, 69). However, this overly-optimistic view is strongly contested by others, who have raised grave concerns about heightened disengagement, alienation and disconnection of students from education and to the detrimental effect that FB may have on ‘traditional’ skills and literacies (Brabazon, 2007). Academics have feared that FB could lead to intellectual and scholarly ‘de-powering’ of students, incapable of independent critical thought. According to Ziegler (2007:69), sites such as FB could lead to ‘the mis-education of Generation M’ (cited in Selwyn, 2009), and despite of its popularity as innovative educational tool, studies have indicated that it may distract learners from their studies and purely become a tool for socialisation (ibid). The use of FB remains controversial and further research is needed in this area to establish its effectiveness in HE teaching and learning.

Causes of drug failure: essay help online

One of the most common causes of drug failure is drug-induced liver injuries (DILIs). The majority of these failures are idiosyncratic reactions, which occur in small patient populations (between 1 in 1.000-10.000) in an unpredictable manner.1 The underlying mechanism of this type of DILI is very complex and still not completely understood.2 However, recent data have suggested that the crosstalk between cytokine-mediated pro-apoptotic signalling and drug reactive metabolite-mediated intracellular stress responses is essential in the comprehension of DILI.3

Various xenobiotics (e.g. diclofenac) can induce liver damage via the tumor necrosis factor ?? (TNF??) pathway. Excretion of this major cytokine will initiate through liver macrophages (Kuppfer cells) after exposure to bacterial endotoxins (e.g. Lipopolysaccharide).4 After binding of TNF?? to its receptor (TNFR1), the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-??B) is activated.5 In general, NF-??B is detained in the cytoplasm by binding to an inhibitor of ??B (I??B) complex. The initiated NF-??B leads to activation of I??B kinase (IKK), which eventually leads to the ubiquitination and phosphorylation of the I??B complex.6 Subsequently, this complex is targeted for proteosomal degradation. Hereafter, NF-??B translocates to the nucleus in an oscillatory way and activates the transcription of several genes which primarily encode survival proteins, such as cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and negative regulators proteins (e.g. A20, I??B??).7 After protein synthesis, A20 and I??B?? will inhibit the function of NF-??B in a negative feedback manner (Figure 1). Modified TNF??-induced NF??B translocation by various compounds is believed to shift the balance between cell survival and cell death.

Furthermore, reactive compound metabolites are capable of altering cellular molecules, which could lead to intracellular disturbances and eventually to the induction of various stress response or toxicity pathways.8 These pathways, combined with a decreased response for cell damage recovery and protection, will enhance the susceptibility to cell death of various cells. Up to now, insufficient studies have been performed to investigate the contribution of various pathways to DILI. It still remains uncertain which drug-induced toxicity pathways modulate the pro-apoptotic activity of TNF?? signaling in DILI reactions. However, there are different stress responses which are most likely involved in the formation of DILI. The Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant response pathway and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated unfolded protein response (UPR) have been studied in drug-induced toxicity of hepatocytes [2]. The Keap1/Nrf2 pathway is essential in recognizing ROS and/or cellular oxidative stress [6]. Keap1 maintains Nrf2 in the cytoplasm and guides it toward proteasomal degradation under normal circumstances. Nrf2 signaling is important in the cytoprotective response against ROS, but its role in the TNF??/drug interaction in idiosyncratic DILI remains unclear.

Furthermore, the ER stress-mediated UPR is a stress response due to enhanced translation and/or disturbed protein folding. Should the modification fail, a pro-apoptotic system will be initiated to eliminate the injured cell. The exact mechanism and role of the ER stress signalling response in managing DILI in relation to TNF??-induced apoptosis still remains unclear.

In this research, we hypothesize that stress response mechanisms (e.g. ER stress responses, oxidative stress responses) are involved in the delay of NF-??B nuclear translocation upon exposure to various NF-??B nuclear translocation compounds.

In this project, a human HepG2 cell line will be used to study the interaction between five different compounds (amiodarone, carbamazepine, diclofenac, nefazodone, ximelagatran) and cytokine TNF alpha. To investigate the overall percentage of cell death, a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay will be performed. Furthermore, in order to quantify the amount of apoptotic cells, an Annexin V affinity assay will be executed. It is expected that the concentration-dependant toxicity of the compounds is enhanced with the presence of TNF??. Live cell imaging with HepG2 GFPp65 cells will be used to follow the NF-??B translocation after exposure to the five various compounds. Subsequently, an automated image quantification of the p65 signal intensity ratio of nucleus/cytoplasm is measured to show the exact onset of the second nuclear entry of NF-??B. It is estimated that the data of the NF-??B translocation will show a compound-induced delayed onset of NF-??B.

The activation of NF-??B target genes cIAP and c-FLIP will be measured using a Western Blot analysis. Moreover, the negative regulators of NF-??B, A20 and I??B??, will be studied to investigate the negative feedback loop of NF-??B. We anticipate that the data of the Western Blot analysis will show a decrease in production of the investigated target genes, because of the reduced TNF??-induced NF-??B transcriptional activity.

Ultimately, a data analysis will be applied on the results using t-test or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) in case of multiple comparisons.

Karma by Kushwant Singh

The text ‘Karma’ is written by Kushwant Singh in 1950 who is a English novelist.

The short story is 65 years old today but it is still relevant today, many of the issue that the text show.

The story deal with problems of the Indian cultures. Novel tells us the impact the empire have had on India, and shows us that the British norms have had influence on India.

It shows us that there is a big clash between women and men in India, and the way that men looks at women, but also the clash between rich and poor, is very big, in the story men and women does not sit in the same side of the train.

The text take place in a train.

And we have main character who names is Sir Mohan Lal, he is an Indian Man, and he think self he is very handsome and beautiful like the English men. He actually think of himself as an Englishman.

He think he is better than he Indians.

He despratly trys to fit in with the Englishmen.

Sir Mohan is very well iducated his job is a vizeier and barrister, he has been in England to stody, and maybe that is the reason that he thinks of himself as an Englishman. He think he is a good looking man, a time in the story he looks in the mirror ‘Distinguished, efficient – even handsome. That neatly trimmed moustache – the suit from Savile Row, the carnation in the buttonhole.’ It shows that he is proud of himself, and he knows which image he want to send to other people, but also that he only speaks to himself.

Sir Mohan Lal obsessed with how other people think of him. He will do anything to get to know an Englishman. In the train he meets many Englishmen and he always have an old copy of ‘The Times’ which shows how desperately he want to get in touch with an Englishman. And also that he think he as a well education, and also to show that he is a man of manners and English culture. He feels like he is an English man and not an India, he think that Indian people is poor, and not like him. He will not being seen with some of them, and also his wife would he not been seen with.

In the short story we also meet his wife, which is an Indian women, he doesn’t love her and think she is ugly, the only reason he is married to her is because he want to have children.

This shows us the problematic we have reading in the class, were many married has been arranged, and that the people there is married doesn’t love each other. Sir Mohan Lal makes her travel in the zenana(a section in the train only for women).

In the train Sir Mohan Lal meet two English soldiers, who he wants to travel and talk to them, that he tell the guard that they could sit in his coupe. Mohan should never had does that. The men were not looking for an Indian man to talk with, and they sees themselves as better than Sir Mohan Lal. Just like he had done before with the Indians people, then he could see how it feels, to not be an excepted person.

Karma is when something you have done comes back to you and it certainly does.

Human Resource Management and Employee Commitment: essay help

The concept of employment commitment lies at the heart of any analysis of Human Resource Management. Really, the rationale for introducing Human Resource Management policies is to increase levels of commitment so positive outcome can result. Such is the importance of this construct. Yet, despite many studies on commitment, very little is understand of what managers mean by the term ‘commitment’ when they evaluate someone’s performance and motivation. Development of organizational commitment is basically by major theoretical approaches emerge from previous research on commitment: Firstly, commitment is view as an attitude of attachment to the organization, which leads to particular job-related behaviors. The committed employee, for example, is less often absent, and is less likely to leave the organization voluntarily, than are less committed employees.

Secondly, one line of research in organizations focuses on the implications of certain types of behaviors on subsequent attitudes. A typical finding is that employees who freely choose to behave in a certain way, and who find their decision difficult to change, becomes committed to the chosen behavior and develop attitudes consistent with their choice. One approach emphasizes the influence of commitment attitudes on behaviors, whereas the other emphasizes the influence of committing behaviors on attitude. Although the ‘commitment attitude behavior’ and ‘committing behavior attitude’ approaches emerge from different theoretical orientations, and have generated separate research traditions, understanding the commitment process is facilitated by viewing these two approaches as, inherently, inter-related. Further by virtue of commitment the human recourse management department can fully utilized their talent, skill, and efficiency of the employee in productive way to fulfill the personal goals of the employees and organizational goals. More over commitment helps in fulfilling the purpose of training imparted to the employees because in spite of increasing the level of skill through training without commitment these cannot be maintained. After all existence of adequate commitment amongst employees create an work culture environment and there by all employees can be motivated and encourage towards the excellent performance of their duties.

3.5 Social Support ‘ its Concept, Purpose, Types, Relations with Social Network and social Integration

3.5.1 Concept of Social support

The concept of social support is strategic which defined as the belief that one is cared for and loved, esteemed and valued. It is a strategic concept in not only giving understanding to the maintenance of health and the development of (mental and somatic) health problems, but also their prevention. Types and sources of social support can vary. Four main categories of social support are (i) emotional, (ii) appraisal, (iii) informational and (iv) instrumental support. Social support is closely related to the concept of social network, the ties to family, friends, neighbors, colleagues, and others of significance to a person. Within this context, social support is the potential of the network to provide help.

It is important for organizations to collect information on social support in the employees, to enable both risk assessment and the planning of preventive interventions at different level such as:

a) Lack of social support increases the risk for Organizational Commitment:

Lack of social support is shown to increase the risk of both mental and somatic disorders, and seems to be especially important in stressful life situations. Poor social support is also associated with enhanced mortality. Social support may affect health through different pathways i.e. behavioral, psychological and physiological pathways.

b) Social support is determined by individual and environmental factors:

Social support is determined by factors at both the individual as well as the social level. Social support in adulthood may be to some extent genetically determined. Personality factors that might be associated with perceived social support are interpersonal trust and social fear. The position of a person within the social structure, which is determined by factors such as marital status, family size and age, will influence the probability of them receiving social support. The occurrence of social support depends on opportunities that an organization creates to commitment with employees.

c) Preventive interventions stimulate social support at different levels:

There are three types of preventive interventions aimed at stimulating social support: universal, selective or indicated interventions. The ultimate goal of universal interventions is to promote health. They are aim at providing social support at the group or community level. Selective preventions aim to strengthen social skills and coping abilities with, for example social skill training. Social support groups and self-help groups are other examples of selective prevention programs. Indicated prevention programmes aim to reduce the risk of people who already have symptoms of psychological stress, developing a mental disorder.

Social support is defining as help in difficult life situations. Social support is a concept that is generally understands in a spontaneous sense, as the help from other people in a difficult life situation. It is social support as ‘the individual belief that one is cared for and loved, esteemed and valued, and belongs to a network of communication and mutual obligations’. In spite of these widely accepted definitions of social support, there are very few consensuses in the literature about the definition and consequently the operation implementation of the concept. There is a need for further research, especially about what kind of support is most important for organizational commitment. Researcher tried to the applied social support score is the sum of the raw scores for each of the items. In the Guwahati Metro region, the sum-score of the Social Support Scale ranges. A score is classified as poor support, intermediate support and strong support.

3.5.2 Purpose of Social Support

Researcher thinks that in defining social support the qualities of support perceived (satisfaction) and provided social support for the managerial employees are significant here. Most of studies are constructed on the measurement of subjectively perceived support, whereas others aim at measuring social support in a more objective sense. One could also distinguish between the support received, and the expectations when in need, and between event specific support and general support. The definition in terms of a subjective feeling of support raises the question whether social support reflects a personality trait, rather than the actual social environment (Pierce et al., 1997). Most researchers will agree that the person as well as the situation affects perceived social support, and that the concept deals with the interaction between individual and social variables. In the present study researcher has tried to observe percentage of male and female managerial employees with poor support, intermediate support, and strong support in Public and private organizations of Guwahati Metro region.

3.5.3 Types of Social Support

Types and sources of social support may vary. Mainly four major categories of social support such as emotional, appraisal, informational and instrumental are in the use of research work. Researcher tried to observe it in her study.

a) Emotional support generally comes from family and close friends and is the most commonly recognized form of social support. It includes empathy, concern, caring, love and trust.

b) Appraisal support involves transmission of information in the form of affirmation, feedback and social comparison. This information is often evaluative and can come from family, friends, coworkers, or community sources.

c) Informational support includes advice, suggestions, or directives that assist the person respond to personal or situational demands.

d) Instrumental support is the most concrete direct form of social support, encompassing help in the form of money, time, in-kind assistance, and other explicit interventions on the person’s behalf.

3.5.4 Social Support & Concept of a Social Network

Social support is closely related to the concept of a social network, or the ties to family, friends, neighbors, colleagues, and others of significance to the person. However, when the social network is described in structural terms, like size, range, density, proximity and homogeneity, social support normally refers to the qualitative aspects of the social network within this context, social support is the potential of the network to provide help in situations when needed. However, the social network may also be the cause of psychological problems.

Halle and Wellman present the interplay between social support, the social network, and psychological health in a model: The social network as a mediating construct. This model shows that social support can be seen as resulting from certain characteristics of the social network, which are in turn caused by environmental and personal factors. The model suggests that it is important to distinguish between the structural and quantitative aspects of the social network on the one side, and social support on the other. In this study researcher has correlated stress and social support with organizational commitment taking in to consideration managerial employees of Public and private sector in Guwahati Metro region.

3.5.5 Social integration and Social Support

Whereas the concept of social support mainly refers to the individual and group level, the concept of social integration can refer to the community level. A well-integrated community refers to well developed supportive relationships between people in the community, with everybody feeling accepted and included. A related concept is social capital, which is often used as the sum of supportive relationships in the community. Social capital may, however, also be used in a somewhat different meaning, such as solidarity’. It is an important for the development of organizational commitment.

In the fields of Organizational Behavior and Industrial/Organizational Psychology is, in a general sense, the employee’s psychological attachment to the organization. It can be contrasted with other work-related attitudes, such as job satisfaction, defined as an employee’s feelings about their job, and organizational identification, defined as the degree to which an employee experiences a ‘sense of oneness’ with their organization. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen said that the sense of oneness in every individual should he ‘dynamic’ and not confined within the narrowness of a single identity. People have to judge contextually as to what oneness means in several aspects of our life. A person cannot have just one identity of oneness based on one’s nationality or religion.

Encompass the systematic study and careful application of knowledge about how people act within organizations. Organizational studies sometimes are considered a sister field for, or overarching designation that includes the disciplines like industrial and organizational psychology, organizational behavior, human resources, and management.

However, there is no universally accepted classification system for such subfields. Beyond this general sense, organizational scientists have developed many feelings especially in creative expression of organizational commitment; the present study is combination of the higher level employees stress and social support, which effects on organizational commitment. Researcher have selected Guwahati Metro region for their study. The study is design based on types of organizations i.e. Public and private organizations.

Climate Effect On Building facade: essay help

Abstract : Building facade is one of an important element of the architecture. It have a significant effect on energy conservation and the comfort of the building users. The facade is affected by the environmental conditions and it designs should take into consideration the climate of it regions this research will explain the facade treatment on different region, also the Basic methods for designing high-performance building facade it will explain two case studies that illustrate facade design methods for two different climate conditions.

Content

1. Introduction ”””””””””””””….. 3

2. Literature Review””””””””””””’ 4

3. Research discussion and data analysis””””””””’ 5

3.1. Design criteria For Mixed Climate”””””””’.. 5

3.2. Design criteria For Hot Climates””””””””.8

4. Conclusion””””””””””’..”””11

5. References”””””””””””””’11

1. Introduction

Climate is always affect our daily life ether if it’s sunny ,cloudy ,rainy it have an Influences on our sense of comfortable when we go outside the building. When we are inside the building, the building separate use from the outer environment and. It have it own conditions depend on the technology inside the building such as , HVAC systems which allows us to change the temperature or humidity’etc . Building protects us from the Weather problems that are not favored to stay out in it. Building interior spaces conditions also depends on the exterior facade treatment For example the interior heat or lighting that comes through the glazed windows will affect the temperature of the interior.

This research will explain the influence of the climate on the building facade , what is the main factor that affect the facade of the architecture on the other hand ,the techniques of treatment the facade to provide a suitable interior environment for it users in cretin climate condition, also how can we design the facade in simple way to fit with the changing in the climate , and facade materials selection to help in adaptation the building to the climate conditions.

2. Literature Review

Across the history Human used the shelter to protect them from danger Such as wailed animals and Climatic conditions. Later on with the evolution of human the dwellings has developed after it was a cave in Mount it became a building in various forms and functions. Buildings provide the foundation for our daily activities, for example ,educational ,commercial , Health care ‘. Etc.

Climate is generally the weather conditions of a region, as temperature, air pressure, humidity, precipitation, sunshine, cloudiness, and winds, throughout the year, averaged over a series of years (n.d, The American Heritage?? New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy). Every region have it own climatic characteristics that can affect the architecture facade differently, for example In warm areas like middle east region, people avoid the glare and the heat of the sun, as demonstrated by the decreasing size of the windows. On the other hand in north Europe they use glass in Exaggeration way to allow the sun light to inter the building and heat the interior space because of the cold weather of their region (””””” 2010).

3. Research Discussion And Data Analysis

facade is generally one exterior side of a building, usually but not always, the front side of the building(n.d, 2011). The building facade acts as a skin that wraps around the building and affects the internal environment as it interacts with the external one. Building facades is not only about the aesthetic of the building, it’s also perform as the barriers that separate a building’s interior from the external environment. facades are one of the most Important contributors to the energy consumptions and the comfort norms of any building. facade designs and performance are one of the main factors for sustainable, energy-efficient, and high performance buildings. A facade should satisfy the design as well as the functional requirements .The Climate of the area plays a major role in designing the facade, different design strategies are required for different climatic zones. One of the traditional way to deal with the climate in the Middle East the use of small opining and Mashrabia or (Roshan) to cover the windows. this techniques that characterized the facade in this region were use to prevent the heat to enter the building and to Imprisonment the cool inside the building, also to filter the air from the dust associated with it (Mady, 2010).

3.1. Design Criteria For Mixed Climate

the Center for Urban Waters is a Public laboratory building, in Tacoma, Wash. A Tacoma is in a region with a mixed marine climate. Designed by Perkins+Will and got LEED Platinum award.

Figure 1 shows average daily temperatures and the solar radiation for each month.

This temperature of this climate zone allows cooling by natural ventilation, and the quite soft winters with low solar radiation .This climate conditions using a reasonable amount of glazing on the south and west orientations will not have a negative affect a building’s energy performance.

This view of the building is the west and south facade. It shows the differ??ent treatments for different building sides.

– The west facade consists of an aluminum cladded rain screen system, with integration of win??dows that some of it operable and non operable, and exterior blinds.

– The south facade consists of a curtain wall of fritted glass and external hori-zontal shading devices.

It is located in industrial waterfront on a long narrow site. The building program element located according it’s possible needs of air and natural ventilation. The waterside of the building provides a fresh cold air which is idle foe ventilation, so the designer placed offices on the waterway to provide a good ventilation. On the road and industrial side the opportunities of fresh airs is reduced so the designer placed the laboratories on this side because of it need of mechanical ventilation.

The shading strategies used based on the facade orientation. The western orientation of the building receives the greatest solar heat gain so it designed with a low window to wall ratio, vertical Shading devices used to moderate the solar heat gain and glare from low afternoon sun. the south facade consist of a curtain wall that provide clear views to the waterside, while horizontal shading devices obstruct the solar heat gain. The north facade mainly consists of solid elements and minimum amounts of glass. This design approach improves thermal resistance , limiting the heat transmit from exterior to interior environment. The rain screen on the east facade are made of horizontal corrugated metal panels faces the industrial side. It covered the upper half of the 2nd and 3rd level with small win??dows opining on the corrugated metal screens. These aluminum screens help to manage the early morning sun and reduce it poten-tial glare, on the other hand maintaining of the exterior views and maximizing natural day lighting of the interior spaces. It uses natural ventilation to decrease the building’s energy loads, also control the amount of natural ventilation through the Operable windows.

In summary the center for urban water designed consist of many sustainable elements not only in the facade but also in the roof system sewage and mechanical system , see building section on (Figure 3).These sustainable systems will rise the building performance and suitable the real-time energy use(Aksamija, 2014).

3.2. Design Criteria For Hot Climates

The University of Texas at Dallas. It’s a Student Services Building located Texas ,USA. It’s in a hot climate region. Designed by Perkins+Will and got LEED Platinum award.

Figure 4 shows annual average daily temperatures in rela??tion to thermal comfort zone and the available solar radiation.

In designing the facade of this building, the main con??cern was the hot climate conditions, because In this region the climate is usually hot and sunny at the summer session ,while the other sea??sons are relatively mild.

The longer sides of the rectangular form building is facing north and south orientations. All sides of the build??ing are covered by a curtain wall. Add to that the shading devices which supported by the curtain wall are wrapping the east, west, south, and small part of north facade. The shading system consists of horizontal terra-cotta louvers and vertical stainless steel rods (Figure5). The shading devices are distributed around the building creating an asymmetrical pat??tern over the building facades however, the terra-cotta shading element is important for reduc??ing solar heat gain in summer hot climate.

In the interior of the Building there are three internal atriums pro??vide daylight to interior spaces (Figure6).

The location of the lobby is on the east side of the building in one of the atriums, it provide natural day light and limit the gaining of the heat.

This design strategy is suitable for hot climates regions, especially when reducing solar heat gain while providing a natural daylight for the interior spaces. The arrangement of shad??ing devices along the facade and internal atriums is an ideal for providing a natural daylight. Almost all of the spaces in the Building have views to the outside. The building also contains other sustainable design strategies which improves the energy efficiency and the comforts interior spaces (Aksamija, 2014).

4. Conclusion

Design the facade is important because it’s the connection between building exterior and interior. Architect has to take in consideration the building’s location and climate to make a high performance facades and to provide a sustainable and com-fortable spaces for building occu??pants, also significantly reducing a building’s energy consumption. Strategies differentiate from each other depending on the geographical and climatic regions, so criteria that work best in hot climates are different from those in hot and humid or cold regions. Architect should know the characteristics of each climatic condition and location as well as the program and function requirements to create a sustainable facade fit to it environment.

Online Behavioral Advertising (OBA)

In order to understand where online privacy concerns of consumers origins from it first need to be noted what OBA is and what is the main mechanism behind it. It is of great importance to note that this main mechanism behind OBA are cookies. These cookies in accordance cause privacy concerns among consumers.

1.1 Online behavioral advertising

Online advertising is the provision of content and service for free, from the website publishers to the website visitors. In this case advertisements are aimed at everyone visiting their websites (networkadvertising.org, 2012). However, there is a type of online advertising specifically aimed at providing tailored advertisement content to a specific customer. This type of advertisement is known as Online Behavioral Advertising. Online behavioral advertising is the practice of gathering information regarding someone’s activities online. This data is used in order to determine which form and content to display to the web site visitor (McDonald & Cranor, 2009). This practice provides advertisements on the websites the individual visits and make them with the collection of their content relevant to their specific interests (Leon et al., 2012). When they consequently visit a website which correlates with their specific interests, suiting advertisement will be provided.

Consumers can control OBA by the application of tools, including those concerned with self-regulatory programs. If these tools are applied appropriately, the consumer could reach more control of self-disclosure. Tools to control OBA are for instance op-outs tools, built-in browser settings, blocking tools (Leon et al., 2011). Tools such as Do Not Track headers to websites show a message that the website visitor does not prefer to be tracked. Opt-out tools on other side, create the ability for the user to set opt-out cookies for multiple advertising networks. The issue that arises with the latter case is that if a consumer chooses to opt-out, the network of the establisher will discontinue to show customized advertising but on the other hand will keep tracking and profiling the website visitor (Leon et al., 2011). The continuation of tracking and profiling website visitors has caused considerate privacy concerns among consumers. This situation shows high correlation with the case of NPO. NPO didn’t make the consumer aware of an opt-out option even before using an opt-out option, which is expected to create even more privacy concerns (B. Comb??e, 2013).

1.2 Cookies

The most important feature of OBA is the utilization of cookies. Third-party HTTP cookies are the main mechanism used for online tracking. In comparison to first party cookies, which are located by the domain the website user is visiting. Third party cookies are visited by a different domain such as an advertising network. Other cookies such as flash cookies and HTML 5 (local storage) continue to stay on the user ‘s PC even if the website visitor deleted cookies or change browsers (B. Krishnamurthy and C. Wills, 2009;M. Ayenson et al., 2011 and M. Dahlen and S. Rosengren, 2005).

Cookies are directly linked to OBA because as earlier explained OBA uses third-party cookies to provide customized advertisements. A cookie is a small document of signs in the form of numbers and letters. For example: lghinbgiyt7695nb. The computer provides the cookie an unique code. These signs are downloaded on an individuals’ web browser when they access most websites (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011). Cookies enable websites to notice them whenever they return back to a website. Only the server that sent the cookie can read and therefore utilize that cookie. These cookies are vital in order to offer a more customized experience. (youronlinechoices.com, 2015).

1.2.1 Types of Cookies

There are different types of cookies. The most important cookies relevant to this research are discussed. The selection of cookies are derived from the cookies used by NPO. There are 2 different categories of cookies. First party cookies are cookies which make sure the website functions optimally. The behavior of the website visitor is tracked within one website, the website the consumer visits. Third party cookies on the other hand, are placed by third parties, in order for the website to be analyzed by google analytics. This type of cookie makes sure the website visitor will receive customized advertisements (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011 ).

First party cookies (npo.nl, 2015):

‘ Functional cookies: Cookies that make the website functioning as it should. These cookies keep track of the web site visitors’ preferences and memorize the individual previously visited the website.

Third party cookies (npo.nl, 2015):

‘ Analytics: Cookies to measure utilization of website.

‘ Social media: Cookies to share the content of the NPO website through social media. The video’s and articles opened on the website can be shared through buttons. To make these buttons function, social media cookies are used by different social media parties. This in order for them to recognize the website visitor whenever it wants to share an article or video.

‘ Advertisement cookies: Cookies to show Star- adverts. These advertisements are placed by the website owner or third parties on the website of the website owner.

‘ Recommendations: Cookies to make more suitable recommendations. The NPO wants to make suggestions to website visitors on other program’s for consumers to watch online.

The main information these cookies store are:

‘ Keeping track of visitors on their webpages

‘ Keeping track of time it spends on its visit

‘ What are areas the website should take notice of in order to improve

‘ Keeping track of the order of visits of different webpages within the website

If this information is gathered, this data can be added to the existing profile information. In time third parties will be able to create a personal profile of the consumer, even though there is no name attached to it. Today third-party tracking is subject to privacy debates (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011 ). Consumers can feel invaded in their privacy if they suspect digital marketers from creating a personal profile, by gathered information from consumers visiting websites. Third party tracking and consumer privacy get a significant amount of attention from the government and consumer protection (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011 )

1.2.2 Cookie use by marketers

Since the law is updated continuously on privacy regulations and there is no uniform law concerning privacy of consumers marketers are recommended to weigh out the benefits of using practices that are not 100% conform privacy regulations against the financial and risks on their reputation that comes along with this consideration. (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2012; Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011)The organization must inform the website visitors properly the reasons and the procedure of data collection. The marketers’ website needs to provide its visitors with information on how they will make use of a website visitors’ data . Next to that, the consumer has to give consent for the utilization of consumer data. The figure below, indicates the issues that should get considerate attention when a data subject is informed by how his/her data will be utilized. These issues are described below the figure.

Figure 1. Information flows that need to be understood for compliance with data protection legislation.

Source: D. Chaffey and F. Ellis-Chadwick, Digital Marketing, 2012, p. 163

‘ Whether the consumer will receive future communications

‘ Whether the data will be passed on to third parties with consent explicitly required. Referring to section 2.1 on privacy and the recommendation section, on privacy issues regarding NPO, it can be obtained that the NPO didn’t comply with explicit ‘consent’ from the website visitor which caused their bad publicity.

‘ The length of data storage. Referring to the models in section 2.3 confidence, knowledge and control are major indicators on consumer behavior regarding OBA.

According to marketingsherpa.com (2011) A business making use of OBA has to know whether it properly understands its application. It is important to adopt an ‘cookie audit’. A cookie audit is the principle of understanding the types of third-party tracking systems that are available and which are located on the browser of consumers when they visit the company’s website. This is important since third-party tracking can cause deceleration on a company’s website. Next to that, information obtained from customers can leak out to even unknown companies.

Furthermore, it is important to clearly give website visitors the option to opt out and to provide them with information on any form of tracking. First the website visitor needs to be aware where the website is about. Secondly the consumer need to be provided with information about the substance of the ads. Last the website visitor should get the ability to learn more about how to opt-out.

An opt out means a company will discontinue collecting and utilizing information from different web domains for the aim of providing personalized based advertising from data gathering using third party cookies in OBA. However it should be noted to the website visitor that opting out does not specifically mean they will cease receiving online advertising. The website visitor will continue to receive advertisements but not tailored to their specific preferences. (networkadvertising.org, 2012; youronlinechoices.com, 2009). Some companies make use of flash cookies. These cookies make regular cookies come to life again after the website visitor has deleted the cookies. The new cookie will get the same code as the web site visitor has removed (Soltani, 2009).

In addition it is of great importance to give website visitors the control of their data. 67% of the website visitors entrust transparent brands more. This confidence makes the chance of purchase 36% more likely than if a brand is not transparent. Companies that do not obey regulations regarding privacy also showed decreases in turnover. (Brown, 2009). Furthermore it is important to take measures for website visitors to manage cookie tracking and privacy. The website visitor should very easily know what the purpose if of the data obtained from them. As earlier explained they should also have the quick option to opt-out. (marketingsherpa.com, 2011)

1.2.3 Drawbacks cookie use

Netscape Navigator, the first successfully implemented web browser, introduced cookies. Version 1.0 of the web browser was introduced in 1994. In Netscape 1.0 cookies where introduced. (Turnbull, 2013). Even though the cookies are introduced almost 20 years ago, until recently two thirds of the samples used in research are not even able to explain what a cookie actually is. Even up to now customers believe more data is collected from them than is the case. Next to that consumers do not understand who are involved and how these companies are involved in OBA. Neither there is a understanding of technologies present (Ur et al 2012).

Next to that, the majority of web users don’t know about opt out cookies. Even nowadays the perception still exists it can be done through turning to their web browsers or delete cookies.(Ur et al., 2012). However if the website visitors are aware that if they have the ability to opt out and gain more knowledge on privacy matters, visitors feel more positive about the application of OBA by businesses (McDonald & Cranor , 2008) . If consumers do not understand their rights on privacy, they are pre-biased on this matter. This issue will be discussed further in chapter 2. If organizations easily and properly inform website visitors on their privacy rights they can possibly break through this pre-assumption. (McDonald& Cranor, 2008 and 2009)

In addition, the icon for opt-out options demonstrated in section 2.1, is subject to discussion whether the aim of this icon is reached. According to critics the meaning of this icon is not known by consumers, therefore opt-out possibilities are perceived as difficult. (‘Volg-me-niet register is wassen neus’, 2011).

Furthermore, according to marketingsherpa.com (2011) consumers should be better informed about opt-out opportunities in order to take away uncertainty of privacy matters. The privacy issues that are involved as partly discussed above will be further analyzed in chapter 2 and with the assistance of models the effects of privacy matters on consumer behavior are analyzed.

Besides, consumers complain they find privacy important but ease of use as equally important. They are annoyed by the question they are asked continuously regarding accepting the use of cookies (B. Comb??e, 2013). Next to that consumers complain about websites which place a cookie wall which makes it only possible to enter the website if the use of cookies is agreed upon.

2. How do consumers react to current privacy concerns in OBA?

2.1 Privacy

Privacy is defined as a moral right of having the possibility to prevent intrusion into someone’s personal information. Nowadays, privacy is of high importance to consumers with increasing technology increasing possibilities to more enhanced practices in identity theft, such as hacking or just invasion of consumers’ online privacy practices. By gathering personal information of consumers with the use of earlier explained cookies, the degree of customization can highly increase. (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2012)

2.1.1 Root of privacy concerns online

In Europe the legal framework concerned with online behavioral tracking is regulated by the European Data Protection Directive. These regulations enclose gathering, processing, filing and transmission of personal information. Next to that the European e-Privacy Directive mainly regulates privacy of data and the use of cookies. This regulation made third parties placing cookies apply a regulation to give website visitors the ability to opt-out. This gave web site visitors the chance to reject cookies. Consequently, websites provided information on how to opt-out or reject cookies.

J. Zuiderveen (2011) did research on to what extent practice is complying with data protection directives on ‘permission’: a willingly, specific, based on information volition. Research has shown that the processing of personal data cannot be based on article 7.b data protection directives: there should be a positive agreement. There is no form of agreement if consumers are not aware of exchanging personal information in turn for a service. Next to that collection of personal information can neither be justified by article 7.f which states that the interests of third parties are important, unless the privacy of the concerned is invaded. Privacy interests also means that the right on privacy is a significantly important right. By following online behavior of web site visitors, Dutch companies cannot refer to these 2 articles. However in 2011 article 2.h came to attention which states that with unambiguous permission the website is not allowed to make to quick assumptions that the website user give permission to make use of personal information (European commission, 2003; 2006). This latter was specifically the case with NPO as described in the introduction. They explicitly did not asked for permission before collecting data.

Even though policies on cookies are changing continuously, it is important to describe how consumers are up dated on getting more insight into their privacy rights and consequently what effect the extent of privacy has on consumer behavior discussed with models in chapter 2.3.

Components consumer update on privacy (iab.net, 2015):

‘ Advertising option Icon : This icon will represent that the form of advertising is supported by a self-regulatory program. If the consumer clicks on this icon it will be provided with a disclosure statement concerning data gathering and where the information is used for and a simple opt-out system.

‘ Consumer choice mechanism: At AboutAds.info consumers are provide with information on how to opt out.

‘ Accountability and enforcement: Since 2011, DMA (Direct marketing association) and CBBB employed technologies to provide website visitors with information on a company’s transparency and control purveyance.

‘ Educational programs: Businesses and consumers will be educated on opt-out options and thus self-regulatory systems.

For now self-regulatory systems are opt-outs with the future possibilities of opt-ins. These mentioned components above all provide consumers with more information on opt-out possibilities. According to privacy concerns this self-regulatory systems proofs that consumers should be educated about opt-out options. Privacy regarding personal information using cookies needs considerate attention. Previous research has shown that if consumers have the perception their privacy is invaded they consider it as invasive and obstructive. Therefore, it is important for companies to be transparent. (Goldfarb & Tucker 2011). Even though advertisement becomes more personalized web site visitors do feel uncomfortable with companies tracking their online affairs. (Beales, 2010; Goldfarb & Tucker 2011).

2.2 Statistics

With assistance of statistics it will be analyzed in which area the problems of consumers and their privacy occur. If this is obtained, with the application of multiple online behavior models in section 2.3 , the problem areas can be theoretically analyzed in order to come up with a decent recommendation on how consumers actually are behaving and how marketers can respond to this.

(TRUSTe, 2008) Areas of consumer concerns regarding to online privacy in OBA:

Advertising relevance:

‘ Of 87% respondents, 25% of the ads were actually personalized.

‘ 64% would only choose to see ads of online stores they are familiar with and trust.

‘ 72% find OBA intrusive if it’s not to their specific needs.

Awareness of OBA:

‘ 40% are familiar with OBA and a higher percentage knows of tracking. 71% knows their browsing data is gathered by third parties.

Attitudes toward OBA:

‘ 57% say they are not comfortable with collecting browsing history for customized advertising.

‘ 54% state they delete their cookies 2-3 times monthly.

‘ 55% are willing to get customized online ads in order by filing in an anonymous form. 19% did not. 37% would still fill out a form about products services and brands to buy even if they aren’t held anonymous.

‘ 40% of participants in our online study agree or strongly agree they would watch what they do

online more carefully if advertisers were collecting data. (McDonald & Cranor, 2010)

Intent to take measures:

‘ 96% want to take measures on protecting their privacy settings. However respondents don’t state they don’t want to be part of OBA at al. even 56% won’t click to reduce unwanted ads. And 58% would not register in the don’t-follow-me registration.

From these statistics it can be obtained that the majority of respondents of this study have negative attitudes towards privacy matters in OBA. However referring to the first heading advertising relevance and the last heading; intent to take measures, it could be stated that the majority of consumers do prefer some form of OBA. This implies cookies are needed. Therefore the problem area as earlier discussed lies more in that consumers do not know enough about opt-out and are not confident with privacy statements. Therefore knowledge and trust will be the major factors to be analyzed in order to see how companies can overcome this issue.

These factors which will be analyzed using models are of great importance. This because TRUSTe states that knowledge and trust are great factors influencing online behavior since there is an increased level of awareness that website visitors are being tracked, to be provided with customized advertisements. Even though they are aware that they are anonymous because their name is not obtained (google.com, 2015; J. Zuiderveen 2011) they do not feel comfortable with them being followed and targeted. Therefore website visitors strongly prefer to limit and have more control on OBA practices. (TRUSTe, 2008).

2.3 Models concerned with consumer behavior

2.3.1 Knowledge: Consumer Privacy States Framework

In order to assess to what extent consumers consider their privacy as important and what are the factors that influence this degree, the use of a Consumer Privacy States Framework will be applied. This framework is derived from the Journal of Policy & Marketing and established by G. Milne and A. Rohm. According to G. Milne and A. Rohm, this framework focuses on 2 dimension. The dimensions of this framework are a reaction to consumers privacy concerns and their willingness to provide marketers with their personal information (Sheehan & Hoy 2000; Milne & Rohm 2000). These dimensions are awareness of data collection and knowledge of name removal mechanism.

According to this model privacy is only present in cell 1. In this stage consumers are aware that their personal information is being gathered. Next to that they know how to opt-out. In this stage consumers are more satisfied and react more positive towards direct marketing relationships (Milne & Rohm 2000). Research has shown that consumers are willing to exchange private information for benefits. Consumers will give more information to digital marketers if there are perceived long term benefits. Next to that, if consumers are able to control their privacy, consumers are more willing to give up their personal information. (Ariely, 2000).

Table 1: Consumer Privacy States Framework (G. Milne and A. Rohm, 2000)

Consumer is knowledgeable about name removal mechanisms Consumer is not knowledgeable about name removal mechanisms

Consumer is aware of data collection Cell 1: Privacy exists Cell 2: Privacy does not exist

Consumer is not aware of data collection Cell 2: Privacy does not exist Cell 4: Privacy does not exist

( Note: opt-out options in the study of 2008 is used as a similar concept as name removal mechanisms in the study of 2000)

Research has shown that 34% of the population is positioned in cell 1, 74% was aware of data collection and 45% knew how to handle name removal mechanisms. This research has shown that organizations need to educate consumers more intensively about name removal mechanisms (Culnan 1995; Milne 1997). Nowadays this issue is still the case. According to TRUST E marketwire.com (2008) 70% of consumers is aware of data collection and 40% knows about opt-out options.

On the other hand, Wood & Quinn (2003) evaluated the effects on attitudes of forewarnings. If consumers are pre-informed on what is the function of cookies, biased thinking can be encouraged which will generate negative attitudes to its function. However, if people are not provided with information on how to opt-out or opt-in possibilities they are more likely to share their personal information. The cookie-icon could be seen as a pre-warning. This makes consumers see a pre-warning as being warned for something which makes their behavior turn to resistance. This resistance occurs because individuals will feel invaded in their privacy. Next to that consumers do not feel comfortable with others knowing their preferences. Therefore, according to Jacks and Devine (2000), resistance occurs in the form of keeping personal freedom. If resistance occurs, resistance strategies could be applied.

According to Jacks and Cameron (2003) consumers could respond with resistance strategies. These strategies are built as described below. The individual could show resistance by not responding to the customized advertisement message or by leaving the situation as it is. This is called selective exposure. Either the receiving individual could immediately start making counter arguments. In this case counter arguing finds place. On the other side, attitude bolstering implies the individual strengthens its own original view without directly making up counter arguments. Source derogation implies insulting the source or reject the validity of the source. In case of social validation, individuals resist the customized message and bring to mind others who share the same viewpoint. In case of negative effect, individuals get angry because their personal information is utilized without the source indicating what it is used for.

Eventually resistance doesn’t have to appear when getting a pre-warming in the form of an icon. Instead of resistance strategies, individuals could choose to make adjustments to their cookie settings or choose to register to not be followed anymore by signing in an authorized non-registration register. As explained under the heading statistics it could be stated that indeed 40% would take measures if their personal information would be collected (TRUSTe, 2008), therefore resisting strategies play a significant role.

2.3.2 Rank order table: Trust

Next to this framework Earp & Baumer (2003) introduced a rank order of most influential factors affecting consumer behavior regarding their privacy. The table below states that consumers that have high confidence in privacy practices of a website are more willing to provide personal information.

Table 2: Rank ordering of stated influential factors in confidence of privacy practices of web site . Bron: J. Earp and D. Baumer, 2003

Rank of most influential factors Factor

1 Company name

2 Option ‘to opt out’

3 Presence of a privacy policy

4 Presence of a web seal

5 Design of the site

76% of respondents from this study showed that having the ability to opt-out as an important factor for having reliability in the privacy practices of the website. However according to research 87.5% of consumers expect detailed information about privacy policies when visiting websites, while only 54% of this amount is actually reading these privacy policies. 66% of this study showed a rise in reliability if a website provides comprehensive privacy policies.(Earp & Baumer, 2003). Next to that consumers believe websites having a comprehensive privacy policy, will make the website always live up to its policy (Ant??n et al. 2002). This again implies that most internet users prefer assurance of privacy policy but are less apprehensive about what the policy actually says (J. Earp and D. Baumer, 2003). Therefore trust and confidence plays a more important role on providing private information than what the policy actually says.

2.3.3 The consumer profile

The consumer profile is relevant to this particular situation in the sense that the effect of consumers’ perceptions of OBA can be measured. Risk and privacy invasion are major areas of concern among consumers and therefore it could be analyzed to what extent these perceptions will affect their online behavior. By making an analyses, companies could get more focused on what areas to improve in order to not deal with privacy issues in future.

The first factor in the consumer profile that should be analyzed is that security and privacy information should be considered. As described earlier, consumers need to be secured that accurate privacy information is provided to them, however in reality this doesn’t make them read it. Referring back to the rank order table, 66% of website visitors expect proper privacy disclosure but only 54% of the website visitors is actually reading it (Earp & Baumer, 2003). Therefore it could be stated that customers are not focused on explicitly security but only on the idea of security. Therefore the issue that evolves around privacy is more on the security of privacy information but not specifically the content of privacy information. Therefore websites with just being able to demonstrate proper regulations on privacy will have greater chance of creating customers having a more positive perception on online privacy practices. Next tot that according to C. Hoofnagle (2010) internet users rarely read privacy statements. However on the other side, if consumers are better informed on opt-out options there is a possibility this knowledge will create resistance as earlier described (Wood & Quinn, 2003) .

Secondly risk plays an important role in behavior on consumers online. The degree of online sales effectiveness can be raised substantially if the perception of risk is reduced. If customers would read the stipulations it would even be questionable whether they realize the consequences of gathering and analyzing their personal information by cookies (Barocas & Nissenbaum, 2009). Even if anonymized information can be linked to an individual, this individual might think there is a small chance of this happening (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011). Therefore again privacy regulations are supposed to just be there to gain security. Risk is sometimes not even considered in its essence but more the perception of risk. Because if web site visitors think there is a small chance of third party’s getting access to information perceived personal, evaluation of risk is seemingly poor.

Third, trust is highly correlated to risk. Increased trust is the consequence of a decrease in perceived risk. This will cause positive beliefs in the business’s online reputation. Fourth, Perceived usefulness. This incorporates the time and effort required for an individual to educate itself on how to opt-out (Perea et al., 2004). Website visitors only have limited knowledge on technology, information and communication technology. Consumers need to understand what is written in privacy statements and what they actually sign an agreement with (Perea et al., 2004). As earlier described, educating web site visitors more by forewarnings can create resistance, which will negatively impact their purchasing behavior (W. Wood & J. Quinn 2003) .

At last the ease of use also has significant impact on consumers their online behavior. Using a new technology need to be free of effort. If an internet user visits a website, he or she experiences this as very time consuming to completely analyze the statement. This makes the website visitor not read it and either state they do not care about their privacy. In statics this is about 3%. On the other side incorporating the law, it cannot be assumed that website visitors not reading the privacy statements willingly accepts the browser settings of cookies. Therefore according to article 2 subsection h Data protection directive which demand for permission a free, specific and on information founded volition will cause considerate problems. (Group privacy protection 29, 2008)

3 What strategies should marketers apply to respond to current privacy concerns regarding cookies in OBA?

3.1 Coercive vs. non- coercive strategies

Organizations that deal with online privacy concerns among consumers should realize whether they are adopting an coercive influence strategy or a non-coercive influence strategy. The coercive influence strategy involves web sites offering incentives to consequently make consumers increase self-disclosure (provide more personal information) (Acquisti & Varian, 2005). Incentives to provide personal information can be categorized into economic incentives such as promotions, discounts and coupons. Non-economic incentives are for instance translated into customization, personalization and access to exclusive content. Threats indicate a penalty or exclusion of benefits for noncompliance. Therefore if the request is not honored, the website visitor cannot make use of the content of the website. For example, NPO, like more websites demand from customers to provide their personal information to get the ability to register on the website and to access specific information on the website. This method of data gathering is aimed at punishing people who refuse to provide their personal information by not providing them with the website content they requested (Sheehan, 2005).

Non-coercive influence strategies. In this case NPO would still take the same actions but without making use of rewards or penalties. For example, a website could explicitly demand the web site visitor by using web forms for these visitors to provide their personal information without the use of non-economic incentives, in this case providing customized advertisement. Instead of providing incentives, NPO could start providing recommendations, such as making the consumer believe, if they provide personal information it can improve their experience on the website (customization) and therefore making the website still reach its original aim. In this case websites can make use of information provision, where they can provide web site visitors with privacy policies which states how and why information will be collected (Milne, Rohm and Bahl, 2004) . Next to that they will provide seals of trust to provide website visitors the guarantee of privacy protection. (Gabbish, 2011).

The main focus for websites such as NPO is identifying strategies for gathering information from website visitors that provide the opportunity to reduce privacy concerns and increase consumers’ trust. According to Payan & McFarland (2005) the application of non-coercive influence strategies have shown positive relational effects. On the other side, coercive strategies have shown the opposite effect. According to Hausman & Johnston (2009) non- coercive strategies have a positive influence on trust while coercive strategies show the opposite. Privacy literature also shows that privacy policies and seals make concerns on privacy decrease and trust to rise. Rewards and threats on the other side makes trust decrease and privacy concerns to increase (Gabbish, 2011).

3.2 Application of the structural model of privacy policy

For companies to reduce the chances of the adoption of resistance strategies from consumers, they could opt for making use of a structural model of privacy policy, privacy concern, trust and willingness to provide personal information. This model showed that if applied properly companies can increase consumer confidence and willingness to provide their personal information (Wu et al., 2012). The model consist of the parameters notice, choice, access, security and enforcement.

Source: Wu et al., 2012

Notice is the most important parameter, stating that consumers should be informed about the collection of personal data before personal data is gathered from these individuals (Wu et al., 2012). In the NPO case, personal data from consumers was collected from consumers without them being aware of it (Pijnenburg, 2014). Choice gives consumers the ability to control the personal data obtained from them. Access gives web site users the ability to have insight into their data. Next to that, website visitors can check whether the data collected from them is correct and complete. Security is concerned with checking whether information is secure and correct.

In order for data integrity to occur, web site owners and third-parties should take measures that provide consumers the ability to have insight into data, erase information and change it to anonymous characters. Enforcement is one of the most important parameters of privacy protection, since privacy can only be assured if there are measures that enforce privacy protection (Wu et al., 2012).

According to Wu et al. (2012) the study came to the conclusion that security ranks highest in concerns of consumers. If the web site owner is aimed at increasing trust among web site visitors, in order for them to provide more personal information, they increase their focus on the provision of security and security data along with creating privacy statements.

This study done by Wu et al. 2012 did research on the relationship of the content of privacy policy to trust and online privacy concern. There are moderating variables that can affect the relationships. These moderating variables tend to describe consumer behavior. Therefore these factors shouldn’t be left out of the original model. The moderating variables that have been researched are cross-cultural effects, age and gender. According to this study, culture has an important moderating effect on the behavior of website visitors to the content of Privacy Policy. Some cultures show a rise in trust in websites when they give consumers access to their data and when their personal data is secure. Differences in cultures have a significant function in the behavior of website users and have influence on their choices in activities online. Gender also influences privacy concerns and willingness to provide personal information. Woman show more openness and therefore more self-disclosure. However they have higher needs for privacy (Wu et., al 2012). Age on the other hand could also have significant impact on the relationship of content of privacy policy and privacy concern/trust. Research showed, the older people get, the more worried they are on their online privacy.

3.3 Web bugs

According to Goldfarb &Tucker (2010) web bugs can be described as 1×1-pixel parts of a code that give online advertisers the ability to follow consumers online. Web bugs are not similar to cookies since they are not visible to the website user and are not saved on the computer of the website visitor. A consumer is therefore not aware of being tracked, unless they analyze the html. code of the webpage. Web bugs track the consumer from website to website. Next to that, web bugs are able to track how far a visitor scrolls down a page. This will have a positive impact on the collection of the preferences of the website visitor (Goldfarb &Tucker, 2010). According to Murray &Cowart (2001) web bugs are used by approximately 95% of top brands. Since consumers are not aware of data collection, privacy concerns will not occur as much as with cookies. However if the law would make websites inform consumers about web bugs, privacy concerns could rise again (Goldfarb &Tucker, 2010). Therefore web bugs could be seen as an alternative for cookies. But if the Privacy Directive adjusts the law, web bugs would become similar to cookies, with the same privacy concerns as consequence.

4 Conclusion/ Recommendation

The reason why this paper focuses on NPO is because in July 2014 they received a penalty by the Dutch authority for consumers and markets known as ACM (acm.nl, 2014). The NPO placed cookies which track the web site visitors without giving accurate information to its visitors. ACM claimed the NPO was not complying with article 11.7A of the Dutch telecommunication, neither complying with the Dutch data protection act. The NPO is only allowed to track consumers if consent of the web-site visitor is given willingly and unambiguously, according to the information that is disclosed (Fouad, 2014). Referring back to section chapter 2 it can be obtained that the NPO didn’t comply with laws referring to article 2.h. In 2011 article 2.h came to attention that with ‘unambiguous’ permission the website is not allowed to make to quick assumptions that the website user gives permission to make use of personal information (European commission, 2003; 2006).

From the models of factors influencing consumer behavior in section 2.3, it can be obtained that the Consumer Privacy States Framework states that according to consumers if the consumer is aware of data collection and the consumer is knowledgeable about opt-out practices, it could be stated that privacy exists, therefore NPO went wrong in not giving consumers the idea that privacy exists.

The rank order table in section 2.3.2 statistics showed that consumers do need assurance from websites that a website have a comprehensive privacy policy. However websites having privacy policies don’t make consumers actually read them (Earp & Baumer, 2003; Ant??n et al. 2002). Therefore consumers not feeling knowledgeable about their rights show resistance. This can be emphasized by figures showing that the cookie wall of NPO is perceived as a pressure. They actually state; if you don’t accept my cookies you can’t visit my website, with the consequence that they lose visitors. Other businesses use a softer approach with the risk of a loss of personal information. This cookie wall has resulted in a loss in turnover of 0-5% in short term. The NPO expects on the long term a rising trend in visitors on their website (Douma & Verspreek, 2014).

Referring back to the Customer profile model in 2.3.3, influencing factors in consumer behavior online show that if consumers feel more secure on how to control their privacy online they will show a more positive perception about OBA. However on the other side, more control would mean more resistance (Wood & Quinn 2003) . Next to that actual risk is not really experienced but the perception of risk.

Therefore NPO should in the future focus on having their privacy statements accurate and clear and create confidence among website visitors. In the end, the consumers are not specifically worried about their privacy and the detailed information in privacy statements but more on their degree of control, what all 3 models confirm.

In order for consumers not to choose to turn to resistance strategies, influence strategies could be applied. Some of these influence strategies could be considered as manipulative. However on the other side, other influence strategies could increase consumers’ perception of security (Kirmani & Campbell, 2004). The effect of influence strategies is not similar to all individual website visitors. Differences may appear in privacy concerns, consumers ‘trust and their willingness to provide personal information (Milne et al., 2009). Research has shown that non-coercive strategies, such as placing privacy policies on a website, decreases concerns on disclosure of personal information. However on the other side, coercive strategies offering a reward would increase privacy concern and decrease self-disclosure willingness (Andrade et al., 2002). Therefore it is recommended to NPO to adopt a non-coercive strategy to increase trust and willingness to provide personal information.

Referring back to the structural model of Wu et al. (2012) the study came to the conclusion that security ranks highest in concerns of consumers. If the web site owner is aimed at increasing trust among web site visitors, in order for them to provide more personal information they increase their focus on the provision of security and security data along with creating privacy statements or building the website. Therefore again, this strategy shows that NPO should increase attention to the parameter trust in order to increase willingness to provide personal information. This strategy highly correlates with the non-coercive strategy. In the coercive strategy NPO would put too much focus on trying to let customers know about the customization provided which would increase resistance and reduce trust. The non-coercive strategy and (the importance of trust in) the structural model both focus on providing security to increase trust and in turn reach a higher willingness to provide personal information.

The alternative of using cookies could be the application of web bugs. However the application of web bugs is only a short term solution until privacy regulations will change. When privacy regulations will change web bugs would become similar to cookies. Therefore it is recommended that NPO as an example organization should not turn to this strategy.

MPPT CONTROLLER UNDER PARTIAL: essay help online free

ABSTRACT: Maximum Power Point

Tracking (MPPT) is the most important part

of an energy conversion system using

photovoltaic arrays. Maximum power point

tracking (MPPT) techniques are used in

photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the

PV array output power by tracking

continuously the maximum power point

(MPP) which depends on panel temperature

and on irradiance conditions. The power

voltage characteristic of PV arrays

operating under partial shading conditions

exhibits multiple local maximum power

points (LMPPs). In this paper, a review of

various characteristics curves of MPPT

controller under partial shading conditions

has been presented to analyze the

performance of MPPT controller under

such conditions.

Keywords: Maximum Power Point

Tracking (MPPT), Global Maximum Power

Point (GMPP), Local Maximum Power

Point (LMPP), Multiple Maxima, Partial

Shading, Photovoltaic (PV).

I. INTRODUCTION

A PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) cell is an

electrical device that converts the energy of

light directly into electricity through PV

effect. PV cells have a complex relationship

between solar irradiation, temperature, and

total resistance, and exhibit a nonlinear

output efficiency characteristic known as

the P’V curve. Therefore, maximum power

point tracking (MPPT) techniques should be

developed in PV systems in order to

maximize the output power of PV systems.

Nowadays, there have been many MPPT

methods reported in the literature, such as

hill climbing, perturb and observe

incremental conductance (INC) and ripple

correction.

However, when there is multiple local

power maxima, from partially shading or

from installation on a curved surface,

conventional MPPT techniques do not

perform well. Multiple maxima may occur

due to bypass diodes, which are used to

avoid hot spots from forming when some

cells in a module or some modules in a

string receive less irradiance than others.

Without the remediation of power

electronics, the lost energy due to partial

shading can be significant. Thus, it is

imperative to utilize MPPT techniques that

reliably track the unique global power

maximum present in shaded arrays.

Some researchers have proposed global

maximum power point tracking (GMPPT)

algorithms to address the partial shading

condition. It is observed that the peaks

follow a specific trend in which the power at

a peak point continues to increase until it

reaches the GMPP, and afterward, it

continuously decreases. The proposed

algorithm incorporates an online current

measurement and periodic interruptions to

address certain challenges associated with

rapidly changing insolation and partial

shading. This method can be an effective

solution to mitigate the effect of partial

shading. The simulation results, however,

obtained by measuring environmental

parameters and the actual case will be

drastically different, because the actual

characteristic of the solar panels depends on

many factors (e.g., light intensity,

temperature,

Fig. 1 PV array under different partial

shading conditions.

ageing, dust, and partial shading). In

addition, the method increases the PV

system cost in practical commercial

applications.

II. PARTIAL SHADING

CONDITIONS

Fig. 1 shows a PV array which has

four PV modules connected in series under

uniform insolation conditions. Fig. 2(a)

illustrates typical I’V and P’V curves for

the PV array under a uniform solar

irradiance of 1000 W/m2 on all the PV

modules. The traditional MPPT algorithm

can reach this peak and continue oscillating

around the MPP. The P&O method, e.g.,

perturbs the solar array voltage in one

direction in each sampling period and tests

the power change afterward. It is assumed

that initially PV array is operating at point

A, as shown in Fig. 2(a).

An operating voltage of the PV array

is perturbed in a given direction (from A to

B), and an increase in output power is

observed (PB > PA). This means that point B

is closer to the MPP than point A, and the

operating voltage must be further perturbed

in the same direction (from B to C). On the

other hand, if the output power of the PV

array decreases (from D to E), the operating

point has moved away from the MPP, and

therefore, the direction of the operating

voltage perturbation must be reversed (from

D to C). Through constant perturbation,

eventually the operating voltage will reach

and continue oscillating around the MPP

level.

However, in some practical

conditions, the series strings of PV modules

are not under the same solar irradiance

condition. The partial shading condition is a

common situation due to the shadows of

buildings, trees, clouds, dirt, etc. Fig. 1

shows several different partial shading

situations. Under the partial shading

condition, if there is one module in a PV

string that is less illuminated, the shaded

module will dissipate some of the power

generated by the rest of the modules. It

means that the current available in a series

connected PV array is limited by the current

of the shaded module. This can be avoided

by using bypass diodes which can be placed

in parallel with the PV module.

The method of using bypass diodes

allows the array current to flow in the

correct direction even if one of the strings is

completely shadowed. Bypass diodes are

widely implemented in commercial solar

panels. Because of bypass diodes, multiple

maxima appear under the partial shading

condition. The P’V curve of PV array in

Fig. 1 possesses multiple maxima under the

partial shading condition, as shown in Fig. 2

(b). The unshaded modules in the sample

PV array are exposed to 1000 W/m2 of

solar insolation and the shaded module is

exposed to 400 W/m2 of solar insolation.

There are two observed peaks in the P’V

curve, because of the natural behavior of the

bypass diode and PV array connection

inside the module. Point A is the GMPP,

while point B the local maximum power

point (LMPP). When the area covered by

the shadow changes, the P’V curve and the

location of GMPP also changes, as shown in

Fig. 2(c) and (d). Under these conditions,

traditional algorithms can only track either

of the two MPPs, and cannot distinguish

between GMPP and LMPP.

Continuing with the P&O method as

an example, both points satisfy the

conditions to be the ‘MPP.’ If the operating

point obtained by the PV array algorithm is

LMPP, the output power is significantly

lower. Some researchers proposed a global

scan method to obtain the PV output curves.

Then a complex algorithm is required to

calculate the GMPP of the curves. This

method is able to obtain the GMPP, but it

cannot determine whether the PV cell is

operating under shading conditions, and

blindly and constantly scans for the MPP,

wasting the output energy. For these

reasons, a new improved MPPT method for

the PV system under the partial shading

condition is proposed in this paper.

Fig. 2 P’V and I’V characteristics curves

of a PV array under different partial

shading conditions

III. ANALYSIS OF

CHARACTERISTIC CURVES

UNDER PARTIAL SHADING

CONDITIONS

In order to avoid blind global scan,

methods to determine the presence of partial

shading are essential. It is noted that when a

series of PV array is under the identical

solar irradiance condition [Fig. 1], every PV

model works as a source, and all modules

are identical in their voltage, current, and

output power at any time. But this state

changes when there is shadow. Fig. 1 is an

example in the following analysis. The

models in the series array are exposed to

two different solar irradiances, and the solar

irradiation levels are 1000 and 400 W/m2,

respectively. The voltages of the modules

that are exposed to different irradiation

levels are completely different.

The two peaks on the P’V curve are

divided into two separate parts, as shown in

Fig. 2(c). Part A is the curve containing the

left peak (curved A’C), and part B is the

curve containing the right peak (curve C’B’

E). In part A, the current of the PV array IPV

is greater than the maximum current that the

PV module can

Fig. 3 Every module output voltage with

array output power.

(a) Unshaded module. (b) Shaded

module.

produce under the shade (M3 and M4);

therefore, the current will flow through the

bypass diode of each module. At this stage,

only PV M1 and M2 are supplying power,

and PV M3 and M4 have been bypassed by

the diodes. The characteristic curves of the

PV module voltage with output power are

shown in Fig. 3(a) and (b). The voltages of

PV M3 and M4 are approximately negative

0.7V (the diode’s forward voltage drop) in

part A, as shown in Fig. 3(b).

Therefore, the module voltages

being equal to the negative of the diode’s

forward voltage can be used as one effective

way to estimate partial shading condition. In

part B, all PV modules are supplying power,

but the unshaded and shaded modules are in

different working conditions. Because the

PV modules receive different amounts of

solar radiation, the voltages of the PV

modules are different. In part B (curve C’

B’E), the voltage of the unshaded modules

is greater than that of the shaded modules,

as shown in Fig. 4. It is evident that this is

another indicator to efficiently identify

partial shading. Following the above

analysis, some of the observations are listed

as follows.

1) I’V curves under partial shading

conditions have multiple steps, while the

P-V curves are characterized by multiple

peaks.

2) The number of peaks is equal to the

number of different insolation levels

irradiated on the PV array, and any peak

point may be the GMPP.

Fig 4 Array output power with unshaded

module output voltage and shaded

module output voltage.

3) The voltages of PV modules that receive

different solar radiations are different.

4) The voltage of the PV module that is

bypassed by a diode is equal to the negative

of the diode’s forward voltage drop.

CONCLUSION

In this paper, a review of concepts &

developments in the field of MPPT has been

shown. Also various partial shading

conditions have been briefly reviewed. The

comparison between this various conditions

of partial shading has been summarized with

the help of various characteristic curves.

Finally it is concluded that conventional

MPPT techniques have disadvantages like

energy loss, not able to determine partial

shading conditions, etc. Majority of these

problems can be eliminated by improved

MPPT controller method. Therefore

application of Improved MPPT controller

method now a day’s not limited up to

generation level but research work

suggested that it is having ability to replace

the conventional MPPT methods too in near

future.

REFERENCES

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Dami??n Goitia, ‘Intelligent PV Module for

Grid-Connected PV Systems’, IEEE

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Power Point Tracking Scheme for PV

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‘MATLAB-Based Modeling to Study the

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Learning theories – behavioural, social & cultural, constructivism, cognitive

Learning is defined as the permanent change in individuals mind, voluntary or involuntary. It occurs through an experience that can bring about a relatively permanent change in an individual’s knowledge or behavior. Behaviorist defines learning as the changes in an individual’s mind resulting in a permanent change. It is learning that takes place intentional or unwillingly in individuals. Cognitive psychologist defines learning as the changes in knowledge that can be an internal mental activity that cannot be observed directly. Learning involves obtaining and modifying knowledge, skills, strategies, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors to understand old or new information. Individuals learn skills from experiences that tend to take the form of social interactions, linguistic or motor skills. Educational professionals define learning as an ‘enduring change in behavior or in the capacity to behave in a given fashion which results from practice or other forms of experience’.

One may ask how does learning happen? Learning happens every day to every individual, it doesn’t only happen in the classrooms, colleges or universities buildings but it can happen anywhere and every day. Learning can occur through interacting with others, observing or simply as just listening to a conversation. Learning happens through experiences good and bad, or ones that can provoke an emotional response or simply offer a moment of revelation. Behaviorist and cognitive theorist believed that learning can be affected by the environment an individual resides but behaviorist focused more on the role of the environment and how the stimuli is presented and arrange and the responses reinforced. Cognitive theorist on the other hand agrees with behaviorist but tend to focus more on the learners abilities, beliefs, values and attitudes. They believe that learning occurs by consolidation which is the forming and strengthening of neural connections which include the factors organization, rehearsal, elaboration and emotional. Learning occurs in many ways, psychologist believe that learning is the key concept of living whether it’s intentional or unintentional which is why they came up with the learning theories.

Learning theories are considered theoretical frameworks in describing how information is contain, refined and maintain during learning. Learning is an important activity in the lives of individuals; it is the core of our educational process, even though learning begins out of the classroom. For many years psychologist sought to understand what is learning, the nature of it, how is it transpired and how individuals influence learning in others through teaching and similar endeavors. Learning theories tend to be based on scientific evidence and more valid than personal opinions or experiences. There are five basic types of theories used in educational psychology which are: Behavioral, Cognitive, Social & Cultural, and Constructivism.

Behavioral Theory

The behavioral approach is the behavior view that generally assumes that the outcome of learning is the change in behavior and emphasizes the effects of internal events on an individual. In the behaviorist approach, they believed that individuals have no free will, and that the environment an individual is place in determines their behavior. They believe that individuals are born with a clean slate and that behaviors can be learned from the environment. The learning theories from the behaviorists Pavlov, Guthrie and Thorndike have historical importance on learning. Although they may differ each theory has its own process of forming associations between stimuli and responses. Thorndike believed that responses to stimuli are strengthening when it is followed by a satisfying consequence. Guthrie reasoned that the relation between stimulus and responses is established through pairing. Pavlov, who developed the classical conditioning, demonstrated how stimuli can be conditioned to obtain certain responses while being paired with another stimulus. The behavior theory is expressed in conditioning theories that explains learning in the terms of environmental events but is not the only conditioning theory.

B. F. Skinner developed the Operant conditioning; this form of conditioning is based on the assumptions that the features of the environment serves as cues for responding. He believed that we learn to behave in certain ways as we operate on the environment. In operant conditioning reinforcement strengthens the responses and increases the likelihood of the occurring when the stimuli are present. The operant conditioning is a three-term contingency that involves the antecedent (stimulus), the behavior (response) and the consequences. Operant conditioning involves consequences which can determine how individuals respond to environmental cues. Consequences can be either good or bad for individuals, it can reinforce behavior that increases it or a reinforcement that decreases behavior. There are other operant conditioners such as generalization, discrimination, primary and secondary reinforcements, reinforcement schedules and the premack principle.

Shaping is another form of operant conditioning, it is the process used to alter behavior in individuals. Shaping is the successive approximations which involves the reinforcing progress. It is the complex behaviors that are formed by the linking of simple behaviors in the three-term contingencies. This operant conditioning involves self-regulation which is the process of obtaining an individual stimulus and reinforcement control of themselves.

Cognitive Theory

The cognitive theory focuses on the inner activities of the mind. The cognitive theory states that knowledge is learned and the changes in knowledge make the changes in behavior possible. Both the behavioral and cognitive theory believe that reinforcement is important in learning but for different reasons. The behaviorist suggests that reinforcement strengthens responses but cognitive suggest that reinforcement is a source of feedback about what is likely to happen if behaviors are repeated or changed. The cognitive approach suggests an important element in the learning process is the knowledge an individual has towards a situation. Cognitive theorist believe that they information we already know determines what we will perceive, learn, remember and forget.

There are three main theorist of the cognitive development Gestalt, Kohler and Koffka. Gestalt learning theory approach proposes that learning consists of grasping of a structural whole and not just a mechanistic response to a stimulus. The main concept of his theory was that when we process sensory stimuli we are aware of the configuration or the overall pattern which is the whole. Kohler theory stated that learning can occur by a ‘sudden comprehension’ as to gradually understanding. This theory could happen without any reinforcement and there will be no need for review, training or investigations. Koffka theory suggested that he supported the fact that animals are can be participants in learning because they are similar to humans in many ways. He believed that there was no such thing as meaningless learning, and that the idea interdependent of facts was more important than knowing many individual facts.

Social & Cultural theory

The social and cultural theory is based on how individuals functioning are related to cultural, institutional and historical context. Vygotsky was a psychologist in Russia who identified the Social & Cultural theory also known as sociocultural theory. The Sociocultural theory is known as the combining theory in psychology because it discussed the important contributions society makes on an individual development and cognitive views of Piaget. The theory suggested that learning occurs between the interactions of people. Lev. Vygotsky believed that Parents, Caregivers, Peers and culture played an important in the development of a high order function. According to Vygotsky ‘Every function is the children cultural development that appears twice: firstly on the social level, secondly on an individual level. In the social cultural theory tends to focus not only on how adults or peers influence learning but how an individual culture can impact how learning takes place.

According to Vygotsky children are born with the basic constraints on their mind. He believed that each culture provides ‘tools of intellectual adaptation’ for each individual. Theses adaptation allows children to use their basic mental ability to adapt to their culture for example a culture may utilized tools to emphasize on memorization strategies. Vygotsky was a brilliant man, he worked along with Piaget in developing the cognitive theory their theories differ in certain ways. Firstly Piaget theory was basically based on how children interactions and explorations influenced development, Vygotsky placed greater emphasis on the social factors that influence development. Another difference is the Vygotsky suggested that cognitive development can be different between cultures while Piaget theory suggested the development in universal. There is one important concept in the sociocultural theory known as the zone of proximal. The Zone of proximal is considered to be the level of independent problem solving and a level of potential development, through problem solving under the guidance of an adult or with peers. It includes the skills that a person cannot understand or perform on their own yet, but is capable of learning with guidance.

Constructivism Theory

The constructivism learning theory is defined as how learners or individuals construct knowledge from pervious experiences. Constructivism is often associated with a pedagogic approach that often promote learning or learning by doing. Constructing is known as the meaning for learning because constructivism focuses on the individual thinking about learning. The constructivist theory argues that individuals can generate knowledge from interactions between experiences and ideas. Constructivism examined the interactions between individuals from infancy to adulthood to try to comprehend how learning is done from experiences and behavior patterns. The constructivist theory is attributed to Jean Piaget who articulated the mechanisms by stating that knowledge is internalized by learners. Piaget stated that through the processes of adaptation the accommodation and assimilation, individuals can construct new knowledge from past experiences.

According Piaget theory of constructivism accommodation is the process of an individual reframing one’s mental view of the world and tries to fit in new experiences. Accommodation can be understood when failure leads to learning, as humans if we have an idea that the world works only one way and that way fails us then we will fail. In accommodation we learn from our failure or the failures of others. The constructivism theory describes how learning happens whether the individuals learn from using their experiences to understand information or by just following instructions to construct something. In both cases constructivism suggest that learner construct knowledge from experiences. The constructivism theory tends to be associated with active learning because5 individuals learn from experiences, something that was already did. Several cognitive psychologists argued that constructivist theories are misleading or can contradict findings.

As an educator I can facilitate learning by encouraging my students, helping them to develop to their fullest potential. As an educator I am compelled to vie and asses learning styles so that I can meet every student needs within the classroom. As an educator I want to be able to allow students to learn gradually. I would want my students to thrive academically and socially in and out of the classroom. From my understanding the four learning theories discussed in the paper all contribute to my understanding of learning. Despite all the different theories each theory gave me a new insight on learning occurs in and out of a class, college or university. From Behaviorist perspective view of learning is the change in behavior and emphasis of external events on an individual. For example Pavlov experiment in classical conditioning, where he taught dogs to salivate when they hear the tuning of a fork. If we used both conditioning theories with the classrooms can train students to behave and operant in the way they would want them to.

The theory that can be used in Music is the Behaviorist theory, I say this because music is the incorporating of knowledge and feeling. Music sets the atmosphere for an environment for example if a relaxing song is being played at home, that song puts the individual in a relaxing mood , in the behaviorist theory the environment influences the response of an individual so the relaxing song will evoke a relaxed response as done in Pavlov experiment of classical conditioning with the dogs that provoke salivating when hearing the tuning of a fork. In music classical conditioning is where students can be conditioned to like or enjoy a piece of music. For example if a classical song is being played that the students don’t know or like the teacher can play it repeatedly so they can get an understanding of it and eventually the students will enjoy the music because of the repetition of the song being played. There response to the song might be in the way of moving their bodies, tapping their feet or nodding their head.

Arguing For And Against Gun Laws

‘No’ To Gun Laws

During a speech Patrick Henry gave he states, “Are we at last brought to such a humiliating and debasing degradation, that we cannot be trusted with arms for our own defense? Where is the difference between having our arms in our own possession and under our own direction, and having them under the management of Congress? If our defense be the *real* object of having those arms, in whose hands can they be trusted with more propriety, or equal safety to us, as in our own hands?” (n.p). The topic of gun control is one that is always up for debate. Throughout American history there have been numerous public shootings that have taken the lives of innocent people, but that is not the fault of the responsible citizens who follow the rules. The saying “It only takes one apple to ruin a bunch” is perfect for topics such as gun control. Yes, I agree that there needs to be a better way to know information about who owns a gun. But, to make stricter laws for citizens to obtain guns is not going to take guns out of the hands of those who have not gone through the right channels to obtain a gun. If people really wanted to get guns, they are going to get them. Creating a new law will not change the way people go about obtaining a gun illegally.

For decades, this topic has made news headlines and the battle is far from over. There will not be strict enough laws to protect citizens from people who break the rules. The government plays a vital role in this situation, whether they want to admit it or not. It is the job of the government to protect its citizens. With all the random shootings around the country the pressure on the government to fix these problems is at an all-time high. However, creating gun laws is not exactly the answer. In a Vanity Fair article Sammy “The Bull” Gravono states that, “Gun control? It’s the best thing you can do for crooks and gangsters. I want you to have nothing. If I’m a bad guy, I’m always going to have a gun. Safety locks? You will pull the trigger with a lock on, and I’ll pull the trigger. We’ll see who wins” (n.p).  Gun laws will not decrease the crime rate; it will just eliminate a weapon used to commit the crime. I believe the government needs to come up with other laws to protect the American citizens instead of trying to limit the people from protecting themselves. Our elected officials need to be for the people and by the people, as stated in our constitution. Officials should come together to come up with a solution that can bring together both sides.

Everyone will not be pleased with the decision, but one has to be made. If nothing is done, then the gun-control topic will be never ending. The people of America need to come together as one and reach out to their law makers. The citizens of this country can become the change they would like to see if we all come together. Our nation was built on coming together and making change happen and I believe this is no different than any other change in our history.

‘Yes’ To Gun Laws

Guns are a special topic in our history. In our constitution, it is written that as American citizens, we have the right to bear arms to protect ourselves. With that being said, the topic of gun laws is one of the most talked about among Americans. The main point of this debate is not every American citizen is breaking the law. There are citizens who actually want what is best for the American people. These citizens feel the right to protect themselves is something no one should be able to take away from them. On the other hand, rules and regulations need to be enforced, so that guns are not put into the hands of the wrong people, and so that guns are not so easily accessible.

In the book That Every Man Be Armed Stephen P. Halbrook says,

“In recent years it has been suggested that the Second Amendment protects the ‘collective’ right of states to maintain militias, while it does not protect the right of ‘the people’ to keep and bear arms. If anyone entertained this notion in the period during which the Constitution and the Bill of Rights were debated and ratified, it remains one of the most closely guarded secrets of the eighteenth century, for no known writing surviving from the period between 1787 and 1791 states such a thesis” (n.p). People who own guns are likely to have them for a few reasons. The first reason is for protection. If you do not feel safe in your own home, you have the right to make sure your household is safe. The second reason is for recreational purposes. Americans have created a sport of hunting and shooting guns and one can see how gun laws can interfere with those practices. Michael Steele states that, “You can have all the gun control laws in the country, but if you don’t enforce them, people are going to find a way to protect themselves. We need to recognize that bad people are doing bad things with these weapons. It’s not the law-abiding citizens, it’s not the person who uses it as a hobby” (n.p).

Guns are here for us to protect ourselves, but at the same time, we have to believe that not everyone has the same page when it comes to what guns should and should not be used for. These are the people that gun laws will affect. If you are a citizen that follows the laws set before us, then there should not be a reason for you to not take an extra step. As a citizen of this nation and despite whether or not I have a gun, I should still feel safe. Knowing that people will have a better gun ownership process would keep citizens without guns at ease.

Works Cited

Blum, H. (2015, January 30). The Reluctant Don. Retrieved September 13, 2017, from https://www.vanityfair.com/news/1999/09/The-Reluctant-Don
Halbrook, S. P. (2013). That every man be armed: the evolution of a constitutional right. Albuquerque: Univ. of New Mexico Press.
Patrick Henry. (n.d.). Retrieved September 13, 2017, from http://www.madisonbrigade.com/p_henry.htm
Steele, M. (n.d.). Gun Control Quotes. Retrieved September 13, 2017, from https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/gun_control.html

The Secret History of 9/11 (documentary, reflective)

The Secret History of 9/11 was a documentary that chronicled the events leading up to the terrorist attacks on 9/11 and what actually happened on that fated day.  I viewed the comprehensive film and was intrigued about several of the facts discussed in the movie.  After viewing the reflecting the informational film, I thought that the reasons for the terrorist attacks, the mistakes that prevented the terrorist attacks on 9/11 from being stopped or lessened in their severity, and the actions of President Clinton and President George W. Bush during the time period around and during 9/11 were interesting.

One aspect of the documentary The Secret History of 9/11 that I found interesting were the reasons for the terrorist attacks.  The messages those responsible wanted to be conveyed through those attacks could easily have been communicated without any deaths.  In the documentary, the narrator states the Ramsay Usaf, the main person behind the first bombing of the World Trade Center, told The New York Times that, “ . . . the bombing was in retaliation for American support of Israel, and oppression of the Palestinian people” (The Secret History of 9/11 5:55).  If Usaf and his associates wanted America to stop supporting Israel and end Palestinian oppression, a violent attack that killed six people and injured over a thousand hardly correlates with what they wanted.  Though these terrorists did want to spread fear and chaos, the results barely helped the Palestinians.  This is not to say that the terrorists had good intentions, rather, had they considered their options and realized why the United States supported Israel over the rebel Palestinian state, they could have realized that their attacks would only worsen America’s position on the Palestine, in their point of view.  Because of the 9/11 attacks, the U.S. also strengthened airport security and brought a military presence to Afghanistan, a fact that was intriguing because these results led to Bin Laden’s death and the near end of the Taliban.  One aspect of the documentary The Secret History of 9/11 that I found interesting were the reasons for the terrorist attacks.

Another aspect of the informational film that I found interesting are the mistakes that prevented the terrorist attacks on 9/11 from being stopped or lessened in their severity.  An example of one of these surprising mistakes was the fact that the CIA withheld information that, if released, could have prevented the 9/11 bombings.  The Central Intelligence Agency did not share the identifications of two suicide bombers, Khalid Al Mihdhar and Nalaf Alhazmi, with the FBI or any other branch of government that could have ordered a warrant for them.  In the documentary,  “When the president was made aware that night that there had been a mistake between the FBI and the CIA involving their sharing of information, he had the same attitude that I [Richard Clarke, Chief of Counter-Terrorism] did, which was outrage” (1:21:49).  If the CIA had the presence of mind to inform the FBI about the two terrorist suspects who were let in the U.S. with incomplete identification, the attacks on 9/11 could have been prevented.  Though these agencies are known for their efficiency, the information was revealed too late.  In addition, the fact that the phone lines were down and the White House could not be reached by the president on 9/11 intrigued me.  It is even noted in the documentary that those phone lines were always secure and open before that point, but even with a borrowed cell phone, Bush could not reach Washington to relay orders concerning the terrorist attacks. Another aspect of the informational film that I found interesting are the mistakes that prevented the terrorist attacks on 9/11 from being stopped or lessened in their severity.

The final aspect of The Secret History of 9/11 that I thought was interesting were the actions of President Clinton and President George W. Bush during the time period around and during 9/11.  In both presidencies, the commander in chief did not act on or acted too late on the growing threat of al-Qaeda, the capture or killing of Bin Laden, and the numerous warnings and advice from the Chief of Counterterrorism, Richard Clarke.  In the documentary, it is stated that, after  George W. Bush was sworn in as the president, former president Bill Clinton told him that “ . . . not catching or killing Bin Laden was one of the greatest regrets of his presidency”  (33:45).  Though the former president warned Bush about al-Qaeda and its leader, “ . . . for the Bush administration, al-Qaeda was a low priority” (35:02).  After, Richard Clarke advised the president to take further action against the terrorists, but no great action was taken until after September 11th.  This was of special interest to me because it is relatable to today’s threat of ISIS, and the fact that former president Barack Obama failed to end that threat, so it must be dealt with by President Trump.  It remains to be seen, whether, like Bush administration, action will be delayed until it is too late. Also, it was interesting that Bush stayed at the Florida school he was visiting on 9/11 even though he received information about the attacks.  If he had not delayed, it is conceivable that more immediate action would have been taken to stop the third hijacked plane from crashing into the Pentagon.  Though he later said that he was trying to project an image of calm, that image only used up time that could have been used to take measures to stop the planes.  The final aspect of The Secret History of 9/11 that I thought was interesting were the actions of President Clinton and President George W. Bush during the time period around and during 9/11.

Three details I thought were thought-provoking in the documentary film The Secret History of 9/11 were, the intent behind the bombings, the miscalculations that led up to 9/11, and the measures took by the two successive presidents during the movie’s era.  From the first bombing of the World Trade Center to the end of the Bush administration after 9/11, the entire film is detailed and moving.  Indeed, this documentary was also informative, interesting, and provided the viewer with a near-complete view of the secret history of 9/11.

Works Cited

cjnewson88. YouTube, YouTube, 12 Mar. 2013, www.youtube.com/watch?v=MVh9WgGxuIY. Accessed 19 Sept. 2017.

Is race biological or social?: essay help online free

Race, so seemingly simple but so intricate and personal, too. It appears humans of all time periods and genetic decent have been fighting over race, but is there any reason to? This question is something that has been discussed by Anthropologist for ages, and they have quite a few different answers. Some aspire to the idea that “Racial experience is real, and human biological diversity is real.” (Torres Colón, G. A., 2015). Others, disagree and say no, “race is real, but the authority science has been assigned as it pertains to race has been misappropriated.” (Simon). And all the while, some admit that race it exist, but it has limits and is “only skin deep” (Cassata). There are many more ideas on race as an anthropological subject, but the central argument lies around the question of its construct, Biological, or Social?

Jada Torres and Gabriel Colon from Wayne’s University authored a peer review on Racial experience and Biological diversity, they came to the conclusion that although race is not a biological construct, but rather a social construct, has real social consequences. They went even further to say that the even more pressing issue is that race is “cultural concept that contains implicit and explicit understandings of how collective bodies differ.”  I agree with their theory, if you think of race as an experience rather than a box that you are put into at birth many problems relating to racial injustice can be avoided.

The author of the second article, Simon Mashuan, is a reporter for NBC news, it’s important to remember that NBC news is a for profit organization, meaning that every story they put out is attached with a specific set of values, motives, and agenda. This article is not a peer reviewed journal like the first which means its contents cannot be taken as scientifically sound, however Mashuan based his information off an interview with University of North Carolina Anthropologist, John Marks. The main point that Marks is trying to convey is that he views race as a bio-cultural construct, stating that there is much more to race than simply the color of your skin. Marks asked goes on to compare the relationship hominoid in East Africa, may have to a hominoid in West Africa, saying “An East African is more closely related to a West Asian than to a West African; geographic distance is the main determinant of similarity in the human species.” (Marks,2017).  Simply because two people may have ancestors from Africa does not mean that they descended from the same line of hominoids. Marks describes anthropologist work as “an unusual burden as the custodians of the scientific narratives of who we are and where we come from” he goes on to describe that those narratives have cultural power and people feel like they own them, this is why he studies race.

The final article is brought to us by an author who specializes in health and wellness from a magazine by the name of Healthline. Cathy Cassata, the author, claims that race truly is only skin deep, making it a social construct. Cassata states that racial categories account for only six percent of human variation and diversity. She goes further to explain that race in humans is not organized into discrete boxes but is instead continuous; Clines are the proof that provide evidence for that claim. A Cline is a gradient line that can best be visualized by picturing the temperature gradient of earth, at the tops and bottoms are the poles which are cold, and towards the middle at the equator the temperatures are much hotter and more tropical. Race can be viewed on clines too. Cassata finishes her point by pointing to the fact that

“Even in our evolutionary past, our earliest modern human ancestors in Europe and parts of Asia were exchanging genes with related human populations that existed at the same time. Mixing of genes and gene flow and spread of genes and population expansion is something that is literally as old as human history itself” (William R. Leonard, PhD Northwestern University)

What Leonard is saying here is that humans have been procreating between populations for as long as history itself, there is no such thing as a pure genetic build. Leonard says race is in fact, only skin deep, making it a social construct.

There are many other arguments as far as how we can categorize race but many anthropologists ascribe to the belief that race is something that is strictly a social construct, bearing social consequence.

Product quality and sales service quality – PNJ stores

The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between customer satisfaction and service quality and product quality of PNJ stores in HCMC. Besides that, it tries to examine the impact of four factors (tangibles, assurance, empathy and price) as well as the factor of service quality and product quality on customer satisfaction. As a result, the empirical information found in this thesis provides a general view about assessment of customer about product quality and service quality of PNJ stores in HCMC in order to make appropriate adjustments and effective improvement for running a good business.

Based on the results of the path analysis exploring the direct and indirect effects of four independent and two dependent variables on customer satisfaction, this study argues that in order to achieve high customer satisfaction, PNJ company should have high level of service quality, product quality, better tangibles in stores, better assurance and empathy to customers and better price. Moreover, from the result of this research, the findings indicate that the factor of empathy plays crucial role for customer satisfaction.

In conclusion, from the experiences in process of conducting research, it points out limitations of this study and provides helpful recommendations for further dissertation. And according to the research findings, this study gives some recommendations to PNJ company in order to take adjustment and improve the level of service quality, product quality and customer satisfaction.

CHAPTER I

Introduction

1.1 Background

Jewelry industry of Vietnam is one of the developing sectors of Vietnamese economy. And most of enterprises in the field do not have the organizational system. There are more than 12,000 business enterprises in the industry, most of them are small jewelry store and the rest are a number of organized retail business. Domestic jewelry market develops in all segments, including gold, platinum, silver and precious stones, where gold is the preferred choice of most customers.  According to Updating Report of Sacombank-SBS in first quarter of 2013, from 2005 to 2011, the value of gold jewelry in Vietnam compounds annual growth rate of 6-8%, increases from 399 million USD to 634 million USD. In 2011, the demand for gold jewelry in Vietnam increased by 14%, which is 634 million USD, accounting for 13% of total gold demand. Jewelry market decreased 10% to 13 tonnes in 2011. The increase in gold prices helped to increase the value by 14%, even if production reduced by 10% in the same period.

In Quarter 1/2012, production of consumed gold jewelry fell by 9% to 5 tons, the domestic gold price increases from last year which leads to decrease in demand because customers have to face with high inflation. Gold jewelry demand in Vietnam in quarter 1/2012 has made positive changes, with the value of 269 USD million (up 9.8%) and mass consumption of 5 tonnes (down 9%) .

In the future, growth rate in Vietnam jewelry market  is expected to be positive, which is driven by the increase in domestic demand and income. And as a result of this trend, customers with higher income will have higher requirements. For jewelry products industry, this is an opportunity as well as a challenge. Now that more and more enterprises start this kind of  business with products of competitive quality and price, how can old enterprises attract more new customers and retain the old ones? The enterprises should not only concentrate on improving products quality and design, they should also attach special importance to enhance service quality in their stores.

In order to achieve this, a method should be usually implemented is to do research about customer satisfaction about product quality and sale service quality of their distribution system. By doing these studies, the companies can have more knowledge about customer desire and evaluation, so they can give methods to improve the quality of product as well as service, satisfy their customers in best ways, and contribute to gain customer loyalty.

1.2 Problem statement

Many researchers have looked into the importance of customer satisfaction. Kotler (2000) defined satisfaction as: “a person’s feelings of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing a product’s perceived performance (or outcome) in relation to his or her expectations”. Hoyer and MacInnis (2001) said that satisfaction can be associated with feelings of acceptance, happiness, relief, excitement, and delight.

In addition, to be a strong brand with high reputation and credibility, Phu Nhuan Jewelry Joint Stock Company (PNJ) is considered to be one of the enterprises with significant contributions to the growth of the jewelery industry in Vietnam. It can be seen as the market leader among domestic jewelry company with 20% gold jewelry market share and upto 70% silver jewelry market share in Vietnam. Hence, to keep the leader position in jewelry industry in Vietnam, research on customer satisfaction on product quality as well as sales service quality is a necessary method to attract more new customers and retain the existing ones.

Thus, I would like to do my thesis about ‘Evaluate customer satisfaction on product quality and sales service quality of PNJ stores in Ho Chi Minh City’

1.3  Introduction of Phu Nhuan Jewelry Joint Stock Company

Phu Nhuan Jewelry Joint Stock Company is a firm operating in fields of verifying diamond and gemstone service; manufacturing, trading gold, silver and gemstone jewelry, gold bullion; house renting according to real estate trading law.

1.3.1 Foundation and development history

In April 28th, 1988, Phu Nhuan Jewelry Trading Store was founded with an investment of only VND 14 million – equivalent to only 9.0 ounces of gold at that time – and its first 20 employees.

In 1990, this founding store became Phu Nhuan Jewelry, Fine Arts and Currency Exchange Company, being under direct control of Financial Administration of Ho Chi Minh City Committee. Phuong Hoang Gold Bar was also launched then.

In 1992, the company was renamed Phu Nhuan Jewelry Joint Stock Company. This stage witnesses great changes with bold investment in Italian technology production line. In the same year, the company also co-founded Dong A Bank and formed a joint venture with Phu Nhuan House Trading and Development Company.

Mutually antagonistic nationalism between China and Japan: essay help site:edu

The rising mutually antagonistic nationalism between the two countries cause China and Japan to have contrasting perspectives and thus view the current issues between them through different lenses. This will continue to undermine bilateral relations and the possibilities of future collaborations between the two countries due to the nationalistic pressure of the countries’ people. Historical events like the second Sino-Japanese war has caused animosity and mistrust between the two countries. It was exacerbated in 2001 through the politically driven visits to the Yasukuni Shrine by the Prime Minister of Japan, Junichiro Koizumi, despite China’s constant disapproval which cause bilateral relations to deteriorate greatly. Events like this reopen historical war wounds and thus cause a deterrence for the development of Sino-Japanese relations. However, other factors like territorial disputes and assertive actions are also indispensable as the obstacles to improving Sino-Japanese relations. Despite the considerable significance of nationalism, the effects of territorial disputes, historical differences and assertive actions also plays a big part in the improvement of Sino-Japanese relations. However, territorial disputes, historical differences and  assertive actions stems from the same source which is the mutually antagonistic nationalism each country has for each other. Furthermore, the effects of mutually antagonistic nationalism greatly magnifies the problems of  current issues. Thus, mutually antagonistic nationalism has been the key obstacle to improving Sino-Japanese relations since 2001.

Overcoming historical differences hold great significance as it is a latent problem for the development of Sino-Japanese relations. Japan’s stance for its relationship with China to improve is for the latter to not dwell on their past where Japan has been aggressive towards them as seen in the protest of China’s application to put the Nanking massacre as well as the “comfort women” in the UNESCO programme. On the contrary, China wants a sincere apology as well as for Japan to take full responsibility for past war crimes towards China as seen in their repeated reminder to Japan that without it the relationship between China and Japan would be kept stagnant. This has limited the development of their ties as both countries do not want to be the first to reconcile with the other as they have different viewpoint on who is in the wrong. This can be further supported by the Japanese Government authorising the Atarashii Rekishi Kyokasho, which is a history textbook reform, that led to the numerous amount of  anti-Japanese mass incidents in 2005, this shows how the difference in the perceptions of their shared history can worsen relations between the Chinese and Japanese. Displeasure between the people due to their rough past can be seen in the form of these mass incidents which would greatly erode the opportunities to form a better relationship between the two countries. Hence, overcoming historical differences will aid in the relationship between China and Japan.

Furthermore, historical issues have also cause the relations between political leaders to be eroded due to their use of the different perception in history as a tool to garner more support for their political expediency. Koizumi’s visit to Yasukuni Shrine on 13 August 2001 has eroded his relationship with China as it contains the remains of fourteen Class A Japanese war criminals. On top of that, the Japanese Premier was to visit the Yasukuni Shrine every year during his incumbency. However, his visits was beneficial to Koizumi’s political support as seen in his landslide victory in the 2001 elections. Thus, political leaders would be able capitalise on the difference in their shared history to gain more political support from its people due to their strong nationalistic sentiments. Premier Li Ke Qiang’s firm warning on 4 March 2014 that China would not allow anybody to “reverse the course of history” shows the severity of the issues bought up by misinterpretations of shared history and the erosion of relation not only between the countries’ people but also their respective political leaders. Thus, solving the issue of historical differences will be beneficial to Sino-Japanese relations.

However, the evidence and scholars that have posited the fact that historical difference is the primary obstacle for Sino-Japan relations have failed to provide an in-depth look into the problems related to historical difference due it’s complexity. As the governments of both countries have to consider nationalistic pressures from their citizens to keep their political expediency which has deter further improvements of their relations. According to Gries, the relations between China and Japan has deteriorate more due to the political leaders using different perceptions of shared history to brew nationalistic animosity to gain political support. Thus, problems caused by different viewpoints have only arise due to the political leaders’ use of the strong mutually antagonistic nationalism as a tool for political support. It is also due to the instability like mass incidents cause by the respective country’s people due to their mutually antagonistic nationalism that has further dampened the efforts for the development of Sino-Japan relations.  Thus, the effects of historical difference have been amplified by the mutually antagonistic nationalism of the citizens. According to He, the different interpretation of their common history, had acted to amplify the friction manifested through nationalistic sentiments. Thus, the problem between the difference in viewpoint of the countries’ people only grew due to their mutually antagonistic nationalism. Furthermore, with the Chinese people’s impression of Japan’s lack of remorse for past aggression like the Nanking massacre has caused the rise of anti-Japanese sentiments which pressures the Chinese government to dwell on historical scars, thus deterring the improvement of Sino-Japanese relations. Similarly, the Japanese government also experience the same pressure from their anti-Chinese citizens to not engage in any type of conciliatory measure for past incidents. Showing the significance of the mutually antagonistic nationalism in limiting the government’s decision and ability to reconcile and build new ties with one another. Thus, the root cause of the problems arising from the different views in their shared history is due to the nationalistic sentiments of both countries as it acts as the catalyst that greatly amplifies the problems of historical difference. Therefore the nationalistic pressure from the citizens is the foremost considerations in improving Sino-Japan relations.

Meanwhile, territorial dispute is another paramount issue that will undermine further development of bilateral ties between China and Japan as tensions are rising mostly due to the dispute over the East China Sea. In November 2004, a Chinese submarine was detected in Japan’s Exclusive Economic Zone. That incident was led by the dispatch of Chinese drilling teams in search for oil and gas deposits in Japan’s Exclusive Economic Zones. In response to this incidents, China was formally declared a security concern for Japan in its December 2004 National Defence Program Outline. According to Yuan, both China and Japan are not willing to give way on competing for the claims due to the geo-economic importance leading to the build-up of tensions. Smith further support this view by emphasising the attempts of both governments to establish sovereignty over the Islands through diplomatic countermeasures, militarized threat and economic sanctions, which do not essentially support the development of relations. The Senkaku Islands are close to important shipping lanes, offer rich fishing grounds and lie near potential oil and gas reserves thus it holds great importance for both countries as these resources and shipping routes would bring great economic benefits to the country that has the Senkaku Islands. This increased of military presence like the Air Defence Identification Zone (ADIZ) that challenge the sovereignty and control of Japan on the Islands has increased the possibility of armed conflict and naval battles, threatening the relations between the countries. Economic ties are also at stake due to territorial disputes as economic sanctions are being implemented due to the breach of sovereignty rights. Which is evident in the case where China set up trade embargos on rare earth materials to Japan after the 2010 confrontations. This has not only affected the imports and exports of goods but also eroded other sectors like tourism due to the display of nationalisation of the Islands in 2012 where 50,000 Chinese tourist cancelled their trip to Japan. Thus, the fight for the Senkaku Islands have affected the economic ties between the two country eroding further possibility of any collaboration between the two countries.

Besides Economic problems, political relations was also eroded due to the persistent territorial disputes, as seen in the harsh response of China towards Japan’s arrest of the crew of a fishing boat, which included the detainment of four Japanese citizens for entering restricted military area and disruption of bilateral negotiation. Furthermore , Chinese Premier, Wen Jiabao delivered a speech which emphasised the fact that China “will never budge, even half an inch, over sovereignty and territorial issues.” The events mentioned above are signs of the limited cooperation and poor communications in solving territorial disputes further eroding the relations of China and Japan. Therefore, territorial disputes seems like the main cause for the stagnations of the development of ties as there are limited space for negotiations on both side thus coming up with an mutually agreeable resolution is almost impossible.

On a closer look, we should not dismiss the role that opposing nationalism plays as government persistence on the issue of territorial dispute is built on nationalism and pride of the country as if in the case of the Senkaku Islands, cooperation with the other country would be a better approach to reap economic benefits rather than fighting for full sovereignty rights. Stated by Zhang, the governments of both countries would take a harsher stance due to the nationalistic public sentiments as the soft measures would lead to a fall in the support of the ruling party threatening their legitimacy. This is evident, in the hard-line stance of both countries on territorial dispute such as the greater emphasis on the sovereignty over the Senkaku islands due to the nationalistic pressures.  Showing the significance that nationalistic pressure has amplified and further escalated the fight over sovereignty rights of the Senkaku Islands. Induced by the angry Chinese public openly showing the disapproval of Japan by destroying their factories and rioting, the Chinese government had to introduce naval presence in the area further escalating tensions. This brings out the fact that both governments are afraid of anti-government sentiments due to the failure of protecting the countries’ territorial sovereignty thus would much rather create tension and disrupt the development of ties instead of eroding their own political stability. Therefore with the main priority of the government being the protection of its legitimacy as it is the foundation for most of the Chinese government’s policies, thus nationalistic pressure greatly influences the decisions made by the government in terms of territorial disputes, and it is the main obstacle for the development of Sino-Japan relations.

Assertive actions to prove and strengthen their political power creates the hostility between the two countries thus eroding bilateral relations. Both China and Japan are known as the great powers in Asia, thus there has always been and underlying dispute over who is the stronger of the two. As China has risen in their power capabilities, naturally it has been asserting more security based interest in East Asia, however as Beijing pressed for its position, the Japanese government has tried to go against it. This is evident in the Chinese policies towards Japan between 2001 and 2007 as it shows the growing military capabilities of China. This shows the growing Chinese power and influence over Asia and the world which would erode the strength and influence of its rival, Japan. This can be further supported by the fact that there has been a change in Chinese policy in the beginning of 2008, where China has become more assertive leading to the deterioration of bilateral ties. Thus proving the point that assertive actions in terms of China’s policies towards Japan has been a huge force in the deterrence of Sino-Japanese ties. Further evidence of China reducing Japan’s influence and power can be seen in Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao’s implications that China was opposed to Japan’s candidacy for a permanent seat in the UN security council. Japan has also expressed its worries of China’s assertive actions in the decision to mention the Taiwan Issue in the joint statement at the end of the consultations between U.S. and Japan in February 2005. Thus, the rise in assertive actions in the area has made to two countries increasingly wary of each other which does not provide for a good foundation for the building of Sino-Japanese relations. Therefore, to aid in further development of their relations, both government has to lessen its assertive actions towards each other as it would create animosity and hostility between the two country.

However, mutually antagonistic nationalism is the main source for the increased assertive actions as well as the hostility between the two countries due to the desire of the people to be better off as compared to each other. As stated before, both the Chinese and Japanese have engaged in a competition with each other and thus it has significantly eroded the possibility of a good Sino-Japan relations due to the hostility between the countries’ people. This can be seen in August 2004 where there was a full scaled rioting by angry Chinese soccer fans following the Japanese team’s victory over China in the finals. This shows the strong mutually antagonistic nationalism that the Chinese has against the Japanese thus fuelling tension and hostility between the countries. Furthermore, the government’s need to assert its dominance and strength is also fuelled by the nationalistic sentiments of its countries. The development of ties weigh heavily on the mutual perception of the people as any nationalistic sentiments would lead to the adaptation of harsher approaches and attitude in both states’ foreign policies.  As the mutually antagonistic nationalism grows between the countries’ people, the government would be forced to take a harsher stance and assert its dominance over the other country. Thus, assertive actions between the country is to satisfy the need of the people’s mutually antagonistic sentiments leading to increase hostility between the countries, eroding further development of their ties.

While there may be a huge array of problems that will undermine the long term relations between Japan and China, they are purely just problems that came from the same root cause which is the mutually antagonistic nationalism. Even though, on the surface historical differences, assertive actions and territorial disputes are seen as the  most prominent problems, the underlying problem of the countries’ mutually antagonistic nationalism has a greater impact on the ability to further develop Sino-Japanese relations thus solving mutually antagonistic nationalism will solve the root cause of the problem and therefore eradicating the effects of the other problems. Furthermore, the opposing nationalism also amplifies the negative impacts of the current problems and thus have been a huge contributing force to worsening relations of Japan and China. All in all, the primary issue that will affect and shape bilateral relations is the mutually antagonistic nationalism. Thus, mutually antagonistic has been the key obstacle in improving Sino-Japanese relations.

Day of the dead: college application essay help

Day of the dead is a holiday closely related to Halloween and All Saint’s/Soul’s Day. This holiday is celebrated from October 31st to November 2nd in Mexico and in some places in the United States. Día de los Muertos is specifically celebrated in the states from Mexico City south. This includes Michoacan, Mexico City, Puebla, Oaxaca, Veracruz, Guerrero, Guanajuato, Chiapas and the Yucatan. Northern Mexico, is not as celebratory, at least not the way the South is. The people of the Northern part of Mexico can be seen going to mass and visiting grave sites, while the people of the South can be seen building ofrendas, throwing wild parties and leaving out offerings for their ancestors and family members who have passed on. Interestingly enough, Latin America and the Latino parts of Los Angeles, California also take part in the festivities of the Day of the Dead.

What is an Ofrenda you may ask? An ofrenda is a huge part of the Día de los Muertos celebration. Ofrenda means offering in Spanish, and they are also called altares or altars in English. The ofrendas are not to be worshipped though, most of the Mexicans celebrating this holiday are of Catholic faith.  The ofrendas are created to honor the memory of their dead relatives. Ofrendas are complex and time consuming to set up; however, the effect of a finished one is wonderful. Ofrendas can consist of many layers, there is usually a crucifix on the top level, then a lit candle is set out for each deceased relative.  Flowers, salt and water, incense (or copal), sugar skulls, and tons of food are also set out onto the ofrenda.

On November 2nd- when the adult spirits are said to come down to earth- people bring their celebrations to the cemeteries and grave sites. People clean tombs, leave flowers, play cards, listen to music, and remember their loved ones.  Some also drink tequila, and sing along to the mariachi bands.

Foods play a huge part in every culture, we Americans have our apple pie and hamburgers but what does Mexico do? For Dia de los Muertos, there are several specialty foods. According to ocweekly.com , Pan de muerto is probably the most recognizable food in the celebration. “The most common culinary representation of the Day of the Dead is an eggy, brioche-like bread, often topped with sugar.” Some Pan de Muerto is often accented with skull and crossbones and other shapes. Mole is also a big food of the Dia de los Muertos celebrations. The mole is a huge undertaking as it has anywhere from 20 to 50 ingredients. Foods such as tamales, atole, and candied pumpkin can also be seen in the Day of the dead festivities.

Music is self expression, but you may be surprised to hear what music is played on the Day of the Dead, and you may be surprised to learn that music in different cultures isn’t all that different after all. For example, in 2015 one of the most played radio songs was the salsa version of Thriller as a tribute to Michael Jackson. Another, is La Llorona by Chavela Vargas. And according to Billboard.com, No es serio este cementerio by Mecano is a popular ‘80s Spanish pop song that can turn a graveyard visit into a dance party. Shakira’s “She Wolf” is a favorite in the US, Mexico, and other Hispanic countries.

Marigolds are a key element of Día de los Muertos. Marigolds have a long history in Mexico. They were brought over the Atlantic to Mexico hundreds of years ago. Aztecs used these hearty flowers for herbal medicine and decoration. Now, Marigolds are place all around ofrendas to guide the visiting spirits because of their bright colors and strong scent. Marigolds also represent how fragile life is. Marigolds are known as cempasúchiles or flowers of the dead, which is definitely appropriate for the Day of the Dead.

José Guadalupe Posada has heavily influenced today’s Day of the Dead artists. Posada was born in 1852 in the Mexican town of Aguascalientes and he started started studying art at the age of 18, skip a few years ahead and we find him doing print after print and painting after painting. In his lifetime he created over 20,000 images, however; he died as an impoverished man in 1913. His most famous works include Calvera: Guerra Mundial or Skeleton: World War in English, and Calvera Catrina or Dapper skeleton.

Day of the Dead and Halloween share many characteristics. Day of the Dead and Halloween are both celebrated in the US and in Mexico. Day of the dead is celebrated in Los Angeles and Halloween is celebrated pretty much everywhere in the US. Halloween has picked up popularity in Mexico in the past 40 years. They are also similar because of the lavish celebrations and decorations, they are also both of European origin. They are different because they have different mentalities and roles. Halloween is a Holiday for children to dress up, have fun, and get free candy. Adults dress up, go to parties, and hand out candy. Day of the Dead, as mentioned earlier, is to honor dead ancestors with ofrendas, food, and grave visits. Although they are similar in some ways they are also very different. Every culture has its own celebrations and it’s clear that Día de los Muertos is a very lavish and unique holiday that would be very cool to see in person.

Sigmund Freud – career, theories, legacy

Sigmund Freud was born in the Czech Republic in 1856. He is an Australian psychologist who is known for the development of techniques and theories of psychoanalysis. He developed psychoanalysis which is a method through which other analysts have been able to unpack conflicting unconscious basing them on fantasies, dreams and free associations of the patients (Freud 23). Some of the most influencing academic contributions that he has made include libido and the age, child sexuality among other topics that he developed in the 20th century.

Freud’s father, referred to as “Jakob” was a wool trader who had been married to another wife before he wed Freud’s mother (Jay1). The father who was 40 years when Freud was born can be described as being rare and authoritarian while the mother was emotionally present.

Although Freud had other brothers, he was not closely attached to them but was more attached to his nephew John, who provided the intimate friend and also hatred rival that reproduced in the later stages of Freud’s life (Jay 1). For example, the sensitivity to perianal authority within such that he later talked about in his theories and work was mainly stimulated by the decline in power that his father suffered in his generation. The father suffered this ion the liberal rationalists who lived in the Habsburg Empire. It is also believed that the interest that he had in the theme of the seduction of daughters was based in the complicated ways in the context of the attitude that Viennese had towards female sexuality.

When Fred was four years, his family relocated to Vienna where he lived and worked for the most part of his life. He started studying medicine at the University of Vienna, and he had a medical degree in 1881. After graduation, he worked as a doctor at the Vienna General Hospital.  He got engaged, and his marriage led to six children in which his last born Anna became a distinguished psychoanalyst.

In his career, Freud viewed himself as a scientist most and not a doctor. Many people thought that he was a doctor, but he took more of his time on science and research. He endeavored through this to make understanding of human knowledge and the experience that human went through his journey of development.  The movement of the family from Freiburg was mainly due to economic reasons. Despite the dislike that Freud had to the imperial city, he was forced to become part of it.  It is also from the city that most of his thoughts and the arguments on the theories that he developed at a later part of his life emerged.  They were mainly encouraged by the political and the social situation in the city.

His career and development of theories

Earlier in his career, he was mainly influenced by the discoveries and the works of his friend, Jose Breuer. Breuer had made a discovery that through the encouragement of a hysterical patient to talk about the earlier experienced and the symptoms that he had seen, these symptoms sometimes abated. This discovery encouraged Freud and he posited that the neurons of the patient in these situations had their origins in the traumatic events and experiences that the patient had gone through. As part of the treatment, he argued that the patient could be empowered to recall the experiences and bring them to his awareness.  In doing so, he could challenge it both emotionally and intellectually. He supposed that a patient in these situations could then release it and rid themselves of the neurotic indications. The findings and the theories that the two friends developed were first published in the book Studies in Hysteria in 1895.

The relationship between Breuer and Freud ended when Breuer felt that Freud had made much emphasis on the sexual origin on the patients’ neutrons and he was not willing to look at other factors that could have brought the change. He was not willing at the time to welcome other viewpoints and suggestions by Breuer. Freud in this aspect decided to focus on this point of arguments and he went ahead to refine his own arguments. Most of the contemporaries that he had were that the emphasis he had on sexuality was either overplayed or scandalous just as it had been seen by Breuer. He had an in vitiation in 1909 to give several lectures in the United States. After the visit, he made more analysis on his theories and wrote another book in 1916, ‘Five Lecturers on Psycho-Analysis’. His fame grew exponentially from the arguments that he made in this book.

In 1985, Freud went to Paris as a student where he studied neurology and it is at the school that he met neurologist Jean Charcot.  The 19 weeks that he had in the French capital greatly contributed to the development of his career and opened up ways through which he explained his theories.  It is this time that he spent with Charcot that gave him a lead to his works and some of his theories. He realized during this time that the psychological disorders that patients might be undergoing might have had an origin in the mind. He decided to get more on this. He was also inspired by the practices and the knowledge of the neurologist and when he returned to Vienna the previous year, he set up his private exercise. In his practice, he mainly focused and specialized on brain and nervous disorders.  In his practice, he developed a theory that humans have an insentient in which aggressive and sexual instincts are continuous conflict to gain reign with the defense against them. He began an analysis of himself in 1897 and did a major work in 1900, “The Interpretation of Drama” in which he examined dreams basing them on experiences and unconscious needs(Freud 41).

He was appointed the Professor of Neuropathology at the University of Vienna in 1902. He held this post until 1938. Although in his career and the discoveries that he made at this time and later, the medical establishments disagreed with many theories he developed. Students and followers began to gather and look keenly on some of the arguments that he made and compared them to the medical establishments that they knew or researched about. He worked with some of the students until there the establishments of International Psychoanalysis Association in 1910. The organization was founded by Carl Jung who was his close friend. Carl Jung broke with him to develop his own philosophies.

After the First World War, Freud did not spend much of his time in clinical observations and used most of time on the application on the theories that he had developed to history, literature, art and anthropology. In 1923, he did more research on the theories and published the book “The Ego and the Id” (Freud 78). In the book, the main idea was the suggestion on the new physical model of the mind. He divided the mind in to the “id” and the “superego’.

 Lasting legacy

Freud has remained an icon in the world of psychology and medicine. Many of the theories that Freud developed including those on ‘Psychic energy’ were in no doubt influenced by the discoveries that were made by other scientific discoveries at the time. One of the works that influenced his thinking and actions were those of Charles Darwin. Darwin developed an understanding of humankind as progressive elements of the animal kingdom that led and informed the investigation by Freud on human behavior. Additionally, the new principles that were formulated by Helmholtz which stated that the energy in any given system is constant were used by Freud in studying the human mind. At first, however, he was not uncertain about the exact status of the sexual element in the conception of the mind that he developed.  The work that Freud did have been criticized but there is still no person in history that has influenced the science of psychology as intensely as he did.

Although Freud has contributed extensively in understanding human psychology, there have been many controversies over some of his publications. For example, during his early years, the Nazis openly burned a number of his books in 1933. This invasion by the Nazis was the beginning of his end. In 1938, shortly after the Nazis occupied Austria, he left for London together with his daughter Ann and wife. He had been diagnosed with cancer of the jaw and went through thirty operations. He died of cancer in 1939.

Juliet Eilperin – Demon Fish: Travels Through the Hidden World of Sharks: college admission essay help

In the introduction, the book gives a description of the sharks and what their environment is like. The author, Juliet Eilperin, talks about how amazing the sharks are in the beginning of the book and states that they operate in a another world. Juliet Eilperin also talks about how sharks move and how they interact with other sharks. She compares and contrasts the wide variation of shark species and their interaction as well. Being in the water for the first time is scary enough let alone including sharks. Juliet Eilperin was in an environment filled with sharks 50 miles off the coast of Florida on an island called Bimini. Everybody was very scared for her and told her to be extra careful and aware of every little thing. Comparing this to a car going seventy five miles per hour, this situation was far more worse. All the adrenaline flowing through her blood came from the fear of possibly being eaten by a shark. Though, she is not alone in this risky situation. Juliet Eilperin is taking this journey as a journalist with other brave scientists. As the others took a chance and hopped into the danger, she thought about things that would make her less frightened. She convinced herself that since she was very slim, the sharks will not want to just eat bones and instead devour the others first so she has time to get away. When she physically went into the water, it was not as frightening as she thought it would have been. She got to spot a plethora of species that lived in the ocean. Juliet Eilperin mentions how sharks predate. Sharks were respected and known for their power and destruction; this caused them to be seen as gods. In the past, Sharks seemed to be a threat to the human population but in the present, we seem to be more of a threat to them. Because of the human race exploring roughly seventy five percent of the ocean, sharks have been forced to immigrate to other coasts. For example the coast of Hawaii and California. Technology in tracking devices has made it tremendously easy to track any living being. Scientists tag sharks with trackers and also with microphones and cameras. By doing this, we can receive the most accurate information about the shark species. Sharks are praised for their uniqueness because of their adaptive skills as well as their buoyancy. We have access to details down to their denticles. Their smooth speed come from denticles. One of the top three places to go too to see sharks is located in Tembin. Juliet Eilperin and an acquaintance learn about Tembin culture. They learn how much the shark impacts the culture and the meaning of the shark and how it is essential to survive and spiritually survive. In order to get to Tembin, the scientists attempt to cross by a swampy terrain because the bridge to Tembin was essentially destroyed. During their trip, the team encounters a shark caller named Karasimbe. He is a man with mad respect and is a leader who continues to pursue this hundreds of years old culture. Another shark caller who they call Kiput, lived to about 93 years old who died in 2003, was also greatly respected by the local people of Tembin and provided much guidance, purpose, and hope. Sharks have a great history and have great meaning in the villages who are brave enough to attempt to catch sharks with their bare hands. Although this culture seems dangerous, young men of Tembin villages sell these sharks they catch to other big companies and big cities to make more money. In Tembin today, they seem to care more about gaining a profit rather than just fishing. Elders have started to worry about this problem a lot more because they are not preserving their own culture. This has caused much conflict with making money and preserving culture. With that being said, Karasimbe is convinced that he will save Tembin and its precious culture because he has the potential ability to save everything.

Chapter Two Summary:

Chapter two starts off by informing me about the age of sharks. Everybody assume that dinosaurs have to be the oldest creature ever to live on this earth but little do they know that sharks are just about two hundred million years older. Montana is where you can discover shark fossils found. Aristotle, a greek roman conducted research on sharks a long time ago and aristotle discovered knowledge and names that we still use to this day. Sharks were originally called dogfish in the past by the ancient roman people. Islamic people were truly amazed when they found out the dangers on the Tigris river. The human race is very segregated from the species of sharks and fear the sharks a lot more than the elders did in the past. The ages that were toward the middle, sharks got a bad reputation that led to the ignorance of sharks. People do not care for them and hate on them because they are seen as evil or wicked animals. Sailors also were also scared of sharks because of how they could sink their sailing boat. Sharks reputation has changed tremendously throughout history and time. People used to see sharks as gods and praised them until the human race became selfish and took them for granted which caused sharks to act up and begin to harm us. Now we do not care about ocean creatures for we catch them for profit and for food.

Chapter Three Summary:

Chapter three hands me two main perspectives of the shark hunters or shark guiders and the environmentalists in the world. A man named Quariano who gets paid to guide tourists and visitors offshore and onto the ocean, protects his paying customers and takes them to parts of the ocean were many sharks prowl so that the visitors may have a chance to fish for some sharks. His market target is young men who are living life on the edge and who are willing to take risks like that. Being a professional, it causes Quariano to have very strong opinions and causes him to be very biased. He states that since there are a plethora of sharks in the ocean, killing sharks is not wrong and that it is a very efficient way to make money. The environmentalist perspective is of course the complete opposite. Environmentalists believe that people like Quariano is not good enough to find real jobs in the world. They are leading people on the wrong path by allowing them to harm natural habitats and their niches. By continuing this  hunting, sharks will go extinct and will become endangered because of human selfishness. Chapter Four Summary:

In chapter four, it talks about how in a lot of markets and cultures, the fins of sharks contain much value. They have auctions for shark fins where men offer a lot of money for the fins. In certain cultures, humans believe shark fins have magic or contain supernatural powers. An example of this is to cure aids or cancer. Some so sick that there is no cure. In some cultures, many people believe that owning a shark fin will benefit in ones health. The significance of a shark fin in these cultures is very great. It bears magic that can cure diseases that may not have a cure. Shark fins also can be food. In china and india, shark fins are very rare to receive. It is very expensive to buy and if you are lucky enough to have some as a meal, you would be considered very rich.

David Livingstone Smith’s Less Than Human

“Less Than Human” is chapter 1 in David Livingstone Smith’s Less Than Human, includes various stories of dehumanization throughout history to the present day and elaboration and further comments on those pieces of history. Some of these examples include stories from war and stories of dehumanization in the media. Smith uses these tales from history and his reflections on them to illustrate his purpose of writing this; in fact, from these stories we can easily come up with his argument and analyze it. In “Less Than Human,” Smith clearly provides his purpose, audience, how he decided to arrange this writing, evidence for his argument, implications, and his word choice.

Smith doesn’t get to telling his purpose of writing this selection until the end, but even then, the reader may have to infer what it may be. In the last paragraph, he says that “dehumanization is… widespread… it is found… through the full span of human history, and… the problem of dehumanization is everyone’s problem” (Smith 25).  From this, one can find Smith’s purpose of writing this; that being, to show that dehumanization continues today, that it’s not only a part of history, and that it affects everyone across many cultures. He makes this argument because dehumanization continues today and needs to be stopped before we reach another large war or have a major incident. One example Smith uses to illustrate this is Rush Limbaugh’s radio show on the “Abu Ghraib prison scandal [saying] “[The prisoners] are the ones who are sick” … They are the ones who subhuman” (Smith 22). Smith provides multiple other examples to show his purpose and why he made this his argument/purpose; at the same time, he also uses these to tell who the audience is intended to be by Smith.

The factor of who the audience is and who Smith is directing the argument at is a different story. He uses multiple stories of dehumanization; whether it’s the Israelis versus the Palestinians or the 1946 Nuremberg doctors’ trial, and at least one can relate to whoever is reading the book. Therefore, the audience that Smith intends to reach and reach with his argument is one that is universal; despite this, one can say that the secondary audience is an academic crowd. The reason one could say that his secondary audience is an academic crowd is because of his organization of the paper and his evidence to support his purpose of writing “Less Than Human.”

Smith arranges this chapter in three sections; stories of dehumanization in war, dehumanization in media, and a conclusion. He further divides the first two sections into a pattern that is basically; story, supporting info on the story and introduction to the next story, story, supporting info, so on and so forth until he concludes the section. For example, the excerpt begins with an example of dehumanization occurring between Israelis and Palestinians, it says “Degrading taunts rang out from behind the fence that divided the Palestinian side of the Khan Younis refugee camp from the Israeli side” (Smith 11); afterwards, Smith reflects and elaborates on the story by telling the reader that Khan Younis was a “stronghold of Hamas” and further elaborates on the story, he then introduces another example and repeats (Smith 12).

Smith demonstrates his purpose and caters to his audience through the use of evidence of dehumanization in war and dehumanization in media. This evidence ranges from the Holocaust to Rush Limbaugh’s view on the Abu Ghraib Prison Scandal. Smith illustrates his purpose by providing examples from various points in history like the “1946 Nuremberg doctors’ trial [that] was the first of twelve military tribunals held in Germany [in which] twenty doctors and three administrators … stood accused of wars crimes and crimes against humanity” (Smith 14). Using examples like this, Smith gets the reader’s attention and shows his purpose before actually saying it on the last page. Smith also uses this evidence to cater to whoever reads this excerpt by using examples in which a person could relate to at least one example or imagine an example in their lives like those in the paper. One such piece of evidence would be when “on September 4, 2007, the Columbus Dispatch published a cartoon portraying Iran as a sewer” (Smith 22); one person in the audience could imagine or relate to this by remembering something they read that made them feel uncomfortable, etc. Smith also uses such evidence to hint to or provide an implication or suggestion to the reader.

Smith provides a specific recommendation to the audience; however, part of it is stated and the other part is implied. He never deliberately states the whole suggestion, but Smith states a part of it in the last paragraph.  He states this part of his suggestion by saying that “We are all potential dehumanizers, just as we are all potential objects of dehumanization. The problem of dehumanization is everyone’s problem” (Smith 25). By saying this, Smith states that dehumanization is everyone’s problem and that we are affected by it. While this is deliberately stated, he eludes to the other parts of his purpose that it continues today, not just a part of history by; once again, his use of evidence from different points in time.

Smith does repeat specific words or phrases like dehumanization; but he also uses specific types of words or phrases. The most repeated word or words used is dehumanization and the other versions of that word, this is done since it is the topic of this excerpt. More interesting is the special type of word or phrase Smith uses, that being derogatory names or phrases that one side calls its enemy; specific examples of this would be what the Nazis called their victims, “Untermenschen – subhumans” and another being what the Japanese called the Chinese or “Chancorro [meaning] below human, like bugs or animals” (Smith 15- 18). He uses these to his purpose that dehumanization affects everyone across multiple cultures and that it is still a part of everyday life.

Throughout “Less Than Human” from Less Than Human, Smith uses tales of dehumanization in history to the modern day to present his argument. In using these the argument can be studied and interpreted by his audience. By doing this, Smith’s purpose, audience, arrangement of the excerpt, evidence, suggestions, and word choice is shown and can be recorded.

 The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao by Junot Diaz

In the novel,  The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao by Junot Diaz, the main character Oscar Wao struggles with obesity and finding love throughout his life. His misfortunes are blamed on a curse that haunts him and his family. Like Oscar and his family, real life people struggle with the same issues as they do. The author addresses real life issues while incorporating a cultural history and background. Although the readers of The Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao may not all relate to having a Dominican family, the author addresses issues readers can associate with such as struggling with love and family.

The Fuku curse is a historical curse that dates back hundreds of years back into Oscar’s family. Throughout the novel, the narrator spends a great deal of time trying to convince the readers that every bad detail that happens in Oscar’s family’s life is due to the Fuku curse. All through the novel, Oscar struggles with with finding love. As a child, he was a playboy and flirted with all the girls but as he grew up, he became a nerd and had trouble finding a girlfriend. Just like Oscar, many people struggle with finding love in their lives. His first love is named Ana Obregon and she leads him on and then returns to a relationship with her abusive ex-boyfriend. In college he falls for another girl, who yet again has rejected him. Oscar responds by trying to kill himself by jumping off a train, but he does not succeed. After college, he goes on a trip with his sister and mother to the Dominican Republic where he falls in love with a prostitute named Ybon. Unfortunately Ybon has a boyfriend who is the captain of the police force. Everyone warned Oscar not to see Ybon but Oscar had believed he finally found true love. Eventually Ybon’s boyfriend finds Oscar and badly beats him up resulting in Oscar’s mom sending him back to the States. But, Oscar can not seem to get Ybon out of his head and asks his best friend for money to fly back to the Dominican Republic to see her. Ybon’s boyfriend then finds him and kills him.

The misfortune with love does not only affect Oscar, but other people in his family too. His mother for example had trouble with men her whole life, starting in grade school. His mother, Beli, finally got the boy she liked and they were have constant sex in the broom closet at school. When they got caught, he blamed it on Beli even though he promised to marry her and she did nothing wrong. The boy was then shipped off to military school. Beli later on meets another man referred to as “The Gangster”. No man had ever appreciated her the way he did and she ended up falling in love with him and pregnant with his child. As it turned out, The Gangster was married and his wife sent people to go and beat her near to death and she ended up losing her baby.

Like all families, there is conflict and tension between the members of the Wao family. Beli, the mother of Oscar and Lola, had been diagnosed with breast cancer. Lola responds by becoming goth and shaving her head all while taking care of her sick mother. The cancer eventually goes away but at dinner one night, Beli announced it had come back and Lola just asks her to pass the salt in response which causes Beli to hit Lola. Lola sees this as a chance to be free from her controlling mother once and for all and runs away to live with her boyfriend. Things were not going well at her boyfriend’s house, so Lola call Oscar to meet her at coffee shop where she sees her mother and uncle waiting for her. Lola runs and her mother chases her and falls, Lola rushes to help her but it turned out her mother had faked the fall. The members of the Wao family all went through many unfortunate events in their lives but they do not share them with each other. No one likes to talk about their past with each other which can lead to tension in a family.

Even though the novel, The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao is relatable mostly to Dominican readers, there are still aspects of the book that non-Dominican readers can relate to such as the struggles with love and family.

Guns, Germs, and Steel – Jarod Diamond: college application essay help

When reading Guns, Germs, and Steel, one may assume that the author has an extensive background with history, mainly focusing on prehistoric times. This assumption would be incorrect. Jarod Diamond, the author of Guns, Germs, and Steel (as well as The Third Chimpanzee, Collapse, and The World Until Yesterday) began his studies in physiology, which then turned into him also studying biology, geography, and many other disciplines as stated by his website (http://www.jareddiamond.org). Although his main interests are about the sciences, he continues to write books about the history of the world. This is because he does something that many authors cannot do: he uses his biology background to make sense of the world and how we got here. For example, on page 53, Diamond is talking about environmental effects on the Moriori and Maori people. To show how the environmental effects could affect these people, he brings up an example of placing lab rats in different environments to see what happened. Most historians would not think of an example like that; only someone with a biology background (such as Diamond) would. By using two disciplines to explain a topic, this forces the reader to not only think about the historical side of something, but also the biological side, thus expanding the readers knowledge on the topic.

One of Diamond’s central questions asks why did history unfold differently on different continents. He is trying to see and explain why some areas developed the way that they did. In part one, he uses each chapter to explain how a culture grew. For example, Diamond focused on Moriori and Maori in chapter two, and Cajamarca in chapter three. This question and answer is intriguing because it challenges the common perception that everything happened at the same time. It also makes people realize that humans did not exist everywhere in the beginning of time. They evolved from the great apes of Africa, and migrated from there and created families everywhere they stopped (36). Some people may disagree with Diamond’s ideas and say that humans may have evolved differently or that they did not travel to certain places in a certain order. He addresses this by stating what other historians think, explaining why they think that way, acknowledging that either theory could be correct, and continues on with what he believes about the situation.

One of the ways Jarod Diamond answers his question is to look at the fossils that were left behind. From this, he can tell who or what was in this area, what they did to survive, what they ate, how advanced they were, as well as during what time period they were in a particular area. By piecing together different bones, he can determine what type of animals existed in a particular area. For example, if he found Homo erectus bones, then he would know that they existed there. This can also apply to fossils not found in an area. If there are no fossils present, then we cannot be sure if a species lived in that area. Arrowheads, writing utensils, and spears that are found can also tell us if they had the technology to build and use these things for a purpose. Diamond also determines when these species were living, however his method differs from other historians. He uses calibrated radiocarbon dates instead of the usual uncalibrated radiocarbon dates because it provides dates that are closer to calendar dates. This can confuse readers because if they do not know the difference between the two, they may think they are receiving false information when they are actually seeing two correct dates that are relative based on calibration. I find this useful because it gives the date a meaning that is relative to the calendar that we use today. It makes it easier to create and connect a sequence of events.

One thing that Diamond does well in Guns, Germs, and Steel is taking other historians viewpoints into consideration. He recognizes that his way and thoughts is not the only way to think, and that other historians can disagree with him and still be correct. Diamond explains this on page 37 when he is talking about the earliest “X”. Here, he states that when someone finds the earliest existence of something (X), it challenges all other beliefs of when X first existed. He also acknowledges that it can take an extensive amount of research to confirm when X actually happened. This allows the reader to stay open minded, and to not be completely set on a fact because it can change when new information is found.

A weakness of part one would be that it can get pretty dull. For someone who does not gravitate towards history, this book can become very boring very fast. This then leads the reader to start to only read the words on the pages, rather than to comprehend and analyze them. When this happens, the reader could miss a lot of information, which leads to them rereading the same passage over and over again, adding to their frustration. To fix this, I would remove the parts where Diamond seemed to drone on about the same thing, as well as try to engage the reader more by forcing them to think critically about the topics they are reading.

The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot

Introduction

For the book club assignment, I chose to read The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot. The book was originally published in 2010 by Crown Publishers. However, the copy of the book I read was published in 2011 by Broadway Books, a partner of Crown Publishers. The book is about an African-American woman named Henrietta Lacks. She was diagnosed with cervical cancer and when she went to John Hopkins to be diagnosed and receive treatment, her tumor was biopsied and cultured. Her cells were grown and led to an immortal cell line. George Gey, the scientist who grew these cells, was the director of the lab at Hopkins and it was his work that helped to create this immortal cell line. The book explains how this ability to grow cells led to many medical breakthroughs including the testing of the polio vaccine and research about cancer cells. Although these breakthroughs have saved numerous lives and advanced modern medicine, the ethics of it is called into question. Henrietta did not know her cells were taken from her and used for research. Neither she nor her family were ever compensated for their contribution to advancing medicine. Finally, there was no informed consent and therefore, her cells, known as HeLa cells, have become a giant for profit business that is of no benefit to her children, husband, or other family members. I chose to read this book because I had heard of HeLa cells during my undergraduate coursework. I took a cell biology course and we discussed the benefits of the cells. However, as it talks about in the book, the medical advances were celebrated in my class but how the cells were grown was completely left out. I was curious to learn more about the famous HeLa and so I chose to read this book.

Summary of Contents

In part 1, titled Life, the first unethical situation arises. Henrietta had just been diagnosed with cervical cancer. She had discovered the tumor herself shortly after giving birth to her daughter Debora. The tumor had grown so fast that it was not in her medical charts. The doctor who diagnosed the cancer noted that after delivering the baby 6 weeks earlier, there was no note “made in the history at the time, or at the six weeks’ return visit” that would indicate cancer.1

As she traveled to John’s Hopkins, the nearest hospital that could treat her and treat other people of colors, she went to the doctor, told him where to look for the tumor and sure enough, a mass was found on her cervix. It is not known for sure in her case, but many black people were treated poorly by the doctors at this time.2 However, what she wasn’t told was that the doctor biopsied her cancerous tumor and was going to attempt to grow them outside the human bodied. She left the doctor with her diagnosis and her treatment of radium being inserted into the cervix and went home happily and peacefully.

Meanwhile, at the Gey labs at John’s Hopkins, Mr. Gey began to grow and cultivate the cells. It became an incredible breakthrough that would eventually lead to other immortal cell lines being grown. The new cells, called HeLa cells in this case, we’re going to become essential in discovering advances to treat diseases. However, the question remains: Did the doctor have any right to remove the tumor, experiment with the cells, all without telling the patient? It would appear that from a public health standpoint, the greater statistical number, or the population, was benefitted by the doctors taking the cells. However, on an individual level, it is a terrible precedent and very unethical that they would take the cells without asking her, without compensating the family. I believe this is a very crucial philosophical argument: What is the price to benefit the greater good? Part of the issue here is also that not only did they not inform her what they were planning on doing, they did not acknowledge her real name until an article appeared in 1973 that mentioned her name could be Henrietta Lacks and not Helen Lane.3

Another example of the unethical behaviors in the book come from one of the researchers who benefitted from the HeLa cells. Dr. Southam, a physician studying cancer, wanted to know if the cells could grow inside another person’s body. Using his terminal patients as guinea pigs, Dr. Southam injected the HeLa cells into the patients under the cover up that the injections were testing the immune systems of the patients. As a result of his experiment, he saw that cancer did grow in the patients. The cost however was that 4 patients could not have the cancer removed completely and one of the patients had the cancer metatisize through their body.4

He did not stop at these patients. Once proven they could grow in terminal patients, he wanted to see the cell effects on healthy patients. So, he found a population which could be coerced into doing things against their will, a prison population in Ohio. Instead of educating and promoting good health to this population, Dr. Southam decided to inject all the inmates with the cells and observe their reaction.4 He did learn a lot about resistance to cancer from these healthy inmates. However, as a public health official, he was not actively promoting good health. Rather, he was endangering the health of the population he was studying. The fact that this endangerment was occurring shows the lack of ethics used in this time period. Although good did come of it, one has to wonder if there could have been a better way for the research advances to be made.

Conclusion

In conclusion, The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks was a very difficult read. Not difficult as in hard to understand the words and meaning. Rather, difficult as in thought provoking and leaving a general feeling of uneasiness. The underlying issue of the ethics of medical research as well as how Henrietta Lacks was treated is put side by side with the advances in medicine that came because of the ability to culture her cells. This leaves an uneasy feeling in the stomach as one tries to wrestle with what is more important, the individual or the “greater good”. Understanding that statistics can be changed to justify one’s actions, I feel that the action taken has benefited society as a whole. However, as someone who aspires to become a full-time physician, the practice is completely unethical. In a perfect world, I would like to see the family of Henrietta be compensated today for the enormous breakthrough courtesy of her cells, especially considering the cell industry is now a multimillion dollar industry.5 It is terrible to read of her family and learn that after the death of their mother, her children were abused, molested, and suffered into adulthood because of these traumas. In my opinion, you can not put a price on a life. However, financial compensation is the least that could be done to support her family and possibly improve their socioeconomic status. Supposing that they could be compensated fairly, I would also like them to continue supporting research using the advances that have occurred so that more diseases and issues can potentially be solved. The cells have led to numerous breakthroughs and who knows how many more will come because of it. Yes, it is a cop out answer of staying right on the fence, yet I believe it is the correct answer.

This research has benefited the world. Public health is about population. The population is the patient and it is the job of public health professionals to do all they can to implement practices and policies that promote and sustain healhy populations. Because of the HeLa cells, population health was improved. While the book illustrates the clear unethical decisions made with regard to the HeLa cells, the Lacks family, and the other experiments mentioned, the advances made from studying her cells have led to medical breakthroughs. Vaccines, treatments, knowledge about infectious diseases, all have been influenced by the culture of immortal cell lines. Were it not for the cell line, perhaps these advances would not have occurred.6 Therefore, I believe that while unethical, Henrietta Lacks unknowingly advanced the field of public health and has contributed to making our society a healthier environment for all people.

American Democracy in Peril by William E. Hudson (the fifth challege): essay help free

Reading Response #2

The Fifth Challenge: Elections Without the People’s Voice

In the book “American Democracy in Peril,” the author William E. Hudson discusses eight challenges that America would face sometime in its history. In the fifth challenge, Hudson argues that, just like the Separation of Powers (discussed in the first chapter), elections are not an indicator of democracy but a tool that has become a major challenge to it. Hudson also argues that in order for elections to be democratic all citizens must have equal representation, elections must enforce deliberation about public policy issues and must control the government’s actions.

The equal representation in elections comes with the equal right to vote, where each individual has the same amount of power (one vote). However, what Hudson wants us to take out of this chapter is that equal representation seems to be violated in many ways. One of them being the way that the Senate is organized. Since the Senate is composed of two senators from each state, voters in the least populous states are more in control of the Senate than voters in larger states. As a result, twelve states containing less than 5 percent of the US population have control of a quarter of all the votes in the senate. Similarly, the House of Representatives also fails to represent a large number of people using the single-member plurality electoral system. This system gives “the victory in an election to the candidate who wins the plurality of votes in a district,” the result being that the individuals who didn’t vote for the winning candidate don’t get represented also violating equal representation. Hudson also accuses the Electoral College system of violating equal representation since it fails to represent all the voters, just like the Senate, and uses “the single-member plurality” electoral system’s tactics.

Still analyzing equal representation, or the lack of it, Hudson talks about money elections which I found very interesting. I was unaware that the candidates in political campaigns depended on funding to keep their campaigns alive. After reading the passage “The Money Election”, my opinion is that, in fact, campaign funding prevents equal representation and that all candidates’ political campaigns should be worth almost the same. This would allow all the candidates to have the same opportunities and, therefore, a fairer campaign not only for the candidates but also the voters who will have the chance to vote without a money election made first.

Similar to the equal representation, individuals in our society participate in public deliberations by voting. During the political campaigns, candidates will express their ideas and views so that the voters can vote. This vote is a way for the individuals to express what they expect their society to be and what changes they want to see, by voting in one candidate that has the same expectations and beliefs, and wants to achieve the same results. Also, the goal is for elections to enforce deliberation about public policy issues, however, it can get tricky when the sources that the voters use to get the information necessary for them to make a decision or deliberate are ineffective. According to Hudson, there are two main sources of information that the voters use for democratic deliberation–the news media and the campaigns–and they both have been failing to provide voters with useful content for democratic deliberation.

I completely agree with Hudson that the news media nowadays is not a reliable source of the candidates “serious proposals for addressing the country’s problems” (CITATION). I believe that this is mainly because the news industry main focus is not to deliver important and serious informative content, rather, its main focus is making news attractive and controversial to hold the attention of the viewers so that it could make more money. It cannot be forgotten that viewers are also guilty since they are the ones who feed this kind of news. As a result, when it comes to presidential elections, the news media has become a reliable source of drama between the candidates, political scandals, and all the less important issues that cannot be used for deliberating about public issues.

Campaigns are another source of information that the voters use for deliberation on public issues. However, these campaigns are being used a tool to transmit messages that will “stimulate a positive or negative reaction” on voters, where the ultimate aim is to win votes. Just like the news media, many campaigns don’t focus on promoting serious discussion on policy issues which makes it harder for individuals to deliberate over these same issues/policy issues and make a decision about who they are going to vote for.

After analyzing how elections are connected to equal representation and public deliberation, there’s still a need to understand how it controls the government’s actions. Hudson argues that since the elections are decided “on the basis of sound bites, debate gaffes,  and campaign image manipulation” they fail to really give us an idea of what the elected officials’ specific agenda is, and since they are already in power, these officials decide for themselves without the “democratic electorate’s control” (CITATION). Political parties tend to be the ones who/that try to enforce the voters’ control over the government’s actions by making policies that reflect their voters’ preferences. Also, these parties help the voters to hold someone responsible if they don’t agree with what happens after the elections. One thing that makes this possible is that now political parties have different sets of “principles, ideas, and policies” that allow voters to differentiate them, and also allows parties to compete in elections. In conclusion, Hudson believes that if the elections fail to control the government’s actions is/it’s not because the parties stopped being in favor of the voters, but because there was no equal representation or significant deliberation during the election.

The Great Depression – biggest causes: college application essay help

The Great Depression was one the worst time periods in American history. The Great Depression started in 1929 and ended in 1939. It started in America with the crash of the stock market and then later began to have a big impact globally. As shown in Document 1, the Great Depression was the worst economic downfall in American history. Millions of people were left unemployed and searching for nonexistent jobs. It was a common sight to see children begging on the roads. Furthermore, banks started to fail and people started to lose any savings that they had. Overall, the main causes of the Great Depression were the stock market crash of 1929, the reduction in purchasing, and the abuse of the major economic ideas.

The stock market crash of 1929 was the biggest cause of the Great Depression. The stock market crash impacted millions of American people. Before the stock market crash, many Americans were getting greedy. They were continuously buying more and more. As described in Document 10 after the Americans “bought all they can afford they go on buying, a little down and the rest in easy payments.” (Document 10). This method of buying with installments was bad for the economy. Elmer Davis foreshadows the Great Depression when he states, “the bill will be all the larger when it finally has to be faced.” (Document 10). Another reason that Americans got greedy was the speculative boom in the stock market. As described in Document 5 there was a “speculative boom that developed with increasing intensity in the years after 1927.” (Document 5). The speculative boom made Americans greedy as they were hoping to make quick profits from the speculative rise. However, as more Americans began to invest in stocks, the prices started to be forced upwards. These forced up prices were a result of “competitive bidding rather than by any fundamental improvement in American (business).” (Document 5).  As a result of the speculative boom, investors bought more stocks. However, when the stock market crashed, the investors with the most stock were trying to get rid of it as fast as possible. This lead to the stock prices being dropped drastically. This is shown in the newspaper title in Document 3 which is “Stock prices slump $14,000,000,000 in nation-wide stampede to unload” (Document 3). The drop in prices would have been a good way to jumpstart the economy, but Americans were no longer buying anything. Most Americans stopped buying stocks which was worse for the economy since it cannot grow without consumers. Overall, the stock market crash of 1929 was one of the greatest causes of the Great Depression because it completely dropped the prices of all stocks and put millions of Americans into poverty.

After the stock market crash of 1929, many Americans were reluctant to buy anything. Also, many Americans were too poor to be able to buy anything besides the absolute necessities. After the stock market crash, many Americans lost their jobs. As shown in the table in Document 4, unemployment rates were drastically rising after the stock market crash. Without jobs, Americans could not purchase anything and this made the country continue downwards. Maintaining a family became extremely hard since many adults were losing their jobs. The hardships of family life are further explained in Document 7 where the average mill worker describes her daily lifestyle. In her story, she explains that her income combined with her husbands is just barely enough to support her entire family. This means that the average family did not have much money leftover to spend on other items and luxuries. The table in Document 9 further supports this argument because it shows the average US family income distribution. After the stock market crash, nearly 60% of American family’s annual income was under the poverty line (Document 9). This showed that the families under the poverty line could not afford anything other than the absolute necessities which meant that they could not purchase other luxuries. Overall, the reduction in purchasing was one of the causes of the Great Depression and it was happening because of the unemployment which led to a lack of money.

The abuse of economic ideas was one of the smaller causes of the Great Depression. As described in the background essay, the 4 major economic ideas are the law of supply and demand, say’s law, the business cycle, and the stock market (Background essay, 437-439). Before the Great Depression started, American people were breaking some of these economic ideas. As described in Document 6, “consumers bought goods on installment at a rate faster than their income was expanding” (Document 6). By buying goods on installment, it meant that people would pay over time. This purchasing style was okay in the beginning but after a while, it had serious consequences since many people were gaining debt and their income wasn’t capable of paying the installments. Also, this type of purchasing broke the law of supply and demand since the supply and demand for goods remained the same, but people didn’t have money to buy goods and had to use installment. This meant that there would be a time where people would stop buying which would lead to a sap in the economy (Document 6). Furthermore, Document 10 describes that people continued buying even after they couldn’t afford it. This shows that people broke the business cycle because usually if people stopped buying after they couldn’t afford it, then production slowed and workmen were fired. However, in the years before the Great Depression, people used installments and continued buying which broke the business cycle. Additionally, the farming economy also started to abuse the law of supply and demand. Farmers started to overproduce items in hopes of being able to sell more. However, this overproduction backfired and as shown in Document 11 the prices of goods completely dropped. The farm industry fell as farmers were forced to sell their goods at a very low price. Overall, the abuse of economic ideas impacted the Great Depression since people started paying with installments and breaking the business cycle and the law of supply and demand.

In conclusion, the Great Depression was caused by many different factors. The greatest cause for the Great Depression was the stock market crash of 1929 which put millions of Americans into poverty and made many lose their jobs. Additionally, the Great Depression was also caused by the reduction in purchasing since many were unemployed and couldn’t afford to purchase anything besides the absolute necessities. The reduction in purchasing also kept the economy down since it can’t grow without consumers. Furthermore, the abuse of the major economic ideas also had an impact on the Great Depression. Overall, the stock market crash of 1929, the reduction in purchasing, and the abuse of the major economic ideas were the three major causes for the Great Depression.

An Abundance of Katherines by John Green

Synopsis.

The novel I studied is “An Abundance of Katherines” that was written by John Green. This book was published on September 2016 by Dutton and Speak. The genre of this book is fiction. The main characters are Colin Singleton, who is anagram-loving seventeen-year-old boy who is depressed. Hassan Harbish who is Colin’s lazy, funny, and slightly overweight best, and only, friend. Lindsey Lee Wells who Colin and Hassan on their road trip in Gutshot, Tennessee. Hollis Wells, Lindsey’s mother. She is an extreme workaholic. The conflict of this story occurs between Colin and the other Colin when Colin Singleton finds the other Colin cheating on Lindsey. The other Colin threatened Colin if he told Lindsey and Colin was forced to decide to tell Lindsey or not. Though Colin made his decision to tell Lindsey what happened. This lead to her breaking up with the other Colin and a very brutal beating for Colin Singleton and his best friend Hassan.

Colin Singleton is a child prodigy who is fearing he will not grow to become an adult prodigy. After being dumped by his girlfriend, Katherine XIX, Colin is looking for his “missing piece” longing to feel whole, and longing to matter. He hopes to accomplish his goal of becoming a genius by having a “eureka” moment. Over the span of his life, Colin has dated nineteen girls named Katherine, all spelled in that manner. In these relationships, Colin remembers only the Katherine dumping him.

After graduating from high school, and before college, Colin’s best and only friend, Hassan Harbish, convinces him to go on a road trip with him to take his mind off the breakup. Colin goes along with the idea, hoping to find his “eureka” moment on the way. After driving all the way from Chicago to Tennessee, they come across the alleged resting place of the body of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. There, they meet Lindsey Lee Wells. After a short time, Colin and Hassan find themselves employed by Hollis, Lindsey’s mother who runs a local factory that is currently producing tampon strings. They live with their employer and her daughter in a rural town called Gutshot, Tennessee. The employment she sends them on is to interview all current adult residents of Gutshot and assemble an oral history of the town. As time passes, Colin finds himself becoming attracted to Lindsey, though matters are somewhat complicated by her on-again, off-again boyfriend Colin. He and Hassan call him TOC which means “the other Colin”. Our Colin, the prodigy, is still chasing his eureka moment, finally finding it in his theorem he created called the Theorem of Underlying Katherine Predictability. It is meant to determine the curve of any relationship based on several factors of the personalities of the two people in a relationship. It would predict the future of any two people. His theorem eventually works for all but one of his past relationships with a Katherine. It is later discovered by Colin that he had dumped this Katherine (Katherine III), rather than the other way around. The graphs all make perfect sense at this juncture. As Colin’s story is revealed to the reader, we find that K-19 was also the first of the Katherines, “Katherine the Great.” While the back stories of Colin’s life play out, Hassan gets a girlfriend, Katrina, a friend of Lindsey’s. The relationship is cut short when Colin and Hassan catch Katrina having sex with TOC while on a feral hog hunt with Lindsey, her friends and Colin’s father. A fight between TOC and all of the surrounding acquaintances begins when Lindsey finds out that he’s been cheating on her. While recovering from a knee whack to the groin, Colin anagrams the Archduke’s name while in the grave yard to dull the pain, and realizes that it is actually Lindsey’s great-grandfather, named Fred N. Dinzanfar, that is buried in the tomb.

Colin finds Lindsey at her secret hideout in a cave that she had shown him previously, where he tells her the story of every Katherine he has ever loved. Lindsey tells him that she feels so self-centered, claiming that she does not feel sad but instead slightly relieved by TOC’s affair. They discuss what it means to them to “matter” and eventually confess their love for each other. As their relationship continues, Colin decides to use his dating formula to determine whether or not he and Lindsey will last. The graph reveals that they will only last for four more days. Lindsey then slips a note under his door, four days later, stating that she cannot be his girlfriend because she is in love with Hassan. But she leaves a P.S. stating that she is joking. Colin realizes that his theorem cannot predict the future of a relationship; it can only shed light on why a relationship failed. Despite this, Colin is content with not “mattering”. Hassan also states that he is applying for two college classes, which Colin has been trying to convince him to do throughout the book. The story ends with the trio driving to a nearby Wendy’s. Lindsey states her desire to just “keep going and not stop.” Colin takes her advice, as a transcendental and ecstatic feeling of a “connection” with Lindsey, Hassan, and everyone not in the car surges through him. He has finally found peace and happiness via connection with other people, rather than from the pursuit of distinguishing himself from everyone, feeling “non-unique in the very best way possible.”

Tones, themes of the story and issues presented by the Author.

There are many tones in this novel such as happy, insecure, and hopeless. For the first one, happy. Mrs. Harbish shook her head and pursed her lips. “Don’t I tell you,” she said in accented English, “not to mess with girls? Hassan is a good boy, doesn’t do this ‘dating.’ And look how happy he is. You should learn from him.” (chapter 3, paragraph 15) In a lot of ways, Hassan’s mom is right, Colin would be much happier if he didn’t mess around with the Katherines. He couldn’t whine about them dumping him then. On the other hand, we’re not sure Hassan really qualifies as the best sample of happiness; he even admits later on that he’s lazy and should do something else with his life.

The next tone would be insecure. With all the nasty back-and-forth, Colin fought the urge to ask Katherine whether she still loved him, because the only thing she hated more than his saying she didn’t understand was his asking whether she still loved him. He fought the urge and fought it and fought it. For seven seconds. (chapter 5, paragraph 85) That’s a really long time to wait. Oh wait, it look longer than seven seconds to read that sentence. That’s the whole point: Colin is so impatient and needy when it comes to love. He can’t just leave Katherine alone for one minute without asking her if she loves him, which sounds both pretty insecure and pretty annoying. The last tone is hopeless. “Technically.” Colin answered, “I think I might have already wasted it.” Maybe it was because Colin had never once in his life disappointed his parents: he did not drink or do drugs or smoke cigarettes or wear black eyeliner or stay out late or get bad grades or pierce his tongue or have the words “KATHERINE LUVA 4 LIFE” tattooed across his back. Or maybe they felt guilty, like somehow they’d failed him and brought him to this place. (chapter 3, paragraph 7) After he tells his parents about the road trip, he lets them in on a secret: his potential is already wasted. We’re not so sure about that. You can still have hopes and dreams and be an all-star even if you don’t have a huge eureka moment. Too bad Colin doesn’t believe that.

Themes of the story is life, consciousness and existence. Not to go all parental on you, but it’s time to ask some heavy-hitting questions: what do you want to do with your life? What’s the purpose of life? If you’re in high school, chances are your parents are always bugging you about which college you want to go to, or what major you want to take. It’s the norm for us to think about these things when we get to those teenage years, and Colin and Hassan are plagued by these questions too in An Abundance of Katherines. And in true young adult novel form, they come up with different answers to these questions. Colin wants to study, study, study, while Hassan is happy watching TV and doing nothing. The thing is though, both of them start to reconsider their life’s goals and path towards the end of the story.

The first issue that has been presented by the author in “An Abundance Of Katherines” the boy who’s been dumped several times which is Colin Singleton. He feels a desperate need for people to remember and appreciate him. In the beginning of the story, once Katherine the 19th (is what he called her) dumped him because she felt that he was more into being the only smart person around and cared too much about being told how much she cared about him than the relationship itself. As soon as it happened, Colin had felt broken especially since she was his first “actual” love and had dated her for a year and eight months. Hassan who’s Colin’s loyal and dearest best friend, wanted to do anything to cheer him up so he took him on a road trip. Colin thought that no one really appreciated him as a person, and they didn’t care about him after Katherine dumped him. So Hassan wanted to prove a theory that if he went on this road trip with him, it would get his mind off of the break up with Katherine the 19th. Little did he know that he was about to have his whole perspective on himself changed for the better. Hassan and Colin drove to Gunshot, Tennessee and found a extremely attractive tour guide named Lindsey who he automatically grows a connection with. While the tourist started to give both Hassan and Colin the tour on Archeduke, he realizes Lindsey had only dated one person who’s named Colin. Except, her Colin as Hassan calls him “TOC” which means “The Other Colin” is the complete opposite of Colin Singleton. TOC was a jerk lets put it that way. As Colin and Hassan stay in Gunshot, they start to get to know Lindsey better. And Colin, let’s say he’s falling in love again, it’s going to be tough for him since he knows she has a boyfriend. TOC starts to show his true colors as the story progresses. Lindsey finds out that Colin had been cheating on her with the hottie with a body, Katrina. Lindsey is beyond upset as soon as she finds out. Once Colin found out, he relieved Lindsey from those negative feelings that she had. I mean, a break-up isn’t always an easy thing to get over, and Colin knew exactly how she felt. One quote that really stuck out to me through this main issue is when Lindsey tells Colin: “If people could see me the way I see myself – if they could live in my memories – would anyone love me?” That quote stuck out to me because it shows that it’s not just Colin who feels like no one appreciates him or cares about him, but Lindsey does too. And it’s good for Colin knowing that he has someone who also knows how it feels when it comes to someone loving him. That quote and both Colin and Lindsey both show that they lose themselves after a tough break-up. It took Colin a while to be himself again, and he’s willing to help Lindsey get over the break up and be herself again. The next issue is, the journey of getting know ourselves. Are you unique? What makes you, you? That’s one of the big questions An Abundance of Katherines asks us to think about. We’ve got a washed-up child prodigy who wants to matter, but he’s just not sure if he’s unique any more. Then we’ve got Lindsey who’s faked it so much that she’s one big phony most of the time. She wants to fit in, so she pretends to be nerdy, ditzy, southern just to do so. It’s easy to lose sight of who we really are deep down in our cores, and this book is all about questing to get in touch with our true selves. The last issue would be Person vs. Self because Colin is a child prodigy trying to be a genius. Colin wants to do something big with the way he lives his life. Like become a genius. He needs to discover himself and what he’s meant to be here for before he becomes a genius. He’s been dumped so many times throughout his life. He dates girls named Katherine, all spelled in that manner. The conflict is resolved because he comes up with an equation to calculate how long until or why he gets dumped.

Critical Analysis.

The novel I studied is “An Abundance of Katherines” that was written by John Green. This book was published on September 2016 by Dutton and Speak. The genre of this book is fiction. The main characters are Colin Singleton, who is anagram-loving seventeen-year-old boy who is depressed. Hassan Harbish who is Colin’s lazy, funny, and slightly overweight best, and only, friend. Lindsey Lee Wells who Colin and Hassan on their road trip in Gutshot, Tennessee. Hollis Wells, Lindsey’s mother. She is an extreme workaholic. The conflict of this story occurs between Colin and the other Colin when Colin Singleton finds the other Colin cheating on Lindsey. The other Colin threatened Colin if he told Lindsey and Colin was forced to decide to tell Lindsey or not. Though Colin made his decision to tell Lindsey what happened. This lead to her breaking up with the other Colin and a very brutal beating for Colin Singleton and his best friend Hassan.

The main idea of the work is the boy who’s been dumped several times which is Colin Singleton. An Abundance of Katherines follows with Colin Singleton, a prodigy with an obsession for anagramming. Colin has a very specific type when it comes to the opposite sex: he only dates girls called Katherine. And so far, he’s been dumped by 19 of them. We follow Colin as he ventures into the unknown on a road trip with his best friend, Hassan. He encounters all sorts of things on his travels, from feral satan hogs to scrabble. The structure of this novel jumps around and is not in chronological order, it goes to flash backs of Colin’s past and then goes to the future again and does this repeatedly throughout the novel. The novel is third person omniscient and a quote from the novel is “As Hassan screamed, Colin thought, oh right, should have flushed.” which this point of view is significant throughout the book because the reader is not stuck reading about the same person the whole time. Also there is no bias in this novel.

I loved the plot of this book. Normally, road trips just annoy me because it is far too cliche. But, in this book, it really works. A road trip is perfect for Colin, as the ever-changing, exciting and foreign atmosphere is just like him. As the scenery changes, Colin changes as a person. I couldn’t help but see a deeper meaning in this story. On the surface, it is the tale of a prodigy on a road trip, but there is so much more than that. The novel carries some very important messages about fitting in and about trying to see logic in everything. In the hands of some authors, this would become a cheesy parable. Luckily, Green is skilled enough to make it sincere. He understands teenagers, particularly those who are nerdy and socially awkward. This gives the book a friendlier tone, which is great. What I don’t really like about this book is how Colin needs to go through a few heartbreaks and it was all came all the way from those girls named Katherines. Those Katherines should have not left him at the first place for they should have appreciated Colin for loving them so much. But finally, he hurt himself. Nineteen times of heartbreaks for he had fallen for nineteen girls named Katherines.

Dating nineteen girls, all coincidentally named Katherine seems to be a ridiculous phenomenon to a teenager whose age is only 17. This might not happen in reality. Such phenomenon can be considered as something fancy. The author here employs magical realism as he is able to translate his experiences into something that seems to be fictional in his literary work. Through writing An Abundance of Katherines, he was able to inculcate fantastical elements that were drawn from reality. The possibility of dating nineteen Katherines in a span of 17 years is quite remote, but the author managed to turn it into something fictional and at the same time realistic. A major part of this book is The Theorem of Underlying Katherine Predictability. This is a complicated idea that Colin comes up with, and it’s basically a graph that can supposedly predict when and how two people will break up. Personally, I found the idea that love can be graphed really interesting, but it might bore some readers. Luckily, you don’t need to understand the maths to enjoy the plot. The theorem is really just a vehicle to show how Colin is a prodigy, and to help him reach his final conclusion that “The future is unpredictable.” and I do think that the formula is biased. It only represented and summarized only what happened in the past and is not a viable representation of what happens in the future. This can be applied to real life. Sometimes we stick into something objective that we fail to realize that there are missing pieces that we do not consider. We tend to be close-minded and miss opportunities in life. In life, we sometimes have to take risks and modify our own formulas. To conclude, An Abundance of Katherines is a fantastically nerdy coming-of-age road trip that I would recommend to John Green fans and self-proclaimed nerds everywhere, as well as anyone who needs some good life advice.

Recommendations.

Based on the novel I studied, an issue that had been chosen for recommendations is the boy who’s been depressed for get dumped several times which is Colin Singleton. He feels a desperate need for people to remember and appreciate him. A recommendation on this issue is we as a human being we need to know on how to appreciate others most likely to be those people who is close to us such as family and friends by treating them right. Their existence matters. Not until to the point where they desperately need people to remember and appreciate them. We as the people who had known them well, close to them somehow need to understand them more because people who goes through depression needs support as well. Next, talk to them more often. Don’t ignore them because you will make them feel alone until the feel they were born to deserve no one is life. Depression people needs company. A good company. Talk to them about anything as long as they feel they have someone then that is okay. They might need someone to have a conversation with but were so afraid to talk to anyone since they know they will get ignored by the people. Last but not least, as a close friend to the people who goes through depression we need to always cheer them up by not letting them down the same thing Hassan Harbish did. He is the only best friend Colin has. So he took Colin out for a road trip so that Colin can calm himself a little bit.

Awareness and treatment of breast cancer: college application essay help

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “About 40,000 women and 400 men in the U.S. die each year from breast cancer,” (CDC, 2016). For ages now, breast cancer awareness has reached out to communities all over the country, yet most of us do not concern ourselves with this particular cause. We tend to not care about this sort of issues in the world unless it happens to be inflicted upon those closest to us, such as our friends, and family. We tend to ignore the fact that we are not totally immune to a certain disease just because it does not show up in our family’s history. Every woman and men has the risk of developing breast cancer, however, this issue can be properly taken care of only when you are fully aware of the disease.

To start off, it is still unclear to researchers as to why breast cancer unexpectedly appears, however, they have come up with some theories that may explain it all, genetic mutation being one of them. Within the article provided by the Mayo Clinic Health Letter it states that “Although only 5 to 10 percent of breast cancers are attributed to inherited genetic mutations, the presence of these mutations can significantly influence the likelihood of developing the disease” (“Mayo Clinic”, 2016). I believe that our genes play a huge role in the presence of all types of diseases and disorders. With an incredibly strong family history of cancer, it has been determined that certain inherited mutated genes, in our case are BRCA1 and BRCA2, will have an impact on increasing the risk of breast cancer. The BRCA genes are initially created to act as a suppressor gene, keeping our cells replicating at a steady pace, but can perform the exact opposite when altered. Our cells will rapidly develop in an abnormal speed, located in the lobules, ducts, or tissues, which will then form lumps in your breast. These abnormal cells are said to be malignant tumors that initially start in the breast, and can spread to the lymph nodes and such. Another cause could be due to our menstruation and age. Once we are exposed to the hormone estrogen, there is then an increase in risk for breast cancer.

Breast cancer is not just limited to the people in the U.S., but has been occurring worldwide for centuries. In Third World countries, they are less likely to develop breast cancer, however, it cannot be said the same for more economically developed countries. Because of the changes in our reproductive factors, our lifestyles, and a rise in life expectancy, the incidence rate for developing countries have greatly escalated. For example, North America is shown to have the highest breast cancer rate in the globe, while the lowest rate would be in East Asia. Therefore, white and African American women have a higher chance than Hispanic and Asian women. In the European Journal of Cancer, it states how “It is generally accepted that breast cancer risk factors, which have mainly been studied in Western populations are similar worldwide. However, the presence of gene–environment or gene–gene interactions may alter their importance as causal factors across populations” (“European”, 2013). This statement is completely accurate, because many countries obtain similar risk factors, such as late childbearing, obesity, old age, avoiding breastfeeding, alcohol, hormone level, diet, and so on. But at the same time, what we intake, our traditions, and even alcohol consumption, which is basically our environment makes a difference. On another note, on the year of 2015, it was presumed that a little more than two-hundred thousand women would be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, sixty-thousand with non-invasive breast cancer, and about forty-thousand deaths in just the United States alone.

Early detection of breast cancer is crucial in saving a life, so it is first important to know how the disease will present itself. Checking your body regularly is highly recommended for all women. Some symptoms of breast cancer include a lump in the breast, a discharge of the nimples, a breast that has swollen up, skin irritation, and any physical changes in the breast and nipples. Then there is the subject of diagnosing breast cancer, which is a whole other matter. Those with breast cancer would need to go through a breast ultrasound, a mammogram, and an MRI testing. These are all done by a radiological technician. A radiological technician’s job is to use certain machines to capture images of structures deep inside the breast. For a breast ultrasound, sound waves are produced to create sonograms to verify if the lump is either a solid mass or is a fluid-filled cyst. A mammogram is simply a breast screening. And for an MRI testing, the system operates on magnetic fields and radio waves to capture a model of the interior body. Patients can also receive a biopsy, in which they proceed to remove tissue or fluid in your breast, and brings the test to the lab for examination. A biopsy offers a conclusive result; it determines whether your cells are indeed cancerous, the types of cells that are involved, if the cell is aggressive, etc. Once the diagnosis is completed and the patient is positive for breast cancer, the patient next undergoes a process called staging. This helps determine if the cancer cells have spread, and also the stage that the patient is in. It allows your doctor to decide what kind of treatment would be recommended with consideration to your health.

Finally, there are various ways when trying to treat breast cancer. It depends on certain types of factors, such as, the stages that you are in, the type of breast cancer that you have, your general health, and even your preferences that can make a difference. Surgery is typically suggested only towards patients with small size tumors, and those medical procedures are called lumpectomy and mastectomy. These procedures are used as an attempt to surgically remove the entire tumor, however, there are also treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hormonal therapy that can be given after surgery in order to shrink the remainder cancer cells. Chemotherapy is used to end the cancer cells reproducing cycle by utilizing common drugs, for example, methotrexate, vinorelbine, etc. Hormonal therapy on the other hand stops the hormones from reaching to the cancer cells by use of the drug, tamoxifen. It is even stated in the Systemic therapy: Hormonal therapy for cancer article that “5 years of tamoxifen after surgery reduces the annual recurrence rate by 41% and annual mortality rate by 34%.” (Jacinta & John, 2016). It can be used for even more than five years for better results.

In conclusion, being aware of breast cancer will definitely help us become prepared for a surprise appearance. To understand the cause, detect it, and then treat it is something that every woman and men should be aware of. This is not a matter that can be taken lightly. With a great amount of lives already been lost, who is to say that it couldn’t have been prevented with the right amount of knowledge.

Hua-gu-deng Dance

Dance is a universal understanding accepted by all. The varieties of dance forms that exist within the world are infinite. Two interesting and comparable dance styles are Hua-gu-deng Dance, which is a typical Chinese dance form, and ballet, a classical style originating from Europe. Both genres of dance have distinct features that make them unique from each other and other branches of dance.

Ballet originated as a court dance, and then later transformed into a performing art. Ballet has its own terminology in the French language; the language of ballet can be used in any country and it will have the same definition. According to the Atlanta Ballet, A Brief History of Ballet, “The official terminology and vocabulary of ballet was gradually codified in French over the next 100 years, and during the reign of Louis XIV.” At the time, the King of France performed many of the beloved dances. Ballet became a staple art form in countries like Russia, Italy, and France who fostered the importance of ballet. In France, King Louis XIV generated the Académie Royale de Danse, and he established requirements and began certifying instructors. Ballet’s popularity began declining in France after 1830. Today, ballet is still very popular and can be found all around the world. Ballet has still held on to its traditional roots with very little changes to the style. The French language is still used to define movements and the historic technique types have remained the same. The only aspect that slightly differs from historic ballet is the methods used to practice it: for instance, Italy practices the Cecchetti method of ballet. Besides the different methods of ballet, there are sub-categories of ballet; these distinct dance styles all have slight variations, yet they stay true to their roots. One variation of ballet is Neo-classical ballet. Neo-classical ballet popularized in the 20th century by talented individuals such as George Balanchine. This style of ballet is fast-paced, has more energy, can be asymmetrical, does not tell a story, and focuses on aesthetic. On the other hand, classical ballet is graceful and fluid, balanced and symmetrical, it always is a narrative dance, and elaborate costumes and sets are preferred.  Another more modern style of ballet is contemporary ballet. Contemporary ballet is greatly influenced by modern dance. It includes floor work, more body movement and greater range of the bodyline, and it can be danced in pointe shoes or barefoot. During the 19th century, the Romantic Movement was occurring. Most ballets created during this era had endearing, loving themes and they often portrayed women as passive and fragile. In today’s world, ballet has moved away from the constraints of classical ballet and has begun including “plot-less” ballets with darker, deeper meanings.

Classical Chinese dance, more specifically Hua-gu-deng dance, has been around for thousands of years. Hua-gu-deng dance has played a major role in the cultural development of the Chinese; it originated from the Huai River in eastern China. Classical Chinese dance has been around for nearly 5,000 years. With every changing era and dynasty in China, the dance tradition has adapted and combined aesthetics with its distinct dynamic content, rhythms, and narrative. Classical Chinese dance goes back to the Qin Dynasty. Each dynasty that followed the Qin Dynasty created different and specific dance elements. Classical Chinese dance has three main factors that are focused on during training: technical skill, form, and bearing. Technical skill encompasses any acrobatic movements such as flips, jumps, leaps, turns, aerial tricks etc. Form, the second aspect of classical Chinese dance, is referring to the way in which the dancers move their bodies from one movement to another. The movement is usually very circular and full, similar to modern dance: modern dance tends to have round and flowing movements that are loose and asymmetrical. Every movement in the form of classical Chinese dance is choreographed. Breathing is also very crucial to Chinese dance. Dancers are taught how and when to breathe. All movements in this dance form must be round and full. In classical Chinese dance, a vital element named “bearing” is the inner spirit of the dancer. By emphasizing “bearing”, the dancer is able to extenuate the deeper meanings of dance and create a further understanding of the narrative. It is in this “bearing” that classical Chinese dance carries the ancient characteristics of its culture.

How did the Nazi party garner support? – Conformity and obedience

In 1933, Adolf Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany. His Nazi party had grown in size from a small party to becoming the rulers of Germany. The Nazis were fascist and they used their racist ideas as an excuse to commit atrocious crimes. Despite all the crimes they committed, the Nazis were very popular. Hitler got to power despite having ideas that people would not tolerate or support. Indeed we know that the Nazi ideals were racists and bigots, so how did they receive such support from a society of people who were so democratic?

Conformity and obedience plays a big role in this ordeal.

Conformity can be a behavior to follow certain standards that a group may expect.

Conformity can be both good and bad. Every culture has its own practices that other cultures might find a bit “awkward”. Although awkward to one culture, some practices are completely normal in other cultures. Slavery is an example of this. Even at the height of slavery, some cultures detested the idea of keeping a human being in bondage and withhold their freedom from them. These cultures took great strides to outlaw slavery in their land. Indeed different cultures value different beliefs, however, even in the same culture, some people might have different views. During the height of slavery in America, there were those who believed that slavery was wrong, but they themselves owned slaves. This included Thomas Jefferson, who was known to have as much as 175 slaves despite referring to slavery as an “assemblage of horrors”. Despite being fully aware that slavery was wrong, many people participated in slavery because that was the way of life for the culture. The same could be said of the Nazi party. Many Germans believed that the treatment of Jews by the Nazi party was unfair and wrong, however, not many people questioned it. In that period of time and in that society, it was normal for people to think that anyone that wasn’t Aryan was subhuman. Anyone who had different views was thought to be odd. No one dared to question this belief because they did not want to be considered a Jewish sympathiser. Anyone who tried to help the Jews during their persecution was subject to severe repercussions.

The Nazi party that took control of Germany blamed the Jews for the depression that Germany faced and for losing the war. They started implementing laws that limited the rights of the Jews even though Jews were German citizens. Properties that belonged to Jewish households were confiscated and Jews were ordered to concentration camps where six million would go on to lose their lives. How did a country which was known for its democratic idealism succumb to such fascist state? Obedience. Germans believed that Hitler would be the one to bring Germany from their economic depression. Germans were outraged because they felt their leaders betrayed them after the first world war. Hitler promised to bring to Germany political and economic stability, which he did. He was very popular among the German people and so not many people questioned him when he became the Fuhrer of Germany. As Fuhrer, he ordered the Jews to be isolated and sent to prison camps, many not only failed to question his decisions, they supported it. They also supported his decision to invade Poland and eventually France, sparking the second world war. After the war, German soldiers were tried in court and they justified their actions because they said they were just following orders. How could people commit such horrid crimes fully knowing that what they were doing was wrong? Sometimes these may be symptoms of obedience.

The German Jews were a minority group, so it was easy for other German groups to isolate them from the rest German society. Because they were the minority group, Hitler was able to capitalize on that and create an “us vs them” mentality against them. The German Jews were easy to isolate because they had a different religion and culture from average Germans.

Aryan Germans were able to distance themselves from this group which had different. This gave Germans an excuse to place them in a class that was viewed as subhuman. This was the same tactic used by the Europeans to colonize and conquer the rest of the world. They believed that the humans residing in the places they conquered had little to no right to govern themselves because they were subhuman, so they could not possibly be trusted to govern themselves.

Another reason Germans allowed the Nazi party to commit crimes to humanity was because they felt they just following orders from their Fuhrer. Hitler was a man who according to the German people kept his promises. He promised to bring Germany back from the recession and he did; something the German government had struggled with until then. He also promised to restore Germany to the once great nation it had been and to unite all the Germans in the world under one flag. The Germans placed such high hopes in Hitler that they gave him the highest authority in the country. After Hitler was declared the Fuhrer, he was known as the most powerful man in Germany and he was very popular with his countrymen. To defy the orders of the hero of Germany would have been seen as an act of treason. They believed that if they did not obey Hitler, they must not have the best interest to Germany. To defy Hitler was to defy Germany as well. No patriot would want to go against the best interest of his country. Even if they knew their actions were evil, they did it regardless because Hitler ordered it; Germany ordered it. Even if it meant killing innocent people, Germans were willing to follow the orders of their Fuhrer because he represented the collective mind of the whole country. A country is nothing if the citizens can not follow the orders of its leaders.

The Nazi party was a great example of how conformity and obedience could lead us to do things that we may feel is wrong. It was easier for them to commit these crimes because they convinced the majority to think it was ok to do these things. They also used the trust of the people in their government to their advantage. People are more willing to listen to commands if there is a higher authority directing them. Hitler utilized obedience and conformity to rule a country of intellectuals and to lead the country into a war that took so many lives. It is easy to say that we won’t do bad things even if someone forces us, but history says otherwise.

Sometimes we don’t even have to be forced, we just have to believe in authority and isolate groups of people.

Works Cited

Andrews, Evan. “How Many U.S. Presidents Owned Slaves?” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 19 July 2017,
www.history.com/news/ask-history/how-many-u-s-presidents-owned-slaves.
crashcourse. “Social Influence: Crash Course Psychology #38.” YouTube, YouTube, 11 Nov. 2014, www.youtube.com/watch?v=UGxGDdQnC1Y&t=416s.

Influence of the Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde on popular culture: college essay help near me

The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, a title you may not have heard of before but is a story you definitely know. In order for you to understand the topics discussed in this article, you need to understand the plot of the novel, so here is a quick summary.

Basically, there is a well-known doctor named Henry Jekyll who has a lawyer/friend named Mr. Utterson. Mr. Utterson admires his friend very much , but is concerned when Dr. Jekyll has him write up a very strange will naming his entire estate to a man named Edward Hyde, whom Utterson has never heard of before. The will is odd because it states that

“in case of the decrease of Henry Jekyll, M.D., D.C.L., L.L.D., F.R.S., etc, all his possessions were to pass into the hands of his “friend and benefactor Edward Hyde,” but that in case of Dr. Jekyll’s “disappearance or unexplained absence for any period of time exceeding three calendar months,” the said Edward Hyde should step into the said Henry Jekyll’s shoes without further delay and free from any burthen or obligation, beyond the payment of a few small sums to the members of the doctor’s household (Stevenson, 39).”

Utterson begins to investigate Mr. Hyde and is told a story about a brute of a man who knocked down a little girl in the street near where Dr. Jekyll lives, everyone on the street yelled at the rude man, and the man offered to pay a large sum of money to the family of the girl. He then disappeared  through the door of Dr. Jekyll’s home and office, only to return with a large check drawn from Dr. Jekyll’s bank account. Utterson is appalled by this story and goes to talk to Mr. Hyde himself. He hunts down Mr. Hyde and describes him as a man with evil oozing out of his pores. He then asks Dr. Jekyll about these odd arrangements. Dr. Jekyll refuses to comment, and nothing happens for about a year… Skip ahead to one year later where the brutal murder of a popular public politician occurs and Mr. Hyde is the one and only suspect. Everyone tries to hunt down this evil man, but no one succeeds and it is forgotten. But during this whole situation with Mr. Hyde, Dr. Jekyll is in excellent health and is throwing dinner parties for his friends, including a certain Dr. Lanyon. Once again, skip to 2 months later, where Dr. Lanyon and Dr. Jekyll fall terribly ill after admittedly fighting with one another and Dr. Lanyon dies, leaving mysterious documents with Mr. Utterson’s, to ONLY be opened if Dr. Jekyll dies or disappears. Dr. Jekyll remains in seclusion, even though Mr. Utterson visits him often. Finally, one evening, Dr. Jekyll’s butler visits Mr. Utterson at home and tells Utterson he is worried about his employer’s mental state and health and is convinced there was some sort of foul play. The butler persuades Mr. Utterson to return to Dr. Jekyll’s house, where they break into Dr. Jekyll’s laboratory. There they find Edward Hyde dead on the floor and Jekyll nowhere to be found. Utterson finds several documents written to him in the labratory, and goes back home to read what he later finds out is Mr. Lanyon’s narrative and Dr. Jekyll’s narrative, which turns out, is two parts of the same story about Mr. Hyde. These documents tell us that Dr. Jekyll was able to transform into Mr. Hyde by means of a potion that he created and as Mr. Hyde, he discovered a world of pleasure and crime. In his story, Dr. Jekyll writes that Mr. Hyde became very  powerful and very harder to control, in the end the dominant personality beat out the weaker one.

“I guess we’re all two people. One daylight, and the one we keep in shadow.”

— Bruce Wayne/Batman, Batman Forever

That is a very basic summary of all the important plot points in the story but it is the two people inside one body that you most likely recognize. In today’s popular culture, this story makes itself known very frequently and all exmaples stem from this original “split personality story”, The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll And Mr Hyde! A few current examples of this story in today’s popular culture are:

The Hulk, also referred to as The Incredible Hulk is a character from the Marvel Comic Universe created in comic book form in 1962. The nuclear Physicist Dr. Robert Bruce Banner is caught in the a blast of a gamma bomb that he created. This nuclear blast creates a alternate personality/physical distortion within himself named Hulk; a giant, green angry monster. The character, both as Banner and the Hulk, is often pursued by police or armed forces, usually because of the destruction Hulk causes. The powerful and monsterous emotional alter ego of an emotionally repressed scientist who comes forward whenever Banner experiences emotional stress, is an example of the Jekyll and Hyde motif. While the Hulk usually saves the day, seeking usually to protect, his terrifying nature drives Bruce Banner into isolation, much like Jekyll, fearing discovery. Stevenson’s book was also the inspiration behind Two-Face, a villain created in 1941 for the Batman comic book series. Harvey Dent, an upstanding citizen and DA, was horribly scarred on one side of his body and traumatized in a warehouse fire set by The Joker. This caused his formerly repressed “Hyde” personality to emerge. The two personalities come into direct conflict often and make decisions they are split on using the outside moderator of a flipped coin. Bane is another character from the DC Comics universe and another villain from the Batman comic series. Shrouded in mystery, Bane appeared in Gotham City with the one goal to eliminate Batman once and for all. Besides being a man of great physical size and power, Bane’s strength is augmented by “Venom,” a Super Steroid that increases his strength, physical size and durability for limited periods of time. Much like Dr.Jekyll turns himself into Hyde using a potion, the Venom potion, injected into his body is also his weakness — when the supply of the chemical is cut he goes back to normal and loses his powers. I also see a huge parallel between Jekyll and Hyde and the most iconic movie villain of all time, Darth Vader. Just like Dr. Jekyll, Anakin Skywalker has his alter-ego. In EPISODE V, Yoda tells Luke Skywalker “Anger, fear, aggression; the dark side of the Force are they. Easily they flow, quick to join you in a fight. If once you start down the dark path, forever will it dominate your destiny, consume you it will” — just like when Jekyll first transformed into Hyde and then he felt the urge to do it again and again until finally he lost control over the transformation and ends up as Hyde permanently. Similarly, Anakin Skywalker first tastes the power of the dark side when he kills an entire camp of Sand-people to protect his mother and this starts his fall to the dark side and his eventually transformation into Darth Vadar. Another Marvel Comics supervillain was named after and based on Mr Hyde. Calvin Zabo was born in Trenton, New Jersey. He was a morally abject yet brilliant medical researcher who was interested by the effect of hormones on human physiology. One of his favorite books was The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. He was convinced that the experiment in the book could actually be performed and became obsessed with the idea of letting loose his full beast-like nature in a superhuman form. He was eventually successful in creating the formula, and turned into a huge, Hulk-like creature he named “Mister Hyde”. The character of Jekyll and Hyde can be seen in Alan Moore’s comic book, The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen. In the comic, interesting team of crimefighters, made up of famous characters from classic literature, fight crime in Victorian London. In the issues Hyde is very strong and has a Jekyll persona, whereas in the novel, Jekyll has a Hyde persona. Sometimes in film, television, literature, or theater, a character and his evil twin, evil counterpart, or shadow archetype (all different titles for the same type of character) are really the same guy in the end or sometimes, a completely different character is sharing body space with another. The point is, the villain sometimes lives inside the hero’s body, therefore hiding in plain sight. For the entire story, the hero is trying to catch himself; which has created many of the detective stories you read today. You can also see this idea in many different pop culture examples. If the two personalities are aware of each other, it becomes a case of Gollum Made Me Do It.

A character has another personality to keep him company, the other personality isn’t exactly a model citizen. However, he is… persuasive. He often finds himself being bullied or forced into following his darker side’s advice, even if it’s advice he wouldn’t have followed normally.

The Hyde personality’s crimes are outside of Jekyll’s control and, often, the character is unable to stop themselves from becoming “evil”, this is often a case of being Driven to Villiany.

Sometimes, your villain’s just a normal guy who’s brought into villainy against their own will. Don’t get confused with mind control or possession, it’s because they’ve been warped by events happening around them, and forced into villainy by forces outside their control. A broken shell of a human being, the only thing left is insanity.

Sometimes they’re not really evil but, occasionally this can be resolved with a Split-Personality Merge that reconciles both sides into a healthy whole.

There are many possible reasons for the existence of these split personalities, but this co-habitation is rarely peaceful or long lasting. It usually results in a battle of the central mind to try and find out which personality will take over. Sometimes, the winning personality does not reduce the loser to a small, powerless voice but, instead offers to become one again; they merge into a single, whole person that is greater than the sum of its minds.

Also, the Jekyll side isn’t necessarily “good” either. Comes, of course, from The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, by Robert Louis Stevenson. It used to be a twist ending, but it no longer suprises anyone. Most adaptations of the work focus on said twist. The real life example of Deacon Brodie is said to have inspired Stevenson. William Brodie or Deacon Brodie was a Scottish cabinet- maker, deacon of a trades guild, and Edinburgh city councillor, who maintained a secret life as a burglar. As did the story of Horace Wells, a pioneer of medical anaesthetics. While researching the chemical formula, chloroform, Wells tested many of the various dosages on himself. Because of this, Wells unknowingly built up a dangerous level of the drug in his system, and ended up attacking two prostitutes during a sulfuric acid drug related episode. Once he sobered up and learned of what he had done, he committed suicide.

Doctor Horace Wells born January 21, 1815.Along with many comic book characters, there are examples of Jekyll and Hyde’s story in one of the most popular shows of the past few years, American Horror Story. American Horror Story (AHS) is a show that uses so many of the important details that make up the story The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde in the show’s many series. In season one titled, Murder House, there is a character named Dr. Charles Montgomery who is a “surgeon for the stars” and the original builder of the “murder house”. In the series, his character is technically a ghost but we do get flashbacks to when he was alive. The Jekyll and Hyde connection is that the Doctor becomes addicted to the drug Ether and starts to lose his mind and kill is patients without realizing it. He is later on shot and killed by his wife after he tries to stitch their dead and dismembered son back together Frankenstein-style.

In season five of American Horror Story titled Hotel, there is another Jekyll and Hyde like character/storyline named the Ten Commandments Killer. Season five basically revolves around a LAPD Detective named John Lowe, played by actor Wes Bently, trying to hunt down the Ten Commandments Killer.

Now before I continue with the storyline and connection to Stevenson’s novel, let me explain the story of the Ten Commandments Killer’s and his MO.   The original Ten Commandments Killer was a man named James March, designer and owner of the Hotel Cortez (the main setting for the entire season), which opened on August 23, 1926. James Patrick March was born in 1895 and started killing people in 1920. He was described as a man of new money and he decided to build and open a grand hotel to make it easier to kill people without getting caught. He built many secret rooms and hallways into the hotel to allow for more killing and he used the hotel’s infrastructure to hide all the evidence of the crimes. His wife Elizabeth knew all about his murdering and actually enjoyed the sounds of his victims screams, so she encouraged his dark habit. There are many gruesome details to the murders he committed but most of his early murders in the hotel involved playful, thespian-esque ways. The actual Ten Commandments killing started with March when he explained to one of his victimes that he despised religion and that it was the worst thing in the world. March said he was going to have to kill God, because as long as there was a God, men like himself would never find peace. His hate of religion is what gave him the motivation to collect all the bibles from the hotel bed stands and arrange them with a pile of his victims to leave behind for the police; this is where the Ten Commandments murders started. But on February 25, 1930 an anonymous phone called tipped off the police and they came to the Hotel Cortez to arrest March. Before the police could arrest March however, he killed his servant and slit his own throat leaving the Ten Commandment murders unfinished. March, along with all of his victims and numerous other victims of the hotel are trapped in the hotel as ghost that appear to guests and interact as characters in the show.

This is where the character John Lowe comes into play in the show. As previously stated, John is a LAPD officer trying to solve the case of the Ten Commandments Killer, but in 2010, John visited the Hotel Cortez on a drunken night and the ghost of James March sees potential in him to finish his work as the Ten Commandments Killer. It wasn’t until 2015 when John finally agrees to complete the murders and this is where the season begins. Each murder symbolizes one of the ten commandments, for example the first murder is Thou Shalt Not Steal and the victim is a infamous thief whom is killed, and for each murder something is taken from each victim and places it in a glass jar in Room 64 of the Hotel Cortez, so for the first murder the thief’s hand is cut off. James March was able to complete two of the ten murders in 1926 but then John Lowe finished off the other eight in 2015. The connection I see to Jekyll and Hyde in this whole story is the fact that John has no recollection of committing any of these murders or even his first time at the Hotel Cortez in 2010. It isn’t until the second to last episode where John finally remembers that he has been doing all this and has a psychotic break and is eventually killed by the SWAT team in the last episode. When watching the season, you can actually see a physical change in John throughout the season as more and more of the ten commandment murders happen. His eyes sink in, be becomes pale and loses weight, his clothes are wrinkled and he just looks physically exhausted more and more as each episode happens. It isn’t until that final episode that his appearance is like this because his good personality is losing strength as his evil, murderous personality is slowly taking over and killing more people.

The scene where Detective John Lowe suddenly remembers all the murders he has committed as the “Ten Commandments Killer” that he has been so desperately searching for at his day job in the police force. Along with the story of Jekyll and Hyde inspiring so many different movie and television characters and plot schemes, the 1931 film version of The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde made movie history with it’s incredible never before seen or done on screen transformation (see the video below). Fredric March, the actor who played Jekyll and Hyde in the movie, actually won an Academy Award for his performance in the film. Film directors and makeup artists everywhere wanted to know the secret behind the scene but it wasn’t until 1970 when director Rouben Mamoulian described how it was done: it was done with colored make-up and matching colored filters, which were removed or added to the scene to change March’s appearance. Since the film was in black-and-white, the color changes didn’t show.

The 1931 transformation scene that rocked the film industry and won actor Fredric March an Academy Award. All in all, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson has had a HUGE influence in popular culture since it’s first publication in 1886. You can see it’s influence in television, movies, horror makeup, comic books, theater, and so much more. This storyline is here to stay and will probably be influencing popular culture for generations to come.

Franklin D. Roosevelt heroism

Villainification is the process of creating original actors as the faces of systemic harm, with those hyper-individualized villains losing their shared characteristics. Like heroification, there is a simplified portrayal of historical actors, but villainification has particularly harmful consequences. We suggest that villainification obscures the way in which evil operates through everyday actions and unquestioned structures because of the focus on the whim of one person. Although it is unfortunate that we do not often see how we can inadvertently help others and make systemic change, it is disconcerting when we fail to look at our part in the suffering of others. In this paper, I will try to unravel Franklin D. Roosevelt heroism which was the President of the United States where he served through the Great Depression and the Second World War and received the “hero” treatment.

Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected during the height of the Great Depression in 1932 and remained President until his death in 1945. During this period of the presidency, he oversaw an expansion of the Federal Government and helped America lose its isolationist stance as it joined World War Two and helped formulate the United Nations. He was an influential figure in both American and world politics.

Roosevelt came from a privileged background but was influenced by his headmaster at Groton School in Massachusetts, who taught the importance of Christian duty in helping less fortunate people.

Franklin married a distant cousin Eleanor in 1905. They had six children in quick succession, two of them who went on to be elected to the House of Representatives. FDR has several affairs outside of his marriage including Lucy Mercer, his social secretary.  His wife Eleanor offered a divorce at one point, but for a variety of reasons, it was not taken up. She later became a dedicated wife/nurse during Franklin’s moderate disability brought on by polio.

When FDR was elected president in 1930, America was facing an unprecedented economic crisis; unemployment was reaching 25%  – Furthermore, government unemployment relief was insufficient at the time. There was real financial desperation, and many classical economists were at a loss as to how to respond.

To some extent, FDR pursued an expansionary fiscal policy as advocated by John M Keynes. The government borrowed, levied a national income tax and spent money on public works (known as the New Deal). This period also marked a shift in power from local governments who could not cope to the national government. Roosevelt also helped introduce legislation protecting worker’s rights. The new deal in no way solved the economic crisis, but it did mitigate some of the worst effects, creating employment and eventually kick-starting the economy. By the end of the 1930s, some sectors of the economy such as construction were booming.

FDR was keen for America to become a good citizen of the world and fight for individual freedoms. However, in the early 1940s, America still retained a powerful isolationist approach, and he campaigned for re-election promising to stay out of World War Two – despite his dislike of Nazi Germany. The bombing of Pearl Harbour in December 1941, completely changed the outlook of America. F.D.R wasted no time in declaring war on Japan and then Germany as well.

“In these days of difficulty, we Americans everywhere must and shall choose the path of social justice…, the path of faith, the path of hope, and the path of love toward our fellow man.” ~ Franklin D. Roosevelt

Once America had entered the war, they entered whole-heartedly into both arenas – the Pacific and Europe. In the D Day landings of 1941, America supplied roughly 2/3 of the troops. Roosevelt was an astute Commander in Chief. In particular, he was able to identify generals with genuine talent and promoted them to key roles. As Roosevelt said himself:

“I’m not the smartest fellow in the world, but I can sure pick smart colleagues.”

In particular, FDR promoted Dwight Eisenhower and George Marshall – both to play critical roles during the Second World War.

Roosevelt’s real political skill lay in his powers of communication and identification with ordinary people. His radio fireside chats were instrumental in building confidence with the American people, both during the Great Depression and during the Second World War.

“This great Nation will endure as it has endured, will revive and will prosper. So, first of all, let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself — nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance.” – 1933

Roosevelt had a close relationship with Winston Churchill. There was a high mutual admiration. At one point Roosevelt said ‘It is fun being in the same decade as you.’

Together with Churchill and Stalin, the Big Three helped lay the foundations for the post-war period, which included the setting up of the United Nations – a successor to the League of Nations.

Roosevelt died unexpectedly from a massive brain haemorrhage in April 1945, just before the first meeting of the United Nations. His death stunned the world, and he was remembered as a champion of freedom and a man of humanity and optimism.

I’ve never understood the reverence for Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He gets points for picking great Generals and led this country to victory in WWII. But he totally mismanaged the economy, during the recession of 1937 unemployment reached 19% (the excellent depression high was 25%), his freedom-sapping policies never did get this country out of the Great Depression, and don’t forget that he tried to circumvent constitutional separation of powers (now who does that remind me of?). And then there is the issue never discussed, he was a bigot, his hatred of Jews caused thousands to be added to the ranks of Hitler’s victims, and his hatred of Asians convinced him to put Japanese Americans into internment camps.

Some point to the fact he didn’t he bomb and destroy the train tracks that were shipping Jews to the concentration camps? But my opinion sides with the people who say that wouldn’t have worked. The real question to be explored was why didn’t allow more Jews into the country and why didn’t he pressure Britain to enable Jews to move from Nazi-controlled areas into what was then called Palestine?

In the book “FDR and the Holocaust: A Breach of Faith,” historian Rafael Medoff suggests that Roosevelt failed to take relatively simple measures that would have saved significant numbers of Jews during the Holocaust because his vision for America was one that had a small amount of Jews. In other words, FDR doomed many Jew to suffer not because he wanted them to die, but because he didn’t want a lot of them living in his neighborhood.

Loewen argues that this heroification is something that enables readers and teachers to overlook the conflicts that will allow a full reading of historical narratives and bring in other points of view. The heroification process is done to make textbooks more appealing to school districts and also to present an artificial exceptionalism view of American History. At the same time, heroification enables students to assume a role of passivity in constructing the next wave of American social and historical dynamics. If all that is read are about heroes, it creates the mentality that there is nothing left to do and this enables those in the position of power to continue doing what they do without any questioning or in-depth analysis.

Joseph Paul Franklin: college essay help online

White supremacy is a form of vile racism where white people are perceived as superior to all other races in every physical, mental, social, economic, and political aspect. This repugnant mindset dates back in United States’ History to centuries ago, but unfortunately still exists in the minds of people today. White supremacy is clearly very wrong, however it is important to be aware that it can be very dangerous when it is implemented by the mentally ill. John Paul Franklin used white supremacy as a stimulus for unethical, malicious and remorseless actions that lead to the death of at least 15 people in 11 different states. (FBI, 2014) Franklin’s three-year killing rampage was motivated by his “pathological hatred of African Americans and Jews”. (Montaldo, n.d.) Joseph Paul Franklin was a perfect example of how abusive households can lead to serious psychological issues such as mental illness, which in turn can lead to extreme violence.

James Clayton Vaughan was his birth name. Born into a poor family in Alabama, Franklin was physically abused by both of his parents throughout his entire childhood. He once told investigators, “My momma didn’t care about us” and stated that he and his three siblings were not fed properly or “allowed to play with other children”. (Nye, 2013) While in high school in the 1960’s, Franklin became interested in southern white supremacist groups and went on to becoming an active member of The Ku Klux Klan (KKK), The American Nazi Party, The National States Rights Party, and The National Socialists White People’s Party. His interest in these groups started when his obsession with evangelical Christianity and Nazism took off in his early high school years. Franklin changed his name in 1976 when he wanted to join the Rhodesian Army but couldn’t due to his criminal record. Franklin proceeded to choose “Joseph Paul” in honor of Joseph Paul Goebbels, Adolf Hitler’s minister of propaganda. He then chose “Franklin” in honor of the US founding father, Benjamin Franklin. He never ended up joining the army, and instead started a battle between him and every minority that he could get his hands on. (Montaldo, n.d.)

Franklin became more and more aggressive towards minorities as he got older, to the point where he “rejected the most radical hate groups because he didn’t think they took their hatred far enough”. (FBI, 2014) He felt that sitting around and complaining about the supposed “inferior” races wouldn’t do any good- he thought it was more effective to actually go out and kill them. He was constantly looking for opportunities to “cleanse the world” of races that he felt were inferior. Blacks and Jews were the primary races that Franklin went after, and he considered interracial couples to be even worse. (FBI, 2014)

Franklin was born on April 13, 1950. He was a high school dropout, and had a daughter after getting married in 1969 at the age of 19. (FamPeople, 2012) He became an abusive husband and got a divorce not long after. (FBI, 2014) The abuse he had towards his family is a direct result of the physical abuse he faced as a child. Child abuse has a direct relationship with mental health, and can be the cause of any kind of mental illness. (Szalavitz, 2012) Franklin’s actions were inexcusable but can definitely be linked to the abuse he endured as a child. Franklin was treated as inferior throughout his entire upbringing, and he transferred this energy from pain into hate. He used white supremacy as an outlet for his hatred. His obsession with hate allowed him to feel superior to other races, however this was probably the one thing that ever allowed Franklin to feel superior to other people.

Since Franklin was a high school dropout, he couldn’t carry a stable job. To keep himself afloat, Franklin robbed multiple banks up and down the East Coast. In between robberies, Franklin sold his blood and sold/traded guns. (FamPeople, 2012) He spent most of his time plotting to kill minorities as well as interracial couples. His killing rampage began in 1977 at the age of 27, and ended in 1980 when he was arrested at the age of 30. (FBI, 2014) He has been linked to or associated with many murders, some of which he was not arrested for or convicted of. He confessed to the murders of 20 people, some of which are believed to be untrue. (Montaldo, n.d.) This is one of the many reasons that defense lawyers claimed Franklin to be a “paranoid schizophrenic” that was not fit to stand on trial. (BBC News, 2013)

Franklin was officially convicted of nine murders, however was a suspect in another twelve. Eight of these convictions resulted in a life sentence. However, Franklin was sentenced to death by lethal injection by the state of Missouri for the murder of Gerald Gordon in 1997.

(Vitello, 2013) Gordon’s murder was just one of Franklin’s attacks on a synagogue. He chose Synagogues as his primary target for the single purpose of killing Jews. Gordon’s death occurred on October 8th, 1977 in Potosi, Missouri. Franklin took five shots at both Gerald Gordon as well as a man named William Ash while they were walking through the synagogue parking lot. He killed Gordon and injured Ash using a Remington 700 Hunting Rifle. He was then sentenced to death the following February. (Montaldo, n.d.) Franklin told investigators that he selected this synagogue at random. (Vitello, 2013) He also said that his primary goal in the event was to “find a Jew and kill him” (Nye, 2013) Franklin bombed another synagogue in July 1977 that was located in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Unlike the Missouri attack, nobody was injured that day. (BBC News, 2013)

Franklin did not confess to Gordon’s murder until 17 years after the incident while in a prison cell talking to an investigator. (Vitello, 2013) This is just one of many instances where Franklin’s story has changed, and that is the primary reason why the court has been unable to convict him of some of the other crimes he has supposedly committed. Some of the 22 murders that he has confessed to haven’t even been brought to court because of lack of evidence. (Montaldo,1) Franklin has also robbed about 16 banks in order to “fund his activities” (BBC, 2013)

Franklin was a drifter and often “floated up and down the east coast” planning his next attack. He carried a sniper rifle and his main target was “MRC’s”, or mix-raced couples.

(FamPeople, 2012) His most well-known crime involving interracial couples was the attempted Murder of Larry Flynt, a publisher for the Hustler magazine. (Vitello, 2013) Franklin went after Flynt because of the cover of the December 1975 issue of Hustler showing an interracial couple having sex. Franklin stated to CNN, “I saw that interracial couple he had, photographed there, having sex”. He then proceeded to say, “It just made me sick. I think whites marry with whites, blacks with blacks, Indians with Indians. Orientals with Orientals. I threw the magazine down and thought, ‘I’m going to kill that guy’”. (Nye, 2013) This quote shows Franklin’s extreme, obsessive hate towards interracial couples and how it correlates with his mental instability. Anyone that feels the need to murder someone because of their skin color, or because of the skin color of their significant other, clearly isn’t mentally stable enough, or safe enough, to be roaming the world by his or herself. Franklin’s freedom was a threat to lives of every nonwhite person in the country.

Franklin’s psychiatrist, Dorothy Otnow Lewis, was one of a few people who testified that he was unfit to stand on trial. Lewis stated that he was a delusional thinker due to the abusive childhood that he endured. One example of this irrational thinking was when he claimed that God wanted him to “start a race war”. (FamPeople, 2012) However, the court still convicted him for his crimes and sentenced him to death. Franklin was held on death row in Missouri. Clearly Franklin was thinking straight enough to plan his attacks as well as his escapes ahead of time, and he was able to avoid law enforcement for years. Many of Frankin’s escape methods included dying his hair, changing clothes, and changing vehicles. He would plan his escape paths ahead of time and make sure that he left no evidence. (FamPeople, 2012) However, the FBI was becoming closer and closer to catching Franklin by 1980. In September of that year, a Kentucky police officer noticed a car in the back of Franklin’s car. An outstanding warrant appeared during a records check, and he was then brought in for questioning and detained. He was able to escape detainment but was recaptured again not long after. Franklin was finally caught for good in 1980 when a nurse, who was drawing his blood, recognized an eagle tattoo on his arm and called the Police. (FamPeople, 2012)

Another one of Franklin’s attacks on an interracial couple occurred in Madison, Wisconsin. Alphonse Manning and Toni Schwenn were pulling out of a parking lot of a shopping mall. Franklin crashed into their car from behind, got out, and shot both 23 year olds to death. (Montaldo, n.d.) Another instance occurred in Cincinnati, Ohio on June 6th, 1980. Franklin was standing on an overpass waiting for an interracial couple to pass by. Franklin had planned this attack, so he knew that the couple should eventually be there. While he was waiting, Franklin became impatient and shot his cousins Darren Lane, age 14, and Dante Brown, age 13, while they were walking into a convenience store. Both children died and Franklin was charged with two life sentences. (Montaldo, n.d.) This instance shows Franklin’s short temper and yearning for violence. Franklin shot two innocent children of his own blood because he was getting impatient. That alone shows true mental illness, because anyone in their right mind wouldn’t be waiting on an overpass to commit those murders to begin with. His lack of patience and reliance on violence shows mental instability by itself, and his extreme racism and obsession with white supremacy infinitely multiplies the level of danger that he creates for those around him.

Larry Flynt was paralyzed from the hips down after Franklin attacked him. However, Flynt didn’t believe in the death penalty and actually fought against Franklin being put to death. Flynt stated, “The government has no business at all being in the business of killing people” he then told investigators that he believes, “It’s much more punishment to put somebody in prison for the rest of their lives than it is to snip their life out in a few seconds with a lethal injection”.  (Nye, 2013) Oblivious to the fact that Flynt was not trying to help him, Franklin referred to Flynt as “old pal” in regards to his opposition to his death sentence. Franklin’s mental instability is evident in this instance; Franklin seems to have thought that Flynt’s opposition to the death sentence was not because of Flynt’s conservative political views, but because somehow, Flynt was now on his side.

On May 29th 1980, Franklin was charged with the attempted murder of African American civil rights leader, Vernon Jordan. (BBC News, 2013) He committed this crime after seeing Jordan, who was black, with a white woman in Fort Wayne, Indiana. (FamPeople, 2012) He previously had threatened to kill President Jimmy Carter for his pro-civil rights views, along with Jesse Jackson. He realized that the security that protected these two men was too tight, and so he went on to murder Vernon Jordan instead. (FamPeople, 2012) Franklin was clearly an impatient, impulsive character that acted strictly on random, unethical reasoning. Franklin’s sister informed investigators that he was the target of the majority of the abuse in their dysfunctional household. She also added that Franklin used to read fairytales in order to escape the domestic abuse that he endured on a daily basis. (Montaldo, n.d.) This was definitely one of the main reasons for Franklin’s evident mental illness; Franklin used white supremacy as an outlet for his prolonged childhood anger and frustration.

On July 29th, 1978, Franklin shot Bryant Tatum and his girlfriend, Nancy Hilton with a 12-gauge shotgun simply because they were an interracial couple. The attack happened at a Pizza Hut in Chattanooga, Tennessee and unfortunately resulted in the death of Tatum. Hilton was able to survive but was injured, and Franklin was given a life sentence. (FamPeople, 2012) On July 12th, 1979, Franklin shot Harold McIver through a window. McIver was a 27 year old black man that unfortunately was killed in the incident. McIver was a manager at Taco Bell in Doraville, Georgia and according to Franklin, McIver came in close contact with white women. Franklin, as a result, felt it was his responsibility to murder the innocent man. (FamPeople, 2012)

One of the most outrageous parts of Franklin’s criminal history is that he was committing these horrible crimes because he thought he was doing his job. He once told CNN Investigators, “I consider it my mission, my three-year mission. Same length of time Jesus was on his mission, from the time he was 30 to 33.” (Lah, 2013) When CNN investigators asked him to clarify what his mission was exactly, he replied, “To get a race war started”. (Lah, 2013) Franklin thought it was his responsibility to brutally murder every person that was black, Jewish, or in an interracial relationship. On June 25th 1980, Franklin killed Nancy Santomero, age 19, and Vicki Durian, age 26 using a .44 Ruger Pistol. Both women were hitchhikers in Pocahontas County, West Virginia at the time. Franklin confessed to the crime in 1997 but felt that he did what was necessary. (FamPeople, 2012) Both girls were white, however he decided to murder them both once he heard one of the girls say that she had a black boyfriend. Jacob Beard, a Florida resident, had been incorrectly convicted and imprisoned for these murders. In the year 1999, Jacob Beard was freed and a new trial was to be created on Franklin’s behalf. Franklin was then correctly convicted of the crime, and was given a life sentence as a result. (FamPeople, 2012)

Franklin confessed to almost all of the murders that he committed because he felt he was doing right by his people. After he abandoned the most extreme white supremacist groups because he felt that they were not radical enough, he went on to commit these crimes because he thought that other white supremacists would follow him. He stated to reporters, “I figured once I started doing it and showed them how, other white supremacists would do the same thing”. (Nye, 2013) He claimed that after his attacks, he now has members that love him. He said to investigators, “When you commit a crime against a certain group of people, a bonding takes place. It seems like you belong to them.” (Nye, 2013) This sick feeling of family that Franklin received from his white supremacist groups was probably more of a closely-knit environment than the blood-related family that he had at home. This is most likely what drew Franklin so far deep into the racist cult.

Franklin shot and killed 15-year old prostitute Mercedes Lynn Masters on December 5th, 1979. He had been living with her in Dekalb County, Georgia, but decided to hill her when she told him that she previously had black customers. Two more murders were committed by Franklin on August 20th, 1980. Franklin killed two black men in Salt Lake City, Utah. He was near Liberty Park when he took the lives of Ted Fields and David Martin. He was charged with first-degree murder, convicted, and was given two life sentences. He was also tried on federal civil rights charges. These instances, along with multiple others, are just examples of the sick, twisted things that went on in Franklin’s head. Mental illness was evident, and his merciless actions are what made him so dangerous.

It was also evident that Franklin was completely self-centered and delusional. His reference to Flynt being an “old pal” and his comparison between Jesus and himself are just two examples of how deranged and neurotic that the high school dropout was. Franklin even said that he hoped his killings would act as an example. (Nye, 2013) The three-year mission that Franklin referred to took place when he was age 27 up until he was arrested at age 30. He told authorities that he has no regrets, and that the only regret he has is that killing Jews isn’t legal. He later told investigators that the only regret he has is that some of his victims managed to survive. (Montaldo, n.d.) Franklin had been in prison for over 30 years before he was finally executed. Not long before his execution, Franklin claimed that he was no longer a white supremacist and had “renounced his racist views”. (BBC News, 2013) Franklin claimed he had “interacted with black people in prison” and stated, “I saw they were people just like us”. He also added that he knew his actions were illogical and were a result of “an abusive upbringing”. (BBC News, 2013) Joseph Paul Franklin was sentenced to death on February 27th, 1997. He was on Missouri Death Row until August 20th, 2013, when the State of Missouri set the date for his execution. Franklin was executed by lethal injection on November 20th, 2013 at 6:08 AM. (Missouri Death Row, 2008) It took 10 minutes for Franklin to be officially pronounced dead. (BBC News, 2013) According to the jury, Franklin’s actions were a result of “depravity of mind”, better known as mental illness. (Missouri Death Row, 2008) Mental illness can be a direct result of child abuse. The life, the actions, and the attitude of Joseph Paul Franklin are a perfect example of that.

Works Cited

BBC News. (2013, November 20). BBC News US & Canada. Joseph Franklin, white supremacist serial killer, executed: Retrieved from bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-25016217
FamPeople. (2012). Joseph Paul Franklin: Biography. Retrieved from FamPeople: http://www.fampeople.com/cat-joseph-paul-franklin
FBI. (2014, January 14). Serial Killers Part 4: White Supremacist Joseph Franklin. Retrieved from fbi.gov: https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2014/january/serial-killers-part-4-joseph-paul-franklin/
Lah, K. (2013, November 19). Serial Killer Joseph Paul Franklin Prepares to Die. Retrieved from CNN News: http://www.cnn.com/2013/11/18/justice/death-row-interview-joseph-paul-franklin/index.html
Missouri Death Row. (2008, December 9). State of Missouri vs. Joseph P. Franklin. Retrieved from Missouri Death Row: http://missourideathrow.com/2008/12/Franklin-Joseph/
Montaldo, C. (n.d.). Profile of Serial Killer Joseph Paul Franklin. Retrieved from About News: http://crime.about.com/od/hatecrimecriminalcases/a/josephfranklin.htm
Nye, J. (2013, November 19). Racist Serial Killer Shows No Remorse In Final Interview On Eve Of His Execution- Even Joking Larry Flynt, Who He Paralyzed, is “‘Old Pal” For Campaign Against Death Penalty. Retrieved from Daily Mail: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2509759/Joseph-Paul-Franklin-shows-remorse-ahead-death-penalty.html
Szalavitz, M. (2012, February 15). How Child Abuse Primes The Brain For Future Mental Illness. Retrieved from Time: http://healthland.time.com/2012/02/15/how-child-abuse-primes-the-brain-for-future-mental-illness/
Vitello, P. (2013, November 13). White Supremacist Convicted of Several Murders Is Put To Death In Missouri. Retrieved from New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/21/us/joseph-paul-franklin-executed-in-missouri.html?_r=0

Why did Hitler target Jews?: writing essay help

One man in control of 65 million people at once during the 1930s is pretty incredible. But how incredible is it really, if this power is used for, what many people today consider is, evil. Adolf Hitler was a dictator in Germany that would eventually become known for how intense he believed in creating a perfect race.

Hitler was born in Austria and would eventually go to Germany, for many reasons, to take over the office and begin his extermination in search for the perfect race.  During all of World War II and a few years before that starting in 1933, Hitler was able to successfully capture and kill millions of people. The group of people Hitler mainly killed off were Jews because he didn’t consider them of the superior race, in his opinion the superior race was the Aryan race. Not only were Jews part of a massive genocide, but anyone who was disabled, homosexual, or gypsy were in danger of being captured and taken to concentration camps.

The night of the broken glass is a day that can be seen as the day that truly began the genocide in Germany because people were being taken away from their homes in mass amounts. In November 1938, Ernst Eduard vom Rath, was murdered by a Jewish teenager causing for police in Germany to begin entering houses and looking for any Jew who had weapons in their possession.  Hitler saw the killing of this German Diplomat as a threat against the Nazis by the Jews, and so began the Holocaust.

For over 10 years millions of people were taken away into concentration camps all over Europe, but there really can’t be an exact number as to how many were captured and killed because who knows if others were killed outside of concentration camps or used for experimentation, for now the number that is used as an estimate is 11 million people killed over a period of 12 years, 6 million were only Jews.

The goal of this research is not to focus on Hitler and how he governed Germany and what his political views were in the world, but rather look at how he grew up and how he was able to capture millions of people to kill them off, just to have his perfect race, and why? The main question is, why did he mainly target Jews? For one person to have control of about 65 million people and how they should be living their day to day life is pretty incredible.  But the way Hitler went about making these people live did not seem like a very good idea, considering that Hitler was a very intelligent person.

Anti-Semitic views have been around since the time of Ancient Rome, which is interesting when we look back at because all these years have passed and there still seems to be a prejudice against Jewish people.  While Jewish people are not the only group that face prejudice or discrimination, this group has had a tremendous impact on the history of the world because of the way they were treated during the Holocaust by Hitler, while it is not comparable to the slave trade during the sixteenth and nineteenth century, it is something that still amazes people because of the way it was executed.

Adolf Hitler was the leader of the Nazi Party in Germany during the 1930s and 1940s. During his time as leader, he rose to a high enough power that he began to order for the extermination of the Jews.  Hitler is one of the most famous cases of genocides that is known in history today because of the amount he was able to successfully murder from 1933-1945. In history class, students are taught about WWII and how Germany’s defeat caused the end of the Holocaust. What many never wonder is why he did it; the amount of people that were murdered by Hitler and his Nazi group is still not exact because not only were Jewish people murdered, but anyone of inferiority to Hitler or his Aryan race.  Like mentioned before, anyone with physical or mental disability were also taken to concentration camps because they were people who could destroy the perfect race.

Starting from when Hitler was first a child, he went through physical abuse at home. Hitler’s father would beat him because Adolf would find ways to taunt his own father and make him mad at Hitler. While this all happened, Hitler’s mother, would make him feel better and make sure he was okay because like most mothers, their instinct is to make sure their children are never hurt.  While this might not be a contributing factor as to why Hitler’s main goal was to exterminate all Jews, this can be part of a reason many thought his views were insane; this instability at home definitely seemed to cause instability within himself and possible feelings and affection he could feel towards other human beings.

As Hitler grew up, it was evident that Hitler never cared for school work and would much rather learn about art and music as much as he could. According to Hitler’s sister, he was a student that would bring home bad grades and didn’t really care for the consequences he would face with his parents, and especially his dad.  Eventually in 1905, when Hitler’s mother was very sick, he moved to Vienna in pursue of his dreams. While his mother being sick due to breast cancer caused great devastation to him, this seemed like a great opportunity to follow his dreams and pursue a career in the arts.

Hitler’s goal was to get into Vienna Academy of Fine Arts and become successful in the city of Vienna, where many artists got their name, but when he was told that his work was not good enough for the school, this caused anger within him. Hitler has always been very confident in the things he did and not being able to get into his dream school really shocked him.  According to many sources, when he went back to get an explanation as to why he has not been accepted, he was told that his art lacked “human form” and that his artwork would be successful in an architecture school. While this doesn’t seem like a bad idea to people, to him it was horrendous because he had not finished high school and to get into the architecture schools, he would need a high school diploma.

While in Vienna, Hitler applied twice to the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts and got rejected twice. During his time there, many people believe that Hitler began to grow a hate towards Jews because Vienna, at the time, was populated with many Jews.  His anti-Semitic views might have stemmed from there, but there is no exact reason as to why. According to a source, one of Hitler’s childhood friends stated that even before Hitler left Austria to pursue his dreams, he was ant-Semitic, but like many other sources that explain when Hitler became this way, they fail to mention why.

While there might still be no exact reason as to how Hitler grew into his views, sources can introduce new ideas and theories as to how he thought. During the 1930s, Hitler was perceived as a very important figure for the Germans because he helped them bring the economy to a stable point since Germany lost World War I. According to charts, Germany’s unemployment rate in 1933 totaled 6 million people, but as Hitler took power in Germany, he was able to lower it to about 300 thousand people in 1939.

Hitler was a very smart man, like mentioned before, he was even put on Time Magazine as Man of the Year in 1938.  But when Hitler went into power in Germany, he already had anti-Semitic views in play because according to a book published in Germany, November 9: How World War One Led to the Holocaust by Joachim Riecker, it talks about Hitler believing that Jews did not care enough for Germany to win World War I at the time. Mr. Riecker goes on to describe how Hitler believed that the Jewish people in Germany ruined the government and its economy overtime, World War I was just a push towards finishing off the country. While this theory seems like a bit of stretch, it doesn’t seem entirely wrong as a reason to hate Jewish people, but Hitler was incorrect in saying that the Jews were the group of people that mainly were involved during the First World War.

According to a German census, the majority that lived in Germany around 1910, which were a few years before World War I, were either Catholics or Protestants. Most of Europe was mainly made up of these two religious groups, so to target Jews as the main participants of the First World War is incorrect. While there might have been Jews that participated in the war, not all of the Jews were to blame for, so this goes to show that this reason is not exactly a valid reason for Hitler to have anti-Semitic views.

Analyzing sources thus far, many of them mention many instances where Hitler has found an excuse to say he does not appreciate a Jew.

How Significant A Role Did Britain Play In The War Against Germany?

World War Two was the most devastating war in history. It was a battle of ideologies. Germany fought for control of Europe; The allies, Britain, America and Russia fought for freedom. The only way to crush an Ideology was total war, a devastating method of warfare killing an estimated 55 million civilians. The war ended the lives of 3% of the world population at the time. While all the allies suffered casualties, the Russians lost 29 million civilians on the eastern front. While Britain and America lost 870000 people combined, only 3% of the Russian deaths. With Russia taking Berlin, and Russia absorbing most of the deaths on the Eastern Front, was Britain significant in the defeat of Nazi Germany?

When war broke out, Germany swept through Europe during the Blitzkrieg, gaining military control of countries rapidly. The capture of France on June 14th, 1940 left Britain a sole island nation fighting against Nazi Germany. As an island, Britain relied on the sea for defence. German operation Sealion planned to land German forces to capture Britain; in order to safely transport troops, Germany needed to co