The Benefits Of Vaccination

Vaccination are an important part of keeping children healthy; however some parents do not agree with vaccinating their children. Vaccines are a very sensitive and controversial subject because of the safety and efficacy. Our bodies can make antibodies to protect us from diseases in two ways: by getting the disease itself or by getting the vaccinated from the disease. The vaccine is a much safer way to make antibodies without having to actually get sick and risk becoming disabled or even die from the disease. Raising a child involves many decisions. Some are a matter what color to paint their room. Others are essential, especially when it comes to security, such as preparing the house to make it safe for the baby. But do not forget about the dangers that cannot be seen and which cause serious illness, disability and even death of small children. Vaccines give you the power to protect your baby.

It seem that the benefits of vaccination outweighs the bad. In this paper I will be discussing the benefits of vaccines, why so many parents forgo vaccination because of the adverse allergic reactions or even autism. Also why am pro-vaccination and why other countries do so well and have large positive success rate with individuals who participate in vaccination programs.

Benefits to reduce and eliminate diseases that can be prevented with vaccines is one of the greatest achievements in the history of public health. But because of that success, many of “our young parents have never seen the devastating effects of diseases such as polio, measles or whooping cough that can have on a family or community. “Production of high quality vaccine have been developed by mankind with the goal to protect themselves effiently from infectious disease” (Ulrich 3). Before a vaccine is approved and administered to children, many tests are done by Scientists and medical professionals to carefully evaluate all available information about the vaccine for safety and effectiveness.

There are many stories about children who developed autism after vaccination. But the stories are not evidence, and there is no reason to believe that vaccines are causing children to become autistic. Vaccination scares have made parents to avoid immunizations, current research points out to hereditary factors. “Indirect evidence of a lack of association between MMR vaccine and autism was also provided by early ecological studies conducted in the United Kingdom10 and California.11” (DeStefano).

Rotavirus vaccination and its benefits. And how it benefitted young children. The benefits of the vaccination were seen by the results. There was a 90 percent reduction rate of hospitalizations with children that had the vaccination.  This vaccination helped saved about 924 million dollars in medical bills. (Kuehn)

In fact, parents who do not vaccinate their children may be risking the health of other children who cannot be vaccinated for very young or for other reasons. Vaccination can be the difference between life and death. Infections that can be prevented with vaccines kill more people annually than, breast cancer or traffic accidents. “In the first half of 2012, Washington suffered 2,520 cases of whooping cough, a 1,300% increase from the previous year and the largest outbreak in the state since 1942. As of Aug. 29, about 600 cases of measles have occurred in the U.S. in 2014: the largest outbreak in 20 years–in a country that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention declared measles-free in 2000” (Offit).

When the number of unvaccinated children rises above a certain limit, the so-called “herd immunity ” will be compromised , and preventable diseases are to grip in the community. This happens when parents are anti-vaccination because of miss information or researches that have been debunked and parents forgo vaccinations believing that they are doing the best for the child. “The state allows religious and philosophical exemptions to vaccines, creating concentrated pockets where vaccination rates reach only 90 percent — including Orange County, where Disneyland is located. As vaccination rates fall, the herd immunity that protects the unvaccinated or susceptible dissipates” (Barbash).

I am pro-vaccination because unlike other parents I have done the research and I prefer to be safe than sorry. I want my children who attend public schools to be safe and healthy and also keep other safe by vaccinating my children. You may have never seen a case of polio or diphtheria; however, still they occur in other countries. With only a plane ride, these diseases can reach their community. An example is measles. Measles often does not occur in the United States due to vaccination, but it is still common in many parts of the world. The disease is brought to the United States by people who have not been vaccinated and who become infected while they are abroad. After arriving in this country, measles can spread rapidly among people who have not been vaccinated.

Conclusion: I have shown in this paper that vaccination are good for the welfare of our children, even though more parents are still against vaccination. The articles that I have researched and provided proves that my argument is valid.


Offit, Paul A. “The Anti-Vaccination Epidemic; Whooping Cough, Mumps and Measles are Making an Alarming Comeback, Thanks to Seriously Misguided Parents.” Wall Street Journal (Online) Sep 24 2014 ProQuest. 4 Oct. 2015.

DeStefano, F. “Vaccines And Autism: Evidence Does Not Support A Causal Association.” Clinical Pharmacology And Therapeutics 82.6 (2007): 756-759. MEDLINE Complete. Web. 11 Oct. 2015

Kuehn, Bridget M. “High Rotavirus Vaccination Rates Continue To Pay Off.” Jama 312.1 (2014): 18. MEDLINE Complete. Web. 12 Oct. 2015

Barbash, F. (2015). Disneyland measles outbreak strikes in anti-vaccination hotbed of california. Washington: WP Company LLC d/b/a The Washington Post. Retrieved from

Heininger, Ulrich. “A Risk–benefit Analysis of Vaccination.” Vaccine. Print.

Differences between Biblical theology, Systematic theology and Historical theology

Graeme Goldsworthy says, `you will never be a good biblical theologian if you are not also striving to be a good systematic and historical theologian` (Themelios 28, No 1, 2002). Discuss.

In the following essay I will be looking at and discussing the differences between Biblical theology, Systematic theology and Historical theology and looking at the benefits of each of them and how they work together with each other, as well as doing an evaluation of the Goldsworthy/Trueman debate.  Graeme Goldsworthy says in his book According to Plan:

“Who of us does not find at least some parts of the Bible difficult to understand?  It is easy to ignore the problems by keeping to the well-worn paths of familiar passages.  But when we begin to take seriously the whole Bible is the Word of God, we find ourselves on a collision path with the difficulties.  It is at this point that we need biblical theology to show us how to read and understand the Bible.” (Goldsworthy, 1991, p. 17)

The main aim of this essay is to explore the different methods of theology in accordance to studying the Word of God, so that we can avoid misunderstanding what a particular passage actually means and to help us to efficiently read the Bible and to put the Word of God into our own lives more effectively.

Millard J. Erickson describes the definition of Theology simply as “The study or science of God” (Erickson, 1983, p. 21)

Biblical theology:

Biblical theology is a method of studying the Bible, where you look for overlapping themes that occur throughout the Bible.  Graeme Goldsworthy points out in his book According to Plan (Goldsworthy, 1991) that a fundamental theme of the Bible is the covenant’s that God makes, so we see throughout the Bible God making covenants with people and nations.  Using biblical theology while we study the Bible helps give us a better picture of how each verse, book chapter all works together in bigger picture and how it is all relevant.

Systematic theology:

Systematic theology is a method of studying the Bible that is sometimes called Constructive theology or Dogmatic theology.  Its aim is to look at different topics of the Bible, (Sin etc.) one topic at a time and will try and summarise everything the Bible says about that topic in a well organised and structured way.

Historical theology:

Historical theology is a method of studying the Bible, were it looks back over the history of the church since the Bible was written, and looks at how Christian theology has developed.  It looks at parts of history were Christian doctrines and beliefs have changed.

Each one of these different styles of theology are a great help to us as we sit down and personally start studying the Bible or even just a certain passage in the Bible.  Not only is each one on it’s on a great help and resource to us as we study the word of God but when we start to bring each of these styles together and putting each of them into practice we are opened up to a whole new view and understanding of the Bible.

Benefits of each:

If we look at the benefits of using the method of Biblical theology, we see that it helps us with passages in the Bible where we maybe just do not have a clue like “You shall not boil a young goat in its mother’s milk. Exo 23:19 ESV), and wonder to yourself why it’s there or what it even means, and then we come to a verse like “All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness” (2 timothy 3:16 ESV) and we struggle to figure out how Exodus 23:19 has any benefit to us or any relevance to our lives.  It helps us to look at how that certain passage fits in conjunction with the rest of God’s word.

The benefits of systematic theology is that, it helps us take a specific passage from the Bible, and then helps us to place it into a category of certain topics that appear throughout the Bible.   When preparing a sermon or a Bible study on a particular using systematic theology can be a great help when looking to find another verse in the Bible that is related to the passage you have or that backs up or cooperates with it.

Gregg R. Allison says in his book Historical Theology:

“One benefit that historical theology offers the church today is helping it distinguish orthodoxy from heresy. The term orthodoxy here refers to that which the new Testament calls “sound doctrine” (1 Tim. 1:10; 2 Tim. 4:3; Titus 1:9; 2:1), that which rightly reflects in summary form all the teaching of Scripture and which the church is bound to believe and obey.4 Heresy, then, is anything that contradicts sound doctrine. It is false belief that misinterprets Scripture or that ignores some of the teaching of Scripture, or that incorrectly puts together all the teaching of Scripture.” (Allison, 2011, p. 24)

I would agree with this statement made by Gregg R. Allison because as we look back on the history of the church and study it we start to see what Christian doctrines the church have accepted and decline and we can from that we can examine wither what we are about to teach or read fits in with the Christian doctrine we believe in.  Gregg R. Allison also states in his book Historical Theology: “historical theology helps the church understand the historical development of its beliefs.”  So we see by using Historical theology we are able to get a better grip and understanding of how are beliefs as Christians have development and been strengthened throughout history and that even today it is continuing to develop.

Working together.

Biblical & Systematic theology:

Don Carson says in his article, how to read the Bible and do Theology well:  “In some ways, BT is a kind of bridge discipline between exegesis and ST because it overlaps with them, enabling them to hear each other a little better.” (Carson, 2015)

In order for use to use systematic theology affectively we must use biblical theology with it and Vis versa.  We see that systematic theology looks at a passage and draws out different meanings within that passage, and that biblical theology will seek to draw the one mean meaning within the passage.  So for systematic theology to be sound in doctrine it must cross examine that passage with biblical theology in order to confirm wither or not the meanings fit in with the big picture of the Bible.  Using biblical theology a long side systematic theology gives it a stronger foundation.

When using biblical theology we look are looking for a constant theme throughout the Bible, but when we using systematic theology alongside of it, we are able to better organise our findings and better equip us to cross reference passages that contain the same theme.

Richard B. Gaffin, Jr. states in his article “Systematic Theology and Biblical Theology”: “Biblical theology focuses on revelation as an historical activity and so challenges systematic theology to do justice to the historical character of revealed truth.”

Biblical & Historical theology:

Don Carson states:

“Both BT and HT are aware of the passage of time in their respective disciplines: BT focuses on the time during which the biblical documents were written and collected, while HT focuses on the study of the Bible from the time it was completed. Put otherwise, BT focuses on the Bible, while HT focuses on what significant figures have believed about the Bible. BT functions best when interacting with HT.” (Carson, 2015)

Don Carson states in this paragraph, that Biblical Theology functions best when interacting with Historical Theology.  I find this statement to be correct as we can see both coincide with one another.  Biblical theology using Historical theology when it is look for main themes throughout the Bible.   When trying to discern wither a certain theme found within the Scriptures is a true theme or wither it is just theme that seems like it would belong there, we bring in historical theology and look back over the history of the Christian church and the doctrines of the church and see if that theme actually fits in with what Christian doctrine believes.

Systematic & Historical theology:

Don Carson says:

“When studying what the Bible teaches about a particular subject (ST), one must integrate HT. In some measure, ST deals with HT’s categories, but ST’s priorities and agenda ideally address the contemporary age at the most critical junctures.” (Carson, 2015)

In order for us to use systematic theology to its full potential, we must use historical theology alongside of it.  Systematic theology will look back over the history of the Christian church and will look at different themes that have occurred and then will look at what the bible teaches about them themes.  Historical theology will use systematic theology when trying to organise and separate themes that have occurred over a period of time in the Christian church.

Biblical theology, Systematic theology and Historical theology all overlap and work together, we see in order to use biblical theology correctly and efficiently it must use historical theology and systematic theology alongside of it.  Systematic theology will use biblical theology in order to make sure that its findings relate to the big picture of the Bible and as well as for creating a strong foundation for its findings.  Historical theology will us both biblical and systematic theology in order to examine how Christian doctrines and believes throughout the time of the Christian church relate with the teachings of the Bible.

Goldsworthy/Trueman debate:

In Carl R. Trueman’s article A Revolutionary Balancing Act, Trueman is trying to get across a point that we mostly only need systematic theology in our churches today and that while he welcomes a certain model of Biblical theology to be used while studying the bible he says that it is taking away from the true meaning of passages within the Bible.  He makes this statement in his article.

“We all know the old joke about the Christian fundamentalist who, when asked what was grey, furry, and lived in a tree, responded that ‘It sure sounds like a squirrel, but I know the answer to every question is ‘Jesus”.” (Trueman, 2002)

Basically that when we using biblical theology to exegete a passage of Scripture we manipulate it a certain way to always come to Jesus.  He then goes on to say that some passages will not be about Jesus and will have a different meaning and purpose altogether and that while using systematic theology to exegete it we will find its true meaning.

In Graeme Goldsworthy’s response to Carl R. Trueman’s article, Goldsworthy points out that we need more than just systematic theology when we are studying the Bible as well bringing to surface just how important it is to have biblical theology while we do that. He says in his article:

“The witness of the NT is that the whole of the OT is a testimony to Jesus (e.g., Luke 24:15-49; John 5:39-47). Biblical theology takes this seriously and aims to show the legitimate pathway from the text to Jesus. Even NT texts are dealt with in this way since the application of any biblical truth to a Christian is in terms of his or her relationship to Jesus.” (Goldsworthy, Ontology and Biblical Theology – A Response to Carl Trueman’s Editorial: A Revolutionary Balancing Act, 2002)

Graeme Goldsworthy is pointing out that when using biblical theology it helps us to get a clearer picture and a better understanding how each passage in the Bible leads us Jesus, wither through his actions or character.

I would agree with Graeme Goldsworthy article more the Carl R. Trueman’s as I believe that each word, verse, chapter of the Bible is breathed from God and is therefore all leading us to Him and to relationship with him, I would agree with Carl R. Trueman’s claim that systematic theology is a strong method of studying the bible to get different meanings from within one passage, even if it isn’t clearer directing us to Jesus, but I believe that when we add Biblical theology alongside systematic theology when we exegete a passage we are then able to see how that passage fits in with God’s big picture of the Bible.

In Conclusion we can see how biblical theology, systematic theology and historical theology all work together, and how each of them enhances the performance of the other in relation to studying God’s word.  In order for us to fully grasp the Bible we need to use each one of these methods so we can clearly teach and understand for ourselves exactly what each passage in the Bible is saying to us.


Allison, G. R. (2011). Historical Theology . Michigan : Zondervan .

Berkhof, L. (1984). Systematic theology. Norwich: The Banner Of Truth Trust.

Carson, D. (2015, September 24). How to read the Bible and do Theology well. Retrieved from

Erickson, M. J. (1983). Christian theology volume 1 . Michigan : Baker Book House.

Gibson, R. (1996). Interpreting God’s plan, Bibical Theology and the pastor. Carlisle: Paternoster.

Goldsworthy, G. (1991). According to plan. Leicester: Inter-varsity press.

Goldsworthy, G. (2002). Ontology and Biblical Theology – A Response to Carl Trueman’s Editorial: A Revolutionary Balancing Act. Retrieved from

Grudem, W. (1994). Systematic theology. Leicster : Zondervan.

Richard B. Gaffin, J. (1976, Spring ). Systematic theology and Biblical theology . Retrieved from

Trueman, C. R. (2002). A Revolutionary Balancing Act. Retrieved from

Analyse and interpret Mark Slouka’s Short story “Crossing”: writing essay help

Write an essay (900-1200 words) in which you analyse and interpret Mark Slouka’s Short story “Crossing”

The short story “Crossing” is written by Mark Slouka in 2009. The short story brings us all on to a trip, where a father takes his little son into the forest to cross a river. The father also wants to spend some father-son quality time together out in the wild nature. The father takes his son to the exactly same places he went with father, when he was seventeen. This short story is about family bonding and a dangerous trip to the wild nature.

The father’s plan for the weekend is to take his son out on a father-son trip into the wild nature, just like his own father did when he was in his young seventeen. The father carries their packs across a shallow but fast moving river, and then he goes back and carries his son across. When they get to a barn, the father barley recognize it, they spend one night in the barn and then the next day, they move on to explore the nature. But when they cross a river again, he knows the current is a bit stronger than the other day. He crosses the river with all their things and then he gets back to the kid. When he takes the boy back across, the father lose his footing, although he do not fall, he is moved downstream with about four or five feet to a point that makes it seem too impossible to even move forward or back. He then remembers of like his father spoke to him as a kid. His father yelled “Don’t fucking fail.” In the end of the story it ends with the father in the middle of the river, telling his son that they are okay, but they are not, and say they shall hang on.

The information that Mark Slouka scatters in the beginning of the story makes us want more and it also make us care deeply about what happens to the son and the father on their trip. We see the son’s smallness and also his entire childhood in those small jeans. We see the father’s deep depression in the simple line “…and he hadn’t been happy in a while.” We know the father has a bad history with his own father and love for the river valley “…nothing much changed.” Later in the story we get to learn more about the fathers need for “…the nests of vines like something scratched out, the furred trunks, soft with rot…”Slouka has already made the father an expert on this place. In the beginning of the story we see how the father picks up his son from his regular home, with his mother. We know the parents are divorced and separated. We learn that the father has done something wrong; because of his hope to maybe he could make this right. We see his care for his son, like care not to hit his son’s head on the ceiling when he playfully takes him over his shoulder.

This leads to a strong and trustful father – son relationship. To appreciate the family bond, this is one of Mark Slouka’s main themes, where you gain an insight into the father in constant search of the role as a brave and lovely father, while bringing up the theme man vs. nature. But the theme is also about failure as a parent and also that you shall learn from other mistakes, and thing that really have a big impact that you will not forget.

The father is a man in his thirties or around that age as he has a young son and has been married. He had a bad childhood and a bad relationship with his father and therefore he will de anything to give his own child a good childhood. The father feels that he has failed a bit because he and his wife have been divorced. The fact that the father is divorced is not written directly but as he is sitting in the driveway outside a house, he looks at the yard and “…the azaleas he’d planted.” This can indicate he once lived there. When the father picks up his son in the morning, he gets a hope that he will be able to make things right again. The trip to the old barn across the river with his son is a small step, but he truly wants to make up for the bad things he has done. He needs his son’s approval and trust that are seen in how he always tries to comfort his son as they cross the river. At one point the reader gets a hint about the reason behind the divorce. “My God, all his other fuckups were just preparations for this.” It is the father who has destroyed the marriage and he knows it. In all he is very reflective and his thoughts play and important role in the story. His thoughts are marked by panic and among other thoughts he has vision of death like a tunnel at the end of the road. In the story the father does not just cross the line of the powerful phenomena of nature but he do also push the trust between him and his son to the limit as he stands thigh-high in the water after he slipped and still tells his son to just hang on, he might have reached the limit.

Mark Slouka does two tings at once in the short story. First, he takes the father back and forth across the river, with their backpacks and then with his son on his back, and then an identical set of return trips the next day. The first set of the trips allows the story to tell us the river and also the care required to cross it too. There are many flashbacks in the text. For instance, the father remembers when he was seventeen and were crossing the river with his father and asking “What do you do if you fall?” And his father answered “Don’t fucking fall.” It then becomes clear where this story is heading. But yet we also forget this inevitable end because of the second thing Mark Slouka does in the text. While the river takes a central place in the story the focus is actually on the fathers memories and thoughts. In fact, the river doesn’t even appear until later. The story opens in the house of the man’s ex-wife where the man is picking up his son and ends with an open ending where the father and son are standing in the middle of a river. This get us to worry about them and set the question of what will they do and how will they get out?

The language in the story is very easy to read, maybe because it is not an old text. But it uses a lot of the modern style in it, so then it will be easier to get through and to understand. it is not a formal language, since it says “fucking”, so it is more of an informal text.

Part of your essay must focus on the narrative technique and the significance of the setting.

Through a third person limited narrator, the reader is presented to a father, who has a hard time in the life after a divorce from his ex-wife. Then he is now determined to find something that matters and has set his heart on maintaining a strong and trustful relationship to his young son.  As the narrator only know what the father thinks, feels and remembers, it is told from his point of view. We get some scenes of the things that he struggles with. Because of the limited narrator there is no insight to the son’s mind, instead the author uses physical decryptions through the father’s eyes, who picture him as a small boy “he looked over at the miniature jeans…”

The setting of the text is that it happens in Tacoma, which is a city in Washington State in the USA. It takes place in the summer or spring?, because even though it is raining , the father and son still sleep in a tent out in the forest, and jump into the river. This indicates it is not winter. In the text we also get to know there are stars on the sky at night. This setting helps us to understand the crossing, and the current we will meet on the way. The setting of the text is pretty much based on the nature. If it was not for the place they were at the time, they would not have had to make the crossing, which in the end caused them a lot of problems. The setting of the text is describes with some adjectives, to show the colors and the feelings, the setting makes the protagonist feel, like when the father has his flashbacks.

Bug Triaging Using Data Reduction Techniques

Abstract— Open source projects for example Eclipse and Firefox have open source bug repositories. User reports bugs to these repositories. Users of these repositories are usually non-technical and cannot assign correct class to these bugs. Triaging of bugs, to developer, to fix them is a tedious and time consuming task. Developers are usually expert in particular areas. For example, few developers are expert in GUI and others are in java functionality. Assigning a particular bug to relevant developer could save time and would help to maintain the interest level of developers by assigning bugs according to their interest. However, assigning right bug to right developer is quite difficult for tri-ager without knowing the actual class, the bug belongs to. In this paper, we have surveyed the enlisted reference papers for bug triaging in which the various triaged bug reports are assigned to the respective developers using data reduction techniques.

Key-Words: Text mining, classification, software repositories, open source software projects, triaging, feature extraction

1. Introduction

Data mining is the process of extracting useful information through data analysis. It is also known as knowledge discovery. Useful knowledge obtained as a result of data mining can be use to cut costs, increase revenues or both. Target data for mining purpose is categorical and numerical having data types like integer, decimal, float, char, varchar2 etc.

Data mining techniques cannot be applied to data that is not numerical or categorical. 85% of enterprise data falls in the category of non numerical or non categorical [1]. For the success of business, knowledge extraction from this unstructured data can be critical. Unstructured data is

processed using text mining techniques so that it can be processed by data mining algorithms and techniques. Techniques from information extraction, information retrieval and natural language processing are used by text mining .

Classification is a function of data mining to assign classes/categories to items in a collection. Basic goal of classification is the accurate prediction of target class for each case in data. For example, loan applications can be classified into high, medium or low risks on the basis of classification model.

1.1 Mining Software Repositories

To understand constantly evolving software systems is a very daunting task. Software systems have history of how they come to be and this history is maintained in software repositories. Software repositories are the artifacts that document the evolution of software systems. Software repositories often contain data from years of development of a software project [2].

Examples of software repositories are:

a) Runtime Repositories: Example of runtime repositories is deployment logs that contain useful information about application usage on deployment sites and its execution.

b) Historical Repositories: Examples of historical repositories are bug repositories, source code repositories and archived communication logs.

c) Code Repositories: Examples of code repositories are Google code and that store source code of various open source projects [3].

MSR is the process of software repositories analysis to discover meaningful and interesting information

hidden in these repositories. There is a huge Software Engineering data over the course of time. MSR picks this data, processes and analyzes it, and detects patterns in this data. MSR is an open field, both in what can be mined and what one can learn from the practice. Any software repository can be mined not necessarily the code, bug or archived communication repositories.

2. Problem Formulation

Triaging of bugs to developer to fix them is a tedious and time consuming task. Developers are usually expert in some particular area. For example few developers are expert in GUI and others are in pure java functionality. Assigning a particular bug to relevant developer could save time as well as would help to maintain the interest level of developers by assigning those bugs according to their interest. However assigning right bug to right developer is quite difficult for tri-ager without knowing the actual class a bug belongs to. This research proposes a technique for classification of open source software bugs using the summary provided by bug reporters.

2.1 literature survey

Some of the already implemented techniques for software bugs classification are:

a) Micheal W. Godfrey, Olga Baysal and Robin Cohen presented a framework for automatic assignment of bugs to developers for fixation using vector space model [4].

In this paper[4], the authors have proposed a specimen of the intelligent system that instinctively conducts the bug assignment. They have employed the vector space model to infer information about the developer’s expertise from the history of the previously fixed bugs. The vector model is used to retrieve the title and the description from the report to build a term vector which later can be used to find similar reports by mining the data in the bug repository. In order to create an efficient bug triage model, the authors conducted a survey wherein they collected a feedback from the developers regarding their previous bug fixing experience, their satisfaction with the bug assignment, whether they were successful and confident in handling bugs in the past, etc. The overall information provided them the initial estimates for the proposed model. This in turn helped them to implement the specimen model and test it within a software team working on the maintenance activities.

b) Hemant Josh, Chuanlei Zhouang, Oskum Bayrak presented a methodology to predict future bugs using history data [5].

In this paper[5], the authors have presented a bug prediction algorithm, the purpose of which is to predict the number of bugs which are to be detected and reported in each month. So the bug prediction of any month basically depends upon the bug count of the precursor month. All this prediction is achieved through the prediction alogorithm implemented in the respective paper[5].

c) Lei Xu, Lian Yu, Jingtao Zhao, Changzhu Kong, and HuiHui Zhang proposed a technique using data mining that automatically classifies the bugs of web-based applications by predicting their bug type.

In this paper[6], the authors have put forth the debug strategy association rules which find the relationship between bug types and bug fixing solutions. The debug strategy acquaints us with the erroneous part of the source code. Once the errors are found then it is very easy for the developers to fix them. The determined association rules help to predict files that usually change together such as functions or variables.

d) Nicholas Jalbert and Westley Weimer proposed a system that checks the duplicacy in the bug reports.

In this paper[7], the authors have instantiated a model that automatically indicates whether an arriving bug report is original or duplicate of an already existing report. It saves developer’s time. To predict bug duplication, system they have made use of rudimentary methods such as textual semantics, graph clustering and surface features.

e) Tilmann Bruckhaus provided a technique for Escalation Prediction to avoid escalations by predicting the defects that have high escalation risk and then by resolving them proactively [8].

3.  Problem Solution

This section describes the proposed system for bug classification, data used for classification task and results obtained in different experiments.

3.1 Input Data

Eclipse and Mozilla firefox data is obtained from bugzilla -an open bug repository [9] [10]. Dataset of almost 29,000 record set is obtained. This data is divided into training and testing groups and experiments are performed on different set of data from these groups.

3.2 Model for prediction

When the bug is first reported to repository, it is submitted to our proposed system as shown in Fig. 1. System extracts all the terms in these reports using bag of words approach. The vocabulary is that of extremely high dimensionality and thus numbers of features are reduced by using feature selection  algorithm. These features are used for training of classification algorithm which is then used for classification of bug reports. The classification algorithm used in proposed system is multinomial Naïve Bayes.

3.2.1 Pre-processing

Data pre-processing is the most important step of data mining. Data obtained from bug repositories is in raw form and cannot be directly used for training the classification algorithm. The data is first pre-processed to make it useful for training purpose. Data pre-processing is the major time consuming step of data mining and most important as well. Stop-words dictionary and regular expression rules are used to filter useless words and filter the punctuations respectively. Porter stemming algorithm is used to stem the vocabulary

3.2.2 Feature Selection

The vocabulary obtained after applying “bag of words” approach on data has very large dimensionality. Most of these dimensions are not related to text categorization and thus result in reducing the performance of the classifier. To decrease the dimensionality, the process of feature selection is used which takes the best k terms out of the whole vocabulary which contribute to accuracy and efficiency.

There are a number of feature selection techniques such as Chi-Square Testing, Information Gain (IG), Term

Frequency Inverse Document Frequency (TFIDF), and Document Frequency (DF) . In this research, we are using feature selection algorithm.

3.2.3 Instance Selection

The vocabulary obtained after applying “bag of words” approach on data has very large dimensionality. Most of these dimensions are related to Our pre defined bugs and thus result in reducing the performance of the classifier. To decrease the time, the process of Instance selection is used which takes the best k terms out of the whole vocabulary which contribute to accuracy and efficiency. This selection is fast instance of feature selection.

3.2.4 Classifier Modeling

Text classification is an automated process of finding some metadata about a document. Text classification is used in various areas like document indexing by suggesting its categories in a content management system, spam filtering, automatically sorting help desk requests etc.

Naïve Bayes text classifier is used in this research

for bug classification. Naïve Bayes classifier is based on

Bayes’ theorem with independent assumption and is a probabilistic classifier. INDEPENDENCE means the classifier assumes that any feature of a class is unrelated to the presence or absence of any other feature.

5. Conclusion

In open source bug repositories, bugs are reported by users. Triaging of these bugs is a tedious and time consuming task. If some proper class is assigned to these bugs it would be easier to assign these bugs to relevant developers to fix them. However, as reporters of these bugs are mostly non-technical it would not be possible for them to assign correct class to these bugs. In this research an automated system for classifying software bugs is devised, using multinomial Naïve Bayes text classifier. Feature selection algorithm and instant selection algorithm are used for bug triage. Maximum prediction accuracy is obtained.

6. Future Work

The main challenge to address in the future is strategic developers. In time, developers could learn how the system

assigns bug fixing tasks and try to manipulate task assignment. Thus, we should ensure that the assignment of bugs is a fair and manipulation-free process.


[1] A. Hotho, A. Nürnberger and G. Paaß, “A Brief Survey of Text Mining,” vol. 20, GLDV Journal for Computational Linguistics and Language Technology, 2005, pp. 19-62.

[2] A. E. Hassan, “The Road Ahead for Mining Software Repositories,”

IEEE Computer society, pp. 48-57, 2008.

[3] S. Diehl, H. C. Gall and A. E. Hassan, “Special issue on mining software repositories,” in Empirical Software Engineering An International Journal © Springer Science+Business Media, 2009.

[4] O. B. Michael and G. C. Robin, “A Bug You Like: A Framework for Automated Assignment of Bugs.,” IEEE 17th international conference, 2009.

[5] C. Zhang, H. Joshi, S. Ramaswamy and C. Bayrak, “A Dynamic Approach to Software Bug Estimation,” in SpringerLink, 2008.

[6] L. Yu, C. Kong, L. Xu, J. Zhao and H. Zhang, “Mining Bug Classifier and Debug Strategy Association Rules for Web-Based Applications,” in 08 Proceedings of the 4th international conference on Advanced Data Mining and Applications , 2008.

[7] N. Jalbert and W. Weimer, “Automated Duplicate Detection for Bug Tracking Systems,” in IEEE computer society, 2008

[8] T. Bruckhaus, C. X. Ling, N. H. Madhavji and S. Sheng, “Software Escalation Prediction with Data Mining,” in Data Mining, Fifth IEEE International Conference, 2006.

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Conformity & Obedience: essay help online free

There are many forms of Social influences, this indicates a change in behaviour affected by others and shows the way opinions are formed, establishes actions and effects everyday lives, this happens even with out being aware of it as people have a strong desire to be liked by others.

Conformity is a social influence which increases the act of changing a belief or behaviour to fit in with surroundings then soon as a certain way of doing things is recognised as a norm people begin to conform and give the impression of the `right` thing to do.

One study on conformity by Sherief  in 1930s, the aim was to determine weather a person would conform to group or social norms whilst put in ambiguous situations.

Sherif put members within a dark room showing a small spot light projected onto a screen appearing to move even though it was not, it was found people alone in the room made different judgments on the movement. Sherif then manipulated part of the group by joining three together having two with similar results plus one with very different results first time round, this time though they had to say an answer out loud on how much the light moved, after a numerous of times it showed all the results got more similar each time.

Results found in ambiguous situations, less previous experience a person had of this situation more powerful the influence was. Their was no right or wrong answer in this experience as the light was an illusion anyway.

Asch also done a study in 1950s on conformity, though that whilst the studies of Sherif showed aspects on conformity they did not show how social or group pressure would effect were their was no right or wrong answer, Asch wanted to determine weather people would conform the same even though something’s obviously wrong.

Asch carried out a pilot study with naïve male members including seven associates showing them a paper with three lines on with different lengths asking them to match it to a line they previously got shown being obvious, associates purposely give the wrong answer, it turned out the members agreed and this shows people will conform even though the answer is incorrect. After 12 trials on this study 75% conformed.

Both of these studies lacked ecological validity as it was not within a real life situation and was done with in a laboratory setting, also these are gender bias all males were used so would no apply and lack population validity.

Obedience is another type of social influence, this has negative and positive sides, positive side, people obey laws, authority, figures and sensible instructions. On the negative side it can be destructive causing crime, Example.. From history one group of people killed another Nazi in ordering German soldiers to kill millions of Jews in the second world war.

Milgram is also well known for social influence studies, his experiment he wanted to find out how far humans would go when a authority orders to hurt another, members agreed to take part and pretend to have an electric but the associates giving the shocks really though these were getting hurt, this means they were deceived and also baldy stressed, this experiment does breach the code of ethics by the British psychologist society and would not be measured ethical now. Ethical issues from this were these members were deceived they were led to believe they had really given high voltage shocks, although suggestions were made members may have known the study was a deception but carried on knowing no harm was made, this would mean the research would not measure obedience.

Fledman & Scheihe was another obedience study taken in the 1970s this was to see what factors caused a person to rebel against an authority, college students were asked to fill in a personal embarrassing questionnaire in front of others , these were actually associates. First state members showed willingly filling in the questionnaire, in another they refused and said they were leaving,. Results showed members in the first state were more likely to complete than the others.

This means people are more likely to refuse authority requests that are not good and social support is their from others. It was taken away from others refusing to fill in the questionnaire in this experiment.

Obedience is necessary to authority, society or system, imagine what it would be like if soldiers in the army refused their orders by their commander.

All these studies were ethical and lack validity over time and woukd be interesting to see the difference in time.

Ethical issues are very important, psychologists need these to take part in research and would want members to feel safe. People whom more likely to show independent behaviour resolve higher in a social responsibility scale than a person who conform or obey.


Text books

Gross, R. D. (2010) Psychology; The science of Mind and Behaviour. 6th edn. London: Oxford University Press. (Gross, 2010, pp. 400-407)

Boswell, Karen, Dave Robertson, Liz Dancer, Donald C. Pennington, and Julie McLaughlin. 2002. Introducing Psychology: Approaches, Topics and Methods. London: Hodder & Stoughton. (Boswell et al. 2002: 159-172)

Class notes: Social influence

Moodle power point.

Paganism in Beowulf: college admission essay help

Beowulf was written around 8th century England, a classic poem that is considered the oldest epic in British Literature. One of the longest surviving Anglo-Saxon poems. It tells of the exploits of a noble and brave Scandinavian hero who battles and defeats a monster by the name of Grendel who preyed on the Danish knights. This poem spoke of a time when society’s progression was converting from the Paganism religion to the Christian religion. The Christian influences in the poem were combined with the early folk tales and heroic legends of the Germanic tribes. Reading this epic, you can contemplate that Beowulf believes in GOD, however, the mention of pagan practices are throughout the poem. Paganism may be capable of overshadowing the elements of Christianity in the poem. As a matter of fact, Christianity and Paganism are closely linked with each other in the poem. The reason being, Beowulf has both the influences of Christianity and Paganism, which could make it confusing to the readers.

The Paganistic elements that were used in the poem Beowulf are shown by the character’s having superhuman personifications. Beowulf is shown as a superhero, who takes it upon himself to save the Great Danes from the monster Grendel, Grendel’s mother and his final fight with the dragon. In his battle with Grendel, Beowulf chooses not to use the weapons he acquired against the monster, he wants to fight him in a fair fight. So Beowulf relies on his super strength to win the fight. During the fight, his strength takes over and he wrestles with Grendel until he is able to rip Grendel’s arm out of socket. Now let’s start with how Christianity was introduced into the poem. The way Christianity was introduced by the character Beowulf is always trusting and recognizing God as his protector. Also, how God used him as an epic hero type to slay the monsters, Grendel and others that are hurting King Hrothgar and his people. King Hrothgar also talked about how GOD raised him in power and placed him over all men.  How GOD has power of all things and life is a gift from GOD. Beowulf’s courage and faith are shown throughout the story, “None of the wise one regretting his ongoing as much he was loved by the Geats and they urged on to adventure” (114-119). Beowulf fought Grendel and his mother and risked his life for his fellow warriors.

The character Beowulf is shown as a similar hero of the Biblical times, David who took down the giant named Goliath with a sling and a rock that was hurled at Goliath’s head. Beowulf can be seen in this story as a Christian hero. The author shows that there is evil within the story such as the monsters, Grendel, his mother and the Dragon who took Beowulf’s life. The author introduces Grendel at the beginning of the story, it is said that the monster Grendel is to bare the mark of Cain. That he’s a monster who lives in a swap, a quote that shows the essence of Grendel, “Grendel, is a monster who haunts and kills people, lives in the wild marshes, and made his home in a hell, but not on earth, He was created in a like slime way, conceived by a pair of those monsters who were born of Cain descendants, murderous creatures banished by God, punished forever for the crime of Abel’s Death” (17-24). In the Old Biblical Testament of Genesis chapter 1 it talks about how Cain and Abel are the sons of Adam and Eve. How Cain went to kill his brother Abel because, he was jealous, and angry of his brother’s abilities.

Just like how the snake who Eve was conversing with in the Bible told her to take a bite of the apple in the Garden of Eden. Also, the character of the monster Grendel, is a man like creature who, seeks a full meal by devouring human beings. During Grendel’s attack the following night we are informed that Grendel is becoming much more evil and murderous in the night. Grendel seems to be a representation and a symbol of evil for all Christians who worship the Lord, but also at the same time Grendel symbolizes the unfairness and the closed minded way people think. Now the way the character Beowulf is played on showing Christianity in the poem is by, Beowulf thanking God and acknowledging how GOD guarded him during his battle with Grendel and his mother. A quote that shows what Grendel looks like “bore hardly that he heard each day loud mirth in the hall” (88-89). Basically it’s a sound that Grendel’s mother is about to enter the room.

Another time before Beowulf goes to fight Grendel, Hrothgar goes to Beowulf and says, “Surely the Lord Almighty could stop his madness, smother control the outcome”. When Beowulf is getting ready to fight Grendel, he says, “I fancy my fighting strength, my performance in combat, at least as great as Grendel does his therefore I shall not cut short his life with a slashing of a sword-too simple a business (675-680). This is showing that Beowulf is going to fight the monster Grendel on equal terms and not dishonor himself by taking the easy way out, just like Jesus knew that he was going to be betrayed by Jude and was going to be killed.

After Grendel was killed, Hrothgar stands on the steps of the halls with Grendel’s hand and says, “Let swift thanks be given to the Governor of All, seeing sights! I suffered a thousand spites from Grendel: but God worked ever miracle upon miracle, the master of heaven” (925-930). Basically what is being said here is that Hrothgar is glad that God has helped in the fight against Grendel and that now they can be at peace without worrying what will happen to them next. It just like that one time in the Bible when the people of Israel left Egypt to find a better way of life. When Grendel’s mother comes to avenge the death of her son, she only has a limited amount of time to seize one noble to kill and the bloody hand of her son Grendel. When Beowulf comes to Hrothgar he tells him, “It is better for a man to avenge his friend than to mourn too much”. Then he also says that even when death comes, to everyone that everyone will die sooner or later and then he suggests that they follow Grendel’s mother back to her lair immediately before more deaths come up. Then again Beowulf’s superhuman tribulations appear again with the fight with Grendel’s mother.

When he’s pulled into the water by Grendel’s mother, he keeps going down and down like going through different layers of hell. Until he reaches the bottom, while he is swimming he uses no oxygen while going down to the bottom to reach his newest challenge that awaits him. During the battle with Grendel’s mother, Beowulf realizes that the sword that he has which is called, Unferth is useless against the monsters thick skin, it won’t cut into it at all. So he then grabs another sword that he found in the lair, which was almost too heavy to hold and slashes through the body. Now comes the part of the poem where the dragon is introduced, the dragon is shown as a super powerful enemy to get through. By the time Beowulf is an old man, there is an issue at hand, someone enters the tomb of the dragon and awakens it and now it starts attacking the people of Beowulf’s kingdom and villages.

So now Beowulf decides that enough is enough and goes to avenge his people by fighting the dragon. Beowulf gets injured while fighting the dragon. The dragon spits out fire towards Beowulf that it melts the sword that he has with him. Then the dragon bites down into his neck and wounds him deeply, but, Beowulf does deliver the last blow to the dragon and kills it. In most pagan stories, the dragon is seen as an enemy to the hero of the story. The author shows that fights with imaginary monsters is a conflict between the power of good vs. evil or right vs. wrong. These battles are example, if epic folklore hero tales during the pagan times. Now the articles that I’m going to be introducing will tell you more about what I’m talking about.

The first article is called, “The Religious Principle in Beowulf” which talks about the many religious views and how the elements of those views are played out in the poem of Beowulf. It talks about the bible and how the monster Grendel is a descendant of Cain, a quote that supports this is, “Thence sprang all evil progeny, giants, etc., including that strove against God” (39). Having alluded again to Cain’s action, the poem reads “Thence sprang many accursed souls, including Grendel, hateful, savage reprobate” (105-107).

The second article I read is called, “Grendel’s Motive in Attacking Heorot” which talks about that supports the information why Grendel attacked the king Hrothgar. Grendel attacked the city of Heorot because, he is shown as a man eating monster who seeks a full meal by devouring human beings. During Grendel’s attack the following night we are informed that Grendel is becoming more murderous in the night and becoming more evil. A quote that shows, what Grendel is about to do, like “bore hardly that he heard each day loud mirth in the hall” (88-89). This is basically talking about when Grendel’s mother is about to attack Heorot meeting hall and kills one of Hrothgar’s closest friends. In addition, there is a third article that I have read that is called, “The Essential Paganism of Beowulf, which talks about the Christian elements in the poem of Beowulf and the most un-Christian pessimistic views on the way of life and history. The background of Beowulf is Scandinavian history. So the Paganism views are shown in a different way. Here are a few of the ways that paganism was introduced, the ship burials, cremation and Beowulf’s sword. The ship burials were a Pagan practice, being buried with you earthly materials to take into the next life. Cremation was also considered a Pagan practice, being put on a wooden platform when you die and burned.

Then there was the special sword Hrunting which was considered pagan because of the engraved symbols in a pattern called ill-boding.  Also a quote that represents Paganism is when Hrothgar gives a speech on humility, “But the Lord was weaving a victory on His war loom for the Weather Geats” (696-697). In this image, the author unites the Christian God with pagan imagery, the loom of fate, on which men’s lives are woven. Weaving, spinning and threads were common metaphors for life and fate in Scandinavian culture. By adopting these traditional pagan images, but using them in a Christian context the author tries to negotiate between the two religions.

Another example of paganism is when the leaders were desperate with fear of Grendel, so they turned away from God towards the old pagan ways, offering up sacrifices. A quote that shows this is, “Betimes at heathen shrines they made sacrifice, asking, with rites that the slayer of souls would afford them relief against their people’s great pain” (99-100). Beowulf is a blend of pagan beliefs, mixed in with that of the Christian faith.

In the end of this tale of good vs. evil or right vs. wrong, Beowulf died as a hero in the eyes of the Pagans.

Planning digital info system for museum



“Digital info system” is a system for the museum or any gadgets show is a system which provide facility to visitor to get information easily. “digital info system” includes following features.

1. Provide facility to visitor to getting information in digital way

2. Reduce headache of boarding written description.

3. Visitor get information in their own language which they understand easi-ly.

4. Also they get information in audio and video form.

5. Also this system include a device tracking system.

We include 4 modules in these project.Which help to create these system. The four module are admin module, visitor module, tracking module, and GPS module.


As per our visit in museum we have seen that everything were in written boring long  descriptions so people do avoid it because the problem is that someonecannot understand English language, some  people get board because of long description, and some are interested in reading but because of more crowd they can’t read.


Aim of this project to make a user friendly and information web base system.

“Digitalinfosystem” is web base application

• The application stores information about all the things which are available in museum

• With this application visitor can easily getting detail information about things in easy or you can say digital way which is interesting way for normal human.

• It reduced paper work by maintaining huge data with least efforts.

• Computer system is capable to store large amount of data and gives true information about particular thing.

* The project aimed is to reach the following goals:-

1. User friendly interface for visitor.

2. Visitor can get some knowledge in their own language.

3. Visitor can see the video and listening audio of things.

Visitor also save that video in smartphone and they can see that video at free time

Also visitor have GPS system so without wasting time they reached at that place or things which they want to see.


In 2015-16 MrShehbazMunshi, Miss Nafisa Patel, MrJignesh Patel, MrSagarPatoliya are formed a project team to develop a system “digital info system”. The team meet daily for 6 months (5 hours daily). Data collection, data designing, learning HTML, cascading style sheet, java script and PHP, designing the system interface, live data entry and working on the various search criteria were the steps involved.


1.4.1 GENERAL:

The initial study suggested that the project was feasible in all aspects without any our project development we have selected the “waterfall model” for software development process. We have used this model because of its simplicity that it provided. Also the sequential approach of this model helped us a lot to have a good insight and get a proper direction for our project.

The waterfall model helped us to divide our project in a set of phases that helped the project to progress through in a sequential manner. Changes are not supported to happen when we use the waterfall model, hence the changes are very limited and the process is tightly controlled. This has been another added advantage to our project, as we had to determine the requirements and specifications well in advance.


In order to create a functioning database the following issues must be addressed:

1. Data Definition

2 System Functionality

3 Technical specification

1. Hardware

2. Implementation

3. Information Support DATA DEFINATION:

The data definition is a catalogue of the specific information that is required for the database. The various attributes related to “digital info system” system are identified. SYSTEM FUNCTIONALITY:

The functional requirements of the database include what databases have to do and how it would be used. The general functional specifications for the project are to be identified. The database is to be created as a data warehouse. There are live data entries into the system. Sessions via user connection with scanner for privileged users, in order to add, delete, modify and update data and to insert new customized data into the database. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION:

The technical specification for the creation of database can be divided into four subparts:

1. Hardware

2. Implementation

3. Information Support

4. Software.


For the development of this project the various Hardware resources are used







The technical requirement for the implementation of our project are:

• Design of database.

• Creation of the interfaces that insert data into the database.

• Creation of the interfaces that edit data into the database.

• Creation of the interfaces that delete data into the database.

• Scripting of the interface to run automatically.

• Design of the web pages to display information.

• Design the web interfaces to access the data in the database.


The design of the database is the most important element of the project. The basic key structure for all the tables I to be determined. The relational likes are worked out. The prototypes of the major tables are worked out. The framework must be solid.


Client would like for the database to be accessible on web. A web interface is to be developed to allow privileged users to access the according to their specific needs.


A plan is divided to try to minimize the amount to time spent gathering and inserting data into the database. Essentially the adopted was to insert the existing information using the web interface. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

For the development of this project the various software resources are used.



WEB SERVER :  Apache

DOCUMENTATION TOOL :  Microsoft Office word 2007

OPERATING SYSTEM  :  Microsoft Windows XP


As per our visit in the museum after the interaction with it we came to know some of the problem of existing system. Which is as followed:-

1. Visitor get board to read description.

2. Visitor cannot captured a pictures of museum things.

3. Visitor don’t have to seeeverything of museum because they do not know about museum map.

4. There is more paper work.

5. No data is stored securely.


Canvas 1:-

AEIOU Summary:-






Canvas 2:-

Identification :-

Canvas 3:-

Production Development canvas:-

Canvas 4:-

Empathy canvas:-


The final complete feasibility study suggested that the project objectives and requirement were in according with technical knowledge of the members and technical requirements of the project could be met. Under all normal circumstances the project could be successfully completed within the given time frame.


2.3.1. E-R DIAGREM:-
















Admin panel






Main problems:-

In this existing application we see some problems and outcomes.

1. Problem related to description of stored things:-

2. Problem related to language:-

3. Problem related to find out stored things in museum:-

4. Tracking.



NAME: – SHEHBAZ MUNSHI  ENO:-130943107010.


NAME:- NAFISA PATEL ENO:-130943107016


NAME:- JIGNESH PATEL ENO:-120940107029



As we have selected the project “digital info system” we would like to implement and solve the problems that we have identified in the existing system.

For example:-

Now a days in  museum the things like statue and traditional cloths of kings and traditional things of old generation etc. is represent with written long description on paper so because of this the problem is that the visitor should have to read the description for getting information of particular things  For that crowd attack is crated. Also some people are lezzy they don’t like to read description that’s why they do not get information.

Also the description is available in English language in all most museum so visitor should have to know the English language compulsory for read that description.

For this problem we make this system in which we provide the facility to get information in easiest and interesting way. We provide one device for getting information about things in digital way. we also provide a GPS system for knowing  the place of particular things which are exactly at which place/point in the museum.

Now the second problem is that every people can not understand  the English language so many people can not get right information so we have to  provide facility of different language from that visitor select language and listen description in understandable language.



• Information is available in interesting way

– Means when  visitor come into the museum for knowing about/ getting information about stored things in museum they aver about the history. So this is the easiest way for getting information.

• GPS system.

– Gps system proving for finding out where the visitor is currently standing and where the visitor should have to go for visiting the particular things of museum. GPS help to find things so visitor can utilize there time.

• Information available in every popular language.

– Suppose visitor is come from Gujarat he/she have not knowledge about English language and he/she will interested to know about some things so he/she will not read description in proper or right way so we provide dif-ferent different language and visitor is selected from that language.

• Time utilization.

– People when read the description so much time is west so we provide fa-cility for time utilization by audio and video form of information.


• Scanner is required.

• Internet connection is compulsory.







Reference book:-

1. Complete Reference of PHP.

2. Beginning PHP and My sql.

Analysis of article ‘Once Upon a Shop’ by Jeanette Winterson: essay help free

In modern day society, big grocery shops like Tesco are ruling the market. The intern fight of having the lowest prices is never ending. The price war is in no way positive for the small amount of small grocery stores. This fight of becoming the cheapest shop makes it more and more uncommon to see small private owned grocery stores because they cannot afford to keep up with the low prices. In the article ‘’Once Upon a Shop’’ by Jeanette Winterson published the 13th of June 2010 she expresses her opinion about the way the market works. Jeanette Winterson is through her article trying to persuade the reader of the text to stop buying groceries from the big shops and start supporting the small private owned grocery stores.

Jeanette Winterson is the owner of a vegetable shop in Spitalfields, which is located in the east end of London. She owns the store with her friend Harvey Cabaniss. Winterson’s article is trying to convince the reader to eat green and organically like, she does. She is through her own biased opinion trying to convince the reader not to eat fabricated food from the big shops. Winterson to convince the reader to start eating healthy and organically because she believes that, it is the healthiest way of living. Winterson says that if we keep buying our food from the big companies they will take over all of the production and nothing can be done to prevent it. She has different arguments to prove this point. For example her first argument where she says that the big companies does not care about the quality of their products but only cares about making the biggest profit. She also criticize the government by accusing them of being one of the main reasons of this negative development. Winterson says that the government by only helping the big companies will make sure that the small private owned grocery shops will go bankrupt.

Winterson is very good at using different methods to get the reader on her side. First of all her title ‘’Once Upon a Shop’’ makes the reader feel sorry for her as she describes how the area looked when she opened her first shop(Page 7, Line 1-2). It makes the reader want to finish the article to get the reason behind the title. She also mentions that everything was very familiar back then and she knew many of the other shop owners but know she does not anymore. That also makes the reader have more empathy for the rest of her article and only wishing the best for her. At page 7 line 36-39, she is describing in an exact way how it all was and that makes the reader able to see it for himself and picture it which also helps her to prove her points. That is also one of her ways of using the history of her shop in the article to affect the reader’s opinion on the case.

In the article Winterson is using informal language with short and simple sentences to make sure as many readers as possible will understand her article and be able to relate to her story and feel empathy with her. The informal way Winterson uses her language is the same way she wants the reader to see her shop. She likes her shop very much and she thinks that it is much better than the big companies are. The very casual way she describes her shop also makes the kind of people how enjoy the smaller grocery shops more likely to finish the article and support her. Winterson is also questioning the audience by asking ‘’what can we do?’’(Page 10, line 248) and by using the word ‘’we’’ she is trying to encourage the audience to help her fighting the big companies. She is also trying to get more empathy from the readers by saying ‘’The bottom line isn’t profit; it is being human’’ (page 10, line 232-233). All in all she is trying to convince the reader that her products and her shop is way better than ‘’The chilly world of corporate retail’’ (Page 10, line 259-260)

It is obvious through the whole article that Winterson is trying to persuade the readers of the article to fight with her against the big companies. Her main argument is that organic food is way better than the food the big companies produce and therefore the readers has to help her stop the big companies. Winterson is a good user of pathos and by that she very good to state the problems and get supporters to her way of thinking. As earlier mentioned Winterson is using simple and informal language, which could attract more readers as it is a simple article to read and it is a current problem. The way that she is criticizing the big companies could make her article look a bit too one-sided and in that, way she might lose many supporters. Some readers might even think that she is crazy to start a fight against the big companies. Through the article, Winterson does not use any expert knowledge or any data that could prove her right and that weakens her arguments a lot. The lack of ethos in her arguments weakens them a lot. The way she describes her small shop might still attract many customers who prefer the organic food and small grocery shops but Winterson’s idea of replacing the big shops with small grocery stores like hers might be a bit too ambitious. She would need to work a lot on her rhetorical methods if she wants to write an article that would actually persuade the majority to boycott the big shops and only buy their foods from the small grocery shops.

The relationship between private bank profits and the Dutch economy and democracy

Topic: The relationship between private bank profits and the Dutch economy and democracy


“Money is power”

A popular idea in the world is imagining how much power an individual would have if he or she could create money. However, the practice of making money has been employed since the first coin.

Banks create money with the use of loans. They control where and in what way newly created money goes into the economy. This gives banks, in a way, more power than a government.

This topic has been brought to light a few months ago in the Netherlands trough a group of stage actors called “De Verleiders” (the seducers). Their play and ideas have gotten a lot of attention by the media and they have started an initiative to get this topic to the Dutch government. This paper will first explain commercial moneymaking and will look at the way banks function. Secondly it will explain what it would mean for democracy if the power of banks would be in the hands of a government. In conclusion the opinion of the researcher will be given about this topic, together with a proposed solution to this problem.

1. Commercial moneymaking

There is a Dutch law that states: ‘The livelihood of the people and spread of wealth are in the care of the government’ (artikel 20 lid 1).

However, current Dutch money system is dominated by commercial banks.

These banks control the money supply and therefore have a big influence on the Dutch society.

First of all, there are a lot of misunderstandings about money and the Dutch monetary system. Most people see it as a system that can’t be changed, a system that is there to stay. In other words, money and the Dutch monetary system isn’t seen as something that is created by people and controlled by people. And yet it is. Even specialists, economists and bankers often give a wrong definition of what money is.

For example, the bank of England has recently stated that most of our economy school books give a wrong explanation about how money is created. (

1.1 What is commercial moneymaking?

How banks create money is simple. It goes as follows: when a person, company or country is in need of money he or she visits a bank. This bank will asses if the person or subject can pay back the money they want to lend. When the person or subject is suitable for the loan, the bank shall make a contract and fill in the balance sheet on the computer. Both sides of the balance sheet will be raised by the bank. Money is equal to bank debt. When the person uses this money to pay for things, there is new money in circulation. So to say it in simple words: typing numbers in a keyboard is enough to put digital money on an account.

Private banks can thus create money through the accounting process that they use when they lend money. The numbers that are seen in the books of the account are basically just entries in the computer system of the bank. These numbers are a liability from the bank to the customer.

By using your bank card or mobile banking, the customer can use these digital accounts in the same way as physical money. This makes the digital money from private banks a perfect substitute for physical money from the central bank.

By creating money this way banks have pushed out the credit money, bills and coins, and created a system where banks can control the money supply. Eventually the debt burden became too high and resulted in the financial crisis.

Figure 1 shows that 97% is deposit money and only 3% is left as cash money.

However, private banks are still under somewhat of control. For example; the Basel II

Accords have been made to keep an eye on the way money is created.

The Basel Accords determine how much equity capital – known as regulatory capital – a bank

must hold to buffer unexpected losses.

These Accords are applied under supervision by the central banks and governments.

It is well known that private banks want to make a profit, and in the mean time they have the privilege to create money.

1.2 What are the consequences of commercial moneymaking?

A major cause of the financial crisis was the Housing Bubble, which exploded in 2006.

In the years prior to the financial crisis the private banks had been raising the amount of money they created every year.

At the start of 2007 till the end of 2011 the credit crisis has raged in the world, as seen in Figure 2. Banks have created too much money too fast. They used this money to invest in financial markets and made the prices of houses grow by lending this money.

By lending this money, the price of houses will be pushed up along with the level of personal debt. On all the loans that banks give out, interest has to be paid. Because the debt rose quicker than the national income, people where eventually unable to pay their debt. People stop paying their debts and banks found themselves almost or completely bankrupt.

1.3 The researcher’s opinion

The first change that I think has to be made is; money has to be created by a transparent and democratic committee which works with the customers in mind.

In my opinion this power has to be controlled. Everyone should know how it is created and what is happening with their money. The government can’t be trusted with this power either. That’s why there should be an independent committee who works in the customer’s best interest and not against it. The government could work as a controlling power over this committee and protect the customer’s against misuse. There should also be a safety net which prevents too much or too less money creation.

The second thing that has to be changed in my opinion is; money has to be created debt free.

As stated before banks create money by creating loans. But when money is created by the state, with common interest in mind, and put in circulation by government spending in stead of the use of loans, this money would then stimulate the economy and create jobs.

The final change I would make is; banks will not be allowed to create money again.

History has shown that as soon as banks have the power to create money, they create too much in good times, which leads to financial crises, and create too few in bad times, which leads to recessions and unemployment. Keep in mind that banks want to make a profit.

So plain and simple, we can’t allow banks to create money.

Clinical associations of thyroid tumors with SNP309 in Iranian-Azeri population


Background: MDM2 SNP309 (rs2279744) is a single nucleotide T>G polymorphism present in the first intron of the MDM2 gene and a negative regulator of p53 tumor suppressor protein. The findings suggest that MDM2 309TG polymorphism may be a risk factor for several cancers. This study examined clinical associations of thyroid tumors with SNP309 in Iranian-Azeri population.

Methods: In present study, 107 thyroid cancer patients and 156 cancer-free control were obtained from Iranian-Azeri population. Genomic DNA including of peripheral blood and tumor samples was extracted by salting out procedure. The MDM2 SNP309 genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) assay. All analyses were conducted by spss software with Chi-squared(χ2) test and the P < 0.05 was used as the criterion of significance.

Results: Significant difference between genotype frequency distribution in control and cancerous group was found and our results showed that the genotypes containing G allele [TG (OR, 0.021; 95% CI, 0.018–0.024; p= 0.018) or GG (OR,0.01; 95% CI, 0.008–0.012; p= 0.007] compared with the TT genotype were associated with significant increased susceptibility to thyroid tumors.

Conclusions: All Our findings imply that the MDM2 promoter SNP309 (rs2279744) is associated with the incidence of Thyroid tumors in Iranian-Azeri population.

Key Words: Thyroid cancer,MDM2 SNP309 T>G, polymorphism


The sequence of the whole human genome was completed in 2001 [1], and Approximately 6.5 million  SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) have been detected in human genes. Depending on where a SNP occurs, it might have different results at the phenotypic level. SNPs are located in the coding regions of genes that alter the function or structure of the encoded proteins and in non-coding regions of the genome, and have no direct known effect on the phenotype of an individual. These differences could contribute to many of the individual features that describe us as unique.  Also, because they occur at a relatively high frequency in the genome (approximately one SNP for every 1000 bp), SNPs can be used as markers for these more important genetic changes. 89% of the analyzed SNPs are located in an exon and 11 % in an intron [2,3].

Thyroid cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system and accounts for approximately 2.1% of all cancers diagnosed worldwide. The thyroid cancer has a 4.4% prevalence in women and a 1.3% prevalence in men. The male-to-female ratio was approximately 1: 3.5, while the crude incidence for men was 1.9/100,000 and that for women was 6.6/100,000. Thyroid cancer is the ninth most common cancer (2.1% of all cancers) in women [4]. The incidence rate of thyroid cancer in both women and men is increasing[5]. Primary thyroid tumors are classified as benign or malignant, which originate from follicular and parafollicular (or c-cells) epithelial cells. Benign tumors containing follicular adenoma and malignant tumors are contained papillary, follicular, medullary and anaplastic carcinomas. The follicular cells convert iodine into thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) and include papillary, follicular and anaplastic carcinomas and Follicular adenoma. The parafollicular or C-cells, which secrete calcitonin, contain medullary carcinoma [6]. Between  thyroid tumors, papillary thyroid cancer represent approximately 80% of all thyroid malignancies [7]. Some molecularbiomarkersinvolved inthyroid tumorsincludep53, RET, BRAF, RET/PTC ,RAS, PAX8/PPARγ  and NTRK1  [8].

The human homologue of the mouse double minute 2 (MDM2 or HDM2) gene locatedon chromosome 12q13-14 with 491 amino acids long and 12 exons consist of twotranscriptional promoters, constitutive promoter and p53-responsive intronic promoter [9, 10, 11]. MDM2 oncoprotein actsa critical regul-atory role for many tumor-related genes that are important for cell-cycle control such as the P53 [12]. The p53 gene is mutated in about 50% of all human cancers [13]. P53 is a tumor suppressor gene, which is involved in multiple pathways, including apoptosis, DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and senescence [14]. MDM2 and TP53 regulate each other through a feedback loop [15]. P53 induces MDM2 on the transcriptional level while MDM2 interacts through its N-terminal domain with an α-helix present in the transactivation domain of p53 with high affinity and inhibits its, As a result, prepares it for proteolytic degradation at the ubiquitination pathway [16]. The overall frequency of MDM2 gene amplification in human tumors is approximately 7.2% [17]. A recent study has shown that a MDM2 single nucleotide polymorphism in the first intron with a T to G change at the nucleotide 309 in the p2 promoter region of MDM2, so that, The presence of the mutant G-allele in cells containing SNP 309 GG  increases the affinity of the transcriptional activator stimulatory protein 1 (Sp1), that regulates the basal levels of MDM2 mRNA and protein in these cells not in T/T wild cells. These higher levels of mdm2 in cells with the GG SNP309 alleles reduce the p53 apoptotic responses that occur in people in response to DNA damage and other environmental threats while in cells with the TT SNP309 alleles can increase p53 protein levels after a stress signal. Thus, in some individuals with a G/G genotype at SNP309, the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis or cell cycle arrest in response to genotoxic stress is low [18, 19]. The MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism has been associated with several cancers, including gastric carcinoma [20], non-small-cell lung cancer [21], endometrial cancer [22], Colorectal Cancer [23], Hepatocellular Carcinoma [24], and bladder cancer [25]. In contrast, no increased risk was observed for breast cancer [26,27], ovarian cancer [28], prostate cancer [29]. In the present study, the association between the MDM2 SNP309 polymorphisms and thyroid tumors risk in the Iranian-Azeri was examined.

Materials and Methods

Specimens study and collection

In this study our patient group including of 107 subjects who were diagnosed with thyroid cancer (age range: 14-81 and mean age: 39.3) were eligible for this study. All patients with histologically confirmed primary thyroid cancer. Control group  were selected randomly from 156 healthy subjects with no family history of cancer (age range: 19-79 and mean age: 40.9). A standardized questionnaire  from the control  group, including information on age, gender, family history of types cancer, smoking and alcohol consumption history was completed for everyone. Informed consent was earned from all participants. All cases and controls were ethnic Azari from northwest of Iran. The study protocol was approvedby the Ethics Committee of Tabriz University of the Medical Sciences research center ( Peripheral blood and tissue samples weretaken from patients who underwent surgery at Nour-Nejat and Emam-Reza hospitals of Tabriz-Iran, from 2008 to 2012.

DNA extraction and PCR amplification

Peripheral blood samples were kept in vials containing ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), an anticoagulant. Genomic DNA was extracted from 5ml the whole blood mixed with anticoagulant using salting out procedure as described [30] and Then stored at – 20 until further use. The 194 bp fragment including of the T to G polymorphic site in the intronic promoter of MDM2 region was amplified using specific primers forward: 5′-CAAGTTCAGACACGTTCCGA-3′ and reverse: 5′-TCGGAACGTGTCTGAACTTG-3′. PCR was performed in a 25 µl reaction mixture containing 1μl template DNA (20-50ng), 2.5μl PCR buffer (10x), 0.5μl dNTPs (10mM), 0.75μl of each primers (10pmol), 0.85μl Mgcl2 (50mM), 18.45μl sterile distilled H2O and 0.2μl Taq DNA polymerase (5unit/μl), (Cinnagen, Iran). PCR amplification was carried out in a thermal cycler (Sensoquest, GmbH, Germany). The following cycling conditions were: an initialdenaturation at 95°C for 5 min followed by 35 cycles of denaturation at 95 °C for 30 s, annealing at 59°C for 30 s and  elongation at 72°C for 30 s and a final extension at 72°C for 10 min.

SSCP profiles

For sscp analysis, 4ml of the amplified pcr product added to 6ml of denaturing loading dye solution with an equivalent volume containing (95 % formamide, 10 mM NaOH, 20 mM EDTA, 0.05 % bromophenol blue and 0.05 % xylene cyanol). The solution was briefly vortexed and The total mixture were denatured by heating at 95°C for 10 min and each sample mixture was immediately snap-cooled on ice before loading onto the vertical electrophoresis set. 5µl of each pcr product sample are loaded onto a non-denaturing 10% polyacrylamide gel consisted of (5 ml acrylamide–bisacrylamide solution (40 %) (38:2), 3.5 ml Tris–Borate–EDTA buffer (TBE.5x), 13.5 ml deionized-distilled H2O, 300 µl ammonium persulfate (10 %, freshly prepared) and 30 µl tetramethylethylenediamine). Then gel was run in 0.6x TBE buffer for 15-17h under a constant voltage and temperature 100v cm/l and 4°c using a vertical electrophoretic apparatus  (Akhtarian, Iran) and a power supplier (Apelex, France). One of the undenatured PCR products as negative control and a 50-bp DNA ladder (molecular size marker; Fermentas, USA) were loaded into the gel wells. After electrophoresis, the gel was silver stained to the following way: The gel was immersed in a tray containing solution 1 (4ml absolute ethanol 10% and 2ml acetic acid 5% with distilled water to a final volume of 400 mL was reached; fixing solution) and the tray was placed on top of a shaker to mix for 10 minutes (this step was performed two times). Then the solution 1 was removed, and the solution is a newly built 2 (0.1% silver nitrate) was added for 15-20 minutes. After, the solution 2 was poured out and briefly was rinsed gel with deionized water. At the end, the freshly built solution 3 (3 gr NaOH, 20 ml formaldehyde 10% in 180 mL distilled water) was added for 20-30 minutes. Solution 3 was used to wash unstained silver off the gel. Finally, bands clearly were created as dark brown regions on the gel [31,32]. Each banding pattern in the sscp gel was sequenced in order to confirm and identify sequence changes using the forward primer (Applied Biosystems, 3730xl DNA Analyzer, Bioneer, Korea). Sequencing results that were obtained were compared with the sequence of MDM2 available with the reference sequence (NC_000012.12) in the NCBI  database (

Statistical methods

At first, we assessed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) ( for each study using Pearson’s goodness-of-fit chi-square in patient and control groups. Allele and genotype frequencies in patients and controls were compared by Pearson’s χ2-tests or Fisher’s exact testto determine whether there was any significant difference. Also crude odds ratios (ORs ) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) were used to assesse the association between MDM2 309T>G polymorphism and thyroid cancer risk. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software (v.16; SPSS Inc., USA) and p-Value < 0.05 were considered significant.


Figure 1 depicts conformes of rs2279744 with distinct banding patterns in the region of interest, which was determined by sequencing (Fig. 2). The distribution of genotypes in the patient and control group were consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium distribution (P = 0.54 and P = 0.30 ). The genotype distribution and allele frequencies of MDM2 promoter SNP309 polymorphisms between thyroid cancer patients and controls shown in table 1 and 2. As shown in Table 1, The genotype frequencies of MDM2 SNP309 (rs2279744) polymorphism among TT and GG homozygous and TG heterozygous individuals for the patient group were 29%, 18.7 and 52.3%, while in the healthy control group were 19.9%, 53.8% and 26.3%, respectively. The frequency of the wild-type allele T was in cases 44.7% (n=118) and in controls 55.3% (n=146). The frequency of the variant allele G was in cases 36.6% (n=96) and in controls 63.4% (n=166). Our results show that the MDM2 SNP309 TG/GG genotypes were associated between patients and controls compared with the SNP309TT homozygous with an increased risk of thyroid cancer. In addition, statistically significant difference did not observe in the allele frequency of MDM2 SNP309 between patient and control group. Furthermore, we also evaluated the association between the MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism and clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid cancer, including of age at diagnosis, tumor type, tumor size, gender, side involved, tumor stage and lymph node involvement but no significant difference was found.

Precision farming in the UK: custom essay help

History of precision farming within the UK

Precision farming has been around for a very long time. It stems from farmers sectioning of pieces of land into farmable areas. These areas would be defined by hedges or ditches. These sections of land would be uses to isolate specific areas of land with differences in soil types and qualities.

Precision farming now takes on a different meaning but still returns to the main reason for its use of targeting specific area in a field to gain the most from it. For most people precision farming is the use of GPS steering on tractors but it also now takes on other forms such as nutrient mapping and controlled traffic management.

Environmental impacts of using precision farming

Agriculture is an industry that has a duty of care to the environment and all living things found in the diverse habitats found on the farm. Precision agriculture has been targeted by many farms to help the environment. An application where this has been seen are in the application of pesticides.

Precision farming technology has allowed farmers to improve the application of pesticides and has allowed farmers to correctly target pests and diseases. The main reduction of environment impacts has been due to new technology such as GPS controlled section control on sprayers. This technology has been designed to overcome human error.

Applications of precision farming within agriculture

There are three main areas that we break precision farming down to. These are assessing variation, optimising operations, varying applications and operations.

Assessing variation is used in modern farming as an aid to agronomy. In the past agronomists would walk fields and asses growth and how crops are being effected by conditions. They would also advice farmers on the best practices that may affect how a farmer would carry out specific tasks on the farm. This is very expensive and time consuming. Precision farming equipment now allows these tasks to be conducted more accurately over greater areas of land in reduced time.

There are many ways this can be done but the most well-known uses have been in the forms of satellite imagery, tractor mounted sensors and drones. These pieces of equipment allow you to carry out tasks such as soil scanning and yield mapping. They can also be used to determined plant growth variation. All of the data that can be taken from these tests are used to make informed decisions on current crops and allows farmers to forward plan for future cropping.

One main area that needs to be assessed for next year’s crop is available nutrient. Nutrient mapping allows farmers to map gradual changes in nutrient availability in the soil. This then allows farmers to apply variable rate fertilisers to specific areas of the field. Once this has been done there should be the correct amount of available nutrient for crops to thrive. The two main benefits for this application of precision farming are reduced wastage of fertiliser and also not under applying therefor capping the capability of the crop and overall yield. Given these two benefits this allows a farm to produce better yields at reduced cost.

Once variation assessing has been done then you can look as varying applications and operations. The aim of this is to minimise inputs into a field but to maintain the correct amount of products to allow for the best crops. There are many operations that can be varied to reduce input.

Operations which can be varied include:

Variable rate drilling – seed rates can be varied to coincide with soil mapping. For example reducing seed rates in the most fertile soils and increasing in harsher soils.

Variable rate fertiliser – sensors on tractors can scan the crop canopy and measure green crop area. This gives you a green area index. These numbers then feed into the spreader control box and can apply different amounts to allow plant to use fertilisers more efficiently.

Target spraying and variable rate – drones can be flows over crops to find areas of where weed burdens are high. These areas can then be treated specifically. By using technology to improve pesticide accuracy you are also helping reduce environmental impact. There is also a reduction in the amount of chemical being used bringing financial savings to farmers.

Optimising operations is the main technology that directly affects the operator. Mainly found in the form of steering guidance and auto shut offs. Most smart operations use Global Navigational Satellite systems.

Auto Guidance – ensures operations are as efficient as the system will allow. Typically ensuring operations are, at their most accurate, within 2cm on each pass, whether within one operation (pass to pass) or throughout the growing year (controlled traffic).

Auto shut off – using precise locations of equipment signals can be sent bringing implements into or out of operation far quicker, more precisely and more consistently than human operators. Both for applications (drilling, spraying and spreading) as well as data recording (yield mapping, nutrient sensing, soil scanning).

The costings and savings of GPS assisted steering

Companies that look to use assisted steering must consider a variety of factors before buying these packages. The main factor is the economic impact to the business.

Economic factors directly influence the profitability of the company. This can be measure by comparing input costs, savings and gross profit. Nix (2015) believes that the cost of running 3 machines on Real time kinetic (RTK) assisted steering is £20/ha giving a net profit of £2/ha. This is and initial profit made by reduced diesel costs and full area cropping.

There can be further gains by using this system in conjunction with other farming practices by creating lower input costs. These saving can be found by reducing the amount of fertiliser, sprays, labour and seed used on the farm.

The effects of precision farming on employers and employees


Timber framed buildings vs traditional brick built structures


Looking at the timber framed buildings comparing with traditional brick built structures

Assessing   the sustainability, costs, build time, sourced materials, and which is possibly suited to the UK climate.

Literature review

For many years there has being many diverse methods of construction brick being the modern method of construction especially in the residential housing sector.  This form of construction offered a strong, long-lasting dwelling which will supposedly last for many years to come (figue1)


Today the brick built house has competition from other methods of construction, timber framed is widely used by many construction companies and is seen as a more time and cost effective construction method Timber frame housing is not a new concept. (Anon., 2015). (Figure 2)


Throughout history it was one of the most commonly construction materials and examples of timber framed houses from the 12th century are still used today. Softwood based timber housing systems date back to the 1780’s with many examples positioned along the East and Southern coasts. Of the uk  So why change   about that we no longer see timber framed construction as a sustainable form of construction , over 70% of  houses in the world are constructed using this method Great Fire of London put increased pressure due to rebuilding works and the preferred timber used was oak and took many years to grow .  The result was a change of attitude and timber took a burner for a while hence now this method is now seen by many as the way forward in the construction of houses.  This proposal is set out to ultimately discover weather timber frame provides a time effective solution to other traditional methods of construction.

The more extreme the climate, we have to rely on the building to protect us from the weather the demand for more sustainable energy efficient  homes is extremely important today. There is a strong case to investigate why the timber frame approach is the way to go but there are other issues like are supply of timber most our timber is imported into the uk from all over the world could we address this problem with  with proper management of our own  forests,  according to the forestry commission the uk  import  – 6.4 million cubic metres of sawn wood (+17%); – 3.3 million cubic metres of wood-based panels (+10%); – 10.7 million cubic metres of wood pellets (+45%); – 7.3 million tonnes of pulp and paper (+1%); – The total value of wood product imports was £7.2 billion (+7%), (+1%). (Darot, 2014)

UK Import Value

(Darot, 2014)

UK Export Value

(Darot, 2014)UKCIP conducted a piece of work in 2009 to project how the climate may change in

2020, 2050 and 2080 and below shows how they project the weather could change

over the next 70 years in North Yorkshire.

2020 Yorkshire and Humber Climate Projections

The estimate of increase in winter mean temperature is 1.3ºC.

The estimate of increase in summer mean temperature is between 1.3 – 1.4ºC.

The estimate of increase in summer mean daily maximum temperature is 1.7 –


The estimate of increase in summer mean daily minimum temperature is 1.5ºC.

The estimate of change in winter mean precipitation is 5%.

The estimate of change in summer mean precipitation is 6% – 5%.


2050 Yorkshire and Humber Climate Projections

The estimate of increase in winter mean temperature is 1.9ºC – 2.5ºC.

The estimate of increase in summer mean temperature is 2.2ºC – 2.6ºC.

The estimate of increase in summer mean daily maximum temperature is 2.9ºC –


The estimate of increase in summer mean daily minimum temperature is 2.4ºC –


The estimate of change in winter mean precipitation is 9% – 12%.

The estimate of change in summer mean precipitation is –15% -18%.

2080 Yorkshire and Humber Climate Projections

The estimate of increase in winter mean temperature is 2.5ºC – 3.6ºC.

The estimate of increase in summer mean temperature is 2.5ºC – 4.2ºC.

The estimate of increase in summer mean daily maximum temperature is 3.4ºC –


The estimate of increase in summer mean daily minimum temperature is 2.8ºC –


The estimate of change in winter mean precipitation is 12% – 20%.

The estimate of change in summer mean precipitation is –17% -28%.

6. Summary of key risks to North Yorkshire County Council from a

changing climate

Regional and local climate data has been collated to provide likely scenarios for key

services (receptors) and is presented in table 2 below.

Severity and likelihood of incidents was scored by service representatives during the

interviews and workshops and these have been multiplied to give the colour-coded

level of risk. The table gives the service type, the likely impact and consequences of

future climatic conditions and a risk rating for now, 2020, 2040 and 2080.

The risk of negative issues is quantified as follows:

1-9 = low (green)

10-15 = medium (amber)

16-25 = high (red)

The opportunity for positive outcomes is indicated as follows:

Pale blue indicates a low level of opportunity

Dark blue indicates a high level of opportunity

Could these factors have a negative effect on the production of timber frame structures due to our high import levels, making it more expensive?   Or are there more telling factors that drive the publics’ opinion in to choosing the brick method of construction over timber. Sustainable homes clarifies that timber is possibly the only real renewable source used within the construction industry Timber construction it’s the only environmentally friendly material available claiming low carbon neutral properties the manufacture of wood products normally requires less energy than that of its competitors manufactured brick has to be made, stone quarried, and cement quarried and mixed producing large amounts of co2 into our atmosphere contributing to global warming.

Timber Frame Timber frame systems have always been popular with self-builders because they are fast and convenient. With the main components assembled in the factory and transported to the site, reducing waste another benefit is one company deals with everything concerned with the new build. However Many self-builders also like the idea where the main frame is constructed from a sustainable resource where the timber source is guaranteed to have come from renewable sources, carefully managed forests. However, if timber frame is your choice you should remember that the law of diminishing returns applies: the energy savings achieved by super-insulated walls are surprisingly small and should be balanced against not just installation costs but loss of internal floor space in situations where the planners dictate a maximum area for the footprint of the house.

The benefits of timber framed construction

Quick build times,  reducing site costs , quick and easy to weather proof  allowing the early introduction of other trades low energy usage having used locally produces materials, incorporate the use of recycled materials for example  hard-core, timber, and  slates.  There’s also the benefit of reduced waste due to the fact that most of the structures are factory made, the structure also if designed right will last well beyond its 60 years life span the end product produces high energy efficiency fast to heat engineered to the exact measurements and can still use traditional procurement methods

The disadvantages of timber frame construction

There are a lack of building teams that can build these structures Lack of experience in construction methods, there is transportation and carriage cost, there is also the problem of leaving the structure open to the elements which could then lead to future decay issues, all timber used should be adequately fire protected.

Advantages of Masonry Walls

Masonry built properties regarding skills and materials are readily available in the UK.  Masonry cavity walling is almost certainly the cheapest system for your new self-builds – although the difference is marginal on a one-off house and so relative cost should be considered in the context of the other pros and cons

Masonry built structures gives a building a feeling of solidity, as the  blocks provides a high level of acoustic mass, helping to eradicate noise outside the building. Building internal stud partition walls from masonry, as opposed to timber stud walls covered with plasterboard, will further enhance the feeling of solidity and provide sound proofing between rooms. The high strength of masonry walls allows the option to use concrete upper floors, r than conventional timber floor joists. This provides low acoustics between storeys, as well as making it possible to build first floor partition walls in solid masonry, rather than in timber studwork, extending the qualities of solidity and sound deadening to upper rooms. Dense blockwork also provides a solid fixing for built-in furniture, kitchens wardrobes curtain rails, pictures etc. With the addition of steel, however, ordinary dense concrete blockwork is a poor insulator and so in order to meet the energy requirements, insulation has to be added into the wall structures. It is possible, however, to achieve extremely high levels of energy efficiency using masonry construction. One way of improving the thermal performance is to use lightweight concrete blocks – also known as air Crete. These have a proportion of air added into the mix manufacture, creating tiny air bubbles which act as an insulant. The disadvantage is that the more air that is added into the blocks, the weaker they can become. This can be a big problem when it comes to fixings are often necessary to fix heavy furniture or curtain rails.

Masonry structures are the oldest structures. These are structure built by using masonry units with mortar. The masonry units may be:

 Clay Bricks

 Concrete

 Stone


Brick is a solid unit of building having standard size and weight. Its history traces back thousand years. Clay bricks made of fired clay. The composition of clay varies over a wide range. Usually clays are composed mainly of silica (grains of sand), alumina, lime, iron, manganese, sulphur, and phosphates, Clay bricks have an average density of 125 pcf. Bricks are manufactured by grinding or crushing the clay in mills and mixing it with water to make it plastic. The plastic clay is then moulded, textured, dried, and fired

Bricks are manufactured in different colours, depending on the fire temperature during manufacturing. The firing temperature for brick manufacturing varies from 900°C to 1200°C (1650°F to 2200°F)

 Concrete Blocks

 Structural Clay Tiles

 Stone

1. As a Structural build Unit

Since the clay bricks or burnt bricks are strong, hard, durable, and resistive to abrasion and fire.

 Buildings

 Bridges

 Foundations

 Arches

 Pavement (Footpath, Streets)

2. as an Aesthetic Surface Finish

Bricks can be used in different colours, sizes and orientations to get different surface designs.

 In Pavements

 As Facing Brick

 For Architectural Purposes

3. As a Fire Resistant Material

Advantages of Bricks

 Economical (Raw material readily  available)

 Hard and durable

 Compressive strength is good  for basic construction

 Different orientations and sizes give diverse surface textures

 low maintenance cost is required

 Demolishing of brick structures is very easy, less time consuming and hence economic

 Recyclable

 fire resistant

 Produces less environmental pollution during making

Disadvantages of Bricks

 Time consuming

 Cannot be used in high seismic zones

 Some bricks absorb water easily.

 Very Less tensile strength

 Rough surfaces of bricks may cause mould growth

 Bricks can discolour over time.


History of ras Al khaimah: essay help online free


The Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah is one of seven emirates which together contain the alliance of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The alliance is built up on December 2, 1971, which included Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al Qawain and Fujairah, where Ras Al Khaimah has joined by February 1972. Ras Al Khaimah is viewed as one of the UAE’s most grounded developing tourism spots. Offering untainted common magnificence and dazzling view, Situated on the west bank of the United Arab Emirates, Ras Al Khaimah’s 64-kilometers of shoreline give magnificent sandy shorelines and clear precious stone blue waters. Guests to the emirate can appreciate an abundance of open air exercises from swimming, angling and playing golf and also investigating the desert by safari and encountering a conventional Bedouin desert camp. To get away from the warmth, Ras Al Khaimah additionally has an Iceland Water Park which offers a large group of water slides and diversion for all the crew. Because of its topographical area at the northern tip of the United Arab Emirates, Ras Al Khaimah is truly meant ‘top of the tent’ and initially known as ‘Julfar’. As a rich archeological destination, Ras Al Khaimah highlights an abundance of scenes from tough mountain crests to waterfront zones and betray. To the far north, the rising emirate outskirts with the Sultanate of Oman, where the sheer rough Hajar Mountain inclines seem to ascend out of the ocean. The atmosphere is sub-tropical, semi-bone-dry with warm temperatures, rare downpour fall and blue skies a large portion of the year. In the middle of November and April the normal day-time temperature achieves 28 degrees centigrade though in the mid-year months in the middle of June and August temperatures ascend above 35 degrees centigrade with abundance moistness.


1. History of Ras Al Khaimah

2. Ubaid Period (5000 – 3800 BC)

3. Hafeet Period (3200 – 2600 BC)

4. Umm al-Nar Civilization (2600 – 2000 BC)

5. Wadi Suq Culture Period (2000 – 1600 BC)

6. Iron Age (1250 – 300 BC)

7. The Hellenic and Parthian Era (300 BC -300 AD)

8. The Sasanian Occupation Era (300 AD – 632 AD)

9. The Abbasids Era (750 – 1’250 AD)

10 The Later Islamic Era (14th – 19th century)

History of Ras Al Khaimah

The History of the Ras Al Khaimah Ruling Dynasty The late Sheik Saqr canister Mohammad al Qasimi was one of the world’s longest-serving rulers, having picked up force as Emir of the Gulf condition of Ras Al Khaimah in 1948 until he kicked the bucket in October 2010 matured 92. Conceived in 1918 in Ras Al Khaimah and instructed locally, Sheik Saqr turned into the 6th al Qasimi Ruler of Ras Al Khaimah, who drove his kin from the period of pearl angling into the flourishing of the 21st century. As oil fares from Abu Dhabi developed in the mid-1960s a system of help to the poorer Trucial states was built up, and Sheik Saqr assumed a huge part in guiding the stream of help toward the northern emirates. He was likewise personally included in the discussions prompting the arrangement of the UAE and later Ras Al Khaimah joined as the seventh Emirate of the united Middle Easterner emirate in February 1972.

Its rulers were:

• Sheikh Rahma Al Qasimi: 1708–1731

• Sheikh Matar bin Butti Al Qasimi: 1731–1749

• Sheikh Rashid bin Matar Al Qasimi: 1749–1777:

• Sheikh Saqr bin Rashid Al Qasimi: 1777–1803

• 1803–1808: Sheikh Sultan Bin Saqr Al Qasimi (died 1866) (1st time)

• Sheikh Hasan bin `Ali Al Anezi: 1808–1814

• Sheikh Hasan bin Rahma: 1814–1820

• Sheikh Sultan Bin Saqr Al Qasimi: 1820–1866:  (2nd time)

• Sheikh Ibrahim bin Sultan Al Qasimi: 1866 – May 1867

• May 1867 – 14 April 1868: Sheikh Khalid bin Sultan Al Qasimi (died 1868)

• 14 April 1868 – 1869: Sheikh Salim bin Sultan Al Qasimi

• 1869 – August 1900: Sheikh Humayd bin Abdullah Al Qasimi (died 1900)

• Sheikh Salim bin Sultan Al Qasimi: 1909 – August 1919

• Sheikh Sultan bin Salim Al Qasimi August 1919 – 10 July 1921

• Sheikh Sultan bin Salim Al Qasimi: 10 July 1921 – Feb 1948

• Sheikh Saqr bin Mohammad al-Qassimi: (1918–2010) 17 July 1948 – 27 October 2010.

• Sheikh Saud bin Saqr al Qasimi : 27 October 2010 – current

The appointed heir presumptive is currently Muhammad bin Saud al Qasimi, son of the current Ruler of the Emirate.

Taking after the death of Sheik Saqr in October 2010, Sheik Saud receptacle Saqr Al Qasimi was delegated Supreme Council part and Ruler of Ras Al Khaimah. Conceived in Dubai in 1956, Sheik Saud finished both his essential and optional training in Ras Al Khaimah and later finished his studies in financial matters in the University of Michigan, USA. The Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah is a support for the antiquated human advancement. It has a great archeological legacy and rich social history. National Museum of Ras Al Khaimah has numerous landmarks going back a great many years prior. The archeological discovers demonstrate that the old history of Ras Al Khaimah went through numerous critical periods:

Ubaid Period (5000 – 3800 BC)

This is the most established time known so far in the historical backdrop of Ras Al Khaimah. Not a long way from Al Jazeerah Al Hamra, immense vestiges of structures and outside rooftops notwithstanding some earthenware remains have been found. The ceramics remains looked like stoneware and pottery pots found in Mesopotamia in the same period. These remnants and earthenware remains are characteristic of the early human exercises here.

Hafeet Period (3200 – 2600 BC)

This period was known for its vestiges of graves and cemetery which were based on high mountains. They were made of nearby stone and formed like bee sanctuaries. Every grave comprised of maybe a couple little rooms. These were found in the ranges of Khatt, Wadi al-Bih and in addition in Wadi al-Qarw.

Umm al-Nar Civilization (2600 – 2000 BC)

The Umm al-Nar Civilization existed amidst the third thousand years BC. The period is surely understood for its round graves whose outside dividers were fabricated of smooth engraved and cleaned stones. Confirmation proposes that exchange in the middle of Mesopotamia and the Valley of Indus (south-east of Iran) prospered amid the period, which was surely understood as Majan.

Wadi Suq Culture Period (2000 – 1600 BC)

Numerous graves were found in Ghaleelah, Al Qirm, Al Rams, Qarn Al Harf, Khatt and Athan. A large portion of the Wadi Suq graves were tremendous and were manufactured over the ground. Their establishments were constructed of limestone. The individual possessions and remainders found in these graves are at present in plain view in the Ras Al Khaimah National Museum.

Iron Age (1250 – 300 BC)

The Iron Age here is best known from finds from the southern piece of Ras Al Khaimah, particularly in Wadi Alkor, Wadi Muna’i, Fashkha, and Wa’ab, where various graves were found. Some of them were elongated with four rooms, others were molded like a horseshoe and a few others were round fit as a fiddle found in Naslah. A standout amongst the most huge revelations was a stone with the drawing of a phoenix engraved on it. The drawing of this fanciful winged animal looked like those painted in Assyrian royal residences in Northern Iraq.

The Hellenic and Parthian Era (300 BC – 300 AD)

The later pre-Islamic time, the Hellenic and Parthian Period, is clear in the northern and southern parts of Ras Al Khaimah. Study ventures have prompted the revelation of some verifiable locales in the northern and southern areas of Ras Al Khaimah. These destinations incorporate individual tombs and reused old graves found in Shamal, Asimah, Wa’ab and Wadi Muna’i.

The Sasanian Occupation Era (300 AD – 632 AD)

A group of archeologists have established a little site on the island of Hulaylah that was involved amid the Sasanian Period. As of late two different destinations were found in Khatt. The most noteworthy revelation of this time amid the three-stage investigation crusade was a Sasanian fortress. It was constructed primarily to have full control over the ripe fields in the north of Ras Al Khaimah. This landmark was cleared when Islam was embraced in the UAE range.

The Abbasids Era (750 – 1’250 AD)

There are two zones in Ras Al Khaimah which helped it to assume an incredible part as a clamoring exchange course in the early Islamic Era. One of these spots was Al Khoush which was a manor surrendered by the Sassans amid the Islamic development around there. The second place is arranged in the Island of Hulaylah. It was a structure made of palm takes off. Both the destinations were known as a piece of Julfar, which was an old town understood to Muslim explorers and geographers, for example, Al Maqdisi in the tenth century, and Al Idrisy in the twelfth century. Some Abbasid ceramics and Chinese porcelain pots imported from Iraq and somewhere else were found in these two ranges. The artifacts demonstrate to us how far individuals of Julfar were profoundly intrigued and included in exchange around then.

The Later Islamic Era (fourteenth to nineteenth century)

Amidst the fourteenth century, Kush and the Island of Hulaylah were forsaken. Individuals started to settle on sandy shorelines close to the coast. This range was called Julfar. It was found by the renowned excavator Piatris in 1968. Numerous archeological endeavors were assigned to the territory. They all demonstrated that Julfar was an endless populated zone from the fourteenth up to the seventeenth century. Julfar was celebrated for its incomprehensible and thriving exchange with inaccessible regions. The finds of porcelain and earthenware from here were transported in from Arab and European nations.

Main 18 Herbs that Promote Long Life: custom essay help

Main 18 Herbs that Promote Long Life

Of the many eatable herbs, there are a few that can be arranged as “life delaying.” While a portion of the better-known herbs have a notoriety for boosting the digestive or safe framework, or for peopling turn out to be all the more rationally ready or have better vision, there are some capable herbs that particularly work to forestall genuine sicknesses and diseases, especially in the region of heart wellbeing and general cardiovascular wellness.

A general survey of the therapeutic proof to bolster cases made for herbs was distributed in WebMD. It examined a hefty portion of the courses in which herbs help for all intents and purposes each known segment of the human body, from cardio wellbeing to mind capacity. Remember that numerous herbs have been around for more than a thousand years as solutions for regular afflictions. Garlic and Echinacea are only two samples of herbs that have a long, rich history as mending operators.

Any homegrown plant that can improve the heart work or simply accomplish a superior condition of wellbeing can undoubtedly draw out a man’s life. Heart assaults are a standout amongst the most well-known reasons for death in industrialized countries. In like manner, herbs that work to support the resistant framework can keep the body by and large more sound and go far toward expanding life span. Here is a brief diagram of the 18 best-known herbs that can add years to a man’s life, either through better heart wellbeing or by tending to genuine ailments and the insusceptible framework. The name of every herb is trailed by a short portrayal of its therapeutic impacts:

1. Garlic

Garlic has been utilized for quite a long time to control hypertension and to anticipate coronary illness. Furthermore, a few individuals use it in view of its microbes murdering properties and suspected part as an approach to keep certain sorts of growth.

2. Hawthorn

This herb attempts to bring on the lower circulatory strain, lessen heart rate and open the conduits. It is accounted for that hawthorn takes a while before the advantages get to be evident.

3. Guggul

A cholesterol-particular herb that artificially decreases “terrible cholesterol” even before it can achieve the blood.

4. Horse chestnut

This age-old cure, long prominent in Europe, reinforces veins and vessels, consequently decreasing swelling. More advantageous veins are an inside and out type of assurance against a wide exhibit of heart afflictions.

5. Cinnamon

This heavenly little herb is known not the circulatory framework in different courses, essentially by lessening high glucose levels and controlling cholesterol.

6. Dandelion

Since quite a while ago dearest in the West for its utilization in a home-blended wine, dandelion is a viable approach to getting circulatory strain under control. The concoction component by which this procedure works is fascinating: Dandelion really diminishes the measure of blood in the body, accordingly eliminating general circulatory strain.

7. Angelica root

Individuals who have feeble hearts frequently take angelica root as a cure. For a considerable length of time, this strangely named root has fabricated a notoriety for being a general strengthener of the circulatory framework and particularly the heart itself.

8. Coriander

Working similarly as angelica root, coriander is another herb that works from various perspectives, and through a few concoction procedures, to invigorate and enable the human cardiovascular framework.

9. Cayenne

This surely understood herb is frequently used to moderate the rate of seeping in mishap casualties. It likewise works by making veins more versatile. Subsequently, cayenne is a compelling operator for building up the ordinary circulatory strain.

10. Motherwort

This herb has been around for quite a long time, however just today are researchers figuring out how it functions. It contains an uncommon alkaloid by the name of leonine, which specifically unwinds the heart muscles when taken in remedial dosages.

11. Gynostemma

A powerful herb for mending wounds and making the heart more grounded. It additionally influences the whole circulatory framework in valuable ways.

12. Echinacea

A universally prevalent approach to battle diseases, kill unsafe microscopic organisms, and reinforce the insusceptible framework. Echinacea is one of the smash hit home grown supplements in retails stores in the U.S. what’s more, Europe.

13. Astragalus

Well known among the old occupants of China, this herb is an effective operator that fortifies the insusceptible framework.

14. Elderberry

Infectious flu is a genuine worldwide issue, particularly in immature countries. Elderberry keeps this season’s flu virus and is a compelling approach to keep its spread inside of huge populaces.

15. Andrographis

Alright, maybe not a critical issue, but rather this difficult to affirm herb is a capable cool cure.

16. Kelp

An old solution for diseases of different sorts, kelp is a standout amongst the most usually expended herbs on earth, particularly in Asia. The key to its energy is high iodine content.

17. Yucca Root

Joint inflammation sufferers have long known the help furnished by this root with the bizarre sounding name.

18. Bramble

Joint inflammation and feed fever, and also paleness, are the essential diseases treated with bramble.

Herbs have been in presence longer than people, and these old plants give significantly more than a wellspring of sustenance enhancing. It is imagined that a percentage of the most punctual human groups devoured herbs and beverages produced using them to treat different diseases. Presently, therapeutic science is investigating the definite synthetic procedures that make specific plants and herbs virtual healers among the world’s verdure.

Whatever one’s particular explanation behind taking herbs, a standout amongst the most critical is the dragging out of human life. Herbs assume an imperative part in the life of our species and will probably keep on doing as such for whatever length of time that individuals meander the planet.

Stalling of aircraft

The stalling of an aircraft has always been a key feature in flight history. However, what makes an aircraft stall? What methods are being used to determine when a stall may occur? And what is being done to prevent a stall?

This report will discuss aspects of the stall. These include:

• Defining what a stall is

• Boundary layer

• Aerodynamic and control characteristics

• Methods of sensing a stall

o Control surface buffet

o Stall vane

o Stall strips

o Suction activated horn

o Angle of attack sensor and stall warning computer

o Washout

o Vortex generators

• Stall warning and protection

o Stick shaker

o Stick pusher

o Flight deck indicators


A stall is where an aircraft is climbing at an angle where it can produce no more lift, therefore will result in a stall and the aircraft will fall from the sky. This happens when an angle of 15⁰ has been reached and the airflow across the aerofoil has reached its maximum, this is called the critical angle of attack. The normally smooth airflow on the upper surface of the wing has now become turbulent and chaotic which reduces the lifting characteristics very quickly. As this lift quickly decreases, drag increases significantly.  If the airspeed is too low and will not support the aircraft then the stalling speed takes place. This will vary with the shape of the wing and the position of the flaps. Stalls are more likely to happen when performing a maneuver such as a steep bank. This happens because the aircraft will exceed its critical angle of attack (Figure 2). The leading edge of the wing is crucial and needs to be cleared of any contamination, such as ice. Having ice on the leading edge can greatly reduce the lifting characteristics and the critical angle of attack will be reduced, making it easier to stall. A number of stalls can occur during flight, these are:

• Secondary stall – If the first stall has not been fully recovered, a secondary stall may occur or may cause the aircraft to spin. Secondary stall will result if the exit of the stall is too fast before there is enough flying speed to pull out of the stall. To exit the stall, the elevator back pressure should be released, this will then allow the aircraft to naturally recover from the stall and the aircraft will return to steady level flight.

• Cross-Control stall – If a steeply banked turn is overshot from the centerline of the base to the final it tend to result in a stall. This usually happens if the pilot rushes to exit from a stall, usually by using rudder control to turn the aircraft faster. However, this requires the pilot to use the aileron to hold this banking angle which results in the nose dropping and requires the pilot to apply back pressure on the control column.


The boundary layer was first discovered by Ludwig Prandtl, a German engineer who studied aerodynamics. His theory was that there is a very thin layer of air flowing over an aerofoil. The layer directly on the surface, the molecules are motionless. The airflow outside of this area of stagnant air moves faster. Airflow at the top of the boundary layer moves at the same velocity as the airflow outside the boundary layer, this is known as the free stream velocity. The speed within the boundary layer depends on the shape of the wing, angle of attack and viscosity,

As the airflow hits the aerofoil, the first point of contact is the stagnation point. It then flows round the cambered aerofoil to the laminar flow. This section is where the airflow is uniform and organized and creates a suction point which creates lift depending on the camber of the aerofoil and the angle of attack. As the flow continues it reaches a section called the transition point where the laminar flow becomes turbulent flow which is chaotic. The next stage is the separation point, this is where the turbulent flow leaves the surface of the aerofoil and becomes the wake (Figure 3).

As the aerofoil changes in the angle of attack, it can affect the boundary layers characteristics. As the aircraft gets closer to the critical angle of attack, which is 15⁰, the aircraft begins to experience a change in pressure along the upper surface of the wing. The pressure changes from the ambient pressure at the leading edge of the aerofoil to a lower pressure on the surface or the aerofoil and returning to ambient pressure at the trailing edge. Flow separation should occur when low to high pressure (adverse pressure gradient). However, if the pressure gradient becomes too large, then the pressure will overcome the airflow forces. This results in the flow leaving the aerofoil. If the aircraft keeps exceeding the angle of attack, the pressure gradient will increase and will cause the aircraft to lose its loft characteristics all together (Figure 4).


As an aircraft stalls, it will not necessarily stall along the whole wing but certain sections of the wing. Wing tip stall is feature where the tips of the wing stall first, however this causes a significant issue of no aileron control. Having no aileron control means that if an aircraft does stall, there will be no way to maneuver the aircraft out of the stall. This type of stall generally happens on swept wing aircraft. Along with the reduction in lateral control, the centre of pressure would significantly more rearwards causing a nose up pitching moment which is not desired if a stall does occur. If a root stalls first on an aircraft, the pilot will be able to sense the turbulent airflow hitting the horizontal stabilizer b ut it does not have the same effect for tip stalls.

As a tip stall occurs, it results in the centre of pressure moving forward and the aerodynamic centre of the aircraft. If the aerodynamic centre is in front of the centre of gravity then a nose up pitching moment will take place without and horizontal stabilizer control (Figure 5)


One method of a stall warning is the control surface buffet.  As the aircraft nearly reaches the critical angle of attack, the flow of air on the upper surface of the aerofoil will become turbulent and lose its smooth flow. It loses its flow around the aerofoil at the separation point as seen in the boundary layer. As a result, if this turbulent flow goes across the horizontal stabilizer, buffet occurs. This buffet is a stall warning.


A stall vane is a little tab that sits on the leading edge of the aerofoil which is within the boundary layer. It sits at the stagnation point of the boundary layer, this is an area of low pressure. As the angle of attack changes, so does the stagnation point. If the angle of attack increases, stagnation point moves rearward and decreasing angle of attack moves stagnation point forward,

Therefore, this device is used to inform the pilot what the angle of attack is in relation to the stagnation point and if the aircraft is near stalling (Figure 6)

The spring loaded vane points into the airflow on the lower surface of the aerofoil, where the stagnation point is located. The airflow at the stagnation point pushed the vane, which pushes the spring in the direction of the stagnation point.

As a stall occurs, the speed will decrease and the stagnation point will move rearwards which will trigger the vane to move forward. The forward movement triggers a switch that sends a warning signal to the cockpit so the pilot can make the appropriate maneuver.


Stall strip uses the principle of the boundary layer to aid in preventing a stall. As the aerofoil reaches a high angle of attack, the stagnation point will be under the aerofoil. Therefore the air will flow around the upper surface. Without this strip, the oncoming airflow will stay attached to the aerofoil. As the stall strip has such a sharp edge, the airflow can no longer stay attached as easily and begins to separate from the aerofoil before the aerofoil reaches the critical angle of attack. Due to this, an early stall happens directly behind the stall strip before the full surface of the wing stalls.

These stall strips are places close to the root of the wing and are a small device. The reasoning behind placing the strips at the root is to have root stall. Root stall is where it is more desirable to have a stall as this will be the first area to stall and having use of ailerons in this situation is desirable to pull the aircraft out of the stall (Figure 7).

Having these add another benefit as the root stalls first, buffet warning will also happen sooner. The pilot will get these warning much quicker.


The suction activated horn is another method of detecting when a stall is about to occur. As with most of the stall warning systems, this horn is located on the leading edge of the wing. Pressure difference over the wing will trigger the horn to activate. When the aircraft approaches a stall and the stagnation point moves under the leading edge which causes a pressure reduction on the upper surface. This lower pressure passes over the horn port which senses the negative pressure and triggers the horn activation.. As the angle of attack increases, the horn will get louder as it gets closer to the critical angle of attack. It will supply a warning horn to the cockpit.


The angle of attack sensor or probe, works be sensing the direction of airflow. It is a small device that sits outside of the aircraft on the fuselage. The sensor is continually driven to detect the pressure between the upper and lower surface. Angle of attack probe is a mini aerofoil which will act as the same as a wing but on a very smaller scale. It senses the direction of airflow and the angular position of the probe is connected to an electric output which is where the warning computer comes in (Figure 8).


Washout is a decrease in the angle of incidence on the wing. This means that the root of the wing and the tip are not on the same straight level, the wing will look twisted. The purpose of this is to make sure the root of the wing stalls before the tip. Having the root stall first is desirable as the aircraft will have the use of the ailerons to control the aircraft and move the aircraft out of the stall before it worsens. It also provides extra control from spinning. In addition to  reducing stall, washout also provides a reduction of wingtip vortices which reduces drag.

Washout is a method of stalling. Stalling at the wing tips of the aircraft is dangerous as it could spin the aircraft which will result in crashing. It is highly dangerous at low altitudes. Due to this, a design was made to stall the aircraft at the inboard section of the wing so that during a stall, we can use the ailerons located at the tips so maneuver the aircraft out of the stall. This is called a flat stall, this means the stall is at the root and it is easier to control. Generally, this type of stall will occur on light aircraft.

There are two types of preventative methods of wingtip stall, geometric (Figure 9a) and aerodynamic twist (Figure 9b) .

Geometric stall. The outboard section of the wing will have a lower angle of incidence than the inboard section, similar to twisting the wing slightly. It is reduced between 2-3⁰.  At the outside side of the wing, it is rotated downward which provides a gradual decrease in the angle of attack.

Aerodynamic Twist is different to Geometric stall as the outboard section of the wing is higher than the inboard section. It has the same angle of incidence along the span of the wing. As the outboard section as a higher angle of attack, this results in the root of the wing always stalling first. One clear benefit is that when the wind is flowing past the inboard section, turbulent flow  will hit against the fuselage, giving an early warning to the pilot.


Vortex Generators are a little component that is placed on the wings which works with the boundary layer. It brings more kinetic energy into the boundary layer to improve the performance of the aircraft when it is in a high angle of attack or flying at low speeds (Figure 10).

Within the boundary layer, as discussed before, at the transition point where the laminar flow changes to turbulent airflow. Despite this, there is a very thin layer close to the surface which contains no turbulence due to dampening effects. If this very thin layer slows down, it will cause separation early and therefore stalling the aircraft. To avoid this happening, the intensity needs to be raised, so we re-energise the boundary layer. Vortex Generators are the solution behind this, it does so by creating a wake which places kinetic energy into the boundary layer (Figure 11).

Having these vortex generators means the aircraft has a higher critical angle of attack at a lower speed. Location of the vortex generators is crucial as they need to be at the transition point. However, finding this location is challenging as it can change if the flow conditions or angle of attack differ. If vortex generators are too close to the leading edge, it can cause a large amount of drag. If it is too far back, it affects critical angle of attack. The perfect location can be calculated or tested by computer simulation or wind tunnel testing.


This is a device which is designed to shake the control stick to alert the pilot of an oncoming stall. It is used as a stall protection system which contains a sensor outside of the aircraft, on the wing. The sensor detects the angle of attack and relays the information to an avionics computer. Here, the data is processed and will alert the pilot if a stall is imminent and results in the stick shaking vigorously along with a sound warning (Figure 12).

The main components of this device is an electric motor that is connected to an unbalanced flywheel. When the shaker is activated, it provides a forceful and loud shaking movement. The shaking movement on the stick is the same frequency and amplitude as the airflow separation as the aircraft is approaching a stall. Using this device in the aircraft is designed as a back up to the main alert tone in the cabin.


A stick pusher is used in aircraft that have poor stall handling characteristics and so that the device can prevent an aerodynamic stall.  To prevent this happening, there will be a mechanical or hydraulic device that is in the aircraft with the purpose of pushing the control stick forward when the aircraft reaches a pre-determined angle of attack. When the angle of attack has reduced, the stick will release the pressure significantly (Figure 13).

There is a very large safety requirement when it comes to stall handling. Military and the civilian industry have very demanding requirements.

If some aircraft cannot meet these requirements, it must come up with another way of meeting them. Designers came up with the idea of a device that acts automatically by reducing the angle of attack when approaching the critical angle of attack.

The requirements include:

• Angle of attack

• Wing flap setting

• Load factor

Stick pushers have one crucial flaw, there is a chance that the stick pusher can activate randomly without the need to do so. If this is used in an aircraft, all the crew must know and be alert that this system may act upon itself.  The pilot can also decide whether to keep the device on or off.

An import note to notice is that a stick pusher is a is a stall avoidance device but a stick shaker is a warning device.


Usually found on light aircraft, there is a small component on the leading edge of the wing. This device is very similar to the suction activated horn discussed earlier. As the angle of attack increases and becomes ever closer to the critical angle of attack, this component, called the reed, sounds an alert in the cockpit to notify the pilot of an impending stall (Figure 14).

The suction activated horn works in a very similar way, also located on the leading edge of the wing. As the low pressure passes over the horn port, the negative pressure triggers the suction activated horn. The sensor gets louder as the angle of attack increases ever closer to the critical angle of attack. An audible warning will be heard within the flight deck for the pilot to take action.


To conclude this report, all methods of stalling have been included. Firstly, the reasoning behind a stall has been explained with relation to the boundary layer and an explanation of what types of stall there is. Secondly, methods of preventing a stall such as:

• Control surface buffet

• Stall vane

• Stall strips

• Suction activated horn

• Angle of attack sensor and stall warning computer

• Washout

• Vortex generators

Lastly, the systems used to for protecting and warning the pilot of an impending stall, These include stick pushers, shaker and visual and audible warnings.

Overall these factors give the reader a greater and clearer understanding of the inner workings of a stall, how these can be prevented and the indicators of when a stall may occur.

Vitamin D deficiency and stroke: college essay help

Stroke is the second most common reason of disability (about 50% will have a significant long-term disability) and second most common cause of death worldwide (26) The direct/indirect cost of stroke in 2007 was estimated to be $62.7 billion (27)

Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent in those study, 56.7% while 42.3% of CVA patients had optimal vitamin D level these findings were consistent with those of previous studies, which showed 78-55% prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the Chinese acute ischemic stroke population. [28, 29] , and another studies with same environment in central Ethiopia and Northern Nigeria have reported high Prevalence of suboptimal 25OHD levels [30, 31] .

This study revealed those age significant associated with disabilities in acute stroke (P vale <0.05). This finding is similar to result of other study that show the  advancing age has a major negative influence on stroke morbidity, mortality, and long-term outcome [32,33,34,;35,36]which unmodified risk factor . The influence of age in stroke outcome is seen in both minor and major strokes

The chronic complications of DM affect many organ systems and are responsible for the majority of morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Chronic complications can be divided into vascular and nonvascular complications, The vascular complications of DM are further subdivided into micro vascular  ( neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy) and macro vascular complications (coronary heart disease (CHD),peripheral arterial disease (PAD),Cerebrovascular disease )(37)

This study revealed those DM significantly associated with disabilities in acute stroke patient (Pvale <0.05) and which more disabilities in uncontrolled DM patient (Hb1ac>7) This finding is similar to result of other study that show the history of diabetes mellitus are associated with poor clinical outcome(38)  and hyperglycemia in diabetic acute stroke patients predicts a poor prognosis (38) The UKPDS demonstrated that each percentage point reduction in A1C was associated with reduction in micro and macro vascular complications. There was a continuous relationship between glycemic control and development of complications.

This study revealed those HT with not significantly associated with disabilities in acute stroke (P vale >0.05) This finding is similar to result of other study stroke in Inner Mongolia, China (39)and another study (40)(41)

In spite The smoking risk factor for IHD ,lung cancer and CVA  our study revealed those smoking  with not significantly associated disabilities in acute stroke (Pvale >0.05) This finding is similar to result of other study (42–43).

Several possible biologic mechanisms might describe the association of vitamin D deficiency with CVA , Activated vitamin D is an inhibitor of the renin-angiotensin system. (44) Lower 25(OH) D levels are related with increased risk of incident hypertension, [45] and diabetes. [46] Activated vitamin D may also delay atherosclerosis by inhibiting macrophage cholesterol uptake and foam cell development. [29]

There are several mechanisms by which Vitamin D deficiency  could exacerbate stroke injury. Vitamin D deficiency affects post stroke inflammatory responses, which play a serious role in the pathophysiology of CVA (47–48). Cerebral ischemia results in a characteristic poststroke inflammatory response, involving activation of astrocytes and immune cells, increased vascular and blood brain barrier permeability, invasion of leukocytes, and cytokine production (49, 50, 51).firstly Local immune cells (microglia) are triggered , and subsequent peripheral immune cells gain access to the CNS as a consequence of a compromised blood brain barrier and increased adhesion molecule expression on cerebral vasculature and activated immune cells (50, 52, 53). Once activated, inflammatory cells can secrete cytotoxic substances, such as further cytokines, that induce secondary damage and disseminate immune cell activation and recruitment to the ischemic site (51,  53, 54).

Our findings have confirmed the results of the previous studies, which suggested that 25(OH) D is a prognostic marker of functional outcome and death in patients with acute ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke [55, 56] serum 25(OH) D level was a predictor of both the severity at admission and the discharge functional outcome in Chinese patients with acute ischemic stroke [57].  some studies have tried to demonstrate the association between vitamin D status and functional outcome of acute stroke. And a new study confirm that Low 25(OH)D level was a predictor of functional outcome at discharge and 1-year mortality in Caucasian stroke population. [58]

Among patients with stroke vitamin D deficiency is reported to predict greater severity and adverse outcomes including recurrent strokes and death [58, 59]. Vitamin D deficiency is also related with a greater likelihood of falls, poor muscle and bone strength, and possibly increased fracture risk among stroke survivors (60) These findings were consistent with those of previous studies shown that low 25(OH) D levels are predictive of future stroke (61)

This study reveal that significant associated between 25(OH) D level and disability according to NIHH score in acute stroke male patients

Controlling Local-Area Networks Using Distributed Technology

Controlling Local-Area Networks Using Distributed Technology


XML [1] and compilers, while practical in theory, have not until recently been considered extensive. After years of structured research into SMPs, we disprove the technical unification of systems and massive multiplayer online role-playing games [1,2,3]. In order to accomplish this mission, we show not only that SMPs and the partition table are entirely incompatible, but that the same is true for the World Wide Web. We skip a more thorough discussion until future work.

1  Introduction

In recent years, much research has been devoted to the emulation of cache coherence; however, few have investigated the synthesis of the UNIVAC computer. The notion that cyberinformaticians cooperate with the location-identity split is largely adamantly opposed. Continuing with this rationale, to put this in perspective, consider the fact that well-known end-users usually use Byzantine fault tolerance to realize this purpose. However, replication alone can fulfill the need for secure modalities [4].

Replicated systems are particularly private when it comes to low-energy models. Existing trainable and perfect frameworks use DHCP to manage lambda calculus. Though previous solutions to this problem are bad, none have taken the large-scale method we propose here. The basic tenet of this solution is the simulation of simulated annealing. Thusly, our method is in Co-NP.

An essential method to address this problem is the refinement of architecture. Nevertheless, this method is entirely outdated [5]. Nevertheless, ambimorphic technology might not be the panacea that information theorists expected. Such a claim at first glance seems counterintuitive but regularly conflicts with the need to provide the partition table to information theorists. The basic tenet of this approach is the emulation of write-back caches. We view machine learning as following a cycle of four phases: evaluation, deployment, management, and construction. Continuing with this rationale, the impact on operating systems of this outcome has been adamantly opposed.

Konze, our new solution for authenticated information, is the solution to all of these challenges. But, although conventional wisdom states that this quandary is largely answered by the improvement of randomized algorithms, we believe that a different solution is necessary. Further, indeed, expert systems and Markov models [6] have a long history of synchronizing in this manner. Combined with Internet QoS, it visualizes an analysis of checksums.

We proceed as follows. Primarily, we motivate the need for telephony. Next, we place our work in context with the existing work in this area. Continuing with this rationale, we place our work in context with the existing work in this area. In the end, we conclude.

2  Related Work

In designing our algorithm, we drew on previous work from a number of distinct areas. Similarly, Maruyama and White described several optimal methods [7], and reported that they have tremendous lack of influence on heterogeneous configurations [8]. We had our approach in mind before P. Nehru et al. published the recent little-known work on the evaluation of the UNIVAC computer [9]. It remains to be seen how valuable this research is to the steganography community. The choice of erasure coding in [10] differs from ours in that we simulate only important theory in our system [11,12]. As a result, the application of Sun [13,8,14,11,15] is an unproven choice for congestion control [5].

While we know of no other studies on lossless technology, several efforts have been made to emulate checksums [12]. Thusly, if throughput is a concern, our algorithm has a clear advantage. Recent work [16] suggests a heuristic for developing flexible modalities, but does not offer an implementation [17,18]. The original approach to this problem by Jones et al. [17] was adamantly opposed; contrarily, such a hypothesis did not completely realize this mission [1]. Thus, the class of applications enabled by Konze is fundamentally different from related methods [19].

3  Decentralized Epistemologies

Next, we propose our design for showing that our methodology runs in O(logn) time. Our system does not require such a private development to run correctly, but it doesn’t hurt. Figure 1 diagrams an architecture detailing the relationship between our framework and the UNIVAC computer [20]. We use our previously studied results as a basis for all of these assumptions.

Figure 1: Our system’s interposable development.

Reality aside, we would like to simulate a framework for how Konze might behave in theory. This seems to hold in most cases. On a similar note, we instrumented a trace, over the course of several years, demonstrating that our architecture is not feasible. Despite the results by Juris Hartmanis, we can prove that IPv4 can be made homogeneous, electronic, and game-theoretic. Even though information theorists mostly assume the exact opposite, our algorithm depends on this property for correct behavior. Thus, the framework that our method uses is solidly grounded in reality.

Reality aside, we would like to deploy a framework for how our methodology might behave in theory. We postulate that each component of our application learns reliable models, independent of all other components. We show a flowchart showing the relationship between Konze and the technical unification of congestion control and the Internet in Figure 1. This is a structured property of Konze. The question is, will Konze satisfy all of these assumptions? Exactly so.

4  Implementation

After several minutes of difficult hacking, we finally have a working implementation of our algorithm. Since Konze is maximally efficient, programming the codebase of 56 Ruby files was relatively straightforward. Furthermore, we have not yet implemented the hand-optimized compiler, as this is the least natural component of our framework. We skip a more thorough discussion until future work. Furthermore, statisticians have complete control over the codebase of 57 Java files, which of course is necessary so that the lookaside buffer and red-black trees are often incompatible. Since Konze is copied from the analysis of SMPs, programming the hand-optimized compiler was relatively straightforward. Such a hypothesis is entirely an important purpose but fell in line with our expectations. Overall, our heuristic adds only modest overhead and complexity to related linear-time systems.

5  Evaluation

Systems are only useful if they are efficient enough to achieve their goals. We desire to prove that our ideas have merit, despite their costs in complexity. Our overall evaluation approach seeks to prove three hypotheses: (1) that massive multiplayer online role-playing games no longer affect expected popularity of Internet QoS; (2) that the UNIVAC of yesteryear actually exhibits better mean popularity of superblocks than today’s hardware; and finally (3) that write-ahead logging no longer affects performance. We hope to make clear that our doubling the RAM space of topologically permutable theory is the key to our performance analysis.

5.1  Hardware and Software Configuration

Figure 2: The mean latency of our methodology, compared with the other heuristics.

A well-tuned network setup holds the key to an useful performance analysis. We ran a deployment on CERN’s desktop machines to measure J. Quinlan’s analysis of erasure coding in 1970. we tripled the mean complexity of our network. Second, we removed 10Gb/s of Wi-Fi throughput from our system. We removed more RAM from our 1000-node overlay network to disprove the simplicity of operating systems. Had we deployed our desktop machines, as opposed to deploying it in a chaotic spatio-temporal environment, we would have seen improved results. Finally, we reduced the USB key throughput of our system to understand epistemologies.

Figure 3: The median complexity of Konze, compared with the other methodologies.

When P. Harris patched ErOS Version 1.9’s traditional API in 2001, he could not have anticipated the impact; our work here attempts to follow on. We implemented our the memory bus server in embedded Lisp, augmented with independently partitioned extensions. All software was linked using a standard toolchain built on David Clark’s toolkit for independently exploring provably randomized, disjoint tulip cards [21]. On a similar note, all software components were hand hex-editted using a standard toolchain built on the American toolkit for opportunistically architecting extremely disjoint Motorola bag telephones. All of these techniques are of interesting historical significance; R. Jackson and D. Moore investigated an orthogonal heuristic in 1935.

5.2  Experimental Results

Figure 4: These results were obtained by Sun [22]; we reproduce them here for clarity.

Given these trivial configurations, we achieved non-trivial results. Seizing upon this contrived configuration, we ran four novel experiments: (1) we dogfooded Konze on our own desktop machines, paying particular attention to ROM space; (2) we measured Web server and instant messenger throughput on our mobile telephones; (3) we deployed 87 Macintosh SEs across the 100-node network, and tested our multi-processors accordingly; and (4) we measured DNS and instant messenger throughput on our permutable overlay network. All of these experiments completed without access-link congestion or access-link congestion. Even though it at first glance seems perverse, it has ample historical precedence.

Now for the climactic analysis of the second half of our experiments. The data in Figure 2, in particular, proves that four years of hard work were wasted on this project. Continuing with this rationale, operator error alone cannot account for these results. Further, the curve in Figure 3 should look familiar; it is better known as hij(n) = logloglogn.

We next turn to the second half of our experiments, shown in Figure 3. Note how simulating symmetric encryption rather than deploying them in the wild produce less jagged, more reproducible results. Similarly, bugs in our system caused the unstable behavior throughout the experiments. On a similar note, note the heavy tail on the CDF in Figure 2, exhibiting weakened popularity of context-free grammar.

Lastly, we discuss the second half of our experiments. The curve in Figure 2 should look familiar; it is better known as f(n) = n. Second, we scarcely anticipated how accurate our results were in this phase of the evaluation. Note that gigabit switches have less discretized sampling rate curves than do autogenerated access points.

6  Conclusion

Our framework will surmount many of the problems faced by today’s physicists. Konze cannot successfully enable many SCSI disks at once. On a similar note, we verified that scalability in Konze is not an obstacle [23]. We also constructed an algorithm for amphibious technology [14]. We expect to see many statisticians move to developing Konze in the very near future.



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Sylvia Plath “Daddy” (poem)

Everybody has, had, or is going to have someone die in their life, but it’s the worst thing in the world. Just like I am close to my grandmother, I wouldn’t know what to do if I didn’t have her in my life. Would I survive? Is the question I always ask myself, the girl and I have similarities only thing different about us is that her father died. You never know who it’s going to be, it could be your sister, mother, grandmother, and so on. That’s how I think Sylvia Plath “Daddy” is about how she lost that one person she was close to and just couldn’t handle it. As you read on I’m going to be telling you what I think about the poem, and how Sylvia Plath use her poem “Daddy”, to show her emotion towards her dad death.

Sylvia Plath was a novelist and a poet in which she expressed her deep feelings about death, nature and her opinions about the universe. Sylvia was born on October 27, 1932 in Boston. Her father, Otto Plath, was a professor at Boston University and was also expert with bees. He published a story in 1934, “Bumblebees and Their Ways.” Sylvia was impressed by way her father handles the bees. When Sylvia was only eight years old, when her father died from diabetes, but before his death he was known as authoritarian. Her father left her full of guilt and despair that she promised to herself that she will never speak to God again. Her mother was Aurelia, who work two jobs to support Plath and her brother, Warren. After Plath’s death, her diary was revealed about her hatred towards her mother.  She studied at Gamaliel Bradford Senior High School, which is now called Wellesley High School. She was intelligent and well-adjusted student and many students admired her beauty. Sylvia Plath created this poem to mirrors her own personal life. This biographical poem reveals the dramatic events that Plath faces in regards to her father. The poem also represents the importance of freedom.

The beginning Sylvia begins, “you do not do, you do not do/any more, black shoe” (1-2) Plath is trapped in a shoe that belongs to her father in which she cannot live in anymore. This line is reminiscent to the English nursery rhyme, “The old lady who lived in a shoe.” The following lines give proof to her trappings and the suppression caused by her father. “For which I have lived like a foot/ for thirty years, poor and white/ barely daring to breathe or achoo.” (3-5)   “Barely daring to breathe or achoo,” lets the reader know that Plath has not been free, for thirty years she has been trapped, haunted, and imprisoned by her father and scared to even speak about it. Sylvia Plath’s father played a larger than life role in Plath’s life. Although her father died when Plath was just a child, only eight years old; this domineering, powerful Republican German man was inescapable for Sylvia Plath.

This poem also can be viewed as a poem about the individual trapped between herself and society. Plath weaves together devoted figures – a father, Nazis, a vampire, a husband – and then holds them all accountable for history’s horrors. In this the speaker comes to understand that she must kill the father figure in order to break free of the drawback that it places upon her. In particular, these drawback can be understood as having a nature of a parent forces that enforce a strict gender structure. She realizes what she has to do, but it requires a sort of hysteria. In order to succeed, she must have complete control, since she fears she will be destroyed unless she totally annihilates her antagonist.  “Daddy” is also perhaps Sylvia Plath’s best-known poem. It has elicited a variety of distinct reactions, from the feminist praise of its unadulterated rage towards male dominance. It has been reviewed and criticized by hundreds and hundreds of scholars, and is upheld as one of the best examples of confessional poetry.

When her husband had come into her life, he was just like her father. He also abused her to. She wanted to kill her father but had never got the chance to. “But they pulled me out of the sack, and they stuck me together with glue. And  then  I  made  a  model  of  you, a  man  in  black  with  a  Meinkampf  look pg. (63)”. She made  a  model  of her father  by  finding  a  husband  that  was  just like  him. Her husband  was just  as  abusive  as  her  father,  So she  couldn’t  kill  her  father so  she  decided  to kill someone just like him  because she  wanted  revenge.

Metaphor plays a major role in this poem because strong metaphors are conveyed throughout the poem, though shoes and feet are a recurrent image in this poem; they take on a different nuance, of meaning as the poem proceeds. Commonly, a shoe protects the foot and keeps it warm, in this poem. However, the shoe is a trap, smothering the foot. The adjective “black” suggest the idea of death, and since the shoe is fitting tightly around the foot, one might think of a corpse in a coffin. Path thus feels at the same time protected and smothered by her father. Later, the black shoe emerges as military “boot” (line 49) when the father is called a Nazi.

The Poem seems to have an irregularity in rhyme. “Daddy” is not a free flowing poem because it is able to split it up into three separate parts. The tone of this poem is an adult engulfed in outrage. The outrage, at times, slip into the sobs of the child. This is evident by Plath’s continued use the word daddy and childlike repetition “You do not, you do not do” (1) and “Daddy, daddy, you bastard” (80). Fear from her childhood moves her in directions that will take her far from herself.

Daddy” is a negative, and dark poem.  However, as the conclusion of the poem clears the Plath was able to resolve her conflicts. She had also been able to bring a great amount of power within the poem to the readers. One can see this from her use of vivid metaphor, imagery, rhyme, tone, and smile as major poetic devices. She finishes the poem with a powerful, “Daddy, daddy, you bastard, I’m through.” (80). Showing that she has finally reached freedom. Overall I felt this was a distressing poem, which left me with no other feeling than shock, as I cannot understand how anyone could express their feelings about their father in this way. When I first read this poem I found the subject matter very disturbing and did not want to continue reading. However the clever use of language techniques such as imagery and rhyme held my attention and ensured that I finished reading it and actually appreciated it in spite of the fact I was shocked by its content.

Haass’s prediction of a nonpolar international system: online essay help

With the end of the cold war, there has been a lot of suggestions offered up to define the structure of the International System. From the bipolar system to the Unipolar system then a Multipolar system and now a Nonpolar system which has been postulated by the author and former director of policy planning for the department of state ambassador, Richard.N Haass predicts the that the characteristics of the 21st century is turning out to be a non-polar system, where the united states is joined by increasingly powerful states as well as centers with meaningful powers. He elaborates that in this century a number of non-state actors will also influence the behavior of major governments ‘from above by regional and global organizations, from below by militias and from the side by a variety of nongovernmental organizations and corporations (Haass, 2008).Haass’s article examines what non polarity is all about, how it materialized, its difference from other forms of international order, its consequences and how America should respond to its this paper I will outline the major key points of Hass’s article and present his arguments. I will argue that the world is not becoming non polar and that the united states is not in decline and conclude by evaluating Haass’s article bringing in other theoretical insights into the debate.

Haass’s article examines the nature of Nonpolarity, he attempts to explore the implications of a nonpolar system. He proclaims that today’s world may appear to be multipolar but that is not so as he argues that nation states have lost their power and preeminence with the advent of non-state actors possessing meaningful power the world becoming less state centric which he argues to be the reason for the decline of the United states position and economic dominance in the world. However, his article attempts to contribute to the wider debate by giving Nonpolarity a place within International Relations discourse. Haass breaks down his article into four main parts the first part provides the reader with newer world order where he defines Nonpolarity and distinguishes it from other forms of international system, part 2 presents the reader with decline of America’s unipolar moment, part 3 examines the dangers of a nonpolar disorder and its implication and part 4 presents the reader with Haass’s recommendations as to how America should respond to its development.

Haass defines Nonpolarity as a world dominated not by one or two or even several states but rather by dozens of actors possessing and exercising various kinds of power(Haass,2008) He argues that the world today is becoming increasing nonpolar with no single power and becoming less state centric with the rise of non-state actors having meaning full powers, such as terrorist organisations, global media companies such as Cnn and the Bbc , Ngo’s  doctors without borders and so on although in his article haass doesn’t give an elaborate description of how the above mentioned constitute a threat to global security. However According to Robert Manning he asserts that in history at the moment there are different range of power and non-state actors impacting on particular issues differently which doesn’t necessarily mean there are no concentrations of power that can shape events and outcomes on different issues, he gives examples of the g20 on financial issues, the six party talks on north Korea, public private partnerships such as governments business Ngo’s taking initiatives like arranging affordable Hiv/Aids treatments and malaria pills to less developed countries, He further states that there are various issues which different actors bring their influence to bear on, and that even though nation states are eroded from above by multilateral arrangements and below by non-state actors such as those mentioned by Haass, Manning asserts that the state still remains the central actor in world affairs.The idea of a nonpolar world may be useful, however for bringing focus to the complexities of the international system, but it is off the mark if intended to characterize this historical period we are in(Manning, 2009).

Haass argues America is in decline, with the raise of many other power centers, and nation states, such as the Brics, the middle east, east Asia and so on. Though he recognizes Americas military strength he still takes for granted its primacy, these rising powers though may pose a challenge, do not pose a threat to the united states economic dominance, to support my argument authors like Ely rather and Thomas wright in their article America’s not in decline it’s on the rise. Asserts that America is recovering from the financial crisis whereas emerging powers are still experiencing troubles. Brazils growth rate has fallen from more than 7percent in 2010.currencies of brazil, India, Indonesia, south Africa, Iran and turkey are fragile and very vulnerable to high inflation, large deficits, low growth and a downturn in china and may soon face international financing problems, protests in brazil over wasteful government spending, Russia looks more authoritarian by the day, the Chinese communist party have been trying to crack down on journalist, academics and bloggers in an attempt to control the discontent that accompanies slower growth and painful economic reforms. The Brics, the shanghai cooperation organization and Ibsa continue to disappoint, the middle east will continue its painful and bloody revolution the Eu appears increasingly unable to move beyond protracted stagnation eroding its ability to play a constructive role in world affairs and still depends on the Us for military support. While at the same time the united states is experiencing a turnaround of fortunes as unemployment rate has fallen and its energy revolution poised to overtake Russia as the world’s largest producer of oil and natural gas, The Us military is the most superior in terms of technologies and still remains the linchpin of the international community through its diplomacy, economic pressure and the spectre of military action(Ratner and Wright, 2013).Dorothy Grace Guerrero also asserts that despite impressive economic figures, it is misleading to think the rise of new powers like the Brics means that they will soon rule the world the way the united states has been doing. The Us is still the most powerful and that the rise of new powers does not necessarily mean that they are seeking to assume the hegemonic role of the is more likely that a multipolar world means that a new mix of leading countries will define the global political economy together with the united states as the lead (Guerrero, n.d.).

Hass inability to give an elaborate expansion for his initial proclamation, and not including scenario’s or case studies to support his argument for instance he made mention of al Jazeera, the Bbc and Cnn as powers but did not elaborate as to how and why they constitute a threat to the united states in a non-polar world. the author did not make any reference to his sources, or used any relevant source to back up his argument which made it very difficult. I made numerous research but writings on Nonpolarity are very uncommon, which shows that the debate on this topic is extremely limited, and leaves most of the article based on his theoretical ideologies and a result the article at several points falls short of placing some of Haass’s argument into perspective, instead it acts as an article trying to convince the reader that we are in a non-polar world where as there has been little or no debate on the issue.If one was to take it upon one’s self to compare Haass’s points to an example they deemed fit,this may lead to a misinterpretation of his argument.

Although it is difficult to classify Haass into any IR school of thought Haass’s prediction of  nonpolar international system contributes to the wider debate in international relations, Haass suggestion that a nonpolar world will be dangerous is some worth true because in a world full of numerous of power centers with so many non-state actors possessing meaningful power and trying to assert their influence will be extremely violent, as it will be especially difficult to erect collective responses to regional and global challenges, it will also be difficult to make institutions work and the inability of states to reach agreement. The promotion of global integration and creating means to make possible and ensure the close and continuing collaboration of a core group of democracy loving nations should reduce the danger. Even readers who may not agree with the suggestions advised by Haass will surely learn from his illustrations of the growth and evolution that will likely shape the new international order that takes over the present multipolar world whether what emerges is Nonpolarity or disorder. Although as stated by Joseph Nye it is entirely not possible for this article or any other to foresee the future because there so many possible futures dependent on unpredictable scenarios and they play a huge role the further out one tries to look.

Israeli-Palestinian conflict with an alternative narrative of the shadow of ICC

This section will mainly outline the Israeli Actions in the Occupied Palestinian State as it constitutes a Crime of Aggression; the theme analysed in this chapter is the Israeli-Palestinian conflict with an alternative narrative of the shadow of ICC. It is argued that the absence of recognition for the human right abuses committed by Israel during and after the 1948 War as it is a crucial obstacle for the resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. A short historical background to the conflict is intended to emphasise the absence of political solutions to the conflict, while historians have effectively showed the injustices that the 1948 and recent Wars produced.

1. History of the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict

The history of the Palestinian- Israeli disagreement is one of the most controversial conflicts in ancient history as well as in our modern time as dating back to many decades. The current conflict between Palestine– Israeli is becoming more tense each day and therefore, they must reach to an agreement immediately before the violence escalates to become worse between two states.

The Israeli-Palestinian issue has been the subject of some of the most extensive peace building efforts in the world. The recent occurrence in the Middle East between the Israeli extremists and the Palestinian population is mainly related to their historical past. The United Nations’ Resolution 194 unequivocally states that there’s an obligation to return the Palestinian refugees to their homeland from which they were expelled in 1948.  Nonetheless, the problem of the Palestinian refugees has been consistently ignored throughout the ‘peace process’. Even at the time that the Oslo process seemed to produce some sort of change on the ground, it was in essence a settlement that overlooked the fate of the Palestinian refugees and the Palestinian minority in Israel.  Furthermore, the Geneva Accord is entirely silent on the issue,  and the numerous informal peace agreements recognize historical responsibility but vary on the acknowledgment of blame.  Although politically the issue has not been properly addressed, historians have evidenced the problematic outcome of the 1948 War.The numerous peacebuilding projects have been conducted to resolve the conflicts between Israeli and Palestinian group, including programs, interviews, projects, and film setting and assist the official peace procedure over the past 20 years. The meaningful and major changes may have been taken place thanks to the contribution of these projects, however these whole peacebuilding process did not have much impact on Israel and Palestine as expected. Several wars took place due to the conflict between these two states, starting in 1948, through Palestinian population, and Israeli. Now the Palestinian people are not only the victims but also the fighters against these Israel forces that unfortunately threaten the human rights on mostly a daily occurrence. As these activities were being conducted during the same period, the Oslo procedure has fallen through and as a result, Israeli army have increased the violence on Palestinian innocence, by building the separation barrier which led to more tension between them.

Following the advent of the Israeli New Historians, the consensus among the literature  is that the 1948 War led to approximately 750’000 people being expelled or fleeing out of fear, the destruction of more than five hundred villages, and the demolition of a dozen towns. Up until the 80’s the traditional Zionist narrative was practically unchallenged, and there had been no critical historical analysis in Israel of the 1948 War. In the words of Benny Morris: ‘Everything that had preceded it was just memoirs’.  The traditional historical take suggested that the war was a “David versus Goliath” conflict; that the Palestinians left because of the orders of Arab leaders, and were promised that they would shortly return. Each of these elements of Israel’s creation myths were contested by the New Historians. In particular, Israeli historian Ilan Pappè, member of the New Historians, famously used the term ‘ethnic cleansing’ to describe Israel’s policies towards the Palestinians during that period.  Even with the emergence of the New Historians, Israeli society’s understanding of the 1948 War didn’t fundamentally change.

Several incidents occurred in Palestinian territory due to the conflict between two states that those were very bitter and also have a great connection with the current situation between these two parties. Palestinian civilians are brutally killed almost each day by Israel bombers and their army in Palestine territory. With Israeli extremist groups, are causing much negativity and bitterness on Palestine sides of the conflict. Recently, the Israeli army has expanded their restrictions on the Palestinian group and therefore, it is becoming harder to find solution. Several developments have paused the peace operation and delayed the negotiation due to the recent status of the West Bank, Gaza Strip and the land of Palestine. As an outcome, Palestinians and Israelis had more mistrust and hatred among them that they are even more isolated from each other than ever before the 1990s. An in-depth knowledge of the history is required to grasp the Israeli-Palestinian conflict of both sides.

The Background on the Conflict

In order to obtain an opinion on this issue one must examine the factual historical background of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Though, its origins go back to the end of the 19th century during the Ottoman or British rule, the expansion of Israel since 1947 is seen as the beginning of the conflict.

For Israelis, 1948 is a year in which two things happened that contradict each other: on one hand, Zionists claimed they fulfilled an ancient dream of returning to a homeland after two thousand years of exile. . On the other hand, 1948 also marked arguably the year in which Israel began committing severe human rights violations towards Palestinians. As a result, recognizing the Palestinians as victims of Israeli action is deeply traumatic. Acknowledging that Israel is responsible for the displacement of 750’000 Palestinians raises numerous ethical issues with crucial implications for the future.  In these terms, losing the status of victimhood has political consequences internationally, but more significantly existential repercussions for the Israeli psyche.   It was Zionism for the Jews against Palestinian nationalism. The border issues, security, ruling Jerusalem, recognition as well as Palestinian freedom of movement were the main conflicts between these two races. These conflicts are considered to be the major intensifying issues that it became daily activity between the two states. The Zionists believed that Palestine was their land as according to them it was part of their historic homeland of Israel. The Palestinians however already inhabited the place for over centuries and so there was a misconception between two nations.

As stated above, the historical background of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict started when the United Nations proposed the partition plan for Jewish in 1947. The Israelis are very happy with the plan however the Palestinians would not agree with this plan as they believe it is not fair to give up on their own land which is occupied by Israelis. Since then, there has been numerous battle occurred between Israel and Palestinians in 1948, 1956, 1967, 1973, and 1982 and so on.

This process of material forgetting was prominent starting from 1948 but also continues today. It has been documented that new Jewish villages were at times established on the ruins of Palestinian villages. Additionally, recreational parks and nature reserves were built on the remains of Palestinian lands and houses.  Still today, Palestinian houses are frequently demolished and new Jewish settlements are built on. Recently, Jerusalem’s municipality has been trying to demolish the entire Palestinian neighbourhood of Issawiya in east Jerusalem claiming the need to establish a national park.  Lastly, symbolic forgetting entails the production of a new symbolic map by changing the Arab names of cities, villages, and neighbourhoods to Hebrew names, thus domesticating them into the dominant narrative.  In this essay, there will be also focused on the conflict in recent history with a brief light on the involvement of the United States in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. It is not a secret at all that the US has a close relationship with Israel. Taking into account that the US currently is one of the biggest powers in the world, it has fueled the controversies created by the United Nations Fact Finding Mission. United States use these issues of the two states to push their agenda and to make benefit out of it, while Palestinians has been fighting against Israelis for fifty years over Palestinian land as it was granted to them before the Jews.

USA`s position would indeed strike anyone as highly controversial, to say the least. An escalating violence of 20 Israeli casualties against the over 600 on the Palestinian territory, the US seems to be blindly supportive of Israel’s actions instead of reaching a cease-fire urgently. Thus, Israeli is continually obtaining a great support from the United States. Surely, there has been much happened since the creation of Israel, however by at a glance at these sixty-nine years of violent history will undoubtedly prove that the events of Palestine are based on the disagreements between Palestinians and Israelis, and that The white house’s lack of leverage has contributed to the failure of the many attempts that have been made in this direction. There will unfortunately not be many chances of ceasing this bloodshed. Therefore, for the time being, the conflict between Palestinians and Israelis appears to be ongoing subject with no solution in the near future.

According to Israel, the territory of Palestine was promised to their fathers by god so that it actually   belongs to them not the Palestinian. However, Palestinian believes that it belongs to them as they have been living in Palestine for centuries.

There is a constant fight between Israel and Palestine due to the religious history of the land. The West Bank is considered to be their own home by the Palestinians and will continue to fight the Israelis who occupied their own territory for more than 30 years. It is so unfair that the West Bank is ruled by the Israelis over the Palestinians who were inhabited in the West Bank long before Israeli control.

The battle has been going on between Palestinians and Israelis as non-stop for the area of the West Bank over the last few years. This territory has three borders which run by Israeli and it is surrounded by the Jordan River. Israel has invaded The West Bank since 1967 even though, it originally belongs to the Palestinian territory. As the majority of Palestinians are still living in the West Bank, but it is controlled by the Israeli government. Palestinian inhabitants appear to be trapped in a merciless circle where at this point seems to have no end. They rightfully still believe that the West Bank belongs to them as it has always been theirs and the majority of Palestinian casualties have been living there since 1967. The fights have been going on between these two states so many times over the use of the land and the West Bank has been administered by Palestinian with no control over it since the 1990s. Palestinians feel betrayed by Israelis and naturally want their territory back. Palestinian believe that Israel should give control back of the West Bank to Palestinians. If the Israeli continue controlling over the Palestinian own territory, then only bad things would come out of it. Palestinians are also furious about the fact that their land was occupied by Israeli forces by turning Palestinians into Refugees in their own land.

Norway has secretly drawn up a peace agreement between the Palestinians and the Israelis with the hopes of bringing all the violence to an end in 1993. The chairman of the PLO, and the prime minister of Israel shook hands at the White House in front of President Bill Clinton to reach the agreement at the time. This was considered to be a great step towards peace in a long time between these two nations, and everyone almost believed that the battle was going to come an end. These agreements were significant as it was the first time that Israel ever accepted the Palestinian Liberation Organization as the representatives of Palestine.

The Oslo aimed to pull the Israeli army out of all from the West Bank and Gaza, and also create opportunity for Palestinians to govern themselves in their own territory. However, Palestinians were still unhappy and the conflict continued even after the agreement signed by the two states. When Sharon took over after the election, he immediately called off the Oslo agreement, and the Israeli army became worse as they unfortunately tortured over 2000 Palestine. As the conflict has been going on for over three decades, some of the agreement were reached but there are unfortunately still some recent issues need to be resolved before the tension escalates between the two states. Even though several peace negotiations have resulted in a certain degrees of success, however, Israelis always refused to accept the existence of Palestinian casualties in their own territory.

Recent History of Israel-Palestine

Since Gaza-2014, over 600 hundred Palestinian civilians and more than 80 thousand Palestinian refugees displaced across so many various shelter camps, this recent round of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has shaken the world in awe. In addition to this, the astonishing phenomenon of another bloodshed has been witnessed by us all just a few years after and unable to make any prediction about what will happen next in Palestine territory.  This initiative is the first of its kind in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, though other similar unofficial truth projects have been undertaken in the past in other settings.  This commission is active while the conflict is on-going, as the latest war in Gaza caused the death of more than 2,100 Palestinians and 73 Israelis , and a peace settlement seems more distant than ever. Moreover, the commission self-consciously avoids the element of reconciliation because the conflict has not yet been resolved.  After June 2014, the media all over the world, are providing more detailed news of the incidents in the Gaza and the several social medias are flooded with images and different views. The Palestinian population is as usual, paying the highest price. After the government the elections in Gaza 2006, more brutal action took place as Hamas fires rockets against Israel, Israel fires against Gaza, and both incidents cause the death over hundreds of innocent Palestinians civilians in a brutal way of increasing more violence.

The most importantly, the White House seems to be wearing the traditional blindfold every time Israel gets involved in a serious attack against Palestinian civilians and acts as the international superpower for Israelis. Israel always claimed to have the right to exist, however denying the Palestinians of their right to exist, as they started ruling Palestinians activities such as the airspace and the water, the activities, the Palestinians’ movements in and out of Gaza, as well as the electric supplies and etc. Israel claims to be defending themselves, however, it is destroying the innocent Palestinian casualties by mercilessly firing hundreds of rockets against Gaza. Israel is claiming to ensure their own survival, however is viciously ending hundreds of Palestinian lives almost each day. Washington should no longer tolerate such actions. It is time to address this issue and find a definitive solution that could finally put an end to these tragic events.

Palestinians were forced to leave their homes and their land and sent to Refugee camps and then ruled by Israelis in their own territory. Palestinians claim that their forceful eviction is completely illegal and they should pay for their crime.

Ray Bradbury – Fahrenheit 451 (book): essay help

Books offer a wealth of knowledge to those who are curious and are willing to dig for the information. But what happens when that information is no longer available? Ray Bradbury provides a glimpse into this world with his book, Fahrenheit 451, by following Guy Montag on his journey from indoctrinated fireman to becoming a keeper of the knowledge he once swore to destroy. In its essence, Fahrenheit 451 is a story that shows how curiosity and the thirst for knowledge can have a very powerful impact on an individual as well as have lasting effects on the world. By studying the many symbols in this story and how they relate to each other, the reader can join Montag on his journey and, perhaps, leave with his or her own great thirst for knowledge.

Books are a symbol of knowledge, power, and freedom in the novel. Through fiction and non-fiction alike, books can help teach about the way the world works. If the powers that be in the novel want to keep the masses from learning, what better way than to take the books away? According the Faber, the only way a regular person can learn is by books (Bradbury 82). An ignorant population will have no power to change things when they become problematic. The authorities allow the media to flood the people’s minds with trivial information, making them feel like they do not need to learn anything. This allows the media to tell the people what to think and how to feel about things. When Montag meets Granger and the other scholars in the woods, they are watching footage of the police searching for him on a small portable television. Granger tells Montag that the police will find somebody else to identify as Montag to “save face” (Bradbury 142). They kill an innocent man just to say that they caught him. There is no question in anyone’s mind that it is Montag. If the people are able to read and learn new information, they would be free to think for themselves. People would be able to investigate and ask questions. They would be free to make difficult decisions that affect themselves and others on a greater scale. The authorities would not have control over citizens’ minds. An informed populace is one where people can think for themselves and make their own decisions.

The authorities prevent society from being informed by burning books. The act of burning books represents the death of knowledge and free thought. The words in these books are the thoughts and ideas of people throughout history. Many of these authors risked everything to share these ideas with the world. These ideas instill emotional responses in people from joy to anger, and have inspired many to act. When the firemen come to burn the old woman’s books, the woman says, “’Play the man, Master Ridley; we shall this day light such a candle, by God’s grace, in England, as I trust shall ever be put out’” (Bradbury 33). When Montag questions Beatty about her words, he states that it was a quote by a man named Latimer as he and a man named Ridley were burned alive “for heresy” (Bradbury 37). These men were burned for their beliefs because they did not go along with the norm of the time. The woman chooses to burn herself alive with her books rather than live a thoughtless life of conformity.  Montag burns Captain Beatty alive due to his desire for freedom. By burning the books, the firemen are effectively taking away the ability for a person to think for himself or herself. Captain Beatty believes that, by getting rid of books and allowing the media to fill people’s heads with trivial information, the world is a more peaceful place (Bradbury 58). Of course, the reader knows that this is not the case. With the deaths of the old woman and Captain Beatty, as well as the war that is brewing in the background, this world is far from peaceful.

The bomber jets represent fire as a symbol for the destruction of society. The people of the town know that there is an impending war on the horizon. This is alluded to by the mention of the black bombers multiple times through the novel. Mrs. Phelps mentions that her husband has been called to war and will return within two days (Bradbury 90). This situation does not seem to bother the Mrs. Phelps at all. There is also a broadcast that states explicitly, “War has been declared” (Bradbury 119). All of these allusions to war are being made, yet not one character in the novel is concerned about this looming threat. When the war comes, the bombers destroy the city. The bombs kill the people of the town destroying the society that Montag was running from, leaving he and a small group of academics and scholars to rebuild it.

Fire is also a symbol of survival in the novel when Montag burns Captain Beatty and the hound. These two characters have caused Montag a lot of problems throughout the novel. By burning them and escaping the frenzy, Montag has assured his survival (Bradbury 113). It represents hope for the survival of knowledge when Montag meets with Granger and the other academics in the woods surrounding a campfire. George Slusser states that Montag is “saved” by this fire because it does not burn anything (Slusser 1977). Up until this point, Montag only knew of the destructive nature of fire, but this fire was different in that it made him feel safe. David Mogen states in his essay, “Chapter 8: Fahrenheit 451”, that Montag’s meeting these men by the fire helps him to experience “the warmth of genuine community” (Mogan 1986). These men are following the same path that Montag, himself, is, by memorizing as much information as they can to share with the world as it is rebuilt after the war. They want to build a stronger, more knowledgeable society. Granger confirms this when he says, “We’re remembering. That’s where we’ll win out in the long run” (Bradbury 157). He implies that the only way to get better is to remember what has already happened.

Technology in the novel symbolizes the fear prevalent in this society. The mechanical hound is the exact opposite of the idea of what a firehouse dog should be. The image of a firehouse dog invites thoughts of a helpful and loyal animal. This is an image that many do not fear. The mechanical hound is depicted as a spider-like robot with a proboscis that comes out of its foot that injects poison into its victims. This mechanical hound is a cold, robotic killing machine. Wayne Johnson states that the mechanical hound represents the “relentless, heartless pursuit of the state” due to it getting closer to Montag as he becomes more curious (Johnson 1980). It is a strong reminder of what can happen if the firemen discover that a person is hiding books. This creature instills fear in Montag from the beginning of the novel when it shows aggression toward him in the firehouse (Bradbury 23). This makes him wary of the hound. One would think that the mechanical hound would be on Montag’s side, seeing as he is a fireman. Instead, this mechanical hound becomes a source of paranoia for Montag, forcing him to always be on guard.

Technology also acts as a symbol for the lack of emotional connection in the novel’s society. The constant barrage of noise and images from the televisions and sea shell ear pieces keeps people from communicating with each other. Citizens are, in a sense, brainwashed by commercials. This is apparent when Montag is on the train and the advertisement for Denham’s Dental Dentrifices begins to play. Everyone on the train, including Montag, begins to react to the tune. The narrator says that people are “pounded into submission” (Bradbury 75). By subjecting the population to mindless jingles and products, the powers that be can steer them away from more important things. They will have nothing to talk about except what they are fed.

Mildred represents the complacency and disconnection in the society that the characters of the novel live in. She has a ceaseless need for entertainment. She is constantly watching television or listening to her Seashells. She is one of the happy people who Beatty mentions when discussing the problem with books (Bradbury 58). The people in this society are very distracted. According to John Huntington, the taming of society in the novel is due to people not having access to the “traditional culture” that books contain (Huntington 1982). The people aren’t able to read books, so they are glued to the television. They are always entertained, but at what cost? The television walls almost turn the room into a colorful and noisy prison. The people’s hunger for entertainment and spectacle allows the powers that be to keep them pacified.

Mildred is unable to engage in thoughtful conversation. When Montag tries to talk with her, Mildred shows little interest in what he has to say. Mildred has more “meaningful” conversations with her interactive televisions than she does with her own husband. This is shown when Montag tries to speak to Mildred about her overdose of sleeping pills. When asked why she did this, she refuses to believe that she would have done it (Bradbury 17). She does not even remember that this event took place. The paramedics who came to revive her reveal that this type of thing is becoming a common occurrence.  Montag’s reaction to this situation shows that he is beginning to feel alienated by this society. Everyone is isolated from one another. Nobody is communicating how they feel to each other. Mildred even mentions that the people on the television screen are her “family” (Bradbury 69). The people in the novel just seem to exist. They are living lives full of entertainment and excitement, yet none of it means anything. For how “full” these people’s lives are, they are not nearly as happy as they seem.

Captain Beatty is a symbol of authority in the novel. He has an advantage over a majority of the population in that he knows that, despite his resentment for them, books are useful tools for learning. He is well versed in the subject matter that he helps to destroy. He uses this knowledge when he visits Montag at his home in an attempt to deter him from thinking about why books must be burned so that he can come back to work. Beatty explains to Montag that books make people feel things.  He believes that, since the characters in the books are not real and the writers are dead, books are a large waste of time. He sees them as a source of conflict (Bradbury 59). Rafeeq O. McGiveron says that Beatty “shows how intolerance for opposing ideas helps to lead to the stifling of individual expression, and hence of thought” (McGiveron). Beatty feels that people are better off when they do not have to think for themselves. If people are able to feel things from reading, they will begin to ask questions and think for themselves. If they can think for themselves, the powers that be will no longer be able to control them.

Beatty also represents the media in the novel. When he speaks to Montag about the books, he says that people are happy spending their leisure time watching television. They just want entertainment. They crave happiness, so the media keeps them from worrying (Bradbury 56). He explains to Montag that it is not the government that wanted to do away with books, but the people. In a way, he uses tactics of the media by giving Montag information in an attempt to misdirect him. This only seems to make Montag even more curious about the content that books provide.  Beatty becomes a part of the entertainment when he is killed by Montag.

The firemen represent censorship in the media. When they find out that someone has books, they come and destroy the books. It is a job for them, and they do it without question. The firemen are almost like soldiers. Jack Zipes equates the firemen to Nazis in relation to their uniforms and their burning of books (Zipes 1983). They take pleasure in this job. At the beginning of the novel, Montag is depicted wearing a smile as he torches the books (Bradbury 2). The firemen’s role in society is reversed in the novel. The men who once protected people and put out fires are now the men who start the fires. They burn the information that the people in power do not want the masses to have access to. This keeps the population from thinking for themselves, thus allowing them to be controlled. Without any other information available, there can be no resistance. People only receive the information that the government wants them to receive.

Clarisse is a symbol of curiosity and friendship. From the beginning of the story, she stays in Montag’s mind. She asks Montag a lot of questions, like if he is happy. These questions bother Montag, because he has never really thought about the answers before. Clarrise states that Montag always appears “shocked” by her questions (Bradbury 26). She makes him think about trivial things. She mentions why advertising billboards along the side of the road are as long as they are. These sessions of questions and answers leave Montag dumbfounded, but he begins to grow attached to Clarisse. According to Peter Sisario, Montag’s attachment to Clarisse was “sincere and true in a world hostile to honesty” (Sisario 1970). Montag sees Clarrise as a friend and enjoys his meetings with her. When she disappears, Montag begins to ask questions. Mildred mentions that Clarisse may have been killed and Captain Beatty confirms this later on. Her death inspires him to think and act despite the consequences.

Clarrise also represents and ideal society in which communication and connection are welcome and essential. She and her family sit and talk instead of watching the television screens. Clarrise’s questions may bother him at first, but Montag becomes genuinely curious about Clarisse and her family. Montag shows this by looking to Clarrise’s family’s home and wondering what they would have to talk about. Clarrise’s family has something that Montag is lacking in his own. With the thoughts of Mildred’s overdose and the old woman burning herself alive, Montag needs to speak his mind. Clarisse unconsciously forces Montag to acknowledge this fact when she states, “People don’t talk about anything” (Bradbury 28).

Montag is a symbol of change in the novel. He begins as a loyal fireman who takes pride in his work. He has no problem performing the firemen’s duty of burning books. He is afraid to think for himself. When he thinks about whether or not he is happy he is very unsure if he really is (Bradbury 8). The narrator reveals that Montag has a secret stash of books hidden away in the ventilation system of his home that, if found, will get him into trouble. The deaths of Clarisse and the old woman cause Montag to become curious of what is in the books. This is shown in the woman’s house, where Montag steals a book from the scene before the woman burns it down (Bradbury 35). He may have had books hidden away at home, but this is the first time when Montag shows interest in what he is hiding. He decides to share his secret with Mildred, and shows her the books. This frightens her as she worries about the consequences of their being caught. He shows courage by reading the book aloud while the mechanical hound searches around his home. Clarisse has given Montag motivation to ask questions and to burn the firemen. He changes from a proud but cowardly fireman with a secret to a man of action who desires to think and ask questions. With the war over and the media out of the way, Montag’s journey of self-discovery ultimately becomes a quest to share information with the world. He and the other professors will work to share their knowledge in a hope to build a better world. Each person in the group has memorized at least one story or part of a story. Their efforts may help prevent history from repeating.

Curiosity and the search for knowledge can have a very large impact on the world. The sharing of knowledge helps society to grow and become better and more open to change.

Asthma, Lung Cancer and Sinusitis: online essay help


This is a common illness that causes the person to cough, wheeze, the chest can become tight and they may experience difficulties in breathing.  It can develop at any age and for people who developed it in childhood they may grow out of it in their teens.  If managed properly it doesn’t affect the quality of life.


It is not fully known why someone can develop asthma, but there are a number factors and for some people it may be a combination of reasons, such as:

• There’s a family history of asthma, eczema or any allergies – for example, evidence shows that if one or both parents have asthma, you are more likely to have it.

• You have eczema or an allergy, such as hay fever (an allergy to pollen).

• You had bronchiolitis (a common childhood lung infection) as a child.

• You were born prematurely, especially if you needed a ventilator to help you breathe after birth.

• Your birth weight was low because you didn’t grow at a normal rate in the womb (this can be caused by various factors).

• Your mother smoked while she was pregnant.

• One or both parents smoked whilst you were a child.

• Spent prolonged periods around people who smoke.

• Exposed to certain substances at work (known as occupational asthma).

• Hormones can affect asthma symptoms, some women first develop asthma before and after the menopause. (

Asthma is a result of the bronchi becoming inflamed and sensitive, when the sufferer comes into contact with a certain substance or particles that irritates the lungs this causes the airways to narrow, the muscles tighten and phlegm to be produced.

There are a number of irritants (triggers) that can cause this:

• House dust mites

• Animal fur

• Pollen

• Cigarette smoke

• Exercise

• Weather conditions

• Medication

• Viral infections (

Occupational asthma – This type of asthma is a consequence of the substances you may be exposed to at work, the risk increases if you are exposed on a regular basis.  The most common substances are:

• Isocyanates (chemicals often found in spray paint)

• Flour and grain dust

• Colophony (a substance often found in solder fumes)

• Latex

• Animals

• Wood dust (

Signs & Symptoms

The symptoms can be from very mild to severe.  In most cases it is only mild and you can lead a ‘normal’ live.  In some cases the symptoms are severe and will need medical treatment.  The symptoms can be worse during the night or first thing in the morning.  The common symptoms are:

• Wheezing

• Coughing

• Shortness of breath

• Tightness in the chest (

In some cases the symptoms can get severely worse and this is referred to as an ‘asthma attack’, for some people they can be prone to these attacks and they can come on unexpectedly.  They can develop slowly and it can take a few days before the full blown attack happens.

The symptoms are the same as above but are more intense and the usual form of relief may not work, and in these cases medical treatment will need to be sought.

If asthma is managed properly, you take the prescribed medication regularly and manage your exposure to the triggers then the symptoms will be very mild and in some cases you may be symptom free.

Lung Cancer

One of the more common types of cancer and usually affects older people, the cause is usually known, and the most common is smoking.


There are two main types of lung cancer:

• Small-cell lung cancer – named this because the cells are small.  Usual cause is smoking and rare for non-smokers to develop this form.  This type spreads fast.

• Non-small-cell lung cancer – the most common type, three types squamous cell carcinoma (affects airways), adenocarcinoma (developed in mucus producing cells), large cell carcinoma (found in large, rounded cells).

Lung cancer normally starts in the lining of the airway into the lungs the bronchi.  It is a result of some cells becoming abnormal and as they reproduce they produce more abnormal cells, which then form together into a lump/tumour.  In some cases the lump isn’t cancerous.  There are a number of causes the main one being smoking.

Smoking – This is the main cause.  Smoked produced from tobacco contains over 60 toxic substances that are cancer producing toxins.  Cigarette smoke isn’t the only culprit the following products also increase the risk of developing lung cancer:

• Cigars

• Pipe tobacco

• Snuff (a powdered form of tobacco)

• Chewing tobacco

• Smoking cannabis – Cannabis contains substances that are cancer producing toxins.  Most cannabis smokers mix the cannabis with tobacco, inhale more deeply and hold the smoke in their lungs for longer.   (

Passive smoking – Regular exposure to someone else’s cigarette smoke increases the risk of lung cancer.  Sharing a home with a smoker increases the risk by 25%.

Radon – This a natural radioactive gas which can leak out of soils and rocks in the form of uranium, usually safe outdoors, but can be found in some buildings where the amount can build up.  If breathed in regularly can cause lung cancer, especially if the person smokes.

Pollution and occupational exposure – Chemicals and substances used in certain workplaces can slightly increases the risk of developing lung cancer, these being:

• Arsenic

• Asbestos

• Beryllium

• Cadmium

• Coal and coke fumes

• Silica

• Nickel (NHS

Living in built-up areas increases the exposure to car fumes especially diesel fumes which can increase the risk of developing lung cancer.


At the start most people will have no symptoms, as the cancer develops the main signs are:

• Cough up blood

• Feel short of breath

• Have pain in your chest or shoulder

• Lose weight unexpectedly

• Feel tired

Less common symptoms include:

• Swelling of your face or neck

• A hoarse voice

• Broadening or thickening of the tips of your fingers (called clubbing)



An inflammation of the linings of the sinuses (air-filled gaps within the bones of the face, surrounding the nasal area).


The sinuses produce mucus which normally drains into the nasal cavity via small drainage channels.  When the lining of the sinuses becomes inflamed and swollen this can cause the sinuses and the nasal opening to become blocked.  Air is then trapped within the nasal/sinus cavity which causes the pressure to build up resulting in pain.  This is normally a result of a viral infection (cold).

There a number of types of sinusitis:

Acute sinusitis – a sudden onset of cold-like symptoms such as a runny nose, stuffy nose and facial pain, normally lasts about a week.

Chronic sinusitis – a condition characterised by sinus inflammation symptoms lasting more than 12 weeks.

Recurrent sinusitis – several attacks within a year. (Boots

Signs & Symptoms

The pain can occur in different areas around the nasal cavity, depending on which sinuses are blocked.  The symptoms include:

Acute Sinusitis:

• Facial pain/pressure

• Nasal stuffiness

• Nasal discharge

• Loss of smell

• Cough/congestion

May also include:

• Fever

• Bad breath

• Fatigue

• Dental pain

Chronic Sinusitis

• Facial congestion/fullness

• A nasal obstruction/blockage

• Puss in the nasal cavity

• Nasal discharge/discoloured postnasal drainage

May also include:

• Headaches

• Bad breath

• Fever

• Fatigue

• Dental pain

Other symptoms include

• A blocked or stuffy nose

• Loss of the sense of smell or a reduced sense of smell

• Green or yellow mucus, which can drain down the back of the nose into the throat

• A fever, particularly in acute sinusitis


Fashion photographer Nick Knight

Today’s most influential fashion photographer Nick Knight works with the most well-known stars in the world. Knight was born in 1958 in London. He studied photography at Bournemouth & Poole College of Art and Design. We can say that he’s a fashion pioneer. He has photographed for Vogue, I-D and has shot music videos too because he’s also a filmmaker. Multitalented creative artists are a couple of words that can describe him.

When he figured out that photography was the profession he wanted to learn?

Night actually started first to take a medicine course but when he realized he was not good at it, he quit. Night took a gap year and discovered his passion for photography. He was addicted to it later he studied photography at the college. His parents were open-minded, liberal and supportive. Now they’re both retired his father was a psychologist and his mother physiotherapist. Knight had planned to follow them into science by studying medicine.

How his career has started and what does he think about his fame?

As an art student he brings his first book out. The book was called ‘Skinheads’ and was published in 1982. He can immediately arouse interest in the editor of i-D (a well-known magazine). Then he’s asked to shoot a series of 100 portraits for the 5th anniversary of the magazine. He absolutely couldn’t refuse that request. The black and white portraits were a resounding success. After his success he works with a couple of art directors. Thereafter the most famous fashion brands are queuing up to work with him include Calvin Klein, Dior, … He thinks that fame is a weird, abstract concept, and no one has to hunker after. The famous people he knows and works with are still just people he says. They are famous whether they want or not but it’s not necessarily beneficial to them.

How he started with fashion photography?

In 1933 he made fashion photography by adapting ring flash photography to capture a model for Vogue. He created an overexposed aesthetic. Photographs like these had never graced the cover. He was also recognized for his use of color and pigmentation. ‘The most brilliant thing about photography is that it’s a passport into any social situation whatsoever’: Nick Knight says. He has his own ideas from the concept of beauty. Continually he challenges conventional ideas of beauty. Night likes to pushes its limits, creatively and technically. He has no fear of taboos, it’s his passion film and photography. That’s why he created in 200. It’s a platform for fashion lovers with his projects and films. He would make his work also accessible. Therefore he’s streaming live how he works. He thinks the internet made fashion magazines obsolete because they don’t have a purpose anymore. He doesn’t believe that people like to have a physical thing. He asks if they really want a shiny, smelly, floppy block in their hand. His answer: I’m not sure they do.

What you think about new technology in your photographs?

He’s most excited about the mobile phones. The phones are becoming our screens for understanding fashion, as much as our computers were, he said. He believes that mobile can give you access. It’s not the size of the screen or the quality but the emotional connection that a communication creates. He’s also experimenting with 3D scanning. He challenges the fashion world to work with these new technologies. ‘We’re not waiting for technology, technology is waiting for us.’: he says. But he still believes these two main things are what artist’s needs, your heart and your mind.

How do you proceed with the famous stars?

It depends: he says. Some people have an idea and some not. There are also stars with a team. They have a very fixed idea of what they want. It’s different for different people. He calls the collaboration with stars not collaborations. It’s more me trying to see life through their eyes: he explains. He likes to get into their psyche.

Do you have some artists that inspire you?

No. He likes to read books and that’s it.

You also photographed flowers can you tell more about that?

He took a break from fashion to work with Chipperfield on Plant Power. That was a new gallery at the Natural History Museum in London. People can explore the relationship between people and plants. This break inspires him to work more with flowers and nature in his work. The elegancy of the nature and the beautiful colors of the flowers. He also made another turn in his work to shoot with plump women, elderly women and people with disabilities. He challenged the fashion industry.

How do you work at your studio?

Knight has a team that works for him. But he is still the creative brain behind the photographs. He always shoots wearing the same outfit including a jeans and a white shirt. The industry criticizes him also because his overuse of post-production techniques. He says: Digital manipulation is just another tool. It’s less profound than the lens you use, or the angle. He never thought that photography shows the reality. It’s always manipulation of the reality.

What can we conclude…

Night had a major influence on the fashion world. He is a good example of a man who has worked hard for what he has achieved. He has his own vision and his own style. That distinguishes his own with the rest. That makes him unique and he continues to inspire people.

The discourse of Steinbeck: essay help free

Steinbeck celebrates the fragmentary nature of his society, he believes that these differences have fused together to build the main strengths of his nation, thus, we need to preserve people’s right to be different. We should pause for a while to consider that any totalitarian system spreads sameness everywhere to make the mission of controlling them easier. Anything that distinguishes itself is unacceptable and should be eliminated. Steinbeck works on reversing the attack and subverting this logic, he leads a movement of decentralization; it’s a movement that aims at shaking the certainties as it gives back the value to the marginalized categories of the American society. This reforming movement invokes a continuous war between the authoritarian systems and the peripheral enemies of them. Steinbeck wants to distort the binary opposition of good and bad, blurring these lines that separate people will shorten distance and guarantee an efficient communication among individuals.

This research study investigates the means by which the mainstream culture imposed its norms, beliefs, and assumptions on the wide majority of the American society. By so doing, Steinbeck intends to reread and decode these means. Power uses the concept of common interest as an excuse to legitimize its corruption. What Steinbeck has focused upon is the way authorities use the power of language in identifying concepts for people, for instance it defines for them what is happiness and what is comfortable life. Falsifying truths and trying to subordinate people’s minds and control their choices through media. Steinbeck is writing a text that answers totalitarianism back and calls for cultural resistance. Being part of the community, any kind of change or intellectual revolution demands from all of us a kind of involvement. Together we can change laws and rules overnight, we can reconstruct our reality, and we simply need to dislodge the myth that power is undefeatable.

The discourse of Steinbeck is counter hegemonic; he serves as a watchdog against any threat menacing his society. Steinbeck doesn’t want his people to be hypnotized by the discourse of those in power. Spreading consciousness amongst common people is really important. Democracy is built upon awareness and not upon educated elite leading a blind mob. The role of every writer is therefore, to elevate the level of thinking of his people; he should not allow power to use hegemonic speech to control people. Thus, the role of an intellect is to speak truth to power. This novel asserts the prophetic function of the writer as a truth revealer and as a catalyst who causes agitation, and who brings things together to create new visions and motivates the social change. A novelist is the memory of its nation; his novels should insight people to act, its importance lies mainly in the unsaid, thus, readers have to be able to decode it. POWER DISCOURSE LANGUAGE AS A TOOL OF RESISTENCE BY SUBVERTING POWER DISCOURSES FROM WITHIN.

The capitalist system represents a major threat for the real American principles of brotherhood, equality, and human rights. This danger that threatens the unity and solidarity of the American society and the next generations. Allen and Mary Ellen for instance, is the product of consumer society, they adopt all the practices and beliefs of modern life. From the priorities of the capitalist society, there is something missing; religion, yet Mary seems to keep the presence of holiness in her life.

Ethan is the breadwinner of his family, he is astrocized from society. He masks is weakness by resorting to language games; language has been dislocated, it doesn’t have the power to define anymore, everything he says is blurred and vague. He also escapes reality by talking to himself, he minimizes any problem, it seems to bother him no more. Ethan is not in harmony with his world, that’s why he uses madness as a refuge, he is unable to decide or frame his identity. Ethan’s problem is a problem of recognition; he feels that his society doesn’t recognize him as an autonomous individual after losing his ancestors’ wealth. Ethan has a double discourse, he subverts what he asserts; if he succeeds then it’s his effort but if he fails it’s always someone else’s fault. He always gets rid of the blame. Ethan asserts the supremacy of rich people; as if empirically proved and not to be negotiated or doubted.

Steinbeck couldn’t have accomplished such an amazing fictional work without being inspired by the agonies lived by his people; I assure therefore that the majority of his well known characters are nothing but a reflection of real life people. Yet Steinbeck skills appear when he combines these linguistic skills of humor and irony with his sense of responsibility towards his nation. Steinbeck foregrounds himself and defamiliarizes his work What immortalizes a fictional work is its language; this novel will never wither, it will always please its readers because it’s beautiful in itself.

The American society is internally divided, this division is based mainly on economic features, for this reason Steinbeck refuses the classification that categorizes people into first class and second class citizens on the basis that some individuals are economically underdeveloped.

Any dictator system sheds light on trivial matters in order to deflect attention away from core problems and mainly from criticizing its regime. Food prices, safety matters, terrorism concerns, celebrities news, and media outlets, are all made by authorities to disguise people’s attention from real problems.

Ethan is giving himself a sense of nobility, honor, and value; he sometimes adopts the mainstream thinking. He is trying his best to adjust himself to the harsh conditions imposed by the mainstream culture of the American society. Ethan has a very minimalist and reductionist reading of his history and his current situation. Transvaluating, rewriting, and rediscovering oneself.

Now I want to argue that this idea has a great importance in the issue I want to discuss in the second part of this chapter. These characters have been mutilated by the aspects of modern life, they became assimilationists. Malehood is related to wealth and no longer to maxulinity and bravery. The end justifies the means in a world of race and brutality. AIMLESSLY DIASPORIC PEOPLE

Mary doesn’t seem to side with anyone in the family, she fights fragmentation and she longs for unity and harmony in her house.

Religion rationalizes death with rituals, it doesn’t solve the problem. The world of death for Ethan is still undiscovered AN THIS SHOWS THE LIMITAION OF THE HUMAN MIND.

Literature is about the shame of being a human being.

We are ruled by an idea rather than physical power, for any kind of tyranny has its own ideological machine that works to spread its ideas and maintain people under control.

For Steinbeck it’s a matter of commitment to make his people’s voice heard.

Legitimization of power use / it transcends/ I believe that there are many problems with this statement, the first is…/ / it seeks a way to../  It disallows / This discourse seeks to dismantle /

Every piece of fiction Steinbeck wrote is a protest in itself.

Some would say that up siding social classes remains a utopian idea


The shortest road to the future is always through studying the past and learning from its fruitful experiences.

The self always gain value, identity, and uniqueness by setting itself off from the Other and by showing that it’s morally at a higher level. For this reason, every character tries to dehistoricize and desocialize him. Understanding the Other, therefore, is only possible if the self could in one way or another control the perspectives, assumptions, and ideologies of his own culture. ETHAN AND MARULLO

International business and the TRIPS Agreement

“International business is claimed to be as old as the history of mankind itself” Even Hammurabi’s Code of laws contained some rules which are related to business law in 2000 BC. Another example is The Rhodian maritime code or Lex Rhodia was introduced by the Mediterranean community, in the second or third century BC, which was used by Greeks and Romans, is a renowned code which on record incorporated within its tenets the principle of maritime law and maritime insurance.

A business is making goods or providing services by any organisation. Goods are physical products such as phones, cars but services are non-physical products such as cleaning services or security services. According to Companies House a record breaking 581,173 businesses were registered with Companies House last year showing an accelerated increase on previous years with 526,447 and 484,224 recorded in 2013 and 2012 respectively. This statistic shows that how the business develops amazingly in the local area. Another character of business situated international business which across the international borders, Robock and Simmonds defined international business as “international business as a field of management training that deals with the special features of business activities that cross national boundaries”. Also Daniels and Radebaugh define international business as “all business transactions that involve two or more countries” it is possible to divide up international business into three categories trade, investment (e.g. direct or indirect), intellectual licensing of technology and intellectual property (e.g. trademarks, patents, and copyrights) such as well known brands are McDonald’s, Nike.

There is various kind of sources of international business law. The role of international business law is to assist in the conduct of international business. Article of 38 of the Statue of the International Court of Justice (1945) illustrates of the source of international law which are, International conventions, international custom or general practice, general principles of law recognized by civilized nations and judicial decision and scholarly writing. Related with international and international business, the law exists to create reliable standards for companies to follow**. It is essential to establish an order in international business law and it comes to mean one purpose of the international business law is establishing standards, being said that It is the standardization of fundamental business practices worldwide. In international relations more significant international agreements are called treaties. Such as the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (1994) and known as TRIPS Agreement. TRIPS Agreement serves to standardization of intellectual property. David Nimmer described TRIPS as “the highest expression to date of binding intellectual property law in the international area”. Additionally, this kind of treaties serve to minimize the risk because every international business transaction might have carried some risks. Also, the purpose of international business law tries to minimize the possible risk with TRIPS Agreement in the area of intellectual property. For instance, a company which enters a licensing agreement in a country which is a member of TRIPS Agreement in willing to enter a business in a foreign country. The problem might have occurred here because it is important to know that intellectual property is under protection in that country or easy to be disclosure by the rivals. If the company decided to enter a business in a foreign country which is member of TRIPS Agreement, risk on company’s shoulder will decrease but in a foreign country which is not a member of TRIPS Agreement, it is possible to withdraw to enter a business because of possible risks as mentioned above. Especially this problem might occur in less developed countries and TRIPS Agreement creates a balance between developed countries and developing countries. Ratification of the TRIPS Agreement has a significant role in intellectual property rights’ reforms in developing countries. TRIPS Agreement constitutes minimum standards for the protection of intellectual rights such as copyright, trademarks, geographical indications, patent and industrial design, integrated circuit layout design and undisclosed information (known as trade secrets or confidential information). Even ratified TRIPS Agreement is one step, a condition for international peace. Closely related to this point, in article 67 regulates technical cooperation between members, especially between develop and developing countries, one of the highest priority of the Agreement. Also, one of TRIPS Agreement’s feature is including about Dispute Settlement. Disputes arising under the TRIPS Agreement will involve an examination into the consistency of a Member’s domestic intellectual property laws and the TRIPS Agreement. Dispute settlement related to intellectual property,  sixteen countries apply for the dispute settlement so far and the most countries who applied for dispute settlement are European Communities with seven disputes, the USA with six disputes and Australia with eight disputes, although, as less developed countries, only Pakistan, India and Indonesia applied for the dispute settlement. According to information from WTO, mostly dispute of TRIPS Agreement appeared between highly developed countries. This essay will examine the scope and purpose of the international business law, and in this respect it is hoped to explain how international business law achieved its any purpose with TRIPS Agreement is related to intellectual property.

Russian Federation Armed Forces (RFAF) getting in control of Crimea

Factor Deduction Conclusion

Russian Federation Armed Forces (RFAF) getting in control of Crimea (March 2014).

• Continuing access to the naval base of Sevastopol

• Warships and support vessels formerly part of the Ukrainian navy could enter into the Russian Fleet

• Securing the military benefits and regaining influence over Ukraine’s future direction.   • Avoid further degradation of the crisis in Ukraine

• Continue to implement assurance measures

• The possible “integration” of Ukraine to the West (EU/NATO) is much less attractive by the Russian presence in Crimea.

• The presence of the Russian Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol (Crimea)

• Modernisation of that fleet (advanced supersonic anti-ship cruise missiles, air defense systems and torpedoes; the coastal defence system armed with Yakhont anti-ship missiles. )

• Presence of Iskander mobile ballistic missile systems in Crimea The Black Sea Fleet (after its modernisation ), shall provide Russia with substantial operational capability in the region:

• to control the Black Sea basin

• to ensure the security of its southern borders

• to project power in and around the Black Sea

• to carry out Anti-Access/Area Denial (A2/AD) operations throughout the region. • Continue its intelligence collection efforts, its investments in and deployment of missile defence systems and submarine detection systems

• Undertake negotiations on non-proliferation

• Increase its presence in the Black Sea by ‘show the flag’ operations, also being deterrent at the same time

• Support Turkey’s surveillance of the Turkish Streets.

Crimea as an operating base for future military action against Ukraine :

• Naval means

• Advanced combat aircraft • Russia can threaten Ukraine on three fronts now (northeast, southeast and south)

• Potential naval blockade against Ukraine’s southern ports and potential amphibious operations at selected coastal targets

• Deep operations inside Ukraine to strike strategic targets or provide ground support for Russian forces and interdict Ukrainian troop movements • Avoid further degradation of the crisis in Ukraine.

• Start negotiations with the Russian Federation.

• In order to change the relationship of distrust to a normalised one, NATO should involve the Russian Federation instead of excluding them from their operations.

• Air defense capabilities upgraded

• Integrated air defense system (S-400 area defense platform installed) • Significantly enhancing Russia’s air defence capabilities on its southern flank.

• Deterrence • Increase its presence in the Black Sea by ‘show the flag’ operations

• Capabilities needed to counter deterrence

Relative geographic isolation of Crimea

Very difficult for enemy forces to retake it (easy to defend). Crimea: a lost “case” for Ukraine

=> The Alliance should start diplomatic negotiations with Russia (improve their relationship and solve the crisis).

Sevastopol serves as headquarters to the newly constituted Mediterranean Task Force (MTF). • Russia‘s reach extended and its prestige enhanced. (again a major power in the Black Sea)

• Sevastopol: potential SPOE (strategic projection) • NATO should show its presence in the region like they already do in the Baltic States

• Intelligence collection on the MTF

In Crimea, all the prerequisites to apply the new operational concept in an effective way were present. Russia’s strategy is to maintain a sphere of influence in former Soviet states and at the same time disrupt EU and NATO involvement in the area.

The Russian annexation of Crimea (March 2014) was the result of a combination of military tools and state tools to reach its policy goals:

• Covert use of Special Operations Forces with subterfuge (civilian self-defence forces)

• Combination of non-military, covert and subversive asymmetric means (hybrid warfare)

• Gradually transitioning from “little green men” and self-defence forces to clearly marked high readiness forces • Confronting Russian military power in the future will require an expanded toolkit for NATO Allies.  (confrontation with an asymmetrical approach – hybrid warfare)

• Intelligence collection to anticipate on Russian military actions

• Effective implementation of assurance measures

The EU and NATO are increasing their sphere of influence more towards the East and in this way they encounter Russia. Increased dominance of anti-Western sentiment in Russia and amongst ethnic Russian minorities in former Soviet States; the conviction that the West intends to bring about regime change in Russia • Strategic Communications to deny false accusations by Russia, inform the population in former Soviet States

• Enhance the relationship with Russia

• Involve Russia in their operations

Overall vast offshore oil and gas resources of Crimea in the Black Sea. Nationalisation of oil and gas companies by Gazprom.  (figure 1) • Increase its presence in the Black Sea by ‘show the flag’ operations

• Ensure freedom of movement in the Black Sea

The Black Sea is a huge economic thoroughfare from the Caucasus region and the Caspian Sea to central and Eastern Europe.  Traffic on the Black Sea accounts for 300 ships a day. Russia has started to re-shape its territorial sea and the 200-mile Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the northern Black Sea (figures 2 and 3), putting Ukraine in an even more vulnerable state economically, militarily and politically.

Ukraine is worried about losing very large shale gas fields as well as 45% of its national coal reserves in the eastern region due to the separatist conflict. Risk for Ukraine to lose more natural resources if there would be an expansion or degradation of the crisis in the eastern regions. • Increase its presence in the Black Sea by ‘show the flag’ operations and avoid further degradation of the crisis in Ukraine.

• Start negotiations with Russia

For its agricultural and industrial activities, Crimea remains dependent on water and electricity from Ukraine. • There are frequent blackouts and disruptions.

• The closure of the North Crimean Canal, the main irrigation source for Crimea’s interior dry steppe lands, has adversely affected agriculture, with numerous crops failing. • NATO should closely monitor the situation in both Ukraine and Crimea.

• Avoid further degradation of the crisis in Ukraine

• Comprehensive approach

• The total population of Crimea is 2.3 million with 58% ethnic Russians, 24% Ukrainians and 18% Tartars.

• Concerning the native language, this is the 2014 situation: 84% Russian, 7.9% Crimean-Tatar, 3.7% Tatar and 3.3% Ukrainian (figure 2). • The protection of ethnic Russians living in Crimea in a time of political changes in Ukraine should be seen as a symbolical act. President Putin sent troops to Crimea to protect the interests of the majority of ethnic Russians.

• Crimea can serve as a symbol to encourage pro-Russian factions in Ukraine to support Russia. • With strategic communications, NATO should counter the false accusations of wanting to destabilise the Russian Federation by the approach to former Soviet States.

• Effective intelligence collection should allow the Alliance to anticipate on military actions (annexation of Crimea, clandestine support to Ukrainian separatists in the East)

The ethnic Tatars (18% of Crimea’s population) always remained a reliable pro-Ukrainian and pro-Western bloc. They were seen as ‘the’ enemy to Russia. Since the annexation: persecution with their freedom and rights having been attacked repeatedly   Monitoring of the rights of the minorities in Crimea is needed, maybe by cooperation with the EU or the OSCE.

Crimean Tatars and other Muslims in Crimea have come under new jurisdiction; they also have a strong affinity with Chechens. • Islamic organisations with transnational connections designated or banned as terrorist organisations.

• Islamic literature closely monitored, publications banned as ‘extremist literature’ and ‘unregistered mosques’ closed.

By addressing the ethnic Russian-minority (through means like media), Russia emphasizes their Russian heritage based on language, history and unique Russian culture. These narratives enhance

• the minorities’ feelings of marginalization by their government

• a sense of self-worth belonging (honour) and pro-Russian popular sentiments

• a perception that ‘Mother Russia’ has more to offer than the native country (interest) • NATO needs to get in depth view (by intelligence collection) on the Russian minorities in possible target countries.

• NATO needs to tackle the causes that lead to the sentiment of reunification; by strategic communication it can try to influence the view of the ethnic minority.

• This should be part of a comprehensive approach as “military” means alone won’t be able to influence that view.

Emerging infectious diseases: essay help site:edu

Emerging infectious diseases are infectious diseases that have showed up within a population in recent years or those whose prevalence or geographic boundary is increasing exponentially or expected to rise within the next few years (1). Emerging infections can be divided into two main groups – newly emerging and re-emerging infections. Newly emerging infections can be defined as diseases that have never been identified in the human host before. Re-emerging diseases are diseases that have been known to infect humans, but persistently emerging in novel places or as drug-resistant strains, or re-emerging despite evident management or eradication (2). This essay aims to understand the dynamic relationships between microbes, human hosts, and the environment with respect to impact on emerging infections in humans. It is also important to remember that due to the complex nature of many emerging diseases, the differentiation between emerging and re-emerging diseases tend to be debatable, resulting in multiple professionals to group them into disparate categories.

The causes of disease emergence are dependent on a number of factors yet basically result from the microorganism itself interacting with a human. These exposures can be complicated and novel diseases are frequently developed from multiple determinants simultaneously or consecutively. One key example we would be focusing on would be the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014. The Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a lethal zoonotic disease caused by an infection with one of the five recognised ebolavirus species, with the Zaire ebolavirus species being responsible for this particular epidemic (3). As of 13 May 2016, a total of 28,616 cases 11,310 deaths was reported (4), making it the largest known outbreak of Ebola.

The collapse of public health campaigns and inadequacies in public health systems adds to the dissemination of emerging diseases. One of the main reasons for the emergence of Ebola in parts of Africa is the substandard active healthcare systems where the virus happened. The nations, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone are the hardest-hit and among the poorest in the world. After decades of dispute and civil conflict, their healthcare systems are essentially obliterated or significantly weakened and, in some regions, leaving behind a generation of uneducated young people. Restricted trained medical workforce, substandard facilities and equipment, incompetent administration and financing for the healthcare industry all leads to the accelerated spread (5). Healthcare professionals of Ebola patients are at utmost danger of contracting it as they are considerably more likely to be in near proximity with infected blood or body fluids. The elevated mortality rate of health practitioners in this outbreak has damaging repercussions that further delay infection control. It exhausts one of the most indispensable assets during any infection outbreak control. In the three worst-affected countries, WHO approximates that only one to two physicians are accessible to care for 100,000 people, and they tend to be heavily concentrated in bigger towns (6). Quarantine areas and hospital promptness for control measures are basically non-existent. Contact tracing of ill persons are being executed but not diligently quarantined for supervision. At the beginning of the Ebola epidemic, limited capacity to rapidly distinguish alleged cases, confirm diagnoses and implementing preventative measures led to pervasive spread (7). By the time outbreak control was attained, there were already extensive and devastating effects on Ebola patients and their families, as well as the countries’ health and financial systems (8) and population health (9).

Sociocultural actions that contradict disease outbreak regulations also play a role in emerging diseases. The predominant acceptance of particular long-established and spiritual rituals among West African populations had huge adverse impacts on the dissemination of Ebola. In Guinea, 60% of incidents have been associated with customary funerals. One of the most frequently carried out burial customs, which notably aided the dissemination of Ebola, is the rinsing and bathing of the corpse. Another stated funeral tradition is that of the family of the deceased touching the face of the corpse in what is understood as a ‘love touch’ that reinforces harmony between the living and their ancestors (10) and then proceeding to clean their hands in a shared washbasin. Given that the primary method of human-to-human transmission of the Ebola virus is through direct contact with infected body secretions as constantly described in the Ebola epidemic, the funeral and burial rituals mentioned before indirectly leads to dissemination of the disease (11). Fear causes individuals who have had contact with infected persons to evade supervision, families to conceal symptomatic relatives or bring them to indigenous doctors, and patients to escape from medical facilities. Fear and the aggression that can follow have jeopardised the safety of domestic and global medical emergency units. The fact that Ebola is often lethal and incurable further promotes alarm and continuation of these risky actions, highlighting the significance of needing medical anthropologists on the medical emergency units. This established that solely using scientific techniques without an all-inclusive regard for other circumstantial elements is not enough to regulate disease outbreak. Control measures must operate within the customs, not against it (12).

In an ever more integrated and connected world, the spreading of infectious diseases through global travel and trade is much simpler. West Africa is exemplified by a large scale of migration across extremely unregulated geographical boundaries (13), with new findings approximating that migration in these countries is seven times higher than other places globally. A huge proportion of the population in these nations do not have stable and waged jobs. Their pursuits to seek employment leads to ever-changing migration across these unchecked geographical boundaries. Migration produced two major obstacles. Firstly, cross-border contact tracing is challenging. People promptly migrate to other countries, but medical emergency units do not. Secondly, patients from bordering nations looking for vacant treatment beds are drawn to nations that are progressing in outbreak control, hence inciting transmission chains. The customary practice of returning, frequently over extensive distances, to a local village to lay to rest alongside ancestors is an alternative aspect of migration that involves an exceptionally huge dissemination threat. The epidemic in West Africa has caused fear and also infection miles away in the United States and Spain. Briefly, local threats now have global ramifications (14).

Climate change and global warming is progressively becoming a global issue as well as playing a part in the rise of infectious diseases. As Earth’s temperature rises and environments change, diseases can disseminate into novel geographical regions. A few research papers have stated the effect of global warming and climate change on the African Ebola epidemic (15) and the migratory patterns of fruit bats (16). Colonies of fruit bats migrate to regions where ecological settings are more advantageous for survival due to diminished rainfall, warmer climate and land degradation in their ecological niches in the tropical rainforest. During times of low fruit abundance in tropical rainforest, huge numbers of fruit bats travel extensive lengths to exploit fruit availability in other areas (17), with stop-overs offering a rare chance for natives to vastly hunt bats. Hunting these bats puts them at a bigger threat of zoonotic infections. Molecular examination has shown that the biological pathogen responsible for the West African epidemic diverged from the Central African ZEBOV strain about ten years ago (18). Likewise, antibodies against ZEBOV have been identified in migratory bats in faraway regions, such as Bangladesh (19) and Ghana (20), suggesting the possibility of Central African migratory fruit bats to spread the virus into other regions. Evidently, the impacts of global warming and climate change on fruit bats’ migratory patterns, from their ecological niches in the tropical rainforest of Central Africa to other faraway regions, may have potential international health outcomes. Certainly, it is a concerning world issue that vector-borne diseases, particularly mosquito-borne diseases, may produce an extensive span of emerging infectious diseases in time to come.

Numerous viruses demonstrated a high mutation rate and can quickly evolve to produce novel variants (21). Influenza viruses are useful examples of emerging and re-emerging infectious pathogens in their ability to quickly evolve following changes in host and environmental conditions via various genetic pathways. Influenza virus is recognised for its competency in altering its genetic material. There are two types of genetic mutations in Influenza A virus. Firstly, a genetic drift refers to a point mutation resulting in a slight alteration of surface antigens, producing a new variant of the same virus which leads to periodic influenza infections. Secondly, a genetic shift refers to genetic segments being translocated among Influenza A viruses from distinct species (e.g. human, birds and pigs), producing an entirely novel strain (22). Huge alterations of the influenza virus can lead to pandemics as the human immune system is not ready to identify and guard against the novel strain (23). Moreover, influenza viruses can evolve and persist for years via various genetic pathways in response to evading constant human immune pressures. Over the past decades, the 1918 influenza pandemic virus have constantly evolved via antigenic drift, reassortment between the same subtype and antigenic shift, with the latter yielding new strains in the 1957 Asian flu and 1968 Hongkong flu (24). Additionally, the 2009 flu pandemic involving the genetically complex H1N1 influenza virus is a descendant of the 1918 Spanish flu virus (24). By comparing Figure 1 and Figure 2, the emergence of multiple new variants of Influenza virus can be seen within a short time span of 4 years. The ever-changing genetic material of influenza viruses drives us to research and develop new influenza vaccines containing new antigens annually.

Whilst the world population grows and expands into new locations, the likelihood of people coming into close contact with animal species that are possible hosts of a transmittable pathogen increases. In combination with rises in population density and migration, it is evident that this presents a significant risk to population health. The 2009 Influenza A H1N1 strain was due to genetic reassortment from three distinct species: one genetic segment from human Influenza A H3N2, two segments from avian Influenza A H1N1 and five segments from swine H1N1 (25). The likelihoods of significant genetic mutations happening and then transmitted to humans are higher when humans live near to farmed animals such as chickens, ducks, and pigs. These animals are usual hosts of influenza virus, providing opportunities for the combination of different strains to produce new variants of influenza that have not emerged before. Avian H5N1 influenza, which appeared more than ten years ago, has been restricted to comparatively uncommon occurrences of the disease in humans who were in direct contact with infected birds. The H5N1 virus is extremely lethal with the majority of cases being fatal, although it has yet to develop transmissibility to humans. On the contrary, the 2009 H1N1 influenza, which was introduced into humans from pigs, was highly transmissible between humans. The H1N1 virus spread globally rapidly due to human mobility, especially air travel. Fortunately, the H1N1 virus was not as lethal as the H5N1 virus. The emergence of an influenza virus that is as lethal as the avian H5N1 virus and as contagious as the swine H1N1 virus would pose a substantial risk to global population health.

Even as eliminating particular infectious diseases and to considerably regulate many others become extremely achievable, it appears implausible that we will eradicate the majority of emerging infectious diseases in the near future. Disease-causing pathogens are capable of rapid genetic mutations, resulting in novel phenotypic characteristics that exploit the host and environment. Meanwhile, novel human diseases keep surfacing. Epidemics still draw international awareness and need considerable global cohesion to control and regulate, whether or not they become more prevalent. With uncompromising alertness, current focused investigation, and quick advancement and implementation of several measures to counteract the threat such as monitoring means, diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines, we can overcome pathogenic advantages. In this period of time, there are various significant emerging, re-emerging, and unchanging infectious diseases are becoming more in check. Nonetheless, the triumph of preventing the numerous novel emerging diseases that will definitely emerge is uncertain. Even though we have countless means to tackle diseases, including readiness strategies and hoards of medicines and vaccines, every novel disease brings a set of different challenges, pushing us to constantly change together with the ever-changing threats. The fight against emerging infectious diseases is always ongoing; success does not imply eradicating every single disease but instead being ready in advance of subsequent ones.

Key immune system boosters

As we head into shorter, colder, damper days, and the colds, coughs and flus start to do the rounds, it’s time to think about what we can do to help boost our immune systems. But what exactly is our immune system? It’s the system of the body responsible for protecting us from environmental and external threats, and relies on a system of cells, organs and tissues, many of which are part of other systems too.

For example, our first line of defence is actually our skin, which acts as a barrier, keeping foreign invaders out. We have membranes in our nose and mouth, and tonsils in our throats which are also a first line of defence against unwanted bugs! And our stomach contains acid which will kill some bacteria.  Whilst the skin, respiratory system and gut do a great job of protecting us, they unfortunately can’t stop everything getting through, so then our white blood cells kick into action, tracking down the invaders and trying to destroy them. In addition, they also remember them so that if you are infected again with the same pathogen, you have an army ready to pounce and destroy! Pretty clever huh?

However, our immune system can be weakened and compromised. A weak Immune System is an open invitation to sickness and disease. A strong Immune system can stop sickness and disease in its tracks

So how can we boost our immune system, to help it stay at the top of its game?

There are 5 key immune system boosters:

• Energy – we can boost our immune system by increasing our energy

• Exercise – we can boost our immune system by getting the right type and amount of exercise. I highlight these points because I see so many people doing too much of the wrong exercise, which actually weakens their immune system!

• Stress – or minimising it as much as possible (and this is physical stress as well as mental, so re-read my point above on exercise…)

• Anti-oxidants – ensuring we have enough anti-oxidants in our body to fight the free radicals we’re exposed to

• Alkalinity – ensuring an acid/alkaline balance which is critical to our health

• Nutrition – ensuring the right nutrition and the correct amount, for our bodies

Today I’m going to focus on foods, nutrients and antioxidants for their immune boosting properties, and how we can incorporate them into our diet.


A number of anti-oxidant nutrients play a really important role in immunity

Most invaders produce oxidising chemicals known as free radicals to fight off the troops of your immune system.  Antioxidant nutrients such as vitamins A, C and E, zinc and selenium disarm these free radicals, weakening the invader.

Vitamin A – Helps maintain integrity of digestive tract, lungs & cell membranes, meaning it helps prevent foreign agents entering

Vitamin E – Improves white cell function and increases production

Zinc – Is critical for immune cell production and functioning of B and T cells

Selenium – Inhibits viral replication – i.e. stops them multiplying

Best sources of these antioxidants?

Vitamin A – Carrots, dark leafy greens, sweet potato, liver, bell peppers

Vitamin E – foods that contain fat. E.g. avocado, seeds, nuts

Zinc – Seafood, beef/lamb, spinach, pumpkin seeds, nuts

Selenium – Brazil nuts, seafood, fish and seaweed


Vitamin C is known as the master immune boosting nutrient and more than a dozen roles have been identified for it in this capacity

• It helps immune cells to mature and increases production

• It improves the performance of antibodies and macrophage cells

• It is itself an anti-viral and anti-bacterial agent

• It can destroy toxins produced by bacteria

• In addition, it is a natural anti-histamine, calming down inflammation (e.g. hayfever)

• It stimulates another part of the immune-defence system to produce interferons (signalling proteins) that boost immunity by coating cell surfaces to prevent viruses entering them

• However, the dosage of vitamin C is crucial.  Only studies that used over 1 gram daily were effective, whilst the RDA is 60 mg / day. There is some controversy surrounding large doses of Vitamin C. Personally I take 1000mg a day and more when I’m coming down with something.

Best sources of Vitamin C?

Citrus, tart fruits (berries), green leafy veg e.g. spinach/kale, red peppers, sprouts, broccoli, pineapple, papaya and mango.


Probiotics are known as nature’s antibiotics or beneficial bacteria. You no doubt have heard of their benefits to your gut, but you might not be aware of their importance in aiding the immune system.

• They consume the nutrients that would otherwise feed the bad guys

• They block receptor sites that harmful bacteria have to latch onto to cause an infection.

• They also produce substances such as lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide which stop harmful bacteria from growing.

• They are important in the treatment of cancer, allergies, and infections caused by viruses, parasites and yeasts.

• They have lots of other benefits – such as improved digestive system, increased energy production (Vitamin B12), and helping weight loss

Best sources of probiotics?

Bio Live yoghurt, kefir (fermented milk drink), sauerkraut (fermented cabbage), miso soup, pickles, Tempeh (soy product from Indonesia), raw cheese (unpasteurised).

There are also prebiotics to consider, which are the foods that feed our good bacteria and include things like raw onions, garlic, leeks, artichokes, asparagus, and bananas.


There are many foods that can help to boost our immune systems. Turmeric, cayenne pepper, lemon oil and juice, fresh or ground ginger, garlic and cinnamon are all extremely helpful in supporting the immune system to do its vital job of protecting us.

I try to use most of these things in my daily routine, which looks something like this:

• A glass of water with a drop of lemon essential oil, or squeezed lemon, first thing in the morning before anything else – wonderful for cleansing the digestive system, boosting the immune system and supporting the liver

• A mug of turmeric latte mid-morning or before bed, with turmeric, ground ginger and cinnamon in.

• I always try to cook with garlic each day, whether it’s a curry, a stir fry or a soup.

There are so many things you can do to help to support your natural defence system; you don’t need to do everything I’ve suggested, but just incorporating a few of the suggestions above will help to boost your immune system and hopefully fight off the colds and flus this winter.

Scurvy and Asbestosis: essay help online

Scurvy- Nutritional


Scurvy is a Non-Infectious Nutritional Disease caused by severe and chronic vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency. It is most prominent commonly in people with mental disorders, abnormal eating habits and Alcoholism

Signs, Symptoms and Effects

Scurvy causes widespread symptoms. Signs of Scurvy begin after at least four weeks of severe, continual vitamin C deficiency. It usually takes three or more months for symptoms to develop and become of notice to the patient.


Signs are identified when the person acknowledges the presence or occurrence of Scurvy.

These include:

• Aching legs

• Irritability- easily irritated or annoyed; readily excited to impatience or anger.

• Low-grade fever

• Reduced Appetite

• Unexplained Exhaustion

• Weakness- the state or quality of being weak; lack of strength, firmness, vigor, or the like; feebleness.


Symptoms are identified when the person acknowledges Scurvy through the phenomenon and/or circumstances accompanying and/or serving as evidence for it.

These include:

• Anaemia- when the blood lacks enough red blood cells or haemoglobin

• Areas of red/blue/black bruising, on the legs and feet

• Blurred vision

• Bruising raised bumps at hair follicles, on the shins, with central hairs that appear twisted and can break easily.

• Diarrhoea

• Eye dryness, irritation, and haemorrhaging in the whites of the eyes (conjunctiva) or optic nerve.

• Gastrointestinal bleeding¬- is all forms of bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the rectum.

• Gingivitis, or red, soft, and tender gums that bleed easily

• Headache

• Light sensitivity

• Irritability and depression

• Nausea- unpleasant, diffuse sensation of unease and discomfort, often perceived as an urge to vomit

• Reduced wound healing and immune health

• Shortness of breath

• Small bleeding around hair follicles visible in the skin

• Tender, swollen joints

• Tooth decay


If these symptoms are left untreated for an extended amount of time complications can arise leading to:

• Coma

• Convulsions- where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body

• Death

• Delirium- is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function

• Hemolysis- a type of anaemia where red blood cells break down

• Internal haemorrhaging- is a loss of blood that occurs from the vascular system into a body cavity or space

• Neuropathy and/or numbness and pain usually in the lower limbs and hands

• Organ failure

• Severe jaundice- which is yellowing of the skin and eyes

• Tooth loss

Prevention Methods

After diagnosis through a physician, a physical exam is conducted which leads to lab tests to assess vitamin C levels within the blood. Scurvy can be prevented by simply consuming vitamin in the diet, and or supplement form.

The Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand by the Australian National Health and Medical

Research Council (NHMRC) and the New Zealand Ministry of Health (MoH) show the recommendations of Vitamin C intake by Life Stage and Gender on Pg. 5

Treatment and/or management

To treat and manage Scurvy, Vitamin C which can be administrated through supplements by mouth or injection. Vitamin C is widely available. Citrus fruits like oranges, limes, and lemons have traditionally been used to prevent and treat scurvy.

In severe, chronic, cases of scurvy, it is recommended high-doses of oral vitamin C supplements for several weeks to months. There’s no compromise on a specific dose for severe scurvy. For these cases it is recommended that high doses of oral vitamin C are used for several weeks or longer.

Patients usually see an improvement in some symptoms within a day or two of treatment such as decreased pain, exhaustion, confusion, headache and mood swings. More symptoms may take a few weeks to improve following treatment such as weakness, bleeding, bruising and jaundice. After 3 months, a complete recovery is possible except in the case of severe dental damage.

Epidemiological Study- Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates



Men Women Total Average


Non-Hispanic White 11.8% 8.2% 10%

Non-Hispanic Black 8.9% 5% 6.95%

Mexican 7.7% 4.2% 5.95%

Total Average

(Sex) 9.5% 5.8%

This table represents the NHANES 2004 study on the American Incidence rate for Scurvy. In Sex and Ethnicity comparison we can see that Non-Hispanic White Men have a slightly increased risk of obtaining Scurvy in comparison to Non-Hispanic White Women (3.6% difference). Non-Hispanic Black Men have an increased risk over Non-Hispanic Black Women (3.9% difference). Mexican Men also have an increased risk of Scurvy (3.7%).

This study shows Scurvy to be prevalent in Men than Women with a 3.7 % difference. Mexican Males and Females were least at risk. The common assumption for these results is the Mexican Diet is rich in chilies, tomatoes, and squashes, which are high in vitamin C.




14% 10% 12%

NHANES 2003-2004


8.2% 6% 7.1%

NHANES 2005-2006

(among men and women older than 6 years)



This table represents the overall Scurvy prevalence rate within the American Population.

Overall between 1994-2004 we can see the Male sex at highest Prevalence for Scurvy. In the 1994, we see that the average is 12%, and over 9-10 years we see a drop of 4.9%. In 2005-2006, the average drastically drops to 3.6%.


After continuous research through websites and reports such as the NHANES 2004, Scurvy seems to be a disease with no mortality rate recorded. Assuming that this is the case, death records could have not been published for privacy reasons. After establishing Signs, Symptoms and Effects, an inference under my common assumption would be that people would notice these Signs, Symptoms and Effects and take the necessary action to treat and/or prevent the effects of Scurvy.

Asbestosis- Environmental


Asbestosis is a chronic lung disease (form of pulmonary fibrosis) where scarring of the lungs occurs. It is caused and developed by being exposed to Asbestos fibres. Some of the airborne fibres can become wedged within the alveoli (the tiny sacs inside your lungs where oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide in your blood). The asbestos fibres scar lung tissue, causing the lungs to become rigid. This makes it difficult to breathe. As asbestosis progresses, more and more lung tissue becomes scarred. Then leading to the lung tissue becoming so rigid that it can’t contract and expand normally.

Signs, Symptoms and Effects

Signs and Symptoms

Signs are identified when the person acknowledges the presence or occurrence of Scurvy and Symptoms are identified when the person acknowledges Scurvy through the phenomenon and/or circumstances accompanying and serving as evidence for it.

These will be conjoined as they reflect each other.

Asbestosis is usually a progressive disease, so signs and symptoms don’t start to appear until approximately 10 to 40 years after exposure to asbestos.

These include:

• Appetite loss

• Chest pain and tightness in your chest

• Crackling sound when inhaling and exhaling

• Fatigue

• Finger and toe clubbing- enlarged fingertips

• Loss of weight

• Nail deformities

• Persistent dry cough

• Shortness of breath


If these symptoms are left untreated for an extended amount of time, complications can arise.

As noted before Asbestosis is usually a progressive disease. Patients who have and/or are suffering from Asbestosis have many increased risks of developing:

• Bronchitis- inflammation of the larger airways in your lungs, causing an ongoing cough

• Heart related issues- Enlargement of Heart, Abnormal heart rhythm and Heart failure

• Lung Cancer- is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells that start off in one or both lungs

• Pneumonia- lung inflammation in the air sacs which will fill with pus and may become solid.

Inhalation of asbestos fibres can also lead to four types of non-cancerous abnormalities in the lining of the chest cavity which include:

• Diffuse thickening and fibrosis of the pleura

• Fluid in the pleural space- pleural effusion

• Folded lung or rounded atelectasis- occurs when an area of pleural fibrosis rolls into the lung making an area of the lung airless

• Localized deposits of collagen- pleural plaques

Prevention Methods

Elimination of all exposure will eliminate any risk of developing asbestosis. Asbestos fibres are found dominantly in the work place, so the use of other materials and respiratory protection (i.e. Face mask) and overall body protective gear minimises exposure.

Effects can also be prevented by the cessation of smoking and Immunisation against pneumonia and influenza which will prevent future effects.

Treatment and/or management

Even though Asbestosis is irreversible, there is treatment to help patients live through their diagnosis. Treatment focuses on the patient’s ability to breathe without the discomfort that comes with asbestosis.

Doctors recommend medications which include:

• Bronchodilators (inhalers)- help relax airways which provide relief

• Medications to thin secretions

• Supplemental oxygen- Oxygen is transferred from a tank through a plastic tube that has two prongs that fit into your nostrils. This helps with breathing

• Pain medications- reducing pain and inflammation

In more severe cases surgery may be recommended and rarely will call upon a lung transplant.

Epidemiological Study- Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality  Rates


Quite like the outcome for mortality rates in Scurvy, Incidence studies for Abestosis were not available for use.


This graph is the compensated claims for asbestosis: number by sex, 2002 to 2011. It shows a form of prevalence for Abestosis within Australia. In this graph we see the male sex being dominant with Females number of claims stays neutral (under 50 claims). In 2002, the Male number of claims was 300+. We see a slight incline then a quite dramatic drop which stops in 2006 at 200 claims. A record low is record at 100 claims in 2011.


Annual deaths where death certificates mentioned asbestosis but not mesothelioma, and excluding the IIDB cases 1978-2017

This graph shows an increasing rate over the years 1978-2013. In comparison between these dates we see a 28.6% increased from an estimated 100 death rate to 500 (2013 onward).

From this study, HSE mentions that in recent years, around 2-3% of these deaths were among women.

Average annual male death rates based on death certificates mentioning asbestosis but not mentioning mesothelioma by age and time period, 1978-2016.

There are many distinct inconsistencies between the rates between the different age groups which will touched on later.

The table shows us the link between age and death rates in males. Death rates from ages 60-69 years have been falling since 1980

Between ages 45-90+ we see a dramatic comparison. Common assumptions and statistical observations may suggest that males of older age dealt with higher levels asbestos fibres due to the time period.

Climate change demands drastic change to save humanity: college application essay help

Deforestation, coastal destruction, extreme weather events are just some of the costly irreversible effects of climate change. This terrifying crisis that we are currently facing demands drastic change to save humanity and the degradation of the environment.

Human activity has resulted in the increase of atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide by more than thirty percent since pre-industrial times. This has resulted in many countries being vulnerable to wild fires, flooding and high pollution levels. In recent years, Greenland and The Arctic have experienced rapid glacier melting which has caused rising sea levels and costly damage to coastal towns. Certain organisations behaviour – such as factories and their role in pollution – has caused costs to society to those who not directly involved. An example of this is low lying coastal countries such as the Maldives, whose vulnerability is increasing due to the rising sea levels. The highest point in the Maldives is 8 feet above sea level and with sea level rising on average of 0.09m to 0.37m combined with increased erosion and storms, the Maldivian citizens are increasingly under threat of displacement resulting in a global crisis as there is not enough space for environmental refugees. Unfortunately, those who pay the highest price from the results of climate change are those who have been least responsible.

One solution currently instated is the tax imposed by the government on a good which harms the interest of the community. Despite some evidence of this tax being effective, these minor changes are insufficient in preventing the impending disaster for all living things. As the government imposes the tax many issues can arise. The monetary value of cost to society is difficult if not impossible to measure. The government can fail to get the tax right as they lack the information needed to accurately set the tax. The government can also act in ways not in public interest, instead in ways to boost election votes. As a result, the needs of the government may be inconsistent with the needs of society. Overall the taxes in place currently fail to reduce the human contribution towards climate change therefore radical change is required.

Climate change is resulting in destruction of habitats in events such as wildfires in Canada. As our consumer habits continue to become more luxurious, due to individuals becoming richer, our wasteful culture will get increasingly more problematic. In 2017 there were 71,000 wildfires compared to 66,000 in 2016. As more wildfires burn through our forest habitats our resources are wasted causing inefficiency. This is a wasteful, ineffective use of scarce resources which is unsustainable for future generations, prompting the need for change.

An alternative to a tax is a more market-based approach with the idea of bargaining to internalise the issue into the market. A traditionalist would argue this approach is more successful however I believe this solution is not enough to help our global struggle. Capitalism drives social and environmental injustice creating further issues. For bargaining to be successful and enable both parties to be better off the market needs to be developed. This is an issue for developing countries where markets and institutions are often underdeveloped so they lack the resources and information to bargain successfully. Further failure is caused as negotiations are difficult as both parties need to agree on an end result.

Those who believe in free markets would argue scarcity and pollution will encourage innovation and growth therefore discovering substitutes and developing technology. However, with the present level of red tape in markets, new technologies and production methods are unable to be developed. Entrepreneurs are limited in their product development so the state of the climatic condition will remain. Global cooperation is also needed to effectively reduce emissions and whilst influential countries such as America and China fail to cooperate in agreements like The Paris agreement the future environmental state is under threat.

As a planet we have the means to stop and tools available to save our environment for future generations however we need more action as minor solutions are insufficient. Fossil fuels need to remain in the ground replaced by cleaner renewable energy sources. For example, China is leading the way in the clean energy boom with big dams and solar panel farms. China produces two-thirds of the world’s solar panels with the Huanghe farm being the biggest in the world with four million solar panels on site. If governments act now we believe we can have a hundred percent renewable energy access for all by 2050.

Rich industrialised countries need to change whilst developing countries need to clean up how they industrialise resulting in reduced carbon dioxide emissions. The window for change is small so action needs to be taken now. Overconsumption is a big issue for society today and the levels of waste are increasingly rising. As a result, we need to radically change our consumption habits. Overconsumption of scarce resources such as natural resources, energy and water is unsustainable resulting in irreversible effects on the environment. We now consume too much of the earth’s resources such that we are near to overstepping the earth’s capacity. With our scarce resources and level of growth some say resources will be depleted by 2100. Therefore, conservation of our resources is needed. Our levels of waste are at exceptionally high levels such that in 2016 they reached a staggering 2.01 billion tonnes of solid waste. This releases pollution through landfills leading to more greenhouse emissions and enhancing the climate change impacts. In order to prevent further environmental degradation companies and households need to dramatically reduce waste levels by recycling and consuming less.

Direct action is needed – the current solutions in place are not enough. Now is the time for fundamental change – we can stop this together.

External factors affecting Nike footwear and apparel sector in the UK

1.0 Executive Summary

The objective of this report is to identify the external factors affecting the Nike footwear and apparel sector in the United Kingdom. The analysis for the external factors affecting Nike Inc in UK will be obtained by using the Porters Five Force. The five forces method will be applied by focusing on the female market, athleisure, wearable technology and emerging markets.

1.1 Porter 5 Forces

Porter (1980) states that the competition in any industry is dependent on 5 factors which are:

1. Buyer Power

2. Supplier Power

3. New Entrants

4. Threats of Substitutes

5. Degree of Rivalry

The details of each of the five factors are mentioned in the appendix below.

2.0 The UK Footwear Industry

According to Market Line (2017) the UK footwear industry grew by 1.9% in 2017 to reach a value of 11,196.5 million$ and is expected to reach a value of 12,645 million$ by 2022 which is an increase of 12.9% since 2017. Nike remains the leading player in the footwear market in the UK at 13 % value share.

2.1 Athleisure

According to a report carried out on Passport (Mar 2018) athleisure remains a part of consumer lifestyle. This is mainly due to the consumers interest in their appearance while exercising while their general fitness continues. This trend has a positive impact on sportswear in particular with sports inspired apparel and footwear. Athleisure is expected to continue to evolve over the next 5 years as consumers embrace sportswear as daily clothing and match it with fashionable items. Collaboration between sportswear and fashion brands is only going to boost this trend and keep growing in the future. Sportswear brands that focus on performance have the opportunity to make their products functional and also make a fashion statement which helps them diversify their product portfolio. (Euromonitor International 2018)

The red-hot athleisure trend has led many retailers and brands to unveil their own collection in recent years, and the term has been added to the dictionary. The “sport leisure” style has become the largest category in the US sneaker space beating “performance”- oriented footwear. (Forbes 2018)

While athletic wear was created for a specific use i.e. for sports or athletics athleisure clothing could theoretically be for any use and this versatility of athleisure clothing has attracted so many consumers to this category. It’s also generally more durable, with properties like wrinkle and odour resistance incorporated into its techy fibres. (Business Insider 2017)

2.2 Technology

According to Euromonitor International (2018) there is growing trend of wearable technology in today’s global market due to which sportswear and wearable tech is beginning to merge and is expected to continue over the years. In today market wearable technology is limited to heart rate tracking and movement. This is predominately due to less affordability. But as consumers become more tech savvy products will become more sophisticated. Personalisation is said to be the key to wearable technology. For example, Samsung showcased a belt at CES 2017 which record similar statistics of any fitness watch but also provides personalise weight management and healthcare plan. (Euromonitor International 2018)

Nike used to have their own branded Nike fuel band designed to compete with Fitbit and others. Nikes efforts ultimately failed, and the company shut down the entire project. Nike was a $32 billion a year revenue company in 2016 while Fitbit was on $2 billion. This shows the size of the company has very little to do with the success of wearables and some of the biggest players have difficulties. (Forbes 2016)

Nike’s plan in the wearable tech space was to focus on making apps instead of the higher-priced but lower-margin FuelBand hardware after growing a sizeable online community. The company’s decision is complicated by the longstanding partnership and board relation between Apple and Nike. (Financial Times 2014)

2.3 Female Market

Sneaker culture has long been the province of men. For years, the typical line-up of sneaker heads waiting for the latest drop was almost completely composed of teenage boys. However, to change this and as a part of its stated ambition to grow its $6.6 billion women’s business to $11 billion by 2020, the American sportswear giant unveiled Unlaced: a new retail concept during the Paris Fashion week that the company is calling “a fantasy sneaker destination for women” (Business of Fashion 2018)

For years, athletic products for women were simply designs for men in smaller sizers and more feminine colours. However, the ‘shrink it and pint it’ strategy no longer works. In 2016 apparel sales grew by 3 percent, reaching $218.7 billion according to data compiled by the NPD Group. Athleisure continued to be a top growing segment that year, with an 11 percent increase that made it a $45.9 billion market. Including women in the sportswear comes at a time when the account for a significant share of all buying decisions. A 2013 Nielsen report reveals that American women alone wield $5 trillion to the $15 trillion purchasing power annually. (Business of Fashion 2017)

2.4 Emerging Markets

The health and fitness industry in China are expanding a t a rapid pace and is expected to generate more than $5 billion in 2015, after an average yearly growth of 14% over the past five years. Nike is capturing this trend and the company registered a 27% growth in revenues from Greater China in the 6 months period ended in November 2015, compared to the same period in the previous year. Greater China was the fastest growing region for the company in this period, with growth figures for North America being 9%. Nike with more than 10 % share of the market is well poised to consolidate its position in the region which can be a key revenue driver for the company in the future. (Forbes 2016)


Business Insider UK. (2017, April 4). How athleisure overtook fashion to become the dominant way that Americans dress. Retrieved November 18, 2018, from Business Insider UK:

Business of Fashion. (2018, February 28). Nike Showcases Big Bet on Women’s Sneaker Market. Retrieved November 18, 2018, from Business of Fashion:

Business of Fashion. (2017, September 20). Global Sportswear Brands Making a Play for Women. Retrieved Nov (Placeholder1)ember 18, 2018, from Business of Fashion:

Financial Times. (2014, April 21) Nike’s FuelBand runs into trouble. Retrieved November 18,2018, from Financial Times:

Forbes. (2016, January 13). How China Could Be the Key Driver of Nike’s Future Revenues. Retrieved November 18, 2018, from Forbes:

Forbes. (2016, August 18). It’s a Jungle Out There in Wearable Technology. Retrieved November 18, 2018, from Forbes:

Forbes. (2018, February 9). The Athleisure Trend Isn’t Taking A Rest. Retrieved November 18, 2018, from Forbes:

MarketLine. (2017). United Kingdom – Footwear. London: MarketLine.

MarketLine. (2018). United Kingdom – Footwear. London: MarketLine.

Passport. (March 2018). Sportswear in United Kingdom. London: Euromonitor International

4.0 Appendix – Five Force Analysis

4.1 Buyer Power

According to Market Line (2018) buyers in this market footwear purchases are a necessity so overall sale volumes are high as there are plenty of buyers. This reduces the power of individual consumers. However, UK consumers are becoming more environmentally conscious when purchasing footwear, recognising the benefits of better quality of shoes with a longer lifecycle. Footwear can be expensive so in times of weak economic growth purchases are less frequent. The current demand is also becoming increasingly depended

or repair the footwear they currently own; but this is not a significant factor in the UK. The only real substitute is sports oriented footwear like football boots and indoor gym shoes but as these are on fashion trends which drives up the power of market players as a consumer cannot switch to a different product without losing some attractive features of the products, they currently own. (Market Line 2018)

4.2 Supplier Power

According to Market Line (2018) most of the footwear sold in the global market are sourced from low cost manufacturing location mainly from South-East Asia. So many western manufacturers are unable to compete with the mainstream footwear market. The high number of manufacturers in low cost manufacturing regions provided potential for switching and this coupled with the economic advantage held by western retailers and wholesalers, the power of suppliers is weakened. Due to this it is difficult for manufacturers to establish themselves in retail so there is hardly any forward integration except for the popular brand names. The rising price of raw materials also causes trouble in the footwear market which in turn affects footwear sales and product mix. (Market Line 2018)

4.3 New Entrants

As per Market Line (2018) the cost for retail operations are relatively low new entrants are fairly common. However, as this market has a large number of well-established retail groups that can leverage significant economies of scale through bulk purchasing and pooling of back office operations it is often difficult for new entrants to substantially expand their operations. (Market Line 2018)

4.4 Threats of Substitutes

According to Market Line (2018) footwear is a necessity the threat of substitutes in the footwear market is very limited. In less developed economies it is common for consumers to wear second-hand shoes only used for specific activities they don’t pose a real threat. Online footwear sales channel is a fast-growing threat, but majority of traditional footwear retailers are recognising this and are moving into multi-channel sales to stay competitive. Another potential threat for domestic suppliers is the value and volume of directly purchased footwear from overseas. (Market Line 2018)

4.5 Degree of Rivalry

According to Market Line (2018) even though footwear retailing is highly fragmented the market is dominated by large retail groups between whom there is a high degree of rivalry. Competition is also increasing as foreign retailers and footwear specialists are entering the domestic market introducing more styles and brands. Traditional footwear delivery which is based on two seasons is changing towards the fast fashion environment. Due to this more and more consumers are buying shoes on impulse. Hence the market expects to see a more rapid change of assortment with diversity. As this generates more sales, manufacturers are responding to this trend further intensifying the competition. (Market Line 2018)

Review of ‘New Evidence on the Tool-Assisted Hunting Exhibited by Chimpanzees’: college essay help

“New Evidence on the Tool-Assisted Hunting Exhibited by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in a Savannah Habitat at Fongoli, Sénégal”: Critical Review


The chimpanzee population of Fongoli, Sénégal are the only known non-human primate population to systematically (rather than opportunistically) use tool-assisted hunting techniques to capture vertebrate prey. This study examines the tool-assisted hunting patterns of these chimpanzees by both age and sex classes to test the hypothesis that the hunting patterns of Fongoli chimpanzees differ from other chimpanzee populations. Tool-assisted hunting allows for chimpanzees to obtain prey, who would otherwise be unlikely to do so. This study suggests that the frequency of females engaging in tool-assisted hunting at Fongoli can be explained by the social tolerance among the Fongoli chimpanzees, with prey theft being far less frequent than it is in other chimpanzee populations. The tool-assisted hunting patterns of the Fongoli chimpanzees give insight into the importance of the tool-assisted hunting of early hominins, suggesting that they would have had to enhance the tools that they used to hunt in order to overcome environmental pressures. This study is especially relevant to gaining insight into the hunting patterns of early hominins, as the savannah environment of Fongoli is ecologically similar to the environment they would have lived in.


Methodology, Research, and Discussion

The number of Chimpanzees in the Fongoli population ranged from 29-36 over the course of the study, averaging at about 31.7 chimpanzees annually. Some females were only semi-habituated when systematic behavioural observation commenced. Adult males were the focal subjects of the study and adult female hunting behaviour was only analysed in mixed-sex hunting groups. The age-classes studied were defined as: infants (less than 4 years), juveniles (4-7 years), adolescents (7-15 years males or females before giving birth) and adults (males 15+ years or females after giving birth). Hunting was classified as: capture (when a hunt was observed), capture out of sight (when a hunt was not observed but possession occurred after an observed chase or when tool-assisted hunting was heard), and possession (when no hunt was observed, but chimpanzee had a prey’s carcass in its possession). The tool-assisted hunting methods that chimpanzees use in order to capture vertebrate prey, such as Galago prey, is considered hunting, as the prey is mobile, hostile, and chimpanzees show an aversion to being attacked by them. In most analyses, infant and juvenile data was combined, as no successful hunt was ever recorded for this age group, and their skill level was deemed insufficient for hunting.

Over the course of the study, a total of 99 hunting cases were observed, including both tool-assisted and non-tool assisted hunting. There were 41 hunts classified as capture, 50 as possession, and 8 as captured immediately out of sight. Female chimpanzees accounted for 30% of the hunts and made up 40% of all successful hunters. Galago prey accounted for over half of all vertebrate species the chimpanzees hunted, and tool-assisted Galago capture made up 21% of all hunts. Adult males captured 52% of all Galago prey obtained, however Galago made up a larger proportion of the prey profile of female chimpanzees than males (75% compared to 47%). 308 tool-assisted captures were recorded, making an annual average of 30.8 hunts per year over the course of 10 years. About 95% of tool-assisted hunts occurred during the wet or transitional season. Although males accounted for 61% of the group composition on days when tool-assisted hunting was observed, only 39% of tool-assisted hunts were executed by males. Out of the 44 potential chimpanzee hunters, 35 were observed to hunt with tools over the course of the study. The median number of tool-assisted hunts per individual was 11, with females averaging at 10.6 hunts each, and males at 6.8. The overall tool-assisted hunting success rate at Fongoli was 7.5%, with the overall probability of successful tool-assisted hunting increasing with age. Adult male chimpanzees were the second least-likely of the age-sex class groups to partake in tool-assisted hunting, yet had higher rates of success in this area. This pattern is surprising, as males tend to be the primary hunters among other chimpanzee populations. Galago prey make up most of the prey caught by females, but less than half of the prey caught by males. The low tool-assisted hunting rates of Galago prey in male chimpanzees can be explained by the low effort return it yields, as Galago are relatively small in comparison to the other prey that can be caught by Fongoli chimpanzees. Male hunting of Galago prey can be seen as opportunistic rather than targeted, as they tend to prey on Galago that have already been drawn out of sleeping cavities through the use of tools by other chimpanzees. Fongoli chimpanzees exploit prey typically ignored by chimpanzees at other sites, as the preferred prey of chimpanzees, the red colobus monkey, is not found in the savannah environment. The social tolerance among the Fongoli chimpanzees is surprising, with prey theft occurring less than 5% of the time, compared to 25% of the time at other sites. Therefore, it is more advantageous for females at Fongoli to hunt than at other sites, as the probability of their prey being stolen by a more dominant individual is relatively low. Tool-assisted hunting at Fongoli enables chimpanzees who would otherwise be far less likely to obtain prey to hunt. The information obtained through this study supports the hypothesis that early hominins enhanced the tools they used to hunt in an effort to overcome environmental pressures. It is likely that early hominins engaged in tool-assisted hunting behaviour, as shown through the data obtained at Fongoli.

Discussion of Positive Aspects

I found this article to be extremely interesting. The research they presented was unique, and they showed this by stating that the chimpanzees at Fongoli are the only known non-human primate population to systematically engage in tool-assisted hunting to capture vertebrate prey. I thought that the specification of systematic tool use was especially important, as there are other chimpanzee populations that have been observed to hunt using tools, such as at the Mahale site, where two instances of tool-assisted hunting occurred (Nakamura and Itoh 2008, 3). The authors went beyond simply making this specification, and actually acknowledged the study at Mahale, where tool-assisted hunting was observed. They explained that the rarity of tool-assisted hunting at this site makes this behaviour opportunistic rather than systematic. I thought that the specification of vertebrate prey was also important, given that chimpanzees have been observed to deliberately fashion sophisticated brush-tipped termite fishing probes using herb stems in the Goualougo Triangle, in Congo (Sanz, Call, and Morgan 2009, 294-295). Termite fishing is incredibly similar to the tool-assisted hunting of Galago prey, as both require drawing out prey from cavities, using tools (Hunt 2015). However, the authors prove that the tool-assisted hunting of Galago prey is indeed hunting, by stating that the prey is mobile, can be aggressive, and chimpanzees express aversion to being bitten. Although a lot of the methodology was beyond my level of understanding, aside from the highly complex statistical methods used, I found it relatively easy to understand. I found it extremely helpful that they defined terms such as what is a “successful hunt”. This made it much easier to understand how they obtained their data. They clearly defined the age-sex classes they used to categorize chimpanzees, and the categories of observed hunting. In general, I found this article relatively easy to understand.

Discussion of Negative Aspects

The authors of this paper stated that the environment that the earliest hominins would have lived in is ecologically similar to that of the Fongoli chimpanzees. I thought this was incredibly interesting, however, they did not elaborate on this point whatsoever, making it a rather vague statement. The source they provided does not mention any similarities between the two environments at all, making it confusing where they drew these similarities from (White et al. 2009, 75-86). They provided no comparison of the two environments and did not list the ways that the environments are similar, making these ecological similarities they spoke of very difficult for the reader to see if they are not familiar with both the environments of early hominins, and the Fongoli chimpanzees. The authors described Fongoli as a savannah environment with a “mosaic of woodland, grassland, bamboo and gallery forest habitats” (pg 2). I found this description rather vague, and had a hard time comparing it with the environment described in the source they provided. The authors of this study noted that when systematic behaviour observation began, many female chimpanzees were not fully habituated, expressing distress and agitation around observers when male chimpanzees were not present. The hunting behaviour of adult female chimpanzees was only analyzed when they were in mixed-sex hunting groups, in an effort to prevent the poaching for their infants in the pet trade. Habituation is essential for accurate observations to be made. The behaviour of unhabituated primates differs greatly from habituated primates, as shown in a seven-month study from 2014-2015 of the behavioural changes in moor macaques (Macaca maura) during the habituation process. The macaques in this study went from ignoring the observers less than 20% of the time at the beginning of the habituation process, to ignoring the observers more than 80% of the time towards the end (Hanson and Riley 2017, 10). Given this drastic change in behaviour exhibited by the macaques, I find it highly unlikely that the female chimpanzees would not show any signs of nervousness around the observers when in mixed-sex groups. This would evidently influence their hunting data. Furthermore, it is possible that the hunting behaviour of female chimpanzees would differ in all-female hunting groups. The concerns of habituating the female chimpanzees are valid, however the researchers could have explored other alternatives to physically observing them, such as camera traps, which have been used for behavioural observation in other studies (Pebsworth and LaFleur 2014, 828-829). I felt that some of the conclusions drawn about early hominin behaviour were very unclear and did not have enough information to support them. The authors mentioned that their data supports the hypothesis that environmental pressures caused early hominins to enhance their tool-assisted hunting technology. Although they cited sources they used, I would have liked them to have been more direct, describing which environmental pressures early hominins would have experienced, and how that related to the tool-assisted hunting patterns at Fongoli. Overall, the lack of elaboration of vague points and the failure to completely habituate female chimpanzees makes it rather difficult for me to completely trust the results of this study. The authors must include more evidence on the environment of early hominins and the environmental pressures that they would have experienced and specifically state it in their article, making direct comparisons to the data that they collected in their research, rather than tacking a citation onto the end of a vague statement. In addition, further research on female hunting patterns in all-female groups at Fongoli is required, using either fully habituated chimpanzees, or alternative observation methods.


The purpose of the research presented in this article is to examine the systematic tool-assisted hunting patterns of the Fongoli chimpanzees that are used to catch vertebrate prey. It seeks to highlight environmental and social factors unique to the Fongoli population of chimpanzees that help to explain their systematic tool-assisted hunting patterns and the frequency at which females engage in tool-assisted hunting behaviours. This article links the data obtained at Fongoli with the importance of tools in early hominin hunting behaviour, suggesting that hominins enhanced the development of their hunting tools in response to environmental pressures.

Females accounted for approximately 30% of all hunts observed and made up 40% of all successful hunters. There was an average of 30.8 tool-assisted hunts annually, with 95% of them occurring in either the wet or transitional season. Males were responsible for only 39% of tool-assisted hunts, despite making up 61% of the group composition on days when tool-assisted hunting was observed. The median number of tool-assisted hunts was higher in females than males, with females averaging at 10.6 hunts and males at 6.8 hunts. The overall tool-assisted hunting success rate at Fongoli was 7.5%, and the probability of a successful tool-assisted hunt tended to increase with age. Adult male chimpanzees were less likely compared to other age-sex classes to engage in tool-assisted hunting, however had higher rates of success. Galago prey are hunted far more frequently by females than males, likely due to the low energy return that they yield compared to other prey. Males often capture Galago prey after they have already been drawn out of their sleeping cavities by others, making their hunting of this particular type of prey opportunistic rather than targeted. The hunting patterns unique to Fongoli can be explained by the absence of their preferred vertebrate prey, the red colobus monkey, leading them to take advantage of prey that other chimpanzee populations ignore. Prey theft at Fongoli occurs less than 5% of the time, compared to 25% of the time at other sites, making it more advantageous for less dominant chimpanzees (such as females) to hunt, as there is a low probability that their prey would be stolen by a more dominant chimpanzee. This data shows that early hominins likely enhanced the tools they used to hunt in an effort to overcome environmental pressures, and that tool-assisted hunting was very important to them.

The data obtained through this study shows that chimpanzee hunting is less male-biased than previously thought, and that females play a significant role in hunting, accounting for the majority of the tool-assisted hunting exhibited by the Fongoli chimpanzees. The research here supports the hypothesis that hominins may have used tool-assisted hunting to overcome environmental pressures, such as did the Fongoli chimpanzees, with the red colobus monkey being absent in their environment. It also suggests that females may have had a greater role in hunting than previously believed. The ability of the Fongoli chimpanzees to systematically use tools to hunt shows that even the earliest hominins were likely sophisticated enough to craft tools to aid their hunting. With further development of these ideas and more research, this article could give us a much deeper understanding of how our ancestors hunted.

Nigeria corruption and conflict

Nigeria is a democratic African country located on the Gulf of Guinea. Nigeria’s federal government is comprised of three distinct branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. The Nigerian President, Buhari, is currently the head of the Executive branch–he is up for reelection in February 2019. Nigerian citizens vote on their president every four years. In 2015 Nigeria had a rather peaceful election despite the uproar happening within the country, and the threat of attacks from Boko Haram. Political tensions will still be high for this upcoming election due to to the unrest coming from both the North and South ends of the country. Despite this the current president is urging all candidates “to go about their campaigns peacefully and decently”. The international community has chimed into this issue and have called for, “free, fair, transparent and peaceful elections” they further “ urge all involved – political and non-political actors – to refrain from using hate speech and take a firm stance against violence”. Nigeria currently has two major political parties; The All Progress Congress, this is the party of the current president; and the Peoples Democratic Party, this is the party Atiku Abubakar is a member of, Abubakar is running against Buhari in February 2019. The ideology behind the All Progress Congress is increase in security and a policies for anti corruption. The Peoples Democratic Party is currently focusing on transformation of Nigeria.

The president’s responsibilities include the duties of commander in chief, chief of state, and head of the government. The president holds the right to sign bills or veto them. The Legislative branch includes the house of representatives as well as the senate. The house of representatives is comprised of 360 members. These members are elected every four years based off simple majority. The senate has 109 members, for every 3 districts they have one senate member represent them. The Judiciary branch has 13 associate judges led by the Chief Justice. These judges are appointed by the president and approved by the senate.

The corruption in Nigeria is a threat to its democracy; some politicians are in office for the sole purpose of stealing from the government. The officials running Nigeria are selfish and care only about their personal agenda. In regards to the upcoming election the international community is particularly concerned with vote-buying and stress this is a huge threat to having a free and fair election. Due to the corruption within the country Nigerians fear being able to canvass for the candidate of their choice. Expressing this concern could cause them to be framed and jailed for a crime they didn’t commit. This could be viewed as a violation of freedom of speech as the intolerance increases for those that hold contradictory views. Nigerian citizens also are in fear of having peaceful protest, and often lack the right to publically dissent. The corruption within Nigeria is tearing its democracy apart and demolishing everything the country has worked hard to achieve.

Boko Haram, a terrorist group, is affecting the entire lake chad basin, Nigeria included. More than 2.3 million people within the Basin are displaced. Food insecurity and malnutrition have reached critical levels. Over 100 children have had explosives fastened to their bodies.This is in clear violation of the international war law and the international humanitarian law. The international community has stepped in. The United Nations Security Council resolution 2349 of 2017 states “the need for a holistic, comprehensive approach to degrade and defeat Boko Haram and ISIL that includes coordinated security operations, conducted in accordance with applicable international law” this resolution was unanimously passed. The international community recognizes the uproar Boko Haram is causing and agrees that this must be dealt with immediately. Boko Haram is an incredibly dangerous terrorist group with a record of attacking and kidnapping foreign victims including United Nation staff, French citizens, Britain’s, Germans, Lebanese, Italians, Chinese, Greeks, and Koreans. This is a regional issue that requires and international solution. The United Nations also recognizes that it can not infringe on the national sovereignty of this country, in resolution 2349 they write: “Affirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria”. Nigeria has been in communication with Boko Haram for quite some time. They have had many discussion regarding a ceasefire; however, critics of the government say this a sham and the government can not adequately handle the terrorists groups.

The Nigerian government also has to deal with the guerilla movement coming from the southern end of Nigeria. This movement is in regards to the conflict between Nigerians and the multinational oil industries. The Nigerians claim that the oil companies have neglected the Nigerian populations and caused irreversible environmental damage over the past decade. The Nigerians are maddened by this and have formed many gangs to get revenge on the oil companies. Non governmental organizations such as Amnesty International have chimed in on this issue and have stated that the Nigerian government says they have a handle on the situation; however, Amnesty International noticed no government intervention and does not think the “government has a grip on the situation”.

Nigeria has a very evenly split Muslim and Christian community. The Muslims are comprised of groups including the women’s organization, student organizations, emirate traditions, Boko Haram extremist,  as well as just ordinary Nigerians. The Christian population includes: Catholics, Protestants, Evangelicals, and Pentecostals. There is conflict between these two religious communities.