Let’s take a quick look at Organizational Memory. Organizational Memory refers to the process of utilization of structured and unstructured data, which can be utilized in the future for making decisions. Organizational Memory capabilities include two relevant technologies Enterprise resource planning (ERP) and Data Warehousing. As described in the case study, IBM was having troubles with respect to five common business processes such as integrated product development, integrated supply chain, customer relationship management, human resources, and finance. Hence IBM decided to integrate all the business activities into SAP, which provides solutions to all these problems using Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP).
The use of SAP brought many benefits to IBM, such as including integrated business processes across the enterprise, a single database, access to real-time transactional data, and the elimination of costly legacy stand-alone systems. The main problem at IBM was at the personal systems group (PSG), where they produced all the personal computers. They were receiving complaints from the dealers about being out of stock of the most popular product, and hence the ERP systems will help to improve the way an organization manages the order fulfillment process. Thus, the use of ERP will help to improve the activities of the order fulfillment process as it effectively integrates different departments such as sales, finance, manufacturing, and logistics department. But ERP systems are time bounded. They record transactions with respect to accounting periods of the company, such as three months, six months, or max a year. Thus, this restriction of the ERP system will be removed by Data warehousing, which is the second aspect of organizational Memory. Data warehousing will allow IBM to store data for a long period, such as five years or ten years, depending upon the storage capacity. Thus, this technology will provide solutions to IBM by identifying similar trends in the past and giving solutions to the company.
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The operational model for IBM before and after adopting SAP
IBM adopted SAP in the year 1995, and things became more under the control of IBM. Before the adoption of SAP, the company was a big mess. All the departments were having lack of coordination. IBM was having trouble with high expenses, redundancies in manufacturing and research and development, and excessive employees. The success of IBM was a big doubt for most of its investors. The main profitable business of IBM was by selling personal computers, but that department was facing the problem of being out of stock. The dealers of the products were getting frustrated because of a shortage of supplies as each of the manufacturing plants across the world had different application systems and technologies.
Thus, the supply chain management was very poor. Also, the company was not able to become more competitive. The pricing strategy was poor, and the innovations from its competitors led to a loss in the loyalty of its customers. And so, the company decided to investigate and tried to find different solutions. After investigations, the corporate staff decided to use SAP which uses ERP systems, so that each department is coordinated. After the implementation of SAP, different manufacturing plants became one unit, and a group model was implemented based on common processes, common development and support, common architectures, common education, and real-time access to information. The process was distributed into six different teams Manufacturing, Sales and distribution, Production Planning, Finance and costing, Procurement, and Engineering change. Hence, all the teams had only one goal, and each of the teams knew what the company expected from them, and a more coordinated effort came into existence after the implementation of SAP.
The main focus of BI is to create value for an organization by discovering knowledge from explicit organizational Memory, such as ERP systems or data warehousing. This case study reflects the need to utilize organizational Memory to transform a business to become one single unit where all the departments get the same amount of input but different goals with respect to their specific departments. The main problem of IBM regarded the lack of real-time information for each manufacturing unit which was solved by implementing business intelligence software. Nowadays, BI has become an important aspect of a business in providing solutions as companies are expanding globally, and there is always a communication problem between each unit due to different time zones, so it becomes very important to connect each unit with ERP systems so that goals are clearly specified.
Oxford City A Prime Example Of Suburbanization
At 22 S Campus Avenue lies the home of Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity. Based on my research, most of the buildings surrounding the High Street were constructed in the 1800s when the city was being developed. This current building isn’t too far from the High Street itself. It’s located about a block from High Street. From this, I can tell that the building was constructed a little after the buildings on Central Street. When many towns like Oxford were being developed, they were developed around main streets, and as the city grew, the development grew outward. On my walk looking for the perfect building before finding this one, I realized the further out from the Mile Square, the newer the buildings were. This building would be considered relatively close to campus and a great place for students to live. From some of the design details, I would say that this building has a Queen Anne style. “The style displayed a combination of various forms and stylistic features borrowed from the earlier parts of the Victorian and Romantic eras. The name of the style suggested eclecticism to its proponents in England, from where the style originated, and coins the name “Queen Anne” from the period 1880-1910″ (Queen Anne).”
On the corner of Campus Avenue and Walnut street is where the building stands. The building is a residential single-family home. “The last two decades of the nineteenth century saw Queen Anne become the most dominant residential style in the U.S., heavily favored by the Victorian elite who had become wealthy from industrial growth(Queen Anne).” From 1860-1920, suburbanization became popular. Due to the bad conditions of the cities, people started to move further out from cities to the suburbs, where most of the buildings were single-family homes. In Oxford at this time, a lot of the homes were also residential(Historic Buildings Map). This house is very decorative and unique. The house has decorative creating along the roofline, a 2.5-story bay topped with a small, gabled porch, and multiple gables with decorative half-timbering.
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The wooden porch wraps around the east and the south sides of the house. The overhang is supported by decorative spindle posts with very unusual decorative brackets and cornices (McAlester). The railing is very detailed, with a square motif. The windows are double-hung 1x1s. The window has stone lug sills, and stone lingers with a decorative circle motif engraved in them. When I was looking at the details of the building, I realized that the back of the building looked different from the front. The windows, roof, and materials were different. From this, I was able to tell that, at some point, the back part of the building was an addition added to the original structure. The addition might have been added on for additional tenant space or for a business since people started to own businesses from their homes during the period of industrialization, but the building is a residential single-family home.
In 1880 the building was built for the George Adam family. George adam was an owner of a dry food store in the city of Oxford, and he and his family remained residents there until 1954(Walking Tour of Oxford. It was sold and became the property of Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity, and they still remain residents at the property. The additional part that was added onto the back of the building was down by the fraternity to add more space for members. The fraternity made some renovations to the original building(Walking Tour of Oxford.
In the 1860s, Oxford changed a lot when male students went to fight in the Civil War. In 1853 this affected the construction of the Western Female Seminary, an all-girls school that burned down in 1860 and was rebuilt and joined with the Oxford College for Women in 1879 ( (Exploring Oxford’s History)). There was also a high school built in Oxford in the 1850s to 1870s(Highlights of Oxford History). As we can see, Oxford’s academia contributed tremendously to its development and the way it is today. In 1880 the Industrial Revolution was at its peak. As a result, our transportation systems improved tremendously. Industrialization and suburbanization didn’t just affect Oxford but were something the whole U.S. experienced collectively.
As people got wealthier through industrialization, they wanted to move to the suburbs into single-family homes, commuting further to and from work. Romantic movement was also at an upbringing, and this also affected suburbanization. Oxford is very green with a lot of trees and green spaces like an uptown park. Even though it has been called a city, it is a prime example of suburbanization. In the 1880s, when the safety bicycle was created, it allowed students to be able to commute further to classes and work in an efficient amount of time. This also had an effect on the outward expansion of Oxford. Oxford was once a square mile but has extended more outward into the town due to the development and events of the time.