The Partition Of India – Indian History

The diversity of India’s unique languages, religions, and culture makes it a unique and unparalleled country, but, there have been times in Indian history that has left the sub continent scarred with wounds that have sparked disillusionment, hope, and false truth. The 1947 Partition of India left millions dead and many uprooted by cause of ethnic violence. Ethnic groups who coexisted for almost 1,000 years besieged each other in a sudden outburst of dissident violence, with Hindus and Sikhs on one side and Muslims on the other. The callousness to which the India-Pakistan border was drawn disturbed this coexistence of ethnic communities and as a result caused one of the largest human mass migrations in history.

The Partition of India is known as one of the most devastating events in Indian history. Religious violence increased throughout the subcontinent as Muslims were made to feel that only Hindus were welcome in India. Jinnah was known as the Creator of Pakistan, educated in Cambridge and someone who relied on the British to make his dream of a Muslim state (Pakistan) a reality. The country was divided to supply the power hungry leaders, Jinnah and Nehru. Thousands were left homeless and few had food to eat. Hindus blamed Muslims and the Muslims blamed the Hindus.

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In quenching the thirst for power of Jinnah and Nehru, religious violence increased throughout the subcontinent. As both religious groups killed each other in civil uprising out of rage and hunger, leaders like Gandhi tried to prevent the separation of the states and calm tensions. The Partition of India cannot be blamed on a single individual. Almost everyone in this story made a decision that had a greater effect on the ultimate catastrophe. Jinnah was not solely to blame for the repercussions of the Indian Partition, the British Empire and Nehru — were equally, if not more, complicit.

At the heart of most controversies surrounding the Indian Partition lies the identity of Jinnah, the man considered most responsible for the country that is now known as Pakistan. Jinnah’s main role in the Indian Partition was to be a political figure that could serve as a distraction for the British Empire and Nehru to follow through on plans for the Partition. The principal players for the creation of the Partition in the British Empire were Winston Churchill, The Last Viceroy of England: Lord Mountbatten, and Mr. Attlee. Working with them was Nehru and the Indian National Congress (INC). Lord Mountbatten acted as the main figure in separating India, but Churchill provided the brains. Winston Churchill always had a deep-seated hatred for Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims. In fact, Churchill caused the 1943 famine in India in which three million Indians died just because he thought Indians were, “rats and didn’t deserve to eat”. In short, due to Churchill’s prejudice, he didn’t actually care about India’s well-being or Pakistan’s well-being. Winston Churchill was in favor of India’s separation because he believed that Pakistan would prove a faithful friend to the West and serve as a parting between the Soviet Union and a socialist India.

Churchill never warmed to Russia, he hated the idea of a communist society. As long as Churchill remained leader of the British Empire, it posed a threat to India as Russia and India had very close relations. Both Nehru the incoming prime minister of India and Lord Mountbatten: the last Viceroy of England were oblivious to the exact scale of the coming starvation, economic crisis and violence. Mr. Nehru had told a journalist in 1946 that said, “when the British go, there will be no more communal trouble in India. ” This of course was not the case, when the British left, problems only became worse. Mr. Jinnah had only pushed for the Partition to create Pakistan, a homeland for Muslims, who would otherwise be a minority in a Hindu-dominated country. He was backed by British imperialist, Churchill for reasons that would benefit Britain only.

Jinnah and Nehru’s role in the Partition was to help solidify to the British why their plan was right, and why, “it would be the only solution to India’s constitutional problems”. It was not completely necessary for the indian congress to vote in agreement to the Partition but they did because of their greed for power. Jinnah was not very religious, he defied most Muslim norms, and Nehru only wanted more power. The only way he could get power was to get the British out of India and to do this, the Partition had to happen first. In an attempt to prevent the British Empire from separating India, Gandhi went on a fast having several positive impacts on the outbreak of religious violence. Riots had been erupting throughout the subcontinent, many in Calcutta and many in Kashmir.

By late in the afternoon the situation changed and the persons involved on both sides were wallahs, rickshaw pullers, teashop wallahs, pan Berri wallahs, cart pullers, cartman, and goondas of the worst type.At midnight on the 16/17th, gangs fought out the most desperate battles, murder and butchery of the worst type were carried on in the side lanes and byways of North Calcutta. Gangs like those who fought in the North of Calcutta during the Indian Partition posed threats to several innocent citizens. Thousands were killed ruthlessly in fights like these. Although the British army tried to calm tensions, their presence only worsened conflicts. The only figure who had the power to calm religious tensions was Mahatma Gandhi.

When Gandhi went anywhere he had a magical presence and effect on everyone in India no matter if they were Hindu or Muslim. Gandhi, unlike Nehru, Jinnah, or any members of the Indian Congress understood the drastic effects that splitting the country would have. By June 3, the plan to separate India into two different states had been set but before anything was to actually happen, Jinnah, Nehru and the members of the Indian Congress had to say yes to the plan of the Partition. Religious violence got to a point, however, in which military presence was required to just barely calm tensions throughout several union territories. Gandhi would never be content with a peace upheld by the police and the military; he wanted all kind of violence to be purged from the hearts of both Hindus and Muslims. It was an uphill task.

So, in order to achieve what Gandhi wanted, he fasted. After almost a month of fasting, all fighting throughout the subcontinent stopped so that Gandhi could eat. Overall, Gandhi’s power during the Partition was untouchable as both sides of religious groups listened to him. If he didn’t agree with the Partition the British knew nothing was going to happen which is why the British took initiative to make a political friendly relationship with Gandhi. No matter how hard Gandhi pushed for no separation of the states his efforts failed, and the British prevailed. So, the official separation of India was put into place on August 15th, 1947 creating two independent nations: Pakistan and India. In an instance, Gandhi’s predictions and nightmares came true. The date of Indian independence was brought forward by widespread rioting through India and the threat of the first civil wars as soon as the decision to create two countries was announced.

The Indian Partition caused one of the largest mass migrations in human history; by 1948, as the great migration drew to a close, more than fifteen million people had been uprooted, and between one and two million were dead. After the borders had been announced millions attempted to rejoin their country, convinced that different ethnic groups could no longer live together. Nine million Hindus left Pakistan and six million Muslims left India. A million refugees crossed on foot creating columns of human bodies trailing for miles. Children, parents, and grandparents trekked on foot in rags, exhausted, starved, and crushed with sorrows. Along with millions of saddened civilians that lost their homes, families, and livelihoods, the economic situation in India continued to deteriorate. This was because the two major political factions, Indian National Congress (INC) and the Muslim League, were fighting with Mountbatten for what had happened to India. Millions of civilians around the sub-continent were starving and this fueled even more civil disobedience. This is the moment during the partition that thousands of individuals lost their lives. “Death trains” were used to carry thousands of dead bodies to be dealt with as the British couldn’t keep up with the number of people that died. It was unfortunate that Indian and British leaders’ greed for power was the cause of death for over two million people.

Tensions created during the Indian Partition are still felt today. The Indian-Pakistan border is one of the most fortified borders in the world and India and Pakistan have fought over five wars since the Partition was put into place. Pakistan suffers from the economic consequences of separating from an economic superpower like India to this day, and India struggles with the need for more land. Kashmir, a northern region, continues to be a sensitive subject between India and Pakistan. The tense border, the wars fought, and never-ending debates over land between Pakistan and India are all examples of why Gandhi was trying to prevent the Partition. Unfortunately, not a single political leader at this time listened to him. Leaders like Jinnah, Lord Mountbatten, and Nehru were too busy looking for power instead of what would benefit the people most. Yet, like most genocides, wars, or economic crises, power ruined it all.

New World By Christopher Columbus

The island of Hispaniola was New World state settled by Spain. Christopher Columbus first “discovered” the island in 1492 near the completion of his first voyage to “the Indies.” He had no idea where he landed and did not know what to expect. Columbus and the ones who followed him found the island controlled by a tremendous masses of welcoming Taino Indians also known as “Arawaks”, who graciously took in the pioneers. The Taíno were the first Native Americans to encounter the Spanish.

Columbus recorded in his diary that the natives “would easily be made Christians because it seemed to me that they had no religion.” Religion was an important practice in the Spanish colonies. When Columbus returned in 1493 he was shocked when he found out that the settlement he had left behind was no longer there. Some of the men who stayed behind had fought with the Taino Indians and were killed. Other crewmembers had become sick from diseases they had not been previously exposed to, and some were unable to cope with the harsh environment of the Caribbean.

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Europeans were not known for their religious resilience. The day preceding Columbus left Spain, the majority of the Jews in Spain were required to leave. Amid the time that Columbus was planning for his voyage, an expected 30,000 Spanish Jews were scorched at the stake for their inability to change over to Catholicism. The Taíno had complex various leveled religious, political, and social frameworks. Talented ranchers and guides, they composed music and made capably expressive items. During Columbus’ investigation, the Taíno were the vastest amount of indigenous individuals of the Caribbean and possessed what are presently Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. By 1550, the Taíno were near eradication, many having capitulated to illnesses brought by the Spaniards.

Taíno impacts endure, notwithstanding, and today show up in the convictions, religions, language, and music of Caribbean societies. The Taíno lived in settlements called “yucayeques”, which changed in size contingent upon the area. Those in Puerto Rico and Hispaniola were the biggest, and those in the Bahamas were the littlest. In the focal point of a normal town was a focal square, utilized for different social exercises, for example, recreations, celebrations, religious customs, and open services. These courts had numerous shapes, including oval, rectangular, slender, and stretched. Services where the deeds of the precursors were praised, called “areitos”, were performed here. The Taíno made an entangled religious framework that incorporated a progressive system of gods, which included Yucahu, the preeminent Creator and the ruler of cassava and the ocean and Atabey, the goddess of new water and human fruitfulness, just as Yucahu’s mom. The Taíno trusted that zemis, divine forces of both genders, spoken to by both human and creature shapes, gave assurance. Their religion allowed them to be strong and believe that they would win over their colonizers. Their beleif in being protected and sharing their culture throughout their young allowed them to hold hope during the oppression the Spaniards brought. After Columbus had returned to Europe and people learned about his accomplishments, the great courts of Portugal and Spain, fought about who owned what from the new territories. Pope Alexander VI wandered in to understand the problem. Clerical bulls by Pope Alexander VI surrendered Spain and Portugal, most of the landscapes in the Americas which were not under Christian rule.

Thusly began the European assumption that the neighborhood people of the locale did not in any way shape or form have the land since they were not Christian.“barbarous nations be overthrown and brought to the faith itself.” While Pope Alexander VI believed “We trust in Him from whom empires, and governments, and all good things proceed.” This belief allowed that government only came from the Christian God and thus nations that are not under Christian rule have a legal right to be ruled over by a Christian nation. Under Spanish impact, the whole island bore the name Santo Domingo. The want for gold was so high that the spanish relaized they could use the indigneous people of the island and utilized them. Pilgrims came to the island in search for treasures but while doing so their relations with the Taino Indians, whom they brutally mistreated, began to turn sideways.

Horrified by what they were witnessing the Taino indians revolted – just to be beat unequivocally in 1495. Columbus then implemented The repartimiento framework and this did nothing to improve the bundle of the Indians, and the Spanish crown switched it by setting up the game-plan of encomienda in 1503. Under the encomienda structure, all land progressed toward getting the chance to be on a key dimension the property of the crown, and the Indians in that capacity were viewed as occupants on imperial land. The crown’s capability to assistance from the tenants could be moved in trust to singular Spanish pioneers by formal grant and the standard segment of tribute. The “encomenderos” have possessed all the necessary qualities for certain all-encompassing lengths of work from the Indians, who changed into their charges. Encomenderos in this way recognized the duty of obliging the physical accomplishment of the Indians and for their bearing in Christianity.

In Hispaniola, a Taíno chieftain named Enriquillo assembled and army of a couple thousand Taino in defiance during the 1520s. These Taíno were granted land and a sanction from the regal organization. Regardless of the little Spanish military nearness in the district, they frequently utilized strategic divisions and, with assistance from ground-breaking local partners, controlled the vast majority of the area In return for regular pay, religious and language instruction, the Taíno were required to work for Spanish and Indian land proprietors. This arrangement of work was a piece of the encomienda. Later during the 1540s, the Taino people began to lose their population and became nearly extinct, this was all due to the conflicts and colonization of the Spaniards. Religion kept this population alive and the connections of their religious ceremonies allowed them to be even closer. Religion allows for people to believe in something and to be closer with one’s culture but it can also destroy civilizations such as how the Spaniards used their religion and power to do so in colonizing the Caribbean islands.

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