The Bernie Madoff Fraud Scandal Argumentative Essay Help Online

Table of Contents
Madoff's ascent to fame and wealth The Madoff Ponzi scheme has been uncovered. The SEC's complicity in the Madoff Scandal Accountants' responsibility in the Madoff Scandal Losses incurred as a result of the Madoff Scandal Madoff is incarcerated and condemned. Conclusion Bibliography

During the 21st century, the corporate world has experienced some huge frauds. The Enron affair of 2001, which resulted in one of the Big Five international auditors, Arthur Andersen LLP, being destroyed from the global landscape, the WorldCom scandal of 2005, and the recent stunning collapse of Lehman Brothers last year, are among the most prominent. The most recent addition to the list is Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities LLC, whose creator Bernard Madoff is infamous for perpetrating one of the greatest financial frauds in history.

Madoff's ascent to fame and wealth

Bernie Lawrence Madoff was born in New York on April 29, 1938, to East European immigrants Ralph and Sylvia Madoff (Biography.com, 2009, page 1, para.1). Bernie's first foray into the business world began in 1960, when he dropped out of law school and partnered with his wife Ruth to form Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities LLC. Ruth's father, a retired Certified Public Accountant (C.P.A. ), was instrumental in the successful launch of the business. The approach of word-of-mouth persuaded individuals to invest in the firm. The Madoffs used an innovative strategy to entice investors: they guaranteed at least 10% annual returns on money deposited with them. This strategy was so effective that by the end of the next two decades, Madoff Investment Securities had appropriated nearly 5 percent of all trading transactions conducted on the New York Stock Exchange, in addition to attracting a large clientele that included several well-known Hollywood actors such as Kevin Bacon, Kyra Sedgwick, and Steven Spielberg (Biography.com, 2009, page 1, para.5&6).

As the burgeoning business demanded the presence of dependable individuals to supervise and manage lower-level employees, Bernie employed many members of his family in such capacities. His children comprised Andrew and Mark, as well as his brother Peter and niece Shana. Madoff Investment Securities profited on the flood of electronic trade by incorporating computerization into their operations, so accelerating the universal admiration of Bernie's accomplishment as an investor with a golden touch. The fact that the computer program that was tested and used by them went on to become the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations NASDAQ, as well as the additional accolade that followed when Bernie became president of the NASDAQ stock exchange board of directors (Biography.com, 2009, page 1, para.7&8), as well as its first Chairman and member of the National Association of Securities Dealers board of governors (Damon, para.4), served to bolster the reputation of the founders On Wall Street, Bernie's status as a notable individual grew rapidly. At the height of his fame, Bernie's investment firm maintained an amazing track record of consistently providing clients with a minimum rate of return of 12 percent (Damon, 2009, para.2).

The Madoff Ponzi scheme has been uncovered.

The famed Ponzi scheme of Bernie Madoff was uncovered on December 10, 2008, when he informed his sons of his intention to deliver millions in bonuses 60 days early. The peculiar nature of this knowledge caused his sons to inquire about its source. They were astounded when their father admitted that one of Madoff Investment Securities' divisions was a convoluted, lavishly embellished Ponzi scheme. The following day, their father was arrested on allegations of securities fraud as a result of Bernie's sons' prompt complaint to federal authorities (Biography.com, 2009, page 2, para.1).

The Ponzi Scheme is named after Carlos Ponzi, an Italian immigrant who ran a similar scheme in the United States for more than two decades in the 1920s. The four phases of Bernie's Ponzi scheme were as follows (Hinton, 2009, paragraphs 6 and 7):

The stockbroker entices the first client by guaranteeing a solid rate of return. The stockbroker invests relatively little or none of the client's funds, as opposed to using it for himself or for other purposes. When the time comes to repay the initial investor's funds, the stockbroker recruits new clients and pays out the initial investment with funds from the new clients. This process continues in a $50 billion pyramid scheme in which there is no real money in the business – the funds were simply transferred from one investor to another.

The SEC's complicity in the Madoff Scandal

On November 9, 2009, federal investigators revealed evidence demonstrating the Securities and Exchange Commission's (SEC) role in the Madoff Scandal. The documents demonstrate that SEC authorities conducted at least five examinations of Madoff Investment Securities, during which they failed to take fundamental actions that would have uncovered Bernie's deception. Instead, their terrible incompetence resulted in the SEC repeatedly giving Bernie's company a clean bill of health. To add insult to injury, the audacious Bernie displayed the SEC approval to existing and potential investors as evidence that his business was lawfully compliant (Damon, 2009, para.5). Bernie even bragged about his personal relationships with SEC leaders such as Mary Shapiro, the current head of the SEC, whom he referred to as his "dear friend," and Arthur Levitt, the previous chairman of the SEC, whom he claimed to know "very well" and had lunch with on multiple times (Damon, 2009, para.13). As a result of the rise in computerized trading, Levitt appointed Bernie to a panel of experts in 2000 to advise the SEC on the need for new stock market regulations (Damon, 2009, para.4).

The SEC authorities examining Madoff Investment Securities erred by relying solely on Bernie's records and failing to conduct a third-party check with the firm's equivalents or the Wall Street clearing house that kept records of the firm's operations, or the absence of such records (Damon, 2009, para.6&7). The incompetence of SEC regulators is inexplicable in light of three realities. First, it was well known that competent investors and dealers viewed Bernie's transactions with distrust. Second, since 1999, a securities industry leader called Harry Markopolos had issued official letters to the SEC encouraging it to conduct a thorough investigation of Bernie's company, which he described as "the world's largest Ponzi scheme." Thirdly, SEC regulators wilfully ignored evidence in the firm's records indicating that it regularly provided investing advice to investors, which is a criminal violation (Damon, 2009, para.10&11).

Due to the well-known fact that SEC investigators are typically rewarded for their "oversight" with high-paying Wall Street employment that can make them overnight multimillionaires, the incompetence demonstrated by SEC investigators takes on sinister overtones (Damon, 2009, para.20).

Accountants' responsibility in the Madoff Scandal

New York-based auditing company Friehling & Horowitz, along with 33,000 other auditing firms, joined in the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants' (AICPA) peer review program, which requires professional auditors to annually evaluate the quality or grade of each firm's audit. However, Friehling & Horowitz not only failed to submit any review since 1993, but also verified annually to the AICPA in writing that it does not perform auditing tasks (Abkowitz, 2008, para.5&6). In actuality, Friehling & Horowitz audits Madoff Investment Securities. The firm's name and signature appear on Madoff Investment Securities' Statement of Financial Condition from October 31, 2006. This indicates that Friehling & Horowitz was in collusion with Bernie, as the business not only suppressed the fact that it conducted audits for Bernie's company, but also failed to submit any audits for peer review as needed. Currently, the AICPA is undertaking a comprehensive "ethics investigation" into Friehling & Horowitz (Abkowitz, 2008, para.7).

Bernie's investors were unaware that Friehling & Horowitz was a small firm manned by a partner over 70 years old who resided in Florida, an accountant, and a secretary, with a strip mall office in New York. The investors invested in feeder funds established by third-party firms, which subsequently distributed the monies to Bernie's company. The Rye Select Broad Market fund is a prominent illustration of a Madoff feeder fund (Gandel, 2008, para.7&8).

While the Madoff feeder funds that invested with Bernie were audited by illustrious firms such as KPMG, Pricewaterhouse Coopers, and BDO Seidman, these auditors did little to protect their clients from Bernie's fraud, such as independently reviewing Bernie's firm statements thoroughly especially because the firm was using an unknown auditor to check its accounts, instead being content with accepting at face value the statements of Bernie's firm that Bernie himself issued. Investors who knew that the feeder fund's accounts were audited by reputable accountants for example, KPMG audited Rye Select Broad Market fund and were therefore happy and certain that their money was secure suffered the most (Gandel, 2008, para.7&8).

Following the 16 December 2008 announcement that auditor BDO Seidman and its Madoff feeder fund client Ascot Partners were sued by New York Law School, the legal community foresees ominously that litigation would soon be filed against other auditors of Madoff feeder funds. Scott Berman, a lawyer with Friedman Kaplan Seiler & Adelman who has dealt with auditors in several similar cases in the past, explains this argument well: "The fact that they [Madoff feeder firm auditors] didn't notice the fraud leads me to conclude that they blew it. I will carefully consider if there is a culpability here" (Gandel, 2008, para.4&5).

Losses incurred as a result of the Madoff Scandal

Bernie's fraudulent operations wiped out $ 61 billion in investments (Damon, 2009, paragraph 2), which included 11 counts of felony, the first offense being securities fraud (Biography.com, 2009, page 2, paragraph 2), which accounted for the majority – over $ 50 billion (Hinton, 2009, para.5). A variety of investors were negatively impacted. Millions of dollars were lost by affluent and renowned people. International banks and hedge firms faced losses in the billions of dollars. Organizations such as university endowments and charities suffered enormous losses, with many of the latter being forced to close. Numerous retirees who had placed their whole life savings in Bernie's company lost their entire investment (Damon, 2009, para.3).

Madoff is incarcerated and condemned.

In a significant development following Bernie's arrest on 11 December 2008, Federal investigators revealed on 12 March 2009 that Madoff admitted to 11 felonies, including 4 counts of fraud relating to securities, investment adviser, mail, and wire; 3 counts of legitimizing illegal money; 3 counts of falsification relating to statements, perjury, and filings with the SEC; and 1 count of theft from a worker benefit scheme. On June 29, 2009, the 71-year-old disgraced stockbroker was sentenced to 150 years in jail (Biography.com, 2009, page 2, para.2&3).

Conclusion

While Bernie and his puppet auditors are the primary perpetrators and a portion of the guilt for the Madoff Scandal must be placed on the well-known auditors of the Madoff feeder funds, the SEC should also be held accountable for the scandal. It is inexcusable that an independent agency of the United States government charged with enforcing federal securities laws is hindered by investigators who are blatantly abdicating their responsibilities for the sake of financial gain this practice is well exemplified by an SEC investigator's 2006 email: "I don't think we should be involved in this case." (Damon, 2009, para.11). The United States administration has a substantial portion of the guilt for the Madoff Scandal, however this is by no means the least important factor. It is widely believed that Wall Street remains well-protected because individuals like SEC chief Mary Shapiro and Lawrence Summers (Damon, 2009, para.25) the former Clinton administration official who was instrumental in the ousting of Brooksley Born, Chief of Commodities Future Trading Commission, when the woman urged reform of the derivatives market (Damon, 2009, para.21) continue to play prominent roles in United States President Barrack Obama's administration.

References

Abkowitz, A. (2008). Does Madoff's Auditor Not Audit? Web.

Life story of Bernard Madoff (2009). Web.

Documents Reveal SEC Complicity in the Madoff Ponzi Scheme, according to Damon (2009). Web.

Gandel, S. (2008). How Guilty Were the Auditors in the Madoff Fraud? Web.

Hinton, P. (2009). The Life and Fraud of Bernard L. Madoff. Web.

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Dignity In Low-Status Jobs: Discursive Constructions Of Dignity Argumentative Essay Help Online

Table of Contents
Dignity in the Workplace Dignity in Low-Paying Jobs: Essential Traits and Discussions Denies of Dignity Concluding Remarks

Self-esteem, as a characteristic that significantly impacts behavioral elements in many settings, can present itself in the workplace. Particularly, the dignity that employees feel is one of the instruments for communicating with supervisors, subordinates, and other coworkers, as well as the foundation for establishing an opinion about a person. In contrast, the concept of self-worth and its admissibility are frequently contested in regard to low-paying employment, which typically classify individuals as having a poor status. The category of "dirty" jobs, which is connected with noxious or unpleasant situations, is frequently stigmatized from the perspective of low self-esteem. The investigation of pertinent academic theories and data can assist assess if employees in low-status positions enjoy dignity. The evaluation demonstrates that the concept of self-dignity is more subjective than objective, and that it is feasible even under "dirty" working conditions if both the person and his or her environment are cognizant of the advantages to society.

Respect in the Workplace

The notion of dignity in the workplace is a state that depends on a variety of elements. According to Lucas (2011), this phenomena is a set of social markers that can either increase or decrease self-sufficiency. Hamilton et al. (2019) propose assessing human dignity in connection to "economic security, fair treatment, and intrinsically satisfying work" (p. 889). Simultaneously, the substance of the definitions is comparable, as both emphasize the acknowledgement of equality and the lack of stigmatization or prejudice. Doherty (2011) examines dignity at work from two vantage points: the fundamental right to freedom and autonomy and particular management methods designed to boost human self-esteem. However, both principles show that there are distinctions between employment with high and low status. Consequently, an examination of dignity in connection to "dirty" jobs is necessary in order to analyze its manifestations and potential constraints.

Dignity in Low-Paying Jobs: Fundamental Traits and Discourses

Low-paying employment are sometimes viewed as "dirty" for a variety of reasons. In particular, Lucas (2011) highlights "physical, moral, or social taint," such as employment with wastes, forced servitude, or doubtful virtue, which are well-established evaluative criteria and stigmatization outcomes. However, in various occupations, these characteristics express uniquely and are natural, indicating the allowed objectivity of self-esteem. Sayer (2007), for instance, argues that subservience in nursing may not be related with individual characteristics but with various work obligations, whereas in low-skilled positions, low dignity is explained by the absence of career opportunities. In certain circumstances, moral considerations must be examined since, as Strangleman (2006) emphasizes, regardless of social rank and working conditions, an individual might build self-esteem as a means of maintaining autonomy. The objective character of dignity in "dirty" occupations is therefore acceptable.

Nonetheless, when evaluating generally recognized theories, the subjective nature of dignity is more probable, given that the expressions of self-esteem are real in all occupations, including low-paying ones. Hamilton et al. (2019) identify the three most influential discourses regarding dignity in low-status occupations. They include affirmation, which entails the implementation of socially relevant rewards, hierarchical esteem, which allows an employee to accept the existing gradation of statuses, and paternalistic care, which is represented in the sense of heroism for "dirty" job completed. This framework permits the argument that, independent of the discourse to which a certain issue might be brought, subjective evaluation plays a significant role and influences a person's propensity toward a particular principle. Consequently, dignity is possible even in low-paying occupations.

Violations of Dignity

When contemplating the causes of rejections of dignity, both objective and subjective factors may be at play. In the first scenario, employees may lack dignity due to the fulfillment of their job obligations. As precondition for the objective denial of dignity, Hamilton et al. (2019) cite insufficient discipline, egocentric goals, and a few other elements. According to Strangleman (2006), managers prefer to treat employees with disdain due to organizational norms fostered in a particular organization, such as an authoritarian leadership style. However, the denial of dignity in the workplace is a more significant and remarkable occurrence for subjective reasons. Sayer (2007), for instance, underlines the client impact, in which an employee's effort is undervalued. Other manifestations, such as verbal abuse and disdain, are usually the outcome of stigmatization that trumps objective causes (Hamilton et al., 2019). Taking into account the aforementioned factors, one might conclude that subjective assessments of dignity violations are harsher than objective ones.

Conclusion

As long as the employee's environment recognizes the significance of his or her labor, dignity is attainable even in low-status or "dirty" employment, as the subjective nature trumps the objective. Stigmatization is one of the most influential determinants of certain judgements and labels. The theoretical framework, namely three discourses, enables the concept of self-esteem to be described as a phenomena that can arise in any working setting. The rejections of dignity are both subjective and objective, with the subjective expressions of prejudice being more severe.

References

Doherty, Edward M. (2011). The usefulness of comic art in comprehending the employer-employee relationship is exemplified by "Dilbert's" depictions of employee dignity. 20(3) Journal of Management Inquiry, 286-301

P. Hamilton, T. Redman, and R. McMurray (2019). Discursive constructs of heroism and dignity in low-status garbage employment. 156(4), 889-901, Journal of Business Ethics

Lucas, K. (2011). Blue-collar discourses of workplace dignity: use comparisons with outgroups to establish positive identities. Management Communication Quarterly, Volume 25(2), pages 353 to 374.

Sayer, A. (2007). Expanding the scope of respect at work. Organization, 14(4), 565-581.

Strangleman, T. (2006). Dignity, respect, and the cultures of work: A book review Work, Employment, and Society, volume 20, number 1, pages 181-188.

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Human Resource Management In Google Argumentative Essay Help Online

Google is a global search engine optimized for speedy research. Its Human resource policies and practices are one of the primary reasons why it has maintained a position among Forbes' top 100 companies to work for. Google's main Human Resources department is headquartered in Mountain View. The Google model is 70/20/10. This allows people to perform to the best of their abilities and encourages innovative thought. Employees at Google believe that their ideas and opinions are respected. Google should therefore continue to use these policies. However, as its investment base expands, it must ensure that its policies are always open and accessible.

Google has been selected as the organization that will serve as a foundation for the SLP conversation. Google ranks fourth on the 2010 Fortune list of best employers. Google's primary objective is to provide the world's quickest and most effective search engine. Mr. Larry Page, co-founder of Google, has stated that the company strives to create the ideal search engine. Google assesses the worth of distinct web addresses by analyzing the comments posted by site visitors. It employs multiple methods to evaluate the significance of webpages. Instance: the PageRankTM algorithm. This evaluates the position of a website based on the positions of other visiting websites. According to statistics, Google employs around more than 12,000 people. They are stationed in Google offices throughout the globe. Google's corporate headquarters are located at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, California 94043. Since Google is a dot-net corporation that provides a search engine, it requires little effort. Consequently, it lacks a union. However, Google was caught snooping on its employees in 2007. When this occurred, workers went on strike. However, this was disregarded when Google announced a 10% raise in employee compensation. Thus, the first unauthorized union known as Goonion was established (Jean-Pierre,2007).

The Human Resource Management team at Google is known as the people operations team. HRM falls under CEO Eric Schmidt on the organizational chart of reporting relationships. Human resource Management's vice president of operations is Liane Hornsey (Organizational Chart Google,2010). A job in human resource management reports to both the head of legal development and the director of leadership and development. Google's human resource management groups are concerned with HR strategies, processes, and workers. The HR management team must address all issues with people. It ensures that its personnel are highly motivated and able to operate to their maximum capacity. In addition, the HRM department's primary responsibility is to ensure that Google's business model provides the finest services possible. Google's people operations team is located at its different headquarters. Their workplaces are expansive, and employees have sufficient room for creativity and invention. They use a system of custom-built tools to search for the relevant employment information about their current and prospective employees. Their duties include providing operational HR support to different HR Business Partners in the region, managing operational projects, and initiating new value-added projects for Google. In addition, they run programs for their stakeholders, deal with a variety of policy changes, teach external groups on people operation methods, and expand their knowledge through information exchange.

Recruitment and selection is the first and most significant step in Google's Human Resources process. Each day, Google receives around 2,500 resumes. The company hires individuals with the greatest potential. Their primary objective is to keep these individuals so that they will generate higher money in the future. Google also offers a multitude of internal and external events aimed at enhancing the abilities of its employees. This provides prospective recruits with a reasonable understanding of future expectations. These activities also demonstrate Google's business culture to new hires.

Continuous Training and Development is the next significant step for Google in order to maintain its competitive advantage. Google must stay ahead of other search engines such as Yahoo and MSN in this rapidly evolving business. Due of this, it is crucial that all Google employees receive at least 120 hours of training and development every year, as opposed to the 43 hours required by other companies. Google employees are also required to attend classes in content creation, executive speaking, and feedback delivery, as well as several Language classes. Google invests significantly on its employees (Anurag, 2009 ).

Google's HRIS is tightly interwoven with their business strategy. Google, according to HR director Liane Hornsey, uses a 70/20/10 approach. In this model, employees spend 70% of their time on business, 20% on personal projects as long as they are in line with Google's goal and vision, and 10% on developing personal talents that will benefit the company in a few years. This demonstrates Google's incredibly innovative approach to creation. Because of this method, any employee is capable of creating new items, as they are forced to think creatively. "Crowdsourcing" Google's product strategy is another instance of HRM systems in action. Here, the market determines which product options are superior. Google's policies foster a sense of gratitude in its employees (John, 2007).

As the world emerges from the Global Recession, Google's Human Resources policy may shift in the future years (Anurag, 2009). If the company continues to pursue its current strategy for expanding its customer base, the number of employees may grow. Google should be careful not to alter its 70/20/10 approach, as it is this model that is fostering invention, which is resulting in quicker growth. The absence of Unions at Google is also a positive indication. Google might also collect client suggestions (John, 2007). For this, they would need to make their management approaches and innovations simpler for external observers to comprehend. Google should also keep in mind that, due to its expansion, its investment base is growing. Therefore, it should consider market dynamics and ensure that its policies are constantly transparent (Anurag, 2009).

References

Anurag, G. (2009). Web resource for strategic HR planning at Google Inc.

Jean-Pierre, K. (2007). Google Personnel Strike against WordPress.com. Web.

John, I. (2008). Internet site for HR for Innovation/Google: STRATEGIC-HCM.BLOGSPOT.COM.

Google Organizational Chart: Board.com Official (2010). Web.

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Marketing Plan For Home Appliance Repair In Australia Argumentative Essay Help Online

Introduction

The rapid expansion and mixing of countries, the establishment of local trading blocs, the emergence of market economies, and breakthroughs in manufacturing and communications technology have stimulated the emergence of the home repair market. International marketing is becoming increasingly important to businesses of all kinds, their customers, and national economies. Globally, the majority of businesses today sell to, use materials or equipment from, or compete with goods from other nations. In Australia, the house repair sector operates on a fairly modest scale. There is approximately one retail establishment for every fourteen American households.

Situation Evaluation

The market for home repair services has been characterized by rising capital market activity during the previous five years. Over the next decade, annual returns are forecast to exceed 13% on average, but alternative investments are expected to achieve single-digit growth rates (roughly 7% to 9%). This strategy is based on a superior grasp of the problem being addressed, which is representative of the home repair service, its benefits, and the issues it addresses. As consumers become more price-conscious, transportable and high-quality home repair service is the ideal option for this demographic (Appliances 2008).

Strengths

The strengths can be enumerated as follows: effective brand image and expertise system, ideal website, and customer service team. The company's resource- and innovation-based philosophy generates new opportunities for market expansion and brand recognition. Creativity is currently the domain of research and development, where only professionals in conceptualizing and implementing marginal product modifications are engaged.

In non-entrepreneurial enterprises, the senior managers are responsible for the planning and management of the company's operations. Consequently, they must develop a style of leadership that is fair and directive. In the majority of such organizations, management employs either a benevolent autocratic, consultative, or participatory style. Home repair service pays close attention to individuals and their requirements.

Opportunities

The options include a strong development and profit potential, a qualified management team and organizational culture, a customized ordering system, and the option for free shipping. Because specialized stores around the world are interested in products made with minimal environmental impact, this industry presents a wide range of options for businesses. In the framework of increasing the creativity of businesses and making them more receptive to innovative technology, home repair service assesses the domains from which the organization benefits most. Competitive benchmarking helps to determine what the competition is doing in terms of originality and innovation, as well as who is the best in each field (Commonsense Marketing 2008).

Weaknesses

The market's low potential and the product's uniqueness are the primary drawbacks. The competition poses a significant danger to the home repair company. Despite the aforementioned dangers and shortcomings, the home repair service providers have well-developed market positions based on their cost and customer relations management. Trends on a global scale present obstacles for organizations that generate creativity and innovation, such as Home Repair Service Company. In addition, they present research obstacles within the context of creativity and innovation management. Opportunities generated from the study challenges include those pertaining to techniques and those pertaining to the problems of rethinking, realigning, and restructuring of large-scale organizations (Crawford 2003).

Threats

Competition and monopolistic tendencies in the market pose the greatest challenges to Home Repair Service Company. They inhibit the growth and development activities of the organization. To guarantee the actual utility and progression of creative and inventive endeavors, newly developed methods of accountability will be necessary.

Pestel's External Analysis –

Currently, the political climate is stable and characterized by democratization and liberal reforms. Political conventions and traditions have a significant impact on global markets. The intervention of authorities and politicians, as well as corruption, constitute the largest group of hazards for international businesses (Crawford 2003). Addiction to innovation and creativity, the company's distinctive identity, and its market-leading position are the fundamental factors fostering the growth of the home repair Service Company.

Legal Factors

Legal Environment: Asian and African nations develop laws and regulations to encourage foreign subsidies and facilitate increased levels of foreign direct investment (foreign direct investments). To aid the nation's economy, the government avoids or frequently reduces price increases in fundamental industries, such as steel. The role of the federal government appears to be related to the price rises, their effect on inflation, and the rise in firm productivity. If prices increase, the government utilizes its right to prevent or reduce them. Australia has enacted rules and regulations that promote market growth and development. Thus, the limit to the monopolistic positions of firms is set.

Economic situation

The economic conditions in America and Europe are characterized by low inflation rates and high per capita income levels. Thus, in Asian and African nations, trade liberalization and high levels of foreign investment present prospects for the corporation to penetrate this country's market. Australian businesses raise the living conditions of its staff and clients. Long-term capital commitments are necessary for a home repair company, along with the necessity to comply with national joint venture rules and levy particular income taxes and import charges on needs.

The differences in social laws, location factors, home product protection, state attitudes and control, legislation regulating the relationships of labels and standards, issues of transportation and communications costs, inflation risks, devaluation of the national currency, and expropriation of property are also requirements for home repair companies. By all of these factors, in addition to those listed in national marketing, numerous new obstacles are formed and posed to businesses (Crawford 2003).

Socio-demographic variables

Social-demographic parameters are those that indicate a rapid growth in population and a decline in death rates. This is shown in both their physical look and the majority of cultural characteristics, including language, administrative style, and religious beliefs. Only organizations with foresight can ensure their position at the forefront of these changes and innovations in this business.

The winners of this type of market competition will not only be at the forefront of their sector, but they will also be committed to sharing their innovative R&D experiences with the entire organization. At a time when organizations' traditional sales and marketing reach is limited by geography, Internet customers are restrained by the enormous number of people who have access to the Internet and make active use of this access (while these things not necessarily coincide). Estimates of the number of individuals who use the Internet and PCs vary greatly, yet the notion that millions of people utilize Internet services appears to be gaining traction in the modern world.

Technological variables

Technological aspects pertain to the rate at which the Internet is available and the amount of telecommunications development that is supplied. In addition, the newly defined ways of business activity and the presentation of information availability are technological components of the issue. Permanent economic expansion, rising disposable income rates, intense rivalry, advanced technology, automation deployment, decentralization of main demographic groupings, and innovation will accelerate the emergence of this new marketing strategy. Due to the deployment of computer technology and novel information analysis methodologies, the effectiveness of planning activities has increased significantly.

Instruments such as critical paths, input-output analysis, reward matrices, and decision trees, among others, have also contributed to the improvement in planning operations' effectiveness. The option formulated as joining or not entering the new stage of the company's development mostly rely on the motivation of leaders and their desire to either increase their company's profits or achieve a higher business standing. In other instances, it may be prompted by market demands and individual clients who are eager to invest in this company or any other in the absence of input from it (Hollensen, 2007).

Competition

A variety of internal and external causes have contributed to the intense competitiveness in Australian marketplaces. According to Michael Porter, a corporation's primary concern is competitiveness within an industry. The cumulative strength of these forces, according to Porter, determines the industry's ultimate profit potential, where profit potential is assessed in terms of long-term return on invested capital (Porter, 1985, p. 58). In his book "Competitive Advantage," Michael Porter identifies five forces that drive competitiveness. Even with such large corporations as Dell and Toshiba, competition is fierce.

The impact of "substitute product pressure" on competition and cheap prices. The market is affected by the disparity between the quantity of supplied services and the need for them in the home repair industry, where the ability to utilize resources and compete with others is not an advantage. Two fundamental features of a company's competencies in sustainability are durability and replicability (Marketing and Business Planning 2008). The company's 15 percent market share gives it the opportunity to lead the market and compete with other firms.

Segmentation, Positioning in the Target Market

The Home Repair services' approach is predicated on a differentiation criterion that affords them the opportunity to transfer their focus to brand image and take successful price reduction measures. This method facilitates Home Repair services' rapid expansion and manufacturing range optimization. The new brand's market position is based on consumer trust and faith in its image. The gap between the supplied services is not substantial, but it should be improved to make the rivalry less intense. Prices that are lower than those of competitors will reduce competition. Home Repair services provide competitive costs that are acceptable to its clients, including a strategy to establish a group of devoted purchasers (Campbell 2003).

Objectives

The company's goal is to expand its customer base and maintain its current market positions in the region. The untapped and relatively new Australian market is the ideal location for the creation of new business fields. The objective is to be among the market leaders. It enables the corporation to provide loyal consumers opportunities to save money on new products. High-quality home repair services satisfy the needs of a diverse audience and customer base. This objective is achieved with the use of modern management practices and data analysis tools.

Marketing strategies

In terms of economics, home repair services represent a diverse array of marketing operations within specific flexible activity boundaries. This is true to varying degrees in different industries and time eras. Some companies offer devices at inflated prices relative to their actual expenses. Thus, convenience is not the deciding factor for users to purchase the item, and innovative promotion, advertising, and marketing strategies ensure its market success (Porter 1985).

The target demographic consists of males and women between the ages of 18 and 45. Consumer behavior happens when individuals, guided by service providers, decide to acquire new items or services for their personal use or for the use of others. The target audience consists of social-economic groupings A, B, and C1 Home Repair services are geared for young people who enjoy good music and progressive choices and who are frequently referred to as generation Y. (Appendix 1,2).

Implementation- Plan of Action

The new automobile model will be introduced as a representation of the new positioning strategy, which emphasizes mobility and independence as its core values. The new design and style will leave purchasers with a favorable impression and reflect the spirit of the company's approach. A distinct appearance and membership in a new generation will attract purchasers (Trends in Household Consumption 2008).

The execution of the initial campaign

Send Direct mail – twice on September and October and once on November; Cinema ad – 7 times a day beginning on the 20th of September until the end of November; Radio ad – 10 times a day from the 5th of September until the end of November; Advertising in local Press – once a week from the 5th of September until the end of November; TV ad – 3 times in

Control

Once a month, the control will be conducted via surveys and comments. Product positioning will help establish buyers' confidence and expertise. If these elements are earned by the company, purchasers will have confidence in the company's brand image and good reputation. As new clients must be won over, the positioning strategy provides the method to do so and earn their trust. Positioning strategy aids in gaining clients' trust and establishing a company's credibility. (Weee Man delivers his ominous prophecy in 2008)

Conclusion

Businesses are not quite so adaptable. Many businesses adopt a business as usual stance. This indicates that, once certain planned and financial decisions are made, business proceeds as usual. Promotional plans do not account for the necessary flexibility and proactive activity. In addition, it is anticipated that business conditions will not change considerably and that the best course of action is to execute the plans as they were originally formulated.

This type of traditional and conservative viewpoint makes it impossible for the company to deal with instability. The case of Best Buy demonstrates that large and strong companies can behave in this manner. Consequently, they promote survival of the fattest. However, one must know that businesses are likely to lose money in both the present and the future if they are not proactive and do not seek to offset turbulence. There are two important reasons for this: business is never routine, and the best-kept secrets never prevail.

Bibliography

2008 Web page for home appliances

Commonsense Marketing. 2008. Web.

Crawford C. Merle, New Products Management (2003). Irwin-McGraw Hill, seventh edition

2008 Web. Optimal Business Solutions.

Hollensen, S. (2007). A Decision-Oriented Approach to Global Marketing. The Australian Scholarly Publishing industry.

Marketing and Business Planning.

Porter, M.E., "Competitive Advantage," 1985. Free Press in New York

Tendencies in Domestic Consumption,. 2008 Web page by Australian Bureau of Statistics

Weee Man delivers his heavy warning. 2005. Web.

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Feedback Loops For Whole Foods Market Argumentative Essay Help Online

Contents Listing
Introduction Factors Humane Communication Organization Culture Discussion and Conclude References

Introduction

This paper reviews six publications by Ezzamel, Willmott, and Worthington (2001), Fleming and Spicer (2003), Orton (2000), Morrison and Milliken (2000), Piderit (2000), and Vince and Broussine (2000). (1996). The researchers examined organizational transformation concerns by analyzing the elements that inhibit (or promote) the process. This paper assesses their arguments and assumptions using a three-pronged framework that describes their findings as organizational culture concerns, communication concerns, and human considerations (which affect organizational change). This research identifies new insights for change management by bridging the gap between theory and practice.

Factors Humane

According to Vince and Broussine (1996), the organizational emphasis in change management should shift from problem-solving and planning-based approaches to human emotions and interpersonal ties. Specifically, they emphasize the necessity to comprehend how human uncertainty and defensiveness influence organizational transformation. According to Vince and Broussine (1996), human factors impact change management through influencing the acceptance of the change process among individuals.

This examination must take into account numerous factors. For instance, change resistance is an attitude problem that the majority of firms might tackle by appealing to human needs. Those who do so have a good likelihood of experiencing employee support in change management. For instance, Faucheux (2013) tells the story of an American church (Jeff's Church) that intended to construct a new sanctuary for its congregants, but received complaints from some of its members for excluding them from the project.

The church resolved this issue by creating a steering committee that solicited the opinions and participation of every church member. Eventually, the majority of members supported the project because they felt included in the process of transformation (Faucheux, 2013). This analysis demonstrates that focusing on people's emotions and interpersonal relationships, as Vince and Broussine (1996) emphasize, is the driving force behind the success of organizational change.

Piderit (2000) supports the focus on human attitudes as a necessary for successful organizational change by arguing for a new approach to employee resistance. According to him, individuals' attitudes influence their resistance to change (or support for it). In this context, Piderit (2000) asserts that achieving a balance between organizational goals and individual needs will promote ambiguous attitudes toward change. To do this, he said that it is essential to comprehend the evolution of employee resistance to change. Likewise, he underlined the need to comprehend how personnel react to change ideas (using a bottom-up approach). He utilized this argument to explain the process of egalitarian change (Piderit, 2000).

Communication

According to Morrison and Milliken (2000), the primary impediment to organizational transformation is the failure of companies to articulate the issues affecting corporate and employee performance. According to them, it would be "unwise" for such firms to allow stakeholders to express organizational issues. They refer to this as "organizational silence" (Morrison & Milliken, 2000).

To encourage organizational change, the researchers researched the contextual elements that contribute to organizational change and proposed that removing these variables would promote change. This viewpoint is consistent with the assertions made by Faucheux (2013), who emphasized the need for managers to convey organizational change challenges to all stakeholders. Additionally, he stated that the executive team must convince all stakeholders to support the change management process (Faucheux, 2013; Morrison & Milliken, 2000). In this manner, employees would comprehend the necessity of change acceptance. This tactic has had favorable results.

For instance, in 1981 British Airways hired a new management who wished to reform the business because he recognized that it was wasting resources (Faucheux, 2013). The airline's personnel was reduced as a result of the restructuring operations he initiated. However, before he did so, he informed all of the organization's stakeholders of the necessity to restructure. This procedure prepared the workforce for the transition. His efforts eventually bore fruit, preventing the near bankruptcy of the London-based airline (Faucheux, 2013).

Organization Culture

According to Fleming and Spicer (2003), subjectivity and power relations are crucial components in organizational change. These elements are mostly a part of organizational culture. In this regard, Fleming and Spicer (2003) assert that the majority of employees who comprehend an organization's culture are likely to support organizational change, whilst those who do not comprehend it are likely to impede the process. The latter group behaves in this manner because they feel alone.

Furthermore, cynicism becomes a prevalent trait of their professional performance. In order to understand this occurrence, Fleming and Spicer (2003) state, "We call this the ideology interpretation because, in dis-identifying with power, it is reproduced inadvertently" (p. 157). Overall, Fleming and Spicer (2003) feel that cultural power has a substantial effect on an organization's capacity to embrace change. Similarly, they assert that subjectivity impacts an organization's capacity for change (subjectivity might not necessarily come from within the organization). This finding also demonstrates that what many individuals may perceive as frustrations associated with change are not always accurate.

Orton (2000) utilized the preceding philosophy to explain how internal communications influence organizational design processes in the US intelligence community. Using Weick's theory of organization development as a foundation, he investigated the effects of three design assumptions on the design process of an organization. In his research, he discovered that the organizational design process was constrained by dominant factors, causal laws, and executive directives (the three organization design assumptions) (Orton, 2000). Overall, Orton (2000) emphasized the necessity for businesses to shift from basic designs to trustworthy designs.

Ezzamel et al. (2001) have questioned the validity for utilizing new waves of management (as mentioned previously) as the sole conditions for re-engineering organizational processes. After analyzing the experiences of dissatisfied managers who attempted to re-engineer organizational processes, the researchers discovered that the vast majority of employees could easily deploy personal and collective forms of resistance to promote (or thwart) organizational change (Ezzamel et al., 2001). Although the authors accept the significance that external organizational factors, such as market shifts, have in organizational transformation, they assert that associating with historical working methods has a stronger impact. Consequently, the authors recognize the importance of focusing on the influence of employee work experiences on organizational development.

Discussion and Summary

After reviewing the six articles featured in this paper, it is clear that organizational transformation is a dynamic and multidimensional topic. Human factors, communication, and organizational transformation emerge as the primary variables influencing the process. As Ezzamel et al. (2001) note, while many types of literature acknowledge the need for adopting modern change management paradigms, such as lean management, it is equally important to recognize the role that an employee's experience plays in determining his resistance (or support) to the change management process.

Therefore, change management should concentrate on getting the "human aspect" right before addressing other crucial concerns, such as communication and organizational culture. This study emphasizes the importance of adopting a multidimensional approach to change management. In addition, it emphasizes the importance of integrating past and present organizational requirements while designing future organizational processes.

References

The authors are Ezzamel, Willmott, and Worthington (2001). In The Factory That Time Forgot, there is power, control, and resistance. 38(8), 1053-1079, Journal of Management Studies

Faucheux, M. (2013). Plans for Change Management That Worked as Illustrations Web.

P. Fleming and A. Spicer (2003). Implications for Power, Subjectivity, and Resistance while Working at a Cynical Distance Organization, 10(1), 157-179.

Morrison, E. W., & Milliken, F. J. (2000). A barrier to change and development in a pluralistic world is organizational silence. The Academy of Management Review, 25(4), pages 706-725.

Orton, J. D. (2000). Enactment, Sensemaking, and Decision Making: Redesign Processes in the Reorganization of US Intelligence in 1976 37(2), pages 213-234, in Journal of Management Studies.

Piderit, S. K. (2000). A Multidimensional Perspective on Organizational Change Attitudes: Reconsidering Resistance and Recognizing Ambivalence The Academy of Management Review, twenty-five (4), 783-794.

R. Vince and M. Broussine (1996). Paradox, Defense, and Attachment: Accessing and Managing the Emotions and Relationships Underlying Organizational Change Organization Studies, seventeen (1), 1-21.

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Competitive Marketing Strategies. Manager’s Guide Argumentative Essay Help Online

Table of Contents
Introduction Analysis problem Organizational architecture and structure Teams and teamwork Leadership and administration strategy Organization culture Recommendations Upon Concluding References

Introduction

Management is the practice of achieving objectives through other people in an effective and efficient manner (Agarwal 2008, p.302). These activities consist of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling, and are generally referred to as the four functions of management.

Planning is the process by which an organization determines its future actions (Hill and Jones 2009, p.381). In conjunction with the planning function, the organizing function guarantees that the firm's available resources are maximized and distributed strategically. Lastly, controlling is viewed as monitoring the progress in accordance with the initial plan and enforcing adjustments when necessary if feedback indicates that things are not aligned with the plan (Mullins 2010, p.34).

Therefore, organization management is the act of building a relationship between people and resources in order to achieve particular objectives and business goals (Agarwal 2008, p.303). Management of an organization is founded on five principles: procedure, scope of control, unity of command, homogeneous assignment, delegation of authority, and adaptability.

Organization management is a five-step process, the first of which entails identifying the tasks involved, taking into account the nature of the job, the credentials required for the job, and the time required to complete the assignment (Mullins 2010, p.35). The second phase is to subdivide big jobs into individual activities; the numerous possible tasks will be portioned as stand-alone projects that may be carried out independently by different departments (Triplet 2007, p.3).

The third step involves allocating specific activities to individuals; at this stage, the organization must determine the capabilities of each employee before assigning available assignments. The tasks are matched to the individual and assigned to the person most capable of completing them efficiently. The fourth step is to give the available resources to help individuals in successfully completing their assigned jobs (Moyles 2006, p.176). The organization allocates resources based on the nature and complexity of the allocated work. The final step involves building an organizational structure to decide the strategy that will merge the numerous allocated tasks into one once they are accomplished and how the various organizational structures can collaborate (Picot et al., 2008, p.12).

Managers in an organization should recognize the significance of organization and management, the process through which people, diverse jobs, and technology are blended and coordinated to achieve organizational goals (Triplet 2007, p.4). Bob and Lloyd must see the importance of linking the people, tasks, and resources in the fast-food company process. Bob and Lloyd must make optimal use of the organization's resources to complete all tasks and implement their fast food company concepts (Triplet 2007, p.5). Organization and management should be based on determining the policies, missions, and structures of the fast food firm (McNichol et al 2007, p.13).

Analysis problem

Bob and Lloyd's choice to launch a fast food restaurant in Cambridge will be a wise investment if they properly evaluate the organization and administration of the business. In Cambridge's fast food market, their success rate will be determined by how they establish structure, assemble their team, exercise leadership, and address organizational culture. Bob and Lloyd must carefully analyze the following four factors before making strategic judgments regarding their new venture (Chen 2004, p.5).

Organizational architecture and structure

An organizational structure is a network of interconnected jobs, job groups, and ultimately authority (Burstein 1991, p.327). A structure of an organization specifies how individuals are placed into departments and departments are grouped to form the organization. It comprises the creation of mechanisms to ensure effective departmental communication, integration, and coordination of efforts. Typically, an organizational chart depicts the formal relationships within an organization, including the number of levels in the hierarchy and the scope of control of managers and supervisors (Schriber and Gutek 2010, p.642). Bob and Lloyd must choose an organizational structure that corresponds to the span of control (Alder and Jelinek 2006, p.74). Each individual's function and responsibilities must be specified within the organizational structure of the fast food establishment.

The objective of an organization structure is to give a common reference that demonstrates the general relationship between upper management, middle management, and lower level management (Murphy and Willmot 2010, p.268). Traditional organization models always placed the CEO on top, with everyone else grouped in layers according to department, however today there are numerous decentralized and flexible organization systems. Bob and Lloyd should establish a structure that improves horizontal coordination and communication, despite the absence of a traditional organizational structure, in order to promote change adoption (Burstein 1991, p.327). In a fast food industry, a horizontal organizational structure will decentralize decision-making. The first diagram below depicts a contemporary organizational structure with three management levels. (Burstein 1991, p.327).

Three managerial levels.

One of the four factors that help a corporation develop its organizational structure is job specification, which entails outlining the departments' responsibilities (Barry 2000, p.33). The second is departmentalization, in which positions are grouped and responsibilities are assigned in accordance with the company's objectives. The third aspect is span of control, in which the management examines the tasks at hand and the number of units and, as a result, merges the two factors in an advantageous manner (Chen 2004, p.6). The final aspect is delegation of authority, which introduces managers in charge of units and gives the head of each unit the capacity to make decisions on behalf of the organization. Bob and Lloyd ought to distribute control to the managers of the fast food company so that they may make decisions with ease. Each unit department's managers should make choices on behalf of the organization.

Teams and group effort

In order to turn around an organization, management must support a team-based approach. Consistently, management gurus have asserted that a team exceeds an individual in terms of passion, focus, and overcoming formidable obstacles. (Mullins 2010, p.46)

A team is a small group of individuals with complementary skills and a shared purpose for which they all feel accountable (Katzenbach and Smith 1993, p.68). Bob and Lloyd must adhere to the five team standards in order to establish a formidable team for the fast-food hamburger enterprise.

The team for one must be modest, ideally between two to twenty-five members, because it is easier to collaborate with a small group (Hill and Jones 2009, p.385). The second concept is that team members must possess complementary abilities (Leitner 2004, p.35). The third principle states that members should share a common purpose and objective, which means that the team's objective and mission must coincide (Hill and Jones 2009, p.384). The fourth principle is that the team must build a shared working style in which the team pays attention to administrative and work-related aspects and each team member identifies their position in the team's work (Picot et al 2008, p.84). The final principle emphasizes that all members must be accountable to themselves and to others in order to ensure the commitment and trust of other members (Katzenbach and Smith 1993, p.68). The diagram below depicts a paradigm change in a team system, often known as a team structure (Picot et al 2008, p.84).

Team structure.

For the sake of strategic team building, Bob and Lloyd should carefully pick and staff their employees so that they have a motivated, vital workforce. The fast food sector necessitates qualified, quick, and efficient employees; else, the business could fail (McNichol et al 2007, p.2007). Staffing corresponds to human resource planning; here, the organization should evaluate the number of personnel required, their backgrounds, their credentials, and the cost of recruiting each one in order to achieve its objectives. Consideration must also be given to how to get the necessary personnel, with recruitment considerations including education, experience, human relations, communication skills, and motivation (Northouse 2009, p.165).

When undertaking employee selection, management should devise an elimination-based method for selecting the most qualified individuals. Having a set of criteria and a score sheet for each candidate guarantees that the organization will have a high rate of successful hires (Baligh 2006, p.126). The organization must define each interview, develop a strategy, communicate with the interviewee during the interview, and establish a conclusion for the interview. Bob and Lloyd should perform an in-person interview to determine whether or not each employee have strong interpersonal skills (Chen 2004, p.7).

Motivation is a crucial part of every firm; if the employees are not motivated, they will inevitably produce less (Sekhar 2010, p.16). Increases in working conditions, interpersonal relationships, income, job security, company regulations, supervision, and administration are examples of motivating factors (Sekhar 2010, p.17). Bob and Lloyd should motivate their fast food staff by providing them with favorable working conditions and bonuses.

Leadership and administration strategy

A leader is a person who directs a group of people, an organization, or a nation (Leitner 2004, p.87). To the followers, a leadership model according to Mitchell, Margaret and Casey, John, professors of leadership management at the University of Illinois (2007) emphasizes a collective strategy that involves all members and includes elements such as improving the overall performance, focusing specifically on strategy, and creating an environment of change (p.53).

Second, employing a collaborative approach begins to foster excellent community connections because everyone is represented, so laying the groundwork for collaborations within the institution, which benefits the entire community (p.58). A skilled leader will most effectively unite all members in a strategic manner to work together; he or she must also be intelligent and inspiring (McNichol et al 2007, p.104). In addition, a leader should propose innovative tactics that are effective and will provide positive performance outcomes; this will serve as motivation for all members.

Manpower planning would be the optimal strategy for implementing "imposed-incremental change" in an organization (Cooper 2005, p.231).

Cooper Crown (2005), a professional management guru and consultant in management issues, defines manpower planning as the process of forecasting and planning the human resource organization in every institution in order to plan for the future in accordance with the institution's goals and organizational structure (p.232).

The competency is intended to be useful when an organization has limited funds to spend yet must carry out its activities (Northouse 2009, p.168).

Well, the best approach to strengthen one's leadership characteristics is to develop skills in manpower planning, which will allow for the regulation of projects and the establishment of a structured workforce to complete the duties.

In order to achieve strong leadership, a leadership mission entails deciding on long-term and short-term objectives and allocating priority to methods (Moyles 2006, p.178; Bass and Avolio 1993, p1). A competent leader should have a strategy formula that focuses on effective resource allocation, making judgments on diversifications, and entering overseas marketplaces to combine and participate in an organization's initiative. A leader's strategy commits the organization to a defined vision, mission, and objective over a prolonged period of time in order to achieve it (Northouse 2009, p.169; Moyles 2006, p.179).

The success of policy implementation depends on the capacity of the leadership function to motivate others to assist in strategy redesign (Moyles 2006, p.179) Redesigning an organization's process enhances it and helps it adapt to external environmental restrictions over which the leader has no control (Murphy and William 2010, p. 268). Bob and Lloyd should construct a strategy-support culture at the fast food industry and establish an effective and functional structure in order to ensure policy implementation (Moyles 2006, p.522). Bob and Lloyd must encourage the managers of each unit and the staff to discover methods to contribute to the implementation process (Normore 2010). Implementation involves personal discipline, commitment and sacrifice. This is due to the fact that at this time is seen as unstable and requires everyone to embrace new systems (Picot et al 2008, p.86).

Organization culture

The word organization culture refers to a set of characteristics that are unique to a given organization and can be derived from the manner in which an organization develops and identifies the characteristics of cultures that promote learning and those that impede the learning organization process (Adler and Jelinek 2006, p.74).

Organizational culture encourages the learning process. Today's organizations are under a great deal of pressure to perform, which requires them to learn, adapt, and take ethically sound actions in order to meet the demands of the industry and the shareholders (Schriber and Gutek 2010, p.645).

According to McNichol et al. (2007), there are a variety of corporate learning culture approaches. The three most prevalent categories are (p.104):

A supportive organization learning culture is one in which team members or the management of an organization provide assistance for learning. Concretizing organizational learning culture: when the learning culture is founded on concrete procedures and practices, such as billing, logistics, and product development (Mullins 2010, p.35). Leadership organizational learning culture: a technique that employs leadership to reinforce learning inside an organization. This indicates that the leader in the organization must study the organization's constraints, acknowledge them, and explore alternatives to improve the organization's performance in order to steer the learning process (Sekhar 2010, p.17).

Organizational learning is under pressure to keep up with the shifting patterns of the times. In the past, people were not required to make quick decisions, but today they must do so in uncertain circumstances. A learning organization is an entity in which employees successfully transfer knowledge (Leitner 2004, p.89).

By attempting to develop an effective learning organization, the fast food corporation will demonstrate its efforts to rethink the organization culture process. There are two strategies to improve an organization's learning strategy. The first is a single-loop learning process that involves modifying the environment without altering the organization's structures (Chen 2004, p.8). The second consists of a double loop in which new systems are implemented and the learning process is redefined and tested (Murphy and Willmot 2010, p.270). Bob and Lloyd should come up with innovative ideas for the development of the fast food company and the establishment of a competitive edge in Cambridge. Chen (2004) specifies, if it is a single-loop, the condition.

China National Tobacco Company And Farmers Argumentative Essay Help Online

Executive synopsis

China boasts the fastest expanding economy in the world and the largest population in the world. In addition to being the world's largest tobacco producer, the country also boasts the biggest tobacco use. Both men and women are socially accepted smokers in public. As a monopoly, the Chinese government controls all manufacture and distribution of tobacco products on the market. China National Tobacco Company, the largest tobacco producer in mainland China, is owned by the state. This organization will provide support for this project.

However, the corporation lacks the requisite intermediate with Chinese tobacco producers to reduce the physical costs associated with direct sale. This market plan aims to fill this need by introducing an intermediary to purchase raw tobacco from farmers, provide storage facilities, and add value by curing the product before sending it to tobacco makers.

The proposal will be financed by the Chinese government and will involve the supply of tobacco to foreign corporations based in China. The tobacco sector will be bolstered by the revenues earned, so fostering a greater expansion of the industry and the economy as a whole.

Situational evaluation

Market overview

According to Breen (2001), the tobacco industry consists of individuals involved in the cultivation, processing, marketing, and distribution of tobacco and closely related products.

The tobacco plant is easy to cultivate and can thrive in every region of the planet except Antarctica. Tobacco is a narcotic plant indigenous to the American continent and has been regarded as one of the most important crops cultivated by American farmers for decades. The plant was, however, introduced to other regions of the world by the United States as a result of migration and colonization, and was used for trade and recreational purposes. Tobacco is grown for its leaves, which are dried and processed for use in cigarettes, cigars, and pipes. Other than smoking, tobacco is used medicinally and is regarded as an analgesic for toothache and earache (Caldwell & Nordan, 1995).

According to Brandt (2009), the industrialization of the tobacco industry began in 1881 as a result of the American Civil War, which altered the availability of labor and the demand for tobacco products. A craftsman named James Bonsac invented a machine that chopped tobacco leaves and deposited them on a long tube of paper, which was then cut into individual cigarettes. The machine operated thirteen times faster than humans, which was a tremendous boon to the tobacco business due to increased output.

The tobacco industry was a notably increasing sector until 1960, when it was discovered to cause health problems, resulting in a drop in its production trends. Tobacco has been shown to cause cancer as well as cardiovascular and respiratory conditions. The formation of a tobacco accord that filed charges against cigarette businesses and imposed restrictions on the marketing and promotion of tobacco products (Brandt, 2009). Further, he explains that in the 1970s, two scientists, Williamson and Brown, combined tobacco strains to create a variety with twice as much nicotine. The Food and Drug Administration used this scenario as evidence that some tobacco manufacturers manipulated nicotine levels in their products. According to the World Health Organization, there are around 5,4 tobacco-related fatalities worldwide each year, with 70% of these deaths occurring in developing nations (Brandt, 2009). Recent anti-smoking campaigns emphasizing the dangers of tobacco have been met with a negative reception.

Market characteristics

Caldwell and Nordan (1995) highlighted that smoking accounts for the majority of tobacco intake. Long ago, however, smoking in public was socially restricted for men and was linked with promiscuity among women. The prevalence of smoking among men is five times that of women, according to Caldwell and Nordan. However, this trend has been shown to reverse in emerging countries, with women becoming the majority of smokers.

Market needs

More than 1.22 billion people in the globe currently smoke. 1 billion of these smokers reportedly reside in developing and middle-income nations (Brandt, 2009). According to Breen, sensitivity to the effects of smoking has led to a declining trend in the number of smokers in industrialized nations, whereas the number of smokers in developing nations is said to increase by 3.5% annually (2001).

Brandt (2009) claims that smoking is prevalent among criminals, people with mental disabilities, the homeless, and drug and alcohol abusers. He says that approximately 20% of 12 to 15-year-olds claim to be tobacco users and are predicted to be dependent on cigarettes for the next 15 to 20 years. By 2025, it is anticipated that the number of smokers will reach a staggering 1-9 billion individuals (Brandt, 2009).

Table 1: The percentage of male and female smokers in relation to the total population of various nations (Brandt, 2009, P. 98).

Country Male Population Proportion of females

Ukraine 63.8 10.2

United States of America 26.3 3.15

British Isles 36,7 1.15

Tonga 61.8 12.9

Samoa 58.3 12.8

Indonesia 65.9 8

63.6 7.55

China 59.5 11.8

Belarus 63.7 10.35

Bangladesh 47 8.9

Europe 37.4 2.55

Russia 70.1 11.o5

Market trends

According to Caldwell and Nordan (1995), China Tobacco Limited is the world's largest manufacturer of tobacco products. Five corporations, which have expanded through a series of acquisitions and mergers, continue to dominate the international cigarette business, according to the two individuals. These include Philip Morris Company, Altria, British American Tobacco, Imperial Tobacco, and Japan Tobacco.

China cultivates tobacco over millions of hectares of land. Through China Tobacco Company, the Chinese government employs a monopolistic strategy to tobacco production in China, which has resulted in economies of scale and market dominance.

Table 2: Trends in the production of unprocessed tobacco in various nations (Caldwell & Nordan, 1995, p. 56).

Nation of origin The output in thousands of tonnes

China 2,298.8

India 595.4

Brazil 520.7

United States of America 408.2

European union 314.5

Zimbabwe 204.9

Turkey 193.9

Indonesia 166.6

Russia 116.8

Malawi 108.0

Market Expansion

Food and Agricultural Organisation anticipated that tobacco production will reach 7.1 million tonnes (Brandt, 2009). China has the largest share of the global tobacco market due in large part to the higher import tariff imposed on foreign tobacco products entering the nation. Although this tax has been cut to 10%, the majority of the country's inhabitants prefer locally produced tobacco products due to their cheaper retail prices. China produces 39.6% of the world's total tobacco crop as a result of the tobacco industry's enormous expansion (Brandt, 2009).

Brandt (2009) adds that there are about 20 million tobacco-growing families in China. Tobacco is the favored crop of production for the Chinese; yet, the Chinese government sets the market price for tobacco at a lower level than the natural price.

Strengths

It is anticipated that the tobacco industry will grow steadily as the population and disposable income of individuals in developing and transitional economies rise. According to Food and Agricultural Organisation, global tobacco output was anticipated to exceed 7,1 million tonnes in 2010. (Breen, 2001). The number of tobacco users has been increasing at a rate of 1.5% and was projected to reach 1.3 billion by 2010, with 71% of these smokers residing in developing nations and 29% in industrialized nations (Breen, 2001).

Brandt (2009) contends that cigarette smoking is the most prevalent form of tobacco use, accounting for around 85 percent of overall tobacco use. China is the greatest consumer of tobacco, consuming 37% of global tobacco production annually.

Brandt (2009) admitted the following:

Smoking is a component of Chinese culture, and it is a gesture of courtesy and respect to provide cigarettes during any social contact. As a social activity undertaken by men to create feelings of acceptance and kindness, smoking is also associated with masculine identity, which explains why more Chinese male doctors smoke than females.

In addition, physicians may use tobacco as a coping mechanism to manage the day-to-day stress associated with lengthy work hours and challenging patient interactions. (p. 67).

Weaknesses

In the majority of countries, smoking is not socially acceptable, and women who smoke are viewed as licentious. Smoking has also been linked to prostitution, criminality, mental illness, and the use of other harsh drugs.

Many governments place hefty taxes on tobacco goods in an effort to reduce cigarette usage. According to Brandt (2009), "considerable scientific evidence demonstrates that higher cigarette prices result in lower overall cigarette consumption, with a 10% increase in price resulting in a 3 to 5% decrease in overall cigarette use."

The cultivation of tobacco is combined with child labor; these children work long hours for poor wages. The sexual abuse of minors by their superiors has attracted the attention of human rights campaigners.

Tobacco is an agricultural crop that is extremely weather-dependent. Generally, adverse weather conditions affect the crop. It is recognized that the use of pesticides and other chemicals in tobacco production has adverse health consequences on tobacco producers.

China is notorious as a hotspot for counterfeiters; these individuals use well-established brands to introduce bogus products to the market. These items are sold at a low price, and it is difficult to identify them from genuine items.

Cigarette smoking has also presented a threat through accidental fires, particularly among intoxicated and mad smokers. This has frequently resulted in substantial property destruction and even loss of life.

Opportunities

According to Caldwell and Nordan (1995), "Tobacco Supply is anticipated to increase in countries with low production costs, no production restrictions, and good transportation systems and access to global markets." Consequently, the tobacco industry is anticipated to grow in the countries of the Far East, particularly China, as well as in other developing nations.

With increased awareness of the negative health impacts of smoking, opportunities exist for the creation of new tobacco products. Tobacco businesses should invest in the production of low-nicotine products. There is also potential in electronic cigarettes, which are an alternative to conventional cigarettes and hence have fewer negative health impacts.

China has the world's fastest-growing economy. This has increased the discretionary income of Chinese citizens. Additionally, the nation has the highest population in the globe. With this in mind, the Chinese tobacco industry is destined for greatness.

Threats

Although tobacco usage is anticipated to increase rapidly, consumption per capita in wealthy nations was projected to decline by 10% by 2010. (Breen, 2001). This is largely due to anti-smoking efforts, anti-smoking regulations, greater taxes on tobacco products, a prohibition on cigarette advertising, and people's sensitization against tobacco use.

A reallocation of resources from other agricultural practices to tobacco production could cause the economic collapse of emerging nations. Additionally, tobacco firms repatriate income from their activities back to their home countries as opposed to investing in these nations.

Brandt (2009) admitted the following:

Global tobacco production has been supported by major tobacco businesses. Philip Morris, British American Tobacco, and Japan Tobacco each own or lease tobacco manufacturing plants in at least 50 countries and purchase raw tobacco leaf from 12 additional nations. This encouragement, combined with government subsidies, has resulted in an oversupply of tobacco on the market. This surplus has led to decreased prices, which are disastrous for small-scale tobacco farmers. (P. 146).

Tobacco production policies are in force in developing nations, and tobacco success at the farm level is anticipated to decline further, posing a danger to the viability of the tobacco industry in developed nations.

Marketing strategy

Objective

According to Brandt (2009), "large tobacco makers are not the only significant tobacco business players. Companies such as Universal Corporation, DIMON, and Standard Commercial serve as intermediaries, purchasing leaf tobacco from farmers and/or tobacco auctions and then processing and sending it to manufacturers.

The primary purpose will be to establish a corporation in China that will function as an intermediary between Chinese tobacco farmers and Chinese tobacco manufacturers for the supply of tobacco.

Contributing Organization

China Tobacco Company has expanded through a series of acquisitions to become the country's largest tobacco manufacturer. Our endeavors in China will be supported by this company.

Therefore, China Tobacco Company will be the organization supporting this cause.

Marketing mix choice

Place

Place refers to the routes of distribution or intermediaries employed by a producer of goods and services to transport his goods and services from the site of production to the final consumer (Wood, 2010). The three layers of a product are actual product, core product, and augmented product. Actual product is the physical merchandise of a company; core product is the intangible physical benefit that arises from product use, such as car convenience; augment product is the non-physical part that adds value to a product, such as car warranty; and actual product is the physical merchandise of a company (Wood, 2010).

Once a product is created, it is released to the market, where it gradually attracts more and more clients over time. Once the market becomes stable, the product is seen as having reached maturity. As competitors create and introduce superior products to the market, the product depreciates and is finally removed from the marketplace. This represents what is known as The Product Life cycle. The cycle includes five phases: introduction, development, maturity, decline, and withdrawal (Rainey, 2010). During these times, the organization adopts diverse strategies. During the introduction phase, a corporation promotes its products to attract clients, employing various price methods based on the number of competitors, such as price skimming in the presence of few competitors. During the expansion period, new competitors with comparable products emerge. There are mergers and acquisitions, and advertising campaigns are extensive, as each corporation strives to improve its image and increase its market share. During the maturity phase, revenues decline due to fierce competition. Producers expand their promotional efforts in order to distinguish their products from those of their rivals. Due of low profit margins, several producers leave the market when it becomes saturated. The decline phase represents the lowest point for the majority of products. More innovative items are launched to the market, and consumer tastes and preferences are shifting. Profits can only rise if manufacturing and marketing expenses are reduced in response to a drop in product price (Wood, 2010)

In addition, Wood adds that a corporation might use a variety of middlemen to deliver its products or services to the ultimate consumer. This includes wholesalers, agents, retailers, international distributors, the Internet, and direct marketing.

Brandt (2009) admitted the following:

China, home to approximately 25 percent of the world's 1.2 billion smokers, is the recipient of the highest honor. The government-owned China National Tobacco, the world's largest tobacco company, primarily serves China and its annual cigarette sales of over $1.5 trillion. There are over 130 tobacco processing companies in China, and Gallaher Group and Imperial Tobacco have signed deals to manufacture and sell cigarettes there. (p. 148).

The China National Tobacco Company is a state-owned monopoly in the Chinese tobacco business. The corporation manufactures, distributes, and markets all tobacco products in China. However, the corporation has set up local factories that aid in the delivery of the final product to consumers.

In the absence of a middleman between tobacco farmers and tobacco manufacturers, the primary objective will be to build a middleman between tobacco farmers and tobacco manufacturers in all tobacco-producing regions of China. Before transferring it to tobacco corporations, the middlemen will purchase raw tobacco from farmers, dry it, provide storage facilities, and add value through curing.

Product

Product denotes the tangible product or service that a business provides to its clients. The three layers of a product are actual product, core product, and augmented product (Kustin, 2004).

Before distributing tobacco to producers, the corporation will acquire ownership of the product, provide storage facilities, and add value to it. Due to direct sales between tobacco growers and manufacturing enterprises, the physical cost of the final product will be reduced, resulting in a cheaper price and increased market demand.

Breen (2001) proposed that "curing and subsequent aging of tobacco permit the gradual oxidation and degradation of carotenoids in tobacco leaf. This creates certain compounds in the tobacco leaves and imparts a sweet hay, tea, rose oil, or fruity aroma that contributes to the smoke's silkiness."

As a means of adding value to the raw tobacco, the corporation will execute curing. The company will use an air-curing method in which tobacco is hung for four to eight weeks in well-ventilated rooms. Sun curing will also be utilized due to its lower cost. As a result of this specialization, the final product will be of the highest quality.

Price

Price, as defined by Kerin (2008), is the amount of money a client pays for the provision of goods and services. When determining pricing, a corporation considers its profit margin and the prices given by competitors. The primary pricing tactics adopted by a corporation are as follows:

Premium pricing

Those businesses who produce only one-of-a-kind items and services adopt the strategy, which provides a substantial competitive edge over other similar products and services. Due to the products' predominantly opulent nature, a significant price is demanded for them.

Penetration pricing

This approach involves a corporation offering a cheap price for its products and services in order to get a large market share, and then increasing the price once the desired market share has been attained. Sky TV and France Telecom, among others, have utilized this method.

Price Skimming

This approach is utilized by corporations with a strong market advantage for their products, resulting in a higher price for those products. However, this strategy encourages new entrants into the industry, resulting in a decrease in price due to increasing supply. Companies that manufacture digital watches have adopted this pricing technique; when this occurs, the company employs a different pricing method.

Economy pricing

This technique results in low-cost goods and services because production and marketing expenses are kept low.

Price on the foreign market is influenced by a number of factors. These include distribution, marketing, and manufacturing costs, physical interaction with manufacturing firms, foreign currency fluctuations, consumer prices, prices of other linked enterprises, and environmental elements surrounding the worldwide market, such as taxation and government regulations (Wood, 2010).

Wood (2010) includes export pricing, transfer price, non-cash payments, and standardization as international pricing approaches. In the export pricing strategy, pricing decisions for a company's products are made by marketing managers based in the mother country. When a corporation trades its products for other products, a non-cash payment method results; however, this method is obsolete. Transfer pricing is a technique in which marketing managers in the parent country choose the price of a product, while the international subsidiary companies attach the best possible price to it. Standardization entails a business adopting the pricing option it feels most appropriate.

Multiple things influence Price. These include distribution, marketing, and manufacturing costs, physical contact with manufacturing firms, foreign currency fluctuations, consumer price, and prices of other related commodities, as well as environmental factors surrounding the international market, such as taxation and government regulations (Wood, 2010).

Tobacco is an agricultural crop, and its price is dependent on crop yield, which is impacted by weather conditions, as well as the type of species cultivated by farmers, market supply, and country of origin, among other things. Additionally, the Chinese government regulates the prices of tobacco products. These considerations will therefore influence pricing decisions. A geographic pricing strategy will also be implemented based on production costs.

Promotion

Promotion refers to the activities associated with connecting with and marketing a product's prospective buyers (Rainey, 2010). Utilizing salespeople to promote a product on behalf of a company is personal selling. The sales staff is well-trained and costly. The purpose of public relations is to maintain a positive relationship between the company and the public. Direct mail is sending promotional mail to potential clients based on a database. Trade shows and exhibits are helpful for contacting new markets. Expo provides an opportunity for a business to meet with its prospective clients. Advertising is a paid promotional effort utilizing various advertising mediums, such as television and newspapers. Sponsorship entails a business paying for its participation in specific events, such as sports.

On the international market, promotional campaigns must be carried out with extreme caution. A company's media decisions for its products are consequently guided by a number of elements. These include the competition of the company's products with other similar products on the international market, the presence of that medium in the targeted market, the technological and economic development of the targeted market, the availability of local personnel, such as salespeople, to assist in the promotional campaign, the laws governing that particular international company, and, most importantly, the company's objective for carrying out the campaign (Wood, 2010)

When deciding which medium to use for a company's promotional campaign in the foreign market, the social and cultural context of the country's population is a crucial factor. Important is language, which is a significant marketing barrier. China is home to six to twelve distinct cultures (Kerin, 2008).

China has a massive population and a rich cultural heritage. The country also has a vast territory. Media advertisements will be the most effective way to reach the diverse population. Since the government has abundant resources, advertisements will be placed in all types of media. In addition, sales clerks will be employed to collect market data and comments from farmers and tobacco manufacturers, which will contribute to strategic industry planning.

Budget

The proposal will be entirely supported by the Chinese government, with proceeds used to promote the industry. The proposal includes the development of storage facilities, drying ponds, curing equipment, and transport vehicles. There will also be provisions for personnel acquisition. The majority of the labor force, however, will be temporary.

Implementation and management

However, the market plan will be executed in phases in diverse locations. Prior to introducing the plan to additional regions, it will be implemented in provinces with significant commercial production. The government will establish collection locations for farmers to transport their produce. Tobacco will be dried and cured at the collection stations before being transported to China National Tobacco Company and other potential tobacco enterprises. The market plan will be continuously monitored in relation to revenue growth. This will ensure that the most effective techniques are used to take the Chinese tobacco sector to new heights.

References

Brandt, A. (2009). The Rise, Fall, and Deadly Persistence of the Product That Defined America. Basic Books is headquartered in New York, New York.

Breen, T. (2001). Tobacco Culture: The Mindset of the Great Tidewater Planters on the Eve of the American Revolution. Princeton University Press is based in New Jersey.

Caldwell, E. & Nordan, L. (1995). Tobacco Road. University of Georgia Press, Georgia.

Kerin, A. (2008). Marketing Mix Decisions: Innovative Perspectives and Methodologies American Marketing Association, New York.

Kustin, A. (2004). Standardization of the marketing mix: a cross-cultural analysis of four countries. International Business Review, Elsevier SY

D. Rainey (2010). Inventing the Future via Strategy, Innovation, and Leadership for Sustainable Business Development. London, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press

(2010). Wood, M. Marketing Plan Handbook. London, UK: Prentice Hall.

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Ethics. Corporate Social Responsibility Worldwide Argumentative Essay Help Online

Modern company is still in its infancy, and its growth and development will mainly depend on how quickly and accurately it recognizes the fundamental concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Only then can it become the engine of constructive change in socially crucial domains of society, as well as develop and sustain decent working conditions for its employees. First and foremost, the significance and urgency of corporate social responsibility issues are attributable to the high level of economic development of the world's leading economies, which creates the financial means to sustain current living standards and quality of life for the population. The necessity to invest in human capital as a critical condition for innovative economic growth based on the intelligence, education, and creativity of workers is linked to the increasing importance of intangible factors of economic growth. The revision of traditional views on the concept of social policy in the direction of expanding the range of its subjects and a significant reduction in state intervention in solving many socio-economic problems were significant factors in the increased focus on the development of the social functions of the business community in the world.

Despite the significance of the phenomena of corporate social responsibility, not just in the United States but also in countries around the globe, there is no precise definition of it. Consequently, in the West, corporate social responsibility is typically considered as a component of sustainable development. The European Commission, for instance, defines CSR as a concept that reflects the voluntary commitment of businesses to contribute to enhancing the quality of life in society and conserving the environment (Kim & Kim, 2018). In the West, CSR is increasingly understood as an effort to address social issues resulting from corporate activity. Therefore, CSR issues in industrialized nations are launched by society and individuals.

Figure 1. Middle East and North Africa region ("MENA Regions Country," n.d.)

In the MENA region, there are distinct approaches to the definition of CSR. Social responsibility of business is defined in a variety of ways: sometimes narrowly, and sometimes overly broadly. Sonatrach, an Algerian corporation, offered all of its employees with medical insurance and a comprehensive social package, which is not typical for the given locale (Jamali, Lund-Thomsen, & Jeppesen, 2015). In a specific sense, corporate social responsibility entails the obligations of a business to properly carry out the functions of value creation, and to fully meet the socio-ecological and economic requirements defined by laws, ethical standards, and societally accepted rules.

The traditional interpretation of corporate social responsibility in the specific sense entails timely payment of employee salaries, tax payments, compliance with environmental protection legislation, occupational safety and health of employees, and ethical behavior within the confines of existing laws. Consequently, social and labor relations and related economic and political conditions are the foundation for the development of a business's system of social responsibility. From these vantage points, corporate social responsibility functions as a civic approach for resolving employee and labor disputes, containing a mechanism for achieving cultural stability in society. In Israel, for instance, the process of constructing legislative frameworks and tools for executing the relationship between government and business inside the triplet continually creates new techniques for managing firms in the contemporary changing environment (Jamali et al., 2015). The triplet consists of the government, labor unions, and business owners.

In a broad sense, corporate social responsibility is the voluntary contribution of business to the social, economic, and environmental development of society. Frequently, it is unrelated to the company's core business and exceeds the minimum required by law and the ethical norms set by society. This is a hardship for business partners and employees, local communities, and the public at large. The greatest level of corporate social responsibility is membership in a social partnership structure (Kim & Kim, 2018). Revisions are made to the responsibilities of industry, government, and society in addressing socially significant problems, removing cultural reliance, and establishing systems for public oversight of the state's fulfillment of its social commitments.

Numerous Russian firms have already begun to implement socially responsible production and business practices. However, they only use them for private gain and not in the public good. Nonetheless, a significant number of businesses have recognized the efficacy of system social policy. Gazprom, the largest, spends up to 17 percent of its profit on social initiatives (Jamali et al., 2015). Transparency, consistency, significance, and conflict avoidance are the guiding principles of the organization's corporate social responsibility initiatives. Companies founded on these concepts frequently encounter significant obstacles.

Modern Central Asian businesses frequently lack a clear knowledge and conscious embrace of the idea that social responsibility is not an exception caused by specific circumstances, but rather a rule derived from the nature of a huge corporate firm. Because it is a component of society, business cannot operate in isolation from it. Tengizchevroil, for example, is the leader in CSR implementation in Central Asia, but the current national and political system inhibits the practice of comprehensive corporate social responsibility (Jamali et al., 2015). In countries with market economies, a huge firm is the dominant socioeconomic institution. In contrast to small and medium-sized firms, major companies frequently play a role in city formation.

These institutions unite both within and around enormous masses of interested individuals to build an interconnected structure of relationships that can either aid a business in a time of need or prevent it from acting. The presence of social ties confirms once more that a corporation is an important public institution that is part of the system of social relations, which largely determine the socioeconomic development of individual actors of society, and if the corporate sector as a whole is considered, then the nation as a whole (Kim & Kim, 2018). The corporate sector and the government share responsibilities not just for social and labor relations, but also for the general welfare of society.

In conclusion, a socially responsible organization is capable of attracting and retaining skilled workers. In addition, it has the ability to receive long-term investments and the confidence of investors. In addition, corporations must make more efforts to form effective collaborations with other businesses, public and social organizations, and government agencies in order to develop comprehensive collective approaches to corporate responsibility. Such an important subject as the formalization of the disclosure of information about its social engagement deserves more consideration. This can mostly be accomplished via a social reporting mechanism.

References

Jamali, D., Lund-Thomsen, P., & Jeppesen, S. (2015). SMEs and corporate social responsibility in underdeveloped nations. Business & Society, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 11-22.

Kim, M. C., & Kim, Y. H. (2018). The functions of CSR communication through annual reports within the restaurant business in relation to corporate social responsibility and shareholder value. 60(1) Cornell Hospitality Quarterly: 69-76

MENA Region Countries [Image]. (n.d.). Web.

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Coca-Cola: Marketing Policies And Processes Argumentative Essay Help Online

Table of Contents
Introduction Marketing Focus Marketing Strategy The Customer Communication of Coca-Cola Coca Cola's Marketing Strategies Conclusion List of Citations

Introduction

Marketing is crucial for any business selling a product of any kind. Marketing helps potential clients become aware of the product's presence on the market. And once a product is well-established, it helps assure that clients will never forget about it. However, the appropriate form of marketing is equally essential for the success of a product. Misguided marketing can alienate customers, while insufficient or excessive promotion can be counterproductive. For marketing to be successful, the marketing department of a business, as well as the organization as a whole, must comprehend the needs and preferences of customers and sell the product accordingly. This demands an organization-wide marketing orientation, as the marketing department cannot accomplish much without the help of other departments. This essay will address the significance of a company's marketing orientation, examine the essential components of a marketing plan, and evaluate the effectiveness of Coca Cola's usage of these parts.

Marketing Emphasis

The success of the marketing plan of every firm depends on its marketing perspective. Market orientation is a philosophy that focuses on satisfying customers' demands or desires with its products (www.businessdictionary.com). Sometimes, marketing orientation is referred to as customer orientation. Nevertheless, according to Hadcroft (2007), "market-oriented firms require a careful balance between customer- and competitor-focused sources of competitive advantage in order to be less susceptible to the risks of myopic customer orientation."

The majority of businesses prioritize production over sales and marketing. While production is quantitative and scientific, marketing is more intuitive (Barry, 2004). Therefore, it is challenging to build a marketing orientation, and the majority of enterprises focus on manufacturing. In these companies, the small marketing department is responsible for selling the company's goods to clients who may or may not be interested in the product. In such a situation, selling the goods becomes difficult, and even the best-written marketing plan may not provide results.

Every company in the world is in business to earn a profit, and the greatest way to do so is to have satisfied consumers. Companies with a marketing focus recognize that they are in business to satisfy their customers. As the globe continues to evolve, so too must the needs of customers. Consequently, marketing plans must be analyzed and reexamined frequently to remain relevant. A good market plan integrates consumer comments and opinions, and its objective is to build the business around the customer's needs, as opposed to trying to adapt the customer's wants to fit the company's offerings.

Such client focus becomes even more challenging for a firm like Coca-Cola. In its first seventy years of operation after its founding in 1886, the corporation had only one brand. Coca Cola was successful despite its lack of customer focus. Instead of providing a product that satisfied a customer's need, they first created the demand for it. The success of Coca Cola was due to its relentless promotion. Asa Candler, the first president of Coca Cola, employed aggressive marketing to turn an innovation into a corporation as early as the 1890s. He distributed coupons for a free Coca-Cola sample, and the distributing pharmacies plastered the Coca-Cola logo on everything, including the clocks, urns, calendars, and scales (www.coca-cola.com). Since then, this aggressive marketing has been the defining characteristic of the Coca-Cola brand. According to Kramer (1999), Coca-success Cola's has resulted from its ability to generate and maintain brand emblems and slogans, as well as reinforce its feel-good marketing. The company's marketing efforts have transformed Coca Cola into a "brand that promises to make the world a better place" (Kramer, 1999). Marketing orientation has taken on an entirely new meaning at Coca-Cola.

Marketing Plan

A solid marketing plan offers a business with clear guidance on how to direct its marketing activities over the next few years. Entrepreneurs.com provides a summary of the essential components of an effective marketing strategy. According to them, in addition to discussing the future, a smart marketing plan should provide all readers with an in-depth look at the organization. Therefore, the planner must have a comprehensive understanding of the organization's finances, products, competitors, distribution route, and market. If the product is sold in more than one market, it is essential to understand the preferences of consumers in other nations, market trends, and other pertinent demographic data. The marketing planner must also conduct strategic interviews with salespeople in order to comprehend consumer requirements.

After incorporating all of this information into a marketing plan, the planner should do an objective SWOT analysis of the organization. This may include market trends, competitiveness, and demographic factors. Obviously, a marketing plan is insufficient without a thorough examination of the four Ps: product, price, location, and promotion. These must be designed with the intended audience in mind.

Price is frequently the most essential element of the marketing mix. The easiest technique to determine price is to determine the product's cost price and add the desired profit margin. In this strategy, the corporation determines in advance the lowest acceptable price for its goods. However, pricing is difficult. A product's final pricing is determined by a variety of other variables. If a company's target market is wealthy individuals, such as Chanel's consumers, it would make sense to price the clothing at a premium. A low price would diminish the value of the brand. Furthermore, if the consumer is willing to pay a greater price, it makes sense to maximize profits. Marks & Spencer's customers, on the other hand, would not be prepared to pay such a high price, thus the corporation would have to adjust the pricing accordingly. When determining the correct price for a product, numerous other aspects must be considered in addition to the target market. If there are numerous competitors on the market, a price war may ensue, and a business may be compelled to cut its prices. In order to remain competitive in such a situation, a corporation may decide to remove some product extras. For instance, inexpensive hoteliers like Travelodge do not have hotel restaurants, allowing them to give clients lower accommodation rates (Deboo, 2009). Similarly, during difficult circumstances, like as an economic crisis, clients are unwilling to pay a premium and may opt for a product with a cheaper price. In such situations, a product must decide whether to maintain its premium price and risk losing customers, or reduce its prices and risk destroying its brand value. Consequently, determining the appropriate price is not always a simple task.

Price also frequently determines the product's quality. A product with a higher price point could invest more in quality. However, when customers demand lower pricing, the corporation is compelled to reduce prices, which might be fatal for the product. Similarly, a low-priced product can result in lesser profit margins for the company, which can affect its marketing efforts. Consequently, the appropriate pricing might determine a product's success or failure.

In order to be successful, the marketing plan must be cohesive with the overall planning process and should be integrated into the organization's strategies, rather than being a distinct plan. Therefore, the marketing planner must create his plan concurrently with or before the organization's general planning process.

Coca Cola's marketing efforts have been remarkable for over a century. It is commonly stated that a good product, priced and delivered effectively, requires little planning. Coca Cola, on the other hand, has become the world's largest beverage corporation and the most recognizable and valuable brand simply due to its marketing and promotion, especially when one considers that Coca Cola is a completely non-essential commodity. As stated previously, Coca Cola has always been distinguished by its aggressive advertising. All of the brand's recognizable characteristics, including the bottle's shape and the script in which it is written, have been maintained for over a century. However, the brand has had to constantly reinvent itself in response to changing times and competition, as well as adapt to the interests of consumers in other areas. While the majority of these reforms were effective, several of them were catastrophic failures. The key to Coca Cola's success has been moving on from negative encounters and acquiring new customers.

The century-long history of Coca-Cola has not been without difficulties. Coca Cola's finest years were immediately after World War II, when its market share reached 52 percent. In the 1980s, however, because to fierce competition from Pepsi, this percentage had decreased to 24%. Coca-Cola introduced New Coke in 1985 in an attempt to regain its market position. Despite considerable market research and taste testing before to its release, the product was a colossal failure. It has also modified its tagline, packaging, graphics, and other marketing materials over the years, with the most significant modification occurring in 1999. (Howard, 1999). All of these successful and unsuccessful modifications were made to Coca Cola's marketing initiatives in response to shifting consumer tastes.

As Coca Cola grew its operations to more than 200 countries, it had to change its marketing methods correspondingly. When expanding global, businesses must frequently decide whether to standardize and reap the benefits of economies of scale or to adapt to the local market for greater market penetration. Sergio Zyman, the former chief marketing officer of Coca Cola, believes that a corporation must operate locally in order to think globally (Vrontis & Sharp, 2003). As Coca Cola expanded into these diverse markets, it adapted its strategy in order to provide consumers with the most relevant marketing and beverages. In order to be successful, it was necessary to conduct significant marketing research and develop marketing strategies that were specific to each country.

The primary change for Coca-Cola has been in its marketing mix. Coca Cola has never had to worry about distribution, as the company floods the market with its product so that consumers can readily locate it. Coca-Cola has, however, had to price its beverages at a level that consumers in a specific market are prepared to pay due to the varying levels of development in different countries. This would not have been conceivable if Coca-Cola had performed all bottling operations in the United States before exporting the beverage. By outsourcing the bottling operations to the locals, the corporation was able to efficiently circumvent this pricing constraint and maintain expenses low. In Brazil, Coke has struggled as a result of having to compete with not only Pepsi but also local beverages, which has required it to maintain low prices, harming its profitability. Coca Cola returned to using glass returnable bottles in Brazil, which allowed them to cut their prices while maintaining their profitability (Gertner, Gertner & Guthery, 2005).

Similarly, promotion must consider local circumstances. When Coca Cola entered India in the 1990s, Pepsi was already well-established there, and Coke's marketing, which highlighted the brand's red color, did not resonate with the locals. While the advertising were successful in increasing awareness of Coca Cola's launch, they failed to develop a brand name or generate interest in the product, which is the primary goal of any promotional activity (Sherlock & Reuvid, 2005). Coca Cola had to engage Bollywood actors as brand ambassadors in order to reach customers before it could compete seriously with Pepsi.

The Customer Communication of Coca-Cola

According to Sergio Zyman, the former head of marketing at Coca-Cola, marketing is the science of positioning a product in front of its intended buyers (Donaton, 1999). Coca Cola has done an excellent job of putting its goods in front of people for over a century. Coca-Cola and other carbonated beverages produced by the firm are readily available everywhere. Inundating the market with its product is one method of communicating with the target market.

The organization has always devised novel and innovative customer communication strategies. As previously said, several of the most recognizable characteristics of Coca-Cola have not altered since its introduction. The unique script used to write it, the bottle's shape, and the formula have stayed unaltered for over a century. While these have become the brand's defining characteristics, Coca Cola has always relied heavily on advertising to reach customers and maintain their interest in the product. Coca-Cola employs all advertising channels to reach consumers. These include print media, television, event sponsorship, and flyers.

Coca Cola also conducts aggressive sales efforts, such as coupons, "two for the price of one," and competitions, in order to increase sales. To increase sales, the corporation frequently sells Coca Cola and other carbonated beverages in larger, more inexpensive packs. These sales promotions are ideal for overcoming Coca Cola's fierce competition with Pepsi.

Coca Cola also has a dedicated public relations department that ensures the corporation and its products are constantly in the news and helps mitigate the impact of unfavorable press, such as the discovery of pollutants in coke bottles in Belgium (Ackerman, 1999). The PR department is responsible for maintaining the brand's reputation. PR efforts can go a long way toward ensuring that the majority, if not all, of these messages are good (McGilligan, 2009). Obviously, the PR staff does its typical duties of connecting with the various stakeholders and monitoring all company messages. In this regard, Coca-PR Cola's department is among the best in the industry. In 2001, in response to growing criticism about Coca-nutritional Cola's value for school children, Coca-Cola decided to end its strategy of requiring exclusivity from school districts in exchange for additional revenues for school programs. This was an example of Coca-public Cola's relations efforts (King, 2001). These statements help counteract adverse publicity and

Coca-Cola: Marketing Policies And Processes Argumentative Essay Help Online

Table of Contents
Introduction Marketing Focus Marketing Strategy The Customer Communication of Coca-Cola Coca Cola's Marketing Strategies Conclusion List of Citations

Introduction

Marketing is crucial for any business selling a product of any kind. Marketing helps potential clients become aware of the product's presence on the market. And once a product is well-established, it helps assure that clients will never forget about it. However, the appropriate form of marketing is equally essential for the success of a product. Misguided marketing can alienate customers, while insufficient or excessive promotion can be counterproductive. For marketing to be successful, the marketing department of a business, as well as the organization as a whole, must comprehend the needs and preferences of customers and sell the product accordingly. This demands an organization-wide marketing orientation, as the marketing department cannot accomplish much without the help of other departments. This essay will address the significance of a company's marketing orientation, examine the essential components of a marketing plan, and evaluate the effectiveness of Coca Cola's usage of these parts.

Marketing Emphasis

The success of the marketing plan of every firm depends on its marketing perspective. Market orientation is a philosophy that focuses on satisfying customers' demands or desires with its products (www.businessdictionary.com). Sometimes, marketing orientation is referred to as customer orientation. Nevertheless, according to Hadcroft (2007), "market-oriented firms require a careful balance between customer- and competitor-focused sources of competitive advantage in order to be less susceptible to the risks of myopic customer orientation."

The majority of businesses prioritize production over sales and marketing. While production is quantitative and scientific, marketing is more intuitive (Barry, 2004). Therefore, it is challenging to build a marketing orientation, and the majority of enterprises focus on manufacturing. In these companies, the small marketing department is responsible for selling the company's goods to clients who may or may not be interested in the product. In such a situation, selling the goods becomes difficult, and even the best-written marketing plan may not provide results.

Every company in the world is in business to earn a profit, and the greatest way to do so is to have satisfied consumers. Companies with a marketing focus recognize that they are in business to satisfy their customers. As the globe continues to evolve, so too must the needs of customers. Consequently, marketing plans must be analyzed and reexamined frequently to remain relevant. A good market plan integrates consumer comments and opinions, and its objective is to build the business around the customer's needs, as opposed to trying to adapt the customer's wants to fit the company's offerings.

Such client focus becomes even more challenging for a firm like Coca-Cola. In its first seventy years of operation after its founding in 1886, the corporation had only one brand. Coca Cola was successful despite its lack of customer focus. Instead of providing a product that satisfied a customer's need, they first created the demand for it. The success of Coca Cola was due to its relentless promotion. Asa Candler, the first president of Coca Cola, employed aggressive marketing to turn an innovation into a corporation as early as the 1890s. He distributed coupons for a free Coca-Cola sample, and the distributing pharmacies plastered the Coca-Cola logo on everything, including the clocks, urns, calendars, and scales (www.coca-cola.com). Since then, this aggressive marketing has been the defining characteristic of the Coca-Cola brand. According to Kramer (1999), Coca-success Cola's has resulted from its ability to generate and maintain brand emblems and slogans, as well as reinforce its feel-good marketing. The company's marketing efforts have transformed Coca Cola into a "brand that promises to make the world a better place" (Kramer, 1999). Marketing orientation has taken on an entirely new meaning at Coca-Cola.

Marketing Plan

A solid marketing plan offers a business with clear guidance on how to direct its marketing activities over the next few years. Entrepreneurs.com provides a summary of the essential components of an effective marketing strategy. According to them, in addition to discussing the future, a smart marketing plan should provide all readers with an in-depth look at the organization. Therefore, the planner must have a comprehensive understanding of the organization's finances, products, competitors, distribution route, and market. If the product is sold in more than one market, it is essential to understand the preferences of consumers in other nations, market trends, and other pertinent demographic data. The marketing planner must also conduct strategic interviews with salespeople in order to comprehend consumer requirements.

After incorporating all of this information into a marketing plan, the planner should do an objective SWOT analysis of the organization. This may include market trends, competitiveness, and demographic factors. Obviously, a marketing plan is insufficient without a thorough examination of the four Ps: product, price, location, and promotion. These must be designed with the intended audience in mind.

Price is frequently the most essential element of the marketing mix. The easiest technique to determine price is to determine the product's cost price and add the desired profit margin. In this strategy, the corporation determines in advance the lowest acceptable price for its goods. However, pricing is difficult. A product's final pricing is determined by a variety of other variables. If a company's target market is wealthy individuals, such as Chanel's consumers, it would make sense to price the clothing at a premium. A low price would diminish the value of the brand. Furthermore, if the consumer is willing to pay a greater price, it makes sense to maximize profits. Marks & Spencer's customers, on the other hand, would not be prepared to pay such a high price, thus the corporation would have to adjust the pricing accordingly. When determining the correct price for a product, numerous other aspects must be considered in addition to the target market. If there are numerous competitors on the market, a price war may ensue, and a business may be compelled to cut its prices. In order to remain competitive in such a situation, a corporation may decide to remove some product extras. For instance, inexpensive hoteliers like Travelodge do not have hotel restaurants, allowing them to give clients lower accommodation rates (Deboo, 2009). Similarly, during difficult circumstances, like as an economic crisis, clients are unwilling to pay a premium and may opt for a product with a cheaper price. In such situations, a product must decide whether to maintain its premium price and risk losing customers, or reduce its prices and risk destroying its brand value. Consequently, determining the appropriate price is not always a simple task.

Price also frequently determines the product's quality. A product with a higher price point could invest more in quality. However, when customers demand lower pricing, the corporation is compelled to reduce prices, which might be fatal for the product. Similarly, a low-priced product can result in lesser profit margins for the company, which can affect its marketing efforts. Consequently, the appropriate pricing might determine a product's success or failure.

In order to be successful, the marketing plan must be cohesive with the overall planning process and should be integrated into the organization's strategies, rather than being a distinct plan. Therefore, the marketing planner must create his plan concurrently with or before the organization's general planning process.

Coca Cola's marketing efforts have been remarkable for over a century. It is commonly stated that a good product, priced and delivered effectively, requires little planning. Coca Cola, on the other hand, has become the world's largest beverage corporation and the most recognizable and valuable brand simply due to its marketing and promotion, especially when one considers that Coca Cola is a completely non-essential commodity. As stated previously, Coca Cola has always been distinguished by its aggressive advertising. All of the brand's recognizable characteristics, including the bottle's shape and the script in which it is written, have been maintained for over a century. However, the brand has had to constantly reinvent itself in response to changing times and competition, as well as adapt to the interests of consumers in other areas. While the majority of these reforms were effective, several of them were catastrophic failures. The key to Coca Cola's success has been moving on from negative encounters and acquiring new customers.

The century-long history of Coca-Cola has not been without difficulties. Coca Cola's finest years were immediately after World War II, when its market share reached 52 percent. In the 1980s, however, because to fierce competition from Pepsi, this percentage had decreased to 24%. Coca-Cola introduced New Coke in 1985 in an attempt to regain its market position. Despite considerable market research and taste testing before to its release, the product was a colossal failure. It has also modified its tagline, packaging, graphics, and other marketing materials over the years, with the most significant modification occurring in 1999. (Howard, 1999). All of these successful and unsuccessful modifications were made to Coca Cola's marketing initiatives in response to shifting consumer tastes.

As Coca Cola grew its operations to more than 200 countries, it had to change its marketing methods correspondingly. When expanding global, businesses must frequently decide whether to standardize and reap the benefits of economies of scale or to adapt to the local market for greater market penetration. Sergio Zyman, the former chief marketing officer of Coca Cola, believes that a corporation must operate locally in order to think globally (Vrontis & Sharp, 2003). As Coca Cola expanded into these diverse markets, it adapted its strategy in order to provide consumers with the most relevant marketing and beverages. In order to be successful, it was necessary to conduct significant marketing research and develop marketing strategies that were specific to each country.

The primary change for Coca-Cola has been in its marketing mix. Coca Cola has never had to worry about distribution, as the company floods the market with its product so that consumers can readily locate it. Coca-Cola has, however, had to price its beverages at a level that consumers in a specific market are prepared to pay due to the varying levels of development in different countries. This would not have been conceivable if Coca-Cola had performed all bottling operations in the United States before exporting the beverage. By outsourcing the bottling operations to the locals, the corporation was able to efficiently circumvent this pricing constraint and maintain expenses low. In Brazil, Coke has struggled as a result of having to compete with not only Pepsi but also local beverages, which has required it to maintain low prices, harming its profitability. Coca Cola returned to using glass returnable bottles in Brazil, which allowed them to cut their prices while maintaining their profitability (Gertner, Gertner & Guthery, 2005).

Similarly, promotion must consider local circumstances. When Coca Cola entered India in the 1990s, Pepsi was already well-established there, and Coke's marketing, which highlighted the brand's red color, did not resonate with the locals. While the advertising were successful in increasing awareness of Coca Cola's launch, they failed to develop a brand name or generate interest in the product, which is the primary goal of any promotional activity (Sherlock & Reuvid, 2005). Coca Cola had to engage Bollywood actors as brand ambassadors in order to reach customers before it could compete seriously with Pepsi.

The Customer Communication of Coca-Cola

According to Sergio Zyman, the former head of marketing at Coca-Cola, marketing is the science of positioning a product in front of its intended buyers (Donaton, 1999). Coca Cola has done an excellent job of putting its goods in front of people for over a century. Coca-Cola and other carbonated beverages produced by the firm are readily available everywhere. Inundating the market with its product is one method of communicating with the target market.

The organization has always devised novel and innovative customer communication strategies. As previously said, several of the most recognizable characteristics of Coca-Cola have not altered since its introduction. The unique script used to write it, the bottle's shape, and the formula have stayed unaltered for over a century. While these have become the brand's defining characteristics, Coca Cola has always relied heavily on advertising to reach customers and maintain their interest in the product. Coca-Cola employs all advertising channels to reach consumers. These include print media, television, event sponsorship, and flyers.

Coca Cola also conducts aggressive sales efforts, such as coupons, "two for the price of one," and competitions, in order to increase sales. To increase sales, the corporation frequently sells Coca Cola and other carbonated beverages in larger, more inexpensive packs. These sales promotions are ideal for overcoming Coca Cola's fierce competition with Pepsi.

Coca Cola also has a dedicated public relations department that ensures the corporation and its products are constantly in the news and helps mitigate the impact of unfavorable press, such as the discovery of pollutants in coke bottles in Belgium (Ackerman, 1999). The PR department is responsible for maintaining the brand's reputation. PR efforts can go a long way toward ensuring that the majority, if not all, of these messages are good (McGilligan, 2009). Obviously, the PR staff does its typical duties of connecting with the various stakeholders and monitoring all company messages. In this regard, Coca-PR Cola's department is among the best in the industry. In 2001, in response to growing criticism about Coca-nutritional Cola's value for school children, Coca-Cola decided to end its strategy of requiring exclusivity from school districts in exchange for additional revenues for school programs. This was an example of Coca-public Cola's relations efforts (King, 2001). These statements help counteract adverse publicity and

Quality Management And Value Creation In Business Argumentative Essay Help Online

Table of Contents
Management of quality and value for the company Management of risk and uncertainty Innovation concerns Forecasting, estimation of costs and budgets, and cash flow Change management The project's earned value Reference List

Management of quality and value for the company

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) identifies quality management as a multi-principle-based method. Among the most significant of these concepts are customer focus, employee participation, and proper leadership ("Quality management principles", 2009). It is fundamental to quality management to ensure that the perspectives of all stakeholders are taken into account. However, quality management requires the company or organization to not only examine these perspectives, but also create a method for all stakeholder groups to profit from the project. As a result, the International organization for standardization has designated "continuous improvement" and "mutual beneficence by process participants" as the final two requirements for the achievement of quality management. Thus, quality management is a form of "standard" that a business or organization should strive towards if quality and customer happiness are their objectives. Nonetheless, if quality management is the "strategy" or guiding framework, then value management enables this.

"Value management is concerned with achieving and maintaining a desirable equilibrium between the wants and demands of stakeholders and the resources required to meet them. Stakeholder value assessments vary, and value management reconciles various objectives to create best value for all stakeholders." (Sefa, 2007)

Thus, it is clear that value management is the instrument via which the requirements of quality management are implemented and made practical. Based on the aforementioned quality standards, this management style adds quantifiable value to them. Value management prioritizes the objectives generated from these principles over the solutions and focuses on the many activities within and outside the business in order to foster innovation.

Certainly, this is our situation with the Taj Mahal Cycle project. As an environmental group, the focus is on the positive change we can bring to the residents of the Taj area in particular and the city of Agra in general. We must therefore combine a distinctive management style with an integrated framework centered on value. We must also establish a constructive attitude toward all of the stakeholders, including the city's residents, tourists, businesses, and the city itself (Jeanne, 1994).

We must first evaluate the conditions of the project. It is located in the Taj region, in the city of Agra (area). Tourism is the primary source of income for a large number of families in this culturally interesting region. In spite of the region's cultural and tourism diversity, there are very few international visitors. The primary reasons for this are Agra's social and environmental issues. This is why many tourists prefer day trips from New Delhi to Agra and return. Thus, Agra loses a significant source of local economic development and job creation (Gomez-Mejia, 2008).

The company's quality aims are to increase the number of tourists in the area. This will contribute to an improvement in the economic and social conditions of the local families. As an environmental organization, another key purpose is to cause as little damage to the environment as possible. Instead, the upgrading project for bicycle taxis aims to drastically reduce the region's existing carbon emissions and pollution.

This project aims to support the replacement of various polluting assets, such as taxi automobiles and two-stroke motorcycles, with eco-friendly cycle rickshaws. The initial purpose of value management is to make cycle rickshaws more appealing to taxi drivers than two-stroke motorbikes or cars. The second objective is to make these cycle rickshaws affordable, and the third objective is to give them a more appealing design than the ones now manufactured. A final objective is to transform the cycle rickshaw taxi into a tourist attraction that will generate additional jobs as the number of international visitors rises. To achieve all of this, however, the production of cycle rickshaws must undergo a technological revolution and undergo a major cost reduction. In addition, a social campaign is required to eliminate the perception that cycle rickshaw drivers belong to the lowest socioeconomic classes. These are the primary problems and dangers facing the project management team.

Management of risk and uncertainty

The fact that Smith & White is an international business is advantageous. This circumstance has afforded the corporation the opportunity to achieve market dominance. Smith & White possesses a significant competitive advantage due to its dominance in all markets in which it operates.

The company's unified marketing strategy for both its power tool and non-power tool product lines is an additional asset. There has also been an ongoing attempt to create and sustain favorable brand recognition through a huge national media advertising campaign. This has resulted in a "demand formation" strategy wherein the corporation has affected the market in order to develop demand for its various products. This has been a strength factor that has allowed the corporation to maintain higher prices than the market price up until the present. Additionally, it has aided the company with merchants who have ordered big amounts of its products and allocated prominent shelf space in response to high-end consumer demand. However, this can have a negative consequence, as we will describe below.

The fact that a corporation is so "large" also has negative consequences. First, the presence of a wide variety of products, including those for professional and consumer usage, on the same shelf has led to customer confusion. They lack a "clear understanding" (distinct branding) of individual instruments and their appliance, professional, or consumer uses. Second, the corporation has responded relatively slowly to wireless market developments and new, inventive technology. In this approach, the company's size has been "time-consuming and bureaucratic." Another element contributing to the company's failure is the fact that its distributors have an unfavorable perception of the company's strong market position. The relationship a firm has with its employees and human resources is crucial to its well-being (Stroup, 2008). The distributors' negative emotions might break the chain of good management that carries products from the production sites to the client. This will have an impact on the public's recognition of the company's brand. As a result, this circumstance can become a danger to the company's market position if it has a negative impact. Smith & White's inability to meet market innovation norms is an additional weakness. As stated previously, the company's size has hindered its responsiveness to the industry's wireless device development. However, the high cost of labor and outdated manufacturing technology in its factories are the primary contributors to this delayed response.

This vulnerability might rapidly become a big threat to the firm. The danger is that it will gradually lose market share as the market continually shifts toward more technologically advanced instruments. This condition, when coupled with its high labor expenses and inadequate industrial technologies, might result in financial strain and, ultimately, catastrophe. This will reduce the company's appeal to both investors and customers. To avoid these challenges and pursue future prospects, the organization must take urgent action.

First, it must reduce its labor expenses by relocating its manufacturing facilities to areas with lower labor prices. Incorporating informational technologies into work processes in an effort to increase their efficacy will be an additional crucial element (Davenport, 1993). With an increase in efficiency, the organization will be able to adapt to market developments more swiftly. Another potential stems from the company's already overwhelming market share in its existing markets. It will be able to further cement its position as a result of the efficiency increase. In turn, this will provide the company with the option to attract investors in order to raise funds for the modernization of its manufacturing technologies. This remodeling will allow for the creation of new technological instruments, including wireless ones. The company should also become more specialized in the products it manufactures. Customers must no longer be unable to distinguish between its professional and consumer-oriented tools. The organization should prioritize either professional or consumer-based tools and devote the majority of its resources to this market. This will give the organization the ability to become the market leader in this area, making the introduction of new goods easier.

Innovation concerns

Although Makatume holds a distinct viewpoint than Smith & White, the two companies are comparable. Makatume's greatest asset is that its brand name for professional products is well-known and has a favorable reputation among Japanese and American consumers. Being the largest market participant in Japan and the second largest in the United States is evidence of this. The second strength is the reduced manufacturing costs resulting from its technologically advanced facilities. This allowed Makatume to be the pioneer in new cordless technology tools and become the market leader in this industry. These are the company's three greatest strengths, from which it can extract future opportunities (Lubka, 2002).

But the company's chosen policy over the past few years contains a fundamental flaw that could become fatal. Due to favorable exchange rates, it has made substantial profits, but it now appears that the wind will change, and trading in yen (rather than in the currency of the client market, the US dollar) has become a vulnerability that can quickly become a threat. Due to its early entry into the cordless market sector, this company is currently constrained to produce low voltage battery tools at a time when the industry is shifting toward high voltage batteries. Thus, one of Makatume's potential risks is a financial strain resulting from a favorable exchange rate reversal. Profits will decline not because of product quality but because of currency exchange rates.

There are also Chinese exporters who benefit from reduced manufacturing costs and good Yuan/US dollar exchange rates. This could pose a significant danger to Makatume. Thus, Chinese appliances will eventually replace Makatume's products, resulting in a decline in the company's market share. Less market share and an unfavorable exchange rate will have a detrimental impact on Makatume's income and public image. This is the second and maybe greatest threat facing Makatume (Kulwant et al, 1993).

Therefore, the corporation must move swiftly. The strong brand familiarity among American consumers presents an enormous opportunity for Makatume. It is prudent for the corporation to progressively relocate a portion of its manufacturing line processes to the United States in order to resolve its yen-to-dollar exchange rate issue. Perhaps it can only transfer a portion of its construction processes. This will allow Makatume to sell in US dollars directly. The cost increase is manageable due to the brand's strong good awareness. The company's dominance in the markets for cordless tools and professional equipment presents another potential. It is optimal to transition progressively from low-voltage to high-voltage batteries. First, just in newly offered tools, coexisting with low-voltage battery ones, and then progressively converting all of its items to high-voltage batteries. With its substantial market share, Makatume will be able to mitigate the negative repercussions of this move (no author, 2009).

Forecasting, estimation of costs and budgets, and cash flow

Covington Building Supply is a corporation involved in building maintenance and renovation. The organization works with homeowners who wish to rebuild or repair their homes, as well as public or private commercial structures that require maintenance. This company's primary market is the housing market, along with the private business centers market, resorts, etc., but Covington Building can also aid you with remodeling your home, for instance, in addition to restoring your building after damage.

As stated previously, the company's clients might range from private homeowners to large corporations seeking to repair or renovate property facilities. Given that the majority of the company's sales and revenues occur in the second and third quarters, we may assume that its customers view the company's services as something they can utilize over the summer months. People typically rebuild their homes during the summer, when they are able to take time off from work. The same is true for corporations seeking to renovate their structures. Spring and summer are the optimal seasons for this activity (Hill & Westbrook, 1997).

The sheer nature of the business indicates that Covington Building Supply's primary suppliers are companies that produce repair-related raw materials. Covington Building Supply is currently in a favorable position due to Mr. Covington's business acumen, which has contributed to the company's great reputation. This has helped create confidence, and Covington Building can now rely on suppliers of superior quality. Ultimately, this predicament will benefit the Covington Company.

Change management

A bank's primary worry when extending credit to a business is the latter's ability to repay the debt. Banks are mostly interested in your ability to generate sufficient money to timely repay their debt. The second thing they consider is if you will demand further financing to build your business, so they can finance you again. Thus, it is essential in our situation to examine Covington Building Supply's most important characteristics. The first is their ratio of debt to equity. This is the comparison between their total liabilities and total assets. But what really matters is the value of a company's long-term debt.

This is because long-term debts can harm companies in the future. A high debt-to-equity ratio indicates that the corporation is investing aggressively using borrowed capital. If income will continue to exceed the amount required to cover the cost of debt (its interest), the company will profit. Thus

Quality Management And Value Creation In Business Argumentative Essay Help Online

Table of Contents
Management of quality and value for the company Management of risk and uncertainty Innovation concerns Forecasting, estimation of costs and budgets, and cash flow Change management The project's earned value Reference List

Management of quality and value for the company

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) identifies quality management as a multi-principle-based method. Among the most significant of these concepts are customer focus, employee participation, and proper leadership ("Quality management principles", 2009). It is fundamental to quality management to ensure that the perspectives of all stakeholders are taken into account. However, quality management requires the company or organization to not only examine these perspectives, but also create a method for all stakeholder groups to profit from the project. As a result, the International organization for standardization has designated "continuous improvement" and "mutual beneficence by process participants" as the final two requirements for the achievement of quality management. Thus, quality management is a form of "standard" that a business or organization should strive towards if quality and customer happiness are their objectives. Nonetheless, if quality management is the "strategy" or guiding framework, then value management enables this.

"Value management is concerned with achieving and maintaining a desirable equilibrium between the wants and demands of stakeholders and the resources required to meet them. Stakeholder value assessments vary, and value management reconciles various objectives to create best value for all stakeholders." (Sefa, 2007)

Thus, it is clear that value management is the instrument via which the requirements of quality management are implemented and made practical. Based on the aforementioned quality standards, this management style adds quantifiable value to them. Value management prioritizes the objectives generated from these principles over the solutions and focuses on the many activities within and outside the business in order to foster innovation.

Certainly, this is our situation with the Taj Mahal Cycle project. As an environmental group, the focus is on the positive change we can bring to the residents of the Taj area in particular and the city of Agra in general. We must therefore combine a distinctive management style with an integrated framework centered on value. We must also establish a constructive attitude toward all of the stakeholders, including the city's residents, tourists, businesses, and the city itself (Jeanne, 1994).

We must first evaluate the conditions of the project. It is located in the Taj region, in the city of Agra (area). Tourism is the primary source of income for a large number of families in this culturally interesting region. In spite of the region's cultural and tourism diversity, there are very few international visitors. The primary reasons for this are Agra's social and environmental issues. This is why many tourists prefer day trips from New Delhi to Agra and return. Thus, Agra loses a significant source of local economic development and job creation (Gomez-Mejia, 2008).

The company's quality aims are to increase the number of tourists in the area. This will contribute to an improvement in the economic and social conditions of the local families. As an environmental organization, another key purpose is to cause as little damage to the environment as possible. Instead, the upgrading project for bicycle taxis aims to drastically reduce the region's existing carbon emissions and pollution.

This project aims to support the replacement of various polluting assets, such as taxi automobiles and two-stroke motorcycles, with eco-friendly cycle rickshaws. The initial purpose of value management is to make cycle rickshaws more appealing to taxi drivers than two-stroke motorbikes or cars. The second objective is to make these cycle rickshaws affordable, and the third objective is to give them a more appealing design than the ones now manufactured. A final objective is to transform the cycle rickshaw taxi into a tourist attraction that will generate additional jobs as the number of international visitors rises. To achieve all of this, however, the production of cycle rickshaws must undergo a technological revolution and undergo a major cost reduction. In addition, a social campaign is required to eliminate the perception that cycle rickshaw drivers belong to the lowest socioeconomic classes. These are the primary problems and dangers facing the project management team.

Management of risk and uncertainty

The fact that Smith & White is an international business is advantageous. This circumstance has afforded the corporation the opportunity to achieve market dominance. Smith & White possesses a significant competitive advantage due to its dominance in all markets in which it operates.

The company's unified marketing strategy for both its power tool and non-power tool product lines is an additional asset. There has also been an ongoing attempt to create and sustain favorable brand recognition through a huge national media advertising campaign. This has resulted in a "demand formation" strategy wherein the corporation has affected the market in order to develop demand for its various products. This has been a strength factor that has allowed the corporation to maintain higher prices than the market price up until the present. Additionally, it has aided the company with merchants who have ordered big amounts of its products and allocated prominent shelf space in response to high-end consumer demand. However, this can have a negative consequence, as we will describe below.

The fact that a corporation is so "large" also has negative consequences. First, the presence of a wide variety of products, including those for professional and consumer usage, on the same shelf has led to customer confusion. They lack a "clear understanding" (distinct branding) of individual instruments and their appliance, professional, or consumer uses. Second, the corporation has responded relatively slowly to wireless market developments and new, inventive technology. In this approach, the company's size has been "time-consuming and bureaucratic." Another element contributing to the company's failure is the fact that its distributors have an unfavorable perception of the company's strong market position. The relationship a firm has with its employees and human resources is crucial to its well-being (Stroup, 2008). The distributors' negative emotions might break the chain of good management that carries products from the production sites to the client. This will have an impact on the public's recognition of the company's brand. As a result, this circumstance can become a danger to the company's market position if it has a negative impact. Smith & White's inability to meet market innovation norms is an additional weakness. As stated previously, the company's size has hindered its responsiveness to the industry's wireless device development. However, the high cost of labor and outdated manufacturing technology in its factories are the primary contributors to this delayed response.

This vulnerability might rapidly become a big threat to the firm. The danger is that it will gradually lose market share as the market continually shifts toward more technologically advanced instruments. This condition, when coupled with its high labor expenses and inadequate industrial technologies, might result in financial strain and, ultimately, catastrophe. This will reduce the company's appeal to both investors and customers. To avoid these challenges and pursue future prospects, the organization must take urgent action.

First, it must reduce its labor expenses by relocating its manufacturing facilities to areas with lower labor prices. Incorporating informational technologies into work processes in an effort to increase their efficacy will be an additional crucial element (Davenport, 1993). With an increase in efficiency, the organization will be able to adapt to market developments more swiftly. Another potential stems from the company's already overwhelming market share in its existing markets. It will be able to further cement its position as a result of the efficiency increase. In turn, this will provide the company with the option to attract investors in order to raise funds for the modernization of its manufacturing technologies. This remodeling will allow for the creation of new technological instruments, including wireless ones. The company should also become more specialized in the products it manufactures. Customers must no longer be unable to distinguish between its professional and consumer-oriented tools. The organization should prioritize either professional or consumer-based tools and devote the majority of its resources to this market. This will give the organization the ability to become the market leader in this area, making the introduction of new goods easier.

Innovation concerns

Although Makatume holds a distinct viewpoint than Smith & White, the two companies are comparable. Makatume's greatest asset is that its brand name for professional products is well-known and has a favorable reputation among Japanese and American consumers. Being the largest market participant in Japan and the second largest in the United States is evidence of this. The second strength is the reduced manufacturing costs resulting from its technologically advanced facilities. This allowed Makatume to be the pioneer in new cordless technology tools and become the market leader in this industry. These are the company's three greatest strengths, from which it can extract future opportunities (Lubka, 2002).

But the company's chosen policy over the past few years contains a fundamental flaw that could become fatal. Due to favorable exchange rates, it has made substantial profits, but it now appears that the wind will change, and trading in yen (rather than in the currency of the client market, the US dollar) has become a vulnerability that can quickly become a threat. Due to its early entry into the cordless market sector, this company is currently constrained to produce low voltage battery tools at a time when the industry is shifting toward high voltage batteries. Thus, one of Makatume's potential risks is a financial strain resulting from a favorable exchange rate reversal. Profits will decline not because of product quality but because of currency exchange rates.

There are also Chinese exporters who benefit from reduced manufacturing costs and good Yuan/US dollar exchange rates. This could pose a significant danger to Makatume. Thus, Chinese appliances will eventually replace Makatume's products, resulting in a decline in the company's market share. Less market share and an unfavorable exchange rate will have a detrimental impact on Makatume's income and public image. This is the second and maybe greatest threat facing Makatume (Kulwant et al, 1993).

Therefore, the corporation must move swiftly. The strong brand familiarity among American consumers presents an enormous opportunity for Makatume. It is prudent for the corporation to progressively relocate a portion of its manufacturing line processes to the United States in order to resolve its yen-to-dollar exchange rate issue. Perhaps it can only transfer a portion of its construction processes. This will allow Makatume to sell in US dollars directly. The cost increase is manageable due to the brand's strong good awareness. The company's dominance in the markets for cordless tools and professional equipment presents another potential. It is optimal to transition progressively from low-voltage to high-voltage batteries. First, just in newly offered tools, coexisting with low-voltage battery ones, and then progressively converting all of its items to high-voltage batteries. With its substantial market share, Makatume will be able to mitigate the negative repercussions of this move (no author, 2009).

Forecasting, estimation of costs and budgets, and cash flow

Covington Building Supply is a corporation involved in building maintenance and renovation. The organization works with homeowners who wish to rebuild or repair their homes, as well as public or private commercial structures that require maintenance. This company's primary market is the housing market, along with the private business centers market, resorts, etc., but Covington Building can also aid you with remodeling your home, for instance, in addition to restoring your building after damage.

As stated previously, the company's clients might range from private homeowners to large corporations seeking to repair or renovate property facilities. Given that the majority of the company's sales and revenues occur in the second and third quarters, we may assume that its customers view the company's services as something they can utilize over the summer months. People typically rebuild their homes during the summer, when they are able to take time off from work. The same is true for corporations seeking to renovate their structures. Spring and summer are the optimal seasons for this activity (Hill & Westbrook, 1997).

The sheer nature of the business indicates that Covington Building Supply's primary suppliers are companies that produce repair-related raw materials. Covington Building Supply is currently in a favorable position due to Mr. Covington's business acumen, which has contributed to the company's great reputation. This has helped create confidence, and Covington Building can now rely on suppliers of superior quality. Ultimately, this predicament will benefit the Covington Company.

Change management

A bank's primary worry when extending credit to a business is the latter's ability to repay the debt. Banks are mostly interested in your ability to generate sufficient money to timely repay their debt. The second thing they consider is if you will demand further financing to build your business, so they can finance you again. Thus, it is essential in our situation to examine Covington Building Supply's most important characteristics. The first is their ratio of debt to equity. This is the comparison between their total liabilities and total assets. But what really matters is the value of a company's long-term debt.

This is because long-term debts can harm companies in the future. A high debt-to-equity ratio indicates that the corporation is investing aggressively using borrowed capital. If income will continue to exceed the amount required to cover the cost of debt (its interest), the company will profit. Thus

Client Relationship Plan: Sand And Sky Argumentative Essay Help Online

Table of Contents
Commerce and Industry International Market Australian Market Terms and Materials Establish Contacts A Summary of the References

Commerce and Industry

For many years, the beauty industry has been one of the most popular business sectors. Women over the world take care of themselves and strive to conform to societal norms. This is assisted in particular by the emergence of the Internet and social networks that encourage particular appearance standards. In addition, a substantial number of advertising emphasize the industry's influence on women. The purchase of cosmetics and self-care goods is made more enticing by the use of appealing imagery and slogans. Notably, the beauty products industry is broad and popular (Luongo, 2019). In spite of this, it is lucrative to expand and build new stores due to the market's high demand.

Sand and Sky is one of the highest-quality Australian enterprises in its industry. This organization is engaged in the production of face and body skin care products. The important characteristics of the products are their naturalness and quality. In addition, the corporation pays close attention to its branding, with a focus on pleasant aromas and attractive colors. This makes Sand and Sky products more appealing to buyers and assumes their global relevance. Demand will increase as a result of the increasing number of women who seek to use high-quality items.

International Economy

The chosen international market is the Russian Federation market. This decision was made since this country is extremely populated and multicultural. This allows for the testing of various consumer-influencing strategies. Moreover, ladies in this country have recently began to place a higher emphasis on purchasing high-quality care items. Consequently, they lack a comprehensive understanding of the available product diversity. In contrast, they are highly receptive to new ideas, so Sand and Sky stand a tremendous potential of success in this country with the right marketing.

Money is a significant part of trade in Russia. Unquestionably, Sand and Sky products are pretty pricey, and when transformed into rubbles, they become luxury goods. Consequently, it is necessary to revise the pricing policy and monitor regular promotions. It is also essential to concentrate on marketing to make the company's products apparent. The simultaneous employment of multiple marketing channels is unquestionably expensive, thus it is possible that initial expenditures will be significant. These include targeted advertisements, printed banners, flyers, emails, and other methods of contacting customers. Nonetheless, owing to these methods, consumers will pay attention to the brand and opt for quality.

Australian Market

The Australian market for skin care products is far more established than its Russian counterpart. First, the country's natural diversity plays a role. It enables businesses to produce high-quality products with natural ingredients. This has a significant impact on demand, as Australian consumers are interested in the naturalness of the used products. The growth of the Australian economy is a second key influence. On the one hand, it allows corporations to spend more on cosmetics manufacture, while on the other, it makes consumers more financially stable. Therefore, Australian shoppers are keen to purchase superior products. Because they care about their health, they are willing to invest a substantial amount of money on this.

It is crucial to recognize the proximity of the Australian market due to geographical considerations. Due to the difficulty of importing foreign goods, Australians were compelled to increase their own output. This contributed to the development of a serious business strategy. The beauty business is not an exception; consequently, Australia's care products are popular and in high demand among the populace.

Communication Methodology

Initial marketing is a critical step in entering a new country's market. To advertise a product effectively, marketers must consider every element. In the case of Sand and Sky, it is essential to examine numerous business advantages. First is the product's naturalness and organic components. Now that people are interested in practical products, this attribute will grab their attention (Rowser, 2019). Second, it is the location of production: Australian items will seem novel and uncommon to Russians, which will pique their curiosity. Third, the tone of voice: Sand and Sky typically demonstrates customer care and product aesthetics. As a result, individuals will like connecting with the brand, which will enhance the possibility of a sale.

It is vital to invest time in social media brand development. Instagram will be one of the most effective tools because it facilitates audience engagement. Consequently, the company's Instagram account will need to offer product information as well as engaging and helpful activities for consumers. This will increase their involvement with the brand, influencing their purchasing power. Additionally, the company's website must be created with the use of targeted advertising. It will be efficient to offer to email website visitors with relevant information. This is a chance to obtain consumer contact information for future interaction.

Terms and Materials

It will take at least six months to effectively introduce the brand in Russia. The first step is to assemble a team of Russian-native speakers. They will operate a business in the country and provide consumers with appropriate advertising materials. The subsequent step is to develop a marketing plan and translate all marketing materials. All of these activities can take up to three months. The brand must then begin communicating with retail outlets to distribute its items. For this, monies must be given to develop trial products for retail distribution. This is a great technique to demonstrate the best features of the brand; store managers should try it before selling. Furthermore, cordial and attentive contact with managers will increase their corporate loyalty.

In addition, production and distribution expenses will need to be accounted for. Concurrently, it is vital to expand electronic sales. It is vital to pay extra attention to this, as many consumers purchase things online today. In addition to the website and social media, the business will need to locate warehouses for the storage of items. Their quantity is proportional to the level of sales growth. Regardless, this will accelerate delivery, which will enhance customer loyalty and save shipping expenses.

Establish Contacts

Customers' names and email addresses are required for effective communication. Therefore, as stated previously, the most significant methods for collecting contacts involve Internet usage. These include gathering email addresses on the company's website and interacting with customers via social media. By identifying active users, the company's marketers will be able to interact with them individually or send them periodic mailings. These mailings may contain intriguing information or even hidden offers and discounts. Thus, clients will feel valued and develop a stronger brand loyalty.

Creating a group of the most vital and active customers is an additional vital networking technique. This can be accomplished in various ways, including through the sale of discount cards, the completion of surveys, and master seminars on beauty goods. It is conceivable, for instance, to give engaging interactive seminars on skin care, a key topic for women. These channels of communication allow the company to obtain the contact information of those interested in Sand and Sky products. Since they are initially loyal to the company, it will be much simpler to convince them to make a purchase.

Summary

The beauty market is expanding constantly; therefore, it is vital to take advantage of the chance to grow within its framework. Australian Sand and Sky products offer a variety of advantages to aid in this endeavor. These include the brand's quality, naturalness, and aesthetic appeal. Sales in the Russian market are one of the company's international expansion strategies. Despite the high pricing, the citizens of this country are interested in unique and superior products. It requires considerable time, in addition to marketing efforts and the production of new products, to penetrate this market. It is crucial to focus on client loyalty by connecting with them offline and on social networks. The company must form partnerships with retailers, but internet sales can be one of the most successful avenues of distribution. Sand and Sky might become well-known and in demand on the Russian market by utilizing an integrated and careful strategy.

Bibliography

Luongo, J. (2019) Successful selling in the beauty industry: Simple strategies for increasing retail sales, expanding the client base, and increasing revenue. Bublish, Inc., of Mount Pleasant.

Rowser, A. L. (2019). Ethical cosmetics. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., in New York.

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Managers And Members Of Organizations And Their Roles Argumentative Essay Help Online

Table of Contents
qualities of management The contribution of managers to the growth of organizations Management problems Organizational conduct Progress management control References

qualities of management

Management is a crucial aspect of modern society; both the commercial and noncommercial spheres demand persons to demonstrate some level of management ability while dealing with day-to-day challenges. Numerous business units are organizations, and since organizations are established for certain goals, governed by specific individuals who are employees or stakeholders, and feature planned structures, the discipline of management becomes a crucial aspect of organizations. Without a management structure, a business will likely deteriorate into chaos and disorganization, failing to accomplish its strategic objectives (Adair, 2003). Typically, management adopts a holistic approach, allowing managers to plan, direct, organize, and lead diverse operations across the organization's functional domains. These responsibilities of management enable the organization's activities to take place in a specific order, so enabling the organization to achieve its mission efficiently and effectively (Watson, 2006)

Good managers recognize that it is essential to have the skills that enable them to make highly sensible and reasonable decisions that are supported by evidence, making management more difficult than many believe. This necessitates that managers look at the big picture, have a futuristic outlook, and utilize their interpersonal, informational, and decision-making responsibilities to attain goals (Koontz& Weihrich 2009). As a result of the agency rule, stakeholders typically expect managers to accomplish a great deal. However, managers typically face a number of obstacles, which act as restraints and impediments to their progress. Using their skills, they are expected to overcome these obstacles and reach their goals.

On the basis of organizational culture and ethical boundaries, managers are expected to be inventive, risk-taking, detail-oriented, outcome-focused, and aggressive in their pursuit of goals (Raelin 2000). Through the construction of value systems, managers are also required to define the cultural tone of their firm and make key stakeholders, such as employees, socially responsible role models. The global environment inherently presents obstacles and necessitates that managers of transnational, multinational, and borderless firms employ the appropriate strategies to achieve organizational objectives (Koontz& Weihrich 2009). In conclusion, managers in every environment or organizational setting are held to high standards, yet it is their responsibility to ensure the success of organizational activities.

The contribution of managers to the growth of organizations

The acts of managers and organizational members frequently determine the fate of organizations and billions of dollars belonging to investors and stakeholders. Thus, managers and members of an organization are expected to act ethically and morally. It is therefore insufficient to rely solely on the law in order to conduct ethically and make ethical decisions inside an organization, given that the law contains gray areas that may permit members of the organization to engage in legal behaviors that are sometimes regarded as immoral. (Bass, et al. 2003)

Multibillion dollar companies such as Adelphia, WorldCom, and Enron collapsed as a result of the enormity of business debacles experienced in the early years of the new millennium, which were caused by ethical lapses on the part of executives and board members. Thus, managers and organizational leaders should build a culture of ethics by instilling the legal, organization, group, and individual elements of ethical behavior. This will increase the likelihood that ethical behavior will occur in the corporate environment.

Managers are also supposed to be the organization's ultimate decision-makers. In commercial enterprises, decision making is a daily responsibility, and managers are obliged to consider risks, situations, apply intuition, and make reasoned conclusions (Drath 2001). Decision making is crucial because it is inextricable from organizational planning and strategy. The strategy functions as a radar that leads managerial actions, thus it must be visionary and futuristic. For the strategy to be effective, managers must understand their organizations, their surroundings, set goals, and define work by assigning distinct responsibilities to organizational members. Thus, managers must be at the heart of formulating, implementing, and regulating strategy for the firm to achieve a degree of competitive advantage. In the same manner as Jack Welch did throughout his time at General Electric (Koontz& Weihrich 2009). With the same zeal, organizational leaders must make the correct leadership decisions by selecting the appropriate leadership styles to guide subordinates and ensure their goals are met (Adair, 2003). To ensure the strategy's success, the entire organization must be engaged, and managers must implement the appropriate programs to foster the desired corporate culture.

Management problems

Managers are obliged to organize their organizations in the most efficient and effective manner feasible to achieve high levels of efficiency and effectiveness, despite the fact that organizations exist in many situations. Managers are required to employ the most effective organizational design strategies, just as Jack Welch was able to implement good organization structures and design at General Electric. The notion of borderlessness Organization is gaining popularity, and managers are opting for it because, unlike traditional organizational design structures, it does not permit managers to use technological advancement to enjoy greater spans of control because it does not permit de-layering of functional areas and departments within organizations (Adair 2003). Additionally, because they are less autocratic and decentralized, new kinds of organizational structures and designs have enabled managers to communicate with subordinates more effectively.

The ability of communication channels to be up-down has resulted in the formation of more organizations and the elimination of communication barriers within them. Good communication channels encourage organizations to have stronger leadership and subordinate relationships, as well as better decision making, conflict, and change management, particularly when the communication is tailored to the organizational members' specific needs (Koontz& Weihrich 2009). In addition, effective structures and communication play a significant part in ensuring that the organizational culture aligns with the organization's overall strategy by allowing employees to be highly innovative, adaptable, and quick to adapt to change.

When organizations implement the necessary mechanisms and involve organizational members in the change process, it reduces the level of conflict and increases the likelihood that the change will be accepted, particularly when managers employ organizational re-engineering and total quality management concepts. The Human Resource function is also a significant aspect of the firm, and its techniques are essential for identifying and distributing people to positions where they are most likely to be utilized to their fullest potential. In addition, it is the responsibility of this department to ensure that the organization's hiring, firing, and pay systems are in place (Koontz& Weihrich 2009).

Organizational conduct

Organizational behavior is a crucial factor since it determines how effectively organizations can function. Jack Welch is one such leader and manager who was able to assume control of General Electric and use numerous organizational behavior components to develop the company and keep employees motivated, hence improving productivity (Deal & Kennedy 2000). Therefore, managers must be able to comprehend why people behave as they do and employ successful ways to achieve what they plan for the organization's advantage. Good managers are also required to be leaders and to delve deeply into the human behavior of their organizations. Skilled managers are able to foresee human behavior as a result of their decision-making, allowing them to be effective decision-makers inside their firm.

The benefit of possessing such talents is that managers can comprehend the attitude, perspectives, personalities, and learning trends of certain employees and determine how they will contribute to the improvement of businesses. Despite the heterogeneity and unpredictability of human behavior, managers are expected to comprehend their staff in order to affect productivity through transactional leadership and reinforcement of desired conduct, as suggested by learning principles (Bass et al. 2003). To be an effective leader, one must use the appropriate combination of power to influence and inspire subordinates' conduct, while also establishing trusting connections with them (Watson 2006). Using behavior models such as the path-goal theory or, Maslow’s motivation hierarchy Mc Gregors X&Y theory, managers can more accurately set the right goals for their employees, as well as cater to the right needs of employees, and influence organizational behavior as they see fit (Bass 2003).

Progress management control

Monitoring, evaluating, and controlling progress is a crucial aspect of modern businesses. This is because the strategic focus of the majority of organizations is on the future. Therefore, managers recognize that regular evaluations must be conducted to compare actual results to planned outcomes in order to spot discrepancies and devise corrective measures before they spiral out of control. The process of control thus permits managers to utilize a proactive feed-forward strategy, a concurrent approach that is progressive and continuous, or a reactive feedback approach to prevent errors. Poor control systems can be dangerous since they can lead to dysfunctional behavior within businesses (Watson 2006).

It is essential that whatever control methods are employed adhere to ethical boundaries and do not violate the privacy of individuals. For the control process to be successful, the control instruments and information employed in this instance must also be extremely accurate, timely, comprehensive, and pertinent. When things go wrong, it is the managers' responsibility to rectify the situation by reforming the company, re-engineering processes in various functional areas such as finance, reducing expenses, and ensuring that quality control is taken seriously inside the organization. Moreover, a 360-degree feedback system ensures that all organizational members' top-down and bottom-up communication is in sync by aligning the control process with the organization's strategic objectives (Deal & Kennedy 2000).

References

Action-Centered Leadership by J. Adair. London: Chartered Management Institute, 2003.

Predicting Unit Performance by Evaluating Transformational and Transactional Leadership. Bass, B.M., et al.

Journal of Applied Psychology, Volume 88, Issues 207–218.

Deal, Timothy E., and Kennedy, Andrew A. (2000). Corporate Cultures: The Rituals and Customs of the Business World. The publisher is Perseus in Cambridge.

Drath. W. H. (2001). The vast ocean: rethinking the origin of leadership. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.

Koontz, H. & Weihrich, H. (2009). The core of Management from a Global Perspective. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill.

Raelin, J. A. (2000). The latest frontier in management development is work-based learning. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

T. Watson and (2006). Organizing and managing work. 2nd edn. London: Penguin.

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Pharmaceutical Companies’ Pricing Strategies Argumentative Essay Help Online

The pharmaceutical sector in the United States is unaffected by rigorous pricing and regulatory restrictions. The Food and Drug Administration regulates pharmaceutical items; nevertheless, it has little impact on price and expenses. The economic structure of an industry is the most major supply-related element determining the pricing of a product in the pharmaceutical sector.

In this context, industry structure is defined by the number of competing firms, the ability of individual firms to influence market prices, the entrance hurdles, and the degree of product differentiation. Oligopoly and monopolistic competition are the two most prominent forms of industry structure. In addition, certain novel hybrid structures are emerging as a result of the massive amount of change occurring in the modern business world.

The pharmaceutical sector in the United States is characterized by a monopolistic market structure. It represents an industry in which a disproportionate part of the market is held by a small number of rivals. Four or five firms may account for 80 to 90 percent of a given market, which is characterized by its paucity (Petersen 81). Each has some effect on market prices, entrance barriers are considerable, and items may be standardized or differentiated. In the United States, the oil and airline sectors are examples of somewhat undifferentiated oligopolies, whereas the automobile and computer industries are instances of relatively differentiated oligopolies (Petersen 82). Differentiation exists in the customer's thinking.

The economic concentration of certain industries has a significant effect on the pricing strategies of businesses (Greider 44). In oligopolistic marketplaces, the strategies adopted by enterprises are highly intertwined. In other words, what a firm does with its prices depends on what other firms do, and its pricing actions influence the decisions of those firms. In addition, since a relatively small number of competitors controls the majority of the market, competitors devote considerable effort to market share acquisition. The leading pharmaceutical firms in the United States include Jonson & Jonson, Pfizer, Merck & Co., Abbott Laboratories, Amgen, etc.

The lack of drug pricing controls in the United States is a distinguishing feature of the American pharmaceutical business. The pharmaceutical business has diverse market structures, indicating that companies with a relatively homogeneous client base and several sellers with specialized technology are present (Petersen 89). Each offers quite proprietary and distinctive items or services to this common market through marketing plans that are remarkably similar.

Each rival in the U.S. pharmaceutical sector delivers unique and exclusive pharmaceuticals to the general hospital and physician market through marketing campaigns that are remarkably similar. Deregulatory policies are the issue of the day. Although economists and many members of Congress are quick to point out the enormous costs and distortions caused by existing rules and associated agencies, few genuinely plan to abolish the agency in question when they advocate deregulation. With the exception of the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, none of the proposed deregulation legislation of the Ninety-sixth and Ninety-seventh Congresses called for the abolition of a portion of the federal regulatory machinery (Greider 49).

Deceptive practices encompass the category of price-related actions that create legal or regulatory issues. Utilizing price promotions is a cornerstone of product advertising. According to the requirements of the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (1982), dealers are required to accurately portray the many components of price promotions. Price surveys that positively compare a seller's prices to those of competitors must, for instance, precisely detail the actual product prices being compared.

The merchant may not utilize such surveys to imply that the survey pertains to his entire store's assortment of products. The Federal Trade Commission has mandated that when utilizing cents-off price labeling (to imply the product is “on sale”), the following requirements must be met:

The product must have recently been sold at the regular price, the price reduction must be genuine, the regular price must be prominently displayed on the shelf or on the package, the frequency of the promotion cannot exceed three months per year, and sales cannot exceed fifty percent of the year's volume (Greider 84).

In addition, “introductory offers” must involve truly new products on the market. The duration of such deals cannot exceed six months, and the vendor must aim to price the product at a more standard rate throughout the remainder of the product's life cycle. Additionally, if a product is advertised as an economy package, it must be offered in at least one other size, the savings must be exclusive to that package size, and they must reflect a real savings of at least 5 percent compared to other packages of the same brand. In general, price reductions must be genuine. They must represent a discount compared to the standard price or, if the standard price has already been decreased, the most recent price at which the product was sold.

Under these conditions, the monopolistic competitor's prices are likely to fluctuate as conditions change. For instance, the corporation is in a monopoly position when it first develops its distinctive product offering. Consequently, more margins can be charged. When new competitors enter a market and take their part of the profit opportunity, prices often decrease. There may be special discounts, promotions, or refunds, and the overall price level is reduced.

However, unlike oligopoly, there are little opportunities for cooperative price behavior. A high number of existing and potential competitors renders this implausible. Effective competitors are aware of the extremely dynamic character of monopolistic rivalry. Pricing decisions will be made with the future in mind. The objective should be to set a pricing that capitalizes on the high demand for the firm's innovative product offering while also helping to build a loyal client base before the competition gains ground. Once consumer loyalty is well-established, it is considerably more difficult for competitors to successfully differentiate themselves (Greider 67).

Image, technological prowess, cost structure, product differentiation, and established loyalty are company-specific variables. When a company has a well-established and well defined corporate image, is an industry leader in terms of creating and using technology, or has a cost advantage over competitors, its competitive position is boosted. Similarly, organizations' competitive positions are harmed when they are unable to differentiate their unique products from one another and when they fail to create and maintain loyal connections with key suppliers, distributors, and purchasers (Petersen 86).

Similar to prescription (or "ethical") medications, pharmaceutical items reach the end-user in a variety of methods. Typically, the pharmaceutical maker employs an employee sales team (but may also utilize non-employee contract salespeople) that contacts physicians, hospitals, wholesalers, and insurance organizations (Schweitzer 33). Most health insurance companies have formularies, which are lists of authorized pharmaceuticals that can be prescribed for specific ailments, and sales efforts are used to encourage them to include a company's new drugs on the list (or keep existing ones on it). On their way to a retail pharmacy or hospital pharmacy, the ethical pharmaceuticals themselves may transit via the hands of independent distributors.

Even the physician has a part, as he or she prescribes the drug the patient will consume. In instances where the patient's health care coverage includes prescription drug coverage, payment may pass from the insurance company to the pharmacy rather than the patient. Thus, the primary issue is that "revolutionary technological advances have led to unprecedented pharmaceutical discoveries." However, a big concern is that FDA rules may create minimal returns on R&D efforts" (Ramrattan and Stenberg 65).

Each firm's pricing strategy is bound by its relative industry and market position. A firm's competitive position is determined by a number of elements, some of which are external to the organization and others of which are unique to it. These criteria were discovered, with a focus on how businesses might strengthen their competitive position and, consequently, their pricing leverage (Schweitzer 87). Pricing decisions must also consider rivals' positions and anticipated responses to pricing initiatives (Greider 49). In the years to come, the competitive atmosphere will certainly worsen. Unsuspected competitors will emerge from unanticipated sources.

Likewise, product differentiation will become increasingly challenging if businesses are unable to deliver a steady stream of innovations. As a result, a fresh focus will be placed on pricing as a competitive weapon. Innovative techniques to establishing and modifying prices will prevail (Schweitzer 60). Managers of price will be required to do more than respond to the pricing decisions of other companies. They must cultivate the foresight necessary to foresee and counter their opponents' moves. According to Ramrattan and Szenberg, "pricing strategies are complicated by the ability of a company to transfer or license encoded experience to other companies" (Levitt and March 1990, 24).

Firms in developed nations have a tendency to lobby their governments for stricter patent regulations in other nations, particularly in less developed nations. Domestic manufacturers assert that they can charge greater prices for exports (68).

The price variable is the most significant tool for attaining such coordination. Prices define how products are positioned relative to one another. They reinforce the product linkages that management seeks to convey to customers. Incorrectly constructed product line pricing structures can give contradictory messages to clients, place insufficient emphasis on some items, and result in lost earnings (Schweitzer 83).

Changes in production costs, rival strategies, and shifting market conditions may need periodic adjustments to price levels. For instance, costs of a major raw material may increase, a leading competitor may unexpectedly drop prices on a selective basis, supply conditions may alter because a competitor has overproduced, or demand sensitivity (elasticity) within the existing price range may vary (Greider 00).

Beyond aims, the pricing strategies of competing businesses can provide valuable knowledge. A competitor adopting a premium price strategy is unable to match price reductions and must offset price rises in order to maintain a premium disparity (Schweitzer 33). The subject of target markets is related to strategy. If competitors emphasize different target markets than the company, they will be less concerned with attacking or retaliating against the company's pricing changes.

The second key area pertains to the operational features of rivals. Costs, product lines, production capacity, and financial resources are four of the most essential criteria. Price responsiveness is directly proportional to the degree to which a competitor enjoys an advantage or disadvantage in production costs or the amount of overhead that must be covered. In this aspect, firms operating on a full-costing basis may be especially susceptible (Kraus 527).

Product line considerations relate to the breadth and depth of a competitor's products. Given that the price of each product in a product line must complement the prices of the other products in that line, rivals may be less able to respond to pricing measures intended at a specific product. A competition would create discrepancies and undermine the product line strategy if they did not. Also influencing pricing behavior is a competitor's available production capacity. The closer a company is to capacity utilization of 100 percent, the less concerned it will be with price reductions. However, such enterprises have a strong incentive to initiate or match price hikes (Kraus 527).

Similar to production capacity is the subject of financial capacity. Financially constrained competitors are more likely to price products for short-term profitability. They will be reluctant to risk revenue on price reductions out of concern that lost margins will not be compensated for by volume growth. However, they may maintain their rates while rivals raise theirs in an effort to capture their customers.

In spite of significant R&D expenses and enormous investments, many critics assert that the pharmaceutical industry sets excessively high pricing and restricts access to pharmaceuticals for certain types of citizens. Should a pharmaceutical business charge an elderly person a higher price for a drug than all other age groups, presuming that the elderly person has a greater need for the drug? (Schweitzer 132).

Many individuals would find this conduct repugnant, if not unconscionable. Nevertheless, free-market economies function most efficiently when consumers compete for commodities and pay prices that represent their willingness and ability to purchase. Prices ultimately determine the allocation of a society's resources (Kraus 528). Therefore, totally lawful pricing techniques can generate complex ethical problems for the concerned management. Unethical activities are ones that appear to contradict one's sense of what is right. When it comes to defining price policy, there is typically little consensus among business professionals over what is and is not excessive.

Existing agreements appear to be limited to below-cost predatory pricing, price-fixing, and taking advantage of consumers in a particularly vulnerable situation. There are numerous competitors in a single product sector, but companies are able to successfully differentiate their offerings. Each company determines its prices somewhat independently of the others, without fear of retaliation from rivals. Specifically, each establishes a pricing that reflects the unique characteristics of its own product offering. monopolistically competitive industries have comparatively low entry barriers (Greider 44).

The primary aspect of price in the pharmaceutical market is the pricing flexibility of competitors. Important in this aspect is the speed with which competitors can react to the firm's pricing changes. Competitors with more bureaucratic structures and those in which price control is not explicitly delegated or is retained at senior levels of the business are typically slower to adapt. Changes in production procedures that necessitate time-consuming adoption by competitive businesses may also reduce a company's adaptability. Existing commitments to client groups, suppliers, and production schedules for various items are a further constraint on the pricing flexibility of competitors (Schweitzer 12).

These obligations confine firms in terms of what they produce, how much, when, and at what price. Price fluctuations can compromise the ability to fulfill these obligations. The third category of competition concerns consists of the situational circumstances that prompt firms to take particular price actions, typically in the short term. Some are predictable (such as seasonal sales patterns), while others are not (such as obsolete inventories) (Kraus 529).

Situational circumstances that are predictable tend to promote consistent rival behavior throughout time, which can occasionally be exploited. In contrast, atypical situational elements can be far more dangerous, as competitors may be more willing to experiment with prices under these conditions. Thus, critics concede that “The pharmaceutical innovators have two primary instruments, price and sales-promotion expenditure, for maximizing the value of their ideas during the era of exclusive marketing and in the post-entry game.” (Caves et al., 1991, 5 cited Ramrattan and Stenberg 70).

Today's business climate is fraught with uncertainty, which impacts current talks. Increasingly frequent are rapid shifts in technology, the economy, production prices, competition, government regulation, and market size. Change appears to be the only constant in modern business. Such instability can rapidly disrupt the fundamental relationship between a vendor and a purchaser (Kraus 529).

The seller who takes undue advantage of his or her organization's negotiation position today will certainly suffer for his or her lack of foresight in the near future. In the contemporary commercial climate, buyer-seller connections are becoming less combative, and concepts such as "cooperative marketing" and "partnership marketing" have gained popularity. In addition, high turbulence in the competitive environment affects the relative negotiating positions of buyers and sellers in numerous markets on an ongoing basis. These changes suggest that discussions should be pursued with both the parties' present and future demands in mind (Schweitzer 112).

In conclusion, the pricing techniques utilized by the U.S. pharmaceutical business are the result of unregulated market circumstances and the industry's monopoly position. R&D expenses are one of the most important factors in establishing and managing prices. The basic cost-plus or target return formulas and their underlying full costing concept must be abandoned. When analyzing costs for pricing decisions, businesses should instead adopt a contribution method.

Products and services should only be held directly responsible for their manufacture, sale, and distribution expenses. Despite good advances and innovations in the pharmaceutical industry, the company's excessively high costs prevent many citizens from purchasing medications.

Sources Cited

The Big Fix: How the Pharmaceutical Industry Scams American Consumers, by K. Greider. Public Affairs; 2003, edition 1. The Interaction between International Reference Pricing and Parallel Trade in the Pharmaceutical Industry, by L. Kraus. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, volume 37, number 527052 in 2004. Our Daily Medications, by M. Petersen 2008, Farrar, Straus & Giroux; first edition Global Competition in the United States Pharmaceutical Industry, by L. Ramrattan and M. Szenberg. American Economist, 50, 65-75, 2006. Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy, 2nd Revised Edition, Oxford University Press Inc, USA, 2006.

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Bear Stearns: Inside The Meltdown Argumentative Essay Help Online

Bear Stearns, a global investment firm and financial institution, failed due to its high-risk toxic assets. The company's cash reserves decreased, and its consumers lost faith (Kirk, 2009). Afraid of losing money, investors desired to sell equities, resulting in a precipitous decline. Bear had approximately $3 billion, which was insufficient to open the bank's doors to customers.

A subprime mortgage is given to borrowers with low credit scores. It has a higher interest rate to compensate the lender for the risk involved. The subprime mortgage is a hazardous asset since it was provided in huge quantities to unqualified borrowers, resulting in defaults (Kirk, 2009). Consequently, subprime mortgages are characterized by high interest rates and significant risk.

A credit default swap (CDS) is a financial derivative that enables the lender to exchange his or her credit risk with another investor in the event that the borrower defaults. To accomplish this, the lender purchases the CDS from the investor who promises to cover the loss. To maintain the agreement, which functions as an insurance policy, CDS requires payments. When Lehman Brothers declared bankruptcy, AIG sold its CDSs to that firm. But they lacked the funds to reimburse everyone to whom they sold CDSs (Kirk, 2009).

Through JPMC Bank, the Federal Reserve Bank (FRB) granted loans to Bear Stearns. This extraordinary measure allowed Bear Stearns to pay its obligations and hunt throughout the weekend for alternatives that could help the bank escape bankruptcy (Kirk, 2009). The FRB received no warrants in exchange for the bridge loan, but the borrower repaid the entire amount. In addition, the Federal Reserve Board (FRB) extended the loan to the limited liability corporation (LLC) that merged with Bear Stearns. Thus, the LCC was able to handle Bear Stearns' assets with minimal financial disturbance.

The goal of the Treasury Department is to promote economic growth and prosperity and safeguard the nation's financial stability. It was the job of the department to advise the President on financial and economic affairs and to promote economic growth (Kirk, 2009). The Treasury offered Bear Stearns $30 billion to bail company out during the crisis.

A moral hazard occurs when a person engages in risky action with expected consequences in which the costs of adverse outcomes are borne by another individual. Systemic risk is the likelihood that a single occurrence within an organization could precipitate a crisis. The method in which these two variables contributed to the economic downturn was that institutions with loans anticipated the financial crisis, but enjoyed government protection (Kirk, 2009).

Paulson was concerned about the moral hazard because he did not want people to believe that the government might bail out the corporation at any time (Kirk, 2009). This action culminated in the selling of Bear Stearns' stock for $2 instead of the initial $30 and the company's collapse.

As part of their mandate to expand homeownership, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac boosted the demand for homes, which was one of the incentives for banks to make poor loans. Realizing that these firms could purchase all mortgages, banks upped their lending. The next inducement had nothing to do with quality, but rather quantity. Therefore, bank staff were not concerned about the riskiness of the mortgages, as they could be acquired by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac or securitized (Kirk, 2009).

Because of speculative buyers, it is necessary to enact laws that limit the number of mortgages individuals can obtain. Before the crisis, when banks were offering low mortgage rates, these purchasers entered the market, pushed up demand, and reduced supply (Kirk, 2009). All of this resulted in a significant price hike. The investors were unable to keep up and began to withdraw from the market. The market collapsed as a result of a decline in demand and pricing, which led to the market's demise. Therefore, the issue with the free market is an imbalance between demand and supply.

A capital injection is a contribution of money or debt in the form of capital to an institution or business. Typically, the injecting corporation is undergoing financial hardship. To keep financial institutions afloat and compensate for hazardous assets, injections were required (Kirk, 2009).

Fearing that other banks might fail to repay their loans, banks declined to lend money to one another. Banks ceased lending, despite the fact that it was the fundamental and standard practice of financial institutions from their founding (Kirk, 2009). In addition to mortgages, it included small enterprises, auto loans, and the borrowing of commercial paper. The freezing market caused Lehman Brothers to declare bankruptcy. Nobody was able to predict the event.

Barnacle and Paulson rushed to Congress to request action in response to the looming economic crisis. Paulson sought $700 billion from taxpayers in order to purchase hazardous assets from banks. In addition, he requested no interference from the agency and the court (Kirk, 2009). As infuriated as they were, the response of Congress was poisonous. The vote ended in the rejection of the law, but also introduced the possibility of including another plan involving financial injection.

AIG, which issued credit swaps worth a trillion dollars, was the largest insurance company in the United States. Failure of such a powerful institution would bring to the collapse of the entire economy (Kirk, 2009). This is the reason why the government agreed to lend $85 billion to AIG but not to Lehman Brothers. The United States government now controls 80 percent of the ownership interest.

The stock value of the two largest mortgage businesses, Freddie Mac and Fennie Mae, fell by 60%. In order to enhance its liability, the government placed them in conservatorship. The government was unable to sell enough shares to return Mae and Mac to private control, therefore the companies were victims of circumstance (Kirk, 2009).

The leaders of U.S. banks were forced to accept injection since it was the only way to save the economy (Kirk, 2009). His rationale was to restore the nation's faith in the banking system and allow them to resume lending. Paulson invested $125 billion after each CEO had signed a contract with requirements. In order to allow the government to play a prominent role in the economic system, he compromised his beliefs.

I believe Europe is more likely to be the source of the issue. For instance, populism in the United Kingdom, divide, and financial resiliency may trigger the next economic crisis. Treasury and central bank personnel are competent, but a weak political structure would be able to protect them. Although the financial system has improved thus far, the expanding debt and increasingly toxic atmosphere may hasten the onset of the crisis.

Reference

Kirk, M. (2009). Inside the implosion [Video file]. Frontline.

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AA Tours And Travel Company’s Marketing Project Argumentative Essay Help Online

The Customer

This marketing communication project's client is the AA Tours and Travel Company, which provides a variety of services in the tours industry, including assisting clients in selecting vacation destinations in the Middle East, particularly the United Arab Emirates, as well as cruise ship tours in the Pacific and religious tours. The company is of medium size, with less than fifty personnel handling tours and back-office operations. It also provides hotel reservation services and vacation packages.

This company's target market consists of individuals between the ages of 35 and 50 who are searching for vacation spots. Recent declines in tours and vacations as a result of the worldwide credit crunch have made the travel and tourism business highly competitive. According to the director, the company has endured a protracted low season, and it is essential that it devise tactics to beat the competition in order to remain profitable. The company's primary rivals are small and new entrants to the industry with cheap operating expenses.

In order to maintain its relevance, the corporation is seeking means of generating awareness and promoting its products nationwide. To entice customers to return and expand its market share in the tourism industry, the business needs strong marketing communication techniques. The purpose of marketing communication is to build a strong AA Tours and Travels brand, which will subsequently be used to achieve success in the tourism and cruise ship tour industries. To be cost-effective, the marketing communication must include the marketing mix and the organization's public relations.

The Artistic Proposal

The objective of the project is to develop a marketing communication strategy that incorporates multiple marketing methods to enhance sales and position the company's brand in the tourism industry competitively. According to the AIDA model, the following are the business objectives of the clients: As this is a crucial component of the offering, the first section of the brief focuses on how the travel agency aims to pique the buyers' attention. The service must possess characteristics that attract prospective purchasers. In the case of AA Tours and Travels, the beauty and scenery of the vacation area would undoubtedly pique the curiosity of potential travelers. Typically, AA's website features beautiful images of the destinations to which it transports customers (Kerry, 2007).

As part of a creative brief, having characteristics would pique attention, as it is simple to enter the head of the prospective consumer, but it may be difficult to pique their interest. The video recording of the company's destination may pique the curiosity of potential customers. Those who are interested in cruise ships and beaches are also drawn to the cuisine and scenery of the destinations (Gregory, 1997).

There are numerous strategies to arouse desire such that those who watch the advertisement beg for the advertised commodity. A person's desire for a product or service is heightened by a sense of scarcity or the possibility that they may not obtain it. The company is contemplating offering summertime discounts to encourage early booking of vacation employment by interested parties (Gregory, 1997).

The second element of the creative brief examines how the organization will operate to ensure that the prospective client will purchase the product. The buyer is interested in the need to create the necessary product, and AA Tours and Travels would be interested in creating a way for the customer to place an order, as this is the only way. This demonstrates that the advertisements on the marketing communication are effective when they result in increased sales volumes (Kerry, 2007).

User Value Proposition

AA Tours & Travels's services provide the following user benefits: The primary user benefit is that the client's specified items are always available to the client. The company is not seasonal, thus its tour and travel services are available throughout the year. The second user advantage is that the services provided are tailored to the client's interests. It is feasible to offer a range of tour services, including hotel reservations, cruise ship reservations, religious rite tours, animal tours, and beach tourism, because the services are not standardized (Balmer, 2003).

When offering products such as airline tickets, hotel reservations, visa processing, and work permit processing, the pricing fulfills the needs of the client. The travel agency provides these services in a single package. The client only needs to wait for the destination to arrive. In other terms, the company provides free travel services for hustlers. The second advantage accrued to consumers is the availability and capacity to handle any problem that may arise during the destination. Due to the numerous services provided to customers, the prices are low due to economies of scale (Clow, 2003).

Audience

According to the clients' descriptions, the majority of clients are between the ages of 35 and 45, and the majority of their trips are work-related. This audience would be crucial to the success of the business (Marder, 2007). The customer desires to expand into and acquire new markets; consequently, having advertisements that target demographics other than the existing audience may position the client for market success. The elder ages of 55 to 70 and above are also a goal for the client, as AA tours & Travel believes that this age group has more disposable cash than the other age groups and is in a position to take more vacations than the middle-aged (Kerry, 2007).

Research and Hypotheses

The majority of Americans anticipate traveling abroad with their families for the holidays. They prefer leisure vacations to religious travel and visits. This knowledge is crucial for developing strategies to appeal to these travelers. The majority of travelers in 2008 were above the age of fifty and traveled with their spouses or alone. The majority of individuals under the age of fifty traveled alone for official business.

Moreover, most people view cruise ship recreation as a luxury (Kotler, 2007). After doing market research, a business must assess the target market's habits and seek for targeted marketing strategies. Target marketing is a method in which messages are not given to everyone, but rather to individuals with a high discretionary income. It is crucial to learn through the research which magazines the target market reads, what sports they play, and which television stations they watch. This is due to the fact that selecting the suitable communication channel for the target audience is crucial in advertising.

The Competitive Environment

The primary competitors are primarily based in the same state as Teddy Tours and Travel. Other minor tour and travel industries typically have between three and five staff. They ensure that they have the most effective and likely type of advertising for their industry. Magazines and other kinds of targeted advertising are ideally suited to the need to generate potential outcomes. In addition, they employ internet advertising through their websites, email lists, and memberships (Kerry, 2007).

Account Executive

Problems Encountering the Brand

The brand suffers numerous difficulties on the market. Few people are aware of the AA tours and trips company, thus brand recognition is currently at its lowest level. Few individuals are familiar with its locations and key services. This is a significant brand deficiency, and methods to generate brand awareness are crucial; without them, few people in the United States would be aware of its activities (Kerry, 2007).

The brand traditionally regarded for worldwide corporate travel bookings is no longer a popular option for leisure travelers, but rather for those with overseas business obligations. Due to the necessity of diversifying the company's markets and including all of its services, the brand's image must be worked on or enhanced in order to raise the company's sales. The brand has the difficulty of rebranding and repositioning itself in the competitive market as a provider of services such as vacation tours and cruise ship vacations (Balmer, 2003).

The objective of the current MARCOM campaign is to portray the brand as a provider of all tour and travel options, whether for business or pleasure. In order to effectively place the brand in the minds of consumers, the campaign must also build brand recognition throughout the nation (Pickton, 2007). Most existing tour and travel companies specialize in a single area, such as wildlife or cruise ships, and do not integrate their services to make them affordable and all-inclusive.

This advertising campaign aims to establish AA Tours and Travels as a one-stop shop for all travel solutions. This will be the marketing communication campaign's objective. Previously, the brand was a provider of official travel, but it will now be associated with tour and travel services (Bendinger, 1999).

Comparative Development and Market Share

AA tour & travel's market share is mostly prominent in California and Massachusetts, where the company's headquarters are located. The market share of the company may be less than two percent yet the clients put it at five percent. The share is however dominant in California where it is the most dominant tours and travel agency receiving competition from only the smaller tour and travel companies. It is crucial that the corporation increase its market share in other states to ensure its dominance and success in the sector.

The clientele are often middle-aged individuals, typically the top and middle-level executives of a corporation who require processing of their travel documents to international destinations. Companies are also significant customers, particularly when processing travel documents for their international workforce (Lewis, 2006). Typically, they contact the firm for any travel obligations. They contact the company to confirm that they have the necessary travel documents.

The other demographic of cruise ship passengers consists of those over the age of sixty who are seeking vacation places. However, these customers are infrequent, and the majority of the competition focuses on them. In addition, summer is a popular time for family vacations, as many families seek out hotels and beaches as sites for pleasure (Clow, 2007).

The perceived worth of the organization stems from the fact that it provides tailored, high-quality services to its customers. The employees in the company's call center are courteous and focused on providing value to clients. Existing clients attribute their loyalty to the company to these characteristics. In addition, the clients perceive the brand to be more formal than sociable because they are accustomed to using it for business travel and consequently feel it is improper for their personal and family journeys. They consider the brand to be more pricey than local tour companies (Hofstede, 2001).

However, they believe that the brand is inferior to its local California competitors in terms of quality. Customers view the brand's luxury destinations and cruise ship connections as fantastic and amusing. In addition, the brand is not linked as a family brand, but rather as an official brand, and many consumers remark that they would prefer alternative brands for family travels. This information is crucial since many people aspire to travel on vacation with their families, and if the brand were family-friendly, its market share would increase (Clow, 2007).

The Positioning Declaration

The position statement is the brand's desired mental posture in the consumer's mind. In light of the preceding discussion of how the public views the brand, it is essential that the brand position be as follows in order to achieve maximum market success. Currently, the brand is connected with corporate tours and travels as opposed to family tours and vacations. Family tours and Travel Company is the initial ideal mental positioning. This is essential to ensuring that the brand advances and encourages family vacations and travel. The other intended mental positioning of the brand relates to the brand's accessibility to all consumers, as opposed to when it had a high price positioning in the market.

The brand must also assume its position as a customer-focused brand in order to be successfully promoted. Its positioning on the market ensures that companies have access to the greatest products on the market. The brand must be positioned as the brand of choice for senior citizens seeking leisure activities on beaches and cruise ships. This ideal mental orientation would assist in establishing the brand as a market success. The brand must position the organization as one that provides superior customer service.

The Corporate Identity

The brand identity focuses on how existing and prospective clients recognize AA Tours and Travels. This has two components, the first being brand identity and the second being brand promise. In order to develop a brand promise, the brand identity outlined in the positioning statement is essential for attaining the goals that will make the brand successful. In order to successfully brand the goods, it is essential that the brand promise has an emotional appeal.

Emotional appeal ensures that the brand grabs the attention of potential purchasers and positions itself in the customers' minds. The present positioning and identity of AA Tours and Travels is that it is a business tour and travel firm that prepares business travel papers. The intended and promised brand is a service that accommodates the travel demands of families and the elderly.

The brand will provide families the calm they require and the desired family vacations of their choosing. As previously deduced from secondary research, the majority of Americans desire to spend the holidays with their relatives. Families reuniting and rekindling their love for one another will be the brand's positioning, so that tours and travel will not only attract businesses, but also families interested in traveling. The other brand's claim is hassle-free travel, where all clients need to do is decide where they wish to travel, and the firm would take care of the rest.

National Culture, Performance And Leadership Style Argumentative Essay Help Online

Abstract

The relationship between leadership and national culture is a topic that has attracted much study from both academics and practitioners. Concern is based on unambiguous and implied declarations that the relationship between leadership styles and country culture has a substantial impact on organizational performance. Despite the fact that the relationship between organizational performance and leadership, as well as the relationship between culture and performance, has been studied, little study has been conducted on how national culture effects leadership and organizational performance. This study will investigate the connection between these notions. The study will also present empirical evidence demonstrating that national culture influences the relationship between leadership and organizational success.

In addition, the study provides an overview of the link between these ideas. As mentioned, there is empirical data demonstrating that country culture influences the relationship between leadership and organizational success. The academic literature is used to construct theories that will be tested to determine the relationship between these ideas. The study concludes that there is a relationship between national culture, leadership, and organization performance.

This study's theoretical purpose is to investigate the relationship between organizational performance and leadership style. Additionally, the study will supposedly establish the effect of national culture on an organization's performance. Additionally, the study will determine the influence of national culture on organizational leadership style.

On the other hand, the empirical objective of this study will be applied to the relationship model between these notions and the group of selected international organizations. In addition, the study's findings will be utilized to determine how national culture influences leadership styles, which in turn affects organizational performance. In addition, the data will be utilized to determine if there is a distinction between the theoretical approach and application of these notions.

Introduction

The relationship between leadership and national culture is a topic that has attracted much study from both academics and practitioners. A substantial amount of attention is based on explicit and implicit statements that the relationship between national culture and leadership affects the performance of enterprises operating within the nation (Yilmaz & Ergun, 2008). Despite the fact that the relationship between organizational performance and leadership, as well as the relationship between culture and performance, has been studied, few studies have been conducted on how national culture influences leadership and organizational performance.

According to Yilmaz and Ergun (2008), national culture and leadership are separately related to organizational success. In other words, independent research has been undertaken on the relationship between national culture and performance. In contrast, several researchers have investigated the relationship between organizational performance and leadership. Unstudied, however, is the effect of country culture on leadership and organizational success.

According to Bradley and Byrne (2007), the role of leaders in establishing and sustaining a particular national or organizational culture. Bradley and Byrne (2007) argue further that national culture is the source of organizational culture. Similarly, Schein (1992) suggested that the capacity of leaders to comprehend and execute their obligations within custom is a prerequisite for effective leadership. National culture is not a crucial determinant influencing leadership styles and organizational performance. Various types of management divisions, practices, and the expectations of subordinates are believed to be greatly influenced by national culture (Xenikou & Simosi, 2006). In addition, national culture has a greater impact on the organization's standards, specifically performance and the primary managerial deductions, than do other demographic factors. Furthermore, national culture influences organizational performance and leadership more than occupation, gender, and educational attainment (Yilmaz & Ergun, 2008).

Despite the explicit and implicit relationship between leadership and national culture in most organization theories, such as that of Xenikou and Simosi (2006), few research have examined this relationship in further depth. Xenikou and Simosi (2006) focused their research on the relationships between the concepts and the impact that such a link could have on the organizational performance. Given the numerous references to the significance of national culture in organization management, the absence of such research is unexpected (Bradley & Byrne, 2007).

The purpose of Xenikou and Furnham's (1996) study was to provide empirical evidence of the relationships between national culture, leadership styles, and organizational success. The objective will be reached by producing the analyzed data results of a cross-sectional study on management style, national culture, and executive performance in UK enterprises. The literature on national culture, leadership styles, and organizational success is reviewed first. The study then explains the research methodology, critically analyzes the research findings, and offers recommendations based on the studied data assessing the relationships between study parameters. The study provides conclusive proof that national culture influences the leadership styles of a company and its effectiveness. Therefore, it can be inferred that national culture has a significant role in defining leadership styles inside an organization, which in turn affects the performance of the business.

Problem definition

Organizational performance and leadership styles are viewed as large research topics requiring in-depth inquiry. There appears to be an independent relationship between the literature on leadership style and country culture and organizational performance. Howell and Avolio (1993) researched the relationships between performance and leadership styles, whereas Kottler and Heskett (1992) and Denison (1990) investigated the relationship between performance and national culture. In addition, numerous studies on the facets of national culture discuss the roles that organization leadership plays in preserving and producing particular types of culture inside an organization (Xenikou & Simosi, 2006). Other study material on leadership styles indicated that the ability to work in and comprehend a given culture has proven to be a prerequisite for the success of leaders (Hennessey, 1998).

Despite the explicit and implicit correlations between culture and leadership in numerous organizational theories, very few research studies have critically examined the relationship between these conceptions and the impact these correlations may have on the performance and leadership styles of an organization. In light of the numerous references to the significance of these notions in organizational performance, the paucity of research examining the performance implications of the association between leadership styles and national culture is generally surprising.

Hypothesis

The study will examine the following two hypotheses:

National culture has either a beneficial or negative influence on organizational performance and leadership approaches.

National culture has little influence on organizational performance or leadership styles.

Objectives

This study intends to provide empirical evidence regarding the relationship between organizational performance, diverse leadership styles, and national culture. Nonetheless, the following aims will help the researcher answer the study questions:

Examine the relationship between organizational performance and leadership style. To determine the effect of national culture on an organization's performance. To determine how national culture influences corporate leadership style

Research methodology

Research design

This study will consist only of quantitative research to evaluate the influence of country culture on organizational performance and leadership styles. Using a sampling approach, the required research data will be acquired from the study population. Essentially, a research approach known as the survey method will be utilized, and descriptive statistics will be utilized to aid in the analysis of the collected data. By applying these research methodologies, any further unanticipated research hypotheses may be proposed as well as formed, and the study will be far faster and more cost-effective. These research approaches are sequentially considered to be among the greatest since they rarely have the potential to exclude any plausible alternative hypotheses for an event's causes.

In addition, a descriptive quantitative study approach is deemed suited for this particular investigation of the influence of national culture on organizational performance and leadership styles. This study strategy will aid in evaluating the worth of the model offered in the first diagram. As a result, the researcher aims to perform the research study utilizing a single organization, using a sample size of one hundred units from a specific Romanian company listed in the FAME database to collect data. The appropriate large or medium-sized corporation will be selected using a system of random selection. In contrast, appropriate research units will be selected based on multiplicity criteria, such as multiple workforces, date of registration, and company turnover.

To reduce potential study measurement mistakes, the research response and data will be gathered from the company's most knowledgeable key informants with expertise in a variety of strategic and tactical tasks (Nayyar, 1992; Campbell & Freeman, 1991). Studies undertaken by experts such as Bowman and Ambrosini (1997) reveal that it is unreliable to make conclusions based on a single study responder. However, Zahra and Covin (1993) contend that this worry is scarcely a hindrance in other study scenarios. In contrast, Malhotra (1993), Campbell and Freeman (1991), and Slater (1995) found in their respective studies that multiple research respondents have negative effects on the study results, such as inter-rater consistency problems, difficulties in administering the survey, and a usable response rate. Thus, the researcher will employ the solitary respondent strategy, in which only one senior management per sample unit will be selected as a key informant.

During the survey, the researcher will present a well-designed and tested study questionnaire to respondents in order to collect primary data. For efficient survey implementation and design, the researcher will utilize follow-up mailings, response incentives, and pre-notification procedure recommendations for the study participants (Paxson, 1992). A plethora of prescriptive publications and scholarly papers have provided insightful recommendations regarding the technique. Implementation and management of research instruments in accordance with these tactics will have an impact on the overall achievement of satisfactory replies and the effective collection of research data (Kennedy & Anderson, 2002). To improve response rate and content validity, the study survey must be conceived, designed, and implemented in accordance with the guidelines provided by various experts. For instance, Churchill's (1991) recommendations about post-survey reminders, pre-notification, survey piloting, and questionnaire style and design will be implemented.

Research Equipment

Given that the instrument is designed to serve its intended aims, the development of the research questionnaire is one of the most crucial components of the study's methodology. To increase the content validity, the instrument will adhere to the nine-step iterative guideline or framework established by Churchill (1991). The framework was initially established and refined by the renowned scholars Bowman and Ambrosini (1997), and it ensures the rigor of the methodical processes involved in the formulation of the research questionnaire. By evaluating the available processes, operations, and hypotheses, it becomes apparent that the dimensions of managerial performance, leadership styles, and national culture can be consistently realized by adopting the measurements outlined in the present study.

Numerous theorists that have researched the concept of national culture, such as Xenikou and Furnham (1996) and Cooke and Rousseau (1988), have proposed dozens of cultural metrics. In fact, according to Xenikou and Furnham (1996), all produced national culture measures reflect the view of the author, including a sequence of values and ideas as well as national culture definitions. In instances where philosophers have defined national culture as consisting of sequences of standards, the cultural measurements will focus on these norms. However, Harris and Ogbonna (2000) assert that when the national culture description focuses on particular items, such definitions lead to measures centered on the formation of organizations. However, Schwartz (1992) found that the pre-study discourses on culture performed by the administrations of the organizations appeared to be consistent with the perspectives of practitioners. In contrast, these cultural perspectives appear consistent with the current beliefs.

The national cultural measurement that was customized from the work of Schwartz (1992) was derived in large part from Darcy and Kleiner’s (1991) and Campbell and Freeman’s (1991) first efforts on the topic at hand. Based on the fact that the set concentrates on assessing two key national cultural continua, it is hypothesized that these measures are tentatively superior to those of any other variable. For instance, the national culture measurement will focus on the internal-maintenance-external and organic-mechanistic positioning. This cultural dimension factor is expected to be respondent-friendly, straightforward to manage, and succinct (Campbell & Freeman, 1991).

In the survey instrument, also known as the research questionnaire, the battery measures proposed by Darcy and Kleiner (1991) will be advocated and utilized for both conceptual and practical reasons in this particular study. However, Darcy and Kleiner (1991) made use of cultural descriptors that will be modified in this investigation. Thus, the national culture will be evaluated in this study using organizational ideals and management viewpoints. In the survey instrument available in the appendix, the exact number of research objects and words of the research questions that are designed to assess national culture are provided.

The vast majority of experts, such as Campbell and Freeman (1991) and Xenikou and Furnham (1996), have acknowledged that organizational performance is a very nuanced and multidimensional phenomenon. The recommendations and proposals contributed by Darcy and Kleiner (1991) and Churchill (1991) led the researcher to decide to measure the magnitude of organizational performance based on the reflected competitor-centered and client-focus perspectives, whereas the majority of studies tend to measure organizational and employee performance as either bi-dimensional or uni-dimensional parameters. In other words, the researcher will embrace the performance measurement dimensions, namely the competitor-centric and customer-centric perspectives.

In addition, the quantification of any company's success was derived from a variety of custom-tailored examinations of the preceding authors' transcripts and articles conducted by the researcher. Standard research topics for evaluating organizational performance will include trade volumes, competitive benefits, market domination, trade expansion, and client acceptance. These performance assessment parameters were determined by analyzing both short-term and long-term organizational performance factors in response to two overarching queries sparked by the aforementioned five study parameters (Bowsers & Seashore, 1966).

The measuring of the purported leadership styles will also be based on current and accepted research material. Churchill (1991), by analyzing the investigative prose that connects to the evaluation of the distinctiveness, strategies, and conducts of managerial leadership, recommended that investigators utilize an appropriate oversized sample size. According to the majority of scholars, Darcy and Kleiner's (1991) perceived methodologies for measuring the styles of leadership, which were successively derived from Stogdill's (1963) and Fleishman's (1957) early works, were valid and trustworthy. Some of the scholars who acknowledge these leadership measurement styles in their texts and study literature included Paxson (1992) and Nicholls

Abayas Website Argumentative Essay Help Online

Introduction

The proposed Abayas Website would be an online-based business in the form of a website that will allow Emirati women to order Abayas without visiting a store and have them delivered directly to their homes. Within the website, clients will be able to choose the pricing by specifying their budget, the material of the Abayas, the date of delivery, and the design of their choice. The business will be organized as a partnership between four friends, each of whom will contribute equally to its financing and management.

Objective, Vision, and Method

Strategy

The success of the business is on the capacity to concurrently coordinate online ordering and on-time delivery of Abayas to the customer's home. The company's motto is hassle-free delivery of Abayas to the convenience of your house.

Vision

The company's objective is to be the top online platform for ordering and receiving Abayas at the lowest possible cost.

Purpose Statement

The company's objective is to expand its online business platform to meet the specialized Abaya needs of Emirati women by launching an accessible, user-friendly, and personalized website. Within the next three years, the company wants to improve its awareness through digital marketing and website optimization.

Potential Obstacles

Since the firm will be online-based and will operate in the traditional Emirati society, the difficulty of acceptance may hamper the business's growth, as this society is still wary of online businesses. In addition, as the current market is still immature, the business may face competition from a potential rival. Moreover, as the firm will operate in an environment where customer preference is the foundation of successful operations, a change in consumer preference may have a significant impact on the organization.

Situational Evaluation

Company Analysis Objectives

Within two years, the company's strategic objective is to be the market leader in the section of the online fashion market that caters to Emirati women. In addition, the company wants to establish a successful customer referral business model by ensuring the highest level of customer happiness at all times in order to maintain a 20% annual growth rate for the next five years. The company objective is to raise at least 150,000 AED for a startup during the following two months. The company will also try to raise its annual profits by 20% through the extension of its market reach.

Focus

The company will differentiate the Abayas services it provides to customers into three distinct categories. The first category will be premium Abayas, which will include the ordering and delivery of grade 1 Abayas for celebrities and wealthy clients. The second category, normal Abayas, will consist of the ordering and delivery of Abayas of grade 2 for middle-class clients. The third category will include low-cost Abayas for customers seeking high-quality Abayas at the lowest possible price on the market.

Culture

As part of their dynamic and traditional culture, Emirati women are well-known for their loyalty to a variety of Abaya styles and sizes. In the targeted market, abayas represent elegance, taste, and social orientation. In actuality, any female in Emirati society is a prospective customer, as this product is a necessity for all women and girls. Since Abayas are a daily product, there is a constant demand for a trustworthy and user-friendly website for ordering them.

Market share

In order to determine the proposed business's potential market share, a poll was conducted, and the findings are described in the table below.

Customer classification Market share (Percentage)

Young girls (0-20 years) 30%

Middle-aged females (21-50 years) 45%

25% of the population is comprised of women aged 51 and over.

The results of the preceding table are summarized in the table that follows.

Consumer Research

The company anticipates reaching 6,000 clients in the first year, 9,000 customers in the second year, and 12,000 customers in the third year, for a total of 27,000 successful orders and deliveries by the end of the third year on the Emirati market. The company will target the elderly, middle-aged, and young portions of the population. In addition, the customers will be separated into regular customers and first-time customers so that the demands of each sector are catered to based on their level of loyalty.

The firm will target the three client segments based on the present desire for flexible, quick, economical, and user-friendly purchasing methods for Abaya purchases. In addition, the company will analyze the design specifications, colors, and sizes of each Abaya in order to develop a marketing plan based on consumer needs through proactive customer participation in information search and product acceptance. This means that the entire business platform will be built on promoting the satisfied value of each online service and the real delivery of the Abayas in order to positively influence customer behavior.

Competitor Evaluation

Due of the market's relative immaturity, there is no significant competition that could endanger the existence and continuation of the Abayas Website. However, if the business idea is successful, there may be local and worldwide rivalry from enterprises creating Abayas in the Emirati community and elsewhere. In order to survive the anticipated future danger of competition, the company will implement product and market positioning techniques such as multiple-pricing and superior service quality. The multiple-pricing method will be implemented by grading the online Abayas services and assigning distinct prices to each consumer segment.

This indicates that the company will serve high-end, middle-range, and low-end clients without excluding any potential customers. In addition, the website will offer a variety of services that clients can select while ordering Abayas and determining the delivery schedule. For example, consumers who want their Abayas delivered within 12 hours may pay a higher price than those who want them delivered within 24 hours. This indicates that the company will create an environment of its own competitiveness by excluding any rivals who may wish to profit from the untapped client niche.

In addition, the business intends to develop a strategic and cost-effective delivery system by hiring a delivery company to deliver products to clients according to the terms of the contract. The outsourced delivery service will be incorporated into the business model so that lapses and customer feedback may be monitored in real time. This will safeguard the company and its clients against any errors or poor performance by the contracted product supplier. In addition, the business will spend less on advertising because the contracted distribution agency will conduct face-to-face advertising on its behalf.

Given that the entire business platform is centered online, the Abayas website will be developed to reflect the actual colors and imagery of Abayas. To appeal to the feminine preferences of the target market, the Abayas will be packaged in an elegant and colorful manner. In addition, each product will be packaged in branded boxes that are intended to stimulate the female population's desire to associate with perfection.

SWOT Analysis

Advantages Strategic distribution network

Since the suggested partner has a well-developed delivery network within the Emirati community, outsourcing the distribution and delivery portion of the business to a well-established organization will provide the company with a competitive advantage in terms of reliability. This indicates that the firm will benefit from being a trustworthy enterprise that delivers on its promises.

Excellent brand name

Since the website will be called Abayas, it will be easy for customers to locate it online and associate it with their Abayas. Since the Abayas name is already associated with the product the company want to concentrate in, it will be simple to market. The word Abayas reflects the culture, way of life, and social orientation of Emirati women in accordance with the business objective of marketing Abayas as a culture in the targeted market.

Provision of several services

The business is poised to profit from various customer groups because the online platform has been designed to fulfill the needs of all customers by offering stratified services. This means that the business will benefit from self-competition and may even expand further if the targeted customers embrace the product lines.

Various service brand offerings

The company will publish online Abayas magazines that will aid in self-promotion among targeted customers, hence expanding market coverage at a low price. The success of the e-magazine may boost the number of referral clients interested in the services that the firm will offer. The mission of the company's brand is to provide great customer service. The company has a well-established strategy that distinguishes its services from those of competitors. In addition, the organization has embraced flat, decentralized structures that facilitate management and decrease expenses. As the first firm of its sort, the company enjoys a great reputation on the market due to the quality, dependability, and excellent services it provides to its customers.

Weaknesses Breakages during delivery

Due to the online and offline nature of the business, Abayas may be damaged during delivery to customers. The breakages may increase the expense of doing business and, if they occur frequently, may cause clients to acquire a poor impression of the company. This may harm the business's viability, especially if the breakages and other damages are significant.

Delivery delays

Due to the fact that the Abayas bought by consumers must be transported from a store to the customers' location, there may be delays, especially if customers have requested urgent delivery during busy hours. Frequent delays may result in business loss.

Single market focus

The company's reliance on the female market makes it exposed to a number of conceivable large-scale economic downturns. In addition, the firm's competitive advantage is weakened by its singular focus on urban markets. The urban population comprises only 45 percent of the market share overall. In addition, the rise and proliferation of similar surplus services provide alternative offerings to the targeted customers. The firm has not yet reached its full potential to enable for rapid delivery of the product to consumers.

Challenges in persuading customers

Due to the prevalence of scammers and misleading advertising who do not follow to the ethical norm of being faithful in describing the product as it is in reality, many targeted clients have had a negative experience with online buying of services. Despite the fact that the suggested website would be based on a legitimate business, it may take a very long time to convince the suspicious Emirati ladies that the firm is different. The internet business's expansion and penetration strategy could be badly impacted by the mistrust surrounding its online location.

Limited customer access

The entire business model relies on a potential customer's ability to access the internet. This means that many potential clients without internet connection will be denied entry. Currently, approximately 35 to 55 percent of potential customers in Emirati society have access to the internet and are proficient in its use. Because only half of the female population has access to the internet, future expansion strategies may be impacted by the exclusion of nearly half of the female population due to the online nature of the business. Therefore, the company's expansion will be slower than that of a hypothetical traditional or hybrid business delivering the same services. This indicates that the company will likely lose to such competition.

Opportunities Integrated technology as a tool for expansion

Since the business is online-based, there is an unbounded opportunity for the development of a mobile app that can be used to access the website from mobile devices, given that the majority of the business's target customers own Smartphones. In addition, the company could profit from integrating technology to track the delivery schedule through pop-up alerts so that clients can monitor the status of their order through mobile phone. In addition, the company might offer an SMS service for customers who cannot access the internet to order Abayas. This affords the company the option to expand beyond its present target market.

Increasing present market

The most likely opportunity is the rapid expansion of the market segments for middle- and upper-class women. In addition, changes in economic conditions and infrastructures that enable the growth and development of businesses, as well as the expansion of the Emirati society, give new chances for the business. The expanding spending power of younger women, the most engaged client segment, gives a new potential for the company to exploit. Younger women between the ages of twenty and forty-five will be the greatest customers of Abayas services offered by the business. The company is positioned to profit from this customer category.

aesthetically pleasing online modeling to enhance product visibility

The company has the opportunity to increase the exposure of its current services by optimizing its website for search engines so that it is very easy to reach. This website's search engine optimization is strategically designed to increase customer traffic. When search engine optimization is incorporated into a business's marketing communication plan, the visibility of the company's services increases beyond the targeted market.

Increased consumer loyalty with a superior brand

The firm has the potential to retain a positive image with its clientele, given that the entire operation hinges on the dependability, affordability, and usability of the website for ordering and receiving Abayas. Through the provision of high-quality services, the firm is able to monitor the reputation of its clients through their feedback in order to make necessary adjustments to maintain high levels of customer satisfaction.

Dangers Competitors

New competitors can easily enter this market with similar services and brands. The new competitors may represent a threat to Abaya's website. For example, competitors may imitate the business concept or introduce a superior technique for reaching clients, to the detriment of the enterprise. Another issue is personnel loss, as some competitors may offer higher pay and allowances to recruit them.

Variations in the fashion industry's economy

The likely economic downturn that will have a stronger impact on business conditions and consumer confidence poses a greater threat to the business's operations. These economic fluctuations may impair the spending power of the targeted customers, hence decreasing demand for the website's services.

Changed customer preference

The entire business platform operates on customer preference since wearing Abayas

Nalco Company: Human Resource Management Argumentative Essay Help Online

Human Resources Report

Human resource management is a key aspect of every business or organization. It is a valuable asset that assists a firm in achieving its aims and objectives. The organization should treat its human resources with the utmost regard, create a just and fair hiring process, and improve the skills of its personnel. The human resource management section of the Nalco firm is responsible for creating an environment that both attracts and retains their human resource. Using an integrative approach to individuals in the workplace, the organization views human resources as human beings, not as robots. The organization has produced a guideline for managing all human resource management concerns, including recruitment, orientation, career development, salary, performance evaluation, and employee benefits. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the human resource management techniques of Nalco Company, their applicability, and their effects on the economy and society of the United Arab Emirates (Armstrong, 2006, p.34).

Human resource practicability in an organization entails the execution of certain human resource managers' tasks. Organizationally, the guidelines established to address all concerns relating to human resources are executed. For example, qualified specialists handle the company's staff recruitment operations. Successful candidates are introduced to the organization through an orientation procedure. Employees are provided with ongoing training to advance their careers; this makes them more qualified for promotion within the company or for senior positions in other organizations. A compensation committee has been established to ensure that all affected employees get pay in accordance with the company's obligations. Workers are provided with protective equipment such as aprons, boots, masks, and gloves in order to prevent work-related mishaps. The corporation honors the supply of benefits for other employees in accordance with its policies. The organization conducts annual employee performance reviews to monitor and assess the quality of service delivery. Through surveys and employee feedback, the department of human resource management conducts an evaluation of the established strategy; this enables them to spot any loophole and make the required adjustments (Ulrich, 1996, p. 19).

Employees are individuals with diverse aims and wants; the company strives to accommodate these differences so that every employee fits within the organization. Training is provided to employees in a group setting so that they can appreciate one another's individuality while working together. They are instructed to respect one another, and the chain of command is clearly outlined to assist them in resolving any potential conflicts. Skills are provided in order to bring people up to date with the most recent employment requirements. The company supports a safe workplace for its employees by reducing the emission of harmful substances (Harwood, 1996, p.115). The personnel are also educated on the risks involved with hazardous waste management. However, it is not specified how the organization ensures that employees have access to safety equipment to prevent work-related injuries. The corporation compensates employees who sustain work-related illnesses and injuries. The company does not engage in discrimination based on sex, ethnicity, color, or religion. However, Nalco does not demonstrate the recruiting values that guide the organization. By explicitly articulating a code of conduct for its employees, the organization promotes respect among its personnel. The ten principles that Nalco adheres to are human rights, worker, transparency, and safe environment. By 2004, the company has reduced work-related illness and accidents by fifty percent. In human resource management, a solid chain of command is essential for a corporation to successfully achieve its goal of sustaining business ethics. This company's board of directors consists of various committees, one of which is the remuneration committee. The compensation committee is responsible for reimbursing employees for expenses incurred due to work-related accidents or illnesses. Nalco's efficient chain of command is exemplified through the creation of committees to address various issues (Harwood, 1996, p. 56).

Evaluation of the company's human resource management procedures facilitates the identification of strong and weak areas in the workplace, hence facilitating the enhancement of human resource management practices. It also permits the organization to devote more resources to more profitable advancements and to compare practices and groupings in order to identify the best practices. Human resource management as a whole is administered using the most effective approaches. The department of human resource management investigates human resources in order to attain good organizational goals that satisfy personnel needs. Among the indicators utilized by the organization are job awareness This determines if the employees have a clear understanding of their jobs, as well as the aims and objectives they are expected to achieve in their respective positions. Job support verifies that the personnel have all the required equipment to do their duties without difficulty. Commitment evaluates the motivation and willingness of employees to assume their obligations. The employee selection process verifies that the organization selected the most qualified candidate for the position based on the specified job profile. Other factors include supervisory methods that determine whether or not employees are acquainted with the performance evaluation (Towers, 2006, p. 56).

Human resource management necessitates the employment of pertinent instruments in order to accomplish the predetermined goals and objectives. The tools assist the management team in identifying training needs and in the creation of employee training manuals. These instruments also aid in the monitoring and assessment of the measures implemented to solve human resource concerns. These tools include of discussion groups, Internet resources, past surveys, reports on the evaluation of human resource managers, and icebreakers. The most effective management tools are chosen from among these options. Career planning is a fundamental prerequisite of a human resource management; with this expertise, they are able to assist employees in making the proper career development decisions. Human resource managers are also expected to have formal training in human resource management and to participate in ongoing career development sessions in order to tackle growing issues in the field of human resource management. They must possess a bachelor's degree or higher in human resource management (Armstrong, 2006, p.9).

Countries in the Middle East are seen as having economies with limited global competitiveness. The United Arab Emirates is one of these nations; she has demographic problems in the present and the future, obstacles in the employment procedures of the workforce, sustainability issues, and gender-related obstacles. In the United Arab Emirates, emiratisation entailed nationalization policies advocating for the elimination of professional personnel in the department of human resource management. It also encouraged women to fully participate in the major commercial society, which included the private sector, in order to relieve the numerous challenges facing the United Arab Emirates at that time. The rulers of the United Arab Emirates confronted the difficulty of engaging the state's human resource in education and employment in order to advance the nation while preserving Arab and Islamic culture. In the United Arab Emirates, Emiratisation refers to a series of distinct human resource initiatives aimed at achieving national distinctiveness through nationalization. Islamic culture forbade the participation of women in economic operations, as women were only permitted to participate in home duties. Islam was vehemently opposed to women participating in human resource education. The discovery of oil, which brought about signs of progress, resulted in more women receiving an education, a more prosperous society, and more potential for development. Human resource is a crucial resource for economic development; promoting this resource fosters robust economic growth. The United Arab Emirate encouraged good working conditions, the employment of qualified professionals, and the supply of competitive rates and compensation. This encouraged employees and increased job satisfaction in the oil industry. This considerably contributed to the country's economic growth, since more women were worked in the commercial sector, where they received higher wages and thus contributed to the expansion of the economy, as opposed to when they were primarily engaged in domestic duties. Human resource was given equal consideration regardless of gender (Randeree, 2006, p.21).

The level of job satisfaction of a particular employee determines his or her dedication to the organization. When workers are dedicated to their jobs, their output is high, which contributes significantly to the economic and social development. Better pay stimulates workers to perform their responsibilities with great dedication. Promotion and compensation increases are further human resource management methods that encourage greater employee dedication. When a person is promoted to a more prominent position, they take greater pride in their work and experience greater job satisfaction. Human resource techniques such as proper employer-employee communication, job stability, good problem-solving abilities, and higher remuneration significantly increase employee productivity. Increased productivity stimulates the economy, allowing the business to generate sufficient profits and increase its investment horizons. This facilitates the creation of additional employment opportunities for the public. Better remuneration encourages employees to invest at the societal level, hence fostering societal economic development. To boost the output of human resources, particularly in the oil industry, the United Arab Emirates has embraced the best training and human resource management methods. The oil industry has been declining, thus the United Arab Emirates are attempting to increase their prosperity by enhancing international trade. They intend to improve the workers' performance and dedication by making the workplace more accommodating and pleasant (Randeree, 2006, p.21).

Conclusion

Human resource management plays a significant part in the growth of a business, and human resource management helps an organization achieve its goals and objectives. Employers of a given company must be happy with the company's employment circumstances. Job happiness is influenced by career development training, job stability, performance evaluation, and employee benefits. When employees are content and possess the proper credentials, they become more committed to their work, hence improving output. Increased productivity improves the economy and living conditions of the general public at the social level. The manager of human resources handles the needs of employees in order to assure their comfort. This is accomplished by providing employment training, remuneration packages, employee benefits, accurate employee evaluation ratings, and a fair and just recruitment process.

Reference

Armstrong, M. (2006). A Guide to Human Resource Management. London: Kogan.

Harwood, S. (1996). As usual ethically and professionally. Belmont, CA:

Company: Thomson Corporation Randeree, K. (2009). Project Emiratisation: Strategy, Policy, and Practice in the Nationalization of Human Capital.

D. Towers (2006). Human resource management (HRM) research papers and reports. Web.

Human Resource Champions, by David Ulrich, 1996 The next agenda for adding value and delivering results. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press.

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