Alltel And Verizon Wireless Merger Best Essay Help

Introduction

Change management comprises a deliberate approach to adjusting from the perspective of an individual, a business, or an organization. Change may entail aspects such as adapting to it, regulating it, or disrupting it. This paper investigates the Alltel and Verizon Wireless combination and the change management it has thus far embraced.

The report provides a concise Executive Summary of the Alltel and Verizon merger and identifies difficulties that necessitated a merger modification. The necessity for "Verizon Enhanced Communities" (VEC) to increase sales in residential areas was the impetus for modifying the merger. In addition, the paper explains the desired purpose of the change and elaborates on the implementation approach that Alltel/Merger Verizon's employed to guarantee that the implementation process was effective and profitable for the company.

The study explains how change was designed and staged, as well as the political contribution to its success. In addition, the research examines how change leaders in the organization exhibited leadership tactics to lessen opposition while accelerating the change process in the organization. In addition, the study analyzes the outcome that was reached as a result of the merger's alteration and evaluates the influence of how it contributed to a larger market penetration in residential regions. Lastly, the paper describes how my evaluation of "managing Organizational Change" has contributed to this analysis.

Alltel and Verizon have been able to gain a competitive advantage over other service providers in the communication industry as a result of their successful use of change management techniques.

Executive Synopsis

Institutional Unit

Verizon Corporation is the world's top provider of communication services. In the United States, Verizon wireless is connected with the supply of data and voice services, among other communication goods. This is made possible by the firms' widespread and dependable wireless network throughout the United States. Customers of Verizon include corporations, people, and government agencies (Nashville Business Journal, 2008).

Verizon wire line commerce provides communication products and services including network entrance, voice, broadband, and video, long distance, and its connected products and services and Internet protocol networks. It embraces diversity and environmental responsibility in achieving its business objectives. Verizon's workforce is diversified, with an estimated 210,800 employees as of June 2010. (Nashville Business Journal, 2008). To expand its customer coverage throughout the United States, Verizon purchased Alltel in January 2009, and Verizon Wireless immediately began improving and consolidating Alltel's networks to align with Verizon's strategic goals. Upgrade was essential to facilitate delivery of high-quality wireless services to Alltel clients (Chatham journal weekly, 2009).

Problems causing Change

Verizon Wireless was confronted with a number of obstacles that compelled it to find solutions for efficiently addressing the obstacles, enhancing efficiency and customer satisfaction, and achieving its strategic objectives. Beginning the "Verizon Enhanced Communities" was one of the obstacles Verizon faced (VEC). This was the most recent business analysis aimed at offering data, voice, and video services to residential and multi-dwelling locations. The Verizon business analysis, also known as "Verizon Avenue," required Verizon's sales division to aggressively analyze the services and marketing arrangement with architects of new apartments, single-family houses, condominiums, student housing, and military systems (Chatham journal weekly, 2009).

Included among the environmental factors that compelled Verizon to adopt Verizon Enhanced Communities were its competitors. Every business entity has external forces that perform comparable functions within their specialized expertise. These entities are argued to be rivals, and they compete with providers of essential services. A rival underwrites general business by offering upscale services at competitive prices. Verizon's competition required it to adapt in order to achieve its corporate objectives (Chatham journal weekly, 2009).

Customers also contributed to Verizon's adoption of "Verizon Enhanced Community." Customers are essential to the existence of any business; without them, there would be no business. Regardless of the service given, businesses should aim to convince customers that their products meet their needs.

Organizational Purposes

Verizon's wireless objectives have been diverse and expansive. Profit improvement is one of the primary objectives. The combination is intended to increase operational revenue and precincts. Robust cellular and FiOS revenue growth continue to confidently manage operational results. In addition to the economic recovery, the strength of the business markets gives a strong indication of the merger's future performance. The combination seeks to concentrate on directing expenditures with the objective of harmonizing business aptitude regressions while preventing the depth of cutbacks to persist throughout 2010. (Hinman, 2008).

Second, the Verizon merger intends to enhance operational efficiency (Cartwright, et al, 1996, p.87). While focusing on market share and revenue growth as the ultimate objective, the merger is resolutely energizing the administration team to reduce expenses, notably through technology-assisted proficiency. Self-service reward is included in this upgrade. Also, information technology, call center piloting, property merging, shared consolidated services in the company, and elaborate marketing have resulted in reduced costs, paving the way for merger to realize wider market penetration and encouraging the company to maintain its goal of maintaining and refining its income limits. By establishing the FiOS network, the company hopes to achieve much-needed savings in ongoing operating expenses due to the efficiency of its fiber optic services.

Thirdly, the merger necessitates being an industry leader in customer service for a larger consumer base. They consider their larger product offerings and customer service experiences as a competitive advantage and a catalyst for rising profitability and expanding their market share (Cartwright et al, 1996.p.98). In addition, the merger is committed to providing valuable customer service and continually evaluates customer excellence in all aspects of its business operations.

Lastly, the merger intends to enhance its performance-based culture. The merger embraces the heritage of responsibility that is based on unique and team goals that are related to Verizon's strategic dominance. Important objectives of Verizon's compensation plans are performance-based pay and the configuration of long-term advantages for directors and shareholders. Additionally, Verizon has a highly seasoned and diversified team. Respect, understanding, and a shared vision are fundamental to Verizon's competitive edge and an intrinsic aspect of the company's culture (Cartwright et al, 1996.p.105).

Assessment of Change Efforts

Building a strong VEC required long-term outcomes that impacted the company's culture and support structure, in addition to training. VEC was successful in selecting Performance Management Methods as a competent means of completing responsibilities. This was aided by PMI's exceptional achievement in the 2006 sales training seller guide. PMI had demonstrated a strong strategic outlook and the capacity to develop customized solutions. This was a clear indicator that it would naturally align with Verizon's operational, management, and sales objectives.

Assessment

Analyse before to change

Change implementation in any organization is a difficult and complex endeavor. With organizations and businesses undergoing a greater amount of change, the prevalence of strategy is increasing. Whether the transformation is driven by external factors or by the leadership of an organization or corporation from within.

Before adopting a change, Verizon Wireless conducted an analysis of the market's best practices that were accessible to other competitive organizations. After carefully evaluating them, they conclude that PMI is superior since it comprehends their goals and objectives better. PMI spent considerable effort attempting to understand VEC's precise needs, strengths, and obstacles. Executives and top-performing team members inside the organization held a series of meetings and discussions to accomplish this.

Second, a standard, repeatable technique was developed. It was based on input from the decision-making organ, Team members, and leading sales performers. The PMI then built a sales procedure based on the best practices of numerous stakeholders.

Verizon invested in management training to establish the pace for VEC's success. The PMI taught VEC sales managers to become "experts" in internal best practices, which enhanced their training knowledge and duties. Managers were responsible for reinforcing the representative's new behaviors and practices. Verizon's leadership team accepted the new culture and processes to ensure that the representative understands the process and to simplify management assistance. During the first year of the program, the number of growing units with premise access agreements increased by more than 591 percent with the same amount of staff. The number of executive reports decreased from seven to one while still providing a strong leadership team with a vital forward-looking business perspective.

Fourthly, Verizon had to establish leadership credibility. Trust is the conviction that a person will not be affected when vulnerable. Clearly, the point of collective conviction between labor and administration or between superiors and subordinates disrupts the organization's and business's vitality. In times of transformation, however, it is equally important for subordinates to have faith in their superiors since employees feel especially vulnerable. Jobs, social status, self-respect, and economic stability may be in equilibrium.

Verizon's leadership exhibited absolute integrity, consistency, sincerity, and fairness, always acting in a morally and socially responsible manner. Equally, they communicated their concern for the organization and its personnel. These qualities engendered confidence; hence, leaders must be obedient.

Lastly, the team leadership at Verizon conveyed the change vision to all employees in detail. This ensured that all members of the organization knew the reason for the change and the anticipated outcome. However, Verizon wireless promised its employees a clear picture of how organizational-wide changes will affect the performance of their jobs.

Analysis of Change technique

Change Management Strategy

Effective change management requires the implementation of tactics that create an atmosphere conducive to success. Verizon wireless implemented Kotta's change management ideas across the organization. Incorporating Kottas's concepts, Verizon has to prioritize the creation of urgency in change implementation. For any organizational change to occur, a sense of urgency is essential. A practical dialogue that is honest and upfront about the impending change allows individuals to comprehend and, consequently, strengthens the required resolve for the change to be implemented (Denison, 2001, p.87). Open communication about change entails identifying repressed fear and developing scenarios demonstrating what could occur in the future, engaging in sincere conversations, and providing active and substantial reasons to get people involved talking, thinking, and pursuing support from customers, outside stakeholders, and industry to strengthen an organization's or company's argument.

Second, Kotta argues that for a change to be effective, it is equally important to build a strong partnership. People must be persuaded that change is essential. This frequently necessitates resolute leadership and observable support from an organization's top individuals and decision-makers. There are strong and effective change leaders within a company. They are not required to adhere to the conventional organizational hierarchy (Denison, 2001, p.93).

An organization must form a coalition of persuadable and influential employees with decision-making authority within the organization in order to ensure that its goals are compatible with change.

To ensure success, reputation, authority, political influence, and job title should be considered when selecting a coalition team. Once formed, the “change coalition” must continue to work as a team to generate urgency and momentum surrounding the need for change.

Fourthly, the success of the vision will be determined by its communication and what the company does with its vision once it has been formulated. By emphasizing day-to-day communication in the company, the company's vision will help to foster and emphasize the importance of change in the organization; therefore, a team tasked with change management should strive to communicate the company's vision frequently and forcefully, and reinforce their change strategies in the communications. Communication about change will involve frequently discussing the company's change vision, addressing people's concerns and anxieties in an open and honest manner, applying the company's vision to all aspects of operations, from training to performance reviews, tying everything back to the vision, and leading by example.

Fifthly, eliminating obstacles strengthens the active model for change implementation. Put in place the plan for change, and continually assess potential impediments. Removing obstacles can enable the company's vision-necessary individuals to achieve their goals, hence advancing the change (Denison, 2001, p.106). Tools such as identifying or hiring leaders whose primary responsibilities are to implement change, examining the company or organizational structure, job descriptions, and performance and compensation systems to ensure they're in line with the organization's or company's vision, and recognizing and rewarding individuals for implementing change. Identifying those who are fighting the change and assisting them in understanding what is required, while swiftly removing impediments.

In terms of establishing short-term victories, nothing is more motivating than success. The change management team can design tactics to ensure that the organization experiences success as soon as the change is implemented. Therefore, the change management team should have a plan for setting short-term goals; they should not prepare for a single long-term objective that may be achieved over an extended period of time. This will ensure that less risks are taken, allowing for the final achievement of the change implementation goals. Every "win" at each step of change implementation inspires both the workforce of an organization and the Change management team.

Structuring Alteration

Verizon organized the execution of change based on six significant factors. Verizon's initial consideration was action planning. Verizon prepared a detailed action plan and a set of action items to be completed in chronological order. This specific action was incorporated into Verizon's strategies. Each action was assigned to a certain individual for execution. Verizon assessed the amount of time and resources required to complete the allocated activities. This general statement was turned into a significant number of specific tasks to be fulfilled.

Verizon also analyzed its organizational structure and how change may be efficiently implemented. In addition, the change team evaluated whether the organization's current structure was adequate for the anticipated transformation (The Lincoln Journal Star, 2009).

Verizon viewed its people resources as a significant factor in its ability to influence change.

Verizon views human reasoning from two perspectives in order to be effective: first, it views human resource as a management link that nurtures the company's communication needs. Human resource different methods ensure that people responsible for developing the corresponding action steps properly comprehend the change that must be achieved. Secondly, upper management and managers comprehended how the adjustment will affect the organization's human resources. Due to this, they decided to allow workers time to grow and learn through experience, implemented training, and employed additional workers.

Verizon evaluated the funding plan set out for streamlining organizational change. Companies are able to successfully implement change if sufficient funding and resources are allocated. Verizon evaluated the financial ramifications of the change process prior to the actual implementation of the change. The financial plans began when the strategy was formulated, and a firm financial commitment was established as the process advanced (The Lincoln Journal Star, 2009).

Fifthly, Verizon adopted oversight and management to

Internal And External Economic Balance Best Essay Help

Introduction

An open economy is an examination of an economy that takes the foreign sector into account. By taking the foreign sector into account, we imply that the economic success of a country depends on imports and exports from other nations.

The model for an open economy is Y = C + I + G + (X-M), whereas the model for a closed economy is Y = C + I + G, where Y is the amount of national income, C is the level of consumption, G is the government, X is exports, and M is imports.

In an open economy with a foreign sector, the government must consider the effects of internal policies on the foreign sector. For instance, if a country raises its interest rates, this discourages capital outflow and encourages capital inflow; the difference between capital inflow and capital outflow will influence exchange rates.

The purpose of the government is to achieve low unemployment, low inflation, and high economic growth by the use of the numerous tools and instruments at its disposal, such as interest rates, money supply, government spending, and taxation.

This article describes internal and external economic balances and establishes the problems and paradoxes a government has in attempting to achieve both. It focuses on the consequences of domestic economic policies on the international sector.

Internal Versus External Balances

Internal balance refers to the government's efforts to achieve growth, full employment, and price stability in order to minimize inflationary pressure. Internal balance is achieved by government expenditure, taxation, interest rates, and money supply.

External balance entails achieving a favorable balance of payment when a country tries to achieve high levels of exports; the balance of payment depends on the terms of trade, which depend on the pricing of products and services as well as the exchange rates.

Internal and External Balance Maintenance Difficulties

Internal balances Unemployment against inflation

An economy will strive for a high economic growth rate, high employment levels, and low inflation levels; yet, reaching high employment levels will cause inflation to rise, therefore this policy may not be optimal. The diagram demonstrates the relationship between unemployment and inflation.

The Phillips curve demonstrates that the higher the level of inflation, the lower the unemployment rate; hence, governments will maintain a specific level of unemployment in order to maintain low levels of inflation.

Government spending

An increase in government spending will stimulate aggregate demand; when aggregate demand increases, investors are signaled to invest more; therefore, there is an incentive to increase aggregate supply; the overall result of an increase in government spending is an increase in employment; the diagram below illustrates the result of an increase in government spending.

AGG represents aggregate demand, aggregate demand = C + I + G, the government will boost government spending, and therefore aggregate demand will change from AGG 0 to AGG 1, as well as the amount of employment will shift from Y0 to a new level of employment Y1. In spite of establishing a new and greater employment level, the government will face a new dilemma in the form of rising inflation due to its increased expenditure.

Currency supply

The LM and IS curves will be used to illustrate the impact of an increase in the money supply. The LM curve connects the levels of interest rates and national income an at which the monetary sector is in equilibrium, while the IS curve connects the levels of interest rates and income at which the real sector is in equilibrium.

In the event of a rise in the money supply, the LM curve will shift to the right, as indicated by the movement from LM 0 to LM 1. This would result in an increase in national income from Y0 to Y1 and a decline in interest rates from I0 to I1.

According to the accelerator theory, which is illustrated below, a rise in the amount of national income will result in a rise in investment.

An rise in national income tends to boost investment; this is known as the accelerator effect. Conversely, an increase in investment generated by an increase in investment is known as the multiplier impact.

∆ Y→ ∆ I accelerator effect

∆ I → ∆ Y multiplier effect

The government will attain a larger national income by raising the money supply; but, the increase in money supply will increase aggregate demand, resulting in an increase in inflation due to higher demand than supply, also known as demand-pull inflation.

Inflation rates

If the government decides to decrease the level of interest rates in order to increase the level of investment, it will face inflationary pressure. Interest rates are the cost of borrowed funds, and a decrease in the level of interest rates means that investors will have access to more funds at a lower cost. Nonetheless, the fall in interest rates will boost the money supply, which could lead to inflation.

Internal and External Equilibrium

It is essential for an economy to maintain both internal and external balances; nevertheless, the internal balance may be impacted by external pressure as a result of increasing exports, political issues, exchange rates, oil shock, and capital inflow and outflow.

Exports

An increase in exports will increase foreign income into a country, which may lead to what is known as a boom. In the event of a boom, the government will attempt to move the economy to the new potential level of output by increasing interest rates; failure to do so will lead to high inflation throughout the entire economy.

When the level of exports increases, there is a high level of foreign earnings that enter the economy, which necessitates an increase in interest rates to reduce the effect of high liquidity level, which is inflation. An increase in interest rates will ensure that the economy moves to a new potential output through an increase in savings.

Oil quake

A sudden increase in oil prices will cause a rise in prices throughout the economy, which will lead to high inflation rates and a recession. The government may choose to allow inflation to rise and then fall and then facilitate the recovery of the recession by lowering the interest rates, or it may choose to immediately lower the interest rates to avoid a recession.

By lowering interest rates, aggregate demand will rise and potential output will return to its former level; hence, an economy can escape a recession but cannot avoid inflation.

Capital circulation

An increase in domestic interest rates will increase capital inflow because people will obtain funds from sources other than domestically, a reduction in interest rates will increase capital outflow and simultaneously reduce capital inflow, the importance of capital inflow and outflow is their determination of exchange rates, every economy wants its currency to be strong, and this is achieved by capital inflow and outflow. When exchange rates fluctuate such that a country's currency depreciates, exports increase and imports decrease because imports become comparatively expensive and exports become relatively inexpensive.

Conclusion

Based on the preceding examination of internal and external balances, it is obvious that a nation must always examine the impact of policy implementation on its external balances.

Consequently, the government should act in accordance with any external effect; if exports increase, there will be a favorable trade balance, but the internal balance may be jeopardized by high inflation levels; therefore, the government should raise interest rates.

Depending on the level of inflation and interest rates in the economy, the government may opt to respond immediately by increasing interest rates in the event of an oil shock or to wait until the economy enters a recession and then aid in its recovery by boosting interest rates.

However, an increase in interest rates will restrict domestic borrowing and investment, leading to an increase in demand for foreign currencies and a devaluation of the currency. Therefore, the government should consider using reasonable increases and drops in interest rates.

However, the policy measures to be used to maintain both internal and external balances depend on the current state of an economy; if an economy is currently experiencing high inflation rates, the policy measures to be implemented will be those that prevent inflationary pressure, and if the level of interest is already high, increasing interest rates will not be an effective policy measure.

References

Brian Snow's 1997 introduction to macroeconomics was published by Routledge in the United Kingdom.

Economics: A New Introduction, McGraw Hill Publishers, UK, 1999, by Stratton.

A. Codington (2003) published Keynesian Economics: The First Principles with Routledge in the United States.

The Classical Economists and Economic Policy was published in 1991 by the University of Michigan Press in Michigan under the direction of Alfred William.

Understanding Keynes: An Analysis of the General Theory, published in 1981 by Wiley in the United States by John Fender.

John Sloman (2003) published Economics with Prentice Hall in New York.

Modern Economics by M. Hadjimichalakis, Prentice Hall Publishers, New Jersey, 1982.

Paul Anthony Samuelson published Economics through McGraw-Hill in 1964.

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Microsoft And Apple Companies: Career Growth And Development Best Essay Help

Introduction

Planning and advancing a career is extremely difficult, especially when selecting the ideal employer. To ensure future personal fulfillment and robust career advancement, I must identify the appropriate firm for employment. Thus, the purpose of this study paper is to select Apple and Microsoft as firms where I would desire to work as a business administration expert. From secondary data sources, the research evaluates the history, vital statistics, human resources, and SWOT of the two firms. I am confident that working for either of the companies would be great for my career development and progress based on the findings. To guarantee that I am well-positioned to reap the benefits of proper career preparation, I must specifically identify the perfect firms that can assist my professional growth and development.

Microsoft and Apple are the most promising firms for my professional development and advancement, as determined by exhaustive research and proactive reasoning. The two organizations have engaging human resource management practices, a healthy work environment, and the ideal organizational culture, all of which generate an interactive and positive work environment for all employees. Moreover, the two firms have processes and structures that encourage employee advancement, compensation, and social welfare as family members. In addition, the two organizations have been proactive in stimulating creativity and rewarding excellence with a series of extremely enticing staff retention packages. Consequently, the rate of redundancy in the two companies is quite low. Due to high profit turnover and the employment of the most talented employees in the world, the two firms currently provide some of the greatest employee retention programs in the world.

The perfect business

The perfect organization, in my opinion, is one that encourages personal development, provides structure and appealing compensation, and has a healthy work atmosphere. In addition to supporting innovation and valuing employees by providing competitive compensation and fostering personal growth and development, the organization must also foster innovation and encourage personal development. Consequently, I believe that an ideal firm must be comprehensive and proactive in meeting all social, economic, and other employee requirements in a well-structured employee-employee partnership. An ideal organization is structured to foster a positive association between positive, productive job performance and the work environment, as motivational and hospitable settings. The structure promotes security, comfort, and safety, as well as physical comfort, among the personnel. Measuring variables such as interpersonal interactions, working conditions, support and trust, welfare programs, and the work environment can have a significant impact on organizational effectiveness and employee conduct.

As a result, the company may be in a position to grow its market operations thanks to the effectiveness of its employees, who are inspired by the sign of unity of purpose. An ideal organization must recognize that employee morale is the primary engine of productivity, as productive people are more likely to be innovative and enthusiastic in their work obligations. Workers that are content are more motivated to produce positive results. Through centralized and correctly structured training procedures, talent promotion, and motivation, productive behavior internalization should offer the most effective alternatives for job execution problem-solving in an ideal organization. The unity of purpose symbol must be ingrained in the ideal organization's customs in order to foster a culture of productivity and cooperation among its personnel.

I. Firm: Apple

Background

Apple Inc. has focused in the creation of personal computers, smartphones, the iPod media player, tablet computers, and online services, making it one of the leading American electronic manufacturers. It is headquartered in California and serves the global market. Apple has 425 storefronts in 14 countries, however it mostly distributes its products through retailers worldwide. In 2013, Apple was voted the most valuable brand in the world, surpassing Coca-Cola, which had held the top spot for some years. Apple Company's innovation team has continued to build several brands in order to maintain the company's competitive advantage.

Merchandise and services

Apple Inc. is a significant global electronics company that sells personal computers, smartphones, the iPod media player, tablet computers, and online music services. Apple is the industry leader in terms of design and innovation for personal computers (Apple Inc, 2015). Customers across the globe are attracted to the company's innovative new products and appealing designs. This strategy has benefited Apple Inc. in terms of market expansion, particularly among its early adopter customers. Specifically, through product development, Apple Inc. has been able to optimally utilize opportunities in the innovation market area and has achieved a considerable market share in the worldwide mobile PCs market (Jobber, 2012).

HR office culture

The company's human resource management (HRM) initiatives are incorporated into the business management paradigm and use 25% of the overall budget. Internal and external work environments have been effectively managed by the organization's HRM strategy. The organization offers one of the most extensive and ongoing training programs. The company's incentive and promotion systems are institutionalized into its HRM system. The organization has an experienced HRM team that handles employee complaints, concerns, and questions. Due to these factors, the company has one of the most skilled and satisfied workforces. This has resulted in the company's productivity remaining consistent throughout time. The company's competitive advantage in the PC market has been bolstered by the company's ideal productivity. The corporation offers more favorable compensation, promotions, and working conditions than its competitors. Through its universal code of conduct on professionalism and equality, each employee is afforded an equal opportunity to advance through regional and international transfers, which is essential for preparation for managerial positions.

SWOT analysis

Apple's highly successful and inventive leadership structure has fostered the company's sustained growth throughout the years (MarketLine, 2015a). It is nearly hard to discuss Apple's success without discussing Steve Jobs, the company's former CEO. Apple was able to negotiate the competitive electronic market and become a top industry player due to his transformative leadership. He also contributed to the morale of the staff. This company's innovative spirit is another quality that has contributed to its enormous operational success. Because they were distinct goods, the iPhone and the iPad acquired a great deal of market acceptance. They provided customers with exceptional value beyond their expectations (MarketLine, 2015a). This helped to increase its market popularity.

The company's technical abilities and knowledge are likewise of the highest caliber. In order to be able to address some of the technological challenges in this industry, management has been eager to recruit a highly skilled workforce. Apple's ability to address market demands with outstanding goods has also contributed to the company's success. Its financial performance has significantly contributed to its improved performance. Through the selling of its products on the global market, the company has achieved immense financial success. The company's image, particularly the power of its brand, has also contributed to its success in the electronics business (Johnson, Whittington, & Scholes, 2011).

Apple's primary market shortcoming has been its failure to develop items that are invulnerable to imitation by competitors. The company has engaged in legal battles with some of its strongest competitors over infringement of its intellectual property. This is because the designs of some of its high-quality products are easily replicable by competitors. It has also been alleged that the company's management strategy is authoritarian. This resulted in substantial employee turnover, particularly in the early years following Jobs' return to the company (MarketLine, 2015a). Apple Inc. has been accused by certain users of exploiting online marketing channels. Pop-up advertisements on e-mails and other websites are deemed annoying. Some of these advertisements were also used by cybercriminals who duped unwary individuals out of millions of dollars in Apple cash rewards. Apple took some time to reply to these concerns. This negatively affected its reputation on the global market (Jobber, 2012).

The fast expansion of the electronic market over the years presents Apple with its most significant opportunity. In both industrialized and developing economies, mobile phones have nearly become a requirement. This indicates that Apple has a vast market for its products. The recent increase in the middle class population in China, India, and portions of Africa has also presented an opportunity for this company to sell its popular high-end products (MarketLine, 2015a). Emerging technologies have presented Apple with numerous opportunities. Technology has enhanced the production strategies' speed, efficiency, and efficacy. It has also decreased the time required for this company to supply its items to the international market. In addition to being able to monitor activities in Chinese plants without leaving their U.S. offices, the company's management can also monitor operations in Chinese plants (Jobber, 2012).

Apple's primary issue in the global market is fierce competition from rival PC heavyweights. The tremendous competition, particularly from Samsung, must be analyzed and remedied immediately. This rivalry may compel the company to engage in price wars, which could diminish its profitability. Apple's legal conflicts with Samsung over patent concerns may potentially have affected the company's operations and reputation. This issue should be addressed with a permanent solution. Emerging market trends are threats that must be addressed by management. The electronic market is so dynamic that it may be impossible to anticipate tomorrow's consumer demands (MarketLine, 2015a). Apple Inc. invests significant financial and human resources in research to develop new, superior products. Occasionally, though, products do not remain on the market long enough to be labeled obsolete. This causes the company to undertake a costly procedure to deliver new products (MarketLine, 2015a).

Microsoft (Company II)

Background

Microsoft Corporation is a multinational corporation that has been operating for over two decades. The company offers products and services including content development, content licensing, and software distribution. From its headquarters in Redmond, Washington, the corporation has spread across the globe over its two decades of existence. Currently, the corporation has a presence in over one hundred countries and a human resource base of over 128,000 individuals. Since 2009, the company's revenues have increased consistently by double digits. At the end of the 2015 fiscal year, the corporation earned $86.833 billion in sales. Currently, the company is the global leader in its product and service sector, with a vast network in almost every country on earth.

Merchandise and services

Microsoft Company offers a variety of products and services, including content creation, content licensing, and software distribution. In addition to manufacturing and selling computer hardware services, the company also provides customized internet advertising services. Microsoft has surpassed its competitors' offerings through product variety, low prices, and the development of many products that satisfy the needs of individual customers, governments, and corporations. As a result, Microsoft has not only created an environment for its own competitiveness, but also ensured global market expansion on all continents. Microsoft's numerous products and services have positioned the corporation as the global leader in software distribution, licensing, and content development.

HR office culture

In terms of work culture, Microsoft Corporation has a highly distinct organizational structure. The company's particular and distinctive organizational structure is molded by the company's objectives. The corporation has more than one hundred twenty-eight thousand employees worldwide and more than four thousand human resource personnel. The manager of human resources is at the pinnacle of labor management and has been extremely proactive in fostering innovation and dynamic performance. The organization prioritizes systems thinking, mental models, personal mastery, a common vision, and team learning. The organizational structure and culture play a crucial impact in both impeding and promoting organizational learning. The radical method is the most ethically possible alternative for proactive leadership behavior management. This identifies the effort-performance, valence, and performance-outcome expectations of the entire workforce. These ideals have been ingrained in the company's history and upheld by its personnel throughout the years. For instance, it is responsible for designing and implementing growth initiatives between management and employees at Microsoft Corporation.

SWOT analysis

Due to its high degree of innovation and affordably priced products, the company has created a strong position on the global hardware and software market. Due to the benefits of economies of scale, the majority of Microsoft's goods are priced at or below the average market price, and sometimes even below those of its competitors (MarketLine, 2015b). The company's research & development division has become the global leader in innovation, product development, and product differentiation in order to satisfy various client segments. In addition, the corporation has a highly robust financial performance, generating more than $86 billion in revenue in 2015 alone. Every employee at Microsoft Company is his or her own boss; the company's culture framework has fostered continual market expansion. Microsoft's culture of learning embraces group learning. As a result, the delegation of tasks and responsibilities to employees and managers makes it simpler to alter behaviors that may impede learning in the various divisions (MarketLine, 2015b). Variations in job design and new structures that provide employees with opportunities within their work activities are associated with alterations in organizational structure. In addition, the organization's organizational structure is flexible, allowing occupations to be reconfigured and promoting work-based innovations.

Microsoft's greatest weakness is fierce competition from numerous medium-sized businesses, particularly in Asia and Europe. Most of the company's competitors frequently recruit individuals who are dissatisfied with the company's motivating mechanisms, making it difficult for the organization to keep its workforce. Inappropriate organizational structures, job pressure, entrenched attitudes against learning, and an emphasis on achieving goals are other characteristics related with impeding learning in the business (MarketLine, 2015b). Fear and resistance to change in the company are characterized by high levels of bureaucracy, and inter-functional rivalry between different teams has led to the resignation or inactivity of certain employees (Revels & Michele, 2012). In some places, the company's reputation has also been harmed by a succession of litigations and legal suits filed by software developers and other partners due to misunderstandings and allegations of copyright infringement.

The key opportunity for the organization is that it has the potential to implement the strategies of its competitors.

Scandinavian Airlines Systems: Company Analysis Best Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Environmental Conditions and Internal Strategic Capabilities Strategy Select Strategy Effects on the Organization and Its Resources Evaluation of the Used Strategy Conclusion References

Introduction

SAS is the largest airline in Scandinavia, having bases in Copenhagen, Stockholm, and Oslo. On all routes, the airline serves more than 23 million passengers every year. This airline is a subsidiary of the SAS group, which also operates hotels, other airlines, and aviation support services. Once upon a time, the Scandinavian Airline system was deemed to be the premier airline system. This study will provide a strategic analysis of Scandinavian Airline System in 1988.

Environmental Conditions and Internal Strategic Capabilities

As an airline network, SAS provides highly competitive flight connections in each of the Scandinavian nations via flights arranged with select partners or under its own sponsorship. The airline's attention and priority on passenger safety, maintaining maximum punctuality at all times, and providing exceptional personal services contributed to its success in 1988. By allowing consumers to make their own decisions, the airline guaranteed that its products and services addressed both the general needs of the market and the personal desires of individual customers. Additionally, many passengers choose this airline because of its commitment to minimizing aviation's negative environmental impacts (Burton and Obel, 2004).

This airline's issue with high fixed expenses was a vulnerability, and as a result, the airline was at a disadvantage in terms of pricing rivalry with other airlines. The neutrality of many Scandinavian countries allowed SAS to build alliances with other airlines that expressed an interest in collaborating with it. However, deregulation of the airline industry posed a threat to SAS, as many deregulated airlines and low-cost carriers entered the market and increased competition. The European Common Market offered European airlines unlimited access to European markets. This resulted in competition with major European airlines such as Lufthansa, British Airways, and air France. There was also competition from American carriers with vast networks and reduced production costs compared to European carriers. As a result of entrenched management expanding the extent of authority and centralizing bureaucracy, the airline's employees were not provided with an optimal working environment (Burton and Obel, 2004).

Strategy Selected

Scandinavian Airlines System was compelled to form strategic alliances with other businesses as a result of the intensifying competition it faced. Alliances are essentially collaborations between parties with the objective of generating superior outcomes. Strategic alliances are collaborations between businesses in which expertise, resources, and core competencies are combined to advance shared objectives. To do this, SAS collaborated with other airlines in Europe and established new air routes on other continents to increase its passenger base. This allowed the airline to provide its passengers with access to its fully integrated system.

According to Youssef (1993), there are two hypotheses that explain the formation of airline alliances. The first theory is concerned with technological efficacy. It is stated that larger airlines typically have lower manufacturing costs and better services than smaller airlines. Therefore, for smaller airlines to get comparable benefits, they must form alliances. This comprises a number of steps, including the consolidation of facilities and the extension of effective networks to those of others. This improves the frequency and quality of connecting services and lets frequent travelers to utilize frequent-flier incentives. This helps the airline to attract more passengers without necessarily expanding its route system, hence reducing production costs due to network density economies. Technical efficiency also provides a marketing advantage, as many travelers with limited travel knowledge contact airlines with big networks first to make travel arrangements, as these airlines are better positioned to provide the required services. The economic benefits of horizontal integration can also be realized through service consolidation. This is the expansion of a corporation or organization to incorporate formerly rival businesses in the same industry (Youssef, 1993).

The alternative viewpoint examines market dominance and views alliances as a means of limiting competition with other airlines. Government rules in local and international aviation markets impose constraints on route and market access, capacity and the level of rates, and airline operations. This creates economic rents that are threatened by the US and EC's liberalization policies. This motivates certain carriers to form strategic alliances to lessen competition. Alliances, on the other hand, may create virtual monopolies in the marketplaces between the centers of the alliance's partners (Youssef, 1993).

In an effort to expand abroad, SAS began forging relationships based on these notions. SAS, led by its innovative CEO Carlzon, invested its acquired reserves in international alliances. In addition to investing in other airlines, the airline also invested in hotels, catering, other subsidiaries, and the Amadeus computer reservation system. In an effort to counter BA's rivalry, SAS attempted to acquire British Caledonian. However, the proposal failed, compelling SAS to acquire a portion of the Airlines of Britain group, which controlled British Midland Airlines. SAS and Sabena also forged an agreement, which ultimately resulted in a virtual merger. This merger with the British Midland alliance provided SAS with a hub in the heart of the regional airline sector. It subsequently created a so-called alliance of alliances with Swissair (Staniland, n.d.).

SAS has also created relationships with international airlines. It entered into an alliance with Continental Airlines, a bankrupt American airline. It also forged an association with the Latin American airline LAN-Chile. In Asia, it partnered with Thai International and struck a marketing partnership with ANA, a Japanese airline. Scandinavian Airlines System furthermore acquired a stake in Saison holdings, the company that runs Intercontinental Hotels Group (Staniland, n.d.).

Impacts of the strategy on the organization and its assets

The development of these partnerships was primarily motivated by a desire to enhance these airlines' connection services. The partnerships boosted the efficiency of their connecting services assembly procedures. There was a significant decrease in the minimum connection times in all markets, as well as the minimum daily layover. As a result of the alliances, there was an increase in the number of flights. There was an increase in carrier concentration in the markets where the alliance's former members competed. SAS was able to establish its foothold in previously uncontested markets. Therefore, it is true that the collaborations increased the SAS's technological efficiency by enhancing the company's vertical integration (Youssef, 1993).

The enhancement of services attracted more clients, allowing SAS and its allies to boost traffic without expanding their network. This is due to the fact that alliance carriers generate external growth, therefore increases in traffic volume are unaffected by network expansion, resulting in high traffic densities. The dominating position held by alliance carriers at their hubs ensured that hub-to-hub markets within the alliance lacked competition. It is also evident that alliances necessitate trade-offs between consumer welfare and airline profit, service quality and travel fares, nonstop and connected markets, and airports. Similar to other small airlines, SAS was acutely aware of the challenges and opportunities that a single market brought. They understood that competing alone in such a market would be suicidal, therefore establishing alliances was their only option. Initial data indicate that only European destinations were served by SAS. This meant that the majority of flights were brief. This resulted in numerous takeoffs and landings, which wore down the planes. This led to an increase in maintenance expenses. There was also the issue of airport overcapacity. All of these were eliminated when alliances were formed. The partnerships allowed the airline to avoid the negative effects of operating independently in the single market. In 1988, as a result of these efforts, Kastrup Airport in Copenhagen, the airline's major hub, was voted airport of the year (Youssef, 1993).

Evaluation of the Used Strategy

Utilizing strategic connections, SAS was able to save sufficient funds for overseas investments. In 1990, Scandinavian Airlines Systems had invested $721 in airlines, catering, hotels, and other companies, according to records. The corporation invested $300 million in the renowned Amadeus reservation system. In order to fund its expansion objectives, the firm purchased 16 new aircraft between 1988 and 1990. It had the most sophisticated air cargo operation with a hub in West German Cologne. It pioneered strategic alliances in the airline business, which resulted in more than half of US airlines establishing flights to Scandinavia, with the majority of customers being Scandinavian. SAS utilized this chance to build connections with other airline industry networks. In the late 1980s, the corporation reduced its organization in accordance with its objectives. The number of staff per aircraft and the number of management levels were lowered. This strategy was successful until the global recession and Gulf War of the early 1990s hindered its growth (Alle, n.d.).

Conclusion

SAS, which began as a small country airline, helped pioneer the concept of airline alliances. Even though some airlines have abandoned the company in favor of others, the corporation has retained its position. Swissair was able to form a lucrative and long-term cooperation with the company. SAS founded the European Alliance with Swissair and Australian Airlines, which served as its backbone for many years. Passenger safety, optimum punctuality, and high-quality services have aided Scandinavian Airlines Systems in being the favored airline of many for decades. Moreover, strategic alliances appear to be the best option for the company and others to survive in the highly competitive airline sector.

References

Alle, F. (n.d). The SAS Group: Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History, and Background Information Web.

Burton, Richard, and Obel, Borge. "Strategic organizational diagnosis and design: the dynamics of fit." (2004). New York City, Springer

Staniland, M. (n.d). Small-country airlines' difficulties and tactics for surviving the Single Market. Web.

W. Youssef (1993). The Effects of International Airline Strategic Alliances: The Case of Swissair and SAS Web.

[supanova question]

Riverside Electronics Plc: Financial Report Best Essay Help

Introduction

The corporation has the option of issuing fixed-rate debt or issuing common stock to raise the capital necessary to expand its enterprise. Preferred stock, sometimes referred to as preferred shares, preference shares, or simply preferreds, is a unique equity investment that resembles both equity and debt instruments and is considered a hybrid instrument. Preferred stock is preferable to regular stock but inferior to bonds. Preferred stock typically carries no voting rights, but may have priority over regular stock in dividend distribution and liquidation (Meyer, 2004).

A preferred stock dividend may be paid out prior to any dividends paid to holders of common stock. Convertibility of preferred shares into common stock is permissible. A Certificate of Designation outlines the conditions for preferred stock. Similar to bonds, preferred stocks are rated by highly regarded credit rating agencies. The rating for preferreds is often worse since preferred dividends lack the same assurances as bond interest payments and are ranked poorly among creditors (Gordon, 2002). The illustration that follows demonstrates the advantage of employing fixed-rate debt or common stock to finance the expansion of a project is as follows:

There are three types of capital: debt, preferred stock, and common stock.

Any increase in total assets must be funded by an increase in at least one of the following capital components:

Kd: the rate of interest on the company's new loan Kps: the price of preferred shares the expense of retained earnings A: the cost of common equity (equity computed by issuing additional common shares as opposed to holding earnings); B: the cost of retained earnings

The expense of debt

Kd(1-T) is the cost of debt after taxes. This represents the acceptable cost of new debt, considering that interest is tax-deductible. As interest is deductible, the government spends a portion of the cost of debt. This computation is based on the assumption that the cost of debt is the interest rate on new debt, and not the interest rate paid on current or old debt.

The price of a 15-year, 12% semiannual bond is $1,153.72.

Component Debt Cost

Therefore, interest is tax deductible.

kd AT = kd BT(1 – T) = 10%(1 – 0.40) = 6%.

The price of preferred shares (Kp)

The rate of return that investors demand on the company's preferred shares.

Preferred stock is perpetually dividend-paying equity.

Kp = Preferred dividend / the present cost of the preferred stock Pp = $111.10; dividend per share of $10

Assumptions underlying the calculation above

As preferred dividends are taxed, there are no tax adjustments. Just kp. The use of nominal kp is required. Our calculation does not include flotation fees.

Expenses incurred on retained earnings

Profits can be reinvested or distributed as dividends. Investors could acquire alternative investments and get a return. Therefore, there is an opportunity cost associated with retaining earnings. Opportunity cost is defined as the return that investors may have earned on equally risky alternative investments. They may acquire the identical stocks and earn ks, thus ks is the retained profits cost. The rate of return that stockholders demand on a company's common stock.

Three methods for calculating the cost of common equity, ks:

How much does common stock cost based on the CAPM?

kRF = 7%, RPM = 6%, b = 1.2.

The DCF price of common stock, ks

Given: D0 = $4.19;

P0 = $50; g = 5%.

Assume that the company has been earning 15% on equity (ROE = 15%) and retaining 35% (dividend payout = 65%), and that this trend is anticipated to continue.

the anticipated number is:

Retention rate growth:

g = (1 – Payout)(ROE) = 0.35(15%) = 5.25%.

Here (1 – Payout) = Retained fraction.

Find ks using the method of own-bond-yield plus risk premium.

(kd = 10%, RP = 4%.)

This RP exceeds CAPM RP.

Creates a rough estimation of ks

A fair estimation of ultimate ks

Why is the price of retained earnings (ks) less than the price of new common stock (ke)?

There are two methods for accounting for flotation expenses (Beddow, 2006):

Include the costs of flotation in the project's upfront costs. This diminishes the estimated return on the project. Adjust the capital cost to incorporate flotation expenses. Typically, this is achieved by including flotation costs into the DCF model. Ke = [D1/Po(1-F)] + g

F is the required flotation cost percentage for selling fresh stock. Therefore, Po (1-F) represents the net share price received by the corporation.

Observations on flotation costs:

Flotation expenses vary on the company's risk profile and the type of capital sought. The largest flotation expenses are associated with common equity. However, as most companies only grant stock rarely, the per-project cost is modest. Typically, flotation costs are omitted when calculating the WACC.

Weighted Average Capital Cost (WACC)

If every dollar of additional equity comes from retained earnings:

WACC equals Wd [Kd(1-t)]. + Wc(Kps) + Wp(Kps) (Ks)

Wd, Ws, and Wc represent the weights for debt, preferred stock, and common equity, respectively.

Assume the company has set this aim and will fund all new investments so as to maintain a steady target capital structure (Markides, 2004).

The weights should be determined by market value.

The enterprise's WACC (ignoring flotation costs)

The target capital structure for the company is 40% loan and 60% equity. Bonds carry a semiannual coupon of 10%, mature in 20 years, and trade for $849.54. The stock's beta is 1.2 rf = 10%, while the market risk premium is 5%. The company just distributed a $2 dividend, trades at $27 per share, and has an annual growth rate of 8%. The marginal tax rate is forty percent.

Factors affecting the firm's composite WACC

Situation on the market (level of interest rates, tax rates…) The capital structure and dividend policy of the company Additionally, the company's investment philosophy is reviewed. Typically, organizations with riskier projects have a higher WACC.

WACC Estimates for Some Significant

1999. U.S. Corporations.

The corporation shouldn't utilize the composite WACC as the threshold rate for each and every project it undertakes. The composite WACC reflects the risk associated with an average project done by the organization. Thus, the WACC simply measures the "barrier rate" for an average-risk project.

Different initiatives include a variety of hazards. The WACC should be adjusted to reflect the risk of the project. Methods utilized to determine the risk- Cost of capital adjustments for a single project or division Adjustments to the organization's composite WACC that are biased. Calculations of the cost of capital if the project were a standalone company. This needs calculating the beta of the project.

Calculate the market risk and cost of capital for the division using the CAPM with the following inputs:

Target debt ratio = 40%. kd = 12%. kRF = 7%. Tax rate Equals 40%. betaDivision = 1.7. Market risk premium = 6%. Since beta = 1.70, division carries a greater market risk than average.

Required rate of return on equity:

ks = kRF + (kM – kRF)

bDiv. = 7% + (6%)

1.7 = 17.2%.

WACCDiv. = wdkd(1 – T) + wcks = 0.4(12%)(0.6) + 0.6(17.2%) = 13.2%.

How does the division's market risk compare to the overall market risk of the organization?

The division's WACC is 13.2% while the company's is 11.2%. Indicates that the division's market risk is higher than the typical project for the firm. Acceptance of "typical" projects under this division is contingent upon their returns exceeding 13.2%.

Expansion initiatives employing a divided cut

Dividends are corporation expenses paid to shareholders. It is the proportion of a company's profits distributed to its shareholders. When a business generates a profit or surplus, the funds can be employed in one of two ways: retained earnings or dividends. Numerous businesses retain a portion of their revenues and distribute the remainder as dividends (Subramanian, 2003). The corporation has the option of financing its growth project using this method. This is best demonstrated by way of illustration. New investment cash flow can be determined as follows:

Establishing a Project's Cash Flows

Before commencing an examination of a project's capital budget, it is essential to assess its cash flows. These cash flows are segmentable in the following ways:

Initial investment expenditure Operating cash flow over the life of a project Final year cash flow

Initial Investment Expenditure

These are the costs required to initiate the project, including new equipment, installation, and so on.

Operating Cash Flow Throughout the Life of a Project

This is the additional cash flow generated by a new project.

Cash Flow for the Year-End

This is the final cash flow, including both inflows and outflows at the end of the project's life, such as a machine's possible salvage value.

Example: Expansion Project

A business intends to increase its manufacturing capacity and is considering investing in Machine B. The cost of Machine B is $2,000, plus shipping and installation fees of $500 and net working capital of $300. The corporation anticipates that the machine will last five years, at which point Machine B will have a book value (BV) of $1,000 ($2,000 minus five years of $200 annual depreciation) and a possible market value of $800. Regarding cash flows, the corporation anticipates the new machine to generate an additional $1,500 in sales and $200 in expenses, assuming a tax rate of 40%. The maximum payback period provided by the corporation is five years.

Calculating the expansion project’s initial investment cost, operating cash flow over the project’s life, and final-year cash flow

Initial Investment Expenditure

Cost of equipment plus shipping and installation fees plus change in net working capital equals $2,800.

Cash Flow Operating

CFt = (revenues – costs)

*(1 – tax rate) CF1 = ($1,500 – $200)

*(1 – 40%) = $780 CF2 = ($1,500 – $200)

*(1 – 40%) = $780 CF3 = ($1,500 – $200)

*(1 – 40%) = $780 CF4 = ($1,500 – $200)

*(1 – 40%) = $780 CF5 = ($1,500 – $200)*(1 – 40%) = $780

Resulting Cash Flow

The terminal cash flow can be determined as follows:

Return of networking investment plus $300 Salvage value of the equipment plus $800 +$80 tax deduction for loss (salvage BV) $1,180 in terminal cash flow Operating CF5 +$780 Total five-year cash flow $1,960

A tax gain is earned if the book value of the asset is more than its salvage value; a tax loss is recorded if the book value of the item is lower than its salvage value.

Example: Replacement Project

Assuming that the corporation is replacing a project as opposed to investing in a new machine, the company is considering replacing its current machine with a newer, more capable machine. The company can sell the old machine for $200 on the current market, but it has a book value of $500.

Initial Investment Expenditure

Calculating the initial investment cost of a replacement project differs to some extent from the calculation for an ongoing project. This is primarily due to the anticipated cash flow a corporation will earn from the sale of the outdated equipment.

Old machine's worth = sale price plus tax gain/loss

= $200 + $120 = $320

Sale of old equipment plus machine cost plus shipping and installation expenditures plus net working capital change equals $320 plus $2,000 plus $500 plus $300, or $3,120.

recurring cash flow

CFt = (revenues – costs)

*(1 – tax rate) CF1 = ($1,500 – $200)

*(1 – 40%) = $780 CF2 = ($1,500 – $200)

*(1 – 40%) = $780 CF3 = ($1,500 – $200)

*(1 – 40%) = $780 CF4 = ($1,500 – $200)

*(1 – 40%) = $780 CF5 = ($1,500 – $200)*(1 – 40%) = $780

Resulting Cash Flow

The terminal cash flow can be determined as follows:

Return of working capital net plus $300 Salvage value of the equipment plus $800 +$80 tax deduction for loss (salvage BV) $1,180 in terminal cash flow Operating CF5 +$780 Total cash flow in year 5 $1,960

After considering the preceding case attentively, retained earnings are a possibility for the corporation. Moreover, in numerous places, dividends given back to individual shareholders result in double taxation. The organization pays income tax to the government, whereas shareholders are taxed on an individual basis. This will further justify the company's decision to finance its project with retained earnings (lee & Caves, 2000).

Takeover

A takeover is the acquisition of one business by another (Franko, 2005). In recent years, there has been an increase in takeovers due to the ever-changing economic and financial climate. Typically, this word refers to the acquisition of publicly traded enterprises. There are many benefits to undertaking a takeover. These include a growth in a company's revenue, market share, brand portfolio, and economies of scale Abbasi, Hollman, and Murrey (2002)).

The other method that Riverside Electronics Plc could pursue is an aggressive or hostile takeover of a competitor that operates in a comparable industry. A hostile takeover is an acquisition in which the acquiring corporation does not inform the target company's management of its plans to purchase their business in advance. Even if the management of the target company rejects the offer, the purchasing company continues to pursue it until it is successful. To pursue this course of action, Riverside Electronics Plc must examine the following factors.

To conduct the acquisition, Riverside Electronics Plc must be able to assess the financial state and vulnerability of the target company, so as to avoid incurring a loss throughout the process. It must be able to assess whether the stock of the target firm is trading at or below its book value. In addition, it should be able to assess if the company has a low price-to-earnings ratio. It should also be able to identify whether the company's assets are undervalued or priced at market value. It should also examine the target company's break-up value to determine whether it is significantly higher than its common stock's market price (Trifts, 2001).

Financial Factors

The decision to undertake a takeover is mostly influenced by financial concerns. As a result, the chief executive officer of Riverside Electronics Plc should be able to decide whether the intended purchase is worthwhile and how this acquisition would effect the obligations of the company's various stakeholders, such as shareholders, employees, and consumers. In doing so, the corporation would obtain financial, operational, and strategic benefits from the acquisition (Markides) (2004).

By completing the acquisition, Riverside Electronics Plc will boost its profitability because it will have purchased a market rival, thereby lowering rivalry. This action enhances profitability since Riverside Electronics Plc will now serve a wider client base after acquiring the market share of the acquired company. When Riverside Electronics Plc acquires a new firm, the target company will bring a more diverse assortment of assets under its administration, allowing it to seize additional chances.

This is due to the fact that it will be able to leverage both actual and intangible assets of the target organization (Doukas & Lang, 2003). Physical assets include machines, furnishings, land, and buildings. Intangible assets consist of improved marketing skills, economies of scale, superior managerial skills, product differentiation, and new technological competence, as well as government rules that contribute to establish entry barriers.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the second choice represents the best course of action for Riverside Electronics Plc. By reducing the dividend paid to shareholders, the company will be able to reinvest a portion of its revenues into its operating cash flows in order to expand its business. By utilizing its current income, it will be able to adequately budget for the expansion project, allowing it to be carried out in a well-planned manner with attainable goals.

List of Citations

Abbasi, S. M., K. W. Hollman, and J. H. Murrey Jr. (2002). Human and economic impacts of the merger mania. 30-60. Review of Business, 13(1-2).

Beddow, Matthew (2006). Containerisation International, pages 34-35, Floored.

Doukas, J. & Lang, L. (2003). Foreign direct investment, company performance, and diversity. 34(2) Journal of International Business Studies, 153-175

Franko, L. (2005). The relationship between host nation policies and business tactics. 20 (1), 19-40, Journal of International Business Studies.

Gordon, Mark (2002). Takeover defenses work. Is that a terrible thing? 55(3) Stanford Law Review 819-840

Lee, Tung-Jean, and Richard E. Caves (2000). Uncertain outcomes of foreign investment: Determinants of profit distribution following major acquisitions 29(3):563-600 Journal of International Business Studies

Markides, C. (2004). Corporate foreign diversification benefits shareholders, as evidenced by U.S. international acquisitions. 25(2), 343-380, Journal of International Business Studies.

Meyer, K. E. (2004). Perspectives on multinational corporations operating in developing economies 259-280 in 35(4) Journal of International Business Studies.

Subramanian, G. (2003). Bargaining under the shadow of takeover defenses, Yale Law Journal, 113(3), pp. 621-660, September 2008.

Trifts, J. W. (2001). Corporate takeover bids, methods of payment and the effects of leverage. Quarterly. Journal of Business and Economics. 30(3).33-60.

[supanova question]

The Individual Professional Development Plan (PDP) Best Essay Help

Executive Synopsis

The PDP investigates the strategy and scope of the project, as well as the learning and production outcomes. After discussing strategy, the management of stakeholders and the creation of a competency evaluation matrix are discussed, followed by the communication plan and project milestones. Not only does the evaluation matrix include all of the factors covered in the paper without stating them individually, but it also identifies the activities necessary to accomplish professional growth and production outputs consistent with the organization's objectives.

Context and Background of the Project

Mission of the Project

The need for "competence development and career advancement in the traditional as well as other professions" is the impetus behind the professional development plan (PDP) initiative for students (Pinnington AH, 2000). (2011, 444). In this regard, Pinnington AH. (2011, 444) asserts that professional service firms (PSF) have established institutional processes for the governance of employee resource flows, and to meet their standards, students may utilize PDP in order to be able to apply the skills they have learned while they are still in school. The professional development plan is essential for acquiring professionalism on the job. The PDP also improves individual self-regulation, allowing the individual to increase the professional skills required for project execution. This paper's PDP includes a competency assessment matrix via which a person can evaluate his or her abilities and shortcomings and plan to obtain the essential ones (Pinnington AH: 2011, 444).

Project Objective

The purpose of the project is to gain the skills and talents required to be a leader or part of a team while working in an organization.

Project Advantages and Success Standards

The project's benefits include the enhancement of skills required for the actual application of information.

Project Approach and Scope

Project Strategy

The project strategy entails elucidating the desired change in the individual submitting a PDP. According to Wolf RM (1990, 36), the term "desire" refers to the specific behavior the learner is meant to acquire. Wolf, Richard M., 1990, p. The required modification pertains to the 'collection of educational experiences' (Richard M. Wolf: 1990, 36). The instructional experiences encompass both the necessary modification and behavior for unique work settings. Change and behavior should consider the internal states of the persons, and the evaluation, which is a component of PDP, will notice awareness, engagement, expertise, and practice. Wolf, Richard M., 1990, p.

Selection Standards

The parameters for selection rely on the type of change management the candidate desires. It entails "combining the various functions, departments, and levels into a single, ongoing initiative" (Conger JA) (2001, 47). As a result, both the evaluation and the selection criteria are based on multi-level, complex needs for a work environment, as there will be multiple variants in typical training designs. Change management is the first phase of the professional development plan, with evaluation or agenda-setting as its most essential feature. This could be achieved using an evaluation matrix. The assessment matrix should take into account the academic and application requirements of the second phase of selection criteria. This is because the program for educational reform incorporates the application of knowledge and its constituents. The third phase arrives at the level of reinforcement so that the momentum of change management can be maintained throughout the research. The program content is essential to the achievement of the PDP, and organized experiences during the implementation of the individual's professional development plan provide the rationale for the individual's activities. Even though the strategy focuses on professional development at the individual level, coordination skills are required to strengthen leadership abilities. Therefore, even individual professional progress requires the amount to which a person can coordinate and express views with others and convince others to adopt them without coercion (Conger JA: 2001, 50).

Presuppositions and Limitations

Assumptions

When project management is incorporated into a professional development strategy, coordination and communication are possible. Larson EW (2008), page 3, explains that project management is more than a collection of tools. In the wake of the modernization of information systems, project management facilitates not only commercial operations but also innovation and the resolution of societal issues. Despite the fact that a team will be involved in completing the task, an individual's ability to interact with the team is essential. If a leader possesses sufficient professional characteristics and skills, the team will profit from his/her stature. In this regard, assumptions are required for individual professional development, the first of which concerns the usage of both human and non-human resources. The PDP assists in the development of the abilities that enable a person to achieve "predetermined objectives" (Larson EW, 2008, p. 7). Planning, scheduling, motivation, and control are the talents. During the planning phase, both leaders and managers must "coordinate resources to complete a fixed-duration project on time" (Larson EW: 2008, 7). This depends on the budget and requirements. During an individual professional development plan, the individual must also organize and evaluate activities based on the available resources. In addition, 'development of deliverables and participation, as well as task breakdown structures, should simplify project planning and monitoring' (Larson EW: 2008, 14).

Constraints

In addition to assumptions, restrictions are necessary for individual professional development, as everything is not attainable within a certain time frame and budget. Therefore, the available time and money resources are the primary restraints in this situation.

Governance Framework

Project Management Committee

Regarding individual professional development plans, "operations manager" is the best position to choose. They are the individuals that manage a key company function, such as research and development, design, production, provisioning, testing, or maintenance. The number of committee members constituting the operations, management group is determined by the type of project. Individual capability could be used to describe the selection of the group, as the group will be responsible for the firm's operational activities. In the assessment matrix, the concept, awareness, involvement, and the extent of this group's practice would be included, as well as the individual who oversees this (PMI (Sponsor): 2008, 57).

Resources Plan

Project Organization Structure

The cohesiveness of the team is determined by the structure of the project. Therefore, the individual capability regarding the development of cohesion is the arrangement or creation of a structure for the leader- or manager-organized project (Frame JD: 2003, 80). The structure is susceptible to SWOT analysis.

Stakeholder Analysis (SWOT)

The SWOT analysis includes Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats for the professional development plan's components. These characteristics represent the individual's strengths, flaws, opportunities, and threats.

Strengths

Regarding operations management and organizational structure, the efficient use of information technology to manage the team is a significant strength.

Weaknesses

When a team lacks cohesion, the utilization of information technology is both a strength and a weakness. This could be accomplished through the coordination skills of the person in charge of the organization. Whenever essential, the use of information technology may become a vulnerability in the absence of centralized processes.

Opportunities

The possibility is to utilize information technology to improve the professionalism and cohesion of subordinates.

Threats

The threats come from an individual's failure to express sufficient skills and establish necessary organizational behavior inside the team (Bielski L: 2006).

Managing Stakeholders

After doing a SWOT analysis of a professional development plan, the individual engaged must have an understanding of stakeholder management. This is because stakeholders include promoters and potential customers, as well as corporate employees, managers, and the team. Therefore, it is necessary to include stakeholder management in the assessment matrix (Kuratko DF., Goldsby MG & Hornsby JS: 2004).

Competency Evaluation Matrix

Competence Domain

Best practice for Scores Aware Informed Involved and Competent

Integration: The employee must get knowledge in integrating operational tasks within an organization in terms of scope, cost, and time. Given the lowest level of comprehension regarding scope, cost, and time. According to the project's scope, the individual in charge of the team or affairs will have adequate plans for the use of time and financial resources. The individual is responsible for monitoring the implementation of plans and recognizing the team's accomplishments. The individual's participation may be deemed competent if the activities maximize the value of the project. When project value is adapted to the organization's business and environment needs, the individual's best practices can be represented more effectively.

Professors and a training team are the human resources available to a student, while a manager has access to an operational group. The student should study according to his or her school's schedule, and the manager should be ready to launch the project based on the available resources. At the conclusion of the course, the student should be able to assess his or her professional growth, and the manager should have an understanding of HR utilization. Utilization of HR includes monitoring. Control is the result of monitoring. The use of human resources will be determined by the student's PDP and, in the case of the manager, by the necessary business and project environment modifications.

Communication: The individual PDP's communication consists of network management and control. In the context of an organization, these networks include those between the organization and its clients, stakeholders, and suppliers, as well as those between the organization and its clients and affiliates. At the beginning of the project, the individual must establish a communication plan, and the student must communicate with professors and school affiliations. After a communication plan has been developed, the means of implementation must be determined. The implementation of the communication plan should be the responsibility of both the student and the manager. Monitoring the implementation of a communication plan is an innate ability. Even if there are changes in the corporate or academic environment, the individual's PDP should include adaptable communication plan implementation strategies.

The PDP should be applied during the period of the course for the student and in accordance with the manager's production plan. In order to accomplish this, both a project time plan and a plan for operational tasks are required. The PDP and PTP must be tailored to the available study and production time for the student and manager, respectively. Student and manager should monitor both PDP and PTP. This may be termed self monitoring in the case of students. The essential aspects of the plans should be modified in accordance with the requirements. Both the PDP and PTP should be based on the goals attained.

Scope:

Determining, justifying, and managing the project's final deliverables and the labor necessary to produce them. The project objectives and task scope are known. Project objectives and task scope are specified. Changes to objectives are agreed upon with the client. Utilizing Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). As the project required, objectives evolved. A WBS is utilized to manage work packages. Adapting objectives to changing business requirements. The WBS evolves in response to objectives.

Cost: An estimate of the investment required for the management and the student to complete the project is required. At the time the project is initiated, both the cost and the investment should be estimated. The plan to spend the expenditure and the investment should be included in the PDP. Cost and investment expenditures should be monitored by both the student and manager throughout the PDP implementation process. The expenditures should reflect the results of the PDP. It should be ensured that spending is in accordance with industry standards.

Quality: optimum performance is required. To reach Quality objectives, one must have a plan. Plan de qualité must be developed for all outputs. It takes skill to monitor a quality plan without disrupting operations. Quality Plan includes quality control. Along with quality control, a quality plan should be executed.

Communications Strategy

After understanding the technical realities of production and information technology, an individual must master the art of communication in order to make the greatest use of them. A strong communication plan takes into account the perspectives of all team members, and the leader or manager must persuade them to execute the scheduled activities. This depends on interactions among team members and between the team leader and team. Regular contacts allow the leader to not only learn about the team's methods and strategies, but also to fix them.

Project Milestones

The project's milestones should be determined by both the students and the manager or leader. In the case of study, the milestones will take the shape of the student's theoretical and practical comprehension and confirmation by the lecturer or university. In the real world, the project's milestones will be determined by the production produced within a specific time limit and according to the approved budget. In order to take remedial action in the event of non-achievement, it is vital to utilize information technology to document milestones and incorporate them into a communication strategy.

Bibliography

Bielski L. (2006). The SWOT Analysis for Retail IT Reveals the Interconnections of Technology; If You Want to Know and Serve Your Customers Better, Consider "STP" from the Infrastructure to the Application Layer. In ABA Banking Journal. 98 (11). Web.

Conger JA (2001). Chapter Five Change Management. In What Smart Trainers Know: Success Secrets from the World's Leading Experts, edited by Lorraine L. Ukens. Pages 47, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.

Frame JD (2003). The third edition of Managing Projects in Organizations: How to Make the Most of Time, Techniques, and People. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Pp.80.

Kuratko DF., Goldsby MG & Hornsby JS (2004). Examining the Ethical Perspectives of Entrepreneurs: Stakeholder Salience 9 (4). Web.

Larson EW (2008). The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc., Project Management: The Managerial Process, pp. 3-21, New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Pinnington AH (2011). Competency Growth and Career Progression in Professional Service Firms In Personnel Evaluation, 40 (4). Pp. 443-465.

PMI (Promoter) (2008). The PMBOK® Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge Newtown Square, Pennsylvania Project Management Institute, fourth edition, pages 57.

Wolf, Robert M. (1990). New York: Praeger Publishers, 3rd edition of Evaluation in Education: Foundations of Competency Assessment and Program Review. Pp.36.

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The Capital Asset Pricing Model Best Essay Help

Dividend discount model

Model for discounting dividends = dividend per share / discount rate growth rate (Penman, 1997). Microsoft's preferred stock, for instance, pays an annual dividend of $8. 10% is the projected rate of return. Therefore, the value of preferred stock equals (5/10)100 = $50. The stock was overpriced because the present price did not justify the earnings ratio.

Stock's beta

The beta of a stock can be determined using the predicted rate of return. During calculation, the stock and market rate of return is specified.

The beta of a stock equals (the stock's rate of return minus the expected rate of return) / the market's rate of return minus the expected rate of return. When beta is below one, the market value is uncertain. When the beta of a stock is larger than one, its value is uncertain. When the value of a stock is less than zero, it indicates that the stock and market values are uncertain. The beta of a stock is not a reliable risk metric because it disregards market fundamentals and price level (Womack & Zhang, 2003). The beta value of a stock cannot affect its future performance. For instance, if the expected rate of return for shares X and Y is identical, the company's performance must also be identical. However, statistical analysis demonstrated that beta projections may not accurately predict future performance. Therefore, beta is not a reliable indicator of investment risk.

Competing models

The weighted average cost of capital, the Fama & French three-factor model, and the capital asset pricing model are the competing approaches utilized to assess a company's stock value. The three-factor model developed by Fama and French employs three variables to predict a company's stock price. The variable used in the capital asset pricing model is one. The weighted average cost of capital employs physical parameters to determine the market value of a company.

Credit funding

When a business acquires equity financing, it may portend unfavorable outcomes for shareholders. For example, when equity is undervalued by analysts, new investors will realize greater net profits. However, debt financing may portend favorable future performance if the company is willing and able to service its debt (Frank & Goyal, 2007). The pecking order theory determines the hierarchy of financial decisions. The company's funding decision is based on asymmetric knowledge. Internal funding and debt financing are preferred by finance administrators. As a last option, new equity funding may be utilized.

Theory of hierarchy

Tax, security costs, financial crisis, market fundamentals, and growth are disregarded under the pecking order idea (Fama & French, 1997). Preferred stock is the company's stock that has a fixed dividend value and equity. The preferred stock of a firm is more valuable than its common stock. The primary variable associated with preferred shares is debt financing. Prior to paying dividends on common stock, managers must pay dividends on preferred stock.

preferred shares

The cost of preferred stock can be determined using the stock's current market value and dividend. Therefore, the cost of preferred stock is equal to the dividend yield divided by the stock's market value. We may also determine the price of preferred shares using the projected rate of return. Therefore, the cost of preferred stock equals preferred stock divided by the expected rate of return. Coca-Cola, Ford Motor, and Lockheed Martin Corporation are three firms that issue preferred shares. Ford Motor Company is an automobile manufacturer. It is the largest automotive industry in the United States. Coca-Cola is the most popular beverage in the United States. Coca-Cola has both international and regional subsidiaries. Lockheed Martin Corporation manufactures defense and space capabilities.

Acquisition

There are three motives for acquisition: synergy, diversity, and expansion. Synergy is the integration of many items or services for future performance (Martynova & Renneboog, 2006). The purchased company's strengths compensate for its weaknesses. Diversification entails the production and distribution of many goods and services. The exclusive production right may influence a business to diversify (Bruner, 2004). Acquisition affects a company's capital structure, hence enhancing its future performance. The growth rate of the company might be affected by horizontal or vertical integration. Controlling the supply, product, and service is referred to as horizontal integration. The expansion of clientele is known as vertical integration.

Hostile takeovers

A hostile takeover happens when the acquiring corporation makes an aggressive offer to acquire the target company. Typically, the directors of the targeted company generate opposition. Between 2000 and 2008, hostile takeovers included Mittal and Arcelor, Scchaeffler and AG Continental, and Lundin Mining and Equniox. In 2006, Mittal Corporation made an unsolicited offer to acquire Arcelor Corporation (Yang & Zarin, 2011). The hostile offer was contingent upon three conditions: majority approval, minimum acceptance, and management. In 2008, Schaeffler Corporation made an unsolicited offer to acquire Continental AG. Schaeffler wants to consolidate its ownership position. In 2008, Lundin Corporation made an unsolicited offer for Equinox. In Canada and Australia, Equinox and Lundin Mining Corporation makes base metals. When hostile takeovers are finalized, succession issues impair the new company's performance.

Contraventions to hostile takeovers

Staggered board, poison pills, and lawsuits are three techniques that businesses employ to thwart hostile takeovers. The targeted corporation establishes a staggered board in order to create friction and maintain voting status. An announcement of a hostile bid activates poison pills on preferred stock. Using litigation to halt hostile takeovers is referred to as litigation.

References

Bruner, F. (2004). Mergers and acquisitions were utilized. Web.

Fama, F. & French, R. (1997). Taxes, funding choices, and the worth of a company. Web.

Frank, Z. & Goyal, K. (2007). The debt trade-off and pecking order theories Web.

Martynova, M. & Renneboog, L. (2006). European mergers and acquisitions. Web.

Penman, H. (1997). A synthesis of equities valuation approaches and the dividend discount model's terminal value computation. Web.

Womack, L., and Y. Zhang (2003). Understanding risk and return, the capm, and the three-factor model of Fama and French. Web.

Yang, E. & Zarin, S. (2011). Mergers and acquisitions: Unfriendly takeovers and countermeasures. Web.

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Gandys Flip Flops Company Marketing Analysis Best Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction The target market for Gandy’s flipflops Gandys marketing mix Recommendations Regarding the Revision of the Marketing Mix References

Introduction

Two brothers, Paul and Rob Forkan, who lost their parents in the 2004 tsunami catastrophe while on vacation in Sri Lanka, founded the company in 2011. They were inspired to establish the company in order to generate funds for the charity that helps orphans in Asia and throughout the world live better lives. The two brothers took advantage of the increasing demand for flip-flops in the United Kingdom and other nations to create items that have garnered favorable consumer feedback.

Additionally, a portion of the earnings from the sale of the products are used to fund philanthropic activities designed to improve the social and economic well-being of orphaned children in low-income nations (Butler 2013). This paper will examine the firm's targeting strategy for the many products it sells on the market, as well as its present marketing mix.

The target market for Gandy’s flipflops

The target market for Gandys flip-flops is a heterogeneous group that includes both male and female clients. The company sells a variety of items that are designed to meet the diverse needs of market clients. Therefore, it has been able to examine the lifestyle patterns of different consumers on the market in order to create items that meet their specific requirements.

In addition, Gandys employs a concentrated strategy to address varied customer segments. Consequently, this strategy has enabled the company to develop promotions that highlight the market worth of its products. Gandys has developed high-quality internal procedures that enable it to strengthen its competitive advantage in the areas it serves (Butler 2013). Consequently, Gandys has developed high-quality communication techniques that enable its target consumers to comprehend the precise market needs that its goods fulfill.

Since Gandys mostly offers flip-flops, it lacks varied product categories compared to its market competitors. As a result, the corporation has been compelled to manufacture more varieties of flip-flops to cater to various consumer groups. To enhance its market share, the company's marketing methods emphasize the lives, personalities, and attitudes of its clients. It has established arrangements with a number of metropolitan retail outlets to ensure that its items are accessible to its customers (Kotler & Armstrong 2013, p. 67).

In addition to establishing close ties with online vendors, the company has made it easy for customers in international nations to acquire its items through various e-commerce portals. This has helped Gandys to expand its networks within and beyond the industry in order to meet the strong demand for its products in various markets.

The company's Leopard flip-flops are mostly marketed to women. Since the company has developed multiple product varieties, it must make them appealing to young consumers on the market. Young female consumers between the ages of 15 and 30 can be persuaded to test the product because its design complements their way of life. Since the company has reached mutually advantageous relationships with many stores across the nation, it must employ direct sales techniques to attract this client segment (Kotler & Armstrong 2013, p. 71). Its advertising materials can emphasize some captivating characteristics of product design that are of great importance to this age group's female buyers. Consequently, the product will be able to elicit favorable responses from persons within this client niche.

The market for women's footwear is highly competitive and populated by numerous companies that cater to diverse consumer groups with varying requirements and expectations. The company can increase the value of its Leopard flip-flops on the market by emphasizing their exquisite and fashionable style. The company can utilize marketing messaging that illustrate how the product's different beneficial characteristics enhance the lives of its target consumers.

For example, marketing statements demonstrating that the product makes its users more self-aware will increase the product's emotional appeal among consumers. Therefore, the company will be able to make customers aware of the significant value they receive everytime they wear the flip-flops. Consequently, this method will assist customers to recall specific features of the product that they find appealing, thereby strengthening their perceptions of the product (Kotler & Armstrong 2013, p. 73).

A differentiated marketing approach will assist the company to determine the product's unique selling proposition for customers. The company must analyze how the acts of its domestic and international competitors affect its industry operations. The firm's market competitors include Debenhams, Havainas, and Clarks, all of which sell flip-flops to the same consumer demographic.

Therefore, the company must employ an acceptable retailing approach that enables consumers to quickly order and pay for a variety of products of interest. This strategy will enable the corporation to employ direct marketing tactics through its sales employees positioned in various retail locations carrying its items. Importantly, the company will be able to comprehend the personal expectations of its clients and how to satisfy them with its products (Kotler & Armstrong 2013, p. 77).

In the market for flip-flops, purchasers can simply switch their loyalties to other brands if they feel that their wants and expectations are not being met. The company can overcome this obstacle by investing in creative product development procedures that allow it to provide high-quality product upgrades that adhere to market trends. As a result, the company must conduct effective market research to learn more about the various factors that influence customer buying patterns and how this will likely impact its long-term profitability. Also, numerous aspects of product design must be carefully considered to guarantee that consumers have a positive experience when wearing Leopard flip-flops (McAfee 2009, p. 81). Therefore, female buyers will be able to express their inner inclinations by wearing the merchandise. As a consequence, they will feel good about themselves.

Gandys marketing mix

The current marketing mix employed by Gandys in the marketplace focuses on generating appealing product designs that create favorable customer perceptions of the available flip-flops. The branding of leopard flip-flops as simple, elegant, and fashionable makes them appealing to female consumers who take time to relax from their demanding professional lives. Thus, the device enables effortless movement from one location to another.

In addition, online sales enable the company to collaborate with third-party suppliers to supply its items to consumers in many geographical locations. This has enabled Leopard flip flops to profit from high levels of exposure in other nations, which will be advantageous to the company's long-term objectives for market expansion (McAfee 2009, p. 84). Since earnings from the product are used to fund charity programs for orphans in low-income countries, the company is able to demonstrate to its clients that its business model is sustainable. Consequently, this gives the product its own distinct personality on the market.

The company offers its goods in various locations to meet the needs of a variety of customers that are interested in purchasing it. This makes it easier for the company to offer leopard flip-flops to consumers in faraway locations who are unable to reach retail establishments where its items are stocked. The company's website is one of its primary sales channels, where clients may examine several Leopard flip-flop variations to determine if they suit their tastes and preferences (McAfee 2009, p. 88). In addition, the company's flip-flops are available in a number of shoe and clothing stores, including Sole Trader, Foot Asylum, House of Fraser, and Top Man. As a result, the company has been able to enhance all procedures of its value chain so that clients can purchase its products with ease.

The price of the product in the United Kingdom is set at £20, which will allow it to enhance its market penetration. This pricing reflects the market value that customers place on the goods. As a result, the Leopard flip-flop product has been able to attract market consumers who are interested in experiencing the product's worth.

In addition, because a portion of the earnings from the sale of Leopard flip-flops are used to fund charitable projects, the company is able to increase the product's reputation on the market, consequently improving its financial success. Therefore, the company may develop more meaningful relationships with its clients (McAfee 2009, p.93). They will recognize that the Leopard brand enables them to engage in meaningful activities that have the ability to impact the lives of those living in poverty.

To offer its products to consumers in varied market contexts, the company employs distinct promotional tactics. Customers can peruse several product categories on the company's website based on their sizes, colors, and prices. This knowledge is useful since it enables them to select products that meet their specific preferences and needs. The company's leopard flip flops are available in a variety of colors and styles to accommodate varying consumer tastes. The company uses web, radio, and print advertisements to reach a variety of consumers (McAfee 2009, p. 97).

It also employs social media marketing strategies to increase market awareness of its products. The company employs sales promotion tactics to increase market sales in order to improve its long-term financial performance in the market.

Recommendations Regarding the Revision of the Marketing Mix

To raise the value of its products on the market, the company must incorporate additional supply chain management components. In order to expand sales, the company must build a wholesale plan that allows it to sell more products in bulk to other locations (Hisrich 2010, p. 49).

Since the product has gotten excellent feedback from customers across the globe, the company should partner with significant retail chains with a dominant global presence in order to grow sales. For example, it must form partnerships with IKEA, Walmart, and Tesco to make its products more available to a greater number of consumers in foreign countries. Consequently, this strategy will enable the company to increase its market sales income and achieve its long-term goal of beginning new orphanage charity projects.

The price approach for the UK market is effective, however the company may be need to adjust its foreign pricing structure. Customers in some Asian nations may be dissuaded from purchasing the product due to its high price, which may result in the company losing its competitive edge in the sector. The company must employ a market penetration approach in nations such as India, Pakistan, Malaysia, and the Philippines, where a big number of consumers are eager to taste premium items (Hisrich 2010, p. 53).

Therefore, this will increase Gandy's appeal to female customers in countries with significant consumer populations. Due to the fact that the products are manufactured in China, the company may price them at 12 pounds in large urban retail outlets. This will enable the company to sell more Leopard flip-flops to more Asian consumers.

Long-term, the company must create ties with other shops that operate in multiple nations. It can also license franchises in other nations to produce and sell flip-flop items on its behalf, thereby enhancing its global brand recognition. This strategy may help the company to have additional points of sale where its products can be sold, hence increasing its long-term sales in the industry.

In addition, this strategy may enable the company to lower the significant operational costs it would undoubtedly incur in its future operations in international regions (Hisrich 2010, p. 57). This would also enable the company to overcome various legal and regulatory obstacles that make it challenging for international companies to operate freely in foreign countries. As a result, the company will be able to raise its sales revenue from various markets where the product is offered.

Lastly, the company must employ further advertising tactics that will raise the product's market worth. To appeal to consumers from diverse origins who may be interested in purchasing Leopard flip-flops but do not speak English, it must use communications formatted in multiple languages. Additionally, the company must strengthen its relationships with its customers. This will allow the company to create unique product designs that meet the demands and expectations of consumers, consequently increasing its sales income.

References

The Guardian, S. Butler (2013), 'Brothers orphaned by the tsunami establish flip-flop business to aid youngsters' Web.

Hisrich, R. (2010). International entrepreneurship: founding, growing, and managing a worldwide enterprise. London: Sage Publications.

Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (2013). Marketing principles. Pearson, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Competitive solutions: the strategist's toolkit, published by Princeton University Press in 2009.

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Constitutional Law: Negligence Best Essay Help

Introduction

According to the law, carelessness causes damages if a plaintiff can prove that a defendant's negligent actions caused him harm. Before a plaintiff can sue a defendant for damages, he or she must suffer a harm caused by an act of negligence. Moreover, this act of negligence must be fairly foreseeable, and a plaintiff must prove a duty owed by the defendant.

The purpose of this paper is to establish whether David in Case Study 1 or Ella in Case Study 2 might collect monetary compensation for the damage they sustained as a result of negligent behavior.

In order to support their claims, this paper provides an overview of carelessness. The article presents three components of negligence, including duty of care, reasonable foreseeability, vulnerability, breach of duty, and damages, to prove their claims.

Negligence

Negligence is the failure to take care towards another person, which a reasonable person in the same circumstances would not have done. Miscalculations that result in accidents and property damage frequently constitute negligence. Negligence may also result from commercial mistakes that result in the loss of millions of dollars. (Kathleen, 2009).

In tort law, negligence is defined as a breach of an obligation or failing to act similar to what a prudent person under the same circumstances would have done. A plaintiff must experience an injury as a result of an act of negligence, and he must be able to demonstrate that he has incurred an injury as a result of an act of negligence for negligence to be proven. A purposeful act, such as the construction of a defective building, is essentially negligence. Under conditions that could have led to an act of carelessness, the jury evaluates the actual occurrence of negligence, along with the plaintiff's proof that the defendant committed an act of negligence. (2004, The Columbia Encyclopedia).

Nonetheless, a plaintiff must demonstrate the elements of negligence in order to prove that a negligent act actually happened.

Elements of carelessness

This paper categorizes the aspects of negligence as the duty of care, the breach of duty, and the resulting damages. Essentially, the plaintiff must prove and establish these three aspects of negligence in order to establish that the defendant actually committed an act of negligence. However, in accordance with the duty of care, a plaintiff

Before a credible claim might be made that an act of negligence has actually happened, it is necessary to prove foreseeability and susceptibility. (Shestokas, 2009).

Responsibility for care

The law requires one to exercise reasonable care in the performance of one's duties so as not to cause undue injury to others. In essence, the duty of care is the reasonable care that a professional should have in the performance of his duties so as not to cause undue harm to another person. Every corporation or ordinary person owes a duty of care to his customer or neighbor in order to avoid causing unnecessary harm. (Debney, 1998). The purpose of the duty of care is to prevent an unreasonable injury to a plaintiff. Thus, the duty of care is a procedure and a reasonable standard of conduct that a professional should implement in the performance of his duties in order to protect the client from harm or avoidable injury. (VideoJug, 2009).

Before an act of negligence can be shown in court, it is necessary to establish that a defendant has a duty of care to the plaintiff. Before a duty of care could be established, according to Shestokas (2009), there must first be an existing duty. Thus, the author emphasized that a physician has a responsibility to safeguard patients from unjustified harm.

The duty of care, however, is separated into reasonable foreseeability and vulnerability.

Reasonable anticipation

To demonstrate that a negligent behavior actually occurred. A plaintiff must satisfy the jury that the injury could have been prevented with reasonable foresight. Reasonable foreseeability, as defined by Villiers (2009), is an objective forecast of an event that a reasonable person would have anticipated. In essence, reasonable foreseeability is a basic idea in negligence law. For instance, it is fairly foreseeable, within the scope of a doctor's responsibility, that permitting a patient to take an excessive overdose of sleeping drugs could cause harm. The illustration of the case Cooley v. Public Service Co.163 presented a famous example of reasonable foreseeability, in which a plaintiff was injured by a loud noise emanating from a telephone wire. However, a plaintiff must demonstrate that the defendant was reasonable enough to anticipate and avert the injury. For instance, the Bunting v. Hogsett case demonstrated how reasonable foreseeability has been established. The plaintiffs successfully demonstrated that the defendant could have reasonably foreseen that he would collide with a train and damage passengers by failing to pay adequate attention to an approaching train.

In addition, before an act of negligence could be shown, a plaintiff must establish a vulnerability concept.

Vulnerability

The definition of vulnerability is a position of dependence between a defendant and a plaintiff. Prior to the development of dependence between the two parties, it is essential that certain elements be established. A plaintiff must be able to demonstrate, for instance, that he is powerless and hence vulnerable. In addition, a plaintiff must demonstrate that the defendant is in a position of authority and is more knowledgeable than the plaintiff. Due to the resources at their disposal, a defendant is normally in a position to shield a plaintiff from unreasonable harm. (Harvey, 2007).

In the following section, the study applies negligence, duty of care, reasonable foreseeability, and vulnerability to case studies.

Using carelessness to examine case study 1

This section applies the carelessness principle to Case Study 1. Under the case study, it is revealed that David was injured when he stumbled over a piece of cleaning equipment that Emily had placed on the pathway while he was reading his catalog. However, David wanted to collect his medical expenses as a result of his injury. Reviewing this incident reveals that the action was not fairly foreseeable. Before a plaintiff may prove that a defendant is negligent, he must convince the jury that an activity that causes him harm is reasonably foreseeable and preventable by the defendant. The activity that resulted in David's injuries is referred to as coincidental harm, and "coincidental harm is not predictable." (Villiers 2009, p. 129), therefore, it was not a negligent act. David's injuries "was coincidental and not systemically related to the defendant's negligence, and was therefore unforeseeable" (Villiers 2009, p. 129).

In addition, there was no evidence that David was helpless and so susceptible to injury. In addition, there was no evidence that Emily had a position of authority and had the ability to prevent David from suffering a vulnerable damage. In light of this, David was unable to convince the court that Emily was careless in her duties. Therefore, David would be unable to collect medical bills or lost wages.

carelessness applied to case study 2

Under case study 2, Ella could collect her losses because the action that caused her to miss her trip was fairly foreseeable and the airline might have prevented this act of carelessness by notifying Ella a few days before to the scheduled flight. Ella lost a $40 million business opportunity as a result of the airline's irresponsibility, which was exemplified by the airline's response. In addition, there was strong evidence that Ella was in a vulnerable position due to her lack of power, whereas the airline was in a position of strength due to its knowledge of the flight schedule and maintenance concerns. Since Ella was unaware of the maintenance concerns that caused her to lose a $40 million business opportunity, the airline was in a position to provide Ella with protection. Ella may persuade the jury that the airline acted carelessly, which caused her harm, and so she could recover her losses.

A breach of duty is another element of negligence that can help Ella win her case.

violation of duty

A breach of duty is an act to behave with a reasonable level of responsibility in order to prevent the hurt of another individual. However, Mulligan claimed that a breach of duty occurs when a party fails to fulfill the responsibilities of his or her office or position. (2008, p.1). Under tort law, a plaintiff is required to show an obligation between himself and the defendant. Consequently, by establishing a duty between a plaintiff and a defendant, it is necessary to prove that this obligation has been breached and that the breach caused harm to a plaintiff. Thus, breach of duty is a basic example of negligence, for which anyone may file a lawsuit. In addition, a defendant could be charged with breach of duty if his behavior potentially cause harm to a plaintiff. (Villiers 2009, Shestokas, 2009).

Therefore, a plaintiff may seek damages if he can show the court that a violation of duty caused him harm.

Damages

Damages are the monetary value that a court may award for a violation of civil law. In tort law, a court could compel a plaintiff to pay a specified amount of money to compensate for his negligence or other wrongdoing. The purpose of damages is to compensate a plaintiff for his or her personal hurt or loss. Before a plaintiff can claim damages, he or she must have suffered a harm, which must be proven in court. Damages, for the purposes of this article, are the out-of-pocket expenses incurred by the defendant as a result of having to deal with the injuries or property loss caused by the plaintiff (Wendell 2009, p.1).

Applying duty breach and damages to Case Study 1

The application of a breach of duty and damages to case study 1 reveals that David was unable to persuade the court that Emily violated a duty. According to a preceding provision, a plaintiff must demonstrate that he has formed an obligation with the defendant and that the defendant has breached this duty. Regarding David, there was no evidence that Emily had created any obligation with David. Emily had never established a duty with David, hence she could never violate a duty she had never established. Therefore, neither Emily nor Wipeaway Pty Ltd, the company for which Emily worked, were liable for David's damages. David's injury was unforeseeable and a result of a random accident. In addition, David was preoccupied in his catalog and was not paying attention to his surroundings.

Using breach of duty and compensation in case study 2

In the second case study, Ella established duty with the airline when she contacted a representative to book a flight to Australia for a work trip. Thus, she intended to fly on the specified date for her business transaction. In the meantime, the airline carelessly broke a duty owed to Ella by doing maintenance work at the very time Ella had scheduled a flight to Australia. Thus, the airline acted negligently by breaking its duty of care, causing Ella to incur a pecuniary loss. Ella could file a claim for damages to recover her financial losses because the airline's action that stopped her from boarding her planned aircraft was reasonably foreseeable and could have been avoided by alerting Ella several hours beforehand. Thus, Ella might recoup her financial loss through a lawsuit against the airline.

Conclusion

This document describes the classic circumstances of carelessness in which a plaintiff may seek damages and those in which he or she could not. This article demonstrates that Ella could sue for damages because her missing trip cost her a $40 million business agreement. The airline's action was fairly predictable, and the airline could have prevented Ella's damage. The report maintains, however, that David was unable to convince the jury that Emily was irresponsible in order to recover damages. David's injury was not the result of an act of negligence, and Emily had never established an obligation towards him.

List of Citations

1998, Duty of Care: Common Law of Negligence, Student Activities, Safety Association, United Kingdom by Debney, P.J.

Harvey, C. 2007, Foundation of Australian Law, Chapter 6: Negligence, 2nd edition, Tilde University Press, Australia.

Kathleen, L. (2009). Negligence. The people's legal dictionary. United States: Fine Communication.

2008, Breach of Duty, Asbestos.net, Inc, United Kingdom.

2009, The Law of Negligence Duty, Breach of Duty, Injury & Causation, United Kingdom, Suite.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Negligence, 6th edition, Columbia University Press, United States, 2004.

Reasonable Foreseeability in Information Security Law: A Forensic Analysis?, published by Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc., in 2009.

VideoJug, 2009, What is duty of care of tort law, VideoJug Corporation Limited, UK.

Wendell, C., What are Damages?, 2009, Wendell, C. A Brief Overview of the Law of Damages, Suite 101, United Kingdom.

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ING: Crisis Management Best Essay Help

"ING is a global financial institution of Dutch origin that provides banking, investments, life insurance, and retirement services to more than 85 million private, corporate, and institutional clients in over 40 countries." (ING, 2008) "ING was founded in 1991" (Kan, 2004) as Internationale Nederland Groep, which was later renamed ING Group. ING was formed through the amalgamation of Nationale-Nederlanden and NMB Post bank Group.

It made its worldwide debut in Czech Republic. ING specializes in marketing insurance products and banking services to domestic and international corporations. Forbes ranks ING ninth in the category of world's best-performing insurers, demonstrating ING's clear and strategic stance in the sector over the past decades. Late in the 1990s, ING executives were implicated in serious financial scandals that looked to damage the company's reputation.

This followed an infinite string of minor and big scandals, including Enron's, in the United States. ING has been able to accomplish both short-term and long-term growth throughout its entire business history, up until the financial crisis of the past year. Its performance has been attributed to its global consumer base. (Kan, 2004)

Jan Horn men is the current chairman of the Executive Board and Cornelius Herkstroter is the current chairman of the supervisory board of ING. Included among ING's competitors are Allianz SE, AIG, AXA, etc. The insurance industry is characterized by a great number of competitors. The direction of competition appears to have shifted, with the majority of insurance companies now extending their offerings to include banking services. This is noteworthy for the Dutch firm ING. ING was one of the organizations that profited from the Dutch Government's capital infusion as the first bailout in Dutch history, due to the present global economic slowdown. (Kan, 2004)

This has increased the company's negative liquidity ratios and cash shortages. As a result of the enormous losses sustained during the 2008 fiscal year, ING is now technically equipped to meet any catastrophe. The group has created robust risk management mechanisms through its independent member ING Consultants, Inc. It is claimed that these tools are among the most effective risk management and catastrophe recovery tools in the world. (Ferry-Pasani & Indhira, 2009).

These resources consist of the PATROL(SM) and the TVRA. These methods are anticipated to enable secure access to a global network of leading service providers for sustainable business and safety precautions. (Kan, 2004) The operation of these mechanisms is as follows:

They classify the crisis, segregate it, manage the risk, liaise with the media, communicate the risk to the entire organization, train the staff on media, control the significant damage already incurred, assemble the crisis management team, and coordinate vital activities by organizing platforms on which the crisis management plan is developed. They anticipate the catastrophe and then seek local and global interventions. (ING Management, 2009)

The methodology for identifying crises

ING's primary methodology for detecting risk and then managing it is to guarantee that suitable measures and processes are in place in the event of occurrence. This is done to guarantee that there is no influence on the main company functions. Frequently, catastrophes have reduced both small and medium-sized enterprises to nothing. It arrives at a moment when management are unprepared or badly prepared. Depending on the severity of the consequences, the affected organization may need assistance from a third party. (2005, Yoichiro)

From a management standpoint, the financial effects of a crisis on the entity's books of account are evaluated. Whether it is a natural disaster, such as an earthquake, flood, disease outbreak, political risk, etc., the resulting financial ramifications would be more pronounced than anything else. To ensure that major operations and activities of the organization are not impacted, the company must have a crisis management plan that is not only short-term but also evaluates external and internal issues throughout the organization's life cycle. (2008) According to (Dougall, 2008)

As ING is an insurance company, it may be the underwriter of presidential helicopters and executive limousines for both public and private figures of high rank. Due to the huge value of these assets and the fact that billions of dollars would be expended anytime a risk occurs, it may have a negative effect on the company's financial records. It may also provide light on how we manage our finances in these uncertain times (ING Management, 2009)

Another potential threat might be scandals. ING has admitted to falling victim to frauds and other financial problems. Most scandals are perpetrated by staff members. Despite the fact that it may be straightforward to evaluate any financial impact on the financial statements, it is difficult to detect a management conspiracy to cheat shareholders. Some members of the group would be motivated by their own ambitions and interests. Shareholders and all other interested parties feel the repercussions whenever such sleazy and limited strategies are implemented. Crisis-related scandals are categorized as the result of inadequate management. (Tocklin, 1993).

Security concerns may also be a factor in the management crisis. The digital age has ensured that all businesses are now paperless. Software has evolved into an essential management tool. Due to rapid technology development, con artists have also improved their methods. The development of internet commerce in this age has created numerous security risks. Hackers have accessed the databases of other organizations and caused severe and maybe catastrophic data damage.

ING uses online business to contact its Diaspora clients more swiftly and effectively. When an attacker gains access to a system and modifies critical data, the repercussions can be extremely dangerous, particularly for clients and employees. Robust security solutions will guarantee the data's integrity, dependability, relevance, and accessibility. If this isn't done, (Hancock, 2002) the organization may not be able to achieve and maintain a competitive edge.

Financial crisis

ING is currently experiencing liquidity and profitability issues. In fact, this is the greatest problem this institution has ever faced. Even while it could be claimed that this is a worldwide issue, the impact on ING's key businesses is far-reaching. However, it recovered momentum after receiving government assistance. Additionally, the corporation has sold some of its domestic and international operations and assets. This is viewed as a strategy to improve cash flow and profitability in the short and long term. As competitors continue to disseminate negative information via the Internet and other electronic media, the financial crisis has also harmed the Company's client relationships. (Financial Crisis, 2009)

Other stakeholders, including institutional shareholders, the government, employees, creditors, and suppliers, also firmly believed that ING was experiencing cash flow concerns. This resulted in significant harm to ING's previously established reputation. Consequently, risk-averse owners were forced to sell their holdings. A combination of widespread suspicions that the company would soon close and shareholders' abrupt decision to liquidate their holdings precipitated a sharp decline in share prices. (Zyglidopoulos, 2001)

(Possibility of a Crisis occurring and its subsequent effects on the firm's operations, as well as the firm's ability to manage the risk)

Risk type (Crisis) Probability of an event Damage on (Financial statements) Accountable

Financial risk Strong adverse Not easily controlled

High Management Low Controllable

Security Comparatively elevated low Controllable

Mishaps with Property. Very tall Adverse uncontrollable

Employee turnover is high. Relatively unfavorable and manageable

Relationship with interested parties

When a firm suffers a crisis, shareholders will typically become skeptical and place the most doubt on the management. This will result in a conflict of interest, thereby damaging the relationship between shareholders and management. Shareholders are always of the opinion that risks are caused by management, hence any loss they may incur will always be attributed to ineffective management practices. (Zyglidopoulos, 2001)

In contrast, creditors and lenders will be unwilling to lend to the organizations. Risk is always unknown, and its probability can be hard to anticipate at times. However, when lenders have reasonable evidence to assume that the organization's activities are exposed to potentially high risks, they will withdraw their assistance, i.e., immediately cancel the contract. This can negatively impact the relationship between the lender and the company. (Hancock. 2002)

Initial strategy for crisis communication

The following actions would be taken by managers in a crisis situation; this is a typical plan for managing any crisis situation within a company. The model shows a situation in which a company can design an acceptable crisis and risk management strategy from start. Remember that crisis cannot be prevented, but the likelihood can be substantially decreased by implementing risk appraisal and assessment methodologies. Manage the risk, liaise with the media, communicate the risk to the entire organization, train the staff on media, control significant damage already caused, assemble the crisis management team, and coordinate vital activities by organizing platforms upon which the crisis management plan is developed. They anticipate the catastrophe and then seek local and global interventions. (Sandra, 2009). The explanation is as follows:

Categorizing crisis

In order to effectively manage a crisis, it is essential to organize hazards into similar groupings, as various threats necessitate distinct responses. When risks with similar characteristics are put together, management will unequivocally discover flexibility in the solution. Alternately, managers might create a unique model that encompasses general risk and crisis management. Although this is considered inconvenient, when it is the only option it might be a breakthrough. Categorizing risks will also provide the management with the opportunity to select the most appropriate tools and approach for solving the problem comprehensively. (Fernandes, 2006)

Identifying the Danger

Before a company begins to cope with a crisis, it is advisable to isolate the risk in order to examine its individual characteristics. Isolating risk necessitates that management spend considerable time analyzing the problem in its entirety. This provides a better framework for addressing the crisis. Major natural disasters, such as the flu pandemic, geographical depressions, cyclones and anticyclones, such as Rita and Katrina, are examples of crises that can be resolved more effectively using this method. (Dezenhall, 2009)

Managing the Emergency

Managing the risk entails organizing the appropriate operations that can decrease the impact of risks on other organizational activities. This phase will be characterized by consultations, conducting experiments, coordination, and considering the possibilities. A crisis is the event that creates a business disruption; as such, it is always unique to a particular organization, and cross-border consultations may be inappropriate at times. However, industry experience may make it less engaging. There are certain typical dangers, such as financial risks. (Fernandes, 2006)

Communication with the Media

When the severity of a crisis is so great that it cannot be managed internally, the organization must work with the media to inform the public. The responsibility of the media is to inform the people about the issue and advise them to be vigilant. In the majority of instances, the media has been essential in decreasing potential hazards related with specific crises. For instance, whenever there is an outbreak of an infectious disease, the World Health Organization and affiliated institutions will provide instructions to other nations through the media. (ING Management, 2009)

This has always been the case in numerous nations. The most recent case of Swine Flu occurred in Mexico, where an outbreak occurred. By thoroughly addressing potential risks, it is often believed that the media will reduce the prospect of a crisis negatively harming other essential company activities. This will improve public knowledge, allowing for the development of strategies that can offset the projected effects. 2009 by Browning

Transmission of the Crisis

"A crisis communication is any situation that threatens the integrity or reputation of your company, typically as a result of adverse media attention." (Sandra, 2009) In any case, communication remains an essential management strategy for any firm. Effective communication channels inside an organization will guarantee that strategic information flows in and out of the organization effectively.

The dissemination of crisis information to the entire business will ensure that every employee is informed of the presence of such crises. Effective and efficient communication techniques are essential for high-performing organizations. Through this method, organizations may be guaranteed that their growing concern is acceptable and that any issues deemed material in light of performance are addressed appropriately. (Sandra, 2009)

In addition to reducing the likelihood of a conflict of interests between the organization and its stakeholders, improved communication will also decrease the likelihood of such a conflict occurring. Shareholders and the management are bound by an agency agreement, as was previously mentioned in this section. According to traditional wisdom, shareholders remain the firm's owners; yet, due to insufficient expertise and lack of professionalism, they nominate directors to administer the company on their behalf. When management properly communicates a crisis to the organization, including its stakeholders, the likelihood of a conflict in the event of a significant impact on core organizational activities is diminished. (Sandra, 2009)

Managing the Significant Loss

The effects of a crisis on an organization's operations are usually significant. If the organization fails to respond immediately, the repercussions could result in the organization's dissolution. Controlling damages necessitates reestablishing the organization's previous standing. Restoring a corporation to normal operations may involve pursuing insurance claims and compensations, funding working capital, restoration, and reorganization, among other things. When ING encountered severe financial difficulties, it was fortunate to have requested government assistance.

This was made possible through a capital investment. Borrowings from other financial institutions could potentially be used to fund working capital. Since ING also provides insurance products, it was required to reinsure large risks with other Reinsurance firms. (Dezenhall, 2009)

Creating a team for crisis management

A team is a group of individuals who collaborate to achieve a common goal. Teams are distinguished by their professionalism and expertise. "The formation of a crisis management team ensures that planning and decision-making have a clear focus." Joseph's (2009) The crisis management team will be responsible for establishing the objectives of crisis management, strategic plans, tools and necessary equipments, the framework, suitable and relevant staff, and a comprehensive report on crisis management approaches and mechanisms.

The formation of a crisis management team will ensure that only personnel with the technical expertise required for crisis management are dedicated. This may

Different Aspects Of Human Resources Management Best Essay Help

The challenges/challenges a business faces when attempting to deliver strategic HRM

Strategic management is a process initiated at the level of top management that provides an organization's overall direction. It covers the mission, vision, and objectives of an organization, as well as the design of effective strategies to attain these objectives. Strategic Management is a continuous process in that it evaluates the environment in which the organization operates, assesses the competition, and then formulates a strategy that best serves the organization's objectives. This process is repeated at regular intervals to ensure that the organization is always employing the most effective strategy.

Human Resource Management is the management of an organization's most valuable asset: its personnel. Staffing, compensation schemes, training and development, and performance evaluation are various human resource management operations. HRM also includes the formulation and implementation of human resource policy and the management of other personnel issues. In an organization, human resource management works to establish the optimal conditions for optimal employee performance.

Strategic Human Resource Management involves the integration of strategic management and human resource management. It involves employing human resource activities strategically in order to achieve organizational objectives. Schuler argues that Strategic Human Resource Management is concerned with aligning the requirements of the people with the strategic needs of the organization. Strategic HRM is concerned with ensuring that "human resources management is fully integrated with the strategy and strategic needs of the firm" by ensuring that all employees in management follow HR practices. Strategic HRM must address multiple components, including policies, culture, values, and practices, in order to be successful.

Modern corporate practices and their technology requirements provide various obstacles to the successful implementation of Strategic Human Resource Management. When a company implements new technology, it must either hire new employees or lay off some employees. Additionally, personnel must be trained to utilize the new technology. As the adoption of the new technology becomes a strategic requirement for the business, an HRM that is aligned strategically will need to adapt to these shifting requirements. Companies are increasingly permitting certain employees to work from home. The HR department must now establish a clear system for evaluating the performance of these personnel, which presents a new set of issues. Other challenges associated with telecommuting include determining whether employees are allowed this option, equipment costs, and dealing with bosses who may not be comfortable with their direct report working remotely. Also, as computers become ubiquitous, human resources must determine the extent of employee surveillance they should do via monitoring internet usage, emails, computer files, etc. Despite these obstacles, technology provides numerous advantages. Utilizing technology has simplified numerous HR tasks. With HR staff spending less time on typical HR responsibilities, they can devote more time to developing and implementing strategies. Additionally, technology facilitates the formulation and implementation of organization-wide strategies.

The graying of the workforce is an additional difficulty for HR departments in the US. An organization's senior workforce is both a challenge and a strength. Employees of a certain age may be resistant to change, making it harder to adopt HR strategy. In addition, senior employees incur greater wage and compensation costs as well as healthcare expenses. Despite these obstacles, senior employees are more committed to a firm, which is advantageous for its long-term strategic planning. Additionally, senior employees have deeper market expertise and professional networks that can be utilized strategically for the organization's benefit.

Nontraditional work relationships, such as part-time workers, consultants, and temporary employees, present additional obstacles to the effective implementation of strategic HRM. Integration of such employees into an organization's strategic objectives might become exceedingly challenging. The increasing diversity of the workplace is a further obstacle, as cultural confrontations can occur when people from radically diverse histories and origins work together. On the other side, this might be an advantage, since a varied workforce could assist the firm adopt global practices. In order to build an HR strategy that is aligned with the strategic needs of the firm, a human resources department with a strategic orientation will need to draw on these different experiences.

Universalistic ("one best way") and conditional ("If X, do this; if Y, do that") approaches to strategic human resource management (HRM)

There are multiple ways to execute strategic HRM. One approach is to develop a universal strategy applicable in all contexts. The universalist perspective asserts that some policies are always superior to others and, thus, all organizations should embrace these policies. An illustration of this universalistic approach in strategic HRM is employee training and skill development. All firms would benefit from regularly improving their employees' abilities, as external surroundings are in a constant state of flux, and organizations whose people are better equipped to adapt are more likely to achieve long-term success.

The contingency approach, on the other hand, believes that a business's HR policies should align with the strategic positions made by other areas of the firm. A company that is upgrading its technology could, for instance, hire new personnel or provide significant training to its current workforce. There is no right or incorrect way to tackle this issue, and the correct method will depend on a variety of organization-specific circumstances.

The contingency approach to strategic HRM gives a more effective and strategic method of managing organizations, in my opinion. This is because the fundamental concept of strategic HRM is to match a company's HR practices with its mission, vision, and overall goals. Although recommended, the best practices of the universalistic approach may not necessarily work in all businesses. In the aforementioned scenarios, the universalistic approach would always propose training the current workforce so that they can meet the needs of the new firm. This policy would be effective if the current workforce is youthful and willing to learn. However, if the current workforce is nearing retirement age, the training may prove worthless.

The universalistic approach also advocates offering incentives to get the best performance. Incentives may not always be effective, and some employees may abuse them. This is particularly true for inexperienced employees with low levels of organizational commitment. To obtain the best performances from these personnel, a strategically aligned HRM would need to devise an alternative policy consistent with the company's overall objectives.

The contingency strategy provides HRM with the ability to adapt their policies to the changing business environment and operational reality. Even within the same firm, offices in different geographic regions would need to develop their own HR policies in accordance with local customs. The universalistic style's one-size-fits-all approach prevents the management from planning for business eventualities, cultural differences, and ground realities. The contingency method facilitates HRM's ability to connect its policies with the organization's overall strategies. As opposed to blindly following "best practices," which may not always work for all firms, it enables management to set policies that will help an organization achieve its goals the most effectively.

Integration of strategy with their staffing, training, development, or compensation systems

Training and development is one of the basic HR responsibilities that must be performed by the HR department of most firms in order to help employees meet the most recent difficulties and stay abreast of the most recent technology advancements. Most HR departments engage in training and development initiatives; however, by making this system strategic, they can obtain better results. To accomplish this, the HR department must guarantee that all employees are informed of HR policies. Next, the HRD must conduct regular interviews with employees in management and supervisory positions to determine the organization's training needs and how training individuals in these skills would advance the company's overall objectives. During these interviews, it is essential to determine whether the claimed growth needs are strategically crucial for the overall organization or the particular business unit. Training that helps employees transition from one business unit to another should be prioritized.

Additionally, the HR department must choose which critical personnel the firm would prefer to retain for the long term. While it is essential to provide training to all employees as needed, these crucial individuals should receive training that will benefit both the person and the firm in the long run. This technique becomes crucial if the firm intends to reduce its workforce. When employees lose coworkers and friends due to layoffs, the HR department is responsible for managing the remaining employees. One method to rebuild confidence and prepare the surviving employees for the new difficulties is to give them with the training necessary to meet their developmental requirements.

The performance appraisal system is a further HR function that can be similarly strategicized. For the performance evaluation system to be effective, all employees must understand which behaviors and achievements will be rewarded and which will not. This can be accomplished by the HR department sending out regular emails and posting announcements regarding the organization's current appraisal-related regulations. In addition, a 360-degree feedback system makes lower-level employees feel more empowered and assists in maintaining control over higher-level management.

Performance must also be tied to an employee's achievement of the organization's goals. For instance, if an organization's objective is to deliver exceptional customer service, client feedback should be incorporated into the performance evaluation system. Similarly, if the objective of an organization is to maximize sales, then all activities that contribute to sales growth must be recognized. This evaluation method must also take into account the diverse functions of the various organizational departments and award accordingly.

How firms can strategically address equal employment opportunity (EEO) and affirmative action (AA) concerns

Affirmative Action (AA) is a policy that considers a person's race, gender, and national origin when making decisions in order to rectify previous discrimination. AA fundamentally contradicts the meritocracy principle since it requires organizations to provide preferential treatment to particular groups based on their gender or ethnicity. According to Glazer, this is crucial because African Americans may never be able to escape poverty if they do not receive preferential treatment. Although Glazer makes compelling arguments in favor of AA, I do not support it since it means that organizations will hire African Americans who are less competent than other applicants. The argument that African Americans will not be able to compete if they are not given preferential treatment is likewise invalid, since if such advantages must be granted, they should be granted at the primary school level so that they can compete on an equal playing field with other individuals. Such favoritism at the academic or professional level is unfair to the other candidates in the competition.

The legislation, however, mandates that businesses adhere to an equal employment opportunity (EEO) policy. Therefore, despite being a legal obligation, many meritorious applicants and workers may dislike this policy. To avoid employee difficulties, the HR department must ensure that the policy is strategically integrated with the organization's principles. Identifying those sectors inside the organization that require the skills of African Americans or women and recruiting properly is one strategy to achieve this goal. To better incorporate African Americans into the company's culture, training and development sessions are another technique to proactively manage this HR issue. By adhering to these management practices, firms can satisfy regulatory requirements while also ensuring employee satisfaction.

The basic characteristics of both the Industrial Organization (I/O) and Resource-Based View (RBV) strategic models.

The Industrial Organization (I/O) model of strategy emphasizes the organization's external settings. According to this approach, external circumstances rather than inside management determine an organization's decisions. Among these external contexts are product demand, substitutes, price, product durability, product quality, technology, and government policies. As these external elements change, so must an organization's operational environment, and it must adapt its strategy to avoid the hazards and capitalize on the opportunities that these external factors bring.

According to the I/O paradigm, there are finite, highly mobile resources that are shared equally by all competing companies. A company must either sell its products at a lower price than its competitors or differentiate its product in order to command a higher price in order to be successful. According to the I/O paradigm, an organization must first develop a strategy and then acquire resources based on this strategy.

The Resource-Based View (RBV) emphasizes that an organization's strategy should be determined internally. This approach highlights the need for an organization's strategy to be formulated based on its own resources and capabilities, as opposed to external situations. The approach stipulates that businesses should determine their resource requirements before locating and acquiring them. The organization's resources are difficult to duplicate and irreplaceable. Additionally, there is a low degree of resource mobility between firms once they have been purchased. According to the RBV model, an organization's strategy is driven by its resources (Mello, 2005).

Both the I/O model and the RBV model have virtues, despite their widely contrasting perspectives. An organization cannot achieve success by ignoring external environmental influences. These elements determine an organization's working environment, and they should be taken into account while designing its strategy. In addition, a firm must be aware of its strengths and shortcomings and utilize them to achieve a competitive edge. However, a company's strengths and shortcomings may be addressed, and its core skills can be adapted to reflect changing external contexts. In addition, the value of resources declines over time, and eventually, competitors may develop their own resources, which could challenge the value of an organization's resources. Consequently, despite its virtues, the resource-based perspective has some drawbacks. In the present business world, no corporation can afford to build its plans only internally. Therefore, the I/O model is a superior strategic model in the modern era, and further research must be conducted on its application to strategic HRM.

Reference

Strategic Human Resource Management, 2nd edition, South-Western College, 2005.

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Sound-Mindedness In Corporate Governance Best Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Board Member Responsibilities and Responsibilities Soundness of Mind and Lack Thereof: Tesla Company Disaster Concluding Remarks References

Introduction

Physically and intellectually, contemporary corporate situations are extraordinarily difficult. Companies involved in a process of intense competition must be able to rapidly adjust to a variety of external circumstances in order to preserve their competitive advantage and stay ahead of the competition (Tricker, 2015). This is particularly true for large corporations in the industry of initial public offerings. The necessity to placate hundreds of shareholders while being regularly inspected by government financial institutions and stock market bodies, such as Wall Street, NASDAQ, and others, places a significant deal of pressure on the board members of a corporation.

Corporate directors and board members are responsible for setting a company's direction, ensuring its alignment with that direction, and offering both long-term and short-term benefits. High-ranking officers of companies on the Fortune 100 list effectively become public personalities, as the media seeks any information they can supply in order to more precisely analyze their market position. With this level of strain and scrutiny, soundness of mind becomes the most important psychological characteristic for corporate directors and board members. The objective of this study is to illustrate why strong judgment is essential for effective corporate governance.

Board Member Responsibilities and Responsibilities

Members of a Fortune 100 company's board of directors are normally hired professionals charged with acting as fiduciaries on behalf of the company's shareholders. Among their responsibilities are the appointment of executive officers, management of dividend and option policies, determination of compensation, creation of goals, support of executive activities, and management of resources (Tricker, 2015). As a result, the demand for a board member's time is often significant, as many of these individuals are typically active in the company's daily operations.

Board members are required to be exceptionally clever and to engage in lifelong learning in order to keep their knowledge current and be familiar with the most recent concepts, techniques, and technology. Due to the increased attention from corporate media, board members are unwittingly expected to serve as liaison officers if they are obliged to respond to questions from journalists or other interested parties.

The roles of board members are described as follows by state corporation law (Joneydi & Zare, 2015):

The obligation of caring. Directors of a board are supposed to make decisions with promptness and consideration. The obligation of allegiance Directors of the board should safeguard the company's shareholders' interests. The obligation of candor Directors of a board should give shareholders with timely and accurate information whenever it is necessary.

Lack of and Absence of Sound Mind: Tesla Company Debacle

As stated previously, being a board director is a very difficult and time-consuming role that demands a person to maintain high levels of physical and mental alertness. Time management, sleeping habits, and a healthy work-life balance are crucial for preserving mental clarity.

In addition, other board members must do their fair amount of work and fulfill their responsibilities. In organizations where the majority of responsibilities are dependent on one or two board members, there is a risk that the situation may go awry, as exhaustion and overwork are likely to impair the leader's long-term mental clarity.

An example of this is the recent issue involving the Tesla board of directors: Elon Musk, the company's CEO and chairman of the board of directors, tweeted that Tesla was going from public to private with funding secured (Higgins, 2018). This message alone caused significant market volatility and drew the attention of the SEC. The business experienced blowout as a result. Mr. Musk and his company had to pay a total fine of $40 million, of which he paid $20 million from his own pocket (Freedman, 2018).

According to the media, Mr. Musk's health was compromised by his long work hours and poor sleeping habits, which had a negative impact on his mental clarity and emotional stability (Fucci, Scannielllo, Romano, & Juristo, 2018). This incident illustrates why strong judgment is essential for board directors, as a single ill-considered tweet can bring substantial problems for a corporation. The relatively poor success of Mr. Musk's other ventures, including SpaceX and SolarCity (Voigt, Buliga, & Michl, 2017), is also attributable to his long-term sleeping and mental disorders.

Conclusions

Board members must be rational in order to perform their fiduciary responsibilities. Directors and board members have considerable liabilities in relation to a corporation, which are only mitigated by exculpatory, indemnity, and insurance arrangements that insulate them from legal or financial liability if acts of carelessness were accidental or undertaken in good faith. However, a lack of sound thinking and judgment makes it likely that a board member will cause significant problems for a corporation. Due to the fact that virtually all Fortune 100 firms are publicly traded, a great deal of attention is paid to them. As demonstrated by the Tesla and Elon Musk scenario, solid judgment is necessary at all times, including when tweeting.

References

Freedman, W. (2018). The CEO of Tesla is under fire following a Twitter tempest. Web-based Global Finance.

Fucci, D., Scannielllo, G., Romano, S., & Juristo, N. (2018). The impact of a night's sleep on the performance of beginner developers. Web.

Higgins, T. (2018). In response to the SEC deal, Elon Musk sparks debate on Twitter. This publication is the Wall Street Journal. Web.

Joneydi, L., & Zare, M. (2015). In accordance with the doctrine of piercing the corporate veil, directors are liable for company debt. Comparative Law Review, volume 6, number 1, pages 85-105.

Tricker, B. (2015). Governance of corporations: principles, policies, and practices (3rd ed.). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press

Voigt, K-I., Buliga, O., & Michl, K. (2017). How innovators successfully adopt new business models as business model pioneers. Springer is based in New York.

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PepsiCo Inc. And The Coca Cola Company’s Financial Analysis Best Essay Help

Introduction

In this research, a comparative financial analysis of PepsiCo International and The Coca-Cola Company for the fiscal years 2004 and 2005 is offered, taking into account the respective firms' financial statements for those years. The offered financial analysis comprises both vertical and horizontal examination. Based on the financial study of the two firms for the two years under examination, it has been determined that PepsiCo's performance in 2005 was lower than in 2004, whilst Coca-operations Cola's and financial performance were more sustainable. Moreover, based on this conclusion, it has been suggested that PepsiCo International's financial performance can be enhanced by focusing on the ratios of income statement items to total sales revenues and by controlling the increase in the company's total liabilities relative to total liabilities and equity.

Comparative Vertical Analysis of PepsiCo, Inc. and The Coca-Cola Company

Vertical Profit and Loss Statement Analysis

The vertical examination of PepsiCo International's income statement demonstrates that the proportion of income statement items to total sales revenues has not changed significantly. Most notable is the change in net income, which indicates that the company's net profit margin decreased in 2005 compared to the prior year (Weygandt, Kimmel, & Kieso, 2008).

PepsiCo Company, Inc.

Amount in millions except 2005 2004 percentages

Net Revenue 100.00% 100.00%

Sales Expenses 43.54 % 43.31 %

Expenditures for selling, general and administrative costs 37.82% 37.70%

0.46% 0.50% Amortization of intangible assets

Restructuring and Depreciation Costs 0% 0.51

Costs Related to the Merger 0% 0%

Profit from Operations 18.19% 17.97%

Income from bottling equity 1,71 % 1,30 %

Interest Expense -0.79% -0.57%

Interest Earnings 0.49 0.25

Income before income taxes from continuing operations 19.60% 18.95%

Provision for Income Taxation 7,08% 4,61%

Continuing operations income 12.52% 14.26%

Benefit from Taxes on Discontinued Operations 0% 0.13

Net Profit 12.52 % 14.39 %

For Coca-Cola, the proportion of all goods contributing to sales revenues stayed the same between 2004 and 2005. However, gross and net profit margins exhibit only small reductions. Nonetheless, they are far greater than PepsiCo's profit margins (Weygandt, Kimmel, & Kieso, 2008).

The Coca-Cola Corporation

Amount in millions except 2005 2004 percentages

Gross Operating Income 100.00% 100.00%

Cost of Goods Sold 35.47 percent 35.30 percent

Gross Revenue 64.53 % 64.70 %

37.82% 36.29% Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

Other Operating Costs 0.37 percent 2.21 percent

Income from operations 26.34% 26.21%

Interest Earnings 1,02% 0,72%

Interest Expense 1.04% 0.90%

Net Equity Income: 2.94 % 2.86 %

Other Deficit: Net -0.40% -0.38%

Gains on Stock Issuances by Equity Investors 0.10 0.11%

Before-tax income is 28.96% 28.62%.

Income Tax Rate 7,87% 6,32%

Profit after tax 21,09% 22,29%

Vertical Balance Sheet Analysis

PepsiCo's proportion of current assets to total assets has increased in 2005, as indicated by a vertical study of the balance sheet. In contrast, the proportion of noncurrent assets to total assets has decreased. Similarly, the ratios of non-current liabilities and total equity to total liabilities and equity have declined, while the ratio for current assets has climbed (Weygandt, Kimmel, & Kieso, 2008).

PepsiCo Company, Inc.

Amount in millions except 2005 2004 percentages

Assets

Active Assets

Cash and Cash Equivalents 5.41 percent 4.57 percent

Investments for the Short Term 9.98% 7.74%

15.39% 12.31%

Net Accounts Receivable and Notes Due, 10.28% 10.72%

Inventories 5.34% 5.51%

Other Current Assets and Prepaid Expenses 1.95 2.34%

Total Current Assets 32.95% 30.87%

Net value of property, plant and equipment 27.36% 29.12%

Net Depreciation of Intangible Assets 1.67 % 2.14 %

Goodwill 12.88% 13.97%

Other Nonamortizable Intangible Assets 3.42

16.31% 17.30% Nonamortisable Intangible Assets

10.98% 11.73

Other Property 10,73 % 8,84 %

Total Assets 100.00% 100.00%

Liabilities and Equity of Shareholders

Current Liabilities

Short-Term Obligations 9.11 percent 3.77 percent

Other Current Liabilities and Accounts Payable 18,82 % 20 %

Income Taxes Payable 1.72% 0.35%

Total Current Liabilities 29.65% 24.13%

Long-Term Obligations 7.29 percent 8.56 percent

Other liabilities 13.63 percent 14.65 percent

Taxes on Income Deferred 4.52 % 4.34 %

Total Liabilities 55.08% 51.68%

Commitments and Uncertainties 0% 0%

No-Par Value Preferred Stock 0.13% 0.15%

Shares of Preferred Stock Repurchased -0.35% -0.32%

Equity of Common Shareholders 0.00% 0.00%

Common stock with a par value per share of 1 2/3 cents 0.09% 0.11%

Capital in excess of par value 1.94% 2.21%

Earnings Retained 66.56% 66.92%

Other Comprehensive Loss Accumulated -3.32 % -3.17 %

65.27% 66.07%

Less: Repurchased Common Stock, at a cost of -20.13 percent -17.5 percent.

Total Equity of Common Stockholders 45.14 % 48.49 %

Total Liabilities and Shareholders' Equity 100 percent 100 percent

For Coca-Cola, the opposite has been true. The percentage of current assets to total assets has declined, while the proportion of non-current assets has climbed. In 2005, the proportion of current liabilities and total equity has increased, whilst the share of noncurrent liabilities has decreased (Weygandt, Kimmel, & Kieso, 2008).

The Coca-Cola Corporation

Amount in millions except 2005 2004 percentages

Assets

Active Assets

15.98% 21.33 % Cash and Cash Equivalents

Marketable Securities 0.22 percent 0.19 percent

Trade Accounts Receivable, Subtracting Allowances of $72 and $69, Respectively 7.75% 7.14%

Inventories 4.84% 4.52%

Other Assets and Prepaid Expenses 6.04 % 5.88 %

Total Current Assets 34.83% 39.06%

Investments

Equity Method Investments

Coca-Cola Enterprises Incorporation 5.88% 4.99%

The Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Corporation S.A. 3.53% 3.39%

Coca-Cola FEMSA, S.A. de C.V. 3.34% 2.52%

Coca-Cola Amatil Limited 2.54% 2.34%

Other, primarily bottling companies: 7.01 percent 5.51 percent

Cost Method Investments, primarily in bottling firms 1,22 % 1,13 %

Total Investments 23.52% 19.88%

Other Assets 9.0 percent 9.4 percent

Net Property, Plant and Equipment 19,66% 19,37%

6,61 % 6,48 % of all trademarks have a permanent existence

Goodwill 3.56% 3.49%

Other Intangible Assets 2.81 percent 2.23 percent

Total Assets 100.00% 100.00%

Liabilities and Equity of Shareholders

Current Liabilities

15.27% 14.0% Accounts Payable and Accrued Expenses

Loans and notes payable 15,35 percent 14.41 percent

Current Long-Term Debt Maturities 0.10 4.74%

Income Taxes Due 2,71 % 2,26 %

Total Current Liabilities 33.43% 35.41%

Long-Term Debt 3.92% 3.68%

Other Obligations 5,88% 8,95%

Income Taxes Deferred 1,20% 1,28%

Equity held by stockholders

Typical Shares 2,98% 2,78%

Capital Surplus 18.66% 15.67%

106.36% reinvested earnings 92.57%

Other Comprehensive Income (Loss) Accumulated -5.67 % -4.29 %

Treasury Stock -66.76 percent -56.0 percent

Total shareholder equity 55.58 percent 50.68 percent

Total Obligations and Shareholders' Equity 100 % 100 %

Comparative Horizontal Analysis of PepsiCo, Inc. and The Coca-Cola Company

Analysis horizontal of Income Statement

Comparing 2005 to 2004, the majority of the revenue statement items for PepsiCo International have increased significantly. The increase in operating costs has been offset by the increase in revenues; in fact, the increase in revenues exceeded the change in operating costs, resulting in an increase in the company's operating profits. In contrast, interest expense and income tax provision grew dramatically from 2004 to 2005, resulting in a fall in the company's net profits in 2005. (Weygandt, Kimmel, & Kieso, 2008).

PepsiCo Company, Inc.

Amount in millions unless expressed as a percentage

Net Revenue 11.28%

11.85% of Sales Cost

Expenses for selling, general and administrative functions 11.63%

2.04 % of intangible assets are amortized.

Costs of Restructuring and Impairment -100.00%

Transaction-Related Costs

12.61% Operating Profit

Revenue from bottling equity 46.58%

Interest Expense 53.29%

Interest Earnings 114,86%

15.07% of income from continuing operations prior to income taxes

67.93% Provision for income taxes

-2.30% loss in earnings from continuing operations

-100% Tax Benefit from Discontinued Operations

Net Income -3.18%

Horizontal investigation has revealed essentially comparable trends for Coca-Cola. Almost every line item on the 2005 income statement increased, with the exception of other operating expenses and gains on stock issuances by equity investees (Weygandt, Kimmel, & Kieso, 2008).

The Coca-Cola Corporation

Amount in millions unless expressed as a percentage

6.26 % of Net Operating Revenues

6.79% Cost of Goods Sold

Gross Revenue 5.98%

10.76% of selling, general, and administrative expenses

Other Operating Costs -82.29 percent

6.79% of Operating Income

Return on Investment 49.68%

Interest Expense 22.45%

Net Income from Equity – 9.50%

13.41% Net Other Loss

Gains on Stock Issuances by Equity Investors -4.17%

7.52 % of Income Prior to Income Taxes

32.22% Income Taxes

0.52 % of Net Revenue

Horizontal Balance Sheet Analysis

In 2005, PepsiCo Incorporated's balance sheet reveals a growth in the company's total assets. Current assets and intangible assets have experienced the greatest growth. On the other hand, the company's overall liabilities have increased significantly due to an increase in current obligations and deferred income taxes. In 2005, total equity also increased by 5.51 percent (Weygandt, Kimmel, & Kieso, 2008).

PepsiCo Company, Inc.

Amount in millions unless expressed as a percentage

Assets

Active Assets

Cash and Cash Equivalents 34.06 percent

Investing in Short-Term Assets 46,24 %

41.71%

Net Accounts Receivable and Notes Payable, 8.74%

Inventories 9.86%

Other Current Assets and Other Prepaid Expenses -5.50%

Total Current Assets 21.01%

Net Property, Plant, and Equipment, 6.53 percent

Net Amortization of Intangible Assets -11.37%

Goodwill 4.58%

16.40% Other Nonamortizable Intangible Assets

6.86% Nonamortizable Intangible Assets

Investing in Noncontrolling Affiliates 6.12%

Other Property 37.39%

Total Assets 13.36%

Liabilities and Equity of Shareholders

Current Liabilities

Financial Obligations 174.10%

6,64 % – Accounts Payable and Other Current Liabilities

Income Taxes Payable 451.52%

Total Current Liabilities 39.31%

Long Term Debt Obligations -3.50%

5.46 % Other Liabilities

17.93% Deferred Income Taxes

Total Liabilities 20.82%

Commitments and Uncertainties

Preferred Stock with No Par Value

Purchased 22.22% of Preferred Stock

Equity held in common by stockholders

0% Common Stock with a par value of 1 2/3 cents per share

Capital in excess of par value -0.65%

Retained Earnings 12.74%

18.85% Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss

11.98%

Less: Common Stock Repurchased at a Cost of 29.82%

5.51% of Total Common Stockholder Equity

Total Obligations and Shareholder Equity, 13.36%

Coca Cola's balance sheet reveals a fall in total assets, mostly attributable to decreases in current assets, property, plant, and equipment, and intangible assets. In 2005, however, both current and noncurrent liabilities have decreased. However, the company's total equity has increased slightly in 2005 as a result of an increase in capital surplus and reinvested earnings (Weygandt, Kimmel, & Kieso, 2008).

The Coca-Cola Corporation

Amount in millions unless expressed as a percentage

Assets

Active Assets

Cash and Cash Equivalents -29.99 percent

Investment Securities 8.20%

1.65% of $72 and $69 in Trade Accounts Receivable, Less Allowances

Inventories 0.28%

Expenses paid in advance and other assets -3.84%

Total Current Assets -16.54%

Investments

Method of Equity Investments

10.33% Coca-Cola Enterprises Incorporated

The Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Corporation S.A. -2.62%

Coca-Cola FEMSA, S.A. de C.V. 23.99%

Coca-Cola Amatil Limited 1.63%

Other, primarily bottling companies account for 18.98%

Cost Method Investments, primarily in bottling businesses 1.41%

Total Investments 10.72%

Other Assets -11.17 Percent

Net Property, Plant, and Equipment -5.01%

-4.47 % for trademarks with an infinite lifespan

Goodwill -4.56%

Other Intangible Assets Account for 17.95% of Total Assets

Total Assets -6.41%

Liabilities and Equity of Shareholders

Current Liabilities

2,04 % of Accounts Payable and Accrued Expenses

-0.29% Loans and Notes Payable

Current Long-Term Debt Maturities -98.12%

12.41% of Accrued Income Taxes

Total Current Liabilities -11.65%

Long-Term Debt -0.26%

Other Obligations -38.52%

-12.44 % Deferred Income Taxes

Equity held by stockholders

Common Stock 0.23 percent

Capital Surplus 11.44%

7,54 % Reinvestment of Earnings

Other Comprehensive Income (Loss) Accumulated 23.81%

Treasury Securities 11.46%

Total shareholder equity 2.64 percent

Total Obligations and Shareholders' Equity -6.41%

Recommendations to Enhance Financial Results

On the basis of the horizontal and vertical analyses offered in this study, it is suggested that PepsiCo International control its operating and non-operating expenses in order to increase its profitability. Since both revenue and expenses have increased similarly, the impact of the revenue rise has been insignificant. On the other hand, the company's management should also consider improving the balance sheet by controlling the ratio of total liabilities to total assets, because an increase in the ratio of total liabilities to total liabilities and equity indicates that liabilities cover a greater proportion of the company's total assets. In contrast, an examination of Coca Cola's income statement and balance sheet reveals good performance trends. However, based on the findings of the horizontal analysis, it is advised that minor increases in the company's operations and other costs be taken into account.

Bibliography

Weygandt, J., Kimmel, D., & Kieso, E. (2008). Financial Reporting Hoboken: Wiley.

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Visionary Leadership Styles Of Steve Jobs And Tim Cook Best Essay Help

Abstract

Leadership styles are tailored to the demands and circumstances of the moment. Leadership is more concerned with the needs of the people and the organization than with their own. The purpose of leadership is to steer the group toward an agreed vision. Visionary leaders foster an environment conducive to creativity, the exchange of ideas, and constructive organizational change. In the competitive corporate environment of the twenty-first century, leadership should encourage affiliation and democratize the management of the organization, as well as promote teamwork, harmony, and ensure that people are connected. The following study examined the leadership styles of Apple executives Steve Jobs and Tim Cook.

A cross-sectional study design was employed in order to get insight into the leadership. The study utilized secondary data gathered through data mining of purposefully selected databases and management organizations. To examine the hypotheses, a quantitative assessment method was used. The findings of the study indicated that leadership style has an effect on the organization's performance.

For instance, it was discovered that effective leadership was connected with job happiness, which in turn contributed to Apple's excellent return on assets. Additionally, good leadership was associated with high earnings and efficient resource utilization. In conclusion, strong leadership enables an organization to manage risks and uncertainties and develop a competitive advantage.

Introduction

Overview

This chapter discusses the study's background, problem statement, research aims, hypotheses, and importance.

Introduction to the study

Leadership is crucial to the success of any business, regardless of its field of production. Individuals, groups, and the entire company are better able to adjust to new circumstances and enjoy the status quo when led by an exceptional leader. Change is a significant obstacle for many firms; consequently, effective leadership is necessary to ensure that employees can adapt to the new work demands. In contemporary firms, leaders are expected to be imaginative and extremely informed, as these traits will assist them to thrive in a highly competitive corporate climate (Maxwell 2007).

In order to establish groups of employees who are committed to the organization's goals, leadership should capitalize on employees' expertise and skill. According to Bernard (2003), the success of an organization is contingent on employees' dedication to its aims. Apple Company leads the technology industry in terms of service delivery and service quality. Steve Jobs developed and managed the company; he was regarded as a visionary leader with exceptional leadership and managerial abilities. Innovation is one of the company's defining characteristics.

The success of the corporation, which has dominated the technology market for a number of years, has been attributed to Steve Jobs' leadership characteristics. As a leader, he established a number of tactics for guiding the organization to the next frontier (Keller 2006).

The primary objective of the study was to investigate how strong leadership can contribute to an organization's success. Effective leadership is the foundation of any company, and it is the key to the organization's success (Schuttler & Burdick, 2010). A leader with vision prioritizes the success and development of the organization. This is accomplished by combining leadership and management skills. This study identified leadership-related characteristics based on an explicit examination of the current literature.

According to Keller (2006), effective leadership is being inclusive and permitting followers to participate in the organization's decision-making process. In addition, the leader is responsible for conducting training programs to keep followers abreast of corporate developments (Malik, Danish & Munir 2012). A successful leader also promotes innovation within the firm and rewards the followers for their hard work (Sipe & Frick 2009).

A leader is responsible for evaluating the performance of followers within an organization and rewarding them in accordance with their contributions (Kolenda 2001). It is also the leader's responsibility to establish company standards and goals that must be met by all followers (Watson 2006). Additionally, the leader mitigates risks inside the firm by distributing resources effectively to achieve the desired outcomes. Continuously teaching the organization's followers to increase innovation within the organization increases the organization's productivity.

Description of the problem

Several research have been conducted on the relationship between leadership styles and their effects on organizational performance. Leadership techniques and managers' perceptions play a significant effect in job satisfaction (Rothfelder, Ottenbacher & Harrington 2012). Successful organizations typically implement strategies that promote organizational growth and employee job satisfaction.

According to Burke (2001), job satisfaction involves the general contentment of all employees and upper management. Even though there have been several studies conducted on leadership, most have been broad in nature and focused on specific leadership types, such as transformational and transactional leadership. Therefore, the purpose of the following research was to investigate the leadership styles, focusing primarily on the profiles of Steve Jobs and Tim Cook at Apple Company. The Apple case study plays a crucial role in ensuring that managers comprehend leadership styles that can boost the productivity of their staff and, as a result, implement strategic strategies to get a competitive advantage.

Adetule (2011) remarked that Apple's success can be attributed to Steve Jobs's effective leadership tactics. Steve Jobs did not complete his official education; he was not a "A" student. Thus, the study examined the organization's performance in relation to leadership styles and the organization's success. The focus of the study was Apple Company, which operates in the private sector. Consequently, there is still a deficiency in connection to public institutions, where bureaucracy leadership is prevalent. However, the research produced a framework that serves as the foundation for organizational leadership styles.

The aims of the study

Leadership comprises influencing individuals and guiding an organization to maximize production, which is the foundation of successful leadership (Batool 2013). An effective leader must be able to adapt to workplace issues and explain the organization's objectives. The goal of the study was to investigate the functions of top management's leadership style and its impact on Apple Company's performance under the direction of Steve and Tim. Consequently, the precise aims of the study included:

To study critically the relationship between leadership style and employee motivation in an organization. Evaluate critically the relationship between visionary and transformational leadership and the influence on the organization's ability to create a competitive advantage. Evaluating the relationship between visionary leadership and organizational productivity by analyzing the case of Apple Company under the leadership of Steve Jobs and Tim Cook.

Theoretical Hypotheses

In order to achieve the aforementioned aims and investigate the observed relationship between leadership and organizational success, the following hypotheses were developed and tested:

There is a positive association between leadership style and the motivation and job happiness of employees. There is a link between visionary leadership and transformative leadership styles, according to Hypothesis 2. There is a correlation between visionary leadership and the development of a competitive advantage within a firm. The association between visionary leadership and an organization's production is good. There is a favorable association between visionary leadership and the profitability and return on assets of a firm. H6: There is a favorable correlation between visionary leadership and an organization's capacity to manage risk and uncertainty. There is a correlation between visionary leadership and efficient resource management.

Justification of the research

Several studies have been conducted on the relationship between leadership styles and their effects on the success of an organization. For example, research has revealed inconsistencies between transformational and transactional leadership. Some research reveal a significant association between transformational leadership style and not transactional leadership style (Allen and Wilburn 2002). Nevertheless, the conclusions are not conclusive, as the collected data indicate that despite the leadership style, several firms nevertheless achieve a notable level of performance.

The degree of an organization's performance and its manageability in the face of competition are typically affected by leadership that is seen as proficient (Kang & Singh 2006). The study provided a basic evaluation of whether the leadership style advocated by Steve Jobs and Tim Cook was adequate for Apple Inc. The study's conclusions are extremely valuable to policymakers. They will expose policymakers to various aspects of leadership and change management. Thus, the study enables managers and policymakers within firms to implement situationally appropriate tactics. The findings of this study also contribute to the body of knowledge regarding the utility of effective leadership styles gleaned from similar research.

The Range of the Study

The success of a company can be evaluated by employee dedication and work satisfaction. Job satisfaction is a favorable emotional state that results from a positive work experience. According to Johnson (2007), leadership influences the attitude of employees towards the organization. In addition, leadership is a crucial predictor of an organization's performance methods and tactics.

The research was conducted in accordance with its primary purpose, which was to determine the value of strong leadership to an organization's performance. Utilizing secondary data and statistical methods, the variables linked to the research objectives were examined and explained. Consequently, the focus of the study was on the leadership styles of Steve Jobs and Tim Cook.

Organization of the Dissertation

The dissertation is divided into five chapters. Chapter I is the introduction and provides an overview of the entire dissertation, the backdrop of the study, the problem statement that focuses on the issues and relevance of the investigation, the objectives of the study, the research hypotheses, and the rationale for the study. In addition, this chapter includes a discussion of the research's scope and the dissertation's organization.

Chapter II presents a literature review discussing the concept of leadership, the relationship between leadership and management as presented in the scholarly literature, leadership traits, the models of leadership, leadership styles and their impact on performance, the relationship between leadership and organizational goals, as well as the steps necessary to set appropriate goals for the organization. The chapter also addresses leadership theories and focuses on innovative leadership, using Steve Jobs as an example of a visionary leader.

The third chapter analyzes the research methodology and describes the sample tactics, data collection methods, and data analysis procedures. The discussion and analysis of the study's findings are provided in Chapter IV. This chapter focuses mostly on the statistical analysis and interpretation of data linked to the study challenge and hypothesis. Chapter V is the conclusion, and it contains not only conclusions regarding the study's findings, but also recommendations for addressing the research issue. Finally, the learning statement is presented to explain the findings from a learning viewpoint.

Literature Review

Introduction

This section evaluates previous studies that examined leadership styles, theories, and applications within companies. The section focuses primarily on evaluating how visionary leadership has been implemented in various organizations to develop and enforce changes. In addition, it discusses major factors and concepts that cover the restorative system and the various ways in which they pertain to the topic. This study drew its information from reliable sources, primarily previous works. Particular attention has been paid to earlier studies published in books, journals, and peer-reviewed publications. The standards for merging emerald knowledge, leadership, and business diaries were requested by a number of important databases.

Leadership and Administration

Leadership is a phenomenon that cannot be precisely defined or explained (Gratton & Jones, 2004). Numerous academics have investigated the distinctions between leadership and management. According to Gratton and Jones (2004), the organizational culture is responsible for the conflict between leadership and management. Leadership shapes and alters the culture of any organization. Alternatively, management affairs pertain to the improvement of the organization. Consequently, the discussions reveal a wide range of leadership and management behaviors (Avolio, Walumbwa & Weber 2009).

Capitalist economic organizations have investigated the relationship between leadership and management. The purpose of comparing and contrasting the functions of the leader and the manager is to demonstrate their contrasts. While the leader is the pioneer, the director is the administrator; the leader generates the concept which is then implemented by the director. The responsibility of the leader is to seek new initiatives, whereas that of the manager is to maintain the current venture.

The leader focuses on the people everywhere, whereas the manager establishes organizational structures. A leader will make the best decision, whereas a supervisor will make the best decision. A leader establishes the organizational culture, whereas a manager acts within it. This alone proves that leadership is qualitatively distinct from management. Due to the fact that leadership differs from area to field, there is no widely accepted definition of leadership (Gratton & Jones 2004).

Leadership Features

The role of a leader in a company is to instill confidence in the personnel. Additionally, the leader has the ability to reshape the entire organization according to his vision and desire. The leader's activities empower the rest of the group, making it feasible for them to learn new ideas and concepts (Wanasika 2009). In an organization, the leader initiates any change process before the rest of the members. The original meaning of leadership focused on a person's personality, whereas the modern definition focuses on their ability to influence others.

The definition of leadership varies from organization to organization due to the fact that leadership is a broad concept that is acknowledged globally. Since the early 1990s, there has been a restriction linked with the leadership research conducted. This limitation has been linked to the fact that leadership experts and leaders themselves have been unable to provide an appropriate universal definition of leadership (Abbas & Asghar 2010).

The act of convincing others to follow a particular trend is leadership. It also requires the leadership to provide direction and influence. Therefore, the actions that come with leadership include: guiding, influencing, overseeing, commanding, directing, and controlling (Avery 2004). The leader has the challenge of innovating creative

Zara Company’s Strategic Issues In 2013 Best Essay Help

Executive synopsis

The report includes a case study analysis of Zara (Inditex). The company has been operating in the apparel business for many years and has achieved an excellent market position. Adoption of an effective business model and implementation of successful operational techniques have contributed to its success. The report focuses on a variety of topics, including an overview of the business environment by analyzing both the macro and local business environments. The purpose of this report is to gain a comprehensive understanding of Zara's internal and external operating environment. Consequently, the firm's management team will be able to apply the most effective tactics to increase the likelihood of future success. The report is divided into various sections. The first section describes the objective of the investigation. The second section provides a detailed study of the firm's competitive environment and strategic challenges.

Zara's industry is evaluated using a variety of models, including as the PEST, Porter's five forces, and the ILC. The second step is a thorough internal audit of Zara (Inditex). The audit is conducted by assessing the organization's financial and resource capabilities. Several financial ratios are employed to demonstrate the firm's financial health. Financial strength ratios, profitability ratios, efficiency ratios, and managerial efficiency ratios are among the ratios evaluated. The audit also evaluates the value chain links inside the organization, the leadership style employed, the power and politics within the organization, and the decision-making procedure.

In the third section, a study of Zara's public relations problem and stakeholder difficulties, as well as their influence on its corporate reputation and brand equity, is presented. Organizational ethics theory, corporate social responsibility and stakeholder applications, and reputation management principles are among the factors considered. Finally, a summary of the potential strategic options for the company is undertaken. The summary incorporates the STAIR model, which examines the selected strategic option's applicability, acceptability, and practicability. In addition, a number of recommendations for the company to consider in its pursuit of competitive advantage in the global garment market are presented. According to the study completed, Zara has a strong chance of achieving success if it implements the indicated strategic options. These alternatives include product creation, diversification of the market, and market consolidation. This will increase the likelihood of the company's long-term success.

Introduction

Zara-Inditex has established a distinct market niche for its fashion brand over the years it has been in existence. To maintain its growth in 2013, Zara will need to be aware of the current business climate. This paper examines the competitive factors and strategic concerns that the company will encounter throughout its fiscal year of 2013. Using the right organizational and strategic models, a strategic internal audit of the company is undertaken. The research also identifies Zara's external stakeholder concerns. Conduct a thorough examination of the identified issues' impact on the company's corporate reputation and brand equity. Finally, a summary of the strategic alternatives that Zara should consider is identified and assessed. Outlined are recommendations that the company should examine in order to maintain its future position in the industry.

Competitive analysis and strategic considerations

PEST analysis

Changes in the external business environment have direct or indirect effects on businesses. Therefore, it is essential for organizational managers to acquire a broad awareness of the industry in which they operate. This objective can be accomplished by combining multiple models, such as the PEST model. The PEST model assesses the political, economic, social, and technological environment of a business. Companies are not immune to changes in the external business environment. Following is a PEST analysis of the political, economic, social, and technical variables influencing the global fashion business.

Political issues impact company operations both directly and indirectly due to the fact that governments create laws and policies that have varying effects on business operations. Import and export laws enacted by separate governments have an impact on companies in the global garment business. Such laws include trade restrictions and taxation policies, as examples. These laws and policies may have an impact on the competitiveness of garment sector businesses. For instance, the majority of enterprises in the garment industry import the necessary raw materials. The implementation of such policies may hinder the company's capacity to maximize its output.

The prevalent political stability on a global scale will also impact fashion companies' efforts to grow into overseas markets. Despite the enormous market potential of certain nations, their significant political risk poses a threat to the viability of businesses. Consequently, the political environment will impact the globalization initiatives of companies like Zara.

In addition, the rapid rate of climate change witnessed today has prompted countries to implement rules aimed at protecting the environment. An example of such regulation is the carbon footprinting policy, which aims to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

The United Kingdom is ranked as one of Europe's developed economies. As a result, consumer income levels are rather high. Nonetheless, the current global economic climate is anticipated to impact the company's competitiveness during its 2013 fiscal year. The recent global economic slowdown is one of the elements that will influence the garment sector. The global economic situation is marked by a high degree of unpredictability, which has contributed to a drop in consumer confidence. In 2012, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) performed a research which indicated that consumer confidence remains low despite indicators of countries achieving full economic recovery (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development 2012). The Euro Zone's current debt crisis is anticipated to have a negative impact on the garment industry in the Euro Zone.

Many customers in the region are contemplating modifying their purchase patterns due to the high level of economic uncertainty. Various governments are implementing measures to combat the situation. However, consumer confidence remained low in January 2013 at -23.9. (Spier 2013). Consumers are shifting their spending away from luxury and toward needs. If the situation does not improve, there is a probability that Zara's sales revenue will decrease. Zara has established a policy of low pricing in the course of its operations. This has been essential in the company's efforts to attract consumers. The majority of European Union consumers can afford Zara's merchandise. Consequently, the company has been able to cultivate a positive public image throughout the community. Despite the economic developments in the EU zone, there is a possibility that Zara will see growth in 2013. This is due to the fact that consumers are enjoying fashion products more and more.

The garment business is labor-intensive rather than technology-intensive. However, the sector has witnessed an increase in the incorporation of novel technologies. Among the technologies incorporated is the creation of software (Computer-Aided Design) that facilitates designing and patternmaking. The computerization of sewing machines, which is projected to increase production, is one of the additional innovations that will transform the business. Zara must ensure it builds a competitive advantage by investing in emerging fashion technologies in order to survive in this business. For instance, the company must ensure that all of its procurement and supply chain processes are entirely automated. In order to increase its supply chain competitiveness, Zara should include information technology innovations such as internet and social networks into its marketing activities (Dasgupta 2013). Additionally, the company should explore enhancing its production technology by employing computer-aided design and bar coding.

The five forces of Porter's five forces model

Customers' impact on a company's profitability is determined by the bargaining power of purchasers (Hill & Jones 2010). Since 2012, buyer negotiating strength has been moderate in the global garment business. As domestic and international rivalry increases, Zara will have to contend with a potential increase in buyer bargaining power in the course of its operations (Morrison 2006). To thrive in a highly competitive business, enterprises in the garment industry should consider product line expansion, process innovation, value engineering, and marketing innovation, as shown in appendix 5. In order to establish client loyalty, it is also vital for businesses to focus on how to develop distinct and differentiated products (Rickman & Robert 2007).

A sporadic supply of raw materials is one of the greatest obstacles facing fabric makers in the twenty-first century (The Manufacturing Institute 2009). In the garment sector, supplier bargaining strength ranges from moderate to high. This offers a significant operational problem for fashion apparel companies. This is due to the fact that the company's competitive position will decline.

The industry is characterized by relatively limited bargaining power among suppliers. This is a result of the disparity between the number of suppliers and customers. Despite this, Zara has been able to differentiate itself by procuring a substantial percentage of its raw materials (40%) internally, thereby reducing its need on external suppliers.

The major brands, such as Zara, H&M, GAP, and other huge department shops, have continued to dominate the fashion industry in Europe (Brooks, Weatherston & Wilkinson 2004). This has left a little amount of the industry's revenue for new entrants, so substantially diminishing the threat of entry. The threat posed by new entrants to the industry is moderate. It will be necessary for new entrants to create a sturdy infrastructure, operational superiority, and increase their strategic market expertise, which is a monumental undertaking (Salvatore 2006).

Due to the vast number of competitors on the worldwide market, the fashion business is characterized by a high level of substitution danger. However, Zara has effectively mitigated the threat of substitutes by ensuring that its products are distinctively defined, fashionable, difficult to replicate, and priced affordably.

The industry's competitiveness stems from both domestic and international industry participants. GAP, Hennes & Mauritz, Topshop by Arcadia Group, JTX, Fast Retailing, and Benetton are among the company's primary competitors (Cartner-Morley 2013). The large number of industry participants has contributed to a rise in industry concentration (Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson 2009). In an effort to combat competitive competition, Zara has implemented an effective business strategy, which has resulted in the development of a sufficient competitive advantage, so enabling it to meet the needs of its target market (Marchand 2000).

Theory of industry life cycle

The theory posits that a variety of industry factors, including degree of concentration, number of industry participants, level of innovation, pricing, and performance as the sector ages, characterize a specific industry (Cusumano, Kahl & Suarez 2006). Regarding the number of companies, the industry continues to experience a rise in the number of industry participants. Due to its rapid expansion, industry competition is well-established (Yoo 2000). Since 1999, consumers' total spending on fashion products has climbed by an average of 3.3% yearly, as shown in appendix 1. (British Fashion Council 2011).

The three principal competitors, Benetton, The GAP, and H&M, have maintained a tighter vertical scope (Campbell & Craig 2005). In addition, the majority of companies have made substantial investments in their production processes to achieve competitiveness.

Conclusion

To combat the high rate of industry concentration, the company has committed itself to achieving a significant competitive advantage by entering the international market. As seen in appendix 4, this has greatly enhanced the company's performance over the past two years.

The analysis undertaken demonstrates the dynamic character of the global fashion sector. Therefore, organizations in this industry must implement effective operational methods to be successful. To cope with the frequent changes occurring in the industry, it is essential for enterprises in the sector to regularly scan the surrounding environment in order to develop the most effective strategy for addressing industry changes.

Strategic internal assessment of the issues confronting Zara

Financial evaluation of assets

The 2007/2008 financial crisis impacted the majority of companies (Johnson, Scholes & Whittington 2008). Despite this, Zara has achieved a high level of operational efficiency in comparison to its biggest competitors, like Maximo Dutti, Pull & Bear, and Bershka. During the 2012 fiscal year, Zara was able to amass a substantial amount of profit, totaling 1,8 billion Euros. This reflects an increase of 11% in comparison to the previous fiscal year. In 2011, the company opened more than two hundred new outlets across the globe. Europe has remained one of Zara's top regions of focus. Seventy percent (70%) of the company's overall sales are earned in Europe (Inditex 2011).

During the first nine months of 2012, Zara's net sales climbed by 17% to 11,362 million Euros, as opposed to 2011, when net sales totaled 9,709 million Euros (Gallaugher 2008). On the other side, the company's gross profit margin improved by 19%, from 5,785 million Euros to 6,865 million Euros. Zara's Earnings before Interest, Tax, and Depreciation grew by a margin of 25% throughout the same year.

Key numbers in millions of Euros

Year 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008

Net sales 11,362 9,709 12,257 11,804 10,408

gross margin profit 6 875 5 784 7 422 6 328 5 914

EBITDA 2,778 2,217 2,966 2,374 2,187

Income net 1 655 1 302 1 732 1 314 1 255

The source: (Inditex 2012).

From 2008 to 2010, Appendix 6 displays Zara's financial performance. It is obvious from the graph that Zara's 2011 financial performance is significantly worse than its 2010 performance. One of the reasons for the fall is the present Euro Zone crisis, which has prompted consumers to divert their spending to needs. However, the following figure demonstrates Zara's performance despite the adverse economic climate, which included the worldwide economic recessions of 2007-2008 and the sovereign debt crisis. Therefore, Zara's chances of success in the European market are excellent.

Zara has demonstrated ideal financial performance in the UK apparel business over the past year. During its 2012 fiscal year, for instance, Zara's price to earnings ratio averaged 28.4 times, which is relatively high compared to industry norms. On the other side, the price to sales ratio of the companies was 4.2. A better price-to-sales ratio resulted from the implementation of an optimized business model. Additionally, the firm's price to cash flow ratio was 3.9, which demonstrates the firm's ability to generate cash flow (Prezi 2012).

During its 2012 fiscal year, Zara's sales jumped by 16%, while its earnings before interest and taxes increased by 24%. On the contrary,

The Effects Of Sustained Cognitive Dissonance And Perceived Inequity On Employees Best Essay Help

Introduction

Since its introduction by Festinger, the idea of cognitive dissonance has gained significant acceptance in numerous domains involving human behavior patterns. The notion was eventually extended to organizational research, where it gave various advantages connected with changes in employee motivation, engagement, and behavioral patterns. Leadership has been a particularly fruitful topic for cognitive dissonance research, both because leaders are very susceptible to experiencing cognitive dissonance and because cognitive dissonance can have a variety of negative implications on their professional performance (Verma & Anand, 2014). Nevertheless, despite its obvious relevance to the field of cognitive dissonance in leaders, the topic remains under-researched, and many of the existing studies on the subject deviate significantly from academic concepts and lack precision in definitions, rendering the obtained results unreliable or obsolete (Hinojosa, Gardner, Walker, Cogliser, & Gullifor, 2017). Researchers have recently shown a growing interest in the topic, but the existing data is insufficient to draw any useful conclusions. To confuse matters further, some academics propose the possibility of cognitive dissonance's positive benefits, which can be considered relevant once their implications are validated by valid data (Adams, 2016). In conclusion, exploratory research in the field of cognitive dissonance can yield significant results and is necessary to guide future studies and identify possible areas of interest.

Rationale

The modern organizational culture is primarily reliant upon innovation. Innovative ideas that are properly implemented are known for their capacity to promote and retain competitive advantage, boost and maintain the required level of production, and increase organizational and individual efficiency. However, the innovation process is significantly related with resistance to change and an overall rise in employee stress (Verma & Anand, 2014). Leaders are not immune to this effect, as organizational transformation may conflict with their personal and professional ideals. Given that they are expected to motivate their team to engage in activities that may not necessarily align with their views and values, the likelihood of cognitive dissonance is enhanced. According to various sources, such a situation can lead to a disruption in organizational performance, a decrease in individual engagement, a loss of motivation among the leader's team, and an increase in employee attrition (Wicklund & Brehm, 2013). Intriguingly, there is evidence that these effects can be mitigated through the deliberate effort of the affected party. For instance, if cognitive dissonance effects are noticed and treated promptly, they can be leveraged to achieve improvement, according to some experts (Adams, 2016). Unfortunately, neither of the identified benefits has been thoroughly researched to be implemented in reality, and the majority of the extant literature on the subject is only marginally related to the leadership field directly. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study that directly addresses the outlined issues in order to gain a better understanding of the topic, including the most likely causes of cognitive dissonance, its precise effects on leaders and their teams, and the potential means of mitigating its negative effects. In addition, the research would enable us to identify the relevance of existing findings from areas marginally connected to the topic, allowing us to use them to establish direction and formulate questions for future research in the field of leadership.

Object of the Study

The goal of this study is to establish a connection between inner conflict and cognitive dissonance in leaders, to determine its impacts on leaders' teams, and to propose conscious effort-based strategies for mitigating these effects. A descriptive study was chosen as an appropriate research strategy since it allows for relative flexibility in the investigation process. A qualitative survey was used as the data collection method. The survey contains both open-ended and closed-ended questions to ensure that any issues missed during the design phase can be identified during analysis. The study will be conducted using an online tool with basic analytical capabilities, which is anticipated to reduce the time required for analysis without compromising the accuracy of the results, maximize participant convenience, and protect the anonymity and confidentiality of the data.

The planned study's findings are mostly exploratory in nature. Consequently, its primary objective is to enhance the present understanding of cognitive dissonance in leaders and its widespread implications on organizational culture. This would allow future researchers to acquire a clearer direction for their studies and a better understanding of the significance of particular components of cognitive dissonance in the workplace. Lastly, it is likely that the data analysis may disclose previously unnoticed concerns that require additional investigation.

Literature Review

The success of leaders in the workplace is dependent on their emotional condition to some degree. From a strictly psychological standpoint, an individual's confidence, engagement, and determination depend on their emotions, with negative emotions inevitably resulting in decreased productivity. However, the influence is larger for the leaders because one of their responsibilities is to set an example for the team. Clearly, when leaders are experiencing positive emotions, the results of their efforts are much more evident. In addition, teams with optimistic leaders are more willing to engage in problem-solving activities and hard tasks, producing greater results (Noruzy, Dalfard, Azhdari, Nazari-Shirkouhi, & Rezazadeh, 2013). Lastly, the positive attitude communicated by the leaders enhances the team's trust, reduces the blame culture, and encourages collaboration and openness.

Cognitive dissonance is a known component that affects an individual's emotional state. Furthermore, it has a negative impact on the decision-making capacity of leaders, both as a result of the eroded confidence and the internal conflict of values that disrupts decision clarity. Similarly, cognitive dissonance effects the leader's and team members' trust. It introduces doubt on the conscious level by confounding communication. It can generate an image of insincerity and exacerbate or instigate interpersonal conflicts within the team. Simply said, cognitive dissonance has a profoundly detrimental influence on a leader's assigned team.

The purpose of the following literature review is to get the most recent information on cognitive dissonance and its characteristics. The report then discusses its consequences on individuals, groups, and social contexts. It concludes by discussing the most probable effects cognitive dissonance may have in the workplace.

Dissonance Cognitive Introduction

Dreaming and having lofty goals are key to achieving success in life. Imagination and ambition are being fostered in children from a young age to guarantee that they serve as a source of inspiration and creativity throughout their lives. At the same time, however, the process of maturation necessarily reshapes one's conceptions of the desired outcomes, primarily by introducing previously overlooked constraints. Moreover, the social aspect of human activity adds the factors that determine what constitutes "appropriate behavior." Individuals adapt to their environment by applying this frame of reference to their new thoughts and objectives. This, according to Warren and Hale (2016), is a safety measure. Specifically, humans would rather achieve a reasonable result without facing chances of failure than gamble and expect a larger gain. In addition, this gives protection against shame stemming from peers' reactions to interpreting an improbable opportunity as real and realizable (Lerner, Li, Valdesolo, & Kassam, 2015). In other words, individuals exercise conformity to assure their acceptance in a social milieu where norms play a significant role. Despite the obvious benefits of such an approach, there are several examples of people obtaining exceptional accomplishments despite the common assumption that their objectives are unattainable and belong to the realm of fantasy. Cognitive dissonance serves as a technique of keeping inspiration without surrendering social standing in this setting. Understanding cognitive dissonance can so show not just its negative characteristics but also methods for coping with them.

Definition

Cognitive dissonance, according to the most prevalent description, is a sensation of discomfort that occurs when people receive knowledge that contradicts their previous beliefs, ideas, or ideals (Festinger, 1957). Importantly, both the initial and new information must be convincing enough for the individual to accept them as true as opposed to rejecting them. Every time this conflict arises, the individual experiences psychological distress that disappears when the dissonance is resolved (Wicklund & Brehm, 2013). According to Festinger (1957), the individual's determination to end the conflict is mostly driven by this sensation of discomfort. Dismissing a discordant condition is the most well-known method for doing so. However, it can also be accomplished by weighting and assigning value to the dissonant cognitions, or by adding cognitions that reinforce the position of one of the contending beliefs in order to diminish the value of the competing one (Chang, Solomon, & Westerfield, 2016).

The discomfort caused by cognitive dissonance is experienced regardless of the potential of negative outcomes. In other words, people are hesitant to participate in unusual or contradictory activity, even when there appears to be no foreseeable harm (Harmon-Jones, Brehm, Greenberg, Simon, & Nelson, 1996). Therefore, the presence of contradictory ideas is sufficient to produce cognitive dissonance, although the fear of a negative consequence is optional.

The basis of the concept

From a historical standpoint, the concept of cognitive dissonance can be traced back to Freud's ideas. One of the fundamental tenets of Freud's writings is that the pursuit of personal desires is one of the key subconscious motivators of human conduct (Weiner, 2013). The impact of unfulfilled wants builds in the sub-conscious and continues to influence the individual's life without being recognized. In many instances, these traumatic memories carry a disproportionate amount of weight and may dominate the decision-making process. Since the driving force is the avoidance of the negative rather than the pursuit of the positive, it also means that a positive resolution is less likely. Most of the time, these unmet requirements are invisible absent a specific effort. Once individuals are aware of their unmet needs, they can exert greater control and intentionally pursue change by focusing on the areas in which the discomfort can be addressed most effectively.

Internal strife

Festinger's concept of internal conflict is another significant addition to the theory of cognitive dissonance (1957). Festinger (1957) defines cognitive dissonance as the uncomfortable emotion that results from contradictory thoughts. Importantly, the individual does not directly acknowledge these ideas; instead, they generate dissonance without being critically analyzed and rationally processed, similar to the unmet wants outlined previously. One of the most well-recognized sources of internal conflict is the confrontation between preexisting conceptions (often but not always formed early in life) and newly received knowledge that is equally supported and/or convincing. Nevertheless, it is equally likely to result from socially unacceptable behavior or the transgression of socially imposed standards or expectations. The cumulative effect of cognitive dissonance depends not only on the magnitude of any two contradictory ideas, but also on the number of conflicts experienced over time (Gamble & Gamble, 2013). As with Freud's description of unmet demands, awareness of internal conflicts affords the individual the option to redirect his or her behaviors and consciously confront the conflict with the purpose of enhancing the emotional state.

Cognitive dissonance is a state rather than a discrete entity, and although it resides in the subconscious, it may be effectively handled with conscious effort, as evidenced by the facts presented above. For a person in a position of leadership, this possibility becomes an essential aspect of professional activity, especially because it has a substantial impact on the decision-making process that affects the consequences for others. For example, some internal conflicts can originate and maintain positive behavior, whereas a string of poor judgments or incorrect actions might accumulate and finally acquire a self-fulfilling nature. On a surface level, affected persons will receive repeated affirmations of their incompetence, lack of proficiency, or "bad luck," resulting in a vicious spiral. However, if they recognize the existence of unmet demands and internal conflicts, they are able to address the conflicts and improve the situation for themselves and, in the case of leaders, their teams. Importantly, the interpretation of the reasons of the conflict and the associated components demands a comprehensive study of the subject because the majority of variables vary dependent on the personal traits and individual experiences of the individuals involved (Willingham, 2014).

Harmonic reduction

Once the dissonance is recognized and adequately comprehended, it can be diminished. According to Festinger (1957), this can be accomplished through either the elimination of behaviors that contradict established ideas or the examination and modification of beliefs in an effort to bring them into concordance with the desired behavior. An individual who believes in a particular virtue (such as trust among peers) and discovers that this value conflicts with the requirements of their employment environment is the simplest example (e.g. the necessity to report the violation of safety conditions by a co-worker). In this circumstance, the person may interpret the report as "snitching," which is a clear breach of trust. Consequently, two outcomes are feasible. The individual may reevaluate their trust criteria, compare them to the rationale behind the practice of reporting violations, find the latter to be more convincing, conclude that their previous notions of trust are obsolete or incompatible with reality, and adopt the newly introduced reporting behavior. This would be an instance of adapting beliefs to the required behavior. Alternately, the individual may find the demand irreconcilable with their moral code and opt to withhold the information, therefore defying the directive but maintaining their personal integrity. In this scenario, behaviors are modified to alleviate the subject's distress caused by actions that disagree with his or her values and beliefs. The individual will continue to suffer discomfort until a resolution is reached, which will encourage them to reach a meaningful conclusion.

In addition to a conclusive resolution, the dissonance can be reduced by justification and denial, among other strategies. Those with a subliminal yearning for power, for instance, may experience frustration upon realizing their inability to exercise authority over others or attain the social standing that would allow them to do so. Consequently, they may begin to view power as "corrupting" and unworthy of pursuit. They subsequently begin (often subliminally) seeking information that confirms their belief (Ravven, 2013). At the same time, conflicting evidence is either disregarded or aggressively contested. By doing

Corporate Reporting: Saudi Arabia-Based Corporations Best Essay Help

Introduction

Despite the availability of numerous models, the majority of company organizations experience difficulties with corporate reporting, notably Saudi Arabian businesses. Annual reports have remained a cornerstone of business reporting for decades. Numerous changes throughout the years have made it difficult for the majority of corporate organizations to conduct regular reporting (Davidson & Trueblood, 1961). Technology and information, as well as social expectations, have undergone profound changes. The rapid development of technology has affected the methods for communicating vital information and data inside organizational settings. The willingness of top management to accept responsibility for the report's contents is a crucial feature of a credible corporate report (Jenkins, 1994; Roberts et al., 2005). Such activities are crucial for instilling confidence in the reporting tactics and report contents among users. Critically, the use of independent assurance in corporate reports is essential for strengthening the credibility of such reports. The Jenkins model provides the most efficient methods for promoting effective reporting. This article will examine the corporate reporting problems faced by Saudi-based firms in light of the chosen model.

Business Reporting

Corporate reporting outlines the presentation and disclosure aspects of reporting, such as integrated and financial reporting, corporate governance, and corporate responsibility, among others. The worldwide standard incorporates both obligatory and voluntary disclosures to enhance the value for business stakeholders. Typically, organizational communication is undertaken for numerous purposes, such as delivering pertinent information to various kinds of stakeholders so they can make informed investment or credit decisions (Munter & Robinson, 1999; Sorrentino & Smarra, 2015). It also allows stakeholders to analyze the risks connected with the net cash flows and provides an overview of the general performance of these businesses. The rapid development of technology also makes available to investors a variety of data concerning companies of interest (Weiss & Nusbaum, 1994; Jenkins, 1994). Accounting professionals should assist in filtering such data to obtain the most relevant information. In this context, the chief executive is primarily responsible for ensuring the timely dissemination of vital information, rather than waiting for investors or other interested parties to request it.

Commercial Reporting

Company reporting is essential for the efficient operation of business organizations. It explains the procedure for providing an overview of the corporation's progress in all organizational areas (Weiss & Nusbaum, 1994). They steer the decision-making process in order to provide stakeholders with a comprehensive view of the internal resource management efficiencies. Compiling and assessing organizational data pertaining to diverse departmental areas such as sales, inventory regulation, operation, sales, and finance is required for reporting (Roberts et al., 2005). These reports are valuable guides for company stakeholders regarding the expenditures, profitability, and expansion of corporate organizations. Moreover, business reports are valuable for constructing an audit trail of corporate activities such as annual budgeting, sales volume, and other planning activities (May 1943). The reports serve as management tools that enable benchmarking operations by comparing the corporation's performance to that of its competitors in the same industry.

Aspects of Selected Commercial Organizations

Al Abdullatif Industrial Investment Company is the entity 1 (AIIC)

It is one of the leading companies that deals with a variety of products, including carpets with integrated components. The company specializes mostly in Polypropylene, Polyester, nylon wool, viscose, and acrylic. The company is ranked among the world's top carpet manufacturers. Utilizing new technology in the production of high-quality goods, the business strategy emphasizes the necessity to supply quality goods at reasonable pricing.

Company 2: Lazure Company for Jewelry

Lazurde Company for Jewelry is a Saudi organization headquartered in Riyadh. The company employs 19 employees in various locations and around $4.39 million in annual sales (USD). The business handles a vast volume of information and data pertaining to resource management, particularly financial resources.

Third entity: Fitaihi Holding Group

Fitaihi Holding Group is located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and manages businesses and corporations. The organization employs 300 employees and earns up to $26.14 million (USD) in revenue (Sorrentino & Smarra, 2015). Principal activities of the company consist of managing its subsidiaries and participating in the management of other commercial organizations. Investment and retail are the core businesses of the Group, with the investment sector concentrating on the health care, agricultural production, and industrial sectors. The retail industry focuses mostly on the selling of luxury items and jewelry, watches, presents, silver mantels, and parchment tables.

Motives for Choosing the Selected Organizations

The selected companies are huge and manage a substantial amount of data and financial management information. Companies are required to provide regular financial reports. Due to their positions in the Saudi Arabian economy, the selected businesses give the finest case study of the corporate reporting difficulties facing Saudi Arabian businesses. Importantly, the information regarding the selected firms is freely accessible (on the Tadawal website) for reference purposes, hence providing a more accurate evaluation of the identified strategic management challenge in various business contexts.

Jenkins’ Model

Large organizations as well as small and medium-sized businesses have grown rapidly in Saudi Arabia (SMEs). Nonetheless, corporate reporting presents a number of obstacles, weakening the confidence of investors and other key business stakeholders (May 1943; Sorrentino & Smarra, 2015). The Jenkins approach entails fostering successful corporate reporting by providing pertinent information regarding the management's study of both financial and non-financial data. Business model concepts are relatively new and may be derived from well-established economic theory viewpoints. In recent years, model usage has grown in popularity, particularly in corporate reporting. According to Jenkins (1994), the nondisclosure of requirements typically has negative effects on the management of commercial organizations.

The Jenkins Committee's strategy can be utilized to ensure successful financial reporting. The use of informative disclosure has various advantages over the previously undervalued approaches that are less effective in satisfying the information needs of targeted stakeholders (Weiss & Nusbaum, 1994; Jacobson & Elliott, 1995). Providing a strict methodology that exploits the need to undertake a cost-benefit analysis is another crucial part of the concept. It has cost-restricting factors that affect the business organization's essential disclosure, including competition, litigation, preparation, and distribution.

Application of the Jenkins Model

Al Abdullatif Investment Enterprise (AIIC)

Adopting Jenkins's methodology can be crucial to tackling the majority of firms' difficulties in Saudi Arabia. Al Abdullatif Industrial Investment Company (AIIC), Fitaihi Holding Group, and Lazurde Company – identified major organizational obstacles impeding effective corporate reporting in their respective assessments (May 1943; Jenkins, 1994). AIIC, for example, lacks a sufficient reporting standard to assist investors' access to real-time information and data (Jenkins, 1994). The management lacks a practical cost-benefit analysis to enhance reporting tactics. In this regard, the adoption of Jenkins' model is essential for evaluating the methodologies used to balance the benefits and costs of withholding certain information from potential investors and other important parties.

Fitaihi Holdings Limited

The evaluation of the company's financial reporting systems indicates numerous obstacles. For example, corporate management lacks sustainability management strategies that promote the efficient interchange of vital information between the firm and its stakeholders. As far as disclosing financial information is concerned, the lack of support from corporate leadership in addressing the informational needs of stakeholders is a critical issue. However, the chosen model offers effective intervention for addressing these organizational challenges. For example, it emphasizes the necessity for corporate managers to focus on long-term sustainable value to improve the alignment of reporting procedures with organizational objectives (Jenkins, 1994). In order for investors to make prudent judgments, the theoretical approach also identifies significant hazards. The organizations should build effective reporting procedures for potential risk factors, as well as mitigation or contingency plans to handle such risks.

Lazurde Company

Lazurde Company, like the majority of Saudi-based businesses, faces a number of management difficulties that significantly impact financial reporting. For instance, the company's internal procedures do not address the identification and management of the potential risks linked with financial investments (Jenkins, 1994). The business executives tend to underreport potential risks connected with specific types of portfolios within organizational settings; thus, investors tend to avoid investing in the company due to the high risk associated with the volatility of the financial market. However, the use of Jenkins' approach assists in addressing and providing frameworks for evaluating risks associated with certain investment portfolios (Jenkins, 1994). The management of the organization should commit to developing ethical standards that encourage the reporting or disclosure of such threats to potential investors. Due to the non-reporting of significant risks, investors have made imprudent decisions.

Evaluation and Current Business Reporting

An evaluation of the selected companies illustrates the underlying difficulties involved with corporate reporting. The model of Jenkins gives the most effective methods for overcoming such problems in corporate reporting. Investors are less likely to make informed long-term investment decisions in the absence of relevant, timely, and trustworthy information. In addition to harming the affected organization's reputation and reducing its cash flow, the absence of such crucial data has a number of negative consequences (Moriarty & Livingston, 2001). For instance, underreporting of profits gives the impression that the company is undervalued. An overreliance on historical data is one of the difficulties associated with the identified companies. Such information tends to be incomplete and can mislead, jeopardizing the future growth and achievement of long-term value of the firm.

The issue of underreporting deprives investors of comparative data. As stated by Jenkins's theoretical perspective, modern reporting procedures demand commercial entities to disclose non-financial matters (Munter & Robinson, 1999; Moriarty & Livingston, 2001). Second, there is a deficiency of quantifiable disclosures that would allow investors to obtain a deeper understanding and analyze organizational performance patterns. Rarely do companies reveal decision-useful information on investment or human capital, so harming the long-term interests of investors (Munter & Robinson, 1999). In recent years, business organizations have been under increasing pressure from many stakeholders to include social and environmental factors into their operations in order to improve their governance levels. Historical data are always less accurate than non-financial data. In this instance, the nonfinancial data consists of internal intangible assets like as human resource management techniques, incentive pay design, management structure design, and innovation skills (Weiss & Nusbaum, 1994). Having access to such information can aid investors in making prudent financial decisions.

It is essential to highlight, however, that the selected companies adhere to regular financial reporting. For example, the organization provides quarterly reporting, which has been significant in supplying some decision-useful data items. It is essential to emphasize that this information will not prohibit people from searching for current news about companies (Jenkins, 1994). Unfortunately, such information and data is dependent on rumors and is therefore less dependable. Instead of credible data in the quarterly report, greater stock market volatility has been correlated with rumors (Sorrentino & Smarra, 2015). Therefore, it is essential to recognize that regular reporting enables businesses to provide decision-useful information to various market participants, including potential investors.

Enhancing Business Reporting

This research and the semester's prescribed course materials have provided valuable insights into the most effective methods for increasing corporate reporting in Saudi Arabia (Jenkins, 1994). Corporate governance is rapidly evolving; therefore, reporting methodologies can be enhanced by incorporating insights from Jenkins' model (Weiss & Nusbaum, 1994). The management of business organizations should implement the following principles to generate long-term, sustainable value.

Consideration of the corporation's long-term sustainable value objectives in management and executive programmes. Such interventions are essential for aligning the reporting practices with the general goals and objectives of the company. It is essential to disclose and evaluate potential risks, as well as to demonstrate how the corporation's plans connect with the requirement to manage these risks while maximizing long-term value development. There are several dangers in business operations; therefore, disclosing these risks increases investor trust in the ability of corporate executives to cope with them. The executive should identify and report various significant social and environmental hazards. It involves strategizing on the robust means for preventing, reducing, and resolving such risks and their effect on the organizational culture. It is essential to embrace international frameworks and Jenkins' model to enable the firm to conduct meaningful reporting on their approach to value creation by primarily focusing on information other than financial data. The management of the corporations should adopt a plan and statements regarding their commitment to satisfying the informational demands of the relevant stakeholders. The dedication of the company organization is a crucial factor in determining the efficiency of corporate management in meeting the information needs of stakeholders.

Conclusion

The Al Abdullatif Industrial Investment Company (AIIC), the Lazurde Company, and the Fitaihi Holding Group face a number of issues, which have been outlined in this article. The Jenkins model has been utilized to theorize about the significance of corporate reporting to regional business management. Underreporting of profits and supplying false historical data have been identified as obstacles that devalue enterprises and provide investors with insufficient or insufficient data to evaluate commercial opportunities in Saudi Arabia. Important ideas to improve corporate reporting include considering long-term value objectives, concentrating on addressing stakeholder demands, and disclosing and assessing potential financial, operational, and sociopolitical risks.

References

Davidson, H. J., and R. M. Trueblood, "Accounting for Decisionmaking," 1961. 36(4) The Accounting Review: 577-582

Jacobson, P. D., and R. K. Elliott (1995). What if the Jenkins committee's report is accurate? 6(3), 77-86, Journal of Corporate Accounting & Finance.

Jenkins, E. L. (1994). The information superhighway requires substantial improvements. Accountancy Journal, 177(5), 77.

The nature of the financial accounting process, by G. O. May (1943). The Accounting Review, 18(3), pp. 189-193, 2003.

Moriarty, G. B., and P. B. Livingston (2001). Quantitative metrics of financial reporting quality. Financial Executive, 17(5), 53-53.

Munter, P., & Robinson, T. (1999). Where have we been and where do we go with financial reporting in the twenty-first century? 11(1), 1-13, Journal of Corporate Accounting & Finance.

C. B. Roberts, P. Weetman, and P. Gordon (2005). A comparative approach to international financial reporting The company Pearson Education.

Sorrentino, M., & Smarra, M. (2015). Does the word "business model" require a definition in financial reporting? Open Journal of Accounting, 4(02), 11.

Weiss, J., & Nusbaum, E. (1994). AICPA/report of the special committee on financial reporting.

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Printcomm Firm’s Acquisition Proposal For Digitech Best Essay Help

Executive synopsis

Jay Risher was the vice president and control manager at Printcomm. Printcomm is a communication company that offers back-to-back printing services by combining production capabilities to produce finished copies and distribute printed content. Risher launched acquisition plans for Digitech Company after seeing the company's enormous profit potential. He also negotiated Buckingham and Greene's inclusion on the management team, as they were the driving factor behind Digitech's outstanding achievement. The two individuals were required to both manage Digitech's operations and coordinate the merger between the two companies. Risher submitted two earnout bids during negotiations to expedite the closing of the purchase. The first earnout plan stipulated that Buckingham and Greene would receive payments over the next five years if Digitech met certain earning targets. The second incentive scheme provided contingent compensations for the following three years. Risher estimated future sales growth and profit margins using a simulation-based value model. Nevertheless, he neglected to incorporate inflation into his simulation model, despite the fact that inflation has a direct impact on expected sales growth and profit margins.

The proposed acquisition of Digitech by Printcomm

Jay Risher was the vice president and control manager at Printcomm. Printcomm is a communication company that offers back-to-back printing services by combining production capabilities to produce finished copies and distribute printed content. Risher had identified Digitech as a lucrative acquisition target and launched discussions that granted Printcomm two weeks of exclusive rights to negotiate the acquisition of Digitech. Risher also learnt that Digitech's extraordinary achievement was a result of the two company's CEOs' exceptional managerial abilities. Thus, he secured a five-year contract from these two executives to remain at Printcomm and supervise Digitech business (Stiegler 1).

The negotiations for the acquisition of Digitech mostly centered on obtaining a fixed price for the company. A fixed-price agreement was unquestionably the simplest to reach, as it required simply a standard purchase-and-sale contract that emphasized the complete form and amount of compensation. Nonetheless, the two parties held conflicting opinions regarding the fair valuation of Digitech's business. Risher was also concerned that Digitech's management would not be motivated to remain at the company if Printcomm paid a premium to acquire it. He believed Buckingham and Greene should be kept because they possessed crucial managerial abilities and expertise required to merge the companies and transfer commercial knowledge between the two companies (Stiegler 8).

Risher proposed two alternative options to expedite the transaction. He recommended the adoption of an earnout-a payment structure for acquisitions in which Printcomm pays a set proportion of the purchase price of Digitech on the condition that Digitech achieves specified business objectives after its closure. The first earnout plan would provide payments to Buckingham and Greene over the next five years, contingent upon Digitech's attainment of predetermined income targets. Risher desired to incorporate strong earnout targets into the five-year strategy because to Printcomm's prolonged exposure. 1999 ($2.5 million), 2000 ($3 million), 2001 ($3 million), 2002 ($3.5 million), and 2003 ($3.5 million) were his goals. Risher established these objectives in close proximity to Printicomm's expected profit margins for Digitech. Under this system, Printicomm would only pay more funds if the actual performance exceeded expectations. Risher was also persuaded that the money to be paid at the completion of the contract should be set at a low amount ($20 million) based on the anticipated future value granted to Digitech over a five-year earnout period (Stiegler 9).

The second option (earnout plan) promised solely contingent compensations for the following three years. Risher concluded that the earnout targets for this plan needed to be lowered given the great degree of certainty with which future performance could be predicted. Consequently, Risher's objectives for the second proposal were as follows: 1999 ($2 million), 2000 ($2.5 million), and 2001 ($2.5 million). Digitech was therefore given the opportunity to earn additional cash under the second earnout structure, as the goals established were more attainable. The second earnout plan was advantageous for both parties, as Printicomm would incur fewer implementation expenses. Under the second proposal, Risher suggested a fixed price offer of $28 million at closing, an amount that was previously being considered.

Printicomm and Digitech placed different values on each earnout based on their distinct views of the future. Risher, for example, decided to deploy a simulation model that utilized approximated distributions for key-value determinants. According to him, sales growth and profit margins were the most important factors in determining Digitech's future value (Stiegler 9). Consequently, he predicted an annual increase in sales of 5%. In addition, he anticipated that future sales growth would approach 10%. Richer utilized the same simulation methodology to predict Digitech's future profit margins. Risher chose to repeat the study in order to estimate how Digitech would evaluate his earnout request. He utilized the distribution that Digitech would most likely employ for their analyses' primary factors. Risher evaluated Digitech's calculations and determined that Digitech's minimum projected sales growth was 10% and its greatest projected sales increase was 30%. In addition, he projected that the distribution of estimated income results would be somewhat tighter, varying between 15% and 25%, with a margin of 20% being the most likely outcome (Stiegler 10).

Risher must evaluate how the expected inflation will affect the estimated profit margins of the two proposals. In 2003, the entire population of the United States was anticipated to reach 280 million. This expansion was anticipated to be complemented by rising income levels and total demand. The inflation-adjusted annual growth rate is predicted to climb by 2% over the next five years, as a result of a developing economy and a rise in the demand for print advertisements. In addition, intense competition from electronic media in the United States was anticipated to significantly reduce demand for printed products. Moreover, the printer's profit margins were anticipated to decrease because to the rising cost of paper, which is Printicomm's primary raw material (Stiegler 7). I would suggest incorporating an inflation factor into his simulation model in order to forecast future sales growth and profit margins.

Listed work

Stiegler, Scott. Printicomm's Proposed Acquisition of Digitech: Price and Payment Form Negotiations 1999, University of Virginia Darden School Foundation, Charlottesville, Virginia.

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Selfishness Is An Innate Nature Best Essay Help

Selfishness is placing care or concern with oneself or one’s own profits above the well-being of others. This is one of the character trait of every human in the world since they were born and this characteristic of human being will keep xxxxx . Shirley Jackson explores this premise in her short story ‘The Lottery’ where people living in the village have an annual ritual known as ‘the lottery’, they will draw to choose a person to stone in oder to ensure a good harvest for the whole year. During the lottery, people are willing to do anything to prevent being selected because they are afraid to be chosen. So, selfishness is an inborn nature as people have an instinct to survive, most people do not wish anything bad happen to them and people do not care about other if the punishment will not fall on them.

People become selfish when they have to face the live or death situation because people have an instinct to survive. In order to survive, ‘me’ has to come first. This self-awareness is central to each and every one of us that becomes woven into the fabric of whose is important and who we are at different points depending upon the situation and our personality. This is clearly shown by Tessie Hutchinson when she said, ‘There is Don and Eva, make them take their chance!’. When the Hutchinson family was chosen in the first round of the lottery, Tessie Hutchinson was willing to risk her daughter’s and son-in-law’s lives in order to decrease the probability of herself being chosen. Tessie neglected her responsibility as a mother to protect her child and became selfish as she wanted to stay alive. Not only the mother, 2 children of the Hutchinson family show their selfishness in front of the critical situation. ‘Nancy and Bill.Jr beamed and laughed, turning around to the crowd, showing their blank slips of paper above their heads’. These two young children were happily telling the crowd that they are safe but they were not worrying about their parents who had higher possibility to be stoned as long as they could survive. Tessie, Nancy and Bill.Jr showed that selfishness is an inborn personality by cause of the strong aptitude to survive.

Another reason why human are selfish is they do not wish anything bad happen to themselves. Human are timid and afraid of the possibility of getting something bad or suffering from bad luck. One more supporting sentence. In the short story, when Mr Summer brought the black box that kept all the papers to the square, all of the villagers kept their distance from the black box, no one but Mr Martin and his son helped Mr Summers to hold the box. This show that most of the villagers put their own concerns above the others, they were scared to touch the black box that symbolise the coffin because they thought it might bring them misfortune. Villagers in that time were not be chosen willingly for the good harvest of the village so they would try to avoid being selected. So, people are selfish and apathetic when the thing might bring adversity to them.

Besides, people are selfish and do not care for other if they are not the one who receive the punishment. This is the natural quality of human because when a person is in the safe area he will simmer down and do not take other people’s problem seriously even though they are in hot water. In the second paragraph of the short story, Shirley Jackson described the children selecting the smoothest and roundest stones to make a great pile of stones. It can be concluded that the children knew that it took longer time to kill people with smooth stones, therefore they can have more fun throwing stones at the person as they would not draw for the lottery. During the first round of drawing, Tessie encouraged her husband to draw the lottery, ‘ Get up there, Bill.’ Her action clearly shown that she was utterly willing to stone one of her neighbours, but when she was the one who was going to be stoned, she says, ‘It is not fair!’. After knowing the Hutchinson family was selected, Tessie’s friend, Mrs Delacroix stopped Tessie from complaining and elucidated that everyone took the same chance. Mrs Delacroix did not console her friend and support her to ask for a redraw but she bravely asked her friend to clam down and accepted the fact. She did not worry about her friend who might be killed by the villager. Most of the villager did not concern about others including their friends if they were safe.

Selfishness, as said earlier are traits of every human. This is necessary qualities in the basic theme ‘survival of the fittest’. People should not hide their helping hands when they think their sympathetic action might bring them to a worse circumstance. In conclusion, selfishness is an innate nature that one posses since born.

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The Relationship between Manager Assertiveness and having to tell Employees Exactly What to Do common app essay help

Not only is it important to tell workers exactly what to do by being direct, but it is of an equal importance to be assertive with them. If a manager is too passive with his or her employees, it may lead to a managerial mess, as many workers constantly try to test managers’ boundaries.

One of the main reasons as to why employees end up misbehaving in the workplace is primarily because they are not managed correctly, and those who are in authority allow them to get that way. When it comes to being a manager, you shouldn’t expect employees to respect you on a personal level, but you should expect them to respect your authority on a professional level.

Managers should not only be consistently setting up new boundaries, but they should also be enforcing them. Without enforcing them, if an employee overpasses it and nothing is advised to him or her, they will think it is okay to continue to do so. How will they know that it is wrong unless you tell them? It is of an utmost importance to also advise them that you can’t tolerate it.

As a manager, to do their job they have the innate obligation to do only the things that is right for the company that he or she works for. This includes of setting the appropriate boundaries, and not exercising too much sympathy and empathy as it may cause the manager to get too involved with their personal lives. Otherwise, he or she may promote favoritism thereby causing other employees to be jealous. Although this may be true, there is no need to be overly rude and cold towards employees. Being assertive and setting boundaries doesn’t always mean one has to be disrespectful or even rude to their employees. The difference between an authoritarian manager who respects their employees and for managers who don’t differentiates the results of whether or not employees comply or commit themselves to work. In order to have them commit rather than only comply, it is important to be respectful while being assertive. When employees are willing to commit, they are more than likely to deliver work that exceeds a manager’s expectations. (Alexander Hamilton Institute, 2012)

The Importance for Managers to Be a Leader

When it comes to capabilities to effectively communicate with employees, good managers are able to sustain and encourage self-assurance, enthusiasm, and emotional stability while pursuing their day-to-day activities. The position of being a manager can, at times, be quite stressful and overwhelming, so the ideal manager should not let it get to them.

Why is this important when it comes to effectively advising employees as to what has to be done?

If managers aren’t able to maintain self-control of their emotions, then it is likely that they won’t be able to do well at leading employees. Managers are commonly seen as a workplace role model, so if their employees see them as unable to maintain control, it is likely the employees won’t either, thereby leading to decreased amounts of productivity.

Why Communication Is a Key Aspect for Managers

In order to ensure efficient productivity among employees, it is important for them to be able to effectively communicate with them. Moreover, they must also be able to report to higher managers regarding productivity statistics and the like. Not only will great managers be able to communicate well with employees to advise them what they have to do, but they will also be active listeners. Without being able to listen to an employee when he or she has questions about their job or what they have to do, it is likely that they won’t end up doing what they are supposed to do. Another important trait for managers is being able to get a message across without having to overly emphasize it verbally. They know how to implement non-verbal communication techniques such as body language in order to get an important message across to employees. (Melinda Hill Mendoza, n.d).

Common Traits of a Good Employee’ Where You Don’t Have to Be As Specific

There are various indicators that strongly determine whether or not if you have to be overly specific when trying to get an employee to do something. Here I’ve included some of the top traits when it comes to being an effective listener as an employee.

‘ Action Oriented: When you tell an employee to do something, and if he or she is action-oriented, you will see them do it right away’ no questions asked. Although sometimes their work may not be sufficient, most of the time they will provide great work with high levels of productivity. Also, when it comes to productivity, they usually get things done a lot sooner than employees who are stagnant.

‘ Intelligent: Intelligence is important for an employee to thoroughly understand what you want them to do without you having to be too specific with them. Not only that, but when you tell an intelligent employee what to do, most of the time they will do it perfectly correct. It is very rare for an employee who has high levels of intelligence to ask too many questions for additional specificity.

‘ Ambitious: Having an employee with ambition is important because they are well-known to come up with creative ideas that can bring the productivity of any company to the next level. So rather than spending extra time telling them exactly what they have to do, they will work right away, and by the time they are done they will provide you with a genius idea to do things quicker, and you may want to consider forwarding it to your boss.

‘ Autonomous: Employees with an autonomous trait are known to begin working on a project the second you explain to them what needs to be done. They are extremely independent and they require no ‘hand-holding’ whatsoever. This is an important trait, because as a manager, they have a lot of tasks on hand and they don’t want to be wasting it answering a hundred questions about completing a simple task.

‘ Confidence: It is more likely for an unconfident employee to ask questions about exactly what they need to do than a confident employee. This is primarily due to the fact that employees who are confident will trust there instinct on what they’ve heard from the manager, and they won’t second guess their initial impression. On the other hand, unconfident employees will lack their confidence in trusting their understanding, causing them to ask a lot of unnecessary questions.

‘ Leadership: After confidence comes leadership. When you are explaining a task to an employee with leadership skills, you will be confident that they will over-deliver on your expectations. They have the experience to not only deliver the job promptly without any questions ask, but they can set the bar higher in terms of quality and productivity.

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Learning Theory Behaviorism (Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme) essay help site:edu

2.0 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme

Teori Behaviorisme merupakan satu pendekatan pemikiran yang menekankan peranan pengalaman dalam mengawal tingkah laku. Pengasas teori ini adalah J.B Watson yang popular dengan teori Little Albert. Namun, selain daripada J.B Watson terdapat tokoh lain yang turut mengkaji tentang teori ini. Mereka adalah Skinner, Thondike dan Pavlov. Teori pemerolehan bahasa Behavioris pada zaman sebelum ini lebih menekankan tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat sahaja. Bagi mereka perkara yang berlaku dalam otak manusia tidak dapat dikenalpasti. Mereka membuat analogi otak manusia sama seperti sebuah kotak hitam yang gelap. Oleh itu mereka tidak mementingkan peranan otak dalam pemerolehan bahasa.

Golongan mazhab ini menolak pendapat yang menghubungkan operasi kognitif dengan pemerolehan bahasa. Seseorang dianggap telah belajar sesuatu jika dia dapat menunjukkan perubahan perilakunya. Menurut teori ini dalam belajar yang penting adalah input yang berupa stimulus dan output yang berupa reaksi (respond). Stimulus adalah apa saja yang diberikan guru kepada pelajar, sedangkan respon berupa reaksi atau tanggapan pelajar terhadap stimulus yang diberikan oleh guru tersebut. Proses yang terjadi antara stimulus dan respon tidak penting untuk diperhatikan kerana tidak dapat diamati dan tidak dapat diukur. Yang dapat diamati adalah stimulus dan respon. Oleh sebab itu, apa yang diberikan oleh guru iaitu stimulus dan apa yang diterima oleh pelajar iaitu respon harus dapat diamati dan diukur. Teori ini mengutamakan pengukuran kerana pengukuran merupakan perkara yang penting untuk melihat terjadi atau tidak perubahan tingkah laku tersebut.

2.1 Teori Behaviorisme menurut J.B Watson

J.B Watson (1878-1958), seorang ahli psikologi di Amerika Syarikat, merupakan orang pertama mencipta istilah behaviorisme untuk menghuraikan tingkah laku manusia. Kajian banyak dipengaruhi oleh Teori Pelaziman Klasik Pavlov. Kajian beliau, yang terkenal ialah mengenai emosi kanak-kanak dengan menggunakan Model Pelaziman Klasik. Mengikut Watson, tingkah laku manusia merupakan reflex terlazim iaitu suatu gerak balas yang dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman klasik. Dengan kata lain, semua pembelajaran adalah pelaziman klasik Watson berpendapat gerakan-gerakan refleks yang mudah misalnya berkelip mata, bersin apabila hidung gatal dan sebarang tindakan yang dilakukan secara semulajadi adalah tingkah laku yang diwarisi dan tidak perlu dipelajari. Selain daripada tingkah laku, Watson pula menjalankan kajian tentang pembelajaran emosi semula jadi iaitu takut, marah, dan kasih saying. Emosi manusia atau perubahan dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman.

2.1.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran J.B Watson

Menurut beliau, semua tingkah laku boleh dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman. Tingkah laku positif boleh diajarkan melalui ransangan yang sesuai. Seterusnya, untuk menguasai kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah, pelajar perlu belajar cara perhubungan gerak balas secara sistematik. Selain itu, teori ini memberi implikasi untuk mengukuhkan apa yang telah dipelajari dalam ingatan, latihan- latihan hendaklah dijalankan secara kerap. Dalam proses pengajaran,guru hendaklah menggunakan rasangan yang boleh memotivasikan murid untuk minat belajar dan mengelakkan pengunaan ransangan yang membawa kepada kesan negatif.

2.2 Teori Behaviorisme menurut Thorndike

Menurut Thorndike, belajar adalah proses interaksi antara stimulus dan respon. Stimulus adalah apa yang merangsang terjadinya aktiviti belajar seperti fikiran, perasaan, atau hal-hal lain yang dapat dikesan melalui pancaindera. Manakala, respon adalah reaksi yang muncul apabila peserta dididik ketika belajar, dan yang dapat pula adalah berupa fikiran, perasaan, gerakan atau tindakan. Jadi, perubahan tingkah laku akibat kegiatan belajar dapat dikategorikan sebagai konkrit, iaitu yang dapat diamati, atau tidak konkrit iaitu yang tidak dapat diamati. Meskipun aliran behaviorisme sangat mengutamakan pengukuran, tetapi tidak dapat menjelaskan bagaimana cara mengukur tingkah laku yang tidak dapat diamati. Teori Thorndike ini disebut pula dengan teori koneksionisme. Thorndike berjaya membentuk tiga hokum iaitu Hukum kesediaan, Hukum latihan, Hukum kesan. Hukum kesediaan merupakan keupayaan persiapan seseorang individu di dalam kendirinya untuk memulakan sesuatu aktiviti pembelajaran. Manakala hokum latihan pula menyatakan bahawa semakin byak latihan yang dijalankan semakin bertambah kukuh ikatan gerak balas yang tertentu dengan ransangan yang berkaitan. Hukum kesan menyatakan bahawa ikatan ransangan dengan gerak balas akan bertambah kukuh sekiranya individu memperolehi kesan yang memuaskan selepas gerak balasnya dihasilkan.

2.1.2 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike

Antara implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike ialah untuk meningkatkan tahap kesediaan belajar, guru harus menggunakan motivasi yang sesuai. Selain itu, ia juga dapat mengukuhkan pertalian antara ransangan dengan gerak balas pelajar dengan memperbanyak aktiviti latihan, ulangkaji, aplikasi serta pengukuhan dalam keadaan yang menyeronokkan. Seterusnya memberikan ganjaran atau peneguhan untuk respon antau gerak balas yang betul daripada pelajar. Memberi peluang kepada pelajar untuk menikmati kejayaan dalam pembelajaran mereka.

2.3 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Pavlov merupakan salah seorang daripada ahli teori Behavioris selain daripada Skinner, Thondike dan Watson. Beliau dilahirkan pada 14 September 1849 di Ryazan, Rusia Tengah. Beliau telah meninggal dunia pada 27 Februari 1936 di Leningrad Rusia ketika berusia 86 tahun. Ivan Pavlov merupakan ahli fisiologi, psikologi dan ahli fizik berbangsa Rusia. Sebagai seorang yang sangat mencintai bidang fisiologi beliau telah meminta seorang pelajar duduk di sebelah katilnya dan merekodkan perihal kematiannya. Beliau terkenal dengan orang pertama yang mendeskripsikan fonomena pelaziman klasik atau pelaziman responden. Teori pelaziman klasik adalah tentang tingkah laku pembelajaran yang telah dipelopori oleh Ivan Pavlov ( 1849-1936). Pada tahun 1980-an. Pavlov mengkaji fungsi pencernaan pada anjing dengan melakukan pemerhatian pada kelenjar air liur. Dengan cara itu, beliau dapat mengumpulkan, menyukat dan menganalisis air liur haiwan itu dan bagaimana ia dapat diberikan makanan pada keadaan yang berbeza. Beliau sedar anjing akan mengeluarkan air liur sebelum makanan sampai ke mulutnya dan mencari hubungan timbal balik antara air liur dengan aktiviti perut. Pavlov hendak melihat rangsangan luar dapat mempengaruhi proses ini. Oleh itu contoh paling awal dan terkenal bagi pelaziman klasik melibatkan pelaziman air liur pada anjing kajian Pavlov.

2.4 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme B.F Skinner

Manakala menerusi B.F Skinner pula, beliau mengutarakan teori behaviorisme adalah teori. Menurut Nana Sudjana, 1990 pendekatan Skinner adalah operant conditioning, yang merupakan penerusan dan perluasan secara tepat dari hokum Thorndike. Ia mengakui adanya fenomena conditioning yang klasik dari Pavlov dalam perilaku manusia dan binatang, tetapi itu tidak dianggap terlalu penting.

2.4.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran B.F Skinner

Sesuatu kemahiran atau teknik yang baru dipelajari hendaklah diberi peneguhan secara berterusan dan diikuti secara berkala supaya kemahiran atau teknik itu dapat dikukuhkan dan dikekalkan. Selain itu, penggunaan peneguhan positif yang membawa keseronokan adalah lebih berkesan daripada peneguhan negative yang membawa kesakitan. Seterusnya, prinsip penghapusan melalui proses pelaziman operan adalah sesuai digunakan untuk memodifikasikan tingkah laku pelajar yangtidak diingini, misalnya menghentikan peneguhan yang diberikan dahulu sama ada peneguhan positif atau negatif

2.5 Kelebihan teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Kelebihan yang pertama yang kami perolehi melalui teori ini adalah teori ini sangat sesuai untuk melatih atau mendidik kanak-kanak yang masih memerlukan bantuan daripada orang dewasa di sekeliling mereka. Sebagai contoh kanak-kanak tadika memerlukan bimbingan dan perhatian yang khusus daripada orang di persekitarannya terutamanya guru-guru mereka kerana mereka mudah mengikuti apa yang diajar dan disuruh selain suka meniru perlakuan orang di sekelilingnya. Selain itu, mereka juga suka dengan bentuk-bentuk penghargaan yang diberi kepadanya seperti pujian dan melalui bentuk penghargaan tersebut ianya dapat membangkitkan semangat ingin belajar dalam diri mereka.

Kelebihan yang kedua adalah guru tidak perlu mengambil masa yang lama untuk memberi penerangan yang panjang tentang pembelajaran kepada murid-murid. Hal ini kerana murid-murid akan dibiasakan belajar dengan sendiri kecuali sekiranya murid menghadapi sesuatu masalah dan memerlukan penjelasan yang lebih daripada guru. Dalam hal ini guru perlu memberikan penerangan dengan jelas.

Selain daripada itu, teori ini juga menekankan kemahiran lisan berbanding kemahiran membaca dan menulis. Melalui aspek kemahiran lisan yang ditekankan dapat memberikan kelebihan kepada murid kerana aspek lisan iaitu mendengar dan bertutur penting dalam situasi harian murid. Boleh dikatakan bahawa kemahiran ini adalah kemahiran terkerap yang digunakan manusia untuk berkomunikasi antara satu sama lain.

2.6 Kelemahan Teori Behaviorisme

Dari segi kelemahan pula, penerapan teori behavioris yang kurang tepat dalam sesuatu situasi pembelajaran boleh mangakibatkan berlakunya proses pembelajaran yang tidak kondusif bagi murid-murid kerana pembelajaran berlaku dalam keadaan sehala dimana ianya berpusatkan kepada guru sahaja. Guru hanya mengajar dan melatih murid manakala murid hanya menerima apa yang diajar oleh guru mereka tanpa memberi sebarang maklum balas. Malah dalam teori pembelajaran ini murid berperanan sebagai pendengar dan mereka menghafal apa yang didengar dan dipandang sebagai cara belajar yang efektif. Penggunaan hukuman merupakan salah satu cara untuk guru mendisiplinkan murid dan hal ini akan mendatangkan akibat buruk kepada murid.

Kelemahan yang kedua ialah proses pembelajaran dikatakan kurang memberikan gerak balas yang bebas bagi pelajar untuk berinteraksi serta untuk mengembangkan idea. Hal ini kerana sistem pembelajaran tersebut lebih tertumpu kepada rangsangan dan gerak balas yang ditunjukkan. Sekiranya tiada rangsangan maka tindak balas tidak akan berlaku. Sebagai contoh, guru akan memberi rangsangan dalam bentuk hadiah dan daripada situ barulah murid akan memberikan jawapan yang dikehendaki oleh guru. Sekiranya perkara ini berlaku secara berterusan dikhuatiri murid akan terlalu bergantung terhadap rangsangan dari luar sedangkan murid harus memiliki rangsangan dari dalam diri mereka sendiri sebagai satu cara pembelajaran.

Kelemahan yang ketiga menurut teori ini adalah penambahan ilmu pengetahuan lebih tertumpu kepada buku teks. Hal ini kerana mereka belajar mengikut urutan kurikulum yang sangat ketat sehinggakan buku teks merupakan buku wajib dalam pembelajaran mereka malah mereka juga perlu dikehendaki memahami dan mempersembahkan kembali isi pembelajaran di dalam buku teks tersebut dengan baik. Hal ini boleh mendatangkan kesan buruk kepada pelajar kerana ilmu pengetahuan yang mereka peroleh tidak begitu berkembangan dengan hanya tertumpu kepada satu buah buku sahaja.

2.7 Implikasi teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Yang pertama ialah guru perlu sedar bahawa kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balas boleh dilazimkan iaitu dipelajari. Sebagai contoh apabila guru ingin menyuruh murid-murid beratur ketika waktu rehat di kantin sekolah guru boleh mengaitkannya dengan cara untuk berjaya dalam kehidupan. Implikasi yang seterusnya ialah kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balasdapat dikukuhkan melalui latihan. Semakin kerap rangsangan itu dikaitkan dengan sesuatu gerak balas, semakin kukuh gerak balas terlazim itu. Sebagai contoh guru ingin murid-murid supaya tidak mengaitkan mata pelajaran matematik dengan kesukaran, dengan memberi mereka latihan- latihan yang mudah dan apabila mereka beransur mahir menyelesaikan masalah yang sukar maka guru bolehlah menukar aras pembelajaran kepada tahap yang sederhana sukar dan seterusnya ke aras pembelajaran yang sukar.

Di samping itu, dalam proses pembelajaran, generalisasi boleh berlaku. Ini bermakna perkara yang dipelajari dalam situasi A boleh dipindahkan ke situasi B. Sebagai contoh guru mata pelajaran sains mengaitkan kejadian pencemaran alam sekitar yang mengakibatkan kemusnahan alam semula jadi dengan kemusnahan alam yang berlaku seperti tsunami yang melanda Bandar Acheh.

faktor motivasi memainkan peranan yang penting bagi menghasilkan gerak balas yang diinginkan. Dalam hal ini pemberian ganjaran perlu diberi perhatian. Sebagai contoh ketika murid menjawab soalan yang diberikan oleh guru dengan betul maka guru boleh memberikan pujian kepadanya atau dengan memberikannya hadiah supaya pada waktu pembelajaran yang seterusnya pelajar tersebut akan lebih menumpukan perhatian di dalam kelas untuk memperoleh pujian yang diingini. Namun sekiranya pelajar tersebut tidak dapat menjawab soalan yang diberi maka guru perlulah membimbing pelajar tersebut supaya mereka tidak berasa terpinggir dan seterusnya dapat bersama-sama memahami tajuk pembelajaran pada ketika itu.

Selain itu juga, dalam proses pembelajaran tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat, diamati, diukur dan dikawal hendaklah diberi perhatian. Hal ini kerana melalui perubahan tingkah laku yang ditunjukkan oleh murid guru boleh mengambil sebarang tindakan sekiranya ianya di kesan lebih awal. Sebagai contoh sekiranya seseorang murid menunjukkan tingkah laku yang negatif seperti tidak faham tentang apa yang diajar oleh guru maka guru boleh membuat pemulihan terhadap dirinya. Dalam pembelajaran, penghapusan boleh berlaku jika peneguhan tidak diberikan. Ini bermakna, sekiranya sesuatu tingkahlaku tidak diperkukuhkan melalui ganjaran, tingkahlaku itu mungkin akan terhapus begitu sahaja. Konsep pemulihan serta-merta juga dapat membantu seseorang guru meningkatkan keberkesanan pembelajaran

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Research design essay help for free

2.7 RESEARCH DESIGN USED :

The conception of research design plan is the critical step in the research process. The design ,of the study constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. In other words the research design is a conceptual structure with in which,h research is conducted.

2.8 DATA COLLECTION METHODS :

Primary Data: – Primary data are those data which are collected for the first time, and thus hap,pen to be original in character. It is extracted with the help of discussions co,nducted with senior managers with respect to factors affecting the performance.,

Secondary Data: – Secondary data are those data which are already collected by someone else ,and which have already passed through the statistical process. These data are g,athered by Books, Lectures, Notes, and Official Websites etc.

The study make,s extensive use of secondary data. ‘Secondary data are those which have already,y been passed through the statistical process’. The data which is pre-essential for ,this study relating to comparative analysis of Balance Sheet and PROFIT AND L,OSS A/c was based on secondary source of data. This data will be collected fro,m materials provided by Rakshitas Pvt. Ltd., discussions conducted with store m,anagers and some essential

Financial Accounts books.

2.9 LIMITATIONS :,

‘ Data provided is very limited due to the subjectivity of it being highly confidential.,

‘ The data taken for interpretation is for a limited period.

‘ Assumptions, are to be taken into consideration while doing analysis and interpretation, of data.

‘ Due to limited, information, depth analysis could not be made.

2.10 RESEARCH MEASURE TOOLS :

Various financial techniques and statistical tools are used to measure the data used in the study. Column graphs, pie chart etc. is used to highlight the statistical inference,s. The study cannot be completed without balance sheet and profit and loss a/c. ,Therefore three years balance sheet and profit & loss a/c has been taken out for ma,king proper research.

2.11 ANALYSIS OF DATA :

The data collected is secondary, and it’s compiled, classified, tabulated and then analyzed u,sing financial techniques and statistical tools. Graphs and charts are used to hig,hlight the statistics. Based on this data and analysis, inferences are drawn accor,dingly.

2.12 OVER VIEW OF THE CHAPTER :

The Project I,s Presented in the following chapter :-

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

This chapter includes introduction to finance, theorectical back ground for the study of the ,various performance, introduction to finance, definition of retail industry and di,fferent type of industry.

CHAPTER 2 : DESIGN OF THE STUDY

This chapter I,ncludes the projects introduction of the subject background, statement of the, problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, need and purpose of study,, research methodology, research design, data collection method primary and seco,ndary data, limitations, research measure tools and analysis of data.,

CHA,PTER 3 : PROFILE OF THE COMPANY

This c,hapter contains the profile of the company, its origin and background, board of directors, number of branches and organization structure.

CHAP,TER 4 : DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This ch,apter consists of Table, Graphs, Analysis and Interpretation based on the question,nairies.

CHAPT,ER 5 : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCULSIONS AND RECOM,MENDATIONS

This chap,ter includes findings based on objectives of the study, conclusion drawn from the f,indings and recommendations given from the analysis.

Chapter:-3

PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION

COMPANY PROFILE

RAKSHITAS PVT.LTD.

Rakshitas business con,cept is to offer a broad and varied range of apparels that allows customers to fin,d their own personal style to choose from more than 150 remiums national and int,ernational brands.

Rakshitas is aimed at everyone in the family with an interest in modern basics, fashion, quality and affo,rdable pricing. Customers should always be able to find clothes and accessories ,at Rakshitas for every occasion. The collections are extensive and new arrivals, being launched week after week in each of the 4 floors spread across 20,000 s,q. ft. for Men, Women, Kids and Teen’s casual wear, formal wear, denim wea,r, ethnic and Kancheevaram silks etc. The range and collections are supplemen,ted by matching costume jewellery, premium international watches, perfumes, ,lingerie’s.

Mission

Our mission is to achieve excelle,nce in the products and services we offer, in the methods we employ and in the res,ult we produce.

Products

Menswear: menswear,r means clothing for men. Rakshitas provide various brands for menswear which ,includes formal shirts, casual shirts, trousers, jeans etc. of several variety of int,ernational as well as national brands, for example: -levis, pepe jeans, killer, lee, w,rangler etc.

Women’s wear: Women’s wear means ,clothing for women. Rakshitas provides the best options for women’s apparel rang,ing from skirts to ethnic, casuals as well as formals.

Kids wear: Kids wear are meant only for kids or children ranging below age of 12 years. Rakshitas provides awesome collection for kids which include children formal wear, kurtas, shirt,s etc.

Party wear: Party wear dresses are meant for wearing in parties, functions, special occasions etc. Rakshitas provides variety ranges of party wear which includes lehngas, wedding dresses, traditional indian dress etc.

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Control and organisational behaviour (pengendalian dan perilaku organisasi) essay help writing

PENGENDALIAN DAN PERILAKU ORGANISASI

PERILAKU ORGANISASI

Untuk membuat dasar yang nantinya dapat digunakan manajemen dalam menyusun system pengendalian manajemen, maka kita perlu mengetahui lebih dalam mengenai perilaku organisasi. Berikut ini adalah beberapa penjelasan mengenai teori akuntansi sebagai bentuk pemahaman terhadap organisasi.

Definisi Organisasi

Secara umum, organisasi diartikan sebagai sekumpulan orang yang melakukan kerjasama demi mencapai tujuan ‘ tujuan yang telah ditentukan bersama. Organisasi tercipta ketika orang ‘ orang bergabung dan melakukan sesuatu untuk berbagai tujuan dan organisasi dapat mencakup segala aspek dalam kehidupan. Organisasi dapat bersifat formal dan informal. Pekerjaan di dalam suatu organisasi dapat dibagi ‘ bagi dan dikoordinasi sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan keahlian tiap ‘tiap anggota organisasinya untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi tersebut. Suatu organisasi haruslah going concern, dalam arti organisasi tersebut diasumsikan akan hidup selamanya.

Teori Perilaku Organisasi (Theory of Organization Behaviour)

Ada beberapa teori yang menjelaskan mengenai mengapa dan bagaimana orang ‘ orang berperilaku dalam organisasi. Berikut ada dua penjelasan mengenai teori tersebut :

1. Teori jenjang kebutuhan

Teori ini menjelaskan bahwa setiap manusia memiliki kebutuhan yang banyak dan harus dipenuhi dan kebutuhan serta keinginan tersebut tersusun secara rapih, sehingga apabila ada satu kebutuhan terpenuhi maka setelah itu ia akan berusaha memenuhi kebutuhannnya yang lebih tinggi. Dalam teori ini tersirat bahwa system pengendalian manajemen juga didasarkan pada kebutuhan manusia yang terkoordinasi dan dilakukan sesuai dengan tujuan organisasi.

2. Teori motivasi pencapaian

Teori ini lebih mengacu pada perilaku atasan atau manajer dalam perannya saat berorganisasi. Untuk mencapai keberhasilan dan mendapat sebuah kekuasaan, maka manajer tersebut juga perlu memiliki keinginan yang kuat agar dapat menghasilkan prestasi dalam organisasi.

TEORI ORGANISASI

Pengetahuan yang dalam mengenai organisasi sangatlah diperlukan oleh para pelaku organisasi dalam pelaksanaan system pengendalian manajemen organisasi tersebut. Para pelaku organisasi harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui semua poin dalam organisasi termasuk sejarah organisasi, tujuan organisasi, bagaimana perilaku para pelakunya hingga reaksi organisasi tersebut terhadap lingkungan.

Tak berbeda dengan teori perilaku akuntansi, dalam teori organisasi juga terdapat banyak teori yang membahas mengenai organisasi. Dan disini akan dibahas mengenai dua teori juga tentang organisasi, yaitu :

1. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Dalam

Banyak organisasi dianggap indepen dan tidak terlalu memperhatikan lingkungan luar oleh beberapa teori. Teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam ini banyak dijadikan dasar oleh sebagian besar system pengendalian manajemen dalam suatu organisasi hal tersebut didasarkan karena dalam teori ini mencakup tanggung jawab dalam pengambilan keputusan yang berlaku menurut proyek ‘ proyek, program ‘ program serta komponen ‘ komponen fungsionalnya.

2. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Luar

Teori ini adalah teori kebalikan dari teori sebelumnya yaitu teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam. Teori ini beranggapan bahwa suatu organisasi selalu berhubungan dengan lingkungan di sekitarnya. Ada dua jenis organisasi yang menganut teori organisasi yang berorientasi keluar ini, yaitu :

– Organisasi system umum terbuka

– Organisasi system manajemen

TIPE ORGANISASI

Ada tiga jenis atau tipe organisasi, yaitu :

1. Organisasi Fungsional

Dalam tipe organisasi ini, penekanan lebih ditujukan kepada manajer yang sangat harus bertanggung jawab terhadap suatu fungsi tertentu, seperti fungsi produksi, fungsi pemasaran dan fungsi lainnya yang diterapkan dalam organisasi tersebut. Fungsi ‘ fungsi tersebut dapat dihimpun oleh fungsi yang lebih tinggi dalam organisasi itu juga. Organisasi ini berpotensi membuat efisiensi perusahaan yang lebih baik karena menggunakan masukan ‘ masukan dari manajerial yang lebih tinggi.

2. Organisasi Divisi

Dalam organisasi ini, semua manajer harus bertanggung jawab terhadap hamper keseluruhan fungsi dalam proses produksi serta distribusi lini pada organisasi tersebut. Orientasi organisasi divisi lebih terbuka yang berarti lebih menekankan bahwa para manajer harus peka terhadap pengaruh ‘ pengaruh yang dating dari luar yang mungkin dapat mempengaruhi kinerja organisasi.

3. Organisasi Matriks

Ada dua struktur organisasi dalam organisasi matriks, yaitu ditata berdasarkan fungsi dan ditata berdasarkan program. Pada organisasi matriks, para manajer bertanggung jawab penuh atas profitabilitas dari lini produk organisasi tersebut dimana proses produksi dilakukan oleh unit ‘ unit organisasi fungsional.

Teori Kemungkinan (Contingency Theory)

Untuk mengendalikan suatu manajemen menggunakan tiga macam pendekatan, antara lain :

1. Pendekatan tradisional

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada perencanaan, pendekatan dan pengendalian.

2. Pendekatan system

Pendekatan ini menekankan padapenggunaan sumber daya manusia sebagai pertimbangan dalam pengambilan keputusan.

3. Pendekatan perilaku

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada pengendalian manusia termasuk di dalamnya motivasi dan prediksi.

PERILAKU MANAJEMEN

Organisasi dan sistemnya yang rumit akan mempengaruhi perilaku manusia menjadi rumit pula.

Konsep Fundamental

Agar suatu organisasi ‘terkendali’ maka para anggota organisasi harus mengetahui dengan baik apa sebenarnya yang diinginkan oleh manajemen. Untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut, dapat menggunakan banyak informasi yang telah disediakan oleh manajemen organisasi seperti anggaran hingga kebijakan organisasi. Tujuan organisasi dibuat oleh para manajer senior dan dilaksanakan oleh manajer operasional untuk selanjutnya para manajer senior menerapkan system pengendalian manajemen untuk mengontrol organisasi tersebut.

Persepsi Tujuan

Para manajer operasional harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui apa tujuan organisasi. Para manajer operasional tersebut dapat secara mudah mendapatkan informasi ‘ informasi yang mereka butuhkan dari berbagai sumber baik dari dokumen maupun percakapan informal saja. System pengendalian manajemen yang efektif dapat menguatkan kepastian suatu perusahaan.

Organisasi Informal

Adanya organisasi informal di dalam organisasi formal sering menyebabkan adanya salah persepsi mengenai tindakan yang diharapkan. Hubungan pada organisasi informal tidak tercantum di dalam bagan organisasi, padahal hal tersebut cukup penting untuk pemahaman system pengendalian organisasi tersebut.

Motivasi

Reaksi pada pelaku organisasi terutama manajemen terhadap organisasi dapat berbeda tergantung pada motivasinya. Motivasi dapat bermacam ‘ macam, misalnya kenaikan gaji, promosi, pujian dan lain ‘ lain. Motivasi timbul dari dalam pribadi masing ‘ masing, tetapi motivasi dapat dipengaruhi oleh rangsangan dari lingkungan sekitarnya.

Keselarasan Tujuan (Goal Congruence)

Setiap manusia memiliki tujuan pribadi, begitu juga dengan organisasi yang juga memiliki tujuan bersama. Salah satu tugas penting system pengendalian adalah menyelaraskan kedua tujuan tersebut serta mencapainya demi mendapatkan kepuasan bersama. Semakin kuat hubungan antara tujuan pribadi dan tujuan organisasi, maka ssistem pengendalian organisasi tersebut akan semakin kuat juga.

Kerjasama dan Konflik

Suatu organisasi tidak akan berjalan dengan baik apabila para anggotanya tidak bekerjasama dengan baik secara terkoordinasi, untuk itu di dalam organisasi sangat dibutuhkan kerjasama yang terkoordinir dan selaras. Selain itu, organisasi juga harus menjaga koordinasi dan keselarasan tersebut agar tidak terjadi konflik yang dapat mengganggu kinerja organisasi. Konflik tersebut dapat terjadi karena berbagai alasan, salah satunya adalah dengan adanya persaingan didalam organisasi tersebut.

Iklim Organisasi (Organizational Climate)

Secara singkat, iklim organisasi dapat diartikan sebagai hasil kombinasi dari struktur formal dan struktur informal pada suatu organisasi. Dan menurut pemahaman saya iklim organisasi merupakan suasana di dalam organisasi dimana tiap pelaku organisasi di dalam organisasi saling membantu, saling menilai, dan memahami antara satu dengan yang lain. Iklim organisasi ikut mengambil bagian penting dalam organisasi. Keduanya saling mempengaruhi satu sama lain.

Tipe Pengendalian

Pelaku pengendalian Sumber arah pengendalian Macam ‘ macam Pengendalian

Ukuran prestasi dan tingkah laku Isyarat untuk tindak koreksi Imbalan untuk prestasi Hukuman untuk kegagalan

Organisasi formal Rencana organisasi, strategi, tanggapan atas persaingan Anggaran, biaya standar, target penjualan penyimpangan Penghargaan manajemen, insentif uang, promosi Minta penjelasan

Kelompok informal Keterikatan bersama cita’cita kelompok Norma-norma kelompok penyimpangan Pengakuan rekan, keanggotaan, kepemimpinan Ejekan, pengasingan, permusuhan

Perorangan Tujuan pribadi, aspirasi Harapan pribadi, target antara Dugaan akan kegagalan di masa yang akan dating, target tak tercapai Kepuasan karena ‘terkendali’ kegembiraan Merasa gagal

Sumber : Disarikan dari Gene W. Dalton dan Paul R. Lawrence, Motivation and Control in Organizations (Homewood, III. : Richard D. Irwin, 1971). Hak Cipta 1971 oleh Richard D. Irwin Inc.

Variasi dalam Pengendalian

Hakekat system pengendalian manajemen dibedakan menurut sifat pekerjaan, macam organisasi, lingkungan daan peran manajer. Berikut adalah tiga dimensi yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penggunaan dan pengembangan system pengendalian manajemen :

1. Besar keleluasaan manajemen

2. Besar interdependensi

3. Rentang waktu pelaksanaan

FUNGSI KONTROLER

Kontroler dapat diartikan sebagai petinggi atau pejabat yang bertanggung jawab atas apa yang telah direncanakan oleh organisasi dan bagaimana pengoperasiannya. Tanggung jawab para kontroler berbeda ‘ beda di tiap organisasi bahkan di tiap divisinya. Tanggung jawab kontroler didasarkan pada posisinya masing ‘ masing. Tanggung jawab tersebut dilaksanakan secara langsung. Selain tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian tersebut, berikut ini adalah fungsi lain dari kontroler :

a. Menyiapkan laporan kepada pihak pemerintah serta pihak ‘ pihak luar lainnya.

b. Mempersiapkan pengembalian pajak.

c. Mempersiapkan dan melakukan analisa terhadap laporan prestasi keuangan.

d. Membantu para manajer dengan cara melakukan analisa sertab menafsirkan laporan ‘ laporan tersebut.

e. Menggunakan prosedur pemeriksaan intern dan pengendalian akuntansi, memastikan validitas informasi, menetapkan usaha perlindungan yangcukup terhadap berbagai penyimpangan serta melakukan pemeriksaan operasional.

f. Melakukan pengembangan kepada orang ‘ orang yang ia pimpin serta berperan langsung dalam penambahan pengetahuan mengenai fungsi kontroler

g. Mengadakan manajemen kas, asuransi serta kegiatan ‘ kegiatan lainnya demi pengamanan kekayaan perusahaan.

Hubungan dengan Organisasi Lini

Kontroler juga memiliki hak untuk membuat kebijakan ‘ kebijakan dalam organisasi. Namun keputusan ‘ keputusan tersebut merupakan realisasi pelaksanaan kebijakan ‘ kebijakan yang telah dibuat oleh manajer lini. Dengan kata lain, terdapat keselarasan antara kedua belah pihak. Hal tersebut tentunya sangat baik untuk menjaga kelancaran jalannya organisasi tersebut.

Kontroler Divisi

Kebanyakan perusahaan atau organisasi membagi organisasinya tersebut menjadi beberapa divisi yang dikepalai oleh seorang manajer. Manajer divisi tentu juga memiliki kontroler divisi. Dalam hal ini, kontroler divisi harus patuh kepada manajer divisi dan juga kontroler perusahaan yang terkadang beda kepentingannya. Penilaian prestasi terhadap kontroler divisi dapat dilakukan dengan menilai beberapa poin, antara lain :

– Laporan akuntansi dan keuangan

– Pengetahuan mengenai operasi divisi

– Sasaran dan pelaksanaan kepatuhan terhadap kebijakan

– Kontribusi manajemen

– Pengetahuan terhadap akuntansi

– Kejujuran dan profesionalisme

– Kemauan bekerjasama

– Organisasi dan staf

– Inisiatif dan semangat

HUBUNGAN LINI-STAF

Seorang manajer divisi dapat dikatakan tidak memiliki staf maupun asisten pribadi. Manajer tersebut mendapatkan bantuan dari :

1. Tenaga yang ditugaskan untuk membantunya dari staf umum, insinyur serta petugas pembelian

2. Staf pusat yang dapat dimintai bantuan kapan saja sebanyak mungkin.

HUBUNGAN MANAJER DIVISI ‘ KONTROLER

Untuk mencapai kesuksesan organisasi dalam hubungannya dengan manajer divisi, maka organisasi perlu membina kerjasama yang baik dan solid di tiap ‘ tiap manajemen. Berikut merupakan beberapa factor yang dapat mempengaruhi hubungan baik adalah :

1. System akuntansi yang seragam dan terpusat

2. Sasaran ‘ saasaran keuangan yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya untuk tiap ‘ tiap divisi.

(Pertumbuhan penjualan serta besar laba penjualan)

3. Pembagian laba antara kontroler dan manajer

SISTEM AKUNTANSI

Selain memiliki tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian organisasi, divisi kontroler juga memiliki kewenangan atas system akuntansi yang akan digunakan oleh organisasi tersebut termasuk di dalamnya menetapkan cara dan jenis pos ‘ pos yang harus mereka awasi. Sistem akuntansi dijadikan dasar dalam penyusunan laporan keuangan beserta analisisnya.

SASARAN ‘ SASARAN DIVISI

Seperti yang telah disebutkan pada bagian sebelumnya, perusahaan atau organisasi memiliki sasaran keuangan, yaitu pertumbuhan penjualan dan tingkat laba. Tingkat laba dalam organisasi atau perusahaan ditetapkan sebaga persentase penjualan. Berikut ini adalah beberapa factor penentu target laba penjualan :

1. Kemungkinan pematenan produk

2. Besar laba atas investasi yang diinginkan

3. Besar laba industry bersangkutan

4. Besar laba investasi bersangkutan

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Business notes: Creative problem solving writing an essay help

1 Unit 1 – Creative problem solving

1.1 Introduction

A business leader is expected to identify problems, implement solutions and find business opportunities. To do so, they must learn to plan, analyse situations, identify and solve problems (or potential problems), make decisions, and set realistic and attainable goals for the business/unit. These are the fundamental thinking/creative requirements for leadership, and these set direction to a successful future. Without this critical competence, you will have to rely on others to do your thinking for you, or you will simply have to learn to nurture your creative thinking skills which will help you on your journey towards successful business.

Creative thinking forms part of this continuous problem solving process, and is the fundamental basis for facilitating in the development of solutions, new initiatives, products or services. In an entrepreneurial context, the end result of this process should be directly linked to a feasible opportunity in the market environment.

Quote – What lies behind us and what lies before us, are tiny matters, compared to what lies within us. – William Morrow

The creative problem solving process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Problem analysis

‘ Solution analysis

‘ Decision analysis

‘ Solution implementation

1.2 The process

The creative problem solving process consists of an important core process, namely the idea generation process see figure 1. This is an important step, especially if you need to come up with creative ideas for products, services, and processes, to solve a consumer problem. The idea generation process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Step 1 – Generating ideas

‘ Step 2 – Developing ideas into a concept

‘ Step 3 – Converting a concept into a tangible or intangible product

‘ Step 4 – Finally protecting the tangible or intangible product

Figure 1 – The process of creative thinking (idea generation)

Initially you need to understand the problem and find the root cause of the problem. Many techniques are available to find the causes of problems, you can use the 5 Why technique in this case, if you are familiar with it. The more advanced courses will describe how to use the major problem identification techniques, but this course will focus on the idea generation process.

1.3 Where to start

In the entrepreneurial phase, the best way to start the idea generation process is when you are required to come up with a new product or service, to identify a potential consumer problem. Initially, focus on identifying problems in the area of your expertise (your knowledge base).

If you have no knowledge of the problem, the product development stage could be a challenge for you.

You will learn in the next section that not all problems are opportunities, and entrepreneurs should be careful as to how they approach this stage, when generating ideas in trying to identify a new product or service.

1.4 Problem versus opportunity

In most cases, the idea-generation phase in the creative problem solving process is neglected. Individuals normally identify a problem or an opportunity (which may seem like an opportunity, but is actually just an idea), and then develop a new product in line with the new assumed idea or opportunity. It is therefore important to distinguish between an idea and an opportunity. Resources may be wasted if a mere idea is incorrectly perceived as an opportunity.

Any opportunity is initially problem based (e.g. a coffee shop in a destination where there is a lack thereof, this creates several problem situations and potentially feasible opportunities for the entrepreneur). The creative thinking (idea generation process) involved, is the means to solving these problems, and bring forth solutions to the market problems, which create further opportunities.

1.4.1 Difference between problem and opportunity

There is, however, a critical difference between a problem and opportunity. Consider the following:

‘ Is it an idea or an opportunity to develop a high speed train between two major cities which are not far from each other? Some may say it is a great idea, but when you need to pay R200 a day to make use of it, it is simply not an opportunity. Only a few people would make use of the service, resulting in a negative impact on the market.

‘ If it is possible to transport people between the two cities for a lower cost, say R10, it would possibly be a more feasible opportunity.

Here is a good example of an opportunity – Around the turn of the twentieth century, a shoe manufacturer sent a representative to Africa, to open up a market in the undeveloped area in that continent. After exploring the culture for a month, the rep sent a telegram to the home office shouting,

‘Disaster! Disaster! These people do not wear shoes. Bring me home immediately!’

A short time later, another shoe company sent their agent to Africa for the same purpose. A month later his home office also received a telegram:

‘Opportunity! Opportunity! These people do not wear shoes! Triple production immediately!’

Quote – Every situation contains the potential for disastrous problems or unprecedented success. The event is what we perceive it to be. Unknown

Now the question arises: How do I distinguish between an idea and an opportunity? Looking at above examples, every problem is not an opportunity, and it really depends at how you are looking at the problem. If you see a viable opportunity in a problem then you are looking at the problem with a different perception than most people (the glass is half full or half empty). From a business perspective all opportunities are not necessarily a viable opportunity, the market determines the available opportunities. Without the knowledge to interpret the market conditions, you could miss it totally in terms of your opportunity analysis.

Table 1 shows the different industries in South Africa, the level of entrepreneurial activity, and how the same opportunity differs in each of these market areas.

1.4.2 The global entrepreneurship monitor

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor ‘ specifically identified the entrepreneurial activity in the various industries of South Africa. It can be generalized to state that an industry with a high level of entrepreneurial activity, gives away more business opportunities (e.g. manufacturing, retail, hotel, restaurant and business services), while one with a lower level will indicate far less opportunities (e.g. agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing, finance, insurance, real estate and health, education and social services).

If we analyse just one ‘high-opportunity’ industry, for instance manufacturing, it may be an opportunity today to manufacture a final product, and export it to an international market. A ‘low-opportunity’ industry, for instance insurance (especially in the market entry phase), may be negative as having an extremely high crime rate and insurance companies have to pay out claims at an alarming rate. It is also evident that low-opportunity industries may create feasible opportunities.

An entrepreneur should therefore be wary of following a fad, (latest trend) and exploiting assumed opportunities in a ‘popular’ industry.

Percentage of Entrepreneurs

ISIC Category Start-ups New Firms Total

Agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing 1,3 2,6 1,6

Mining, construction 9,7 5,0 4,1

Manufacturing 14,3 19,1 13,8

Transport, communications, utilities 9,8 0,7 8,0

Wholesale, motor vehicle sales, repairs 6,0 6,5 6,3

Retail, hotel, restaurant 40,8 47,7 43,5

Finance, insurance, real estate 0,3 5,2 1,4

Business services 10,1 7,9 9,4

Health, education, social services 2,6 0,7 2,3

Consumer services 11,0 3,5 9,7

Source: Driver. Wood, Segal & Herrington, 2001

Table 1 – The percentage of entrepreneurs in the different industries in South-Africa

1.4.3 What is an opportunity?

What exactly is an opportunity and how does an entrepreneur exploit a feasible opportunity? According to Hesrich & Peters (2002), an opportunity is the process whereby the entrepreneur assesses whether a certain product, service or process, will yield the necessary earnings based on the resource inputs that are required to manufacture and market it.

The nature of opportunities needs to be assessed – thus, what leads to the existence of an opportunity? The following factors may result in an opportunity:

‘ General and specific problems faced by consumers

‘ Market shifts

‘ Government regulations

‘ Competition

There are two equally important criteria in the assessment of an opportunity. Firstly, the size of the market – will the number of customers reward the input and energy required, to create and deliver the product?

Secondly, the length in terms of the frame of the opportunity (window of opportunity). For example, is the demand for this product only a short fashionable phenomenon or is it based on sustainable business, or how long will it take before someone else (a competitor), to grab the opportunity?

These two aspects should also link directly to the personal skills and competence of the entrepreneur. For example, entrepreneurs with no skills or interest in information technology will not necessarily achieve their personal goals. They should rather venture into an opportunity which suits their experience and personality.

1.4.4 Transform opportunity into a business

Table 2 shows how the development of a business plan links to the identification and evaluation of opportunities, the determination of the resources required and the eventual management of the enterprise. All of these factors play a significant role in the correct assessment of the business opportunity.

This means that the business plan must explain in sufficient detail how the business will exploit the situation, to transform the opportunity, into solving a problem for the consumer, which generates extraordinary profits for the people involved.

Identify and evaluate the opportunity Develop the business plan Determine the resources needed Manage the enterprise

Creation and length of opportunity

Real and perceived value of opportunity

Risk and returns of opportunity

Opportunity versus skills and goals

Competitive situation Title page

Table of contents

Executive summary

Description of business

Description of industry

Marketing plan

Financial plan

Production plan

Organisational plan

Operational plan

Summary

Appendices Existing resources of the entrepreneur

Resource gap and available supplies

Access to needed resources Management style

Key variables for success

Identification of problems and potential problems

Implementation of control systems

Source: Hisrich, R.D. & Peters, M.P. 2002: 40. Entrepreneurship. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Table 2 – Link between Opportunity and business plan

1.5 Instruction

Exit and resume to your current page.

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The importance of employee engagement in an organization high school essay help

1.4 Literature Review

Mark Kilsby and Stephen Beyer (1996) ‘ Engagement and Interaction : A comparison between supported employment and acts’. This research study was conducted with the help of interaction and commitment patterns of 13 supported employees and 38 regular adult training center attainders of the organization. Direct observation was used as method of data collection, within the 13 employment sites and a representative sample of ATC organized activities. Because of the higher level of task specific dialogue between individuals and the service of the organization it is found that there is more of social interaction in ACT. Interaction of employees with public within office hours was the cause for this as per the study conducted.

Douglas R. May, Richard L, Gilson and Lynn M . Harter (2004) ‘The Psychological Conditions Of Meaningfulness ,Safety And Availability And The Engagement Of The Human Spirit At Work’. This shows the study about a U.S western company which explored the determinants and mediated the effects of tree psychological conditions they are meaningful, safe and available. The above studies shoes that all the three factors (meaningfulness, safety and availability) have a positive relation with the engagement of an employee in the organization. In other words they are completely associated with the psychological safety where as loyalty to co worker norms and self- consciousness are negatively related.

Despoina Xanthopaolou, Arnold B, Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti and Wilmar B.Schaufeli (2009) ‘Work Engagement And Financial Returns : A Diary Study On The Role Of The Job And Personal Resources’. The above study shows that how daily fluctuations in job can affect the level of personal resource , financial returns and work engagement. Different level of analysis revealed that day level job resources had an effect on work engagement through the day level personal resources. When there was a control for the general level of personal resources and organizational engagement Day level work engagement showed a positive way towards day level training, which in turn showed the financial returns.

Dan-Shang Wang and Chia ‘Chun Hsieh (2013) ‘The Effect Of Authentic Leadership On Employee Trust And Employee Engagement’ they have examined the genuine leadership on employee engagement through employee trust. They have collected data from 386 employees from top 1000 manufacturing companies and top 500 service companies in Taiwan. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis on the employees. Later on the results shows that the consistency between the supervisors , words and actions as well as their moral perceptions are optimistically related to employee engagement , when only supervisors are consist between the words and actions in positively related employment trust. The study shows how employee engagement had a positive trust on employee. Employee trust has a partial link between authentic leadership and employee engagement.

Benjamin J.C, Yuan and Michael B.H. Lin (2012) ‘Transforming Employee Engagement Into Long-Term Customer Relationships: Evidence From Information Technology Salespeople In Taiwan’. This article shows that when information sales people in Taiwan have perceived more transformational leadership and they were more expected to show increased development in work engagement. Over a period of time it was found that increased development in work engagement influenced the increased customer relationship. It showed how employee engagement is indirectly co related with customer relationship.

Xander M.Bezuijen, Karen Van Dam, Peter T . Van Den Berg and Henk Thierry (2010) ‘How Leaders Stimulate Employee Learning : A Leader ‘ Member Exchange Approach’. This study investigated how the three factors as such as leader member exchange, goal setting, and feedback are related to employee engagement in the learning activities. Here, two different mechanisms were proposed , first one a mediating mechanism telling that leader member exchange shows specific leader behavior. The second one is it as a moderating mechanism , holding that leader member exchange will strengthen the effect of leader behavior from 7 organizations a sample of 1112 employees was taken , to measure the leader member exchange approach. 233 of the direct leaders answered that they find difficulty in rating employee engagement in learning activities.

Maureen F.Dollard and Arnold B. Bakker (2010) ‘Psychosocial Safety Climate As A Precursor To Conducive Work Environment , Psychological Health Problems , And Employee Engagement’. This article shows the gap between work psychology and psychosocial working condition. Where we construct a psychosocial working condition PSC. It explains how PSC influences the senior management in psychological working conditions and in psychological health and engagement. They use the job demand and resources as a frame work and uses a multi level thinking into their explanation

James R.Jones (2009) ‘Comparative Effects On Race/Ethnicity And Employee Engagement On Withdrawal Behavior’. This study have added knowledge on the basis of effects on employee attachment. In addition to that it provides more evidence on looking at all types of employees as a single entity which can lead to false results.

Shane Crabb ( 2011) ‘The Use Of Coaching Principles To Foster Employee Engagement’. The above article focuses on the human condition that leads to the happiness of fulfillment and flourishing of employee engagement. Where positive psychology results in so many questions from traditional psychological approaches .Which have mean to focus on a different model of human functioning with healing people fail. In another way positive psychology takes additional holistic approach to human life. Seeing the positive and negative aspects of context when establishing what is right , working and good of people.

Roberta A . Neault and Deidre A .Pickerel (2011) ‘Career Engagement : Bridging Career Counseling And Employee engagement’ . this article is showing that employee counselors helps individuals in maximizing their career engagement at any career stage of an individual. When you facilitate career engagement it contributes to employee engagement which employee are looking for. They even encourages others to use the career engagement and employee engagement models as vehicles to combine the employers to interest in engagement counselors to create interest in supporting the development of employee an motivate them to work.

2.1 Title: A Cross Sectional Study Of Employee Engagement In Apollo Hospitals.

2.2 Objectives:

1. To determine the level of Employee Engagement in Apollo Hospitals.

2. To identify the factors of Employee Engagement.

3. To analyze and suggest strategies for improvement.

2.3 Research Methodology:

I had adopted descriptive research design for the purpose of this

Survey on employee engagement. The primary data was collected from the 100 employees conveniently selected from Apollo Hospitals Bangalore, through structured questionnaire.

2.4 Limitations:

1) The survey was carried out for a sample sized of 100 working staff only.

2) Findings and suggestion of this research are applicable only to Apollo Hospitals.

3) As an fact finding study advanced statistical tools or analysis are not used.

Table 1.1 Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

X 1 2 3 4 5

I have adequate opportunities for professional growth in this organization. (X1) 10 20 32 19 19

I receive the training I need to do my job well.(X2) 2 52 22 16 08

My manager is actively interested in my professional development and advancement.(X3) 32 21 12 18 17

My manager encourages and supports my development (X4) 08 10 40 18 24

I am encouraged to learn from my mistakes (X5) 52 23 16 04 05

My work is challenging, stimulating, and rewarding(X6) 28 14 33 16 09

X1 ?? XI X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5 X6 ?? X6

10 50 2 10 32 160 08 40 52 260 28 140

20 80 52 208 21 84 10 40 23 92 14 56

32 96 22 66 12 36 40 120 16 48 33 99

19 38 16 32 18 36 18 36 04 08 16 32

19 19 08 08 17 17 24 24 05 05 09 09

TOTAL 283 TOTAL 324 TOTAL 333 TOTAL 260 TOTAL 413 TOTAL 336

Table 1.2 Calculation Of Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

283/100 2.83 324/100 3.24 333/100 3.33 260/100 2.60 413/100 4.13 336/100 3.36

RANKED 6 RANKED 4 RANKED 3 RANKED 5 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.3 Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Opportunities for growth

INFERENCE

The above table shows that the employees are encouraged to learn from their mistakes that is 4.15 out of 5.the work is stimulating rewarding and challenging is ranked 2nd.the manager is actively interested in employees professional growth is

ranked 3rd.the level of opportunity for professional growth shows the least ranking.

Table 1.4: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 20 32 19 19 100

Chart 1.1: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

Interpretation:

32% of the employees from the given population says that they have a neutral opportunity to grow where as 10 % stands in the outstanding category and 20% of them in good category. An equal no of employees disagree to the fact in the other hand that is 19% of the given population.

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 52 22 16 8 100

Table 1.5: Showing Training

Chart 1.2: Showing Training

Interpretation:

In the given sample 52% of the employees agrees to the fact that they receive good training in order to do their job efficiently and 2% strongly agrees. where 22 % is neutral to the situation given.16 % of them do not get proper training they required to do their jobs and 8 % strongly disagree to it. It is clear that the organization is giving a proper training to employees to make their work effective.

Table 1.6: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 21 12 18 17 100

Chart 1.3: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

Interpretation:

Most of the employees agree that their manager takes attention in their professional development steps. 32 % to 25 of the employees from the given sample have strongly agreed and agreed to it respectively. whereas 12 % is neutral to it . but 18% to 17% disagrees and says that they are not taken care in respective of their advancement in profession.

Table 1.7: Showing Encouragement And Support

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 10 40 18 24 100

Chart 1.4: Showing Encouragement And Support

Interpretation:

From the above graph its clear that 40% of the employees neither agree or disagree that management encourage them or support them. 8% to 10% agrees that they have been supported by the management . but 18 % to 24 % disagree to the fact that management supports them .

Table 1.8: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

52 23 16 4 5 100

Chart 1.5: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

Interpretation:

More than half , 52% of the employees states that they have a challenging stimulating and rewarding work. A very few of them disagree to it 4 % to 5% . and 23 % of them agrees t it there is a majority of people agreeing to it.

Table 1.9: Showing Encouragement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

28 14 33 16 9 100

Chart 1.6: Showing Encouragement

Interpretation:

There is a 28% of people agreeing to it. And 16 % to 9 % disagreeing to the fact that they are not encouraged to learn from their mistakes .

Table 1.10: Showing Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

X 1 2 3 4 5

My manager understands the benefits of maintaining a balance between work and personal life. (X1) 02 13 08 48 29

My job does not cause unreasonable amounts of stress in my life. (X2) 30 13 08 48 29

The amount of work I am asked to do is reasonable. (X3) 40 20 12 14 14

I am able to satisfy both my job and family/personal responsibilities. (X4) 27 12 08 09 44

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4

02 10 30 150 40 200 27 135

13 52 13 52 20 80 12 48

08 24 08 24 12 48 08 24

48 96 48 96 14 28 09 18

29 29 29 29 14 14 44 44

TOTAL 211 TOTAL 351 TOTAL 370 TOTAL 269

Table 1.11: Showing Calculation Of Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

Table 1.12: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace

211/100 2.11 351/100 3.51 370/100 3.7 269/100 2.69

RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2 RANKED 3

INFERRENCE

By analysing the given data using weighted average method that the level of stress reduced in the employees is 3.51 out of 4 , and the amount of work the employee is asked to do is 3.7. the employee is able to balance between family and personal responsibility is 2.69 . the managers understanding in the benefits and maintaining balance between work and personal life should be taken care because it is got only 2.11 which have least rank

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 13 8 48 29 100

Table 1.13: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Chart 1.7: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Interpretation:

Only 2% of the employees says that there is a balance between work life and personal life. 13% of them agrees to it and 8% is neutral to it.but 48% of the sample disagrees and 29 % of them strongly disagrees to it.

Table 1.14: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

30 13 8 48 29 100

Chart 1.8: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

Interpretation:

30% of the employees strongly agrees that the job doesn’t cause much stress where 13% of them agrees and 8% is neutral to it. But 48%of them disagree nd 29% strongly disagrees and states that job causes stress in their life.

Table 1.15: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.9: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

Interpretation:

40% of them strongly agrees that they have sufficient amount of work and they do not feel any stress where 20 % of them agrees. 12% of the sample is neutral.14% of them disagrees they don’t have suffient amount of work or they are overloaded with the work given.

Table 1.16: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.10: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

Interpretation:

44% of them strongly disagree that they are not able to complete their job, family and personal responsibilities. 27 % to 12 % agrees to it and 8% is neutral to that. It shows that employees are not satisfied with the amount of work given to them.

Table 1.17: Showing Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X 1 2 3 4 5

My ideas and opinions count at work. (X1) 03 18 19 32 28

I am comfortable sharing my opinions at work. (X2) 10 08 28 42 12

We work to attract, develop, and retain people with diverse backgrounds. (X3) 10 13 09 56 12

Senior management is genuinely interested in employee opinions and ideas. (X4) 24 23 36 07 10

People with different ideas are valued in this organization. (X5) 20 18 40 13 09

Table 1.18: Calculation Of Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

3 15 10 50 10 50 24 120 20 100

18 72 08 32 13 52 23 92 18 72

19 57 28 84 09 27 36 108 40 120

32 64 42 84 56 112 07 14 13 26

28 26 12 12 12 12 10 10 09 09

TOTAL 234 TOTAL 262 TOTAL 253 TOTAL 344 TOTAL 327

234/100 2.34 262/100 2.62 253/100 2.53 344/100 3.44 327/100 3.27

RANKED 5 RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.19: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Personal Expression / Diversity

INFERRENCE

By analysing the above table it shows that senior management is interested in personal opinions which shows the rank 1. And people with different ideas are valued in the organisation are considered 3.27 out of 5. Employees are free to share their ideas 2.62. the employees work in such a manner to attract and retain others 2.53 ,which has got the 4th rank. Ideas counted at work has got the least rank where they have to work on that part.

Table 1.20: Showing Idea And Opinion Count

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

3 18 19 32 28 100

Chart 1.11: : Showing Idea And Opinion Count

Interpretation:

Only 3% of the employees agree that the management listens to their ideas and opinions. 18% of them agree to it as well. 19 % is neutral to the situation. Whereas there is a huge no of the sample size that is32% to 28% who is disagreeing to it. Their opinions and ideas are not taken seriously by the management.

Table 1.21: Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 8 28 42 12 100

Chart 1.12 : Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

Interpretation:

The conducted shows that onl10% to 8% employees are comfortable in sharing their problems with the upper management. Rest of the sample that is 42% is disagreeing that they are not comfortable in sharing their ideas or problems.12% of them strongly disagrees.

Table 1.22: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 13 9 56 12 100

Chart 1.13: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

Interpretation:

56% of the employees disagrees that they don’t work to attract ,develop or retain customers. Where 10% to 13% agrees to the statement . a little sample size of 12% strongly disagrees to the statement .

Table 1.23: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

24 23 26 7 10 100

Chart 1.14: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

Interpretation

The management shows interest in taking employees ideas and opinions.24% of them agrees and 23% of the strongly agrees to the statement. A huge sample ,36% id neutral to the statement. But a little sample, 7% to 10% disagrees to the statement.

Table 1.24: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

20 18 40 13 9 100

Chart 1.15: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

Interpretation:

20% to 18% of the employees agree that people with different ideas are well accepted in the organization. 40% to the employees are neutral to the statement. 13 % to 9% of the sample disagrees to the statement on the other hand.

Table 1.25: Showing Weighted Average On Compensation

X 1 2 3 4 5

I am paid fairly for the work I do. (X1) 19 42 12 25 2

My salary is competitive with similar jobs I might find elsewhere.(X2) 32 12 28 23 5

My benefits are comparable to those offered by other organizations.(X3) 8 29 28 32 3

I understand my benefit plan. (X4) 42 15 19 9 15

I am satisfied with my benefit package. (X5) 58 12 11 6 13

Table 1.26: Calculation Of Weighted Average On Compensation

X1 vX1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

19 95 32 160 08 40 42 210 58 290

42 168 12 48 29 116 15 60 12 48

12 36 28 84 28 84 19 57 11 33

25 50 23 46 32 64 09 18 06 12

02 02 05 05 03 03 15 15 13 13

TOTAL 351 TOTAL 343 TOTAL 307 TOTAL 360 TOTAL 396

Table 1.27: Showing The Rank Of Each Component Of Compensation

351/100 3.51 343/100 3.43 307/100 3.07 360/100 3.60 396/100 3.96

RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 5 RANKED 2 RANKED 1

INFERENCES

The above table shows that the employees are satisfied with the benefit package they are given 3.96 out of 5.the employees understand their plan is 3.60. the fair pay is ranked 3rd.the employees salary is competitive with others is ranked 4th. The salary is not comparable with salary with others which has been ranked the least, rank 5.

Table 1.28: showing Fair Pay

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

19 42 12 25 2 100

Chart 1.16: Showing Fair Pay

Interpretation:

19% to 42% of the Employees agree that they are paid fairly according to the amount of work they do. But 25% to 2% of the sample size disagrees to the statement. And 12% is neutral to it.

Table 1.29: Showing Salary Competitiveness

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 12 28 23 5 100

Chart 1.17: Showing Salary Competitiveness

Interpretation:

32% of the employees agrees that they get a competitive salary when compared to other organizations with same designation. 12% of them strongly agrees to it .28% of them are neutral to the statement. 23% to 5% is disagrees to the statement in the other hand.

Table 1.30: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 29 28 32 3 100

Chart 1.18: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

Interpretation:

There is balance, 29% of the employees agrees and 32 % of them strongly disagrees that they have a comparable benefits.28% of them are neutral in the other hand.

Table 1.31: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

42 15 19 9 15 100

Chart 1.19: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

Interpretation:

42% of the employees agrees that they understand their benefit plan. 15% strongly agrees ,where 19% is neutral.9% to 15% disagrees to the fact and says they don’t understand the benefit plans they are given.

Table 1.32: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

58 12 11 6 13 100

Chart 1.20: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

Interpretation:

58% of them are satisfied with their benefit package. 12% strongly agrees. Whereas little sample of 6% to 13% disagrees to the statement. Or they are not happy with their benefit package.11% is neutral to it.

Summary of Findings

‘ Most of the employee’s ability state the opinion firmly and positively is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability in exercising the professional duties without assistance is better than acceptable standard.

‘ The Emotional Stamina of the majority of the employees is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the Employee’s Ability to work co-operatively and collaboratively to achieve common goal is better than acceptable.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to effectively guide a group through an appropriate process to help to achieve their desired outcomes is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to clarify and establish with a group roles and responsibilities, common goal and plan to achieve them and group behavioural is outstanding.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to deal with multiple issues and details, alertness and learning capacity is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to see and think beyond the obvious and formulate original solution is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to present ideas, concept, plan and procedure clearly to the target group is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Concern for excellence of the majority of the employee’s is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s Aware of what is going on in the workplace and responds in a suitable manner to situations as they is better than acceptable.

‘ The understanding between the top level and employees are in good terms.

‘ Employees do understand their benefits and opportunities given by the organisation.

‘ The employees are paid fairly according to the work done.

‘ Freedom of sharing new ideas and opinions are welcomed in the organisation.

‘ The employees are able to make a balance between personnel and work life. which reduces the amount of stress in them.

‘ The organisation encourages the employee to learn from their mistakes.

‘ Recommendations

‘ In this organization employee engagement study must be regularly done in order to check the level of employee effectiveness.

‘ Since many of the employees are performing different jobs to what they were doing at the time of their joining they need training to perform the new work allotted them.

‘ Different sources of employee engagement tactics must be encouraged in employees.

‘ The top management should support the lower level employees since it is considered a major hurdle in effective employee engagement and the employees must also be made aware of importance of engagement at work system

‘ The employees should be then and there motivated for work.

‘ The understanding between management and employees should be increased.

‘ Level of stress in work should be reduced.

‘ Better benefit package should be given to the employees.

Conclusion

In the report we have discussed the importance of employee engagement in an organization and how it affects the efficiency of work and productivity. Employment counselors should help individuals to maximize their career engagement at any stage of their career. Basically employee engagement should be a buzz word for the employee engagement and a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization. Employee engagement is gaining its importance and popularity in work places and its impact in many ways. It emphasis on the importance of employee engagement in a organization, an organization should thus give more importance for its employees than any other variable as they are the powerful contributors to a company’s competitiveness. Thus it shows that employee engagement should be a continues process for learning, improvement, measurement and action of an employee.

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The limitations of the Chit Acts melbourne essay help

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The financial system assumes strategically a very important role in channelling the funds from surplus units to deficit units. The financial system here refers to the group of institutions, markets and instruments which helps in formation of capital and thus accelerates to the pace of economic development.

The base of this study stems from the fact that there exists a gap between gross capital formation and gross domestic savings in India. So, there exists the need to augment the growth rate of voluntary domestic savings. This goal can be realized by widening and strengthening the working of different financial intermediaries which will result in mobilizing savings from various income level categories. .It is in this context that the role of the Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries like Chit Finance should be appreciated in supplementing the functions of the Banking Institutions.

Chit funds are Chit funds are the Indian equivalent of the Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCA). ROSCAs are famous in many parts of the world and is seen as an instrument to ‘save and borrow’ simultaneously. ROSCAs basically started as a way to help in fulfilling the needs of the low-income households as it enables the people to convert their small savings into lump sums. The concept of chit funds originated more than 1000 years ago. Initially it was in the form of an informal association of traders and households within communities, wherein the members contributed some money in return for an accumulated sum at the end of the tenure. Participation in Chit funds was mainly for the purpose of purchasing some property or, in other words, for ‘consumption’ purposes. However, in recent times, there have been tremendous alterations in the constitution and functioning of Chit funds. A significant difference between Chit Funds and ROSCAs are that in most places ROSCAs are user-owned and organized informally, but chit funds have been formally institutionalized in India. (Chit Funds-An innovative access to finance for low income households, 2009)

1.1.1 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY CHIT FUNDS?

Chit fund is a savings-cum-borrowing instrument. The basic aim of this instrument is to pool small amount of savings by all the members which is then managed by a foreman. The foreman has the responsibility to act as a trustee-cum-supervisors for the process of collection and allotment of the pooled amount.

Chit funds represent a traditional form of saving-cum-credit institution evolved before the bank system was introduced in rural India. There are many who avail themselves of this avenue for saving for a reasonable return.

1.1 NEED AND RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Despite the growth of a wide range of savings avenues and the widespread network of banks and other financial institutions, it has been found that Chit scheme still forms an important part in the asset portfolio of many households and firms in India and especially in South India including Karnataka. Also, the review of literature shows that there are only a few studies on Chit Finance. Therefore, the need to conduct the study stems from the requirement to understand Chit Funds in Bangalore.

1.2 NEED TO CONDUCT THE STUDY

The research titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study tries to point out the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests feasible recommendations for improving the working of such institutions.

.3.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’.

VARIABLES UNDER INVESTIGATION

1. Age

2. Occupation

3. Monthly income

4. Gender

5. Bank loan

6. Regular participation in chit fund

7. Membership in multiple chit schemes

8. Cause for participating in multiple schemes

9. Preferred avenue of saving

10. Preferred source of finance

11. Safety

12. Better service

13. Flexibility

14. Timely Payment

15. Low commission

16. Personal contact

17. Unregistered chit funds membership

18. Cause for participating in unregistered chit funds

19. Cause for not participating in unregistered chit fund

3.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

3.5.1 OBJECTIVE(PRIMARY)

1. To understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members.

2. To identify the important predictors behind chit fund participation

3.5.2 OHER OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

1. To estimate interest rates in registered chit funds.

2. To compare the relative ratings of Chit subscribers towards registered and unregistered chit funds on

3. To estimate the return on Chit Funds.

3.6 HYPOTHESIS

There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

1. Null hypothesis

2. Alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

.

3.8 SAMPLING METHOD

Members of four registered chit fund companies in Bangalore. The four registered chit fund companies were selected due to the large size of their subscriber base.

3.8.3 SIZE OF SAMPLE

150 respondents

3.9 MECHANISM OF STUDY

3.9.1 PRIMARY RESEARCH

Questions relating to behaviour and financial pattern will be found out through questionnares

3.9.2 SECONDARY RESEARCH

‘ Reports on chit fund industry

OVERVIEW OF INDIAN CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

4.1.1 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CHIT FUND COMPANIES:

According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on 31st December, 2013:

Volume of registered chit companies: 5412

Volume of chit companies in Karnataka: 703

Number of chit fund companies in Bangalore: 315

UNREGISTERED CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

Although unregistered chits are an informal source of finance but still they are a significant part of the chit fund industry. Though they are more easily accessible as compared to registered chit funds.

4.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ attempt in The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study also examines the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests suitable recommendations for improving the functioning of such institutions.

4.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY

‘ Unwillingness of the members to share their income and financial details made the task of data collection somewhat difficult.

‘ Collecting data became difficult since I don’t know the regional languages.

5.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis is done on the primary data collected from 150 chit funds members in Bangalore

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

5.4.1 Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.070a 16 .013

Likelihood Ratio 35.945 16 .003

Linear-by-Linear Association 8.809 1 .003

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .455 .013

Cramer’s V .228 .013

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=31.070 was p=.013, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (Phi and Cramer’s V -0.455).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. This means that different age groups of the chit fund members have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As can be seen from the table above that those who belong to ’36-45 years’ have saving as the predominant reason to participate whereas members of other age groups do not have any dominant reason to participate.

5.4.2 Hypothesis 2:

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

. Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 10.018a 4 .040

Likelihood Ratio 10.478 4 .033

Linear-by-Linear Association 6.876 1 .009

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .258 .040

Cramer’s V .258 .040

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=10.018 was p=.040, less than 0.05.

.We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (0.258)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis. This means that males and females have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As it can be seen that males participate in chit funds for business and personal consumption purposes apart from saving whereas women predominantly participate to save.

5.4

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 82.176a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 97.665 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 15.696 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .740 .000

Cramer’s V .427 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (0.740)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the self-employed members mainly participate to avail for business reasons whereas salaried employee participate mainly for personal consumption purposes.

Hypothesis 5:

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 66.691a 20 .000

Likelihood Ratio 43.579 20 .002

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.804 1 .028

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .667 .000

Cramer’s V .333 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=66.691) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong (0.667)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the members of age group’36-45 years’ are more interested in bidding for business related purposes where members of other age groups bid mainly for emergency needs.

5.4.6 Hypothesis 6:

. Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.167a 5 .209

Likelihood Ratio 7.885 5 .163

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.120 1 .290

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .219 .209

Cramer’s V .219 .209

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.167) was p=.209, more than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.7 Hypothesis 7:

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 180.915a 15 .000

Likelihood Ratio 160.460 15 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 28.379 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.098 .000

Cramer’s V .634 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that self-employed people bid in chit scheme mostly for business purposes, salaried people for emergency needs and housewives for household purposes.

5.4.8 Hypothesis 8:

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 123.331a 35 .000

Likelihood Ratio 106.298 35 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.957 1 .026

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=123.331) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.907)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that low income members bid mostly for consumption reasons whereas higher income members bid for business related and emergency purposes.

SUMMARY:

Reason to bid in chit fund has the strongest association with the occupation of the chit fund members as the probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000 and the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098).

5.4.

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 21.702a 16 .153

Likelihood Ratio 23.775 16 .095

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.397 1 .122

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=123.331) was p=.153, more than 0.05. Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.10 Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 20.510a 4 .000

Likelihood Ratio 29.038 4 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 7.062 1 .008

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .370 .000

Cramer’s V .370 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=20.510) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (.370).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis.

5.4.11 Hypothesis 11:

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 67.261a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 60.380 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.507 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .670 .000

Cramer’s V .387 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=67.261 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong(.670).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to cause in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. Salaried people save their money in chit fund with no particular purpose. But self-employed people are equally interested in saving for house purchase as well as for general purpose.

SUMMARY:

chit fund is most closely associated with occupation of the chit fund members as it has the highest value of chi-square statistic and Phi coefficient.

5.4.12 Hypothesis 12:

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 56.697a 3 .000

Likelihood Ratio 67.900 3 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 36.400 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=56.697) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (.615).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘membership in multiple chit schemes are related to differences in ‘having currently bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that those members currently having bank loan have invested in only one chit scheme whereas those members who do not have availed bank loan have invested in more than one chit schemes.

5.4.13 Hypothesis 13:

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 96.660a 7 .000

Likelihood Ratio 85.378 7 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 59.577 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell(10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.08.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=96.660 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.803).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘participation in unregistered chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that mostly low- income members have participated in unregistered funds. This is because the registered funds have become expensive due to the increase in their operational cost as a result of stringent regulations.

5.2.14 Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 28.049a 5 .000

Likelihood Ratio 31.806 5 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.967 1 .085

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 2 cells (15.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.79.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .432 .000

Cramer’s V .432 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=28.049) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (.432).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to prefer chit fund over bank’ are related to differences in ‘having bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that members who have bank loan have preferred chit fund over bank mainly due to better dividends. But those who do not have bank loan prefer chit fund over bank mainly due to better service in terms of more personalized service.)

5.2..15 Hypothesis 15: To identify significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds using Binary Logistic Regression

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 0 Constant -1.046 .186 31.574 1 .000 .351

Model Summary

Step -2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R Square Nagelkerke R Square

1 37.170a .533 .576

a. Estimation terminated at iteration number 6 because parameter estimates changed by less than .001.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a bank_loan(1) 1.068 1.265 14.715 1 .000 11.720

reason_2 2.286 4 .683

reason_2(1) 1.336 1.077 1.540 1 .215 3.805

reason_2(2) .134 2.239 .004 1 .952 1.143

reason_2(3) -.559 1.896 .087 1 .768 .572

reason_2(4) .731 1.347 .294 1 .588 2.076

reason_3 4.874 5 .431

reason_3(1) 1.188 .924 1.652 1 .199 3.279

reason_3(2) 1.661 2.048 .658 1 .417 5.263

reason_3(3) -1.654 1.228 1.813 1 .178 .191

reason_3(4) .404 1.192 .115 1 .735 1.497

reason_3(5) -17.379 20.722 .000 1 .700 .000

reason_4 .355 4 .986

reason_4(1) -1.047 1.850 .320 1 .571 .351

reason_4(2) -.839 1.979 .180 1 .672 .432

reason_4(3) -.932 1.637 .324 1 .569 .394

reason_4(4) 3.519 4.199 .000 1 .600 3.746

reason_5 8.553 5 .128

reason_5(1) -.254 1.768 .021 1 .886 .776

reason_5(2) -19.245 9.890 .000 1 .999 .000

reason_5(3) 1.420 1.338 1.126 1 .289 4.136

reason_5(4) -.747 1.306 .327 1 .567 .474

reason_5(5) .561 1.342 .174 1 .676 1.752

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a Safety -.075 .320 4.377 1 .011 0.928

Flexi -.178 .426 3.337 1 .021 0.837

commision -.185 .188 1.868 1 .026 0.831

payment -.267 .178 1.657 1 .097 0.766

service -.859 .412 1.348 1 .083 0.424

personal -1.122 .163 .996 1 .079 0.329

Constant 3.058 2.440 1.571 1 .010 21.291

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: : bank_loan, reason_2, reason_3, reason_4, reason_5.imp1, imp2, imp3, imp4, imp5, imp6.

INTERPRETATION:

‘ -2 Log Likelihood statistic is 37.170. This statistic how poorly the model predicts the decisions — the smaller the statistic the better the model. Since, 37.170 is a relatively small number therefore, this model is able to predict the decisions in a better way.

‘ Here Cox & Snell R Square statistic indicates that 53.3% of the variation in the regular participation in chit funds is explained by the logistic model.

‘ In our case Nagelkerke R Square is 0.576, indicating a moderate relationship of 57.6 % between the predictors and the prediction.

‘ If it is less than .05 then, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

‘ In this case, we can see that bank loan, safety, flexibility and low commission have contributed signi’cantly to the prediction of regular participation in chit funds but other variables are not significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds.

‘ Since only bank loan has p=.000, therefore we can say that bank loan is the most significant predictor

among other significant predictors. This is followed by safety (p=.011), flexibility (p=.021) and low commission (p=.026).

‘ Here, the EXP (B) bank loan is 11.727. Hence when bank loan is availed by one unit (one person) the odds ratio is 11 times as large and therefore people are 11 more times likely not to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) with safety is .928. Hence when safety is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .928 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) flexibility is 837. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .837 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) low commission is .831. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .831 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

SUMMARY

Bank loan is the most significant predictor of regular participation in chit funds. This is followed by safety, flexibility and low commission.

Instalment no No of months remaining Monthly subscription Prize amount PV of monthly subscription(PV of outlow at 10%) PV of Prize amount(PV of inflow at 10%) Net Present Value(PV of inflow – PV of outflow)

1 24 2000 50000 2000 50000 10444.9

2 23 1500 35000 1488.1 34723.1 -4832.0

3 22 1500 35000 1476.4 34448.4 -5106.7

4 21 1500 35000 1464.7 34175.9 -5379.2

5 20 1500 35000 1453.1 33905.5 -5649.6

6 19 1500 35000 1441.6 33637.3 -5917.8

7 18 1500 35000 1430.2 33371.2 -6183.9

8 17 1500 35000 1418.9 33107.2 -6447.9

9 16 1620 38000 1520.3 35660.6 -3894.5

10 15 1620 38000 1508.2 35378.5 -4176.6

11 14 1700 40000 1570.2 36945.9 -2609.2

12 13 1700 40000 1557.8 36653.6 -2901.5

13 12 1780 42000 1618.2 38181.8 -1373.3

14 11 1780 42000 1605.4 37879.8 -1675.3

15 10 1780 42000 1592.7 37580.1 -1975.0

16 9 1860 44000 1651.1 39058.2 -496.9

17 8 1860 44000 1638.0 38749.2 -805.9

18 7 1860 44000 1625.1 38442.6 -1112.5

19 6 1940 46000 1681.6 39872.1 317.0

20 5 1940 46000 1668.3 39556.6 1.5

21 4 1940 46000 1655.1 39243.7 -311.4

22 3 1940 46000 1642.0 38933.2 -621.8

23 2 1940 46000 1629.0 38625.2 -929.8

24 1 1940 46000 1616.1 38319.7 -1235.4

25 0 1940 46000 1603.3 38016.5 -1538.6

39555.1 934465.9 -54411.4

[supanova_question]

Merit goods my essay help uk

Merit goods are goods which will be under-provided by the market, therefore they will be under-consumed. They are thought by the governments to be good for the populations and so the governments want them to be consumed to a great extent. They increase the private and social benefits and cause the social benefit be higher than the private one. The best examples of them, apart from all the public goods, can be the education, health care, sports facilities and the opera.

Although the majority of the merit goods is provided by the private sectors, not all the people can afford buying them, therefore they will be under-consumed. That is why the government is needed to destroy the market failure increasing the supply and consequently raising the consumption.

To explain the reasons for government to provide the merit goods, I need to apply some examples of them. The first one can be the education. It is significant for the governments to provide it so that the society would be well-educated. Governments determine the period of education required for people (the compulsory education) to maintain the proper level of education of the society. The governments find education an important aspect that should be available for everyone as it cause the whole country to have better both economic growth and economic development.

Considering another example such as health care, the situation is quite similar. The governments want to provide the population with it because they care about the high states of health of society in their country. To gain these, the countries need to have high quality of health care. Governments often offer people unpaid programs consisting of preventative medical examination which contribute to maintain the high number of healthy people. This is also connected with the problems of the labour market. The healthier people are, the more efficient their work is, the greater revenue firms have and countries are more developed because of taxations.

Other examples like sport facilities or the opera are meant for people to become physically and culturally developed but their availability is not as important as in the case of the previous examples. That is why they are not as much provided by the governments as the rest of the merit goods.

Although most of the merit goods provided by the governments are free, the fact is that they are paid through the taxes that the societies pay. The number of the merit goods of particular types that the governments provide or subsidize depends on the necessity of them. If they are provided, the societies’ benefits get higher and so is the public treasury of the countries.

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Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father personal essay help

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.

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Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks online essay help

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

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WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation college essay help nyc

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) cheap mba definition essay help

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior global history essay help

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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The Cause And Effect Of Child Poverty Best Essay Help

In this assignment I will be talking about a Child Poverty and will discuss about causes and effects of poverty. the key causes and impacts on them that many of our society are suffering.

What are the reasons and effects of poverty?

Nowadays, there are many problem???s affecting the economic development in many countries around the world. One of the largest concerns is poverty. To begin with, poverty is a result from lack of learning. Individuals who don’t go to school will find jobs that are more demanding than others. They might require to do a badly paid work that take their healthiness a lots. An additional motive clue to poverty is laziness for the reason that there aren’t establishments prepared to accept an idle worker into their company. In addition, poverty is a cause of wasting of cash. For instance, they use money for building luxury homes, spending and purchasing up-to-date tools to use. Poverty is the lack of simple requirements that all human beings committed to have: food and water, shelter, education, medical care, safety, etc. A multi-dimensional difficult, poverty goes above all social, economic, and political restrictions. As such, hard work to improve poverty must be informed of a selection of different factors.

Poverty effects many aspects of people life. They require to live in a wrecked houses, wear horrible clothes, they can’t go out for an expensive lunch, have delicious food and have the most awful healthcare. Henceforward, it may change a human’s character. For instance: they get furious easily with their relative so the atmosphere is often hot. More or less individuals even turn out to be burglars as soon as they run out of cash. They steal cash or luxurious possessions that appear in front of their sight.

The country will develop vastly without poverty. In my opinion, the government should care about poorer people more and more by many different methods to support them like donations programs. Besides, they should inspire every person to get education because this is a unique way that people can escape poverty

Poverty does exists all over the world, nevertheless it???s a rich country or like some other countries. Even United States of America richest country around the world, whom are facing serious problems with poverty. The cause and effect of poverty can be placed to different procedures. The amount cause of poverty is lack of money, nevertheless it is not the only cause or effect. On the other hand, the purpose of this essay is to discuss some of the main causes and effects of poverty, which I will be declaring in learning, conflicts, food shortage, and natural catastrophes.

The initially and instant cause of poverty is lack of learning. In my opinion of understanding lack of education keeps youngsters from finding jobs that would boost them and their relatives out of poverty. In these days and age, education is the significantly important to have a life you wanted as for without an education it is unlikely to find better job prospectus or ought to have a decent life time. Doubt if you could have an enhanced job,

How could you succeed in life?

The second reason cause of poverty has to do with conflicts. Numerous poor countries are poor for the reason that they are continuously fighting. Conflicts cost millions and billions dollar into weapons, uniforms, food, etc. This is generally money that could go citizens or programs but as an alternative those funds are used into conflicts. Example: the war of Iraq cause so many things, such by way of financial crisis, loss of job, societies lost their homes, and the worse part it cause was starvation. Females and youngsters were suffering from lack of food.

In the beginning the effect of poverty is food shortage. One and only of the most noticeable effect of poverty is starvation. Plenty of children around the world remain distress now for starvation, as their guardians don???t have cash to buy food for them. Being poor effect various things in someone???s life. Additional result of poverty, is an insufficient education. Imaging parents whom aren???t able to pay their youngsters college fees, or send their children at school, and not only this their parents can???t buy clothes for them.

The second effect of poverty is being without a job; this is one essential effect of poverty because without employment it is not informal to survive. If you are laid off work, or without a job, it might be hard to pay your bills. You may possibly lose your house; even getting food will be hard. Some societies lose their self-esteem. You forced in ending up in the street stealing and drugs.

To conclude, there are numerous cause and effect of poverty. On the other hand, the

main roots that play vital role in our lives are lack of education, conflicts, lack of food, and being without a job. I personally think the four mains list above are a human nature of surviving life. My aims is that God create human being but he didn???t prepare us the similar in lifespan. More or less some are unfortunate, more or less some are rich, some have job, some don???t, some countries always violent, and some have peace. So we ought to deal by the way in order to survive.

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Control and organisational behaviour (pengendalian dan perilaku organisasi) essay help writing

PENGENDALIAN DAN PERILAKU ORGANISASI

PERILAKU ORGANISASI

Untuk membuat dasar yang nantinya dapat digunakan manajemen dalam menyusun system pengendalian manajemen, maka kita perlu mengetahui lebih dalam mengenai perilaku organisasi. Berikut ini adalah beberapa penjelasan mengenai teori akuntansi sebagai bentuk pemahaman terhadap organisasi.

Definisi Organisasi

Secara umum, organisasi diartikan sebagai sekumpulan orang yang melakukan kerjasama demi mencapai tujuan ‘ tujuan yang telah ditentukan bersama. Organisasi tercipta ketika orang ‘ orang bergabung dan melakukan sesuatu untuk berbagai tujuan dan organisasi dapat mencakup segala aspek dalam kehidupan. Organisasi dapat bersifat formal dan informal. Pekerjaan di dalam suatu organisasi dapat dibagi ‘ bagi dan dikoordinasi sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan keahlian tiap ‘tiap anggota organisasinya untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi tersebut. Suatu organisasi haruslah going concern, dalam arti organisasi tersebut diasumsikan akan hidup selamanya.

Teori Perilaku Organisasi (Theory of Organization Behaviour)

Ada beberapa teori yang menjelaskan mengenai mengapa dan bagaimana orang ‘ orang berperilaku dalam organisasi. Berikut ada dua penjelasan mengenai teori tersebut :

1. Teori jenjang kebutuhan

Teori ini menjelaskan bahwa setiap manusia memiliki kebutuhan yang banyak dan harus dipenuhi dan kebutuhan serta keinginan tersebut tersusun secara rapih, sehingga apabila ada satu kebutuhan terpenuhi maka setelah itu ia akan berusaha memenuhi kebutuhannnya yang lebih tinggi. Dalam teori ini tersirat bahwa system pengendalian manajemen juga didasarkan pada kebutuhan manusia yang terkoordinasi dan dilakukan sesuai dengan tujuan organisasi.

2. Teori motivasi pencapaian

Teori ini lebih mengacu pada perilaku atasan atau manajer dalam perannya saat berorganisasi. Untuk mencapai keberhasilan dan mendapat sebuah kekuasaan, maka manajer tersebut juga perlu memiliki keinginan yang kuat agar dapat menghasilkan prestasi dalam organisasi.

TEORI ORGANISASI

Pengetahuan yang dalam mengenai organisasi sangatlah diperlukan oleh para pelaku organisasi dalam pelaksanaan system pengendalian manajemen organisasi tersebut. Para pelaku organisasi harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui semua poin dalam organisasi termasuk sejarah organisasi, tujuan organisasi, bagaimana perilaku para pelakunya hingga reaksi organisasi tersebut terhadap lingkungan.

Tak berbeda dengan teori perilaku akuntansi, dalam teori organisasi juga terdapat banyak teori yang membahas mengenai organisasi. Dan disini akan dibahas mengenai dua teori juga tentang organisasi, yaitu :

1. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Dalam

Banyak organisasi dianggap indepen dan tidak terlalu memperhatikan lingkungan luar oleh beberapa teori. Teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam ini banyak dijadikan dasar oleh sebagian besar system pengendalian manajemen dalam suatu organisasi hal tersebut didasarkan karena dalam teori ini mencakup tanggung jawab dalam pengambilan keputusan yang berlaku menurut proyek ‘ proyek, program ‘ program serta komponen ‘ komponen fungsionalnya.

2. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Luar

Teori ini adalah teori kebalikan dari teori sebelumnya yaitu teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam. Teori ini beranggapan bahwa suatu organisasi selalu berhubungan dengan lingkungan di sekitarnya. Ada dua jenis organisasi yang menganut teori organisasi yang berorientasi keluar ini, yaitu :

– Organisasi system umum terbuka

– Organisasi system manajemen

TIPE ORGANISASI

Ada tiga jenis atau tipe organisasi, yaitu :

1. Organisasi Fungsional

Dalam tipe organisasi ini, penekanan lebih ditujukan kepada manajer yang sangat harus bertanggung jawab terhadap suatu fungsi tertentu, seperti fungsi produksi, fungsi pemasaran dan fungsi lainnya yang diterapkan dalam organisasi tersebut. Fungsi ‘ fungsi tersebut dapat dihimpun oleh fungsi yang lebih tinggi dalam organisasi itu juga. Organisasi ini berpotensi membuat efisiensi perusahaan yang lebih baik karena menggunakan masukan ‘ masukan dari manajerial yang lebih tinggi.

2. Organisasi Divisi

Dalam organisasi ini, semua manajer harus bertanggung jawab terhadap hamper keseluruhan fungsi dalam proses produksi serta distribusi lini pada organisasi tersebut. Orientasi organisasi divisi lebih terbuka yang berarti lebih menekankan bahwa para manajer harus peka terhadap pengaruh ‘ pengaruh yang dating dari luar yang mungkin dapat mempengaruhi kinerja organisasi.

3. Organisasi Matriks

Ada dua struktur organisasi dalam organisasi matriks, yaitu ditata berdasarkan fungsi dan ditata berdasarkan program. Pada organisasi matriks, para manajer bertanggung jawab penuh atas profitabilitas dari lini produk organisasi tersebut dimana proses produksi dilakukan oleh unit ‘ unit organisasi fungsional.

Teori Kemungkinan (Contingency Theory)

Untuk mengendalikan suatu manajemen menggunakan tiga macam pendekatan, antara lain :

1. Pendekatan tradisional

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada perencanaan, pendekatan dan pengendalian.

2. Pendekatan system

Pendekatan ini menekankan padapenggunaan sumber daya manusia sebagai pertimbangan dalam pengambilan keputusan.

3. Pendekatan perilaku

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada pengendalian manusia termasuk di dalamnya motivasi dan prediksi.

PERILAKU MANAJEMEN

Organisasi dan sistemnya yang rumit akan mempengaruhi perilaku manusia menjadi rumit pula.

Konsep Fundamental

Agar suatu organisasi ‘terkendali’ maka para anggota organisasi harus mengetahui dengan baik apa sebenarnya yang diinginkan oleh manajemen. Untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut, dapat menggunakan banyak informasi yang telah disediakan oleh manajemen organisasi seperti anggaran hingga kebijakan organisasi. Tujuan organisasi dibuat oleh para manajer senior dan dilaksanakan oleh manajer operasional untuk selanjutnya para manajer senior menerapkan system pengendalian manajemen untuk mengontrol organisasi tersebut.

Persepsi Tujuan

Para manajer operasional harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui apa tujuan organisasi. Para manajer operasional tersebut dapat secara mudah mendapatkan informasi ‘ informasi yang mereka butuhkan dari berbagai sumber baik dari dokumen maupun percakapan informal saja. System pengendalian manajemen yang efektif dapat menguatkan kepastian suatu perusahaan.

Organisasi Informal

Adanya organisasi informal di dalam organisasi formal sering menyebabkan adanya salah persepsi mengenai tindakan yang diharapkan. Hubungan pada organisasi informal tidak tercantum di dalam bagan organisasi, padahal hal tersebut cukup penting untuk pemahaman system pengendalian organisasi tersebut.

Motivasi

Reaksi pada pelaku organisasi terutama manajemen terhadap organisasi dapat berbeda tergantung pada motivasinya. Motivasi dapat bermacam ‘ macam, misalnya kenaikan gaji, promosi, pujian dan lain ‘ lain. Motivasi timbul dari dalam pribadi masing ‘ masing, tetapi motivasi dapat dipengaruhi oleh rangsangan dari lingkungan sekitarnya.

Keselarasan Tujuan (Goal Congruence)

Setiap manusia memiliki tujuan pribadi, begitu juga dengan organisasi yang juga memiliki tujuan bersama. Salah satu tugas penting system pengendalian adalah menyelaraskan kedua tujuan tersebut serta mencapainya demi mendapatkan kepuasan bersama. Semakin kuat hubungan antara tujuan pribadi dan tujuan organisasi, maka ssistem pengendalian organisasi tersebut akan semakin kuat juga.

Kerjasama dan Konflik

Suatu organisasi tidak akan berjalan dengan baik apabila para anggotanya tidak bekerjasama dengan baik secara terkoordinasi, untuk itu di dalam organisasi sangat dibutuhkan kerjasama yang terkoordinir dan selaras. Selain itu, organisasi juga harus menjaga koordinasi dan keselarasan tersebut agar tidak terjadi konflik yang dapat mengganggu kinerja organisasi. Konflik tersebut dapat terjadi karena berbagai alasan, salah satunya adalah dengan adanya persaingan didalam organisasi tersebut.

Iklim Organisasi (Organizational Climate)

Secara singkat, iklim organisasi dapat diartikan sebagai hasil kombinasi dari struktur formal dan struktur informal pada suatu organisasi. Dan menurut pemahaman saya iklim organisasi merupakan suasana di dalam organisasi dimana tiap pelaku organisasi di dalam organisasi saling membantu, saling menilai, dan memahami antara satu dengan yang lain. Iklim organisasi ikut mengambil bagian penting dalam organisasi. Keduanya saling mempengaruhi satu sama lain.

Tipe Pengendalian

Pelaku pengendalian Sumber arah pengendalian Macam ‘ macam Pengendalian

Ukuran prestasi dan tingkah laku Isyarat untuk tindak koreksi Imbalan untuk prestasi Hukuman untuk kegagalan

Organisasi formal Rencana organisasi, strategi, tanggapan atas persaingan Anggaran, biaya standar, target penjualan penyimpangan Penghargaan manajemen, insentif uang, promosi Minta penjelasan

Kelompok informal Keterikatan bersama cita’cita kelompok Norma-norma kelompok penyimpangan Pengakuan rekan, keanggotaan, kepemimpinan Ejekan, pengasingan, permusuhan

Perorangan Tujuan pribadi, aspirasi Harapan pribadi, target antara Dugaan akan kegagalan di masa yang akan dating, target tak tercapai Kepuasan karena ‘terkendali’ kegembiraan Merasa gagal

Sumber : Disarikan dari Gene W. Dalton dan Paul R. Lawrence, Motivation and Control in Organizations (Homewood, III. : Richard D. Irwin, 1971). Hak Cipta 1971 oleh Richard D. Irwin Inc.

Variasi dalam Pengendalian

Hakekat system pengendalian manajemen dibedakan menurut sifat pekerjaan, macam organisasi, lingkungan daan peran manajer. Berikut adalah tiga dimensi yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penggunaan dan pengembangan system pengendalian manajemen :

1. Besar keleluasaan manajemen

2. Besar interdependensi

3. Rentang waktu pelaksanaan

FUNGSI KONTROLER

Kontroler dapat diartikan sebagai petinggi atau pejabat yang bertanggung jawab atas apa yang telah direncanakan oleh organisasi dan bagaimana pengoperasiannya. Tanggung jawab para kontroler berbeda ‘ beda di tiap organisasi bahkan di tiap divisinya. Tanggung jawab kontroler didasarkan pada posisinya masing ‘ masing. Tanggung jawab tersebut dilaksanakan secara langsung. Selain tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian tersebut, berikut ini adalah fungsi lain dari kontroler :

a. Menyiapkan laporan kepada pihak pemerintah serta pihak ‘ pihak luar lainnya.

b. Mempersiapkan pengembalian pajak.

c. Mempersiapkan dan melakukan analisa terhadap laporan prestasi keuangan.

d. Membantu para manajer dengan cara melakukan analisa sertab menafsirkan laporan ‘ laporan tersebut.

e. Menggunakan prosedur pemeriksaan intern dan pengendalian akuntansi, memastikan validitas informasi, menetapkan usaha perlindungan yangcukup terhadap berbagai penyimpangan serta melakukan pemeriksaan operasional.

f. Melakukan pengembangan kepada orang ‘ orang yang ia pimpin serta berperan langsung dalam penambahan pengetahuan mengenai fungsi kontroler

g. Mengadakan manajemen kas, asuransi serta kegiatan ‘ kegiatan lainnya demi pengamanan kekayaan perusahaan.

Hubungan dengan Organisasi Lini

Kontroler juga memiliki hak untuk membuat kebijakan ‘ kebijakan dalam organisasi. Namun keputusan ‘ keputusan tersebut merupakan realisasi pelaksanaan kebijakan ‘ kebijakan yang telah dibuat oleh manajer lini. Dengan kata lain, terdapat keselarasan antara kedua belah pihak. Hal tersebut tentunya sangat baik untuk menjaga kelancaran jalannya organisasi tersebut.

Kontroler Divisi

Kebanyakan perusahaan atau organisasi membagi organisasinya tersebut menjadi beberapa divisi yang dikepalai oleh seorang manajer. Manajer divisi tentu juga memiliki kontroler divisi. Dalam hal ini, kontroler divisi harus patuh kepada manajer divisi dan juga kontroler perusahaan yang terkadang beda kepentingannya. Penilaian prestasi terhadap kontroler divisi dapat dilakukan dengan menilai beberapa poin, antara lain :

– Laporan akuntansi dan keuangan

– Pengetahuan mengenai operasi divisi

– Sasaran dan pelaksanaan kepatuhan terhadap kebijakan

– Kontribusi manajemen

– Pengetahuan terhadap akuntansi

– Kejujuran dan profesionalisme

– Kemauan bekerjasama

– Organisasi dan staf

– Inisiatif dan semangat

HUBUNGAN LINI-STAF

Seorang manajer divisi dapat dikatakan tidak memiliki staf maupun asisten pribadi. Manajer tersebut mendapatkan bantuan dari :

1. Tenaga yang ditugaskan untuk membantunya dari staf umum, insinyur serta petugas pembelian

2. Staf pusat yang dapat dimintai bantuan kapan saja sebanyak mungkin.

HUBUNGAN MANAJER DIVISI ‘ KONTROLER

Untuk mencapai kesuksesan organisasi dalam hubungannya dengan manajer divisi, maka organisasi perlu membina kerjasama yang baik dan solid di tiap ‘ tiap manajemen. Berikut merupakan beberapa factor yang dapat mempengaruhi hubungan baik adalah :

1. System akuntansi yang seragam dan terpusat

2. Sasaran ‘ saasaran keuangan yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya untuk tiap ‘ tiap divisi.

(Pertumbuhan penjualan serta besar laba penjualan)

3. Pembagian laba antara kontroler dan manajer

SISTEM AKUNTANSI

Selain memiliki tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian organisasi, divisi kontroler juga memiliki kewenangan atas system akuntansi yang akan digunakan oleh organisasi tersebut termasuk di dalamnya menetapkan cara dan jenis pos ‘ pos yang harus mereka awasi. Sistem akuntansi dijadikan dasar dalam penyusunan laporan keuangan beserta analisisnya.

SASARAN ‘ SASARAN DIVISI

Seperti yang telah disebutkan pada bagian sebelumnya, perusahaan atau organisasi memiliki sasaran keuangan, yaitu pertumbuhan penjualan dan tingkat laba. Tingkat laba dalam organisasi atau perusahaan ditetapkan sebaga persentase penjualan. Berikut ini adalah beberapa factor penentu target laba penjualan :

1. Kemungkinan pematenan produk

2. Besar laba atas investasi yang diinginkan

3. Besar laba industry bersangkutan

4. Besar laba investasi bersangkutan

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Business notes: Creative problem solving writing an essay help

1 Unit 1 – Creative problem solving

1.1 Introduction

A business leader is expected to identify problems, implement solutions and find business opportunities. To do so, they must learn to plan, analyse situations, identify and solve problems (or potential problems), make decisions, and set realistic and attainable goals for the business/unit. These are the fundamental thinking/creative requirements for leadership, and these set direction to a successful future. Without this critical competence, you will have to rely on others to do your thinking for you, or you will simply have to learn to nurture your creative thinking skills which will help you on your journey towards successful business.

Creative thinking forms part of this continuous problem solving process, and is the fundamental basis for facilitating in the development of solutions, new initiatives, products or services. In an entrepreneurial context, the end result of this process should be directly linked to a feasible opportunity in the market environment.

Quote – What lies behind us and what lies before us, are tiny matters, compared to what lies within us. – William Morrow

The creative problem solving process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Problem analysis

‘ Solution analysis

‘ Decision analysis

‘ Solution implementation

1.2 The process

The creative problem solving process consists of an important core process, namely the idea generation process see figure 1. This is an important step, especially if you need to come up with creative ideas for products, services, and processes, to solve a consumer problem. The idea generation process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Step 1 – Generating ideas

‘ Step 2 – Developing ideas into a concept

‘ Step 3 – Converting a concept into a tangible or intangible product

‘ Step 4 – Finally protecting the tangible or intangible product

Figure 1 – The process of creative thinking (idea generation)

Initially you need to understand the problem and find the root cause of the problem. Many techniques are available to find the causes of problems, you can use the 5 Why technique in this case, if you are familiar with it. The more advanced courses will describe how to use the major problem identification techniques, but this course will focus on the idea generation process.

1.3 Where to start

In the entrepreneurial phase, the best way to start the idea generation process is when you are required to come up with a new product or service, to identify a potential consumer problem. Initially, focus on identifying problems in the area of your expertise (your knowledge base).

If you have no knowledge of the problem, the product development stage could be a challenge for you.

You will learn in the next section that not all problems are opportunities, and entrepreneurs should be careful as to how they approach this stage, when generating ideas in trying to identify a new product or service.

1.4 Problem versus opportunity

In most cases, the idea-generation phase in the creative problem solving process is neglected. Individuals normally identify a problem or an opportunity (which may seem like an opportunity, but is actually just an idea), and then develop a new product in line with the new assumed idea or opportunity. It is therefore important to distinguish between an idea and an opportunity. Resources may be wasted if a mere idea is incorrectly perceived as an opportunity.

Any opportunity is initially problem based (e.g. a coffee shop in a destination where there is a lack thereof, this creates several problem situations and potentially feasible opportunities for the entrepreneur). The creative thinking (idea generation process) involved, is the means to solving these problems, and bring forth solutions to the market problems, which create further opportunities.

1.4.1 Difference between problem and opportunity

There is, however, a critical difference between a problem and opportunity. Consider the following:

‘ Is it an idea or an opportunity to develop a high speed train between two major cities which are not far from each other? Some may say it is a great idea, but when you need to pay R200 a day to make use of it, it is simply not an opportunity. Only a few people would make use of the service, resulting in a negative impact on the market.

‘ If it is possible to transport people between the two cities for a lower cost, say R10, it would possibly be a more feasible opportunity.

Here is a good example of an opportunity – Around the turn of the twentieth century, a shoe manufacturer sent a representative to Africa, to open up a market in the undeveloped area in that continent. After exploring the culture for a month, the rep sent a telegram to the home office shouting,

‘Disaster! Disaster! These people do not wear shoes. Bring me home immediately!’

A short time later, another shoe company sent their agent to Africa for the same purpose. A month later his home office also received a telegram:

‘Opportunity! Opportunity! These people do not wear shoes! Triple production immediately!’

Quote – Every situation contains the potential for disastrous problems or unprecedented success. The event is what we perceive it to be. Unknown

Now the question arises: How do I distinguish between an idea and an opportunity? Looking at above examples, every problem is not an opportunity, and it really depends at how you are looking at the problem. If you see a viable opportunity in a problem then you are looking at the problem with a different perception than most people (the glass is half full or half empty). From a business perspective all opportunities are not necessarily a viable opportunity, the market determines the available opportunities. Without the knowledge to interpret the market conditions, you could miss it totally in terms of your opportunity analysis.

Table 1 shows the different industries in South Africa, the level of entrepreneurial activity, and how the same opportunity differs in each of these market areas.

1.4.2 The global entrepreneurship monitor

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor ‘ specifically identified the entrepreneurial activity in the various industries of South Africa. It can be generalized to state that an industry with a high level of entrepreneurial activity, gives away more business opportunities (e.g. manufacturing, retail, hotel, restaurant and business services), while one with a lower level will indicate far less opportunities (e.g. agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing, finance, insurance, real estate and health, education and social services).

If we analyse just one ‘high-opportunity’ industry, for instance manufacturing, it may be an opportunity today to manufacture a final product, and export it to an international market. A ‘low-opportunity’ industry, for instance insurance (especially in the market entry phase), may be negative as having an extremely high crime rate and insurance companies have to pay out claims at an alarming rate. It is also evident that low-opportunity industries may create feasible opportunities.

An entrepreneur should therefore be wary of following a fad, (latest trend) and exploiting assumed opportunities in a ‘popular’ industry.

Percentage of Entrepreneurs

ISIC Category Start-ups New Firms Total

Agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing 1,3 2,6 1,6

Mining, construction 9,7 5,0 4,1

Manufacturing 14,3 19,1 13,8

Transport, communications, utilities 9,8 0,7 8,0

Wholesale, motor vehicle sales, repairs 6,0 6,5 6,3

Retail, hotel, restaurant 40,8 47,7 43,5

Finance, insurance, real estate 0,3 5,2 1,4

Business services 10,1 7,9 9,4

Health, education, social services 2,6 0,7 2,3

Consumer services 11,0 3,5 9,7

Source: Driver. Wood, Segal & Herrington, 2001

Table 1 – The percentage of entrepreneurs in the different industries in South-Africa

1.4.3 What is an opportunity?

What exactly is an opportunity and how does an entrepreneur exploit a feasible opportunity? According to Hesrich & Peters (2002), an opportunity is the process whereby the entrepreneur assesses whether a certain product, service or process, will yield the necessary earnings based on the resource inputs that are required to manufacture and market it.

The nature of opportunities needs to be assessed – thus, what leads to the existence of an opportunity? The following factors may result in an opportunity:

‘ General and specific problems faced by consumers

‘ Market shifts

‘ Government regulations

‘ Competition

There are two equally important criteria in the assessment of an opportunity. Firstly, the size of the market – will the number of customers reward the input and energy required, to create and deliver the product?

Secondly, the length in terms of the frame of the opportunity (window of opportunity). For example, is the demand for this product only a short fashionable phenomenon or is it based on sustainable business, or how long will it take before someone else (a competitor), to grab the opportunity?

These two aspects should also link directly to the personal skills and competence of the entrepreneur. For example, entrepreneurs with no skills or interest in information technology will not necessarily achieve their personal goals. They should rather venture into an opportunity which suits their experience and personality.

1.4.4 Transform opportunity into a business

Table 2 shows how the development of a business plan links to the identification and evaluation of opportunities, the determination of the resources required and the eventual management of the enterprise. All of these factors play a significant role in the correct assessment of the business opportunity.

This means that the business plan must explain in sufficient detail how the business will exploit the situation, to transform the opportunity, into solving a problem for the consumer, which generates extraordinary profits for the people involved.

Identify and evaluate the opportunity Develop the business plan Determine the resources needed Manage the enterprise

Creation and length of opportunity

Real and perceived value of opportunity

Risk and returns of opportunity

Opportunity versus skills and goals

Competitive situation Title page

Table of contents

Executive summary

Description of business

Description of industry

Marketing plan

Financial plan

Production plan

Organisational plan

Operational plan

Summary

Appendices Existing resources of the entrepreneur

Resource gap and available supplies

Access to needed resources Management style

Key variables for success

Identification of problems and potential problems

Implementation of control systems

Source: Hisrich, R.D. & Peters, M.P. 2002: 40. Entrepreneurship. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Table 2 – Link between Opportunity and business plan

1.5 Instruction

Exit and resume to your current page.

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The importance of employee engagement in an organization high school essay help

1.4 Literature Review

Mark Kilsby and Stephen Beyer (1996) ‘ Engagement and Interaction : A comparison between supported employment and acts’. This research study was conducted with the help of interaction and commitment patterns of 13 supported employees and 38 regular adult training center attainders of the organization. Direct observation was used as method of data collection, within the 13 employment sites and a representative sample of ATC organized activities. Because of the higher level of task specific dialogue between individuals and the service of the organization it is found that there is more of social interaction in ACT. Interaction of employees with public within office hours was the cause for this as per the study conducted.

Douglas R. May, Richard L, Gilson and Lynn M . Harter (2004) ‘The Psychological Conditions Of Meaningfulness ,Safety And Availability And The Engagement Of The Human Spirit At Work’. This shows the study about a U.S western company which explored the determinants and mediated the effects of tree psychological conditions they are meaningful, safe and available. The above studies shoes that all the three factors (meaningfulness, safety and availability) have a positive relation with the engagement of an employee in the organization. In other words they are completely associated with the psychological safety where as loyalty to co worker norms and self- consciousness are negatively related.

Despoina Xanthopaolou, Arnold B, Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti and Wilmar B.Schaufeli (2009) ‘Work Engagement And Financial Returns : A Diary Study On The Role Of The Job And Personal Resources’. The above study shows that how daily fluctuations in job can affect the level of personal resource , financial returns and work engagement. Different level of analysis revealed that day level job resources had an effect on work engagement through the day level personal resources. When there was a control for the general level of personal resources and organizational engagement Day level work engagement showed a positive way towards day level training, which in turn showed the financial returns.

Dan-Shang Wang and Chia ‘Chun Hsieh (2013) ‘The Effect Of Authentic Leadership On Employee Trust And Employee Engagement’ they have examined the genuine leadership on employee engagement through employee trust. They have collected data from 386 employees from top 1000 manufacturing companies and top 500 service companies in Taiwan. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis on the employees. Later on the results shows that the consistency between the supervisors , words and actions as well as their moral perceptions are optimistically related to employee engagement , when only supervisors are consist between the words and actions in positively related employment trust. The study shows how employee engagement had a positive trust on employee. Employee trust has a partial link between authentic leadership and employee engagement.

Benjamin J.C, Yuan and Michael B.H. Lin (2012) ‘Transforming Employee Engagement Into Long-Term Customer Relationships: Evidence From Information Technology Salespeople In Taiwan’. This article shows that when information sales people in Taiwan have perceived more transformational leadership and they were more expected to show increased development in work engagement. Over a period of time it was found that increased development in work engagement influenced the increased customer relationship. It showed how employee engagement is indirectly co related with customer relationship.

Xander M.Bezuijen, Karen Van Dam, Peter T . Van Den Berg and Henk Thierry (2010) ‘How Leaders Stimulate Employee Learning : A Leader ‘ Member Exchange Approach’. This study investigated how the three factors as such as leader member exchange, goal setting, and feedback are related to employee engagement in the learning activities. Here, two different mechanisms were proposed , first one a mediating mechanism telling that leader member exchange shows specific leader behavior. The second one is it as a moderating mechanism , holding that leader member exchange will strengthen the effect of leader behavior from 7 organizations a sample of 1112 employees was taken , to measure the leader member exchange approach. 233 of the direct leaders answered that they find difficulty in rating employee engagement in learning activities.

Maureen F.Dollard and Arnold B. Bakker (2010) ‘Psychosocial Safety Climate As A Precursor To Conducive Work Environment , Psychological Health Problems , And Employee Engagement’. This article shows the gap between work psychology and psychosocial working condition. Where we construct a psychosocial working condition PSC. It explains how PSC influences the senior management in psychological working conditions and in psychological health and engagement. They use the job demand and resources as a frame work and uses a multi level thinking into their explanation

James R.Jones (2009) ‘Comparative Effects On Race/Ethnicity And Employee Engagement On Withdrawal Behavior’. This study have added knowledge on the basis of effects on employee attachment. In addition to that it provides more evidence on looking at all types of employees as a single entity which can lead to false results.

Shane Crabb ( 2011) ‘The Use Of Coaching Principles To Foster Employee Engagement’. The above article focuses on the human condition that leads to the happiness of fulfillment and flourishing of employee engagement. Where positive psychology results in so many questions from traditional psychological approaches .Which have mean to focus on a different model of human functioning with healing people fail. In another way positive psychology takes additional holistic approach to human life. Seeing the positive and negative aspects of context when establishing what is right , working and good of people.

Roberta A . Neault and Deidre A .Pickerel (2011) ‘Career Engagement : Bridging Career Counseling And Employee engagement’ . this article is showing that employee counselors helps individuals in maximizing their career engagement at any career stage of an individual. When you facilitate career engagement it contributes to employee engagement which employee are looking for. They even encourages others to use the career engagement and employee engagement models as vehicles to combine the employers to interest in engagement counselors to create interest in supporting the development of employee an motivate them to work.

2.1 Title: A Cross Sectional Study Of Employee Engagement In Apollo Hospitals.

2.2 Objectives:

1. To determine the level of Employee Engagement in Apollo Hospitals.

2. To identify the factors of Employee Engagement.

3. To analyze and suggest strategies for improvement.

2.3 Research Methodology:

I had adopted descriptive research design for the purpose of this

Survey on employee engagement. The primary data was collected from the 100 employees conveniently selected from Apollo Hospitals Bangalore, through structured questionnaire.

2.4 Limitations:

1) The survey was carried out for a sample sized of 100 working staff only.

2) Findings and suggestion of this research are applicable only to Apollo Hospitals.

3) As an fact finding study advanced statistical tools or analysis are not used.

Table 1.1 Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

X 1 2 3 4 5

I have adequate opportunities for professional growth in this organization. (X1) 10 20 32 19 19

I receive the training I need to do my job well.(X2) 2 52 22 16 08

My manager is actively interested in my professional development and advancement.(X3) 32 21 12 18 17

My manager encourages and supports my development (X4) 08 10 40 18 24

I am encouraged to learn from my mistakes (X5) 52 23 16 04 05

My work is challenging, stimulating, and rewarding(X6) 28 14 33 16 09

X1 ?? XI X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5 X6 ?? X6

10 50 2 10 32 160 08 40 52 260 28 140

20 80 52 208 21 84 10 40 23 92 14 56

32 96 22 66 12 36 40 120 16 48 33 99

19 38 16 32 18 36 18 36 04 08 16 32

19 19 08 08 17 17 24 24 05 05 09 09

TOTAL 283 TOTAL 324 TOTAL 333 TOTAL 260 TOTAL 413 TOTAL 336

Table 1.2 Calculation Of Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

283/100 2.83 324/100 3.24 333/100 3.33 260/100 2.60 413/100 4.13 336/100 3.36

RANKED 6 RANKED 4 RANKED 3 RANKED 5 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.3 Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Opportunities for growth

INFERENCE

The above table shows that the employees are encouraged to learn from their mistakes that is 4.15 out of 5.the work is stimulating rewarding and challenging is ranked 2nd.the manager is actively interested in employees professional growth is

ranked 3rd.the level of opportunity for professional growth shows the least ranking.

Table 1.4: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 20 32 19 19 100

Chart 1.1: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

Interpretation:

32% of the employees from the given population says that they have a neutral opportunity to grow where as 10 % stands in the outstanding category and 20% of them in good category. An equal no of employees disagree to the fact in the other hand that is 19% of the given population.

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 52 22 16 8 100

Table 1.5: Showing Training

Chart 1.2: Showing Training

Interpretation:

In the given sample 52% of the employees agrees to the fact that they receive good training in order to do their job efficiently and 2% strongly agrees. where 22 % is neutral to the situation given.16 % of them do not get proper training they required to do their jobs and 8 % strongly disagree to it. It is clear that the organization is giving a proper training to employees to make their work effective.

Table 1.6: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 21 12 18 17 100

Chart 1.3: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

Interpretation:

Most of the employees agree that their manager takes attention in their professional development steps. 32 % to 25 of the employees from the given sample have strongly agreed and agreed to it respectively. whereas 12 % is neutral to it . but 18% to 17% disagrees and says that they are not taken care in respective of their advancement in profession.

Table 1.7: Showing Encouragement And Support

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 10 40 18 24 100

Chart 1.4: Showing Encouragement And Support

Interpretation:

From the above graph its clear that 40% of the employees neither agree or disagree that management encourage them or support them. 8% to 10% agrees that they have been supported by the management . but 18 % to 24 % disagree to the fact that management supports them .

Table 1.8: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

52 23 16 4 5 100

Chart 1.5: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

Interpretation:

More than half , 52% of the employees states that they have a challenging stimulating and rewarding work. A very few of them disagree to it 4 % to 5% . and 23 % of them agrees t it there is a majority of people agreeing to it.

Table 1.9: Showing Encouragement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

28 14 33 16 9 100

Chart 1.6: Showing Encouragement

Interpretation:

There is a 28% of people agreeing to it. And 16 % to 9 % disagreeing to the fact that they are not encouraged to learn from their mistakes .

Table 1.10: Showing Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

X 1 2 3 4 5

My manager understands the benefits of maintaining a balance between work and personal life. (X1) 02 13 08 48 29

My job does not cause unreasonable amounts of stress in my life. (X2) 30 13 08 48 29

The amount of work I am asked to do is reasonable. (X3) 40 20 12 14 14

I am able to satisfy both my job and family/personal responsibilities. (X4) 27 12 08 09 44

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4

02 10 30 150 40 200 27 135

13 52 13 52 20 80 12 48

08 24 08 24 12 48 08 24

48 96 48 96 14 28 09 18

29 29 29 29 14 14 44 44

TOTAL 211 TOTAL 351 TOTAL 370 TOTAL 269

Table 1.11: Showing Calculation Of Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

Table 1.12: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace

211/100 2.11 351/100 3.51 370/100 3.7 269/100 2.69

RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2 RANKED 3

INFERRENCE

By analysing the given data using weighted average method that the level of stress reduced in the employees is 3.51 out of 4 , and the amount of work the employee is asked to do is 3.7. the employee is able to balance between family and personal responsibility is 2.69 . the managers understanding in the benefits and maintaining balance between work and personal life should be taken care because it is got only 2.11 which have least rank

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 13 8 48 29 100

Table 1.13: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Chart 1.7: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Interpretation:

Only 2% of the employees says that there is a balance between work life and personal life. 13% of them agrees to it and 8% is neutral to it.but 48% of the sample disagrees and 29 % of them strongly disagrees to it.

Table 1.14: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

30 13 8 48 29 100

Chart 1.8: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

Interpretation:

30% of the employees strongly agrees that the job doesn’t cause much stress where 13% of them agrees and 8% is neutral to it. But 48%of them disagree nd 29% strongly disagrees and states that job causes stress in their life.

Table 1.15: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.9: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

Interpretation:

40% of them strongly agrees that they have sufficient amount of work and they do not feel any stress where 20 % of them agrees. 12% of the sample is neutral.14% of them disagrees they don’t have suffient amount of work or they are overloaded with the work given.

Table 1.16: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.10: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

Interpretation:

44% of them strongly disagree that they are not able to complete their job, family and personal responsibilities. 27 % to 12 % agrees to it and 8% is neutral to that. It shows that employees are not satisfied with the amount of work given to them.

Table 1.17: Showing Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X 1 2 3 4 5

My ideas and opinions count at work. (X1) 03 18 19 32 28

I am comfortable sharing my opinions at work. (X2) 10 08 28 42 12

We work to attract, develop, and retain people with diverse backgrounds. (X3) 10 13 09 56 12

Senior management is genuinely interested in employee opinions and ideas. (X4) 24 23 36 07 10

People with different ideas are valued in this organization. (X5) 20 18 40 13 09

Table 1.18: Calculation Of Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

3 15 10 50 10 50 24 120 20 100

18 72 08 32 13 52 23 92 18 72

19 57 28 84 09 27 36 108 40 120

32 64 42 84 56 112 07 14 13 26

28 26 12 12 12 12 10 10 09 09

TOTAL 234 TOTAL 262 TOTAL 253 TOTAL 344 TOTAL 327

234/100 2.34 262/100 2.62 253/100 2.53 344/100 3.44 327/100 3.27

RANKED 5 RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.19: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Personal Expression / Diversity

INFERRENCE

By analysing the above table it shows that senior management is interested in personal opinions which shows the rank 1. And people with different ideas are valued in the organisation are considered 3.27 out of 5. Employees are free to share their ideas 2.62. the employees work in such a manner to attract and retain others 2.53 ,which has got the 4th rank. Ideas counted at work has got the least rank where they have to work on that part.

Table 1.20: Showing Idea And Opinion Count

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

3 18 19 32 28 100

Chart 1.11: : Showing Idea And Opinion Count

Interpretation:

Only 3% of the employees agree that the management listens to their ideas and opinions. 18% of them agree to it as well. 19 % is neutral to the situation. Whereas there is a huge no of the sample size that is32% to 28% who is disagreeing to it. Their opinions and ideas are not taken seriously by the management.

Table 1.21: Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 8 28 42 12 100

Chart 1.12 : Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

Interpretation:

The conducted shows that onl10% to 8% employees are comfortable in sharing their problems with the upper management. Rest of the sample that is 42% is disagreeing that they are not comfortable in sharing their ideas or problems.12% of them strongly disagrees.

Table 1.22: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 13 9 56 12 100

Chart 1.13: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

Interpretation:

56% of the employees disagrees that they don’t work to attract ,develop or retain customers. Where 10% to 13% agrees to the statement . a little sample size of 12% strongly disagrees to the statement .

Table 1.23: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

24 23 26 7 10 100

Chart 1.14: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

Interpretation

The management shows interest in taking employees ideas and opinions.24% of them agrees and 23% of the strongly agrees to the statement. A huge sample ,36% id neutral to the statement. But a little sample, 7% to 10% disagrees to the statement.

Table 1.24: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

20 18 40 13 9 100

Chart 1.15: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

Interpretation:

20% to 18% of the employees agree that people with different ideas are well accepted in the organization. 40% to the employees are neutral to the statement. 13 % to 9% of the sample disagrees to the statement on the other hand.

Table 1.25: Showing Weighted Average On Compensation

X 1 2 3 4 5

I am paid fairly for the work I do. (X1) 19 42 12 25 2

My salary is competitive with similar jobs I might find elsewhere.(X2) 32 12 28 23 5

My benefits are comparable to those offered by other organizations.(X3) 8 29 28 32 3

I understand my benefit plan. (X4) 42 15 19 9 15

I am satisfied with my benefit package. (X5) 58 12 11 6 13

Table 1.26: Calculation Of Weighted Average On Compensation

X1 vX1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

19 95 32 160 08 40 42 210 58 290

42 168 12 48 29 116 15 60 12 48

12 36 28 84 28 84 19 57 11 33

25 50 23 46 32 64 09 18 06 12

02 02 05 05 03 03 15 15 13 13

TOTAL 351 TOTAL 343 TOTAL 307 TOTAL 360 TOTAL 396

Table 1.27: Showing The Rank Of Each Component Of Compensation

351/100 3.51 343/100 3.43 307/100 3.07 360/100 3.60 396/100 3.96

RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 5 RANKED 2 RANKED 1

INFERENCES

The above table shows that the employees are satisfied with the benefit package they are given 3.96 out of 5.the employees understand their plan is 3.60. the fair pay is ranked 3rd.the employees salary is competitive with others is ranked 4th. The salary is not comparable with salary with others which has been ranked the least, rank 5.

Table 1.28: showing Fair Pay

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

19 42 12 25 2 100

Chart 1.16: Showing Fair Pay

Interpretation:

19% to 42% of the Employees agree that they are paid fairly according to the amount of work they do. But 25% to 2% of the sample size disagrees to the statement. And 12% is neutral to it.

Table 1.29: Showing Salary Competitiveness

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 12 28 23 5 100

Chart 1.17: Showing Salary Competitiveness

Interpretation:

32% of the employees agrees that they get a competitive salary when compared to other organizations with same designation. 12% of them strongly agrees to it .28% of them are neutral to the statement. 23% to 5% is disagrees to the statement in the other hand.

Table 1.30: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 29 28 32 3 100

Chart 1.18: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

Interpretation:

There is balance, 29% of the employees agrees and 32 % of them strongly disagrees that they have a comparable benefits.28% of them are neutral in the other hand.

Table 1.31: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

42 15 19 9 15 100

Chart 1.19: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

Interpretation:

42% of the employees agrees that they understand their benefit plan. 15% strongly agrees ,where 19% is neutral.9% to 15% disagrees to the fact and says they don’t understand the benefit plans they are given.

Table 1.32: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

58 12 11 6 13 100

Chart 1.20: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

Interpretation:

58% of them are satisfied with their benefit package. 12% strongly agrees. Whereas little sample of 6% to 13% disagrees to the statement. Or they are not happy with their benefit package.11% is neutral to it.

Summary of Findings

‘ Most of the employee’s ability state the opinion firmly and positively is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability in exercising the professional duties without assistance is better than acceptable standard.

‘ The Emotional Stamina of the majority of the employees is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the Employee’s Ability to work co-operatively and collaboratively to achieve common goal is better than acceptable.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to effectively guide a group through an appropriate process to help to achieve their desired outcomes is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to clarify and establish with a group roles and responsibilities, common goal and plan to achieve them and group behavioural is outstanding.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to deal with multiple issues and details, alertness and learning capacity is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to see and think beyond the obvious and formulate original solution is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to present ideas, concept, plan and procedure clearly to the target group is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Concern for excellence of the majority of the employee’s is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s Aware of what is going on in the workplace and responds in a suitable manner to situations as they is better than acceptable.

‘ The understanding between the top level and employees are in good terms.

‘ Employees do understand their benefits and opportunities given by the organisation.

‘ The employees are paid fairly according to the work done.

‘ Freedom of sharing new ideas and opinions are welcomed in the organisation.

‘ The employees are able to make a balance between personnel and work life. which reduces the amount of stress in them.

‘ The organisation encourages the employee to learn from their mistakes.

‘ Recommendations

‘ In this organization employee engagement study must be regularly done in order to check the level of employee effectiveness.

‘ Since many of the employees are performing different jobs to what they were doing at the time of their joining they need training to perform the new work allotted them.

‘ Different sources of employee engagement tactics must be encouraged in employees.

‘ The top management should support the lower level employees since it is considered a major hurdle in effective employee engagement and the employees must also be made aware of importance of engagement at work system

‘ The employees should be then and there motivated for work.

‘ The understanding between management and employees should be increased.

‘ Level of stress in work should be reduced.

‘ Better benefit package should be given to the employees.

Conclusion

In the report we have discussed the importance of employee engagement in an organization and how it affects the efficiency of work and productivity. Employment counselors should help individuals to maximize their career engagement at any stage of their career. Basically employee engagement should be a buzz word for the employee engagement and a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization. Employee engagement is gaining its importance and popularity in work places and its impact in many ways. It emphasis on the importance of employee engagement in a organization, an organization should thus give more importance for its employees than any other variable as they are the powerful contributors to a company’s competitiveness. Thus it shows that employee engagement should be a continues process for learning, improvement, measurement and action of an employee.

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The limitations of the Chit Acts melbourne essay help

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The financial system assumes strategically a very important role in channelling the funds from surplus units to deficit units. The financial system here refers to the group of institutions, markets and instruments which helps in formation of capital and thus accelerates to the pace of economic development.

The base of this study stems from the fact that there exists a gap between gross capital formation and gross domestic savings in India. So, there exists the need to augment the growth rate of voluntary domestic savings. This goal can be realized by widening and strengthening the working of different financial intermediaries which will result in mobilizing savings from various income level categories. .It is in this context that the role of the Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries like Chit Finance should be appreciated in supplementing the functions of the Banking Institutions.

Chit funds are Chit funds are the Indian equivalent of the Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCA). ROSCAs are famous in many parts of the world and is seen as an instrument to ‘save and borrow’ simultaneously. ROSCAs basically started as a way to help in fulfilling the needs of the low-income households as it enables the people to convert their small savings into lump sums. The concept of chit funds originated more than 1000 years ago. Initially it was in the form of an informal association of traders and households within communities, wherein the members contributed some money in return for an accumulated sum at the end of the tenure. Participation in Chit funds was mainly for the purpose of purchasing some property or, in other words, for ‘consumption’ purposes. However, in recent times, there have been tremendous alterations in the constitution and functioning of Chit funds. A significant difference between Chit Funds and ROSCAs are that in most places ROSCAs are user-owned and organized informally, but chit funds have been formally institutionalized in India. (Chit Funds-An innovative access to finance for low income households, 2009)

1.1.1 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY CHIT FUNDS?

Chit fund is a savings-cum-borrowing instrument. The basic aim of this instrument is to pool small amount of savings by all the members which is then managed by a foreman. The foreman has the responsibility to act as a trustee-cum-supervisors for the process of collection and allotment of the pooled amount.

Chit funds represent a traditional form of saving-cum-credit institution evolved before the bank system was introduced in rural India. There are many who avail themselves of this avenue for saving for a reasonable return.

1.1 NEED AND RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Despite the growth of a wide range of savings avenues and the widespread network of banks and other financial institutions, it has been found that Chit scheme still forms an important part in the asset portfolio of many households and firms in India and especially in South India including Karnataka. Also, the review of literature shows that there are only a few studies on Chit Finance. Therefore, the need to conduct the study stems from the requirement to understand Chit Funds in Bangalore.

1.2 NEED TO CONDUCT THE STUDY

The research titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study tries to point out the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests feasible recommendations for improving the working of such institutions.

.3.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’.

VARIABLES UNDER INVESTIGATION

1. Age

2. Occupation

3. Monthly income

4. Gender

5. Bank loan

6. Regular participation in chit fund

7. Membership in multiple chit schemes

8. Cause for participating in multiple schemes

9. Preferred avenue of saving

10. Preferred source of finance

11. Safety

12. Better service

13. Flexibility

14. Timely Payment

15. Low commission

16. Personal contact

17. Unregistered chit funds membership

18. Cause for participating in unregistered chit funds

19. Cause for not participating in unregistered chit fund

3.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

3.5.1 OBJECTIVE(PRIMARY)

1. To understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members.

2. To identify the important predictors behind chit fund participation

3.5.2 OHER OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

1. To estimate interest rates in registered chit funds.

2. To compare the relative ratings of Chit subscribers towards registered and unregistered chit funds on

3. To estimate the return on Chit Funds.

3.6 HYPOTHESIS

There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

1. Null hypothesis

2. Alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

.

3.8 SAMPLING METHOD

Members of four registered chit fund companies in Bangalore. The four registered chit fund companies were selected due to the large size of their subscriber base.

3.8.3 SIZE OF SAMPLE

150 respondents

3.9 MECHANISM OF STUDY

3.9.1 PRIMARY RESEARCH

Questions relating to behaviour and financial pattern will be found out through questionnares

3.9.2 SECONDARY RESEARCH

‘ Reports on chit fund industry

OVERVIEW OF INDIAN CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

4.1.1 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CHIT FUND COMPANIES:

According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on 31st December, 2013:

Volume of registered chit companies: 5412

Volume of chit companies in Karnataka: 703

Number of chit fund companies in Bangalore: 315

UNREGISTERED CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

Although unregistered chits are an informal source of finance but still they are a significant part of the chit fund industry. Though they are more easily accessible as compared to registered chit funds.

4.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ attempt in The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study also examines the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests suitable recommendations for improving the functioning of such institutions.

4.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY

‘ Unwillingness of the members to share their income and financial details made the task of data collection somewhat difficult.

‘ Collecting data became difficult since I don’t know the regional languages.

5.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis is done on the primary data collected from 150 chit funds members in Bangalore

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

5.4.1 Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.070a 16 .013

Likelihood Ratio 35.945 16 .003

Linear-by-Linear Association 8.809 1 .003

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .455 .013

Cramer’s V .228 .013

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=31.070 was p=.013, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (Phi and Cramer’s V -0.455).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. This means that different age groups of the chit fund members have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As can be seen from the table above that those who belong to ’36-45 years’ have saving as the predominant reason to participate whereas members of other age groups do not have any dominant reason to participate.

5.4.2 Hypothesis 2:

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

. Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 10.018a 4 .040

Likelihood Ratio 10.478 4 .033

Linear-by-Linear Association 6.876 1 .009

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .258 .040

Cramer’s V .258 .040

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=10.018 was p=.040, less than 0.05.

.We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (0.258)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis. This means that males and females have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As it can be seen that males participate in chit funds for business and personal consumption purposes apart from saving whereas women predominantly participate to save.

5.4

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 82.176a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 97.665 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 15.696 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .740 .000

Cramer’s V .427 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (0.740)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the self-employed members mainly participate to avail for business reasons whereas salaried employee participate mainly for personal consumption purposes.

Hypothesis 5:

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 66.691a 20 .000

Likelihood Ratio 43.579 20 .002

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.804 1 .028

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .667 .000

Cramer’s V .333 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=66.691) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong (0.667)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the members of age group’36-45 years’ are more interested in bidding for business related purposes where members of other age groups bid mainly for emergency needs.

5.4.6 Hypothesis 6:

. Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.167a 5 .209

Likelihood Ratio 7.885 5 .163

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.120 1 .290

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .219 .209

Cramer’s V .219 .209

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.167) was p=.209, more than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.7 Hypothesis 7:

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 180.915a 15 .000

Likelihood Ratio 160.460 15 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 28.379 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.098 .000

Cramer’s V .634 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that self-employed people bid in chit scheme mostly for business purposes, salaried people for emergency needs and housewives for household purposes.

5.4.8 Hypothesis 8:

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 123.331a 35 .000

Likelihood Ratio 106.298 35 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.957 1 .026

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=123.331) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.907)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that low income members bid mostly for consumption reasons whereas higher income members bid for business related and emergency purposes.

SUMMARY:

Reason to bid in chit fund has the strongest association with the occupation of the chit fund members as the probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000 and the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098).

5.4.

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 21.702a 16 .153

Likelihood Ratio 23.775 16 .095

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.397 1 .122

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=123.331) was p=.153, more than 0.05. Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.10 Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 20.510a 4 .000

Likelihood Ratio 29.038 4 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 7.062 1 .008

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .370 .000

Cramer’s V .370 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=20.510) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (.370).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis.

5.4.11 Hypothesis 11:

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 67.261a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 60.380 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.507 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .670 .000

Cramer’s V .387 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=67.261 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong(.670).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to cause in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. Salaried people save their money in chit fund with no particular purpose. But self-employed people are equally interested in saving for house purchase as well as for general purpose.

SUMMARY:

chit fund is most closely associated with occupation of the chit fund members as it has the highest value of chi-square statistic and Phi coefficient.

5.4.12 Hypothesis 12:

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 56.697a 3 .000

Likelihood Ratio 67.900 3 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 36.400 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=56.697) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (.615).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘membership in multiple chit schemes are related to differences in ‘having currently bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that those members currently having bank loan have invested in only one chit scheme whereas those members who do not have availed bank loan have invested in more than one chit schemes.

5.4.13 Hypothesis 13:

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 96.660a 7 .000

Likelihood Ratio 85.378 7 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 59.577 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell(10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.08.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=96.660 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.803).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘participation in unregistered chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that mostly low- income members have participated in unregistered funds. This is because the registered funds have become expensive due to the increase in their operational cost as a result of stringent regulations.

5.2.14 Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 28.049a 5 .000

Likelihood Ratio 31.806 5 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.967 1 .085

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 2 cells (15.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.79.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .432 .000

Cramer’s V .432 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=28.049) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (.432).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to prefer chit fund over bank’ are related to differences in ‘having bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that members who have bank loan have preferred chit fund over bank mainly due to better dividends. But those who do not have bank loan prefer chit fund over bank mainly due to better service in terms of more personalized service.)

5.2..15 Hypothesis 15: To identify significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds using Binary Logistic Regression

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 0 Constant -1.046 .186 31.574 1 .000 .351

Model Summary

Step -2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R Square Nagelkerke R Square

1 37.170a .533 .576

a. Estimation terminated at iteration number 6 because parameter estimates changed by less than .001.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a bank_loan(1) 1.068 1.265 14.715 1 .000 11.720

reason_2 2.286 4 .683

reason_2(1) 1.336 1.077 1.540 1 .215 3.805

reason_2(2) .134 2.239 .004 1 .952 1.143

reason_2(3) -.559 1.896 .087 1 .768 .572

reason_2(4) .731 1.347 .294 1 .588 2.076

reason_3 4.874 5 .431

reason_3(1) 1.188 .924 1.652 1 .199 3.279

reason_3(2) 1.661 2.048 .658 1 .417 5.263

reason_3(3) -1.654 1.228 1.813 1 .178 .191

reason_3(4) .404 1.192 .115 1 .735 1.497

reason_3(5) -17.379 20.722 .000 1 .700 .000

reason_4 .355 4 .986

reason_4(1) -1.047 1.850 .320 1 .571 .351

reason_4(2) -.839 1.979 .180 1 .672 .432

reason_4(3) -.932 1.637 .324 1 .569 .394

reason_4(4) 3.519 4.199 .000 1 .600 3.746

reason_5 8.553 5 .128

reason_5(1) -.254 1.768 .021 1 .886 .776

reason_5(2) -19.245 9.890 .000 1 .999 .000

reason_5(3) 1.420 1.338 1.126 1 .289 4.136

reason_5(4) -.747 1.306 .327 1 .567 .474

reason_5(5) .561 1.342 .174 1 .676 1.752

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a Safety -.075 .320 4.377 1 .011 0.928

Flexi -.178 .426 3.337 1 .021 0.837

commision -.185 .188 1.868 1 .026 0.831

payment -.267 .178 1.657 1 .097 0.766

service -.859 .412 1.348 1 .083 0.424

personal -1.122 .163 .996 1 .079 0.329

Constant 3.058 2.440 1.571 1 .010 21.291

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: : bank_loan, reason_2, reason_3, reason_4, reason_5.imp1, imp2, imp3, imp4, imp5, imp6.

INTERPRETATION:

‘ -2 Log Likelihood statistic is 37.170. This statistic how poorly the model predicts the decisions — the smaller the statistic the better the model. Since, 37.170 is a relatively small number therefore, this model is able to predict the decisions in a better way.

‘ Here Cox & Snell R Square statistic indicates that 53.3% of the variation in the regular participation in chit funds is explained by the logistic model.

‘ In our case Nagelkerke R Square is 0.576, indicating a moderate relationship of 57.6 % between the predictors and the prediction.

‘ If it is less than .05 then, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

‘ In this case, we can see that bank loan, safety, flexibility and low commission have contributed signi’cantly to the prediction of regular participation in chit funds but other variables are not significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds.

‘ Since only bank loan has p=.000, therefore we can say that bank loan is the most significant predictor

among other significant predictors. This is followed by safety (p=.011), flexibility (p=.021) and low commission (p=.026).

‘ Here, the EXP (B) bank loan is 11.727. Hence when bank loan is availed by one unit (one person) the odds ratio is 11 times as large and therefore people are 11 more times likely not to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) with safety is .928. Hence when safety is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .928 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) flexibility is 837. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .837 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) low commission is .831. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .831 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

SUMMARY

Bank loan is the most significant predictor of regular participation in chit funds. This is followed by safety, flexibility and low commission.

Instalment no No of months remaining Monthly subscription Prize amount PV of monthly subscription(PV of outlow at 10%) PV of Prize amount(PV of inflow at 10%) Net Present Value(PV of inflow – PV of outflow)

1 24 2000 50000 2000 50000 10444.9

2 23 1500 35000 1488.1 34723.1 -4832.0

3 22 1500 35000 1476.4 34448.4 -5106.7

4 21 1500 35000 1464.7 34175.9 -5379.2

5 20 1500 35000 1453.1 33905.5 -5649.6

6 19 1500 35000 1441.6 33637.3 -5917.8

7 18 1500 35000 1430.2 33371.2 -6183.9

8 17 1500 35000 1418.9 33107.2 -6447.9

9 16 1620 38000 1520.3 35660.6 -3894.5

10 15 1620 38000 1508.2 35378.5 -4176.6

11 14 1700 40000 1570.2 36945.9 -2609.2

12 13 1700 40000 1557.8 36653.6 -2901.5

13 12 1780 42000 1618.2 38181.8 -1373.3

14 11 1780 42000 1605.4 37879.8 -1675.3

15 10 1780 42000 1592.7 37580.1 -1975.0

16 9 1860 44000 1651.1 39058.2 -496.9

17 8 1860 44000 1638.0 38749.2 -805.9

18 7 1860 44000 1625.1 38442.6 -1112.5

19 6 1940 46000 1681.6 39872.1 317.0

20 5 1940 46000 1668.3 39556.6 1.5

21 4 1940 46000 1655.1 39243.7 -311.4

22 3 1940 46000 1642.0 38933.2 -621.8

23 2 1940 46000 1629.0 38625.2 -929.8

24 1 1940 46000 1616.1 38319.7 -1235.4

25 0 1940 46000 1603.3 38016.5 -1538.6

39555.1 934465.9 -54411.4

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Merit goods my essay help uk

Merit goods are goods which will be under-provided by the market, therefore they will be under-consumed. They are thought by the governments to be good for the populations and so the governments want them to be consumed to a great extent. They increase the private and social benefits and cause the social benefit be higher than the private one. The best examples of them, apart from all the public goods, can be the education, health care, sports facilities and the opera.

Although the majority of the merit goods is provided by the private sectors, not all the people can afford buying them, therefore they will be under-consumed. That is why the government is needed to destroy the market failure increasing the supply and consequently raising the consumption.

To explain the reasons for government to provide the merit goods, I need to apply some examples of them. The first one can be the education. It is significant for the governments to provide it so that the society would be well-educated. Governments determine the period of education required for people (the compulsory education) to maintain the proper level of education of the society. The governments find education an important aspect that should be available for everyone as it cause the whole country to have better both economic growth and economic development.

Considering another example such as health care, the situation is quite similar. The governments want to provide the population with it because they care about the high states of health of society in their country. To gain these, the countries need to have high quality of health care. Governments often offer people unpaid programs consisting of preventative medical examination which contribute to maintain the high number of healthy people. This is also connected with the problems of the labour market. The healthier people are, the more efficient their work is, the greater revenue firms have and countries are more developed because of taxations.

Other examples like sport facilities or the opera are meant for people to become physically and culturally developed but their availability is not as important as in the case of the previous examples. That is why they are not as much provided by the governments as the rest of the merit goods.

Although most of the merit goods provided by the governments are free, the fact is that they are paid through the taxes that the societies pay. The number of the merit goods of particular types that the governments provide or subsidize depends on the necessity of them. If they are provided, the societies’ benefits get higher and so is the public treasury of the countries.

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Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father personal essay help

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.

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Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks online essay help

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

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WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation college essay help nyc

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) cheap mba definition essay help

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior global history essay help

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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