Biology Question

A literature review makes up the bulk of the introduction of most papers.
In addition to reviewing previous research, the introduction should list research objectives, provide a justification for the research, and hypothesis(es) and prediction(s).
Your work should be 3-5 pages long
12 pt. Times New Roman font
1.5 spaced with 1 inch margins
Literature citedAt least 5 primary sources
You are welcome to include additional primary sources as well as reliable secondary sources (ex. review articles).
See below for examples of the citation format used in this course

In-text citationsAuthor-year format Single author: “Interesting science stuff here (Smith 2013).”
Two authors: “Interesting science stuff here (Smith and Jones 2013).”
Three or more authors: “Interesting science stuff here (Smith el al. 2013).”
Starting a sentence with a citation: “Smith et al. (2013) found interesting science stuff.”

Scientific names of organisms should be italicized and on first mention. Should include capitalized genus name and lower case specific epithet (ex. Orconectes rusticus). If mentioned again you can abbreviate the name with the first initial of the genus and the specific epithet (ex. O. rusticus).
Begin with a general paragraph introducing your topic. This paragraph should make a general case about why the topic is worth studying and conclude with your broad research question.
The body of your paper should review what is already known about your topic. Do this by:Focusing on the findings (AKA results) of your primary sources. If a primary article gives relevant findings from another study in the introduction and you would like to include that information, look up the cited paper (i.e., the original paper) before including that information. Do not cite a paper without reading it.
Organizing your review by subtopics. For example if your project is looking at the effects of bacterial symbionts on host plant range of pea aphids, one paragraph could focus on what bacterial symbionts are and what role they play on different aspects of insects’ biology (e.g., reproduction, survival). The next paragraph could describe your study organism, i.e., pea aphids and their host plant range. The next paragraph could describe why bacterial symbionts on host plant range is an important question to study, citing examples.
Each paragraph should have a clear thesis statement at the beginning and you should have clear transitions between paragraphs,
In the concluding paragraph, give a brief summary of what other studies have done about the topic (e.g., the role bacterial symbionts on host plant range of other insects) and point out what is still unknown about this topic. Then provide research objectives, hypothesis(es), prediction(s), and justification for seeking the unknown.

Flores-Cruz Z, Allen C. 2011. Necessity of OxyR for the hydrogen peroxide stress response and full virulence in Ralstonia solanacearum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 77(18):6426-6432.
Allen C, Prior P, Hayward AC. 2005. Bacterial wilt: the disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. St. Paul (MN): APS Press 508 p.
Allen, C. 2007. Bacteria, bioterrorism, and the geranium ladies of Guatemala. In: Cabezas AL, Reese E, Waller M, editors. Wages of empire: neoliberal policies, repression, and women’s poverty. Boulder (CO): Paradigm Press. p. 169-177.
Williamson RC. 2004. Deciduous tree galls [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin-Madison; [cited 2013 Sep 12]. Available from…
Working Group on Diversity in the Biomedical Research Workforce (US). 2012. Draft report diversity in the biomedical research workforce [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); [cited 2013 Sep 12]. Available from in the Biome…

Council of Scientific Educators (CSE) citation format
Journal articles
References for journal articles follow the order Author(s). Year. Article title. Abbreviated journal title. Volume(issue):pages.
References for books follow the order Author(s). Year. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher. Extent.

Book chapter
References for chapters or other parts of a book follow the order Author(s). Year. Chapter title. In: Editor(s). Book title. Place of publication: publisher. Page numbers for that chapter.
Internet resources

Government document
Possible points
Introductory paragraph establishes the main idea of the review.
Review demonstrates a clear understanding of the material.
Review is well-supported by relevant primary and secondary sources
Review is thoughtful, well-organized with appropriate theses and transitions.
Correct grammar, punctuation, formatting and spelling used.
In-text citations and list of references properly formatted.
Includes at least 5 relevant primary sources.
Total points

and resistance of northern Pacific rattlesnake (C. Oreganus) venom in California ground squirrels..

Full topic- The effects and resistance of northern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus Viridis Oreganus) venom in California ground squirrels (Spermophilus Beecheyi).

This is a RESEARCH PROPOSAL. The proposal should describe research project (the one mentioned above) that would advance the understanding of the species.


The plan is to showcase through an experimental design that the California ground squirrels are resistance to the venom of the pacific rattlesnakes.
The required things:
NO introduction or any other part required besides the ones mentioned below:
1. Need Justification (what would you like to know about this species (squirrel) and why) (1/2 page)

2. Design ( design of an experiment that can help understand how the venom of the rattlesnake is not affecting the squirrels.)

Biology–GMO’s and Genetics Discussion

Discussion Prompt 1: Things you may not know about DNA
Watch this 5 min video about DNA (Link)Links to an external site.
What are some things that surprised you in this video that you didn’t previously know about DNA? What had you previously thought? What do you still have questions about?
Discussion Prompt 2: Your views on GMO’s
In your view, what were the most convincing arguments for and against genetically modified organisms (GMOs) based on your own research? Do you think GMOs should be labeled? Explain why! Be sure your response is supported with evidence and addresses any counter-arguments that could be made against your position. If you are citing evidence or making a claim, make sure you are clear about where the information is coming from so others can evaluate the credibility.
Critically evaluate what your peers have to say about this. Are there any arguments they have not considered or have they brought up points that you had not thought of that have changed your ideas in any way?

developmental biology

Folate supplementation of foods has reduced the number of neural tube defects significantly since its introduction.
Answer the following questions after doing some research, remember to cite your sources. Use APA format for any citations/references
1. What is folate?
2. How does the embryo take up folate/folic acid into cells and within cells ?
3. What are the metabolic pathways that are important during embryogenesis that use folate/folic acid?

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

use knowledge of biological principles and the scientific method to ask and answer relevant questions about the human body
weigh and make health-related decisions based on an understanding of the value and limits of scientific knowledge and the scientific method

A primary research article is an article in which authors conduct experiments and report their original findings, while a secondary research article reports or summarizes information presented from another source (for information of primary and secondary sources please go to Online Guide to Writing and Research).

For this assignment we will use a secondary article to trace the scientific method in a primary article.

Before starting this assignment, you might want to revisit the Scientific Method Tutorial in the Science Learning Center under the Content area.

Summary of Instructions:

Select a topic from the article options below. Next, click on the associated link to read the Science Daily article (the peer-reviewed scholarly primary article is also provided. Use this article as needed for additional details). Finally, write a paper that addresses the three questions outlined below.

Scientific Journal Article options (choose one):

Goji berry intake increases macular pigment optical density in healthy adults: A randomized pilot trial.
ScienceDaily article:

University of California – Davis. (2022, January 13). Dried goji berries may provide protection against age-related vision loss. ScienceDaily. .htm

Scientific Journal Article Reference:

Li, X., Holt, R. R., Keen, C. L., Morse, L. S., Yiu, G.,

Biogeochemical Cycles

Select one of the biogeochemical cycles you learned about in class. Create and upload an original diagram depicting all aspects of this biogeochemical cycle. This task is worth 5 points.Note: I am aware of the many diagrams that can be accessed through google images. Please make this an original depiction created by YOU.

Biology Question

This is the written answer component of Exam 2. It is worth 10 points total.
Please understand the following policies for this Exam:
Six writing prompts terms are provided below. Follow the directions for each group in order to complete this portion of the exam.Use a word processing program (like MS Word) to create a document and upload it.

Do not refer to the web to find your answers for these questions. Use the knowledge you have gained through the lectures, your notes, the reading, your studies, etc.
Use your own words always.TurnItIn will be enabled for this portion of exam, which means your responses are automatically being reviewed for multiple forms of plagiarism.
Any similarity flags will result in my reviewing your similarity report for the sources of the flags. NOTE: Copying phrases from the textbook or lab manual is still considered plagiarism.

Evidence of plagiarism will result in a score of ZERO for the entire exam (including the other components).
Further attempt to plagiarize may result in automatic failure for the class.This sucks for everyone, including your instructors. Please don’t risk it.

There is not time limit for this component.
There are no resubmissions for this component.
Good Luck!
Answer each of the three following questions based on what you have learned in class. Each answer is worth 2 points. When you finish, move to the next group of questions below.Describe how the spherical shape and tilt of the earth influences climate variation by latitude.
Describe how a small population size can potentially lead to the extinction of a species.
Compare and contrast the factors that drive human population growth rate over the last several thousand years with what has happened over the last few hundred years.
Select one of the following questions to answer based on what you have learned in class. This answer is worth 4 points. When you finish, you are done with this part of the exam.Describe the cascading effects by which the sun is able to modify climate and weather patterns across the globe.
Describe the major factors that explain why biodiversity can vary in different habitat types, different regions, or over time.
Choose three of the four major categories of things that humans are doing that are causing species extinctions. Explain what they are and how they are causing extinctions.

Biology Question

Week 1 Assignment
The Nutritional Intake Assignment has two components that must be completed: (1) Food Intake Journal and (2) Reflection Post.
(1) Food Intake Journal: All three days must be completed within the Excel journal with all food, food stuffs and beverages documented with their respective nutrient composition.
NOTE: enter only the number values; no units like g (grams) are needed. The totals for each day will auto calculate at the bottom of the excel page. Food Intake Journal linked here (download and complete for Week 1 Assignment – make sure you are using the web browser Chrome to view and download items from the class) ~~~> Food Intake Journal_LABELYOURFILEWITHYOURNAME.xls (2) Reflection Post: a 250-word post discussing what you have learned about your eating habits and how it has impacted what and how you eat and drink and how this relates to the organic molecules of life (Chapter 3 in the course textbook).
To submit the Week 1 assignment, click the Week 1 Assignment title to enter the submission area. When the screen refreshes the ‘Preview Upload Assignment’ page. Scroll down to the ‘ASSIGNMENT SUBMISSION’ heading and click the “Write Submission” button. A text window will open downward; this is where you type your 250-word Reflection Post (Part 2). Underneath the textbox for the Reflection Post, there an area surrounded by dashed lines to ‘Attach Files’. Click the appropriate button for you to attach the excel file of your Food Intake Journal (Part 1). After both components are typed in and/or attached to the submission area, click ‘Submit’ in the lower left corner to submit the Week 1 Assignment. Both components of the Week 1 Assignment must be submitted by 11:59 p.m. ET Sunday (the end of Week 1).
Both Week 1 Assignment components – the Food Intake Journal and Reflection Post – will be submitted at the same time when you submit your Week 1 Assignment.
The Nutritional Intake Assignment is worth a potential total maximum of 100 points and there are two components:
(1) Food Intake Journal (50 points maximum) – documenting the nutritional content of what was eaten and drank for 3 days.
(2) Reflection Post (50 points maximum) – discussing what has been learned about eating habits, how what was learned impacted what was ate and drank and how it related to Chapter 3, the organic molecules of life (40 points maximum), grammar and spelling (5 points), and meeting the minimum initial post length of 250 words (5 points).

Write an essay about cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Include specific large and high details about both, similarities, differences, examples,

Write an essay about cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Include specific large and high details about both, similarities, differences, examples, molecules.

Cellular Respiration:
* Give the simplest overall chemical equation for cellular respiration.
* You must include the steps of cellular respiration. This should include a descriiption of each of the following.
* glycolysis, oxidation of pyruvate, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation (includes electron transport chain and chemiosmosis).
* Your level of detail for each of the above should represent the level of detail in my lecture for this chapter (include creation and use of energy carriers, and other molecules involved such as glucose, carbon dioxide, and oxygen).
* You must indicate where in the cell each step of cellular respiration occurs. The locations should be very specific (tell me what membrane it is on, not just what organelle for example).

* Give the simplest overall chemical equation for photosynthesis.
* You must include a detailed descriiption of the light reactions of photosynthesis.
* You must include a general descriiption of the Calvin cycle reactions of photosynthesis.
* . Be sure you discuss the three steps of the cycle and include energy carriers and other molecules involved such as glucose and carbon dioxide.
* You must indicate where in the cell the light reactions and the Calvin Cycle each occur. The locations should be very specific (tell me what membrane it is on, not just what organelle for example).

* Make sure to give the correct equations for both photosynthesis and respiration?
* Make sure it indicate where all the steps of photosynthesis and all the steps of cellular respiration occur?
* Steps of photosynthesis include: Light reactions and Calvin Cycle
* Steps of cellular respiration include: glycolysis, reduction of pyruvate, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation (includes electron transport chain and chemiosmosis).
* Make sure it has a detailed descriiption of the light reactions of photosynthesis?
* Make sure it gives a general descriiption of the Calvin Cycle reactions of photosynthesis?
* Make sure it includes all steps of cellular respiration with the required detail?

Hello Writer Please Read Chapter 6 of the Reading that I have uploaded below before doing my Timed Quiz

Hello Writer Please Read Chapter 6 of the Reading that I have uploaded below before doing my Timed Quiz 2 For 60 Minutes.

Please Help me Get an A or B grade On My Quiz 2 for my BIOL 330: Zoology Class. The Quiz has 20 Questions and It is Timed 60 Minutes. Please Get My Quiz Done With An A Or B grade before 60 Minutes is up. Here is the Directions below to Access My BIOL 330 Zoology Quiz 2.

Step 1: Go to

Step 2: Username: chimemeka.aguiyi
Password: Basketball123!

Step 3: Click On Zoology Sec 1

Step 4: Go To Course Calendar

Step 5: Click On Quiz 2

Step 6: Get Started On Quiz 2. The Quiz Has 20 Questions and It is Timed for 60 Minutes 1 Hour.

Help with botany question

In angiosperms, the endosperm functions in
Pollen formation
Fruit formation
Seed coat formation
Nourishment of the embryo
Direction of the growth of the pollen tube
Which of the following features of angiosperms has probably contributed most to their evolutionary success relative to all other land plant groups?
Cutinized aerial surfaces
Flowers and fruits
True leaves and roots
Only female gametes are produced in which of the following structures?
Which of the following statements about xylem and phloem is correct?
Both are produce as secondary growth by vascular cambium.
Both have companion cells.
Both are found in bryophytes.
Both conduct glucose in the plant.
Both actively move fluids up and down stems.
Which of the following factors is most important in the movement of water up a tall tree?
Capillarity in the phloem
Air pressure
Leaf transpiration
Active transport in the xylem

discuss the physiology of the vertebrate skeletal muscle

1. Discuss the physiology of the vertebrate skeletal muscle.2. Apply concepts, experimental approaches, and facts learned in lectures to thelaboratory setting.
The Introduction should summarize what you already know about your (human) muscle (the structure of the muscle, the structure of the cells of which the muscle is composed, the functions of skeletal muscle, and how the cells enable the muscle toperform these functions).
*******please include citations and in-text citations (APA format)!! I want no plagiarism since this assignment will be checked into This introduction should be a page long (no more than 2). The audience of this report is students who have average knowledge of biology or received a grade of B or higher in biology (so it should be concise).

Purpose   For this assignment, students will write a persuasive letter to their member of the United States Congress, regarding


For this assignment, students will write a persuasive letter to their member of the United States Congress, regarding a proposed bill. The purpose of this assignment is to learn about the legislative process and the role constituents play in this process.


1. The first step is to identify a bill that has been proposed (but not passed) in the current Congressional session.  The bill should select an issue that you are interested in.   You can research such bills by visiting the Library of Congress. 

On the webpage you will see this at the top of the page. 

You want to make sure you are searching in the “Current Congress.”  In the second box, type in a subject you are interested in–health care, taxes, gun control etc. (You can also search by bill number if you have it.)  If you search by key term, once the results appear, make sure to limit your search to just “legislation” so only proposed bills appear.  

2. Once you choose a bill, read the bill.  What is the title and number of the proposed bill?  Is this a House (HR#) of Senate (S#) bill?  What are the goals of the bill?  What problem is the bill attempting to address?  Who is the bill’s sponsor and why are they proposing this bill?  Where is the bill in the legislative process?  Where do you stand on the passage of this bill?  You will likely need to do some research to more fully answer these questions.  

3. The next step is to write a persuasive letter to your member of Congress, either your House representative or one of your Senators. The letter should summarize the goals of the bill, offer a persuasive argument either in support or opposition to the bill, and make at least one connection to a political concept we have discussed in class.  The best letters will reference evidence from research to support the claims made in support or opposition to the bill.

4. Feel free to mail a copy of your letter to that member of Congress. If you do, please report back to the class any response you receive. (Sending the letter is not a requirement of this class and in no way would the University of Wisconsin or I be endorsing any views you express in the letter.)


● The letter should be a single-spaced letter of no more than two pages (including the heading and closing).  The letter should use proper business letter format.  For guidance on business letter format, see Purdue Online Writing lab.● For a list of the current members of Congress (and their addresses, click here for the House and here for the Senate.  ● Any cited material should be referenced in the body of the letter or in a brief works cited page attached to the end of the letter.  

Grading and Submission

The best letters will: 

● Use proper business letter format.● Summarize the main goals of the bill in a concise and accurate manner. ● List the bill number and title of the proposed law.● Present a persuasive and well-reasoned argument in support/opposition of the bill. ● Reference high quality research to support the claims made in the argument in support/opposition of the bill.● Make connections to course concepts that are relevant and demonstrate an understanding of the concepts.● Be written in a clear and easy-to-follow prose and contain no or very minor grammatical error. 

Introduction (1/4 page): Describe briefly OC and its incidence. Discussion (1/2 page): Discuss the major molecular signaling pathways involved

Introduction (1/4 page): Describe briefly OC and its incidence.
Discussion (1/2 page): Discuss the major molecular signaling pathways involved in the onset and progression of
Conclusion (1/4 page): Which therapy do you favor and why?

Have to use a minimum of three peer reviewed articles, and the professor gave us a peer reviewed article for us to use, but its optional, I will link it.
But it has to be one page, no double space, size 11 calibri font, and in apa

Signal Transduction

Q1. With the aid of a diagram describe the process whereby V. cholerae infects humans and disrupts signal transduction pathways. Terms that should be mentioned include: GPCR, G protein, adenylate cyclase, cAMP, ADP-ribosyl transferase. (15 marks)
Q2. With the aid of a diagram describe the process whereby Bordetella pertussis infects humans and disrupts signal transduction pathways. Terms that should be mentioned include: GPCR, G protein, adenylate cyclase, cAMP, ADP-ribosyl transferase. (15 marks)
Q3. Describe in detail how the V. cholerae toxic differs in its action from the Bordetella pertussis toxin.

– No cover page, title page or running head needed. – Typed in 12-point Times New Roman font, double-spaced,

– No cover page, title page or running head needed.
– Typed in 12-point Times New Roman font, double-spaced, section headings bolded.
Word document or PDF.
– Descriiptive, appropriate title. Includes the conditions that were tested and the enzyme
that was studied.
– Grammatically correct. Written in the past tense and passive voice.

Python Lab 1.

(1) Download the assignment 01Lab_Intro.pyDownload and immediately rename it under a new name: For instance, I would name my first lab
(2) Answer the exercises using variables and print statements as indicated.
(3) Make sure to test your answers, save the file, and run it in IDLE.
(4) Upload your Lab 1 as a .py file.
i aill send you the file

Genome Features

Check out your Comprehensive Genome Report.
Write a paragraph about the genome features in manuscript format.
Use the two Microbiology Resource Announcements papers for inspiration.
Include the following genome features and data in your paragraph (points).
Genome assembly method (2)
Number of contigs (1)
Genome size in nucleotides (nt) (1)
N50 value in basepairs (bp) (1)
Genome annotation method (2)
Number of predicted coding sequences (1)
Writing clarity and brevity (keep it brief!) (2)
TOTAL (10)

Jak skoordynować elegancki styl dżentelmenow

Zbudowanie sobie szykownego, eleganckiego wyglądu nigdy nie jest zbyt trudne dla mężczyzn. Dlatego nie zapomnij wyposażyć się w niezbędną wiedzę, jak koordynować elegancki styl. Aby pomóc Ci nie popełniać błędów i stać się uprzejmymi dżentelmenami, przeczytaj i wybierz dla siebie styl ubrań z poniższych 7 sugestii Wólka Kosowska.

Koszula i dżinsy
Połącz koszulę i dżinsy: elegancja nie jest trudna

Pierwszym sposobem łączenia ubrań, aby nadać chłopcom elegancki styl, o którym chcemy wspomnieć, jest połączenie koszuli i dżinsów. To dwie rzeczy, które zdecydowanie są niezbędne w każdej garderobie. Dlaczego więc z nich nie skorzystasz. Ten podstawowy zestaw stylistyczny wnosi zarówno elegancję, jak i elegancję.

Na ważnych wydarzeniach, wymagających dojrzałości i dojrzałości, hurtownia sukienek powinieneś włożyć koszulę do spodni i dodać krawat. A jeśli chcesz zrobić wrażenie w oczach płci przeciwnej, powinieneś się ubrać, ale otworzyć kołnierz, aby zwiększyć romans i urok.

 T-shirt i spodnie
T-shirty męskie są dobrze znane mężczyznom. Co więcej, jest to koszula pasująca do innych stylizacji, a każda kombinacja wnosi różne style. Jeśli chcesz zamienić się w dżentelmena o eleganckim stylu, nie zapomnij o zestawie koszulek i spodni.

Chiếc quần tây ống đứng thanh lịch kết hợp với chiếc áo thun nam chỉn chu trông bạn sẽ đứng đắn hơn nhiều. Và đừng quên sơ vin đóng thùng để mang đến diện mạo thanh lịch nhất nhé.

Koszula i spodnie
Zestaw, który nigdy nie wychodzi z mody, jest odpowiedni dla wszystkich grup wiekowych, w różnych sytuacjach. Niezależnie od tego, czy jesteś odnoszącym sukcesy biznesmenem, czy dżentelmenem, który dąży do eleganckiego dżentelmena, nikt nie może odmówić atrakcyjności tej pary.Po prostu załóż ten strój i stałaś się bardziej elegancka i luksusowa.

Zwykle będzie to połączenie klasycznych koszul, z minimalistycznym designem i ciemnymi męskimi spodniami. Hurtownia sukienek i tunik Ten zestaw ubrań ma na celu zwiększenie wytrzymałości i sztywności mężczyzn.

Jeśli chcesz się odmłodzić, a jednocześnie pokazać swój elegancki styl, wybierz koszule o niepowtarzalnych i dziwnych wzorach lub koszule w kratkę, połączone z jasnymi spodniami.

 Kamizelka, koszula i spodnie

Elegancki styl z koszulą, kamizelką i swobodnymi spodniami

Jeśli chcesz być dżentelmenem o eleganckim stylu, nie zignoruj ​​tego zestawu. Wólka Kosowska hurt Od wieków kamizelki, koszule i codzienne spodnie stały się idealnym strojem dla mężczyzn w połączeniu. Zestaw ten możesz nosić w wielu różnych sytuacjach od wyjścia do biura, negocjacji z partnerem czy podczas ważnych wydarzeń w życiu. Ostrożny, stylowy, luksusowy, elegancki to to, co ten strój wnosi do użytkownika. Tradycyjna koszula w połączeniu z ciemnym garniturem i krawatem to zawsze najbezpieczniejszy wybór.