Rear Window – Classical Hollywood Cinema

It is undeniable that Hollywood cinema plays a significant role in world movie. The “dream factory’ Hollywood is a high profit and dominating business. Hollywood movies are easily recognize by audiences. Hollywood movies are always successful and have a high box-office due to their fixed mode. Classical Hollywood cinema refers to the American film industry in 1927 to 1963 production of the film used in visual and sound style. This period of time is often called as the “golden age of Hollywood.” The classical style also known as “invisible style” which is weakening the role of the camera and background music, so that audiences forget that they are watching movies and they feel in the movie scene. “Classic Hollywood” narrative and visual narrative methods become the world’s most powerful and most popular film production style. This following essay will focus on Classical Hollywood cinema and analyze the how Rear Window reflect narrative, visual aesthetic, technology and the star power of classical Hollywood cinema.

Considering how Hollywood movies are able to obtain commercial successful, the first thing need to be concern is narration. Branigan (1992) stated that:“ narrative is a perceptual activity that organizes data into a special pattern which represents and explains experience”. In most Hollywood movies, it contains more than one unique plot. Meanwhile, the narrative is clear in Hollywood movies. Maltby (2003) mentioned that “most critical writing on Hollywood assumes that the primary purpose of a movie is to tell a story”. Looking at Real Window, it adapted from Cornell Woolrich’s 1942 short novel. It tells a love story and a suspense story, meanwhile the whole movie also consist of other small stories. This movie splendidly combines mystery murder, reflections on marriage issues and voyeurism with moral criticism. The main character Jeff is a global photographer but he have to stay in his small room as he got a broken leg. The door is close, but the window is open. Rear Window is a movie about the movie, the photographer Jeff is the audience. In this movie, several stories be shown through Jeff’s subjective lens (POV): his neighbor Thorwald took care of his frail wife; blessed newlyweds got a problem with their marriage at the end of movie; middle-aged couples seems to have a happy life but their dog be killed; and the dazed music composer, lonely lady, depressed unmarried women, frustrated white-collar workers. These stories is not the main part of this movie but actually they reflect the life of Jeff and Lisa. Looking at the two main stories of this movie, one is the love story between Jeff and Lisa, one is the murder incident which happened at the back of window which in Jeff’s apartment opposite. It can appeal to different types of audiences and earn high profits. Furthermore, the narrative of Rear Window is clear, at the end of movie everything got the answer and reply. The murder be confirmed, Jeff and Lisa be together. The everything it contains are relate to typical Hollywood style.

Hollywood movies “are organized to deliver pleasure to their audiences” (Maltby, 2003). It is worth to concern visual aesthetics of Hollywood movies. Visual aesthetics is a part that cannot be ignored. Looking at the movie “Rear Window”, On the one hand, visual aesthetics related to the fashion woman; on the other hand, it is about the scene they established and the technology they used. The main female character in this movie is Lisa, she’s “costumes and accessories display a resolute assertion of her femininity” (Belton, 2000). She always dress up and get perfect make up. In this whole movie, she wears six different dresses with various jewels which be a desire for female audience. Tania, M. (1988) argued that “fashion is far from representing woman’s unproblematic assimilation to the patriarchal systems, but functions to some extent as a signifier of feminine desire and difference”. However the elegant main character be created in this movie represent patriarchal ideology. The female have to dress up in order to attract man even though the man is lower than her. Meanwhile, it represent all woman are eager to get married. But anyway the beautiful actor gives the audience a visual enjoyment. Except for character aesthetics, looking at the scene of Rear Window, it is built purely for the movie making, the main scene is an apartment which looks like in New York city but its fake, all the scene is created in the studio. It makes the movie looks like more perfect and real. Furthermore, Hollywood’s film technology has always been the most advanced, Hollywood system closely to develop new technology. In the film Rear Window, it is filmed at 1954, the technology be seen in today is lagging and ridiculous but in the middle of the twentieth century of film history, it is amazing and attractive. The one part in this movie, Jeff use his camera flashgun to shot the murder causing glare in the screen. This makes the audience feel novel in that certain time. Also at the end of movie, the part of Jeff falling down from the window, the camera focusing on his face and his gesture is very stiff if we seen in nowadays, but it scares the audience who living in that century. Moreover, the editing in this movie is smooth.”Rear Window” clip speed is gradually accelerated with the development of the plot. For peeping at different floors of different people’s lives, the use of parallel montage performance method, a number of clues cross each other, the picture is very complex life, life is normal, the rhythm is leisurely.

The customer is the significant factor for Hollywood movie making. In order to attracting audience, it is not only establishing perfect scene, using clear narration, but also choosing popular star as actor. Hollywood did not need their audience to “process a knowledge of its industrial processes in order to enjoy or understand its products” (Maltby, 2003), Considering the star power in Hollywood movie. Hollywood business own their star system which is the central part of Hollywood movies. Most stars in the Hollywood have long fixed contract, they do not allowed to control the role they play, otherwise “their contract might be suspended without pay as punishment” (Stine and Davis, 1974). Moreover, Hollywood cinema got the studio system which is the Hollywood company operating mode in the Golden age of Hollywood. This brings glory to the Hollywood film but then gradually decline. There were several studios like Twentieth Century-Fox, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Warner Bros and so on. “Each studio has a personality; each studio’s product shows special emphases and values” (Rosten, 1941). Furthermore, the film makers are more concerned about consumer satisfaction. They obtain audience tastes from the audience’s recognition of a star. Looking at the two characters in the movie of Rear Window. James Stewart is a famous American actor in the mid-twentieth century. He was awarded the Medal of Freedom and a number of Lifetime Achievement Award actors, is the American culture of the traditional era of elegant symbol. He is very popular in American society. Choosing him as a starring will undoubtedly attract the audience’s interest in the film, even if they are not interested in the plot of the film. This is the usual way for Hollywood movies. Grace Kelly is the another starring in this movie. She is an Oscar winner and she is very beautiful and elegant. The audience will also enter the theater to watch the movie because of her. Actors made a lot of contribution for Hollywood movie box-office.

In conclusion, Classical Hollywood cinema have both commercial and artistic. It is gaining a huge success in the world and accessing to a great reputation. The Golden Age of Hollywood has ceased to exist now but it is also worth to analyze. The clear narrative makes the story of the film fascinating, visual aesthetics used to attracting audience and the star power is useful for box-office increasing. The product of Hollywood Cinema Real Window is also really successful and in 1955 won four nominations for the Oscar: Best Director Award, Best Screenplay Award, Best Recording Award, Best Photography Award. This movie also have serious influence on other movies. It is due to Classical Hollywood mode. “The rear window” is Hitchcock suspense film masterpiece, it created a terrorist and suspense atmosphere, the image to discover out of everyone’s heart hidden like voyeuristic psychology. The film in the name of “rear window” seems to contain a sense – the door closed, open the rear window, it is another world we have ignored.

Bibliograph:

Belton, J. (2000). Alfred Hitchcock’s Rear window. 1st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Branigan, E. (1992). Narrative comprehension and film. 1st ed. London: Routledge.

Maltby, R. (2003). Hollywood cinema. 1st ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub.

Modleski, Tania. (1988). The Woman Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory. London and New York: Methuen.

Rosten, L. (1941). Hollywood: the movie colony, the movie makers. 1st ed. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co.

Stine, W. and Davis, B. (1974). Mother Goddam. 1st ed. New York: Hawthorn Books.

Keratoconus: essay help online free

Keratoconus is a corneal ectasia characterized by progressive corneal thinning and apical protrusion. It is reported to have bilateral involvement in 90% individuals with asymmetric presentation. Its incidence is reported as  1 in 2000 in general popuation.(1) It typically presents at puberty with visual symptoms of irregular astigmatism and high myopia. Keratoconus occurs in all indigenous groups with no male or female predisposition.(2)

ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS

The etiological factors can be divided into biochemical, genetic and environmental.

Many biochemical theories hypothesized that corneal thinning occurs because of loss of corneal structural components. These changes might be due to anomalous free radicals and superoxides processing, increased aldehydes and peroxynitrates, abnormal healing and fibrosis of damaged cells.(3) Shetty R et al reported increased levels of cytokines such as Interleukin-6, Tumour necrosis factor-α, MMP-9  in the tear fluid and up regulation  at mRNA level in epithelium of  keratoconus patient.(4) Shetty R et al also reported reduction in  LOX transcript levels in epithelium and LOX levels in tear fluid correlating with disease severity.(5)

The  inheritance pattern can be sporadic , autosomal dominant with reduced penetrance or autosomal recessive among which sporadic pattern is more  common.(6)The genes involved in pathogenesis of keratoconus are VSX1,SOD1, RAB3GAP1, ZEB1,TGFB1 and FLG.(7) The  first degree relatives of keratoconics have 15–67 times greater risk of  developing keratoconus.(8)

The genetic predilection  requires an additional  environmental event for example;  rubbing of eyes  to elicit the progression  in keratoconus.(9) The microtrauma caused by eye rubbing elevates levels of matrix metalloproteinases and inflammatory mediators which contribute to progression of keratoconus. Excessive sunlight exposure leads to oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species to keratoconic corneas.(10)Bawazeer et al reported indirect association of atopy due to itching which leads to eye rubbing.(11)

Keratoconus can be  associated with Leber’s congenital amaurosis, Down syndrome, hard contact lens wear, connective tissue disorders, positive family history of the disorder, Monosomia X, Retinitis pigmentosa, Marfan syndrome (2) and  mitral valve prolapse.(12)

HISTOPATHOLOGY

The classical triad of  histopathologic features found in keratoconus includes thinning of the corneal stroma, breaks in Bowman’slayer, and deposition of iron in the basal layers of the corneal epithelium.(2)

CLINICAL FEATURES

Keratoconus is a progressive disorder ultimately affecting both eyes, although only one eye may be affected initially. The ocular symptoms and signs of keratoconus vary depending on severity of the disease. Keratoconus patients may present with blurring or distortion in vision due to glare, halos and frequent change in glasses. As the disease advances, significant vision loss occurs due to irregular astigmatism, myopia and corneal scarring. (2)

SIGNS OF KERATOCONUS (2)

EXTERNAL SIGNS

Munson’s sign: V-shaped conformation of the lower lid in downgaze seen in advanced keratoconus.

Rizzuti’s sign: Conical reflection on nasal cornea when a penlight is shone from the temporal side.

SLIT LAMP FINDINGS

Corneal protrusion

Stromal thinning: Centrally or paracentrally, most commonly inferiorly or inferotemporally

Fleischer ring : Yellow Brown to olive green ring of hemosiderin which may or may not surround the base of cone seen best with cobalt blue.

Vogt’s striae: Small brush like vertical  lines in deep layers of stroma and descemet’s membrane along the axis of cone which  disappear on digital  pressure.

Enlarged corneal nerves

Scarring: Epithelial or subepithelial

Acute hydrops: This occurs due to descemet’s membrane breaks with stromal imbibition of aqueous through these breaks. The oedema regresses gradually within weeks or months with resolution of the redness and pain ultimately resulting into corneal scarring.

 

RETROILLUMINATION TECHNIQUES

Retinoscopy: Scissoring of the reflex

Direct opthalmoscopy: The “Charleux” oil droplet sign

KERATOMETRIC SIGNS

Steep cornea

Malalignment, distortion, malpositioning, malfocussing, malshaping, malsizing, pulsation of mires with lack of mire parallellism.(2)

IMAGING

The corneal topography is sensitive to subtle changes in cornea prior to the arrival of clinical symptoms and  signs.(13) In videokeratography, systems relied on  Placido disc imaging show  zone of increased corneal power surrounded by zones of decreasing corneal power, inferior-superior asymmetry in corneal power, and skewing of the steepest radial axes above and below the horizontal meridian which point towards irregular astigmatism.(14) Usually, keratoconus  have an asymmetric bow tie arrangement unlike the symmetric pattern  elicited  in obviously occurring astigmatism.(15)Corneal measurement by Placido disc imaging is  restricted  to anterior corneal surface.(16)

The Orbscan (Bausch and Lomb, Rochester, NY, USA) utilizes slit scanning technology to provide wide-field pachymetry,anterior and posterior elevation and  keratometry maps . The Orbscan II combines slit scanning with Placido-based Topography  to provide  maximum posterior elevation compared with the best fit sphere (BFS), irregularity in the central 3mm, 5mm zones and  pachymetry which is more sensitive. (14)

The Pentacam, Galilei and Sirius use the Scheimpflug principle to provide three-dimensional mapping of the cor¬nea, direct measurement of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces, pachymetry, anterior chamber angle characterization , lens thickness and lens opacification .(14)

Aberrometry uses wavefront sensing, which is a technique of measuring the complete refractive status, including irregular astigmatism of an optical system. The shape of the wavefront can be analyzed by expanding it into sets of Zernike polynomials. The Zernike polynomials are a combination of independent trigonometric functions that are appropriate for describing the wavefront aberrations because of their orthogonality.(17)

CLASSIFICATION OF KERATOCONUS

Keratoconus can be classified based on cone morphology, keratometry readings and pattern of corneal topography. Morphologically cones can be of nipple type, oval type and globus type. Classification by topography is according to elevation map, thickness map and curvature map.

Classification based on severity of curvature

Mild <45 D in both meridians

Moderate 45-52 D in both meridians

Advanced >52 D in both meridians

Severe >62 D in both meridians

Table 1 : AmslerKrumeich Classification(18)

stage 1 stage 2 stage 3 stage 4

Myopia and astigmatism < 5D 5-8 D >8 D not measurable

Mean central K readings <48 D 48-53D 54-55 D >55D

Corneal thickness (µm) >500 >400 300-400 <200

Scarring no no no central scarring

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS:

A. Corneal ectatic disorders like pellucid marginal degeneration and keratoglobus.

B. Post-traumatic corneal ectacia or protrusion of the cornea subsequent to corneal thinning from ulceration

SPECTACLE AND CONTACT LENSES:

In very early stages spectacles and soft contact lenses with toric design  are used but  these do not correct irregular astigmatism. Patients with advanced keratoconus are managed by rigid gas permeable  lenses among which single  base curve  contact lenses are most commonly used.In advanced keratoconus, multicurve lenses like Soper lenses ,Mcguire lenses  and  Rose K lenses; Hybrid lenses and Wave custom designed contact lenses are used.(20).Scleral lenses are  prescribed for irregular corneas of severe keratoconus(21)

CORNEAL COLLAGEN CROSS LINKING:

Keratoconus leads to specific biomechanical alterations in cornea but cause is exactly not known. Immune histochemical analysis  and biochemical studies show enzymatic alterations with increased expression of  proteolytic enzymes and decreased concentration of protease inhibitors.(22) The biomechanical abnormality is related to collagen frame work, collagen compound and bonding with collagen fibrils.

Corneal collagen cross linking is an effective therapeutic option to halt the progression  of  keratoconus.(23)The UV-A light induced production of oxygen radicals leads to development of strong chemical bonds between collagen fibrils which strengthens  the cornea. The Cross linking procedure increases biomechanical strength of  cornea up to 330%.(24)

According to Dresden protocol , cornea is treated by application of riboflavin (vitamin B2) 0.1% solution (10 mg riboflavin-5-phosphate in 10 ml dextran 20% solution) for 30 min (induction time) which is followed by UVA radiation of 370 nm wave- length and an irradiance (exposure dose rate) of 3 mW/cm2 for 30 min to  deliver total  radiant exposure (total dose) of 5.4 J/cm2.(25)

The Bunsen-Roscoe law of reciprocity states that a photochemical effect should be comparable as long as total fluence remains constant, so the amount of corneal strengthening derived from cross-linking is energy dependent and not power dependent. The Accelerated crosslinking(KXL) is similar to the standard riboflavin/UV cross-linking (CXL) procedure, except that the induction time and UV exposure time are significantly reduced and the UV irradiance is increased. After induction time of 10 minutes, cornea is exposed to UVA radiation of 370 nm with  an irradiance (exposure dose rate)  of 9 mW/cm2 for 10 minutes or 18 mW/cm2 for 5 minutes or 27 mw/cm2 for 3 minutes to achieve a total radiant exposure (total dose) of 5.4 J/cm2.(26)

The UVA dose absorbed in the anterior part of the stroma is same in accelerated and standard protocol thus providing same crosslinking effect in both protocols. Due to shorter induction time the posterior cornea has less absorbed UVA dose in accelerated protocol which implies safer dose of UVA/riboflavin close to endothelium in accelerated protocol.(26)

UV-A exposure in accelerated collagen cross linking is comparable to the UV-A exposure in the outdoor environment. Normally most of UV- A energy, about 95-99% is absorbed by the cornea and lens, and only 1% or less reaches the retina in the 350-380 nm spectral zone. Cornea and its absorbed riboflavin attenuate much of the incident UV-A radiant energy during the procedure, so the scope for direct damage of ocular structures is negligible during the accelerated cross-linking procedure.(26)

Table 2 – Summary of the Avedro Procedures(26)

Treatment Procedure Total UVA Radiant

Exposure [J/cm2] Total UVA Dose

Absorbed by

Riboflavin [J/cm2]

Riboflavin

Concentration Presoak

Time

[min] UV Lamp

Irradiance

[W/cm2] Time UV

Lamp on

[min] Surface

under

epithelium Endothelium (300μm) Surface Endothelium

(300μm)

0.10% 10 17 7.05 6.4 0.75 0.58 0.017

When crosslinking is combined with procedures like Phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK), Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and intrastromal corneal ring segments accelerated technique is more efficient due to better patient comfort and faster visual recovery.(27)

EXCIMER LASER FOR KERATOCONUS:

Accelerated crosslinking (KXL)  procedure  alone is capable of corneal stabilization, but  it does not address the problem of  irregular astigmatism . So combination of KXL with other procedures like Phototherapeutic Keratectomy (PTK), Photo astigmatic refractive  Keratectomy (PRK) and Wavefront guided ablation are intended to reduce the irregular astigmatism.

The combination of PRK and KXL uses excimer laser to ablate the stroma to reduce the irregular astigmatism. (28) Athens protocol involves excimer laser epithelial de¬bridement (50 μm), partial (maximum ablation 80 μm) topography-guided excimer laser stromal ablation (PRK) followed by accelerated collagen cross linking (10 mW/cm2 for 8 minutes) performed with the Avedro KXL system. (29) PRK with KXL is not useful in advanced  keratoconus due to corneal thickness limitations.(30)

The combination of KXL with Transepithelial PTK (t-PTK) uses an excimer laser ablation to remove the epithelium. In keratoconic eyes the epithelium is thinner (<50 µm) over cone apex than other areas.(31)(32) Due to this keratoconic epithelial pattern, transepithelial PTK (ablation depth of 50 µm) not only removes corneal epithelium but also small amount of anterior stromal tissue on the cone apex (areas with epithelial thickness <50 µm) which regularize the anterior corneal surface. In Cretan protocol, transepithelial PTK ablation (50µm) of 6.5 -7.0 mm zone is done and then this area is enlarged by scrapping at an intended zone of 8 -9 mm. This is followed by standard collagen cross linking (3 mW/cm2 for 30 minutes). (30)

INTRASTROMAL CORNEAL RING SEGMENTS:

Intrastromal corneal ring segments are placed at a depth of two thirds of corneal thickness by a  small radial incision into a track created within corneal stroma. They flatten the central cornea by an arc-shortening effect on the corneal lamellae structure. Two main types of intrastromal rings available are Intacs and Ferrara Rings.(33)

KERATOPLASTY

Approximately 10-25% of cases of keratoconus will progress to a point where vision correction is no longer possible. Penetrating keratoplasty is the most frequently performed surgical procedure for ectatic corneas. In keratoconus, conventional penetrating keratoplasty has good long-term outcome with graft survival of  90% up to 13.8 years and good visual outcomes with 73.2% achieving BCVA over 20/40.(34)

The deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) aims at removing all or near total stroma upto  descemet’s membrane. As it is mostly an extra ocular procedure and it  also preserves the host’s descemet’s membrane and  endothelium there is no risk of endothelial rejection.(35)

In femtosecond-assisted keratoplasty (FSALK) femtosecond laser allows an incision to be of desired shape and it can easily match donor and recipient dimensions. Eyes with prior scarring and loss of anterior stromal tissue benefit more from femtosecond laser-assisted grafts as it restores a more normal peripheral corneal topography and thickness in such eyes.(36)

Tuck in lamellar keratoplasty involves a central lamellar keratoplasty with intra stromal tucking of peripheral edge. (37)

NSA Surveillance Legality

The United States of America has stated that the utilization of the upstream data collection of data and the PRISM by the National Security Agency (NSA) has played a crucial role in thwarting more than fifty possible terrorist threats since the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the United States of America (The Federalist Society 13). In light of the above achievement, a gap has developed between the contemporary surveillance schemes and the fundamental human right to privacy. For instance, PRISM as a surveillance operation has had a significant impact on the rights of the citizens to privacy. Besides, the case of upstream data collection and PRISM illustrate the vulnerability in the digital era of the right to privacy and the unprecedented interference of personal information in the digital domain. Although the NSA surveillance has contributed positively in the fight against terrorism, the indiscriminate and secret intelligence surveillance does not justify the fight against terrorism to violate the right of privacy.

In the 21st century, the new technology has contributed significantly to the facilitation and the violation of human rights. On that note, the surveillance operation conducted by the United States NSA has a code name Special Source Operation that has an aim of collecting data and looking for a wide range of internet data content for information that would determine the level of terrorist threats and interception in the United States of America (Stoycheff 302). The PRISM program contains another version of the surveillance that includes XKeyscore, BULLRUN, and the Upstream. As an illustration, the Upstream data collection involves copying of data from the private and public networks into the NSA system and the fibre-optic cables to switch the central exchange of the internet tariffs (Kilroy 101). On the other hand, the XKeyscore initiates the search of a full take data at over one hundred and fifty global sites on seven hundred database servers. Furthermore, the system incorporates the data collected from the United States Embassy sites, microwave transmissions and the foreign satellites. What’s more, the encryption technology used by the NSA need a service provider to assist the government in acquiring the all the relevant information and the facilities to process the information from the foreign intelligence (Bernard 23). Subsequently, the programs involve the disclosure of secure data using the security keys that protect the data in transit. The personal data that PRISM collects runs through a shared forum of bulk intelligence of five different countries has the primary aim of detecting and eliminating terrorism at the expense of the right to privacy.

The right to privacy declared by the United Nations in 1948 from Article 12 is part of an international and regional convention for human rights that prohibit criminal violation of the privacy right without limiting whether the interference of the right to privacy comes from the state, private actors or foreign state (Sloan 36). Similarly, the right to privacy has an obligation to protect the precise private domain like a person’s home, family, body and at the same time restricts the sharing, use and the collection of personal data about the individual. Most importantly, the violation of informational privacy should not justify the fight against terrorism and espionage, and the concerned person should be in a position to foresee the consequences with complete clarity and precision. At the same time, the law should use competent authorities to supervise and review the effectiveness of the legislation that guarantees against abuse. However, the PRISMS involves the United States having the direct access to the private data of its citizens as well as other Europeans. Moreover, the personal data is stored for processing in the US technical infrastructure through internet service providers like Google, Yahoo, and Facebook.

Several human rights agencies have expressed concerns over the PRISMS program and other programs that specifically affect the fundamental rights to privacy and freedom. Interestingly, the government of the United States while expressing the need to counter terrorism addressed the legality and the lawfulness of the NSA surveillance programs (Brandt 4). Consequently, the Human Rights Committee in 1988 presented an analytical evaluation of the limitations to the right of privacy and determined the cumulative conditions under which the violation of the right to privacy is justifiable. The cumulative legalities state that the law should provide any restriction and have some necessity in the democratic society, and the measures of restriction must conform to the proportionality model of human right guaranteed. Therefore, when the test for analysis of the violation of the human right to privacy, the cumulative provision suggests that the surveillance architecture by the NSA completely violates the statutory obligations of the United States of America (Joergensen 2). It is evident that the NSA surveillance has been operating by vague and extensive provisions of the FISA (Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act) and thus lack a legal basis. By extension, the specific information of individuals does not give the people the fundamental elements of the law regarding accessibility and foreseeability as required by the code of proper legal conduct.

Since the PRISMS program exhibits lots of sophistication, the intrusion into private and personal information via the collection of mass data has influenced the core of inviolable private information. What’s more, the data accessed has been used to identify the people whose data have been collected. Moreover, the intrusion of employed by NSA’s PRISM has not justified that the program is effective in preventing terrorism or other grave crimes in the United States of America. The program has failed to ensure that the proportionality proponent for justifying the violation of human rights to privacy because the program has not provided any protection of privacy to the non-citizens and the many innocent individuals targeted by the PRISM and Upstream data collection program. Still, the program has pursued by lawful means the legitimate national interests by pressing on the social needs to justify the privacy interference of the regular citizens. The programs have lacked mechanisms of the judiciary and legislative oversights limit the vulnerability of the abuses because the operation applies discriminatory enforcement that results in the violation of the human rights to privacy and freedom.

By collecting data on emails of innocent Americans, NSA has trespassed the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution that restricts searches that are unreasonable, and the seizures should require a warrant sanctioned by the court or probable cause. In light of the growing controversy, the NSA responded by stating that the collection and the interception of domestic emails were not intended because the separation of the target data was difficult for the communication between the Americans and the other foreigners. However, there should be no excuses for not separating the email because the agency has enough resources to distinguish the emails used by the terrorists from the emails the innocent Americans. Besides, the NSA has software that is capable of view the browsing history of anyone’s internet search and email chats without the warrant of a court. However, with the increasing online communication and the rising levels of globalization, the role of protecting the Americans decreases because the collection of information becomes challenging and cumbersome. The Oversight Board that condemned and bashed the NSA phone surveillance has justified the collection of electronic communication and email content through internet backbone cables (Kilroy 102). They argue that the upstream collection and the PRISM is a program that the government requests for information apart from being a surveillance database. Interestingly, the system operates by collecting communication but not in bulk thereby justifying the legalities of the program.

The cell phone tracking records for the NSA domestically averages about five billion records in a day and stores the location of millions of device locations in a massive database. They install intercept materials and equipment all over the country and apply mathematical techniques to predict and correlate the patterns of movement to analyze the paths in the co-travel program. Furthermore, the program can track the movements of people and the intersection of individuals who communicate with the targets of terror attacks. The NSA has program codenamed Dishfire extracts information from the analysis of SMS messages from travel alerts, bank alerts and the names of electronic business cards to gain information on the people who are not specific targets or under any form of suspicion. In addition, the NSA’s capability of spying and invading the privacy of ordinary citizens has reached critical levels because they can track numbers of both the individuals in a conversation as well as their locations. Still, the NSA can monitor texts, the crack the encryption codes, track data cell applications data, credit card purchases, and financial transactions and intercept calls by installing a fake SIM card to control the phone activities. Out the few mentioned programs, the NSA can set up surveillance and limit the right to privacy without a legitimate probable cause or a court warrant.

In summary, the capability to monitor everything through the surveillance programs of the NSA has sparked widespread controversy touching on the right of privacy and the general freedom of the ordinary American citizens. Nevertheless, the emergence of the revelations that the surveillance powers of the NSA continue to infringe on the privacy of personal information, the PRISM, the upstream data collection, cell phone monitoring and the XKeyscore programs have illustrated the vulnerabilities in the digital age concerning the unprecedented interference of personal data and the right to privacy. Finally, clarifications and in-depth analyses to substantiate the human rights and privacy principles affected by the flow of data globally and account for technological developments that pose serious challenges to personal information and the right to privacy. Although the NSA surveillance has positive contribution in the fight against terrorism, the indiscriminate and secret intelligence surveillance does not justify the fight against terrorism to violate the right of privacy.

Works Cited

Bernard, Richard L. Electronic Intelligence (ELINT) At NSA. 1st ed., Fort George G. Meade, Md., Center For Cryptologic History, National Security Agency, 2009,.

Brandt, Bradley L. Constitutionality and Legality of NSA Surveillance Program. , 2013. Internet resource.

Joergensen, R. “Can Human Rights Law Bend Mass Surveillance?”. Internet Policy Review, 3(1)., 2014, doi: 10.14763/2014.1.249.

Kilroy, Richard. “No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, The NSA, And The U.S. Surveillance State. By Glenn Greenwald, New York, NY: Metropolitan Books, 2014”. Journal of Strategic Security, vol. 9, no. 3, 2016, pp. 99-102. University Of South Florida Libraries, doi:10.5038/1944-0472.9.3.1552.

Sloan, Robert H. and Richard Warner. “The Self, The Stasi, The NSA: Privacy, Knowledge, And Complicity In The Surveillance State”. SSRN Electronic Journal, Elsevier BV, doi:10.2139/ssrn.2577308.

Stoycheff, E. “Under Surveillance: Examining Facebooks Spiral Of Silence Effects In The Wake Of NSA Internet Monitoring”. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, vol 93, no. 2, 2016, pp. 296-311. SAGE Publications, doi:10.1177/1077699016630255.

Terrorist Surveillance and the Constitution. Washington, D.C.: The Federalist Society, 2007. Print.

The introduction of automobiles in the United States: college application essay help

A still time came upon the United States in the early twentieth century; it was a time of war, followed by the Great Depression. The war brought a time of consumer confidence; however there was too much confidence. Black Tuesday was just the beginning of an economic downturn. Soon after the worst economic downfall in history, during the mid-twentieth century, America was about peace, prosperity, and restoration. The introduction of automobiles in the United States led to mass consumerism and built many of today’s retail, leisure, and entertainment structures and culture.

In the early twentieth century, from 1914-1918, the world had gone into battle. During World War I, the goods were produced as need, no shortage or surplus (Beder, Sharon). After World War I, there was an increased motivation for expanding the economy and promoting consumerism.  Technological advancements promoted consumerism and allowed people to buy automobiles, dishwashers, vacuum cleaners, and more (The Affluent Society). All of these new items and products transformed daily life; life was easier and people had more time for leisure activities. One of the most favored advancements of the time was the automobile. Henry Ford introduced the first automobile, Model T, in 1908. Because of Ford’s assembly line, a new production technique, there were twenty million Model T’s sold by 1930 (Automobile). People who did not have enough money were still able to purchase a Model T, through the use of the credit system. After some time, citizens did not recognize signs such as overproduction, under-consumption, inequitable income distribution, lack of bank, credit, and stock regulation, and wild speculation. Under those circumstances, the stock market crashed on October 29th, 1929, known as Black Tuesday, and marked the beginning of The Great Depression, changing the American economy forever. 12-15 million Americans were unemployed during this Depression, driving overall consumption down and saving up (American Experience). Ten years later, the United States economy finally began to see the reversal of the American economy with the emergence of the second World War. World War II helped restore the economy; rate of unemployment dropped and wages rose. With increased wages, consumerism and spending power took a leap upwards. Families were so eager to spend their money; 21.4 million cars were bought from 1945 to 1949 (American Experience).

Amidst the postwar economy, the modernization of the roads and highways helped shape much of the United States’ landscapes. Prior to the World War I, there was a push, funded by private lenders, to build a coast-to-coast highway. In 1913, named highways started to come into play; the Lincoln Highway became the first coast-to-coast expressway and it stretched from New York to San Francisco (The Lincoln Highway Experience). Moreover, the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, proposed by Dwight D. Eisenhower, was finally passed through congress. This project would cover 41,000 miles with roads. The goal for this highway act was to eliminate the growing traffic problem and make it easier to travel from city to city (History.com). After World War II, the idea of family was getting popular — people started moving from urban areas to more rural and suburban areas. Suburbia drove the demand for the automobile industry; in 1948, fifty-four percent of Americans owned cars. Eleven years later, in 1959, the percentage rose to seventy four (The American Yawp).

As the roads and highways grew, the businesses grew as well. The new sense of consumerism led to the increase in gas stations. Gas stations were scattered by the plentiful all over highways and some old school gas stations are still preserved. The ever-expanding economy led to highways and roads littered with outdoor advertisements, such as billboards. Mass consumerism led to many of the consumer landscapes we see today, “the rise of mega-corporations, and the re-scaling of designed environments for everything from shopping to leisure activity, vacationing, and commerce” (Conzen). Automobiles and mass consumerism shaped much of the retail infrastructure that are still present today. In the city, automobiles shaped the traditional downtown retail architecture. We also saw a rise in smaller malls for the urban core. With the move to more suburban areas, America saw an upsurge in shopping malls; suburbs were littered with strip malls and soon enough the mega-mall arrived. As these structures grew, traditional department stores and retails stores emerged, and many of of them are still available in present day. Retail was not the only thing that flourished; people had more time for leisure and entertainment. The extra time led to the emergence of theaters, and sporting events became more popular. In 1971, Walt Disney World opened in Orlando, Florida. Disney World became a very popular tourist attraction for both kids and adults (Conzen).

These ideas of the postmodern revitalization of America’s landscapes connect back to the idea of Main Streets. Many businesses reside within or around Main Street and the new urbanization grew Main Street. Many of the leisure and entertainment factors in the city could be tied to Main Street. Much of the lectures and presentations given before Thanksgiving led to the rise of the automobile and the rise of mass consumerism. Before the World War I, we were taught about the growing metropolitan area. The growth of the city had begun and the city was starting to build skyscrapers for offices and we saw the emergence of department stores. This can be tied into the postwar consumerism where many department stores were booming, as were the new retail shops that came about. Jobs before World War I were in abundance but wages were not as high. After World War II, full employment was pretty much achieved and wages grew with the economy. In the urban-social lecture, we noticed people did also made time for leisure; an example of this would be Broadway theaters and activities such as ice skating in New York. In Philadelphia, Market Street became the center of many of the department and retail centers. In present day, Market Street is loaded with stores, theaters, parking garages, and even a full scale mall. Many of the ideas and areas that we studied before Thanksgiving break tie back into the development of the postwar automobile and mass consumerism idea.

Automobiles were the backbone of the American economy and helped shape the culture that is still present in modern day. With the addition of a booming postwar economy, mass consumerism changed the way people acted, the way people spent their time, and the way people spent their money. Automobiles and mass consumerism shaped American retail, leisure, and entertainment landscapes.

Does Music Have a Positive Impact on the Brain?

Music is like its own language that everyone on Earth can understand and appreciate. Infants, children, teenagers, adults, and elderly, Western culture, European culture, Asian culture, ancient civilization and modern civilization all understand and appreciate music and what it can do for them. Music in today’s world is so easily accessible. Whether you’re listening to the radio, your iPod, or even on YouTube, there’s no way to escape it. People listen to it while doing things like driving to work, studying, working out, and just to relax. But does anyone know how that new catchy tune we heard the other day on the radio and for some reason can’t get out of our head impacts us cognitively?  There have been many, many, influential musicians that have roamed the Earth. Some positive, some negative, some that are neutral. Before science proved that music has an impact on the way we act, think, and feel. Humans believed that music was only for pure entertainment. But since then, a lot of research and studies have been conducted, and we now know that music plays a bigger role in our everyday lives than we could ever imagine. In this paper, I will discuss 1. How music affects children, 2. Research against music positively impacting the brain, 3. Health benefits, 4. Creativity, and 5. My opinion.

Children begin to hear music around the second trimester during pregnancy. (Slater, 2003) Music helps neutrons in the brain, whether its during infancy or throughout the childhood years. (Slater, 2003) Some hospitals play music to preemies in intensive care unit and research shows that music, and even in some cases, the mother humming, can help babies gain weight and leave the ward faster. (Slater, 2003) Science tells us that when a child learns and plays a musical instrument, they begin to hear and process sounds that other children could not hear. They then begin to develop “neurophysiological distinction.” (Locker, 2014) This helps them with literacy skills, which then transfers to higher academic results. (Locker, 2014) This also mean that they learn spoken sounds and words faster than other children. A study done at the University of California was conducted where thirty children, second graders that were put into three groups were compared. Northwestern University conducted a study and found that children who do not learn a musical instrument will not have the same benefits as those who learn one. (Locker, 2014) Northwestern also teamed up with “The Harmony Project.” The Harmony Project is a community music program in the Los Angeles area. Per their website, ninety-three percent of members have gone on and went to college since the year 2008, even with a dropout rate of fifty percent or more in the area. The study was later published that September in the Journal of Neuroscience and has shown direct evidence to music having a biological impact on the nervous system. (Locker, 2014) Further research was conducted, and was revealed that children who regularly attended music class and actively participated has more improvement in the brain and in test scores than children who did not. Research says that pairing music with rhythms and pitch enhances help children (and adults) learn and recall information. (HealthyChildren, 2015)

While there are many positives involving music and the brain, there are going to be negatives as well. Some types of music can cause your brain to lose symmetry between the right and left halves. (Design, & Looi, 2007) If you have ever tried to concentrate on something with loud and disruptive music playing, you probably couldn’t get any work done. In children, this can lead to learning disabilities and behavior disruptions. In adults, less work could be completed. (Design, & Looi, 2007) This is mostly due to the beat of the music. Rock and roll, rap, and other fast tempo music could be the leading genres that cause this disruption. (Design, & Looi, 2007) If someone were to listen to music while in a bad mood, it could make their mood worse depending on the genre. (Acappy, 2007) Teens who listen to music more than five hours a day can see declines in school work from the distraction. (Acappy, 2007) Music can influence people, mainly teens in negative ways. Racist, violent, sexist, and homophobic lyrics can influence vulnerable children. Studies conducted show that children and teens who listen to heavy metal music can sometimes show signs of substance abuse, disorders, higher suicide risk, or take bigger risks. (Wade, 2016) Music videos are even more of a threat to children, as even though they might not understand the words to the song, anything depicted in the video could be picked up by the child and they could imitate the behavior shown. (Wade, 2016) Swedish studies show that children who were interested in rock music early on were influenced by peer pressure later in life. (Wade, 2016) The Rand Corporation conducted a study and found that both males and females are influenced by music with sexually explicit lyrics. Per the research, those of 1,400 who listened to music had begun having sex earlier than those who did not. (Wade, 2016) On October 26th, 1984, an Ozzy Osbourne fan known as John McCollum took his own life after listening to the song “Suicide Solution.” (History, 2009) Lawsuits were made, and McCollum’s parents claimed that there were hidden lyrics in the song that incited the 19-year-old to kill himself. They claimed that listeners were urged to “get the gun and try it, shoot, shoot, shoot.” After the dust had settled, the courts had claimed there was no evidence that the song was the reason behind McCollum killing himself. (History, 2009)

Music can make you happier. Shocker, I know, but this is due to the brain releasing dopamine as you listen. (Zatorre & Salimpoor 2013) In a way, music gives off a natural high to those listening. Music has been known to heal in some cases. Music therapy is a great example of this. A simple definition of music therapy would be that it can be performed individually, or in groups. Active participation, where clinical improvisation works, or receptive participation where a participant might only need to listen to music could be necessary. Studies tell that music therapy can help treat patients with neurological conditions by stimulating the brain. (Archer, 2007) In a way, music helps rewire the brain to way it used to be. (Archer, 2007) Music therapy stimulates the parts of the brain that associates with music. (Archer, 2007) An example could be a person with Alzheimer’s disease. Music can help recall memories that are damaged to the person. (Archer, 2007) So in a way, music can bring back memories that could not otherwise be brought back. Those with dementia find comfort in being able to retrieve memories through music. (Archer, 2007) Those with Parkinson’s disease can be assisted with music. Music with a strong, rhythmic beat can stimulate motor control, movement, and coordination. (Archer, 2007) A study conducted in Finland has found that musical therapy can improve the outcome of depression, while it is combined with standard therapy. (Bland, 2011) 79 participates, ranging from the ages of eighteen to fifty years old were recruited and tested. (Bland, 2011) Lasting an hour for twice a week, and for twenty weeks, the therapist and patient were both provided with an acoustic drum, keyboard, and percussion instrument. Bonding happened between both people by creating music together. (Bland, 2011) Because of this, the patients interact and express emotion to the therapist, which in return, the therapist can gain insight into the patient’s relationships and emotional difficulties. (Bland, 2011) At the end of study, the participants were asked to complete a Montgomey-Asberg depression rating scale, or MADRS for short. Greater improvement was shown in the patients who received music therapy. (Bland, 2011) Anxiety can be lowered just by listening to music. (HealthyChildren, 2015) It is found to be so effective in reducing anxiety that it is often used in dental offices, radiation therapy areas, and preoperative rooms to help patients calm their nerves and worries and feel relaxed. Calming music in nursing homes can help soothe elderly patients, especially those with dementia. (HealthyChildren, 2015) Stress can be lowered by turning on some tunes. (HealthyChildren, 2015) Considering stress causes sixty percent of illness and disease. Playing music can even boost a person’s immune system. (eMedExpert, 2016) So next time there is a stressful day at the office, just relax, put on your iPod and let the stress out through music. It could potentially save your life. (Acappy, 2007) Over thirty percent of Americans suffer from insomnia. Studies show that if you listen to relaxing music for forty-five minutes before sleeping, can help people sleep at night. (eMedExpert, 2016) Per the American Society of Hypertension, those who have high blood pressure can listen to music in the mornings and evenings and train themselves to lower their blood pressure and keep it low. (eMedExpert, 2016) Genres like classical for thirty minutes is recommended. (eMedExpert, 2016) British and Italian researchers brought in men and women; half were musically trained. The researchers had them put on headphones, and had them listen to six different genres of music, from rap to classical. The participants were measured on their breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. When the tempo was moving faster, so were the heart and breathing rates. As the tempo slowed down, so did the heart and breathing rates. (eMedExpert, 2016) Music activates many regions of the brain. (eMedExpert, 2016) Auditory, motor, and limbic parts are all activated upon hearing music. (eMedExpert, 2016) Listening to music while learning or studying can help a person learn better. Reading and literacy skills, spatial-temporal reasoning, mathematical skills, and emotional intelligence are all improved when listening to music. (eMedExpert, 2016) Listening to classical music, especially Mozart will improve performances on cognitive tests. This is known as “The Mozart Effect” as some deem it. (eMedExpert, 2016) Though in recent research and findings, listening to any type of music of music that a person enjoys will have a positive effect. (eMedExpert, 2016) Any music with a beat pattern of sixty beats per minute, will activate the left and right part of the brain. This in return will maximize learning and retaining information. Research has shown that certain types of music can help a person recall memories. Children who take music classes and lessons will develop a better memory compared to children with no musical training. (eMedExpert, 2016)

It’s no secret that music wants to play around with a person’s emotions and feelings as they listen to it. For some people, they thrive on these feelings and it motivates them. Some famous books may have not been written if not for music being played while writing. As stated above, music helps a person focus on the task at hand. In fact, some writers prefer music over silence as they become distracted by silence. (Ciotti, 2014) But before you pop in those headphones and start writing on your New York Times best-seller, take a mental note that lyrics to a song can cause a distraction. Though this should come to no surprise, lyrics play around and activate the language center inside of the brain. Anyone who have tried to talk or write while listening to lyrics probably caught themselves stumbling over words or saying the wrong words. Research proves that while doing any task that is language based, it is best to use ambient music, or a low volume level.

My life has revolved around music. Being able to play the drums since I was little, and taking classes since I was in middle school, I can believe that music can influence your brain for the better. Since taking music classes, I have could focus more in the classroom, get more work done, and pay better attention during lectures. Listening to music has always been a coping mechanism for me and it helps more than talking to someone at times. I grew up around rock and roll music as my family was huge on it. Though I personally did not experience any of the things that the studies showed, I have friends that did go through phases of drugs and sex because of the type of music they listened to. My creativity grew a lot more as I took more classes and began to read music and compose my own. It’s a great way to deal with stress and anxiety as I can figuratively “escape from this world” for a little bit and go into my own world to calm down.

Music has been around for nearly forever. Before science got involved, people never knew exactly how much music helped in their everyday lives. Children benefit hugely from it, minds become more creative, health can become better, whatever the case may be, playing or listening to music can help someone out tremendously in their life and could potentially save it. Of course, not all music is good music, and sometimes music will influence a person to do some crazy things, and we must differentiate wrong and right in those situations. The year is 2016, and we have a ton of research left in this area. Who knows what other things will be linked between music and the human mind.

Low-rise residential building construction

Section one

In this section I will be giving a detailed description and explaining the terminology of the main elements that comprise a low-rise residential building.

In the construction of a low-rise building it is formed in two parts, the substructure and superstructure. From this it is further broken down; the substructure, which is an underlying or supporting structure, made up of the foundations, the walls below ground and ground floor.

And the superstructure which is the upward extension of the pre-existing substructure, which is composed of the external walls, the upper floors (and stairways), the internal walls and partitions, the roof structure and coverings, the windows and external doors and finally the internal finishes.

Starting with the substructure, the foundations which are arguably the most important element as it is what the building is formed and dependent upon. The function is to support the combined loads forced on the building and transfer them to the ground safely, avoiding any deformation to the building, or effect on the ground that may impact the stability of other surrounding buildings.

For a low-rise residential building the most common foundation used would traditionally be a strip foundation, which is shown below.

 

A strip foundation would be most appropriate for a low-rise residential building as they are intended for use where building loads are relatively modest and distributed evenly which is the case of the low-rise residential building.

The walls below ground provides an imperative link between the substructure and superstructure. The main functional requirements of the walls below ground are to provide structural stability, to be durable and to exclude moisture. The aesthetics of the sub-ground walls are not of much importance as they are unlikely to be seen.

To conclude the substructure, the ground floor which for a low-rise residential is usually a ground supported concrete floor, its function is to be able to provide a dependable base for the utilities required by the user and to be able to withstand and endure daily use, with the main functions to provide structural stability, thermal insulation, durability, exclusion of ground water and to be finished appropriately.

Moving on to the superstructure in the construction of a low-rise residential building.

The external walls are made of 8 main functional requirements which are:

1. Strength and stability

2. Resistance to weather and ground moisture

3. Durability

4. Fire safety

5. Thermal Insulation

6. Acoustic Insulation

7. Security

8. Aesthetics

In most low-rise residential buildings masonry walls are the most common to be used for the external walls. To be successful the walls must measure up to the required levels of structural stability for it to be able to withstand the loads inflicted upon it during its life span. In modern construction and in many older buildings it is found that external walls are doubled up to be loadbearing walls, and to hold their own weight as well as the weight of other elements such as the roof. The building loads are transferred from the external wall to the foundations in the substructure. This ensures that the buildings structural integrity is maintained.

The upper floors which primary function is to be able to withstand the range of usual home activities to go about in a safe, and comfortable manner. To do so, the upper floor must support the loads imposed upon it by, amongst other things, like people and furniture.

To do this it must be strong and structurally stable, be durable and provide restraint for the external walls, be fire resistant to delay the spread of fire and smoke as well as providing adequate sound and heat insulation. It is very common for low-rise residential buildings to have upper floors which are supported by timber joists and strutting (usually Herringbone). Where traditionally timber joists would have been built into the load bearing walls it was discovered that it posed the threat of exposing the joists to damp, causing risk for decay. It is now common practice to use joist hangers to prevent damp causing damage to the timber.

The low-rise residential building must predominately include stairs to allow occupants to get from ground floor to first floor. However, on occasion staircases are made an aesthetic statement piece and can be an impressive element of architectural quality.

Home statistics show that trips and falls on stairways make up a significant number of the accidents in the home. Although many are accidental, some could be caused due to poorly designed finishes, stairways and handrails.

Internal walls and partitions primary function is to divide up the space between the external walls to create separate rooms within the building. The solid internal walls which may be constructed from bricks can also double as load bearing wall and separate two rooms.

Whereas lightweight walls usually made up of timber frames and plasterboard are for the sole purpose to dividing up the space.

 

The roof structure for low-rise residential buildings are usually pitched roofs which are constructed using engineered timber trussed rafters. From this the roof covering is then placed over the rafters to make the property water tight. Most commonly slates are used and nailed to battens at their head, with malleable non-ferrous rivet fixing at their tail to prevent wind uplift to construct the roof cover.

Section two

In this section, there will be recognition of different construction materials and a detailed description of how they are combined and commonly used in traditionally constructed low-rise buildings, and the way in which they are incorporated into the structure, fabric, components and finishes.

Starting with one the most common construction materials; concrete, which is used through-out the construction of a building, particularly in the foundations, ground-floors and walls.

Concrete is readily available and is made up of several different components including aggregates, coarse and fine, ordinary Portland cement and water. However, it must be noted that when constructing in sites where levels of soluble sulphates are high in the soil, ordinary Portland cement should not be used. This is because there is a possibility that the concrete could be weakened if the sulphates were to react with it. In these cases, sulphate resisting Portland cement should be substituted in instead.

When mixing the concrete, it’s important to add the correct amount of water, this is because if too much water is added, the excess will evaporate whilst curing and leave small voids within the concrete which can significantly reduce its strength.

Concrete is a perfect material to be used in construction as when it’s first mixed, it is fluid and plastic, meaning that it can be easily transported to site and be poured into foundation trenches and manipulated into the desired position with minimal difficulty. As well, it can be made in to blocks, bricks or slabs of almost any dimension to fit the criteria it is needed for. Once concrete is cured, it is strong and durable and is resistant to attack from ground water and moisture.

Another main construction material is steel, which is an alloyed mixture of iron and approximately 0.2 % carbon which is its most common alloying material, but other elements such as manganese or chromium can also be added and act as hardening agents. By controlling the amount of alloying elements added, can indirectly effect the hardness, ductility and the tensile strength of the steel produced. Steel is a versatile material because the composition and internal structure to tailor its properties can be adjusted by us. This allows the material to be used for a large variety of things in the industry from large structural steel beams and columns, to wall ties and timber joists.

 

Timber is used most commonly and traditionally in the roof and upper floor constructions as it has several benefits that make it excellent for use in a variety of construction projects. One of which is its thermal properties, this gives it an advantage in terms of its resistance to high temperatures. Where steel may expand or even collapse in high heat, wood dries out and becomes stronger. Furthermore, wood conducts heat relatively poorly in comparison to other materials such as aluminium or steel. This gives wood an advantage in terms of being used in the likes of wall coverings and ceilings as it is a better thermal insulator which would be wanted within a residential property to prevent heat escaping, whether it be through the roof or the walls.

Another important characteristic of wood is its tensile strength, which gives it its ability to bend under pressure without fracturing or failing. Wood has a relatively high strength to weight ratio. Its tensile strength is also one of the main reasons for choosing timber as a building material; its remarkably strong qualities make it the perfect choice for heavy-duty building materials such as structural beams.

Wood stands out from other materials as it is a truly versatile product. With its many qualities such as aesthetic appeal, tensile strength, insulation properties, and ease of fabrication enable it to remain a favourite choice for use in an extensive array of construction applications.

However, it must be made sure that any timber beams or frames used must be properly insulated from water and moisture as exposure to this could cause issues of decay and/or rot to the timber that could cause structural issues in the future.

There are several materials on the market used for insulation. Mineral wool is one of these materials and refers to numerous different types of insulation which are all environmentally friendly. It can refer to glass wool which is manufactured from recycled glass to produce fibreglass. It can refer to rock wool which is made from basalt. Or it can refer to slag wool which is produced from the slag from steel mills.

Mineral wool can be purchased in rolls or as a loose material. Most mineral wool does not have additives to make it fire resistant, making it poor for use in situation where extreme heat is present. However, it is not combustible. When used in conjunction with other, more fire-resistant forms of insulation, mineral wool can be an effective way of insulating large areas.

 

Section 3

In this section by using references to historic, and contemporary models it will be shown, by illustration and description, how the construction of low-rise residential buildings has evolved over the years through performance requirements of building elements and emerging technologies how technical innovation and development of new materials has delivered the current code compliant and low/zero carbon aspirational dwellings of today.

Early developments of the box frame construction was a revolutionary way of how houses were built back in the 16th century. This allowed buildings to be multi-storeyed and became the main way in how commercial and prestigious buildings and town houses were constructed. By the late 17th century, some timber-framed buildings had become highly decorative but the demise of timber-frame came about from changes in fashion, shortages in timber, as well as the ever-present risk of fire and the cheaper brick housing. In more rural and traditional areas the timber-framed housing remained popular until the late 18th century. However, with changes in fashion many of these timber-framed housing had been disguised with new facades and claddings.

Many of the 16th, 17th and 18th century stone buildings copied the shape of the timber-framed buildings until fashion once again influenced change.

In the early 1700s, construction of middle-class housing was largely made of brick due to the rise in brick production. A lot of these middle-class homes had influences from Queen Anne housing and as well as some Dutch inspiration and classism behind the designs. Their main characteristics were their sash windows which dominated the façade of the building, their stone quoins and triangular pediments.

Some Baroque style buildings were still be in constructed, which began in Italy in the 17th century which ignored convention to produce architecture of striking affect, however this form of housing was on its way out with the rise of the Georgian architecture becoming more popular amongst the patriotic citizens supporting British styled architecture. The early Georgians adapted the Italian architect Palladio’s architectural ideals to form their own unique which incorporated symmetry, proportion, harmony and restraint.

Regency housing moved away from the regularity of Georgian housing, with their characteristics being windows which were tall and thin with very small glazing bars separating the panes of glass. The balconies featuring extremely fine ironwork, made from delicate curves which were often a prominent feature. The proportions were kept simple, having a minimalist approach rather than decorative, for effect.

In the early 1800s, the housing, initially was in the rural areas being located close to where the origins of materials were. Housing was designed to serve the basic needs of the workers, it was functional and low cost which gave the reflected the view of what it was, poverty stricken and hard living. However, as the industrial revolution evolved more people moved into the inner-cities to work. Factory owner built houses to accommodate their workers. The demand for this housing then lead to back to back terraces. This meant there was only one exterior wall exposed, meaning it was the only one able to provide sunlight and air into the property, making these houses the unhealthiest to live in due to inadequate amount of ventilation being allowed through the building.

The garden city concept, had the ideal of a planned residential community. It was thought up by Ebenezer Howard an English town planner. It was his plan that garden cities would be an improvement in the quality of urban life, which over the years become overcrowded and congested due to the increased population density in urban areas due to the Industrial Revolution.

Post-war, to accommodate the high demand of housing due to the damages caused by enemy bombing, the systematic building technique was to build higher. By the 1960s, 20% of local council authorities housing, was buildings of 5 stories or more. The high-rise revolution helped to decrease the amount of urban sprawl, and several systems, such as concrete were developed to help speed up construction. But due to these systems not being tested properly, caused problems later. With some of the high-rise buildings partially collapsing, causing several fatalities.

Where some of the buildings constructed had no faults and are still standing today, some had so many structural issues the only solution was to demolish them.

More recently, after coming into the new millennium, the 21st century had new concerns surrounding construction. With the reality of climate change hitting, and the realisation that old habits must change, instead of constructing new homes with aesthetics in mind, environmental aspects have become more important.

With zero and low carbon home being at the vocal point of government environmental strategies, this is where construction has had a turning point to follow guidelines such as the code for sustainable homes to meet said government targets.

Section 4

In this section, it will be discussed how the Building Regulations are the principal legislation for the construction of low-rise residential buildings in England. By using Approved Document 7 there will be a description of how the adequacy of materials and workmanship can be established with confidence by specifiers. And a hypothesise on the way in which current legislation influences development of new environmental technologies.

Specifiers and constructors can be confident that the materials for building work will be compliant with current Building Regulations as in section 1 of Approved Document 7 shows eight different ways of establishing the fitness of materials.

1. CE marking under the Construction Products Regulation

2. CE marking under other EU directives and regulations

This can help to assure specifiers and constructors as “The CE mark is a claim that a particular construction product can be legally placed on the market of member states of the European Economic Area (EEA) and indicates that the product is consistent with the data provided in the relevant Declaration of Performance as issued by the manufacturer”

3. British Standards

This can give piece of mind as “it indicates that the product has been independently tested by BSI to confirm that it complies with relevant British Standards, and that BSI have licensed the product manufacturer to use the Kitemark.” This shows that the material has been vigorously tested and should be of a high quality.

4. Other national and international technical specifications

5. Independent certification schemes

6. Tests and calculations

7. Past experiences

8. Sampling

These 8 ways should give specifiers and constructors confidence as it shows them exactly what credentials they should be looking for when deciding on what materials to use in construction. Therefore, they should be able to pick out materials which are suitable and reliable for what construction work they are intended for.

Specifiers and constructors can be confident that the workmanship for building work will be compliant with current Building Regulations as in section 2 of Approved Document 7 shows six different ways of establishing the fitness of workmanship.

1. CE marking

2. Standards

Much like the materials workmanship can be held to standards within different codes of conduct which is determined by bodies such as the MTS where it states that “Workmanship Standards present the requirements for quality and consistency of our product in the clearest practical manner. This includes criteria of acceptability and/or reject-ability to which products are designed, manufactured, inspected, tested and installed”

3. Independent certificate schemes

These schemes can vary throughout the industry dependent on the sector in question. Throughout the industry there are opportunities for certificates and recognition to be gained where it is deserved for those who are particularly well trained in their trade. These sorts of certificates can give constructors more confidence in the job to be carried out.

4. Management systems

5. Past experiences

This can be gained from recommendations or reviews from previous employers or contractors. By doing thorough research and checking references can give specifiers and constructors confidence.

6. Tests

With current legislation introducing schemes such as the CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme which goal is

“The Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) Energy Efficiency Scheme is a mandatory carbon trading system designed as both a ‘carrot and stick’ to incentivise large public and private sector organisations, which are responsible for around 10% of total UK greenhouse gas emissions, to reduce their environmental impact. It rewards businesses that adopt energy efficiency measures, and punishes those that remain passive by forcing them to buy carbon credits.”

The scheme therefore encourages both individuals and organisations in both the public and private sector to cut down on carbon footprint by developing better energy management techniques by having an improved knowledge and understanding of their energy usage. With use of emerging renewable technologies can help to continue the success of schemes like this in both businesses and residential properties.

 

External environment of the mobile phone industry in the United States: essay help

With the invention of phones, our lives have been changing drastically. Now there are 5.3 billion cell-phone users and 90% of the world’s population is covered by a commercial wireless signal (Aylward, 2011). 82% of the United States population owns a smartphone (Deloitte, 2017). Consumers are now not only using their phones to communicate but also to make payments, keep track of their schedules, meet new people, book tickets, listen to music and do much more… The mobile phone industry is a massive industry that has branches nearly all over the world. The global market is currently dominated by huge multinational companies such as Apple, Samsung, Nokia and Huawei(Badenhausen, 2017). This paper will examine the external environment of the mobile phone industry in the United States by using a PESTEL analysis. PESTEL is a framework that helps analyse the external factors that are affecting the industry. PESTEL stands for Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal. The mindset behind PESTEL is that the enterprise should be reflective to the external changes and in order to be reflective, enterprises need to be aware of the external environment (Gupta, 2013).

Political

One of the biggest issues mobile phone companies face in United States is the federal corporate tax rate. The corporate tax rate in United States is one of highest in the world. The current rate is 35%, and jumps to 39.2% when state rates are considered(IDA Ireland, 2017). This factor pushes companies to move their headquarters or their production base to other countries like Ireland, where the corporate tax rate is (12.5%) a lot lower when compared to the US (IDA Ireland, 2017). Big mobile phone companies like Apple and Samsung produce components of their phones in China because it is more profitable for the company due to the low labour costs and cheap production prices. If the company successfully manages to produce in China, they can save approximately between 30% and 50% (Evans, 2014). Besides tax regulations, current politics also affect the industry. The president of the United States, Donald Trump is blaming China of “taking advantage of US”. He said that the trades between China and US are “very unfair and one-sided.”(BBC, 2016). According to Guardian, Trump is planning to create new global trade agreements between China and US for the benefit of American economy(Phillips, 2017). This argument amongst the politicians create political instability for the future trades between United States and China. Current regulations that allow companies to trade may be in danger of a possible change. This creates an uncertain environment for mobile phone companies which outsource to China.

Economic

The mobile phone industry is one of the most globalised industries in the world. Apple, the biggest phone company in the United States, operates in many countries such as Ireland and they also outsource to China (Business Insider UK, 2012). There are lot reasons why mobile companies outsource in China. As elaborated above, one of them is the cheap labour costs. The minimum hourly wage in the United States is $7.25 (Dorfman, 2014) and it is $3.60 in China (Worstall, 2017). This huge difference between the hourly wages attracts United States-based companies to manufacture in China. However, outsourcing has its disadvantages. Outsourcing may cause loss of managerial control and lack of communication, because outsourcing occurs off-site. The time zone differences may also have adverse effects on general communications and coordination.

Social

One of the social factors that affects the mobile phone sales in United States is the concept of brand image. A positive brand image builds a certain credibility and equity. It also creates recognition- with iPhone’s unique design features, this recognition is bound with aesthetics(Timothy, 2016). Brand image is a major asset for Apple and this is open to interpretation but one of the ways they keep their brand image may be by keeping the R&D department in California in order to maintain the ‘Californian’ style/image in their products. In 2017, addiction is not only limited to substance abuse. There is a new type of addiction called the behavioural addiction. Within the wide array of behavioural addictions, smartphone addiction has secured its place over the last decade. This new addiction is caused by rapid developments in the media and  IT (Kwon, 2013). The social networking websites that can be accessed via smartphones which allows its user to create a profile, interact with real-life friends, and meet other people is one of the main causes and implications of smartphone addiction. The networks can create a certain dependence on mobile phones after constant usage(Kuss, 2011). These social networking websites include Facebook, Instagram and Twitter. The stimulating and visual content that can be found on these social networks are rather egocentric and image-focused than allocentric. This materialist and self-centering environment may cause increased materialism, mild depression and feeling of loneliness(O’Keeffe, 2011).

Technological

Everyday, mobile phone users come across with technological innovations. Now, mobile trends are one of the highly effecting factors of mobile phone industry. Major mobile phone companies strive to be innovative and up to date with new technologies and trends in order to attract customers. Smartphones now come with their own unique social networking, messaging apps, as well as other softwares and services which makes it easier to communicate with people who has the same brand smartphone. This incentivise people to buy the same brand as their close circle, friends or family. For example, Apple has ‘Facetime’ and ‘iMessage’ and Blackberry has ‘BBM’. These services provide free, efficient and easy way to communicate. ‘Cloud computing’, also known as ‘Cloud’, is an online data storage service that works on a pay-for-use basis. This service allows its customer to store his data online and does not require its customer to have space in his device. This online storing method is a convenient way to store data and information because the data is securely stored and can be accessed from other devices. iCloud and Google OneDrive are fine examples of cloud computing. Companies should be investing in technologies like cloud, because according to the Business Insider UK, approximately 90% of global internet users are already on the cloud, and that number will remain steady as internet usage spreads globally(Danova, 2014). Another growing trend is digital wallets. Now thanks to this innovation smartphones can be used to make in-store payments. This innovation makes it possible to make payments without carrying cash or credit card. You simply use your Touch ID and present your mobile phone to the swipe machine. Samsung, Android and Apple has their own version of this technology. This new trend is really convenient and easy to use. The American financial services corporation Visa inc. states that Apple pay is a simple and secure way to make payments. This trend has become such a phenomenon that now over 1 million merchants accept Apple Pay. This trends are highly followed by smartphone users and the  companies should be investing in new mobile trends.

Environmental

Mobile phones pose a serious threat to humans’ health and the environment. Components of mobile phones are being made out of toxic materials such as mercury, nickel and zinc (Williams, 2010). Mercury for example, is a natural element that is found in air, water and soil. Specifically, batteries in mobile phones consist Mercury. Even small amounts of exposure to mercury may cause serious health problems(WHO, 2017). According to the World Health Organisation, Mercury is considered as one of the top ten chemicals of major public health concern. Upgrading mobile phones frequently can result in high exposure of mercury to the environment. Organisations such as CleanUp motivates people to think twice before they upgrade their mobile phones to protect and save the environment. This kind of eco-friendly organisations may decrease the smartphone sales.

Legal

3Monday, 18 December 20177Mobile phones’ industry has a lot of issues regarding to data confidentiality, there has been a lot of arguments whether the information and data in smart phones are being kept confidential or not. Mobile phones in them: email addresses, personal photos, financial information, calendar appointments and most importantly smartphones can continually track locations of its user. Outsourcing can have adverse effects on data confidentiality because outsourcing means sharing proprietary company data and knowledge such as formulas, drawings as well as customer information. It can be beneficial if companies that outsource take precautions before signing a legal contract with the manufacturer company regarding to the data confidentiality. Mobile phone industry is highly affected by legal aspect regarding to the health issues. Mobile phone users are exposed to radiation, and radiation has been proven to have carcinogenic effects which means that it has potential to cause tumour development and cancer (Lönn, 2005). When we look at this from a broader prospective this makes the problem a public health issue. However, United States government does not fully provide health regulations on this matter. According to the laws, the American Food and Drug Administration does not review the safety of radiation-emitting consumer products such as cell phones and similar wireless devices before they can be sold, as it does with new drugs or medical devices (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2014).

In conclusion mobile phone industry in United States is a massive, and innovative industry that rapidly changes. The industry is dominated by major companies like Apple and this factor can make it harder for small smart-ups to become a competitive brand in the industry. When compared to other countries the average wages and the tax rates are really high in US, that is one of the reasons why companies are choosing to operate and outsource in different parts of the globe. The ongoing political arguments between China and US and creates instability to the future trades. If the government creates new policies on trades between China and US, it may not be profitable option anymore to outsource to China. It can be a good precaution if the companies start searching on different options rather than outsourcing in China such as producing in US or different countries. R&D is a really important department in mobile industry. Companies may choose to invest in R&D related improvements such as new mobile trends as mentioned before in order to make more sales and attract new customers. Companies which takes the data confidentiality seriously and improves its security, can earn the trust of its customers and increase its sales. However, data confidentiality and R&D improvements are not the only affecting factors. The unique and aesthetic design of the mobile phones also affect the sales and the popularity, high investments on R&D is needed in order to stay relevant to the market. Mobile phone industry is highly affected by external factors. However, technology and politics are the most affecting ones.

Celiac disease – duodenal biopsy

Celiac disease is a lifelong autoimmune disease caused by gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. In celiac disease the immune system mistakenly attack itself and this immune systems activation results in intestinal damage and a wide range of clinical manifestations. The prevalence of this condition has been estimated to approximate 0.5%-1% in different parts of the world (N Gujral, H J Freeman, A BR Thomson, 2012) resulting from both environmental (gluten) and genetic factors. Symptoms include diarrhoea and abdominal pain, nausea, constipation, bloating, excess gas, tiredness, anaemia, weight loss, hair loss, painful mouth sores, stomatitis, itching spots (COELIAC, 2017) However, the lack of significant symptoms still refers to underdiagnosing. One of the easiest visible symptoms is Dermatitis herpetiformis the skin manifestation of coeliac disease. However, patients with celiac, having diabetes or thyroid disorders and even rheumatoid arthritis, can be often found as in general population. The problem with celiac disease is that common or typical symptoms do not always develop so it can lead to misdiagnosis or underdiagnosing. (Alessio Fasano, 2012) Celiac disease is chronic, immune-mediated enteropathy of the small intestine.(Castilio, Natalia E; Theethira, G Thimmaiah; Leffler , A Daniel, 2014)

Purpose

The purpose of my research is to analyse importance of understanding and diagnosing necessity for confirming the celiac disease with duodenal biopsy in patients with symptoms of celiac disease. The guidelines provided for Diagnosis of CD requires duodenal biopsy when the patient is on a usual, unchanged diet containing gluten and for the most of adult patients also positive serology (BSG, 2014)

Materials and methods

What is gluten and what does it do

Gluten is the name for complex proteins which are found in crop grains, most common it is in wheat, buckwheat, barley, rye and oats. In the grain the gluten is important as it helps maintain their shape. Gluten is something like “glue” for the grain. In nearly 80 % of proteins found in grains gliadin and glutenin. In human body these two substances binds to the serotypes formed from the DQ2 and DQ8 genes (Mattes, 2011).  There is relevance between those with celiac disease carrying one or both of DQ2 and DQ8 genes, however up to 25-30% of the general population caries DQ2 and DQ8 so the risk of developing celiac disease is 3% however the general population risk is 1%. That is for sure, the carrying DQ2 or DQ8, or both is not a diagnosis yet and this is not a precondition the person will ever develop celiac disease. However, having these genes, it is more likely to develop celiac disease as it is genetic and might be inherited. In the risk group there are family members – parents, siblings, children, who have the same genotype as the family member with celiac disease, have up to a 40% higher risk of developing celiac disease. (Mattes, 2011)

Celiac Disease Iceberg Model and

The asymptomatic of celiac disease can be the main reason for misdiagnosis. Celiac Iceberg (Logan, 2007) which was first described by British epidemiologist Logan, clearly shows how little a patient has symptomatic and so we can say that only 1% from patients are diagnosed. The development of diagnostics, the deeper understanding about genes and the processes in human body, gives more ways to diagnose the diseases like celiac. The algorithm provided can help to diagnose and manage patients having CD symptoms (NIHCE, 2017)

Blood test for serological confirmation or gut biopsy, or better both

There are many discussions based on Holmes research. The research was done in Derby (Holmes, 2017). In his research Holmes try to proof importance of serological screening for celiac disease and the hypothesis the serological confirmation is enough sure to use as confirmation for diagnosis. His research is based on fact how important is enzyme tissue transglutaminase (tTG). This enzyme normally is found in the gut and interacts with gluten protein. However, in certain cases the immune system produces a class of antibodies named immunoglobulin A (IgA) to fight infection.  In case of celiac disease, the body particularly produce IgA antibodies that bind with their own TTG. In serological testing there is a high level of IgA anti-TTG, and, based on Holme’s research that could predict celiac disease for sure. During his work, he found in the samples taken from patients suspected to having celiac disease, antibody levels were 10 times higher the upper limit of normal patients’ antibodies samples. After that he published idea which many gastroenterologists very upset. He said a biopsy is no more unnecessary to confirm diagnosis. Even more he said the quality of samples, the tissue must be correctly preserved and oriented, so the damage is visible. When they are sent to a lab where pathologists look for damage. Performed studies have shown the procedure can lead to error as gastroenterologists do not always take enough samples to detect celiac disease in every patient. Triumphantly he declared that up to 70 percent of celiac patients can be diagnosed and confirmed with no gut biopsy. However, it is still Holme’s ideas, and BSG still say that most significant (see image) change is flattening of the villi- gut lining increasing surface area. In celiac disease they are shortened or flattened them completely, so the body need more time to absorb enough nutrients. To confirm the celiac diagnosis, pathologists look (and it is done with gut biopsy) is there these significant damages found. Deviation may occur in other conditions too, but very rare. Collection and preparation of samples raise concerns even among biopsy top specialists. To last say again, Holmes points to the fact that typical flattening may provide a clear diagnosis, but with moderate damage the cause is unclear (Holmes, 2017)

Results

Accordingly, to research papers and data found about prevalence of celiac, I can say the differential diagnostics for celiac has been taking a long time. The timeline starts with an important 1880, when there has been a found malabsorption triggered by food. In 1940-50 Gluten dietary trigger and first gluten free diets took a place. In only1960-70 was beginning of biomarkers to recognise flattened villi and Autoimmune Symptomatic Celiac Disease has been discovered. This was a huge jump as technological improvement allow to do findings in cellular level to see the difference how villus is affected. The detection path of the disease starts with separation of common symptoms. The next stage is a simple blood test looking for certain antibodies. To confirm the damage the celiac disease has done to the villi usually a biopsy is prescribed using gastrointestinal endoscopy. Most extensive research done in England (Holmes, 2017) shows trends in diagnosis of coeliac disease in patients attending a single centre 1958–2014. prevalence and incidence in Derby city over 50 years There is a link between deprivation and prevalence as well. There was found a dramatic increase in number of patients with celiac which requires to understand the challenges for follow-up and new models of care need to be explored.

Celiac disease relation with other systems

Celiac Disease occures within the digestive system which in human body is responsible for absorbsion of nutrients. The digestive system works closely with the circulatory system to get the nutrients around the body. Having disease inhibits  body’s ability to absorb vital nutrients. However, failure to get vitamins, minerals, fiber, sugars, and fats from the food deprives other systems like skeletal (ostheoporosis, short stature), integumentary (skin, vitamin D intake), and generally affects tissues, organs, muscles, and also brain from getting what they need to function properly. For infants and young children celiac disease can cause a failure to grow at a normal rate. Affected body feels malnourished and its does not matter how much the child consumes. In adults it can be seen often as weakness and fatigue because the digestive system is unable to properly absorb iron. Sleletal system is affected,  bones can  become brittle because of  lack of calcium and also may occure diabetes due to sugar imbalances. The inability to absorb vitamin B-12 can cause damage to the nervous system and  resulting in a tingling sensation in the limbs. Women may have affected reproductve system like having irregular menstrual cycle problems with conceiving. All its results from an insufficient supply of hormones to the reproductive organs.

Summary

• Significant increase of celiac disease requires to understand the causes of the trend and cope with the consequences

• It is important to understand the clinical problems what celiac disease can cause and raise awareness

• The understanding of symptoms and the prevalence of disease can help to reduce underdiagnosing of celiac disease

• Serologic testing is very useful for screening patients with suspected celiac disease and can help early diagnose high risk patients

• Use of biopsy is important to confirm celiac disease

• The diagnostics can help to start the gluten free diet and reduce effect on villus and other bodies systems

• Lifelong diet can significantly improve patient life condition and wellbeing

 

Analysis of biological anthropology museum: writing essay help

This museum relates to biological anthropology because it chronicles various artifacts that indicate how ancient humans used to live and how more primitive tribes live today. It also indicates the general trend of human migration. One particular exhibit on this was the one titled “The Pacific Migration”. It detailed the pacific migration that occurred 50,000 years ago. This exhibit detailed how many wayfinding humans were able to travel across the seas in order to populate previously uninhabited islands. This directly correlates to the topic of early human migrations presented in the textbook. The map at the exhibit showed that humans migrated eastward starting from lower Southeast Asia towards more eastern countries like New Zealand.

One permanent exhibit showcased the life of Indonesian natives. This exhibit showcases various artifacts detailing the funeral traditions of the Sulawesi people of Indonesia. The Sulawesi performed unorthodox rituals such as creating life-sized effigies of the deceased and carving boat-shaped coffins. These effigies were then displayed on a rock cliff balcony to watch over the other villages. While life-size effigies may seem like they don’t exist in modern times, the existence of wax museums, monuments, and shrines to honor the dead are found all around the world. From the Washington Monument to Madame Tussauds wax museum, it seems that human beings have the need to not only memorialize the dead, but display it prominently.

Another permanent exhibit of the Bowers Museum is the exhibit titled, “The First Californians”. This exhibit showcases various artifacts found throughout California that gives further insight into how native tribes lived. One section in particular showcased various “cog wheels” that have been found all along the California coast. The truly interesting aspect of such a discovery is the fact that the reason for the cog wheels’ existence is unknown. While they have been found grouped along the coast, modern researchers still have no clue as to their use other than the fact that these may be offerings to the sea in order to ensure the sea creatures will multiply in numbers. While this may seem like an outdated religious ceremony, the deep connection the First Californians had with their environment is something that is prevalent today. With the effects of climate control prevalent everywhere, many Americans are becoming more aware of the importance of environment. We may no longer worship sea gods, but we can take note of how deeply our ancestors understood our dependence to our environment and use that connection to fuel more environmentally conscious decisions.

The temporary exhibit I saw highlighted gemstone carving prevalent five thousand years ago. This exhibit was especially interesting because even though the textbook discussed stone carving, I was surprised to see that primitive humans didn’t limit themselves when it came to carving material. The items showcased were truly beautiful. They ranged from crystal skulls to goblets. This exhibit directly relates to biological anthropology because it provides evidence of tool progression. This practice hasn’t stopped either. Many modern art pieces are created out of gemstones such as fountains and vases.

In the BBC article, Sahar Zand wrote on the other interesting tradition the Sulawesi Troajan people participate in. The Troajans keep the bodies of the deceased inside their homes as they believe that the souls of the dead are still present in the house. They change their clothing, address them as if they’re still alive, and even receive phone calls and visitors for the deceased. After seeing the exhibit at the Bowers Museum, I can see the correlation between this modern practice and the ancient effigies. It seems that the need to honor the dead through display is still deeply rooted in the Sulawesi culture. The effigies have shrunken into wood-carved dolls to watch over the deceased instead of the life-sized sculpted guardians. It’s fascinating to see that certain traditions don’t disappear but instead transform as societies modernize.

Down syndrome: college application essay help

Down syndrome is a genetic deformity caused by the presence of a complete or total extra copy of chromosome 21. The additional genetic material alters the development course and causes characteristics that are commonly related to Down syndrome. Some of these traits are “low muscle tone, small stature, an upward slant to the eyes, and a single deep crease across the center of the palm” (“Down Syndrome”). Keep in mind, however, that all individuals are different and may have different degrees of these traits, or may not have these traits at all. “According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately every 1 in 700 babies in the United States is born with Down syndrome, making it the most common chromosomal condition” (“Down Syndrome”). Children with Down syndrome are known to have some delayed development in certain aspects, mostly when it comes to learning. Intellectual and cognitive development delay, though, can be very varied, and this goes for fine motor skills as well. On average, a child with Down syndrome will start to sit at 11 months, crawl at 17 months and will finally start to walk at about 26 months or about two years old (Crosta).

The National Down Syndrome Society explains that the condition can be traced back as far as centuries ago, with the physical traits that had been previously described being alluded to in art from those times. The condition was not officially recognized until the late 19th century, when John Langdon Down published an accurate description of a person with Down syndrome in 1866. This earned him the title of “The Father of Down syndrome”. Though others had previously documented the condition, Down gets the most credit because of his accuracy. During the more recent years, advances in technology and all the progress that science has made has led to the development of more and more detailed descriptions. In 1959, French physician Jerome Lejeune showed and identified the condition as chromosomal, thought it was originally thought to have been caused by an extra original chromosome. In 2000, an international team unveiled that the actual cause of the disorder was by the partial or complete copy of chromosome 21.

Chromosome 21 is the smallest human chromosome and accounts for about 1.5 to 2.0% of the total DNA within a cell. It consists of roughly 48 million base pairs, and likely contains anywhere from 200 to 300 genes. Issues with chromosome 21 are not limited to only Down syndrome, as it is also known to cause certain cancers and other chromosomal conditions that are all similar to Down syndrome, but are not quite the same thing. (“Chromosome 21”)

The main cause of Down syndrome, as stated before, is a partial or complete copy of chromosome 21 in either some of the cells in an organism, or all of them. What causes this extra chromosome to form is still unknown to the prying eyes of science. The National Down Syndrome Society states there is a link that is seen between the chances of having a baby with Down syndrome and the age of their mother. 80% of all babies that are born with Down syndrome were born before their mothers reached the age of 35. This statistic is believed to be caused by the higher birth rates of younger women. This makes sense due to the fact that most mothers will have children before they grow too old. Older women are more likely to give birth to a child with Down syndrome (Crosta). There is no link, however, between the cause of Down syndrome and the actions of the parents before or during pregnancy. (“Down Syndrome”)

According to the National Down Syndrome Society, there are two ways of testing for Down syndrome prior to the birth of a child: screening and diagnostic. The society states that screening tests are less definitive, and more of a probability since it predicts the chance of a fetus having Down syndrome, while diagnostic tests can give an accurate, confident result. During screen tests, both a blood test and ultrasound (sonogram) are performed (“Down Syndrome”). The process involves the calculation of the number of different substances in the mother’s blood—this measurement is combined with the woman’s age when predicting the probability of the fetus having Down syndrome (“Down Syndrome”). During the ultrasound, the back of the fetus’ neck is observed between the eleventh and fourteenth week of pregnancy; the presence of liquid in the baby’s neck is a sign of higher risk for genetic disorders and birth defects (Shafi).

Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) are two examples of diagnostic tests that are performed. With amniocentesis, a sample of amniotic fluid—which contains fetal cells and substances created by the baby that protect it—is taken from the uterus during the first trimester of a pregnancy (Mayo Clinic Staff). Chorionic villus sampling, meanwhile, is typically done between ten and thirteen weeks of gestation (Mayo Clinic Staff). This is essentially what its name suggests: a swatch of chorionic villi is taken from the placenta via either the cervix or abdominal wall (Mayo Clinic Staff). At birth, karyotypes are utilized to ensure that a diagnosis is completely correct, since certain physical traits that are common to babies with Down syndrome—“low muscle tone, a single deep crease across the palm of the hand, a slightly flattened facial profile and an upward slant to the eyes” (“Down Syndrome”)—can be features of those that do not actually have Down syndrome. Along with karyotypes, a test known as FISH can also be used for confirmation. Genetic counselor Kathleen Fergus explains that FISH reveals the number of chromosomes as well as what kind, but does not specify information for every single chromosome or its structure—for example, it can show that there are a certain amount of number 21 chromosomes that are present, but will not go into specifics about its shape.

Down syndrome is not something that can be placed into a single box. Similar to autism, every single case is different and needs to be handled with a unique approach. Each person is different and must not be treated like they are just another number in a statistic. As explained by the National Down Syndrome Society, there are three different types of Down syndrome: Trisomy 21, mosaicism, and translocation. Trisomy 21, also known as nondisjunction, is created by an error in cell division that causes an embryo to have three copies of the previously mentioned chromosome 21 in each cell. As this usually occurs prior to or at conception, the cells continue to develop and the extra copy of chromosome 21 will carried through the embryo as it develops. If a pair of chromosome 21 fail to separate, the error is transmitted through every cell. Trisomy 21 is the cause of about 95% cases of Down syndrome. Mosaicism, or mosaic Down syndrome, is diagnosed when a mixture of two cells—some containing the normal 46 chromosomes and some affected cells—with 47 chromosomes are present within the same organism. This is the most uncommon form of Down syndrome and only amounts to about 1% of cases. Those who do have mosaicism show less traditional signs of Down syndrome, although with the lack of information, generalizations are not possible. The third and final type of Down syndrome that has been recognized at this point in time in known as translocation. Translocation accounts for about 4% of cases. This is caused by the attachment of a partial or complete extra copy of chromosome 21 to another chromosome, usually chromosome 14.

Although Down syndrome may share its similarities to autism, it is specifically a genetic disorder, while autism is a developmental disorder. As stated before, excess chromosomes result in impacts on development, physical features, and intellect of those diagnosed with Down syndrome. Autism, on the other hand, is said to not have a single cause, but rather, is influenced by particular environmental factors or abnormalities in the brain (autism-society.org). It is, however, possible for a person to be diagnosed with both Down syndrome and autism, and this is known as Down syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder (DS-ASD). In this case, symptoms of both disorders are evident, and there are two groups for signs/symptoms. In group one, these symptoms typically occur around infancy, such as refusing to eat food; constant, repetitive moments (ex: hand waving, fingers in mouth); having a fascination with lights, ceiling fans, or fingers. In group two, these signs are evident in older children who may show major decline in the development of language and social skills as well as have high amounts of repetitive behavior. (Capone)

Down syndrome does not discriminate—its’ cold and uncaring hands take hold on the lives of people from all different kinds of races and those from all economic statuses. So no matter skin color, nationality, or amount of wealth, the chances don’t change. They are the same for every member of the human population. A commonly asked question about Down syndrome, though, is if it is hereditary. Can it be passed down from parent to child through the means of genes? The simple answer to this question is that only 1% of Down syndrome cases are indeed hereditary. The genetic makeup of the parents have no effect on whether their child will or will not have trisomy 21. One-third of cases of translocation have a hereditary component to them which totals out to about 1% of all cases. Most of these occurrences are also sporadic or chance events. About one-third of cases have a parent as a carrier. Once a woman has a child with trisomy 21, she has a 1/100 chance of having a child with Down syndrome until she turns 40 years old. Within the father, the risk of recurrence is about 3%, and if the mother is the carrier, the risk is about 10-15%. The likelihood of birthing a child with Down syndrome also goes up with the age of the mother. Women of 35 have a 1/350 chance, at the age of 40, woman have a 1/100 chance, and at 45, that chance is 1/30. (“Down Syndrome”)

Despite hindrances in the cognition of those affected by Down syndrome (which can be from mild to severe) many who are diagnosed are still able to actively participate in various parts of the community, including school environments, work, and social activities (Down Syndrome). The National Down Syndrome Society states that this is thanks to antibiotics and clinical treatment, which have dramatically increased the lifespan of those with Down syndrome. The society also says that in 1910, most who were diagnosed only lived up to the age of nine, but today, many are reaching sixty years. Recently the amount of interaction with those with Down syndrome has increased awareness about the disorder as well. October is marked as National Down Syndrome Awareness month, and many events of celebration occur during this time, such as various restaurant fundraisers and talent shows where performances are done by those with Down syndrome (dsagsl.org).

As those with Down syndrome go through various transitions in life, their families have to ensure that they provide them with the assistance they need. It is common for individuals with Down syndrome to struggle with issues such as depression or hypothyroidism on top of their developmental and intellectual delays (nichd.nih.gov). The NIH also states that many who are in their pre-teens or teens may experience decline in school performance or go through mood changes, and so it is crucial for them to receive as much help as possible to ensure that they are successful. Individuals with Down syndrome should also be informed of subjects such as puberty, sexuality, and sexual activity since they experience changes in hormones just like everyone else (nichd.nih.gov). Parents must take a number of factors into consideration before making any major decisions (such as considering whether their child is ready to enter the job field) and need to bear in mind their child’s self-esteem, whether they can carry out tasks on their own, and if they are able to be emotionally split from family (nichd.nih.gov). As they move toward adulthood, they will acquire skills that allow them to form close relationships and live better and longer lives.

Although Down syndrome is an incurable condition that may bring issues for families with children diagnosed with the disorder, it is something that can helped by consistent treatment. Thanks to improving technology, more awareness, and specialized intervention programs that cater to an individual’s needs, those diagnosed with Down syndrome are still able to live a long and full life just like any other person.

Create a marketing pitch for a sustainable swimwear brand

What we believe:

Everyone has an ideal of the perfect life, a perfect world – a better tomorrow. But for the aspiration of a better tomorrow action is needed. The oceans of the world are currently the unhappy home to around 640,000 tons of discarded nylon nets and other fishing gear. Not only is nylon non-biodegradable and the manufacturing is also a highly polluting, dirty process, but the fishing gear traps, injures, and kills hundreds of thousands of sea animals and ruin the natural marine ecosystem.

After living on the beautiful island of Bali, surrounded by beautiful ocean and pristine marine life, we experienced the true impact of ocean pollution and the consequences it has on our planet, the planet we all call home. One day sitting on the beach talking about life, the ocean and the beach, we saw a couple of young dudes collecting plastic bottles in the shallows. We were very impressed because somehow these two young dudes represented something very cool. They took responsibility. Responsibility for generations after us to come and enjoy the very same moment on the very same beach surrounded by the same ocean as us in the future. The idea for Melukat Swim was born.

Sustainability is sexy:

Saving the planet may seem inconceivable, even utopian. But we all have a responsibility to protect this planet, our planet. That’s why we feel a responsibility to help out and protect the planet that we love and respect. We believe that sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony.

Born from our passion for the ocean and love of fashion we had to create Melukat Swim. We hope to provide you with a beautiful product while using sustainable business practices and without causing any harm or adding to the waste. We give back – so you do too when you choose Melukat Swim. We give you a responsible choice of products which tell the powerful story of the journey from waste to wear, closing the loop and turning a problem into a solution. Believing that being responsible and sustainable doesn’t mean forgoing style, we set out to create swimwear that combines figure-flattering fashion and sustainable innovation.

Thank you for believing with us.

More than just your average swimwear:

Melukat Swimwear is an environmentally and ethically conscious swimwear line that combines timeless Scandinavian design with the sexy bohemian vibes of Bali.

But its not just swimwear. The seams lie flat against the skin. The quality is meticulous. The fit is hip-slimming, curve-hugging, bust-boosting, figure-flattering perfection. I’s a cheeky celebration of your body. But the beauty of the perfect bikini doesn’t just come from its looks, it also comes from within. And we want to beautify the beach in more ways than one, so we’re doing our part to lighten our environmental footprint – one bikini at a time.

Material:

Melukat Swim features a range of mix and match seperates made exclusively in our signature EcoLux fabric – a technically and environmentally superior luxe fabric, made from recycled nylon.

We only use swimwear fabric derived from 100% regenerated polyamide made by ECONYL®.  ECONYL® works in partnership with HealthySeas.org to use discarded fishing nets pulled from our oceans to make the regenerated yarn in our fabrics.

Melukat Swim aspires to be a leader in eco-responsible manufacturing practices by using only sustainable fabrics. ECONYL® Fiber is a 100% regenerated Nylon comprised mainly of discarded fishing nets recovered from our oceans and old carpets. These post-consumer waste materials are recycled, helping to reduce the amount of global waste and feeding it back into production cycles. Through a process of regeneration, the nylon from these materials is transformed into the high-quality ECONYL® Yarn and is then blended with LYCRA® XTRA LIFE™ for lasting durability and shape retention. 50+ UV protected and ultra-resistant to sunscreens, tanning oils, and chlorine- this luxurious and progressive techno fabric is defiant to the elements, extending the life of your swimwear and have you sizzling on the sand and in the salt all summer long.

Melukat Swim is made using sustainable and organic fabrics that eliminate the use of harmful herbicides, pesticides and fungicides.  We also extend our environmental approach into everything we do, from using recycled paper hangtags, to packaging our swimwear in recycled material.

Benefits:

• Requires approximately 2/3 less energy

• Reduces water consumption

• Reduces global crude oil extraction, distribution, and consumption

• Reduces air, water, and soil contamination

• Recovers Nylon 6 waste from all over the world

Natural disasters and the Flint water crisis: writing essay help

Natural disasters are a worldwide phenomenon. The gravity of the effects differ from one group to another depending on where that country is located geographically, politically, and in terms of richness and what kind of infrastructures the country possesses and whether these infrastructures are resilient, which means how well they can survive when faced to natural disasters. 
 There is a very clear and obvious correlation between climate change and natural disasters. Climate change has become an unavoidable and continuous problem internationally. The world’s glaciers are receding due to the global temperature rising: over the last century, this temperature has risen from 0.65 degrees celsius to 1.06 degrees celsius. Putting an end to climate change is impossible, but the situation can be decelerated. At the rate that the world is consuming resources, quickly and drastically, the situation will worsen, temperatures will continue to rise and natural disasters will recur more often. 
 The cause of natural disasters is still debated in our political climate: with world leaders still denying that climate change has a huge effect on natural disasters, it is difficult to make progress happen.

Through the in depth analysis of the aftermath of natural disasters, a reoccurring pattern appears all over the world: poor, ethnic and racial minorities are more affected by these disasters. Because these groups lack a certain amount of economic resources, their resilience is limited. When it comes to government aid, these communities are often neglected unless the tragedy is spoken about repeatedly in the media. Financial aid is minimal when poor, ethnic and racial minorities are affected. Despite the fact that all aspects of life are affected by a natural disaster, the recovery is slow in developing countries because of their very limited resources. “When disaster strikes, whether it is the slow onset of drought, exposure to hidden toxic waste, or the sudden impact of an earthquake or chemical leak, it tends to be a totalizing event or process, affecting eventually most aspects of community life.” 
 At a more international level, we can see that this still applies. There are disparities between developed and less developed or developing countries at a more global scale. Developing countries are extremely vulnerable when it comes to natural disasters because they are the main victims of climate change. Their limited human, institutional and financial capacity makes it difficult to respond to the effects of climate change. The countries with the fewest resources bear the greatest burden of climate change in terms of loss of life and degradation of their economies in the years following the natural disaster. Developed countries in North America and Europe, or even emerging countries like China and Brazil, are leading contributors in climate change due to their uselessly high demand of resources and desire to economically develop at a enormously fast rate creating as much profit as possible. This appetite for profit has transformed every aspect of society: from manufacturing to life expectancy.

The desire for profit is what has caused the natural disaster talked about in this essay. On April 21st 2014, the water source of the city of Flint, Michigan was changed from treated Detroit Water and Sewerage Department (water coming from Lake Huron and the Detroit River) to the Flint River. This change of water source was the start of the Flint water crisis. 
 Due to this change, over 100,000 residents were exposed to high levels of lead in their drinking water. The presence of lead in the water was due to the fact that the water from the new source was not well treated contrary to the water from the previous source that was treated in order to make sure that lead from the pipes did not contaminate the water. Lead pipes were inexpensive and easy to install which is why they were the primary type of pipe used in the city of Flint. The main problem that derives from the use of lead pipes is that if the water wasn’t treated well enough, the pipes could leach lead into the water therefore contaminating it. Lead from the pipes entering the water depends on the acidity of the water. Acidic water makes it easier for led from the pipes to dissolve into the water and thus contaminating water entering someone’s home. 
 The Flint water crisis is an ongoing disaster in Flint, Michigan. The status of this crisis is still controversial. Some say it is simply an emergency while others are calling it a natural disaster. The status is important because it determines the funding that the city will receive from the federal government for relief. In the United States, when a tragic event is considered a natural disaster, the funding is much greater than if the event were to be considered as just an emergency. The difference in terms of funding can go up to millions of dollars, which is a significant amount for a small city suffering from a water crisis. 
 The change of water source was driven primarily by the fact that the city wanted to lower their expenses dedicated to water. “Facing another expected increase in the price of treated water from the DWSD – prices nearly tripled ($/mcf) from 2002 to 2012 – Flint’s Emergency Manager (EM), with the consent of City Council, decided to join the newly constituted Karegnondi Water Authority (KWA) in 2013.” The city was looking to reduce the money spent on water at the risk of the population’s health and safety. On January 12th 2015, despite evidence that the water in people’s homes was life threatening, city official declined an offer to reconnect to the previous water source (DWSD) because they were too concerned by the high water rates. This is called racial capitalism: when governments or corporations look to optimize their profit by making racial minorities suffer. 
 Numerous times government officials showed concern for the wellbeing of the water but there was still a lack of action from the state government: “One of Gov. Snyder’s key staff people sounded an alarm about the concern for lead in water, but the state health department responded back that the Flint water was safe.” This lack of action worsened the situation and has played a role in aggravating the crisis.

One of the main questions when it comes to this natural disaster is the following: who was affected the most? In the case of a natural disaster, the rapidity of how fast aid comes to those affected depends on what kind of groups are affected. As stated earlier, the city of Flint was mostly composed of a black population. This caused government officials to take their time in dealing with the problem at hand. Traces of E. coli and lead, which are life threatening, were found in drinking water coming from people’s homes immediately after the water source change. Despite this being a danger to the population, a state of emergency was declared in the city, much later than the start of the crisis, by Mayor Karen Weaver on December 15th 2015, more than a year and a half later. Unfortunately, this state of emergency did not change much: lead was still present in drinking water and effects of this lead was slowly appearing in children through their blood. One can measure the gravity of a situation by showing how children in the communities are affected by a certain natural disaster. In this case, chidren’s blood-lead levels have risen from about 2.5% in 2013 to 5% in 2015. On January 5th 2016, another state of emergency was declared for the city by the Governor of Michigan, Rick Snyder, followed by President Obama declaring the situation to be a federal emergency two weeks later on January 16th 2016. 
 The population living in Flint is dominantly black which is why activist groups have called the way the government and corporations handled the situation in the city an example of environmental racism. This whole crisis is based off of the desire for profit without paying attention to the populations that are being negatively affected. The reality is that ethnic and racial minorities are often the ones affected by these sorts of natural disasters. “Statistical ‘‘snapshots’’ at a single point in time do not inform as to whether lower income communities and communities of color are having ecological hazards come to them or if ecological hazards deflate real estate values to the point at which contaminated areas become financially accessible to lower income populations.” The population of the city determines its value: “Some may argue that racism is not relevant in Flint because white people were also hurt. Such logic refuses to grasp how racism operates as an ideological process. Flint is considered disposable by virtue of being predominantly poor and Black. Here, racism is a process that shapes places, and in this case, produces a racially devalued place.”
 This can also be said about pipelines and their chosen routes. The most obvious case is the one of the North Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL). Its original route would have passed through Bismarck, a dominantly white city. Because the city’s population was concerned by this pipeline, its route was changed and a detour through the primary water source of the Sioux Nation was created. This Indigenous group was concerned for the safety of their water and had every right to be because on November 16th 2017, there was indeed a leak of 210,000 gallons of oil in South Dakota. An oil spill that was feared by the city of Bismarck ended up happening but in peril of the safety of Indigenous communities. “Comparing across categories of both race and class, the authors conclude that ‘the communities most heavily burdened with environmentally hazardous industrial facilities and sites are overwhelmingly low-income towns and or communities of color.’” Natural disasters caused by ecological hazards such as pipelines or even lead pipes are more likely to affect not just racial minorities but also low-income families. This example of the DAPL shows how corporations value the worry of white citizens more than Indigenous citizens: “Predominantly white communities and middle-class communities, previously believed to be less affected by ecological hazards, could be less likely to be mobilized around these threats or to have an effective response frame with which to respond to such risks.”

The term environmental injustice is always brought up when speaking about natural disasters because it is a known fact that natural disasters affect groups differently and depending on your class or race, the rapidity of the relief to that disaster will differ. “Environmental racism was exposed as racial discrimination was seen to inform decisions contributing to members of visible minorities being highly overrepresented among those suffering the ill effects of living near heavily polluting industrial and waste sites. The movement is more widely known as ‘environmental justice’, as those negatively impacted were primarily of low income and the negative effects were not limited solely to members of racial minorities.” A “sub-category” to environmental injustice is environmental racism and that applies more to the racial aspect behind the injustices that the population is faced with. This term was widely used after Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans: “Most important, minority communities also express group-specific grievances, such as perceived environmental racism or injustice accompanying disasters. People of colour (gens de couleur), middle to working class citizens, women, and other vulnerable populations more often connect environmental injustice to their experiences post Katrina than their more affluent white counterparts.” 
 Erich Krieg points out two biasses: a race bias and an income bias. “The first hypothesis predicts a race bias to the geographic distribution of ecological hazards. The distribution of ecological hazards will be concentrated in the region most heavily populated by African Americans. This prediction is consistent with a majority of the environmental justice literature that claims people of color are more likely to be subject to ecological hazards than are whites.” Through this, Krieg suggests that people of colour are more likely to be affected by natural disasters than whites are. “The second hypothesis predicts an income bias to the geographic distribution of ecological hazards. The distribution of ecological hazards will be concentrated in the region with the lowest median household incomes.” The regions where low-income families can afford to live are more at risk of natural disasters. We can see that through the way New Orleans was built: after institutionalized racial segregation was demolished, the city stayed segregated because the black community could not afford to move anywhere else. This part of the population had to stay in areas where the risk was much higher. A problem that was at first due to racial aspects had now become a problem due to economic aspects as well. After Hurricane Katrina, these communities were the ones that were most affected because their neighbourhoods were located where the land level was the lowest and therefore where the risk of damage was higher. The example of New Orleans is simultaneously an example of social fault lines based on race and on income.

The Flint water crisis has yet to be resolved. Lead pipes will all be replaced no sooner than 2020, which means that residents will continue to have contaminated water and are instructed to use bottled water for cleaning, cooking, drink and bathing until then. 
 This ongoing crisis shows the failure of government on the local, state and federal level, environmental groups, and water companies to prevent the mass-contamination of water leading to the endangering of thousands of people. 
 Social fault lines in the Flint water crisis can be seen the implication of racial and economic disparities.

Sustainable Manufacturing (advantages /limitations)

According to CECIMO (1), Sustainable Manufacturing is when engineers use or create processes that are economical for the environment whilst not producing any hazards that can affect the surrounding environment as well as the employees/employers. Manufacturing is a process that affects the environment as we use raw materials such as metals that have an impact as we use a lot of energy to produce and use these materials. The processes for the raw material can produce emissions that affect the environment and introduce the problem that there is only a finite amount of material that can be used and will eventually all be used up.  Another problem is that producing other materials such as polymers involves linking hydrocarbons which end up putting harmful emissions into the atmosphere therefore continuing to produce polymers could have potential harmful impacts on the environment in time to come. Overall engineers are currently trying to figure out methods on processes that are capable of being sustainable so that way we don’t harm the environment or use up all of our raw materials.

Standards have now even put in place such as British Standard 8887-220:2010 (Design for Manufacture, Assembly, Disassembly, and End of Life Processing (MADE)) that are designed to show how to be most efficient during the full process of design to manufacture whilst being sustainable. This is capable of ensuring engineers can produce a product whilst being able to remain cautious of the environmental hazards that could potentially occur.

Throughout this report, I will use case studies to analyse the effect of sustainable manufacture including its advantages /limitations and produce an evaluation of a full life cycle of the entire process with the use of appropriate standards such as BS 8887-220:2010 (which was previously mentioned), ASTM E2987/E2987M – 16 (Standard Terminology for Sustainable Manufacturing), and ASTM E2986 – 15 (Standard Guide for Evaluation Aspects of Sustainability of Manufacturing Processes).  Furthermore I need to identify the key factors of the case studies and justify why they are appropriate, thus making me able to make a conclusion on what are the key factors that define sustainable manufacture. Finally I will talk about possible future methods that could potentially change how we create new products, as well as how they run efficiently.

Case Study 1

Sustainable Manufacturing of Gears

The Problems

Gears are important to mechanical engineering due to a majority of mechanical systems having to use gears meaning that they are mass-produced all the time for new products or maintenance. (2) Machining (Milling, shaping), forming (stamping, extrusion), and additive processes (die casting, powder metallurgy) are used to create gears. They can even be heat treated (hardened, annealed, tempering) in order to improve the properties of the material that the gear is made from in order to ensure that it is less likely to wear out. All of these processes will require energy, especially if gears are being mass-produced at such a high rate. Obstacles occur during the process of constructing the gears, one example is when metal is being cut for the gears, the excess metal and cooling agent become difficult to handle and dispose of. The metal would be difficult to recycle as it requires a lot of energy to reform it but the cooling agent is more dangerous to the environment as it could potentially contaminate the ground.  Another example is that pumping the cooling agent on the metal whilst it’s being machined does consume more power than other systems meaning energy could be easily wasted. The finishing processes such as heat treatment, powder metallurgy, and trimming does consume lots of energy as well due to there being maintenance performed on it regularly making it more challenging to recycle, the situation is that gears have to made to a good standard therefore lots of finishing processes must be used in order to achieve this quality therefore showing that large amounts of energy is used up to produce gears of a high quality. Furthermore if these processes are being used constantly, the tool bits are going to be worn out quickly therefore more has to be produced in order to replace it or it has to be taken to maintenance that would then repair it, both of these methods use up a lot of energy as well.

Solutions

One strategy that was implemented was to use an environmentally friendly cooling agent that couldn’t potentially endanger the environment, make it less likely for workers to injure themselves on wet excess metal, and overall would mean less waste disposal due to the fact that it would also be used to a minimum to ensure that coolant wouldn’t be used negating the need for more coolant/ energy to be produced.

The second scheme was to use advanced manufacturing processes for the gears, the process used was called gear rolling, and this process was flat rolling the gear at a cold temperature (the temperature is when the metal is below its recrystallization temperature), that move in opposite directions and then rolling dies make the teeth using compressive forces. This would consequently increase its compressive strength thus allowing for finishing processes such as heat treatment to not be used allowing for energy to be saved, the process is more sustainable due to it removing the need for forming and additive processes to be used, another factor is that tool bits are used less frequently meaning they do not need to be repaired/ replaced as frequently.  This process gives the added benefit of improved performance meaning that they are less likely to wear once produced therefore this reduces the amount of gears needed to be made as they last longer in machines because they will not need to be maintained as regularly.

A machining method that was introduced to reduce the amount of energy used to pump coolant as well as using multiple machining methods, that process is Wire Electric Discharge Machining and the process is done by using a wire that feeds through the gears and cuts the material so accurately that it makes processes such as milling and extrusion unneeded due to it being so precise. Instead of coolant being pumped into the system, deionised water is used as a dielectric to protect the metal from being damaged overall being an efficient process that is very economical. Since it is a process that can be reused easily, the process can make the gears on a mass scale whilst giving it a nice surface finish which helps reduce the overall amount of methods required to give the gears the quality required for it to be sold.

Finally, the hob tool that is used in dry hobbing (the process that is responsible for gear cutting and creating the teeth) undergoes surface treatment in the form of coating in order to extend its use. The hob tool is coated in a Titanium doped Aluminium-Chromium-Nitrate coating. This improves the tool tremendously as it will not wear out easily making it last a long time before being replaced. Despite being more expensive, the hob tool (5) performs better as it can be recoated if it begins to wear making it cheaper than replacing the tool itself.  The tool then becomes more reliable to use as the coating can cut material at a low rpm making it efficient as other hob tools that does not undergo this treatment will break quicker. Hob tools that are coated are sustainable because although it takes energy to coat it, more energy and material is used to produce new hob tools.

Case Study 2

Sustainable Methods for Injection Moulding

The Problem

(5) Injection moulding is a very common process that is done to help produce polymers such as ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene); this process involves granular plastic being fed into a hopper where it travels down the barrel by it being pushed by the screw also heating the plastic causing it to melt and fit into the mould where it cools and forms a new shape, it is then ejected from the mould. (3) Injection Moulding is used widely throughout many industries as it can be used for thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics. However it will require finishing processes to improve the overall quality of the product as shrinkage or warp marks are capable of ruining the surface of the material. This means that more energy is produced for these finishing processes. The process uses energy heat up the barrel and melts the granular plastic therefore showing that the process can be improved to be more sustainable. (6) During the moulding process, different polymers have different melting points meaning that the shrinkage is different for materials and increase the likelihood of warpage. This means that if products are being ruined as they cannot use product that have low quality, they may have to be thrown away wasting material/energy or remoulded which again uses up energy. Finally if the injection pressure is not right for the material to mould, it will mean that production will have to be delayed in order to achieve the pressure needed, making it a waste in energy as well as time.

Solutions

Selecting certain materials is important because when they warp, they warp towards the gate therefore selecting materials with similar properties (melting points) help prevent any possible warpages that could occur.The barrel does not have to be heated to different temperatures meaning that energy does not have to be wasted by having to heat polymers that have a high melting point, another reason energy is conserved is that warpages are less likely to occur as there is less change is the crystalline structure making it difficult to change its shape from the mould. Therefore meaning fewer products need to be thrown away/reused saving energy and fewer materials are wasted. By choosing specific materials with similar properties you are capable of using materials that require a smaller injection pressure thus requiring less energy to reach that pressure. Being able to remove warpages makes some finishing processes for polymers unneeded as material does not have to be removed and surfaces will be within tolerance of its specified dimensions.

(7) The use of lean manufacturing tools helps improve the injection moulding process by reducing the total amount of wastage produced by the injection moulding process by identifying possible defects and then using lean manufacturing techniques to fix the defects, an example of this is using the Kanban Pull System which works by taking all the orders from clients and customers and controlling the amount by ensuring that there aren’t too many customers that have been taken on causing an increase in the production line leading to more emissions being produced and a higher energy demand.

 

Tackling climate change

Adequate water supply is defined as the provision of sufficient amount of water by public, private organisations or by individuals. An environmental challenge is a process of achieving a goal of environmental sustainability due to the problems that prevent overcoming obstacles. Climate change is a long-term change in the Earth’s climate, especially a change due to an increase in the average atmospheric temperature. The adaptation to this kind of change can be long and difficult. This essay will explore the methods of solving different environmental issues and will compare them.

Lesotho Highland Project is one of the successful problem solving systems. Project involves the building of dams, tunnels and power stations. It has started in 1980s and its main goal was to transfer water to Gauteng province for mining industry. The project also helps to earn money and generate hydroelectric power for Lesotho, although a lot of corruption cases occurred during the realisation of it (individuals and multinational corporations involved). Many social problems occurred due to the project, which involved the movement of people from the area of the dam and the default of a pay to hundreds of households affected by the building. When the critical shortage of water occurs in the region of Maseru (the capital of Lesotho), it is the Highland Project which transfers the water. The project is beneficial both for the government, since they get the revenue, and the citizens, as they get clean water. Another benefit of the Highland Project is the creation of infrastructure such as hundreds of kilometres of roads built to improve the communication between building sites. Today they are used by Lesotho’s citizens and tourists to travel within the country.

Large dual-function plants are built not in many places yet, but they are considered to be one of the solutions to the problem of adequate supply of water. Saudi Arabia has 27 desalinisation plants around the country in total, which costed a lot of money. Today the largest dual-function plant is located in Saudi-Arabia and costs around US$ 6 trillion(!). The annual production capacity of the project is 1.025 million m3 of desalinated water and 2.400MW of electricity. The project is very beneficial for the consumers, since they get drinkable water of hight quality, which is produced in there own country, so they do not need to pay more for the product to be transferred. On the other side, the project needs a lot of energy, land and, of course, capita to clean relatively small amount of water. There is also the risk of contamination of water, pollution of the environment by the chemicals emitted, which contribute to the greenhouse effect.

Climate change can bring different outcomes: it can be drought, sea-level rise, extreme temperatures or enormous floods. Many countries has already introduced environmental policies in order to adapt to a climate change. The most common effect of the process is the rise of sea-level, since it could be applied to many countries. In 2006 flows regulators in coastal embankments were built in Bangladesh, and due to the saltwater intrusion a lot of agronomic devices were replaced by low-technological. The country decided to tackle the problem of climate change and find a cheap and fast ways to solve it. The latest project, which begun in 2013, has a budget of US$ 400 million. It is still in progress until 2020, but people are working on it to achieve the goal of minimisation of climate change’s negative impacts.

Another way to tackle the problem of climate change is to cooperate with other countries in order to find a better solution. Kyoto Protocol was created in 1998 and enforced in 2005; it explained the need of a burden for the countries responsible for the high emission of greenhouse gasses due to the industrialisation. Protocol’s aim was to reduce the emission of those gases. Its principle was “common but differentiated responsibilities”, which highlights the idea of unity but also differences between the countries. Another example of good cooperation between countries is The Paris Agreement, which was created very recently, in 2015. Its main aim is to decrease the global temperature and prevent it from rising above 1.5 degrees Celsius. 128 countries have signed the agreement and hope to achieve the best in the further years.

In a conclusion, I would like to say that adapting to climate change is reasonably easier than ensuring adequate water supplies. As the research shows, it takes a lot more capita to supply clean water to different regions than to install new devises or change the methods of cultivation. Some countries simply do not have money to build infrastructure and plants to supply water. Both processes take time, but nothing can be done immediately, since a lot of work is needed. It is hard to say which one is more of a challenge than the other according to the results, since there are lot more cases of solving the problem of water supply and climate change.

Should copper mining continue in the Philippines?: college essay help online

Introduction

Although copper is one of the most common metals on Earth, its supply and demand has increased majorly in the past 25 years due its usefulness in a wide range of areasq (geology.com, 2014). Due to this, the Philippines, which contains a significant amount of copper deposits, has been increasing its supplies and exports of copper to the rest the world, shown in the value of Philippines copper mining and production rising from 8.97 billion Pesos in 2010 to 9.74 billion in 2011 (industry.gov.ph, n.d.). However, multiple mining operations in the Philippines have not spent the money to take suitable safety precautions, such as in the 1996 Marcopper Mining Disaster (Rappler, 2017). This raises the question: should copper mining continue in the Philippines?

Findings

Copper has a vast many areas it can be used in that cause its demand to increase each year. Bell reporting for The Balance states that copper’s most common and perhaps most relevant use is its electrical capability, which is up to 65% of what it is used for. Copper is the most electrically conductive metal, second only the silver, and also easily works even with multiple power networks (The Balance, 2016). These properties make it a perfect candidate to utilise in the manufacturing of electrical generation and transmission, such as wires and transformers (geology.com, 2014). Due to its malleability while maintaining its strength, as well as its strong resistance against corrosion, it is also used frequently in construction, especially in heating systems and plumbing (The Balance, 2016). While in the future carbon nanotubes could rival copper in all of its electrical uses, at the moment, there are no other materials that could replace copper, rising its demand significantly (Assembly, 2016).

As a result, copper mining has increased in the Philippines in recent years, as they have taken advantage of their high supply of copper and, according to the Philippines government, they only plan on expanding in the future. The value of their copper mining continues ascending, and due to this, more Filipinos are given jobs, 7300 recently employed due to the industry (industry.gov.ph, n.d.). In 2011 alone, the Philippines gained 9.74 billion Pesos from their copper mining and production, showing their economy can only grow from investing in this mining (industry.gov.ph, n.d.).

The problem of the Philippines’ copper mining does not lie in the amount of mining, but rather the lack of safety precautions taken in their mining over the past 20 years (Rappler, 2008). In 24th of March 1996, the Marcopper Mining Disaster took place, and it had a devastating effect on multiple rural Filipino villages and waterways (Rappler, 2016). According to the Rappler, Marcopper had been in operation since the late 60s, dumping their mine tailings into nearby river. However, it was only in the 90s that the government had taken heed of the complaints of the Filipinos and ordered them to find another way of disposing of their waste or stop operations (Rappler, 2016). In response, Marcopper began to dump the waste into their old mine site, sealing off the old tunnels that led to streams of water that they claimed were used to “bring water into the pit” (Rappler, 2016). Over time, however, the pressure of the waste and the effects of a minor earthquake caused the 2-3 billion cubic metres of mine tailings to gush out of the sealed tunnel into the Boac river among others (Rappler, 2016). This completely contaminated the rivers, the village peoples’ livelihood as they depended completely on fishing and agriculture, and also caused flash floods on the villages that were located on the riverbanks (Rappler, 2016). 20 of the 60 villages alone the riverbanks had to be evacuated, and later the Boac River was officially declared dead (Rappler, 2016). This was all due to the fact that the design of the mine pit had “fundamental flaws” caused by a lack of budget (Rappler, 2016).

Although Rappler states that the government thereafter declared that it would only allow mining if deemed “responsible mining”, the times had not changed for two decades (Rappler, 2008). In 1999, a major accident occurred in Cebu with even more drastic effects than that of Marcopper, discolouring the ocean even 2 kilometres out (Rappler, 2008). Later in 2005, a disaster of similar proportions occurred in a copper among other metals mine on Rapu-Rapu Island, showing that after nine years the government still had not enforced proper mining procedures and precautions, in addition to lacking a monitoring of these mines (Rappler, 2017). As of 2008, ten of the 24 mining companies running “high-priority” operation were previously responsible for accidents and had even been investigated for pollution crimes, or had notices of violations against them from the Pollution Adjudication Board (Rappler, 2008).

However, with the rise of the most recent president of the Philippines, Rodrigo Duterte, environmentally friendly changes are being made to the face of Filipino mining (Reuters, 2016). Claiming that mining only accounts for 1% of the Filipino economy, he stated that the Philippines would survive without it (Reuters, 2016). In the past month, he closed down 23 mines that posed risk of ruining watersheds, and also cancelled 75 mining contracts for the future, one of which being a gold-copper mine worth $1.2 billion USD (inquirer.net, 2017). However well this is for the environment, this also puts miners out of work, affecting 1.2 million Filipinos, and causes a major loss of mining revenue, “something like 70 billion Pesos a year” (inquirer.net, 2017).

Conclusion

So, is copper mining really worth continuing in the Philippines? Continuing with the mining offers both social and economic benefits on the country, providing for 1.2 million Filipinos and bringing 70 billion Pesos to the economy each year, while ending it would lead to a definite end to environmental disaster (inquirer.net, 2008). However, could this not be done simply with safety precautions put in place and careful monitoring in mines instead? I believe that closing down mining altogether would have too much of a negative impact on the people of the Philippines to even consider

Providing a safe working environment at a community hospital (case study)

The case study is about a medical institution that has failed to provide safety to  its medical staff, patients, and visitors. By the institution not providing safety and protection to medical staff, patients and its relatives, there is a high risk that individuals might get hurt or hurt others. The lack of management control can be extremely costly to the facility. Lack of management can also lead to stressful situation and other  problems to  associates. Managers play many roles in an organization, however;  one of the most critical roles that they need to engage is controlling. Controlling guarantee work regulations and discipline while it allows to get the things done in a manner which is expected . In this case study, management team has forgotten that safety comes first. The case also talks about the lack of security that the hospital is facing. Because of  lack of security, a nurse was chased by a patient.

The management team along with the administration of the center are either contributing with the safety of its employees nor with patients. Furthermore, they are violating the employee’s right to be safe because they are not providing a safe work environment. Because of the high risk that medical staff might encounter when working with patients with behavioral disorders,  managers should  implement a security guard who will be walking around the facility every hour or so. In addition, it is recommended that a security camera system is installed in the facility in order to better monitor patients and medical staff. The management team should set high priorities when it comes to safety in general. One of the main goals of managers is to ensure employees are motivated to work and I believe that with such unsafe work environment employees of Greenville Community Hospital (GCH) are not motivated to keep working there.

If Rosemary had been injured, the administration of the hospital had been blamed for this. The reason I say this is because they are responsible for providing a safety work environment for all employees. In addition, patients with secondary drug abuse issues were being place in a non-secure unit. The situation of Rosemary being chased by the boyfriend of a patient could have been avoided if this type of patients had been remitted to their respective room with a high security system.  This also had to do with the rooms assigned for those patients were relatively expensive and overbooked. If the visitor  had attacked another patient then the hospital would have faced serious problems not only because they are not providing a safe work environment to its employees but also because they are not protecting its patients. According to the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 employers are required to provide a safe and healthy place of environment (Niles 2013, pg 37). Therefore, GCH is entitled and must provide a safe environment to its employees, patients, and visitors. In addition, healthcare providers have the responsibility to assure all medical staff are treated fairly and with dignity (Buchbinder and Shanks 2012, pg 433). In this particular case, based on ethical standards GCH has the ethical obligation to make the right  choice and protect all individuals in the organization. In addition, it would be a great idea that the hospital put in practice the principle of nonmaleficence which means “to do no harm” (Morrison & Furlong 2104, pg 47). Putting in action this principle, the CGH will be avoiding some of the issues that are already facing. To do no harm not only means physical harms. For instance, not taking the correct security measurements to protect its employees and patients is a way of causing harm.

The design of a mental health facility is a crucial factor of patient care. The design of the facility influences how services are provided and the effectiveness of care delivered. (“Mental Health Design Guide,” 2010 ) Most importantly, the design of the facility influences the beliefs, expectations and perceptions patients have about themselves, the services received, and the medical staff taking care of them. In addition, the design can also impact the beliefs and behaviors of the medical staff and how they interact with patients and the environment. Since the main focus of the facility should be the safety of patients, healing and safe environments can be designed. Moreover, a familiar, warm and welcoming environment very often help patients to enhance their connection to their surrounding (“Mental Health Design Guide,” 2010). A significant component of patient safety is patient engagement. Once  patients feel connected with medical staff, they are more likely to look for these people in moments of anxiety, which can avoid a personal crisis. Therefore, it is critical that the environmental design of these patients promotes staff interaction and discourage isolation.

The cost of installing a panic alarm in patient’s rooms, nurses’ stations or safe rooms is going to cost less money than not taking the necessary measurements and letting a patient hurt a medical staff or another patient. Even though the installation of such alarm may have cost  money to the hospital, I believe is worth it because this is a way to prevent someone from getting hurt. If the hospital would have taken this alarm into consideration before the incident happened, then perhaps Rosemary did not have to run , instead she would have gotten help from the security staff. Having some secure rooms where only medical staff had access, would allowed Rosemary to hide in there instead of being chased and running for her life.

The fact that medical staff is working with patients with such behavior as described in the case study, there should be more security implemented in the hospital  and it is urgent to create an action plan in case an emergency occurred. Therefore, managers should be willing to use a sequence of ever-changing mechanisms and techniques to meet employee’s need (Richards-Gustafson, 2011). In order to protect employees, managers should create a safety training where employees use knowledge of their environment to comprehend issues are putting people in dangerous situations. For instance, employees should receive a training in regards of different types of code that hospital uses whenever there is a fire,  bomb threat or hostage situation. By doing this, all employees know what actions are required in regards of the information received and can use it in their advantage. Using a common terminology allows emergency management/response personnel to clearly and effectively communicate with each other.

In conclusion, it is crucial that the management team takes into consideration the importance of providing a safe work environment to patients, visitors and employees. By improving the security of the hospital, patients will feel more secure and medical staff will not be thinking about be on danger or wanting to quit their job. Controlling has a great value and significance in an organization. Therefore, it must be used by managers to support the organization in reaching its goals and objectives.  An effective control system can lead the organization to succeed and attain reasonable development. Therefore, an immediate reflection is needed to be made by the administration of the Greenville Community Hospital in order to comply with safety work environment that ought to be provided to employees, patients and visitors.

Sustainable development for India’s future: essay help free

Abstract

In recent times, two major international endorsements of elements of sustainable development the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), has recognized universal access to sustainable energy as an important goal. Addressing climate change requires a good understanding as well as coordinated action at national and international level. In India, with a population of 1000 billion people, it is estimated that a mere 44% of the households have access to electricity. The choices that the country makes towards energizing the remaining population will have a significant impact on other Sustainable Development parameters such as agriculture, health, water and even biodiversity. India has set itself a target, going beyond the MDGs, of energizing all households by year 2018.

This article talks about how endorsing sustainable development will lead to a better environment for India in the future.

Keywords: elements, climate, energizing, sustainable development

Introduction

Climate change is one of the most important global environmental challenges, with implications for food production, water supply, health, energy, etc. Historically, the responsibility of the greenhouse gas emissions’ increase lies largely with the industrialized world, though the developing countries are likely to be source of an increasing proportion for future emissions. The projected climate change under various scenarios is likely to have implications on food production, water supply, coastal settlements, forest ecosystems, health, energy, etc. The adaptive capacity of communities likely to be impacted by climate change is low in developing countries. The efforts made by the UNFCCC are clearly inadequate to address to the climate change challenge. The most effective way to address climate change is to adopt sustainable development pathway by shifting to environmentally sustainable development pathway by shifting to environmentally sustainable technologies and promotion of energy efficiency, renewable energy, forest conservation, reforestation, water conservation, etc. The issue of highest importance is the developing countries is to reduce the vulnerability they face from the climate change, and need to protect their socio-economic and natural systems in order to attain sustainable development. India and such other developing countries will face the challenges of mitigation promotion and adaptation of strategies and the bearing the cost for such an effort and it’s implication on the overall development.

Sustainable Development

Sustainable development, although a widely used phrase and idea, has many different meanings and therefore provokes many different responses. In broad terms, the concept of sustainable development is an attempt to combine growing concerns about a range of environmental issues with socio-economic issues. Sustainable development has the potential to address fundamental challenges for humanity, now and into the future. There needs to be more clarity in the meaning of sustainability, concentrating on sustainable livelihoods and well-being rather than well-having and long term environmental sustainability, which requires a strong basis in principles that link the social and environmental to human equity.

India is a large developing country with nearly 700 million rural population, directly depending on climate-sensitive sectors (such as water, biodiversity, mangrove, coastal zones, grasslands) for their subsistence and livelihoods. Further, the adaptive capacity of dry land farmers, forest dwellers, fisher folk, and nomadic shepherds is very low. Climate change is likely to impact all the natural ecosystmes as well as socio-economic systems as shown by the National Communications Report of India to the UNFCCC.

The latest high resolution climate change scenarios and projections for India, based on Regional Climate Modelling system, known as PRECIS developed by Hadley Center and applied for India using IPCC scenarios A2 and B2 shows the following research:

• There is an annual rise is the mean surface temperature ranging fron 3 to 5 degrees under A2 scenario and 2.5 to 4 degrees under B2 scenario, with warming more pronounced in the northern parts of India.

• There will be a 20% rise in all India summer monsoon rainfall and further rise in rainfall is projected over all states except Punjab, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu, which have shown a slight decrease.

• Extremes in maximum and minimum temperatures are also expected to increase and similarly extreme rainfall also shows a substantial increase particularly over the west coast of India and west central India.

Sustainable development basically means to use resources with the future generation in mind. To use in such a way that the forthcoming individuals have what we have, that is, saving what we can for the future. The Supreme Court in the Narmada Bachao Andolan v. Union of India case stated that “Sustainable development means what type or extent of development can take place, which can be sustained by nature/ecology with or without mitigation.”

Environmental scholars in recent times have put a lot of stress over sustainable development as preservation of the environment needs to be done with utmost urgency as time is running out. The forthcoming generations might not have even half of what we possess right now, so preservation and controlled usage must be our prime concern right now.

Preservation cannot be done without innovation in the way we use the resources. The need for development in the way of consumption is required to minimise inputs and maximise output and hence raise efficiency. The use of Biofuel, Hybrid Technology, Energy from Waste, etc. needs proper funding and attention. In India the use of CNG in public transport must be appreciated. The need to make use of resources which have more by-products and their uses help in cutting down use of non-renewable resources. Jatropha seeds in India are one of the major sources of fuel as a by-product. These seeds are very rich in oil concentration, nearly 40%. The cultivation and processing of Jatropha seeds in India is one of the major centres of Bio-Diesel or Bio-Fuel.

The use of Bio-Fuel puts forth the dilemma of Food v. Fuel. Food v. Fuel basically is the conflict over the use of agricultural land for the production of Bio-fuel and not food, but is very important to set our goals straight that whether we want food for us or resources for everyone even in the future as Fossil Fuels will run out in little time, but we can always cultivate food for all without risking food if we make proper use of land.

Climate Change and Sustainable Development

Sustainable development has become an integrating concept embracing economic, social and environmental issues. Sustainable development does not preclude the use of exhaustible natural resources but requires that any use be appropriately offset. This concept is not acceptable to many developing countries since it seems to disregard their aspirations for growth and development. Further, sustainable development cannot be achieved without significant economic growth in the developing countries.

However, there is a growing evidence to show that environmental conservation for sustainability of natural resources is not a luxury but a necessity when considering long term economic growth and development, particularly in the least developed countries. The decline and degradation of natural resources such as land, soil, forests, biodiversity and groundwater, resulting from current unsustainable use patterns are likely to be aggravated due to climate change in the next 25 to 50 years. The developing countries apart from India, in the regions of Africa, South Asia and Latin America are already experiencing severe land degradation and freshwater scarcity problems.

There are several ways of pursuing sustainable development and few examples may be listed below:

• Adoption of cost-effective energy-efficient technologies in electricity generation, transmission distribution, and end-use can reduce costs and local pollution in addition to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

• Shift to renewables, some of which are already cost effective, can enhance sustainable energy supply, can reduce local pollution and greenhouse and gas emission.

• Adoption of forest conservation, reforestation, afforestation and sustainable forest management practices can contribute to conservation of biodiversity, watershed protection, rural employment generation, increased incomes to forest dwellers and carbon sink enhancement.

• Efficient, fast and reliable public transport systems such as metro railways can reduce urban congestion, local pollution and green-house gas emissions.

• Adoption of participatory, approach to forest management, rural energy, irrigation water management and rural development in general can promote sustained development in general can promote sustained development activities and ensure long-term greenhouse gas emission reduction or carbon sink enhancement.

• Rational energy pricing based on a long run marginal cost principle can level the playing field for renewables, increase the spread of energy-efficient and renewable-energy technologies and the economic viability of utility companies, ultimately leading to greenhouse gas emission reduction.

The ability to adapt to climate change is intertwined with sustainable development and poverty reduction in both a positive and negative sense. In the positive sense, enhancement of adaptive capacity entails a variety of similar actions to sustainable development and poverty reduction. On the negative side, sustainable development and poverty reduction can be hampered by the impacts of climate change. Furthermore, some sustainable development activities could make countries more susceptible to climate change. Some climate policy-makers and development policymakers have supported the need to ‘mainstream adaptation’- where adaptation responses are considered and integrated into sustainable development and poverty reduction processes.

Conclusion

India is a large developing country with nearly two-thirds of the population depending directly on the climate sensitive sectors such as agriculture, fisheries and forests. The projected climate change under various scenarios is likely to have implications on food production, water supply and biodiversity and livelihoods. Therefore, India has a significant stake in scientific advancement as well as improving legislations to have an international understanding to promote adaptation. Hence, to have an effective future surrounding sustainable development, India needs to formulate more effective laws and also have an effective technological advancement.

Encephalization and Cognitive Evolution Among Early to Mid-Pleistocene Hominins: essay help online free

Abstract

Within the last 2 million years changes in hominin and early human brain size have become more frequent along with the advancement of cognitive abilities. Many researchers believe that encephalization, or “the evolutionary increase in the relative size of the brain” and cognitive development in early to mid-Pleistocene Homo may be closely related; arguing that as the brain became larger, more cognitive abilities developed. Despite believing this, researchers are unsure if the changes in brain size and newly developed cognitive abilities are a result of surrounding environmental pressures, or if they were evolutionarily inevitable. It can be theorized that these changes are a form of environmental adaptations that allowed early to mid-Pleistocene hominins to survive in their new environments. However, it can also be argued that as hominins experienced changes in body mass and size, encephalization, would have occurred in proportion to these physical changes. Consequently, it is unknown whether these two factors contributed jointly or separately to changes in brain size and the increase of cognitive abilities. This paper will discuss both factors in relation to encephalization and the progression of cognitive abilities amongst early to mid-Pleistoene hominins, and early humans, and will review various environmental conditions that may have been drivers for encephalization and cognitive evolution.

Introduction

Historically, brain size evolution or encephalization can be identified among early to Mid-Pleistocene hominins can be identified through changes in fossil cranial capacity. Early hominin Australopithecines were known to have a cranial capacity that was a bit larger than apes (Shultz, Nelson, and Dunbar 2130).  And The first sign of major brain size evolution was evident within the Homo clade, allowing researchers to hypothesize trends of changes in brain size for Homo (Rightmire 110). For about four million to three million years there were no major changes in average brain size, but around about 2 mya to 1.8 mya anthropologists began to see an evolution of brain size or encephalization. Evidence of a major increase in brain size was discovered in the specimen Homo erectus, displaying an increased cranial capacity compared to its predecessors. Encephalization was not a quick process, but instead was experienced over periods of accelerated brain size increase and periods of stasis (McHenry 161-162).  The sudden increase in brain size after three million years has been questioned by researchers, who have tried to determine the reasoning behind this evolutionary choice. As encephalization progressed, hominins gained an increase in cognitive abilities, that lead to the development of new social, innovational, spatial, linguistic practices. The process of encephalization was very expensive for early to mid-Pleistocene hominins, requiring more energy for brain growth and usage than other organs. Some researchers hypothesize that there may have been a long-term evolutionary benefit that outweighed the costs of expending a large amount of physical energy on brain development. The evolutionary mechanisms that triggered an increase in brain size are unknown, but there are two arguments that have been heavily debated. The first argument suggests that encephalization was influenced by a series of environmental factors that acted as drivers for encephalization, while the counterargument claims that encephalization was change proportionately to an increase body mass and size. Encephalization, or “the evolutionary increase in the relative size of the brain”, in relation to the advancement of cognitive abilities, can be attributed various environmental drivers, and physical changes in body mass and size among early to mid- Pleistocene hominins as they evolved and migrated from Africa to Asia and Europe.

TIMELINE AND PROCESS OF ENCEPHALIZATION

To understand the timeline and process of encephalization, a brief background on hominin brain evolution must be reviewed. In the early Homo species, which includes Homo habilis and Homo ergaster, one begins to see the beginnings of Homo encephalization, increasing from 497 cm3 to 600-700 cm3 (McMillen 2014). Subsequently, in the later Homo species, changes in brain size can be observed within Homo erectus and Homo sapiens. As previously stated, the biggest change in encephalization occurred about 1.8 mya with the appearance of Homo erectus within the fossil record. Hominin brain size increased to about 900 to 1000 cm3 from the previous size of 600 to 700 cm3 (Stiedter, 2005). With the major expansion in brain size came an increase in body mass, and it is believed that body mass relatively increased with brain size. The body mass had to increase, so that the body could support a larger brain that required more energy. Homo erectus had evolved to store larger amounts of fat to meet the metabolic requirements needed for encephalization (Leonard et al., 2003). The First Modern Homo sapiens increased to an overall size of 1200 to 1400 cm3, which is resembled the size of modern human brain.

Tempo of evolution is defined by short rapid changes, followed by long periods of stasis. These temporal changes may have been a gradual and continuous process, or a series of short bursts, with periods of delay between them. Due to the tempo of brain evolution, selective pressures may have been driven by “long term low-level directional selection”, however not much is known on the tempo of brain evolution. However, there is an issue with clearly defining the temporal timeline of encephalization (Shultz ,2132). Susanne Shultz argues that if encephalization was a “single, gradual process”, then it should be an increasing trend with brain size increasing each year. And, if brain size was triggered by a “series of punctuated events”, there should be period of fast growth then none, and if encephalization is a result of speciation events, then it should have been recorded as flat lines between several speciation events (2132). Tracking encephalization amongst early to mid-Pleistocene hominins began with Shultz et. al, researching temporal encephalization changes across all hominins (Shultz et. al, 2133). All hominins were broken down into four super species, including Australopithecus spp. and Homo habilis; H. erectus, which included both H. erectus and H.ergaster; H. sapiens, including H. sapiens, H. heidelbergensis and Homo neanderthalensis. The last group Shultz chose to classify and break down was H. sapiens into anatomically modern humans. Within these four super species, temporal changes were categorized as step changes, instead of previously suggested single, gradual processes (2133). The first step changes can be attributed to the appearance of H. habilis and H. erectus sensu lato, who both appeared around 1.9 mya and 1.8 Mya, and the second step changes coincides with anatomically modern humans at about 195 kya. The biggest and most drastic step change was seen with Early H. erectus sensu lato, but it may have been attributed to a change in body size (2133).  Although, there was much debate on temporal fluctuations of encephalization, Shultz et. al’s research provides evidence that the tempo of encephalization was instead a series of established step changes that have two major changes in brain size, eventually with two more major changes in brain size with a period of stasis in between.

BODY MASS & ENCEPHALIZATION

To determine the relationship between body mass and encephalization in Pleistocene Homo, one must look at the fossil remains of a range in body mass fluctuations over a series of individuals ranging from early Homo to late archaic H. sapiens. The body mass of Pleistocene Homo as averaged at about 10% larger than living humans (Ruff, Trinkaus, Holliday 173; 1997). According to Ruff, the major increase in encephalization within Homo occurred in the Middle Pleistocene 600 -150 kya and was immediately followed by a long period of stasis.

PRIME MOVERS FOR ENCEPHALIZATON

Majority of hominin species originated from East Africa and migrated into Eurasia after about two million years, and around 1.8 and 1.9 Mya Homo sensu stricto appeared with a new species called Paranthropus genera, marking the largest amount of hominin diversity at the time (Shultz, Maslin 1). During the same period, Homo erectus sensu lato experienced an increase in brain size, developing a brain that was 80% larger than the gracile Australopithecines and 40% larger than Homo habilis at the time. Homo erectus’ brain size averaged at about 900 cc, and late Homo erectus evolving to 1,100 cc (Rightmire 223-224; Donald 113; ). It was unknown as to why these major changes in encephalization had occurred after about 2 million years, so researchers began to hypothesize a series of environmental pressures that may have forced Homo erectus sensu lato to develop larger brain sizes (1). The environmental drivers are all interrelated, and caused what could be considered a series of triggers leading to changes in habitat, diet, social and linguistic, etc. for early Homo.

One of the first major environmental drivers that could have forced increases in encephalization is climatic fluctuations. Climatic fluctuations began in the East Africa with a theory called the savannah hypothesis, was increased aridity due to constant cooling and drying, causing the expansion of the savannah overtime (1; 2131). The variability selection hypothesis, states that in environments that experience unpredictable patterns of climate changes, often selects for “behavioral and ecological flexibility (1). Overtime, this forced hominins to move into novel habitats and alter their use of resources because these fluctuations created a dynamic and inconsistent habitat use (2131). Climatic pulses, such as the East African Rift system, introduced a series of selective environmental pulses, according to Shultz, drove a speciation and hominin future dispersal events. When trying to identify missing pieces within the fossil record that could provide evidence of brain expansion, The East African Rift system’s Rift lakes can be a climate indictor that can identify climatic fluctuations (Shultz). Hominin brain expansion coincided with deep water lakes, while following expansions coincided with extreme periods. The aridity of this environment can provide fossil evidence for speciation occurrences within the East African climate.

Due to the unpredictable climate, adaptive behavior was favored, which was flexibility and innovation in habitat, resource or space usage. Overtime a correlation between environmental variance and hominin brain size overtime became obvious (Shultz 2132). Consequently, hominins had to develop the cognitive ability to have a broad, flexible diet within a mosaic habitat and to develop tools to math their constantly changing environment, to maximize their chances of survival. The changes in savannah climate forced many hominins to move to wide open habitats, and increases their risk of predation (2132). Species such as, Homo erectus and Homo ergaster, were forced into open habitats as they lost many of the vegetation heavy refuges. Due to their small, predation was an issue for Australopithecines, stature, often being attacked by carnivores and raptors. It can be argues that as an adaptation their new environment and the risk of predation, H. erectus and H. ergaster developed a larger brain size and the cognitive ability to create defense strategies or escape plans (2132). Often predators preferred smaller brained prey, due to their ability to not be able to learn from constant predator attacks. A larger brain capacity would allow hominins to learn from previous predator attacks and prepare themselves accordingly. As a result of this selective pressure, hominins would have developed the ability to think and plan ahead, which is not an ability others share. Predation could possibly be a major factor in brain size development.

♣ Late Pliocene archaeological record (evidence)

♣ Lecture climatic fluctuations (FORAMS)

BIOLOGICAL/ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

There were changes in Earth temperature from about 5.0 to 3.2 mya , and after a few years, the Earth entered a cooling phase (Naya, Naya, Lessa 2015).  Another climatic hypothesis is the theory that due to decreases in Earth temperature lead to an increase in thermoregulatory costs (Naya, Naya, Lessa 2015). These fluctuations in temperature forced the brain to allocate energy to the brain to maintain a balanced temperature for the early human brain and body. The decrease in Earth temperature served as an evolutionary driver for the evolution of an “expanded, heat-generating brain”. It is implied from this hypothesis that the decrease in Earth temperature was a driver for brain enlargement, or it could have possible been a negative selective pressure, with the brain returning to its normal state, causing a change in costs of maintenance. Naya proposes two scenarios, one that focuses on a correlation between Earth temperature and brain costs, and the second, temperature causes other prime movers or drivers to influence encephalization. In order for the brain to maintain a safe temperature, during rises or decreases in temperature, the brain experiences fluctuations in energy usage. With the encephalization or expansion of brain size came other physical adaptations, such as “replacing body hair with a layer of fat that permits an efficient heat loss by sweating, and the retention of hair on the head, which protects the surface of the body from solar radiation at midday and reduces amount of heat that meets the head.

CULTURAL/COGNTIVE IMPLICATIONS

An increase in encephalization with the combination of environmental pressures leads to the innovation of new forms of technologies and subsistence patterns. This is can be observed in the practice of hunting and tool-making among Australopithecus and H. erectus. Hunting and tool making can be hypothesized as an indirect cognitive ability developed as a result of encephalization. It widely known that hunting was a selective pressure obtained during human evolution that allowed early humans to properly use their resources on their changing landscape. Dean Falk states that H. erectus could carry out hunting parties with groups of “tool-bearing males”, who operated away from their homebase (Falk 103; 1980). G.S. Krantz who is mentioned by Falk, theorized “persistence hunting” as the prime mover of brain evolution for Australopithecus and H.erectus (Krantz 1968). For early hominins to organize a successful hunting group, it requires hunters to be able to retain a form of long term memory because hunters would need to keep the hunting task on their mind for at least several days (Falk 1980). Increase in brain size or previous encephalization can assist in improved memory, leading to more successful hunting trips and more food, and eventually better chances of survival. As time progresses, large brain sizes are favored over smaller brains. Accordingly, both hominins could create new hunting strategies overtime allowing them to successfully utilize their landscape and resources.

Tool manufacturing increased immediately with the expansion of Homo erectus’ brain. Some of the Early H.erectus’ tools are associated with Oldowan-type stone tools, but the majority along with a sophisticated toolkit that is later on identified with the Acheulian culture (Donald 113). The Acheulian tools can be classified into two or three categories with varying degrees of detail and specialization. Also, One of the later Homo erectus sites, in Choukoutien, China where various tools were found, archaeologists also found various forms of continuous fire usage that occurred about 400 kya (Donald 113-114). It can be hypothesized that due to Homo erectus’ increased encephalization they were able to be well-organized groups of individuals, who had the cognitive ability to cook, manufacture tools, hunt, transmit skills, and have a small-scale form of culture.

Another indirect result of encephalization or increases in brain size, and environmental pressures is the development of sociality. Aiello and Dunbar, argue for a strong correlation between group size and brain size, using anthropoid primates as a comparison. To decrease their risk of being attacked by predators in their new open environment, most primates will increase their group size because smaller groups tend to suffer from large amounts of predators (Shultz 2132). This hypothesis was used to estimate the average social group size for hominin species, however the correlation between brain size and group size are not strictly correlated. Increasing their ability to live safely in large group sizes, early hominins had to develop the cognitive capacity to be able to coordinate themselves within a social environment. Hominins had to develop the ability to empathize, resolve conflict, cooperate, negotiate, implement perspective taking and theory of mind (Shultz 2133). Living within a social environment one can argue that the demands of language needs may have drove hominin brain evolution. Hominin brains needed create a form of communication, so they could effectively communicate within a large social group. Consequently, this may have led to the creation of a complex language.

Even though, there is much debate over which factors have selectively chosen for encephalization or increases in brain size in early to mid-Pleistocene hominins, it can be attributed to a series of factors that are both environmental and evolutionarily biological. It is the combination of these factors that have led to various derived selective behaviors, such a tool making, language creation, hunting, etc. that have proved that encephalization is not just a result of two separate occurrences, but instead an adaptation to changing environments and surroundings.  Encephalization, or “the evolutionary increase in the relative size of the brain”, in relation to the advancement of cognitive abilities, can be attributed various environmental drivers, and physical changes in body mass and size among early to mid- Pleistocene hominins.

Major depressive disorder (MDD)

Any given year, approximately 18.5% of adults in the United States, or 43.8 million people, will experience mental illness. This includes nearly 16 million adults in the United States who have suffered at least one episode of major depression in the past year. The World Health Organization estimates that worldwide, more than 300 million people suffer from some form of depression, making it the leading cause of disability in the world. Defined by the National Institute of Mental Health as a common but serious mood disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD) causes severe symptoms known to affect how a person thinks, feels, behaves, and functions in daily life. Several possible causes include genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Depression can be very difficult to diagnose and subtype due to its fluid nature and overlapping symptoms, as is the case with many mental illnesses. Nonetheless, mental health professionals have long tried to better define and understand depression’s subtypes in the hope that it would aid treatment efforts. Although it can be difficult to separate these different subtypes, clusters of symptoms have enabled the recognition of eight variations of major depressive disorder: postpartum, seasonal, catatonic, psychotic, anxious, mixed, melancholic, and atypical.

One of the most common subtypes of MDD, postpartum depression occurs in women after they give birth, and is believed to occur in approximately 15% of births (NIMH.gov). According to the DSM-V, the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association, symptoms must start within four weeks of giving birth in order for a major depressive episode to be considered postpartum depression. In the event symptoms begin during pregnancy, which is the case for roughly 50% of patients, the disorder is then referred to as “peripartum” depression (DSM-V). Significantly more severe than the usual “baby blues” that accompanies childbirth, postpartum depression poses serious challenges for new mothers, hampering their ability to care for themselves and their newborn. Commonly causing fatigue, insomnia, social withdrawal, and an irritable mood (all symptoms that most new mothers have mild forms of), patients may also fear that they are not good mothers and have difficulty bonding with their newborns. In severe cases, mothers may have thoughts of hurting themselves or their babies (mayoclinic.org). While there is no known specific cause for depression, the various subtypes are believed to have different causes. In the case of postpartum depression, while there is no single cause, it is very likely that the emotional and physical stress a pregnant woman experiences plays a role (mayoclinic.org).

Another widespread, relatively mild form of MDD is seasonal affective disorder, or SAD,  a recurring mood disorder related to the changes in seasons. Characterized by episodes of depression that recur annually at around the same time of year, SAD affects more than 3 million people in the United States per year (mayoclinic.org). While SAD is traditionally related to the fall and winter months, the Mayo Clinic notes that although less common, SAD can cause depression in the spring and early summer. Interestingly, while both fall-onset and spring-onset SAD may cause symptoms typical of major depression, they also each present their own unique symptoms. In the case of fall and winter depression, symptoms may resemble the traits of a hibernating animal, such as social withdrawal, weight gain, increased sleep, low energy, and irritability. This starkly contrasts with the symptoms specific to spring and summer depression, which include insomnia, weight loss, anxiety, and a poor appetite. As for potential causes, lower levels of natural sunlight in the fall and winter may disrupt the body’s circadian rhythm as well as decrease serotonin and melatonin levels, potentially triggering depression. For these reasons phototherapy, or light therapy, may be an effective treatment for fall-onset SAD (mayoclinic.org). However, patients can take solace in the fact that seasonal affective disorder is just that: seasonal. Although it returns annually, it does not last continuously, unlike the next form of depression.

Rather than a subtype of MDD, the most chronic form of depression is actually a mild mood disorder known as persistent depressive disorder, or dysthymia. When compared to the subtypes of MDD, the biggest distinctions between these two disorders are the duration and relative severity of their symptoms. While the symptoms of MDD occur in major depressive episodes that on average last six months, dysthymia is a chronic depression whose symptoms continuously last at least two years, with some cases lasting a lifetime (Lavid, DSM-V). At the same time, dysthymia’s symptoms are typically not as severe as those of MDD. Patients with dysthymia may exhibit more moderate forms of common MDD symptoms, such as a loss of interest in previously enjoyed activities and feelings of hopelessness, sadness, guilt, and personal inadequacy (mayoclinic.org). It is also worth noting that contrary to popular belief, depression (including both MDD and dysthymia) does not necessarily always cause sadness, but may instead cause extreme apathy or emptiness. However, depression is directly associated with sadness for a reason, and there are two forms in particular that while less prevalent, both have the potential to cause extremely severe symptoms.

Not limited to causing mental symptoms, major depressive disorder can also cause severe physical symptoms, as shown by the rare subtype known as catatonic depression. Characterized by causing disturbances in motor behavior, catatonia may also cause a marked decrease in reactivity to the environment, decreased engagement and reactivity, or excessive and peculiar physical activity. In addition, patients may maintain rigid or bizarre postures, and repeat stereotyped movements like staring and grimacing. Like in all disorders, symptoms range from severe to mild, with stupor and mutism, which cause a complete lack of physical and verbal responses to external stimuli, respectively, representing the severe end of the spectrum (mayoclinic.org, DSM-V).

Although slightly more common than catatonic depression, psychotic depression is by no means any less complex or severe. Having two distinct forms, mood-congruent and mood-incongruent, psychotic depression is characterized by the patient suffering delusions and hallucinations (DSM-V). Whether or not the themes of these delusions and hallucinations match their depressed mood are what define each subtype. The content of the hallucinations of patients with mood-congruent psychotic depression is always based on depressed themes, such as personal inadequacy, guilt, disease, death, and deserved punishment. On the other hand, the delusions of patients with mood-incongruent psychotic depression do not involve those typical depressed themes, although they may suffer from a mix of themes (DSM-V). Currently, the best treatment for psychotic depression may very well be electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), or electroshock therapy (Marano).

Depression with anxious distress is the most common subtype of MDD, with estimates that it makes up about 40% of all cases (Marano). Known for it’s difficulty to treat, patients are less likely to respond to treatment, resulting in a longer average recovery time. Combine this with a younger average age (20.6 years vs 28.4 for all patients), and it is easy to see why anxious depression can cause major problems in patients’ social, work, or school lives. It is also worth noting that about 40% of patients experienced symptoms of anxiety before they experienced depression (Marano). The symptoms of depression with anxious distress include the “presence of at least two of the following symptoms on the majority of days during an episode”: feeling keyed up or tense, feeling unusually restless, difficulty concentrating because of worry, a fear that something awful may happen, and a feeling and/or fear that the individual might lose control of themselves (DSM-V, mayoclinic.org). Although some of these symptoms may not seem to “fit” the typical idea of depression, this is not the only subtype to have such symptoms.

One of the more difficult subtypes to properly diagnose is mixed depression, or a mixed affective state, a form of depression that also presents symptoms of mania. Along with typical symptoms of MDD, the DSM-V states that at least three of the following symptoms are present nearly every day and during the majority of days of an episode: an elevated or expansive mood, an inflated self-esteem, being more talkative than usual or feeling a pressure to keep talking, a flight of ideas or the subjective experience that one’s thoughts are racing, an increase in energy or goal-directed activity (either socially, at work or school, or sexually), an increased or excessive involvement in activities that have a high potential for painful consequence, and a decreased need for sleep (feeling rested despite sleeping less than usual). The difficulty to properly diagnose mixed depression stems from the fact that symptoms may closely resemble bipolar disorder. In fact, if all symptoms of mania are met, that is most likely what the disorder is. Now down to the final two subtypes, these stand on their own in terms of their symptoms and natures.

Arguably the most severe subtype of depression is melancholic depression, believed to have a completely biological cause and the subtype of MDD most often resulting in patients being hospitalized (Kennard, Marano). Before going further, it is important to remember the difficulty faced in judging the severity of depression, especially when relying on a patients experiences. Although few mean to, most patients with depression believe they are doing worse than they actually are, at least relatively, because they don’t have a scale to base their judgement off of besides themselves.

Characterized by a near-complete absence of the ability to feel pleasure, the symptoms of melancholic depression are undoubtedly severe. While patients may be able to experience about 20% – 40% of happiness for short periods at a time, they almost always have extreme anhedonia (DSM-V, Black Dog Institute). In addition, the DSM-V states that patients have “three (or more) of the following” symptoms: a distinct quality of depressed mood characterized by profound despair or apathy, depression that is regularly worse in the morning, early-morning awakening (at least 2 hours before usual) or insomnia, marked psychomotor agitation or retardation, significant anorexia, weight loss, or lack of appetite, and excessive or inappropriate guilt, potentially caused by replaying the same thought or experience repeatedly.

Finally, there is atypical depression, an extremely common subtype and one whose nature defies most ideas of classical depression. Making up an estimated 23% to 36% of all cases of major depressive disorder, atypical depression is believed to affect 10 million people in the United States alone (Marano). Significantly more common in women than men, atypical depression also tends to have an earlier age of onset and be more chronic than the average case of depression (DSM-V).

Atypical depression, true to its name, has symptoms that do not match the conventional, classical view of depression that other subtypes, notably melancholic depression, fit so well. Rather, the defining feature of atypical depression is mood reactivity, or the capacity for a patient to be cheered up when presented with positive events. This means that a patient with atypical depression can actually feel better, if only for a short time. Compare this to melancholic depression, where a patient cannot feel sustained happiness (if they are even able to feel happiness at all), and the unique nature of atypical depression is revealed. In addition to the aforementioned mood reactivity, the DSM-V states that patients must have two (or more) of the following symptoms present during the majority of days of their MDD episode: significant weight gain or increase in appetite, hypersomnia (sleeping at least 10 hours a day), leaden paralysis (heavy, leaden feeling in arms or legs), and a long-standing pattern of interpersonal rejection sensitivity that results in significant social or occupational impairment.

Although the boundaries between subtypes can often be fuzzy and overlap, psychologists aim to define them in the goal of better treatment. However difficult it may be, and whether or not there is any practical benefit to it yet, by analyzing symptoms and treatment reactions, eight variations of major depressive disorder have been recognized. From the recurring seasonal affective disorder to the highs and lows of mixed depression, and from the depths of melancholic depression to the reactive nature of atypical depression, these variations help doctors better understand depression, and that will always help patients.

Youth Renu Skin Cream: essay help online free

Introduction

It is impossible to stop the aging of the human skin. It even makes no sense to have thoughts about it. It is a purely natural process that can only be managed and made to look better with the help of good beauty products. The process of skin aging can also be slowed and a healthy skin can be achieved even as age slowly winds down. The skin on a daily basis suffers exposure to harsh substances like smoke, UV rays, inflammation as well as other environmental components that have proved to be highly harmful to the skin. This means that rejuvenation of the skin as well as maintaining a healthy skin are important not just for values of beauty but also to provide the extra attention needed to treat the skin of these unhealthy effects of exposure. The conditions of wrinkles, sagging, fine lines as well as dryness and dark spots are some of the effects of increasing age which are not impossible to neutralize. This is what the Youth Renu Face Cream helps to do. It aids in getting rid of the tell-tale signs of aging on the skin.

The Youth Renu serum which has received FDA approval and safety certification, is made in GNP labs from purely natural and organic ingredients with absolutely no chemicals involved.  The cream helps to protect the skin from sunlight exposure and improves the glow and beauty that should characterize the skin.

Benefits of using this product

1. The product helps to increase the concentration of the all important skin component of collagen, boosting its presence in the skin to as much as 95%

2. It reduces dark circles concentration on the skin by 73%

3. It also reduces the presence of unpleasant facial wrinkles and fine lines by approximately 84%

4. It helps in skin rehydration

5. Also, it goes further to boost the production of collagen in the skin

6. When used, it also helps in reducing hyper-pigmentation

7. It is also a product of purely natural ingredients and is devoid of any side effects

8. It increases the regularity of oil release, thereby maintaining a control on its production

9. It contains caffeine which has been shown to shield the skin and protect it from UV rays of sunlight.

How it works

As a result of several external factors, the skin is usually exposed to uncomfortable distress and is most times in need of soothing. This is most particular for aging skin and this product contains the necessary ingredients to revive the beauty of such skin when used.

Youth Renu is generally a product of small molecules which are natural and contain no collagen that penetrates easily into the skin. These ingredients help to boost the skin’s production of oil, improves its elasticity and maintains the skin’s hydration status by making available needed moisture. This is done within the skin’s three compartments. The product also neutralizes and eradicates free radicals which have been accumulated in the skin from sunlight exposure, smoke and stress. This it does by way of its antioxidant ingredients. Of course, you surely know that free radicals constitute the major cause of aging of the human skin. Youth Renu distributes its ingredients among the three layers of the skin by making use of the Qusome delivery system.

Is it safe

The ingredients used in making this product are all natural and this means that it has minimal or zero side effects. There are no synthetic ingredients and this makes it suitable for most people who have sensitive skin. Having undergone testing by the FDA, the body released a study which showed that there no components of additives or chemicals in the serum. It rejuvenates the skin, grants it new glow and ensures its safety from harmful substances.

Ingredients used

Soy extracts

The skin requires protection from injuries, especially those of the free radical kind and soy extracts help in provide the needed protection. It has also been proven to aid skin stimulation by stimulating the regeneration of skin cells.

Green tea extracts

What these do is to reduce hyper-pigmentation which comes as a result of excessive smoking or prolonged exposure to sunlight. This then helps to lighten the skin. The extracts here are usually those which also contain antioxidants.

Chamomile

This ingredient usually contains antimicrobial elements which help in the prevention of infectious conditions that come as a result of the skin being weakened. It also soothes the skin by acting as an anti-inflammatory agent. Additionally, it has proved to be a stimulator of skin cells in the production of collagen which is a vital protein in the rejuvenation process.

Caffeine

This serves the dual purpose of protecting the skin from harsh UV rays of the sun which are usually harmful and providing needed energy and stimulation.

Coffeeberry

Provides the product with its rejuvenation properties

How to get this

There is currently an official online store for the Youth Renu Skin Cream and the serum can be accessed there in greater number. Only adults and persons who have registered on its page can access or own the product which can be ordered online. When you place your orders, the serum will be delivered to your doorstep. Also, the manufacturer warns against buying any of this product seen in medical stores as they are likely to be fake seeing that the product is generally not available in medical stores.

What action can we take to create sustainable life for future generations?

Humans have developed unhealthy behaviors due to the over consumption of resources and as a result, the environment is degrading. If the rate at which the environment is being destroyed continues, two Earths are needed by 2030 to support these lifestyles (The World Counts).

Nature is everywhere and it is the responsibility of human beings to protect the Earth and the resources it continuously provides. Humans must realize that they are causing the environmental problems and become aware of the current issues relating to the environment. It is endangered due to many threats from pollution to toxic contamination. Attempts must be made to prevent the problems from growing bigger and to ensure the lives of future generations. The environment can be improved by converting to renewable energy sources, altering policies of water bottle companies and constructing stronger landfill barriers. Although the biggest global matter is pollution, it can be reduced with the switch to renewable energy. Fossil fuel combustion and car exhaust from vehicles are the main pollutants. Fossil fuels, such as coal and natural gas, are used as energy sources in order to produce electricity and to run industries. Nevertheless, they release carbon dioxide that contributes to the rising amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Non-renewable sources also pollute water due to industrial waste, acid rain and oil spills. According to statistics Canada, the country’s primary energy sources are oil, natural gas and petroleum (Statistics Canada). Over the years, energy consumption has increased enormously as the human population rises and there will be even more greenhouse gas emissions. The solution is to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy sources. Wind, hydro and solar powers are better alternatives since they do not release greenhouse gases, thus improving the air and water quality of the environment. In addition, energy can be stored at the power plants for future use. Resources for fossil fuels are depleting because they are non-renewable and as a result, their costs will rise. Recently, the price for renewable energy sources has dropped significantly and is in fact, the same or cheaper than the price of fossil fuels. It costs $50 for wind and $100 for both solar and fossil fuels to generate the same amount of energy (The Independent).

Moreover, the installation of wind, hydro and solar powers is better in the long run since more money and work are required to operate and maintain fossil fuel power plants. Therefore, using renewable energy sources can reduce pollution. Secondly, water bottle companies are taking too much water from lakes and rivers across Canada, however, it can be limited if there is a change in policies. Companies, specifically Nestle, are essentially draining water from natural resources as a result of the large quantities that they take. In addition, they are continuing to pump water when there are droughts, which harms the environment even more. Nestle’s permit allows them to extract a total of 4.7 million litres of water everyday for a low cost of $3.71 per a million litres (Watercanada.net). Nearby communities are being affected by the actions of Nestle since their access to clean, drinkable water is reduced. The best solution in this situation is to modify the policies pertaining to water bottle companies. The amount of water that they are permitted to take each day needs to be reduced and the fees they have to pay in order to remove the water must be raised. As a result, the increased cost will cause water bottle companies to decrease the amount of water they drain and there will not be water shortages. The final issue is the contamination of the environment due to toxic substances, which can be resolved by constructing more secure landfills. When there are leaks in landfills, the toxins in the waste, such as mercury, are absorbed by the surrounding soil. They also enter water through ocean dumping or when rain carries the toxins into nearby bodies of water.

Consequently, the sea life is negatively affected since some materials, like plastic and styrofoam for example, are not biodegradable and animals may die from choking on plastic or from toxic poisoning (Clean Water Action). Thus, poor waste management leads to the suffering of living organisms and the environment. Currently, landfills are made with a clay liner at the bottom and a soil covering each day, but the clay can crack as it loses its moisture. This can be changed so that membranes, made of polyethylene and other organic materials, are put in place to separate waste from coming in contact with the environment (Handex Consulting and Remediation). Also, doubling the layers of membranes is a good idea in case of any accidents. Exposure to sunlight or chemicals will not provoke the liners to wear down over time, so they are safe to hold toxins. Furthermore, it is necessary to constantly monitor the groundwater so that contamination can be detected right away. Altogether, redesigning landfills will prevent toxins from contaminating its surroundings. In conclusion, the environment is deteriorating due to the impact of humans. Major environmental issues that require attention include the rapid increase of pollution, companies extracting large amounts of water from natural resources and toxic contamination. They need to be addressed before more problems continue to pile up and further destroy the environment. People need to reverse the damage and reduce their ecological footprints otherwise the future will not exist for humans. Solutions to the problems are to transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources, adjust the policies for water bottle companies and build landfills with better materials. Therefore, change is imperative in order to protect nature and people need to do their part to make it happen. It is crucial to raise awareness and create a sustainable life for future generations.

Are The Three Pillars Of Sustainable Development Inherently In Tension?

Sustainable development is a widely contested concept which has increasingly gained global attention. While it can be interpreted in many different ways due to the term’s “problematic vagueness and ambiguity” (Connelly, 2007), the most commonly accepted definition is “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987). Despite various different interpretations, it is generally recognised that in order to achieve sustainability, it is necessary to balance the three pillars of sustainable development: social progress, economic growth and environmental protection. It presents them as interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars, and only through balancing these factors can true sustainability be achieved, so if any one pillar is weak then the system as a whole is unsustainable. The claim that the three pillars are inherently in tension is an important debate because it is disputed whether they can be balanced equally and whether true sustainability can eventually be achieved, depending upon how it is defined and interpreted. While some would argue the pillars are not in tension because the concept involves combining social, economic and environmental aims and ensures they are balanced equally, others would argue that, in reality, they are in tension because the pillars are not given equal priority in the planning process due to the conflict of interest between what they are trying to achieve.

Since the publication of the ‘Our Common Future’ report in 1987 and the development of Agenda 21 at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, sustainable development has become a widely accepted concept. It established a major political turning point for the concept (Mebratu, 1998), because it addressed the need to make society, the economy and the environment more sustainable for future generations. It can be argued that the three pillars are not in tension because they are “equal, mutually interacting dimensions” (Lehtonen, 2004) and priority is not given to any of the pillars. The ‘Our Common Future’ report supports this and suggests that social, economic and environmental issues had to be “resolved simultaneously and in a mutually reinforcing way” (Robinson, 2004). Therefore, because the three pillars are dependent on each other, they are not in tension.

In this sense, the way to achieve sustainability is to change society’s view on sustainable development. According to Robinson (2004), “there must be a radical shift in attitudes, individual behaviour and politics” to ensure that the three-pillar model approach is integrated into policy-making decisions. For example, the provision of public transport shows that social policies can have positive impacts on the environment, like reducing pollution (Lehtonen, 2004). Development that takes place needs to integrate social, economic and environmental issues and recognise the long-term impact it will have on the opportunities for future generations. For this to happen, it is generally accepted that over time, there will need to be a change in policy and lifestyle which is certainly possible within the current social and economic structures (Hopwood et al, 2005). The three pillars are interrelated, despite being fundamentally different, which means that they all depend on each other to achieve sustainability, and therefore, they are not in tension.

National strategies are key to implementing sustainable development and the UK is committed to ensuring that social, economic and environmental aims are met. Successive governments have agreed that an important objective for the UK is to become more sustainable. The Government’s 1999 strategy, ‘A Better Quality of Life’, showed that sustainability is central to policy making, incorporating social, economic and environmental aims (Porter and Hunt, 2005). Moreover, the 2005 Sustainable Development Strategy, ‘Securing the Future’, once more showed how the UK aimed to achieve a sustainable economy, live within environmental limits and ensure a strong, healthy and just society. Therefore, the three pillars are not in tension because the government is committed to ensuring they are all given equal priority within the national strategy.

Planning plays a key role in achieving sustainable development within the UK (Porter and Hunt, 2005). Proposals with a clearly defined vision that fully integrate social, economic and environmental goals will ensure that they are not in tension. Birmingham’s Eastside regeneration is an “exemplar for sustainable urban living in the UK” (Porter and Hunt, 2005). It has a redevelopment strategy that has shown how the pillars of sustainability are addressed in the regeneration decision-making process. Birmingham City Council has set out plans for the development with social, economic and environmental sustainability aims that have been implemented in the project through public transport improvements, creation of jobs and use of sustainable energy, proving that the three pillars can be integrated into one project and not be in tension.

From this, it can be argued that the three pillars of sustainable development are not inherently in tension because national strategies and recent redevelopment projects have been able to integrate social, economic and environmental aims, without prioritising one pillar over another.

On the other hand, it can be claimed that the three pillars of sustainable development are inherently in tension as, although the aim is ideally to balance social, economic and environmental interests, it is very difficult to do due to constraints which limit what can actually be achieved. There is a contradiction between achieving growth and development at the same time as social, economic and environmental sustainability with it being argued that trying to achieve sustainable development is trying to “achieve the impossible” (Robinson, 2004). Environmental concerns are often ignored in favour of prioritising economic development, and while it is necessary to focus on the economy, this means that social justice and environmental protection are neglected in its favour. In reality, the environment should be considered as more important than social and economic development because “humanity can have neither an economy nor social well-being without the environment” (Dawe and Ryan, 2003). However, since this is so difficult to achieve, trade-offs are often made between the three pillars due to their unavoidably conflicting interests.

While sustainable development was successful in helping to shape global attitudes towards social, economic and environmental issues, it prompted international debate due to its “dangerously vague” (Mebratu, 1998) definition. The term’s ‘constructive ambiguity’ means it can be manipulated for political opportunity, leading to an “increasing level of frustration” (Mebratu, 1998), with some claiming that it would become no more than a “catchphrase”. Many national and international strategies focus on only one pillar at a time, meaning that there is no international organisation that is working on balancing all three simultaneously and the sustainability problem as a whole. For example, while the UN attempts to improve all three pillars, it has made limited impact due to its constrained budget and lengthy decision-making process. As a result, it mainly focuses on the economic sustainability pillar since most member states view economic growth as more important, particularly developing nations.

With consumer demand constantly rising, compromises are often made between the conflicting aims of economic growth and environmental protection. In areas such as energy and housing, it is becoming increasingly clear that it is not possible to give equal priority to social, economic and environmental sustainability aims, and as a result, demand increases will be in tension with environmental protection aims. It would be seen as undemocratic to compromise economic prosperity, so increases in demand are inevitable and must be fulfilled. While people want to protect the environment as far as possible, this tends to be regarded as negotiable as social and economic development are seen as more important to sustain. Therefore, while it is clear that there is need for balance and to adjust the levels of consumer demand to reduce environmental problems, it is clear that this will not happen any time soon as society is not willing to compromise, and so the environmental pillar is overlooked. According to Robinson (2004), “continuation of current trends is ultimately unsustainable”, but even so, the different demands of the three pillars that come into conflict will need to be negotiated.

Furthermore, policy makers do not consider the three pillars equally when making decisions and so they are competing for priority in the planning process. The ‘property conflict’ (Campbell, 1996) between the social and economic pillars involves competing claims on property between different groups, such as landlords and tenants or young professionals and long-term residents. The tension between public interest and private gain can be seen within the housing market in UK as government intervention is needed to ensure the public is benefitting from property development, but the private sector resists it to gain profit. Similarly, the ‘resource conflict’ (Campbell, 1996) between the economic and environmental pillars involves society needing to regulate the exploitation of nature and its resources for present and future demands, but resisting taking action in favour of further economic development. The tension can be seen in greenbelt planning in the UK as land is needed for development, but the environment needs to be managed at the same time to ensure sustainability. Finally, the ‘development conflict’ (Campbell, 1996) between the social and environmental pillars involves the difficulty of how to increase social equity and protect the environment at the same time, regardless of the state of the economy. The tension can be seen on an international basis, such as the Paris Agreement on Climate Change 2016, as the gap between rich and poor nations which could be widened through efforts to protect the environment as it hinders economic growth.

While the ultimate goal of sustainable development is to achieve balance across the three pillars, it is very challenging to put into practice due to the conflicting objectives (Lehtonen, 2004). As a result, an “adaptive process of tradeoffs” (Mebratu, 1998) must be in place, meaning that certain pillars may need to be compromised in favour of others. Sustainability must act as an integrating concept if it is to have any impact, however, the integration of the pillars has remained weak within policy making. In the UK, the planning process tries to include social, economic, and environmental considerations as far as possible, but inevitably compromises are made between the pillars. Although the government is making greater efforts to improve policy integration, it is clear that they have had difficulty in bringing the pillars together into one successful strategy (Meadowcroft, 2007) because they are in tension.

Therefore, the three pillars of sustainable development are inherently in tension because it is too difficult to balance social, economic and environmental interests equally. Conflicts between these aims mean that compromises are made.

Overall, the argument that the three pillars of sustainable development are inherently in tension seems to be more convincing because achieving true sustainability, which prioritises social, economic and environmental interests equally, is too difficult. While governments are aiming to integrate the pillars into national strategies and planning processes, these aims are often conflicting, meaning that compromises need to be made. The scale of the problem that needs to be overcome is too big to see progress instantly, especially as society is unwilling to give up economic growth in favour of environmental protection. It has been recognised that “sustainability is a process, not an end-state” (Robinson, 2004), which has the potential to come into fruition over time. However, ensuring that sustainable development can fully take place is a complex process because it will need to take place in an intergenerational timeframe, and therefore it will take a long time to put into practice. The concept can be seen as more aspirational than practical because it is so difficult to implement in the planning process and in policy making, and trade-offs are necessary to avoid conflicts of interest. It is constantly being manipulated for political gain, which ultimately could be detrimental to its credibility. Therefore, the claim that the three pillars of sustainable development are inherently in tension is valid because it is almost impossible to give equal priority to social, economic and environmental goals for as long as it is not taken seriously as a pressing issue.

Down syndrome: college application essay help

Down syndrome is a genetic deformity caused by the presence of a complete or total extra copy of chromosome 21. The additional genetic material alters the development course and causes characteristics that are commonly related to Down syndrome. Some of these traits are “low muscle tone, small stature, an upward slant to the eyes, and a single deep crease across the center of the palm” (“Down Syndrome”). Keep in mind, however, that all individuals are different and may have different degrees of these traits, or may not have these traits at all. “According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately every 1 in 700 babies in the United States is born with Down syndrome, making it the most common chromosomal condition” (“Down Syndrome”). Children with Down syndrome are known to have some delayed development in certain aspects, mostly when it comes to learning. Intellectual and cognitive development delay, though, can be very varied, and this goes for fine motor skills as well. On average, a child with Down syndrome will start to sit at 11 months, crawl at 17 months and will finally start to walk at about 26 months or about two years old (Crosta).

The National Down Syndrome Society explains that the condition can be traced back as far as centuries ago, with the physical traits that had been previously described being alluded to in art from those times. The condition was not officially recognized until the late 19th century, when John Langdon Down published an accurate description of a person with Down syndrome in 1866. This earned him the title of “The Father of Down syndrome”. Though others had previously documented the condition, Down gets the most credit because of his accuracy. During the more recent years, advances in technology and all the progress that science has made has led to the development of more and more detailed descriptions. In 1959, French physician Jerome Lejeune showed and identified the condition as chromosomal, thought it was originally thought to have been caused by an extra original chromosome. In 2000, an international team unveiled that the actual cause of the disorder was by the partial or complete copy of chromosome 21.

Chromosome 21 is the smallest human chromosome and accounts for about 1.5 to 2.0% of the total DNA within a cell. It consists of roughly 48 million base pairs, and likely contains anywhere from 200 to 300 genes. Issues with chromosome 21 are not limited to only Down syndrome, as it is also known to cause certain cancers and other chromosomal conditions that are all similar to Down syndrome, but are not quite the same thing. (“Chromosome 21”)

The main cause of Down syndrome, as stated before, is a partial or complete copy of chromosome 21 in either some of the cells in an organism, or all of them. What causes this extra chromosome to form is still unknown to the prying eyes of science. The National Down Syndrome Society states there is a link that is seen between the chances of having a baby with Down syndrome and the age of their mother. 80% of all babies that are born with Down syndrome were born before their mothers reached the age of 35. This statistic is believed to be caused by the higher birth rates of younger women. This makes sense due to the fact that most mothers will have children before they grow too old. Older women are more likely to give birth to a child with Down syndrome (Crosta). There is no link, however, between the cause of Down syndrome and the actions of the parents before or during pregnancy. (“Down Syndrome”)

According to the National Down Syndrome Society, there are two ways of testing for Down syndrome prior to the birth of a child: screening and diagnostic. The society states that screening tests are less definitive, and more of a probability since it predicts the chance of a fetus having Down syndrome, while diagnostic tests can give an accurate, confident result. During screen tests, both a blood test and ultrasound (sonogram) are performed (“Down Syndrome”). The process involves the calculation of the number of different substances in the mother’s blood—this measurement is combined with the woman’s age when predicting the probability of the fetus having Down syndrome (“Down Syndrome”). During the ultrasound, the back of the fetus’ neck is observed between the eleventh and fourteenth week of pregnancy; the presence of liquid in the baby’s neck is a sign of higher risk for genetic disorders and birth defects (Shafi).

Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) are two examples of diagnostic tests that are performed. With amniocentesis, a sample of amniotic fluid—which contains fetal cells and substances created by the baby that protect it—is taken from the uterus during the first trimester of a pregnancy (Mayo Clinic Staff). Chorionic villus sampling, meanwhile, is typically done between ten and thirteen weeks of gestation (Mayo Clinic Staff). This is essentially what its name suggests: a swatch of chorionic villi is taken from the placenta via either the cervix or abdominal wall (Mayo Clinic Staff). At birth, karyotypes are utilized to ensure that a diagnosis is completely correct, since certain physical traits that are common to babies with Down syndrome—“low muscle tone, a single deep crease across the palm of the hand, a slightly flattened facial profile and an upward slant to the eyes” (“Down Syndrome”)—can be features of those that do not actually have Down syndrome. Along with karyotypes, a test known as FISH can also be used for confirmation. Genetic counselor Kathleen Fergus explains that FISH reveals the number of chromosomes as well as what kind, but does not specify information for every single chromosome or its structure—for example, it can show that there are a certain amount of number 21 chromosomes that are present, but will not go into specifics about its shape.

Down syndrome is not something that can be placed into a single box. Similar to autism, every single case is different and needs to be handled with a unique approach. Each person is different and must not be treated like they are just another number in a statistic. As explained by the National Down Syndrome Society, there are three different types of Down syndrome: Trisomy 21, mosaicism, and translocation. Trisomy 21, also known as nondisjunction, is created by an error in cell division that causes an embryo to have three copies of the previously mentioned chromosome 21 in each cell. As this usually occurs prior to or at conception, the cells continue to develop and the extra copy of chromosome 21 will carried through the embryo as it develops. If a pair of chromosome 21 fail to separate, the error is transmitted through every cell. Trisomy 21 is the cause of about 95% cases of Down syndrome. Mosaicism, or mosaic Down syndrome, is diagnosed when a mixture of two cells—some containing the normal 46 chromosomes and some affected cells—with 47 chromosomes are present within the same organism. This is the most uncommon form of Down syndrome and only amounts to about 1% of cases. Those who do have mosaicism show less traditional signs of Down syndrome, although with the lack of information, generalizations are not possible. The third and final type of Down syndrome that has been recognized at this point in time in known as translocation. Translocation accounts for about 4% of cases. This is caused by the attachment of a partial or complete extra copy of chromosome 21 to another chromosome, usually chromosome 14.

Although Down syndrome may share its similarities to autism, it is specifically a genetic disorder, while autism is a developmental disorder. As stated before, excess chromosomes result in impacts on development, physical features, and intellect of those diagnosed with Down syndrome. Autism, on the other hand, is said to not have a single cause, but rather, is influenced by particular environmental factors or abnormalities in the brain (autism-society.org). It is, however, possible for a person to be diagnosed with both Down syndrome and autism, and this is known as Down syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder (DS-ASD). In this case, symptoms of both disorders are evident, and there are two groups for signs/symptoms. In group one, these symptoms typically occur around infancy, such as refusing to eat food; constant, repetitive moments (ex: hand waving, fingers in mouth); having a fascination with lights, ceiling fans, or fingers. In group two, these signs are evident in older children who may show major decline in the development of language and social skills as well as have high amounts of repetitive behavior. (Capone)

Down syndrome does not discriminate—its’ cold and uncaring hands take hold on the lives of people from all different kinds of races and those from all economic statuses. So no matter skin color, nationality, or amount of wealth, the chances don’t change. They are the same for every member of the human population. A commonly asked question about Down syndrome, though, is if it is hereditary. Can it be passed down from parent to child through the means of genes? The simple answer to this question is that only 1% of Down syndrome cases are indeed hereditary. The genetic makeup of the parents have no effect on whether their child will or will not have trisomy 21. One-third of cases of translocation have a hereditary component to them which totals out to about 1% of all cases. Most of these occurrences are also sporadic or chance events. About one-third of cases have a parent as a carrier. Once a woman has a child with trisomy 21, she has a 1/100 chance of having a child with Down syndrome until she turns 40 years old. Within the father, the risk of recurrence is about 3%, and if the mother is the carrier, the risk is about 10-15%. The likelihood of birthing a child with Down syndrome also goes up with the age of the mother. Women of 35 have a 1/350 chance, at the age of 40, woman have a 1/100 chance, and at 45, that chance is 1/30. (“Down Syndrome”)

Despite hindrances in the cognition of those affected by Down syndrome (which can be from mild to severe) many who are diagnosed are still able to actively participate in various parts of the community, including school environments, work, and social activities (Down Syndrome). The National Down Syndrome Society states that this is thanks to antibiotics and clinical treatment, which have dramatically increased the lifespan of those with Down syndrome. The society also says that in 1910, most who were diagnosed only lived up to the age of nine, but today, many are reaching sixty years. Recently the amount of interaction with those with Down syndrome has increased awareness about the disorder as well. October is marked as National Down Syndrome Awareness month, and many events of celebration occur during this time, such as various restaurant fundraisers and talent shows where performances are done by those with Down syndrome (dsagsl.org).

As those with Down syndrome go through various transitions in life, their families have to ensure that they provide them with the assistance they need. It is common for individuals with Down syndrome to struggle with issues such as depression or hypothyroidism on top of their developmental and intellectual delays (nichd.nih.gov). The NIH also states that many who are in their pre-teens or teens may experience decline in school performance or go through mood changes, and so it is crucial for them to receive as much help as possible to ensure that they are successful. Individuals with Down syndrome should also be informed of subjects such as puberty, sexuality, and sexual activity since they experience changes in hormones just like everyone else (nichd.nih.gov). Parents must take a number of factors into consideration before making any major decisions (such as considering whether their child is ready to enter the job field) and need to bear in mind their child’s self-esteem, whether they can carry out tasks on their own, and if they are able to be emotionally split from family (nichd.nih.gov). As they move toward adulthood, they will acquire skills that allow them to form close relationships and live better and longer lives.

Although Down syndrome is an incurable condition that may bring issues for families with children diagnosed with the disorder, it is something that can helped by consistent treatment. Thanks to improving technology, more awareness, and specialized intervention programs that cater to an individual’s needs, those diagnosed with Down syndrome are still able to live a long and full life just like any other person.

Create a marketing pitch for a sustainable swimwear brand

What we believe:

Everyone has an ideal of the perfect life, a perfect world – a better tomorrow. But for the aspiration of a better tomorrow action is needed. The oceans of the world are currently the unhappy home to around 640,000 tons of discarded nylon nets and other fishing gear. Not only is nylon non-biodegradable and the manufacturing is also a highly polluting, dirty process, but the fishing gear traps, injures, and kills hundreds of thousands of sea animals and ruin the natural marine ecosystem.

After living on the beautiful island of Bali, surrounded by beautiful ocean and pristine marine life, we experienced the true impact of ocean pollution and the consequences it has on our planet, the planet we all call home. One day sitting on the beach talking about life, the ocean and the beach, we saw a couple of young dudes collecting plastic bottles in the shallows. We were very impressed because somehow these two young dudes represented something very cool. They took responsibility. Responsibility for generations after us to come and enjoy the very same moment on the very same beach surrounded by the same ocean as us in the future. The idea for Melukat Swim was born.

Sustainability is sexy:

Saving the planet may seem inconceivable, even utopian. But we all have a responsibility to protect this planet, our planet. That’s why we feel a responsibility to help out and protect the planet that we love and respect. We believe that sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony.

Born from our passion for the ocean and love of fashion we had to create Melukat Swim. We hope to provide you with a beautiful product while using sustainable business practices and without causing any harm or adding to the waste. We give back – so you do too when you choose Melukat Swim. We give you a responsible choice of products which tell the powerful story of the journey from waste to wear, closing the loop and turning a problem into a solution. Believing that being responsible and sustainable doesn’t mean forgoing style, we set out to create swimwear that combines figure-flattering fashion and sustainable innovation.

Thank you for believing with us.

More than just your average swimwear:

Melukat Swimwear is an environmentally and ethically conscious swimwear line that combines timeless Scandinavian design with the sexy bohemian vibes of Bali.

But its not just swimwear. The seams lie flat against the skin. The quality is meticulous. The fit is hip-slimming, curve-hugging, bust-boosting, figure-flattering perfection. I’s a cheeky celebration of your body. But the beauty of the perfect bikini doesn’t just come from its looks, it also comes from within. And we want to beautify the beach in more ways than one, so we’re doing our part to lighten our environmental footprint – one bikini at a time.

Material:

Melukat Swim features a range of mix and match seperates made exclusively in our signature EcoLux fabric – a technically and environmentally superior luxe fabric, made from recycled nylon.

We only use swimwear fabric derived from 100% regenerated polyamide made by ECONYL®.  ECONYL® works in partnership with HealthySeas.org to use discarded fishing nets pulled from our oceans to make the regenerated yarn in our fabrics.

Melukat Swim aspires to be a leader in eco-responsible manufacturing practices by using only sustainable fabrics. ECONYL® Fiber is a 100% regenerated Nylon comprised mainly of discarded fishing nets recovered from our oceans and old carpets. These post-consumer waste materials are recycled, helping to reduce the amount of global waste and feeding it back into production cycles. Through a process of regeneration, the nylon from these materials is transformed into the high-quality ECONYL® Yarn and is then blended with LYCRA® XTRA LIFE™ for lasting durability and shape retention. 50+ UV protected and ultra-resistant to sunscreens, tanning oils, and chlorine- this luxurious and progressive techno fabric is defiant to the elements, extending the life of your swimwear and have you sizzling on the sand and in the salt all summer long.

Melukat Swim is made using sustainable and organic fabrics that eliminate the use of harmful herbicides, pesticides and fungicides.  We also extend our environmental approach into everything we do, from using recycled paper hangtags, to packaging our swimwear in recycled material.

Benefits:

• Requires approximately 2/3 less energy

• Reduces water consumption

• Reduces global crude oil extraction, distribution, and consumption

• Reduces air, water, and soil contamination

• Recovers Nylon 6 waste from all over the world

Natural disasters and the Flint water crisis: writing essay help

Natural disasters are a worldwide phenomenon. The gravity of the effects differ from one group to another depending on where that country is located geographically, politically, and in terms of richness and what kind of infrastructures the country possesses and whether these infrastructures are resilient, which means how well they can survive when faced to natural disasters. 
 There is a very clear and obvious correlation between climate change and natural disasters. Climate change has become an unavoidable and continuous problem internationally. The world’s glaciers are receding due to the global temperature rising: over the last century, this temperature has risen from 0.65 degrees celsius to 1.06 degrees celsius. Putting an end to climate change is impossible, but the situation can be decelerated. At the rate that the world is consuming resources, quickly and drastically, the situation will worsen, temperatures will continue to rise and natural disasters will recur more often. 
 The cause of natural disasters is still debated in our political climate: with world leaders still denying that climate change has a huge effect on natural disasters, it is difficult to make progress happen.

Through the in depth analysis of the aftermath of natural disasters, a reoccurring pattern appears all over the world: poor, ethnic and racial minorities are more affected by these disasters. Because these groups lack a certain amount of economic resources, their resilience is limited. When it comes to government aid, these communities are often neglected unless the tragedy is spoken about repeatedly in the media. Financial aid is minimal when poor, ethnic and racial minorities are affected. Despite the fact that all aspects of life are affected by a natural disaster, the recovery is slow in developing countries because of their very limited resources. “When disaster strikes, whether it is the slow onset of drought, exposure to hidden toxic waste, or the sudden impact of an earthquake or chemical leak, it tends to be a totalizing event or process, affecting eventually most aspects of community life.” 
 At a more international level, we can see that this still applies. There are disparities between developed and less developed or developing countries at a more global scale. Developing countries are extremely vulnerable when it comes to natural disasters because they are the main victims of climate change. Their limited human, institutional and financial capacity makes it difficult to respond to the effects of climate change. The countries with the fewest resources bear the greatest burden of climate change in terms of loss of life and degradation of their economies in the years following the natural disaster. Developed countries in North America and Europe, or even emerging countries like China and Brazil, are leading contributors in climate change due to their uselessly high demand of resources and desire to economically develop at a enormously fast rate creating as much profit as possible. This appetite for profit has transformed every aspect of society: from manufacturing to life expectancy.

The desire for profit is what has caused the natural disaster talked about in this essay. On April 21st 2014, the water source of the city of Flint, Michigan was changed from treated Detroit Water and Sewerage Department (water coming from Lake Huron and the Detroit River) to the Flint River. This change of water source was the start of the Flint water crisis. 
 Due to this change, over 100,000 residents were exposed to high levels of lead in their drinking water. The presence of lead in the water was due to the fact that the water from the new source was not well treated contrary to the water from the previous source that was treated in order to make sure that lead from the pipes did not contaminate the water. Lead pipes were inexpensive and easy to install which is why they were the primary type of pipe used in the city of Flint. The main problem that derives from the use of lead pipes is that if the water wasn’t treated well enough, the pipes could leach lead into the water therefore contaminating it. Lead from the pipes entering the water depends on the acidity of the water. Acidic water makes it easier for led from the pipes to dissolve into the water and thus contaminating water entering someone’s home. 
 The Flint water crisis is an ongoing disaster in Flint, Michigan. The status of this crisis is still controversial. Some say it is simply an emergency while others are calling it a natural disaster. The status is important because it determines the funding that the city will receive from the federal government for relief. In the United States, when a tragic event is considered a natural disaster, the funding is much greater than if the event were to be considered as just an emergency. The difference in terms of funding can go up to millions of dollars, which is a significant amount for a small city suffering from a water crisis. 
 The change of water source was driven primarily by the fact that the city wanted to lower their expenses dedicated to water. “Facing another expected increase in the price of treated water from the DWSD – prices nearly tripled ($/mcf) from 2002 to 2012 – Flint’s Emergency Manager (EM), with the consent of City Council, decided to join the newly constituted Karegnondi Water Authority (KWA) in 2013.” The city was looking to reduce the money spent on water at the risk of the population’s health and safety. On January 12th 2015, despite evidence that the water in people’s homes was life threatening, city official declined an offer to reconnect to the previous water source (DWSD) because they were too concerned by the high water rates. This is called racial capitalism: when governments or corporations look to optimize their profit by making racial minorities suffer. 
 Numerous times government officials showed concern for the wellbeing of the water but there was still a lack of action from the state government: “One of Gov. Snyder’s key staff people sounded an alarm about the concern for lead in water, but the state health department responded back that the Flint water was safe.” This lack of action worsened the situation and has played a role in aggravating the crisis.

One of the main questions when it comes to this natural disaster is the following: who was affected the most? In the case of a natural disaster, the rapidity of how fast aid comes to those affected depends on what kind of groups are affected. As stated earlier, the city of Flint was mostly composed of a black population. This caused government officials to take their time in dealing with the problem at hand. Traces of E. coli and lead, which are life threatening, were found in drinking water coming from people’s homes immediately after the water source change. Despite this being a danger to the population, a state of emergency was declared in the city, much later than the start of the crisis, by Mayor Karen Weaver on December 15th 2015, more than a year and a half later. Unfortunately, this state of emergency did not change much: lead was still present in drinking water and effects of this lead was slowly appearing in children through their blood. One can measure the gravity of a situation by showing how children in the communities are affected by a certain natural disaster. In this case, chidren’s blood-lead levels have risen from about 2.5% in 2013 to 5% in 2015. On January 5th 2016, another state of emergency was declared for the city by the Governor of Michigan, Rick Snyder, followed by President Obama declaring the situation to be a federal emergency two weeks later on January 16th 2016. 
 The population living in Flint is dominantly black which is why activist groups have called the way the government and corporations handled the situation in the city an example of environmental racism. This whole crisis is based off of the desire for profit without paying attention to the populations that are being negatively affected. The reality is that ethnic and racial minorities are often the ones affected by these sorts of natural disasters. “Statistical ‘‘snapshots’’ at a single point in time do not inform as to whether lower income communities and communities of color are having ecological hazards come to them or if ecological hazards deflate real estate values to the point at which contaminated areas become financially accessible to lower income populations.” The population of the city determines its value: “Some may argue that racism is not relevant in Flint because white people were also hurt. Such logic refuses to grasp how racism operates as an ideological process. Flint is considered disposable by virtue of being predominantly poor and Black. Here, racism is a process that shapes places, and in this case, produces a racially devalued place.”
 This can also be said about pipelines and their chosen routes. The most obvious case is the one of the North Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL). Its original route would have passed through Bismarck, a dominantly white city. Because the city’s population was concerned by this pipeline, its route was changed and a detour through the primary water source of the Sioux Nation was created. This Indigenous group was concerned for the safety of their water and had every right to be because on November 16th 2017, there was indeed a leak of 210,000 gallons of oil in South Dakota. An oil spill that was feared by the city of Bismarck ended up happening but in peril of the safety of Indigenous communities. “Comparing across categories of both race and class, the authors conclude that ‘the communities most heavily burdened with environmentally hazardous industrial facilities and sites are overwhelmingly low-income towns and or communities of color.’” Natural disasters caused by ecological hazards such as pipelines or even lead pipes are more likely to affect not just racial minorities but also low-income families. This example of the DAPL shows how corporations value the worry of white citizens more than Indigenous citizens: “Predominantly white communities and middle-class communities, previously believed to be less affected by ecological hazards, could be less likely to be mobilized around these threats or to have an effective response frame with which to respond to such risks.”

The term environmental injustice is always brought up when speaking about natural disasters because it is a known fact that natural disasters affect groups differently and depending on your class or race, the rapidity of the relief to that disaster will differ. “Environmental racism was exposed as racial discrimination was seen to inform decisions contributing to members of visible minorities being highly overrepresented among those suffering the ill effects of living near heavily polluting industrial and waste sites. The movement is more widely known as ‘environmental justice’, as those negatively impacted were primarily of low income and the negative effects were not limited solely to members of racial minorities.” A “sub-category” to environmental injustice is environmental racism and that applies more to the racial aspect behind the injustices that the population is faced with. This term was widely used after Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans: “Most important, minority communities also express group-specific grievances, such as perceived environmental racism or injustice accompanying disasters. People of colour (gens de couleur), middle to working class citizens, women, and other vulnerable populations more often connect environmental injustice to their experiences post Katrina than their more affluent white counterparts.” 
 Erich Krieg points out two biasses: a race bias and an income bias. “The first hypothesis predicts a race bias to the geographic distribution of ecological hazards. The distribution of ecological hazards will be concentrated in the region most heavily populated by African Americans. This prediction is consistent with a majority of the environmental justice literature that claims people of color are more likely to be subject to ecological hazards than are whites.” Through this, Krieg suggests that people of colour are more likely to be affected by natural disasters than whites are. “The second hypothesis predicts an income bias to the geographic distribution of ecological hazards. The distribution of ecological hazards will be concentrated in the region with the lowest median household incomes.” The regions where low-income families can afford to live are more at risk of natural disasters. We can see that through the way New Orleans was built: after institutionalized racial segregation was demolished, the city stayed segregated because the black community could not afford to move anywhere else. This part of the population had to stay in areas where the risk was much higher. A problem that was at first due to racial aspects had now become a problem due to economic aspects as well. After Hurricane Katrina, these communities were the ones that were most affected because their neighbourhoods were located where the land level was the lowest and therefore where the risk of damage was higher. The example of New Orleans is simultaneously an example of social fault lines based on race and on income.

The Flint water crisis has yet to be resolved. Lead pipes will all be replaced no sooner than 2020, which means that residents will continue to have contaminated water and are instructed to use bottled water for cleaning, cooking, drink and bathing until then. 
 This ongoing crisis shows the failure of government on the local, state and federal level, environmental groups, and water companies to prevent the mass-contamination of water leading to the endangering of thousands of people. 
 Social fault lines in the Flint water crisis can be seen the implication of racial and economic disparities.

Sustainable Manufacturing (advantages /limitations)

According to CECIMO (1), Sustainable Manufacturing is when engineers use or create processes that are economical for the environment whilst not producing any hazards that can affect the surrounding environment as well as the employees/employers. Manufacturing is a process that affects the environment as we use raw materials such as metals that have an impact as we use a lot of energy to produce and use these materials. The processes for the raw material can produce emissions that affect the environment and introduce the problem that there is only a finite amount of material that can be used and will eventually all be used up.  Another problem is that producing other materials such as polymers involves linking hydrocarbons which end up putting harmful emissions into the atmosphere therefore continuing to produce polymers could have potential harmful impacts on the environment in time to come. Overall engineers are currently trying to figure out methods on processes that are capable of being sustainable so that way we don’t harm the environment or use up all of our raw materials.

Standards have now even put in place such as British Standard 8887-220:2010 (Design for Manufacture, Assembly, Disassembly, and End of Life Processing (MADE)) that are designed to show how to be most efficient during the full process of design to manufacture whilst being sustainable. This is capable of ensuring engineers can produce a product whilst being able to remain cautious of the environmental hazards that could potentially occur.

Throughout this report, I will use case studies to analyse the effect of sustainable manufacture including its advantages /limitations and produce an evaluation of a full life cycle of the entire process with the use of appropriate standards such as BS 8887-220:2010 (which was previously mentioned), ASTM E2987/E2987M – 16 (Standard Terminology for Sustainable Manufacturing), and ASTM E2986 – 15 (Standard Guide for Evaluation Aspects of Sustainability of Manufacturing Processes).  Furthermore I need to identify the key factors of the case studies and justify why they are appropriate, thus making me able to make a conclusion on what are the key factors that define sustainable manufacture. Finally I will talk about possible future methods that could potentially change how we create new products, as well as how they run efficiently.

Case Study 1

Sustainable Manufacturing of Gears

The Problems

Gears are important to mechanical engineering due to a majority of mechanical systems having to use gears meaning that they are mass-produced all the time for new products or maintenance. (2) Machining (Milling, shaping), forming (stamping, extrusion), and additive processes (die casting, powder metallurgy) are used to create gears. They can even be heat treated (hardened, annealed, tempering) in order to improve the properties of the material that the gear is made from in order to ensure that it is less likely to wear out. All of these processes will require energy, especially if gears are being mass-produced at such a high rate. Obstacles occur during the process of constructing the gears, one example is when metal is being cut for the gears, the excess metal and cooling agent become difficult to handle and dispose of. The metal would be difficult to recycle as it requires a lot of energy to reform it but the cooling agent is more dangerous to the environment as it could potentially contaminate the ground.  Another example is that pumping the cooling agent on the metal whilst it’s being machined does consume more power than other systems meaning energy could be easily wasted. The finishing processes such as heat treatment, powder metallurgy, and trimming does consume lots of energy as well due to there being maintenance performed on it regularly making it more challenging to recycle, the situation is that gears have to made to a good standard therefore lots of finishing processes must be used in order to achieve this quality therefore showing that large amounts of energy is used up to produce gears of a high quality. Furthermore if these processes are being used constantly, the tool bits are going to be worn out quickly therefore more has to be produced in order to replace it or it has to be taken to maintenance that would then repair it, both of these methods use up a lot of energy as well.

Solutions

One strategy that was implemented was to use an environmentally friendly cooling agent that couldn’t potentially endanger the environment, make it less likely for workers to injure themselves on wet excess metal, and overall would mean less waste disposal due to the fact that it would also be used to a minimum to ensure that coolant wouldn’t be used negating the need for more coolant/ energy to be produced.

The second scheme was to use advanced manufacturing processes for the gears, the process used was called gear rolling, and this process was flat rolling the gear at a cold temperature (the temperature is when the metal is below its recrystallization temperature), that move in opposite directions and then rolling dies make the teeth using compressive forces. This would consequently increase its compressive strength thus allowing for finishing processes such as heat treatment to not be used allowing for energy to be saved, the process is more sustainable due to it removing the need for forming and additive processes to be used, another factor is that tool bits are used less frequently meaning they do not need to be repaired/ replaced as frequently.  This process gives the added benefit of improved performance meaning that they are less likely to wear once produced therefore this reduces the amount of gears needed to be made as they last longer in machines because they will not need to be maintained as regularly.

A machining method that was introduced to reduce the amount of energy used to pump coolant as well as using multiple machining methods, that process is Wire Electric Discharge Machining and the process is done by using a wire that feeds through the gears and cuts the material so accurately that it makes processes such as milling and extrusion unneeded due to it being so precise. Instead of coolant being pumped into the system, deionised water is used as a dielectric to protect the metal from being damaged overall being an efficient process that is very economical. Since it is a process that can be reused easily, the process can make the gears on a mass scale whilst giving it a nice surface finish which helps reduce the overall amount of methods required to give the gears the quality required for it to be sold.

Finally, the hob tool that is used in dry hobbing (the process that is responsible for gear cutting and creating the teeth) undergoes surface treatment in the form of coating in order to extend its use. The hob tool is coated in a Titanium doped Aluminium-Chromium-Nitrate coating. This improves the tool tremendously as it will not wear out easily making it last a long time before being replaced. Despite being more expensive, the hob tool (5) performs better as it can be recoated if it begins to wear making it cheaper than replacing the tool itself.  The tool then becomes more reliable to use as the coating can cut material at a low rpm making it efficient as other hob tools that does not undergo this treatment will break quicker. Hob tools that are coated are sustainable because although it takes energy to coat it, more energy and material is used to produce new hob tools.

Case Study 2

Sustainable Methods for Injection Moulding

The Problem

(5) Injection moulding is a very common process that is done to help produce polymers such as ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene); this process involves granular plastic being fed into a hopper where it travels down the barrel by it being pushed by the screw also heating the plastic causing it to melt and fit into the mould where it cools and forms a new shape, it is then ejected from the mould. (3) Injection Moulding is used widely throughout many industries as it can be used for thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics. However it will require finishing processes to improve the overall quality of the product as shrinkage or warp marks are capable of ruining the surface of the material. This means that more energy is produced for these finishing processes. The process uses energy heat up the barrel and melts the granular plastic therefore showing that the process can be improved to be more sustainable. (6) During the moulding process, different polymers have different melting points meaning that the shrinkage is different for materials and increase the likelihood of warpage. This means that if products are being ruined as they cannot use product that have low quality, they may have to be thrown away wasting material/energy or remoulded which again uses up energy. Finally if the injection pressure is not right for the material to mould, it will mean that production will have to be delayed in order to achieve the pressure needed, making it a waste in energy as well as time.

Solutions

Selecting certain materials is important because when they warp, they warp towards the gate therefore selecting materials with similar properties (melting points) help prevent any possible warpages that could occur.The barrel does not have to be heated to different temperatures meaning that energy does not have to be wasted by having to heat polymers that have a high melting point, another reason energy is conserved is that warpages are less likely to occur as there is less change is the crystalline structure making it difficult to change its shape from the mould. Therefore meaning fewer products need to be thrown away/reused saving energy and fewer materials are wasted. By choosing specific materials with similar properties you are capable of using materials that require a smaller injection pressure thus requiring less energy to reach that pressure. Being able to remove warpages makes some finishing processes for polymers unneeded as material does not have to be removed and surfaces will be within tolerance of its specified dimensions.

(7) The use of lean manufacturing tools helps improve the injection moulding process by reducing the total amount of wastage produced by the injection moulding process by identifying possible defects and then using lean manufacturing techniques to fix the defects, an example of this is using the Kanban Pull System which works by taking all the orders from clients and customers and controlling the amount by ensuring that there aren’t too many customers that have been taken on causing an increase in the production line leading to more emissions being produced and a higher energy demand.

 

Tackling climate change

Adequate water supply is defined as the provision of sufficient amount of water by public, private organisations or by individuals. An environmental challenge is a process of achieving a goal of environmental sustainability due to the problems that prevent overcoming obstacles. Climate change is a long-term change in the Earth’s climate, especially a change due to an increase in the average atmospheric temperature. The adaptation to this kind of change can be long and difficult. This essay will explore the methods of solving different environmental issues and will compare them.

Lesotho Highland Project is one of the successful problem solving systems. Project involves the building of dams, tunnels and power stations. It has started in 1980s and its main goal was to transfer water to Gauteng province for mining industry. The project also helps to earn money and generate hydroelectric power for Lesotho, although a lot of corruption cases occurred during the realisation of it (individuals and multinational corporations involved). Many social problems occurred due to the project, which involved the movement of people from the area of the dam and the default of a pay to hundreds of households affected by the building. When the critical shortage of water occurs in the region of Maseru (the capital of Lesotho), it is the Highland Project which transfers the water. The project is beneficial both for the government, since they get the revenue, and the citizens, as they get clean water. Another benefit of the Highland Project is the creation of infrastructure such as hundreds of kilometres of roads built to improve the communication between building sites. Today they are used by Lesotho’s citizens and tourists to travel within the country.

Large dual-function plants are built not in many places yet, but they are considered to be one of the solutions to the problem of adequate supply of water. Saudi Arabia has 27 desalinisation plants around the country in total, which costed a lot of money. Today the largest dual-function plant is located in Saudi-Arabia and costs around US$ 6 trillion(!). The annual production capacity of the project is 1.025 million m3 of desalinated water and 2.400MW of electricity. The project is very beneficial for the consumers, since they get drinkable water of hight quality, which is produced in there own country, so they do not need to pay more for the product to be transferred. On the other side, the project needs a lot of energy, land and, of course, capita to clean relatively small amount of water. There is also the risk of contamination of water, pollution of the environment by the chemicals emitted, which contribute to the greenhouse effect.

Climate change can bring different outcomes: it can be drought, sea-level rise, extreme temperatures or enormous floods. Many countries has already introduced environmental policies in order to adapt to a climate change. The most common effect of the process is the rise of sea-level, since it could be applied to many countries. In 2006 flows regulators in coastal embankments were built in Bangladesh, and due to the saltwater intrusion a lot of agronomic devices were replaced by low-technological. The country decided to tackle the problem of climate change and find a cheap and fast ways to solve it. The latest project, which begun in 2013, has a budget of US$ 400 million. It is still in progress until 2020, but people are working on it to achieve the goal of minimisation of climate change’s negative impacts.

Another way to tackle the problem of climate change is to cooperate with other countries in order to find a better solution. Kyoto Protocol was created in 1998 and enforced in 2005; it explained the need of a burden for the countries responsible for the high emission of greenhouse gasses due to the industrialisation. Protocol’s aim was to reduce the emission of those gases. Its principle was “common but differentiated responsibilities”, which highlights the idea of unity but also differences between the countries. Another example of good cooperation between countries is The Paris Agreement, which was created very recently, in 2015. Its main aim is to decrease the global temperature and prevent it from rising above 1.5 degrees Celsius. 128 countries have signed the agreement and hope to achieve the best in the further years.

In a conclusion, I would like to say that adapting to climate change is reasonably easier than ensuring adequate water supplies. As the research shows, it takes a lot more capita to supply clean water to different regions than to install new devises or change the methods of cultivation. Some countries simply do not have money to build infrastructure and plants to supply water. Both processes take time, but nothing can be done immediately, since a lot of work is needed. It is hard to say which one is more of a challenge than the other according to the results, since there are lot more cases of solving the problem of water supply and climate change.

Should copper mining continue in the Philippines?: college essay help online

Introduction

Although copper is one of the most common metals on Earth, its supply and demand has increased majorly in the past 25 years due its usefulness in a wide range of areasq (geology.com, 2014). Due to this, the Philippines, which contains a significant amount of copper deposits, has been increasing its supplies and exports of copper to the rest the world, shown in the value of Philippines copper mining and production rising from 8.97 billion Pesos in 2010 to 9.74 billion in 2011 (industry.gov.ph, n.d.). However, multiple mining operations in the Philippines have not spent the money to take suitable safety precautions, such as in the 1996 Marcopper Mining Disaster (Rappler, 2017). This raises the question: should copper mining continue in the Philippines?

Findings

Copper has a vast many areas it can be used in that cause its demand to increase each year. Bell reporting for The Balance states that copper’s most common and perhaps most relevant use is its electrical capability, which is up to 65% of what it is used for. Copper is the most electrically conductive metal, second only the silver, and also easily works even with multiple power networks (The Balance, 2016). These properties make it a perfect candidate to utilise in the manufacturing of electrical generation and transmission, such as wires and transformers (geology.com, 2014). Due to its malleability while maintaining its strength, as well as its strong resistance against corrosion, it is also used frequently in construction, especially in heating systems and plumbing (The Balance, 2016). While in the future carbon nanotubes could rival copper in all of its electrical uses, at the moment, there are no other materials that could replace copper, rising its demand significantly (Assembly, 2016).

As a result, copper mining has increased in the Philippines in recent years, as they have taken advantage of their high supply of copper and, according to the Philippines government, they only plan on expanding in the future. The value of their copper mining continues ascending, and due to this, more Filipinos are given jobs, 7300 recently employed due to the industry (industry.gov.ph, n.d.). In 2011 alone, the Philippines gained 9.74 billion Pesos from their copper mining and production, showing their economy can only grow from investing in this mining (industry.gov.ph, n.d.).

The problem of the Philippines’ copper mining does not lie in the amount of mining, but rather the lack of safety precautions taken in their mining over the past 20 years (Rappler, 2008). In 24th of March 1996, the Marcopper Mining Disaster took place, and it had a devastating effect on multiple rural Filipino villages and waterways (Rappler, 2016). According to the Rappler, Marcopper had been in operation since the late 60s, dumping their mine tailings into nearby river. However, it was only in the 90s that the government had taken heed of the complaints of the Filipinos and ordered them to find another way of disposing of their waste or stop operations (Rappler, 2016). In response, Marcopper began to dump the waste into their old mine site, sealing off the old tunnels that led to streams of water that they claimed were used to “bring water into the pit” (Rappler, 2016). Over time, however, the pressure of the waste and the effects of a minor earthquake caused the 2-3 billion cubic metres of mine tailings to gush out of the sealed tunnel into the Boac river among others (Rappler, 2016). This completely contaminated the rivers, the village peoples’ livelihood as they depended completely on fishing and agriculture, and also caused flash floods on the villages that were located on the riverbanks (Rappler, 2016). 20 of the 60 villages alone the riverbanks had to be evacuated, and later the Boac River was officially declared dead (Rappler, 2016). This was all due to the fact that the design of the mine pit had “fundamental flaws” caused by a lack of budget (Rappler, 2016).

Although Rappler states that the government thereafter declared that it would only allow mining if deemed “responsible mining”, the times had not changed for two decades (Rappler, 2008). In 1999, a major accident occurred in Cebu with even more drastic effects than that of Marcopper, discolouring the ocean even 2 kilometres out (Rappler, 2008). Later in 2005, a disaster of similar proportions occurred in a copper among other metals mine on Rapu-Rapu Island, showing that after nine years the government still had not enforced proper mining procedures and precautions, in addition to lacking a monitoring of these mines (Rappler, 2017). As of 2008, ten of the 24 mining companies running “high-priority” operation were previously responsible for accidents and had even been investigated for pollution crimes, or had notices of violations against them from the Pollution Adjudication Board (Rappler, 2008).

However, with the rise of the most recent president of the Philippines, Rodrigo Duterte, environmentally friendly changes are being made to the face of Filipino mining (Reuters, 2016). Claiming that mining only accounts for 1% of the Filipino economy, he stated that the Philippines would survive without it (Reuters, 2016). In the past month, he closed down 23 mines that posed risk of ruining watersheds, and also cancelled 75 mining contracts for the future, one of which being a gold-copper mine worth $1.2 billion USD (inquirer.net, 2017). However well this is for the environment, this also puts miners out of work, affecting 1.2 million Filipinos, and causes a major loss of mining revenue, “something like 70 billion Pesos a year” (inquirer.net, 2017).

Conclusion

So, is copper mining really worth continuing in the Philippines? Continuing with the mining offers both social and economic benefits on the country, providing for 1.2 million Filipinos and bringing 70 billion Pesos to the economy each year, while ending it would lead to a definite end to environmental disaster (inquirer.net, 2008). However, could this not be done simply with safety precautions put in place and careful monitoring in mines instead? I believe that closing down mining altogether would have too much of a negative impact on the people of the Philippines to even consider

Providing a safe working environment at a community hospital (case study)

The case study is about a medical institution that has failed to provide safety to  its medical staff, patients, and visitors. By the institution not providing safety and protection to medical staff, patients and its relatives, there is a high risk that individuals might get hurt or hurt others. The lack of management control can be extremely costly to the facility. Lack of management can also lead to stressful situation and other  problems to  associates. Managers play many roles in an organization, however;  one of the most critical roles that they need to engage is controlling. Controlling guarantee work regulations and discipline while it allows to get the things done in a manner which is expected . In this case study, management team has forgotten that safety comes first. The case also talks about the lack of security that the hospital is facing. Because of  lack of security, a nurse was chased by a patient.

The management team along with the administration of the center are either contributing with the safety of its employees nor with patients. Furthermore, they are violating the employee’s right to be safe because they are not providing a safe work environment. Because of the high risk that medical staff might encounter when working with patients with behavioral disorders,  managers should  implement a security guard who will be walking around the facility every hour or so. In addition, it is recommended that a security camera system is installed in the facility in order to better monitor patients and medical staff. The management team should set high priorities when it comes to safety in general. One of the main goals of managers is to ensure employees are motivated to work and I believe that with such unsafe work environment employees of Greenville Community Hospital (GCH) are not motivated to keep working there.

If Rosemary had been injured, the administration of the hospital had been blamed for this. The reason I say this is because they are responsible for providing a safety work environment for all employees. In addition, patients with secondary drug abuse issues were being place in a non-secure unit. The situation of Rosemary being chased by the boyfriend of a patient could have been avoided if this type of patients had been remitted to their respective room with a high security system.  This also had to do with the rooms assigned for those patients were relatively expensive and overbooked. If the visitor  had attacked another patient then the hospital would have faced serious problems not only because they are not providing a safe work environment to its employees but also because they are not protecting its patients. According to the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 employers are required to provide a safe and healthy place of environment (Niles 2013, pg 37). Therefore, GCH is entitled and must provide a safe environment to its employees, patients, and visitors. In addition, healthcare providers have the responsibility to assure all medical staff are treated fairly and with dignity (Buchbinder and Shanks 2012, pg 433). In this particular case, based on ethical standards GCH has the ethical obligation to make the right  choice and protect all individuals in the organization. In addition, it would be a great idea that the hospital put in practice the principle of nonmaleficence which means “to do no harm” (Morrison & Furlong 2104, pg 47). Putting in action this principle, the CGH will be avoiding some of the issues that are already facing. To do no harm not only means physical harms. For instance, not taking the correct security measurements to protect its employees and patients is a way of causing harm.

The design of a mental health facility is a crucial factor of patient care. The design of the facility influences how services are provided and the effectiveness of care delivered. (“Mental Health Design Guide,” 2010 ) Most importantly, the design of the facility influences the beliefs, expectations and perceptions patients have about themselves, the services received, and the medical staff taking care of them. In addition, the design can also impact the beliefs and behaviors of the medical staff and how they interact with patients and the environment. Since the main focus of the facility should be the safety of patients, healing and safe environments can be designed. Moreover, a familiar, warm and welcoming environment very often help patients to enhance their connection to their surrounding (“Mental Health Design Guide,” 2010). A significant component of patient safety is patient engagement. Once  patients feel connected with medical staff, they are more likely to look for these people in moments of anxiety, which can avoid a personal crisis. Therefore, it is critical that the environmental design of these patients promotes staff interaction and discourage isolation.

The cost of installing a panic alarm in patient’s rooms, nurses’ stations or safe rooms is going to cost less money than not taking the necessary measurements and letting a patient hurt a medical staff or another patient. Even though the installation of such alarm may have cost  money to the hospital, I believe is worth it because this is a way to prevent someone from getting hurt. If the hospital would have taken this alarm into consideration before the incident happened, then perhaps Rosemary did not have to run , instead she would have gotten help from the security staff. Having some secure rooms where only medical staff had access, would allowed Rosemary to hide in there instead of being chased and running for her life.

The fact that medical staff is working with patients with such behavior as described in the case study, there should be more security implemented in the hospital  and it is urgent to create an action plan in case an emergency occurred. Therefore, managers should be willing to use a sequence of ever-changing mechanisms and techniques to meet employee’s need (Richards-Gustafson, 2011). In order to protect employees, managers should create a safety training where employees use knowledge of their environment to comprehend issues are putting people in dangerous situations. For instance, employees should receive a training in regards of different types of code that hospital uses whenever there is a fire,  bomb threat or hostage situation. By doing this, all employees know what actions are required in regards of the information received and can use it in their advantage. Using a common terminology allows emergency management/response personnel to clearly and effectively communicate with each other.

In conclusion, it is crucial that the management team takes into consideration the importance of providing a safe work environment to patients, visitors and employees. By improving the security of the hospital, patients will feel more secure and medical staff will not be thinking about be on danger or wanting to quit their job. Controlling has a great value and significance in an organization. Therefore, it must be used by managers to support the organization in reaching its goals and objectives.  An effective control system can lead the organization to succeed and attain reasonable development. Therefore, an immediate reflection is needed to be made by the administration of the Greenville Community Hospital in order to comply with safety work environment that ought to be provided to employees, patients and visitors.

Sustainable development for India’s future: essay help free

Abstract

In recent times, two major international endorsements of elements of sustainable development the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), has recognized universal access to sustainable energy as an important goal. Addressing climate change requires a good understanding as well as coordinated action at national and international level. In India, with a population of 1000 billion people, it is estimated that a mere 44% of the households have access to electricity. The choices that the country makes towards energizing the remaining population will have a significant impact on other Sustainable Development parameters such as agriculture, health, water and even biodiversity. India has set itself a target, going beyond the MDGs, of energizing all households by year 2018.

This article talks about how endorsing sustainable development will lead to a better environment for India in the future.

Keywords: elements, climate, energizing, sustainable development

Introduction

Climate change is one of the most important global environmental challenges, with implications for food production, water supply, health, energy, etc. Historically, the responsibility of the greenhouse gas emissions’ increase lies largely with the industrialized world, though the developing countries are likely to be source of an increasing proportion for future emissions. The projected climate change under various scenarios is likely to have implications on food production, water supply, coastal settlements, forest ecosystems, health, energy, etc. The adaptive capacity of communities likely to be impacted by climate change is low in developing countries. The efforts made by the UNFCCC are clearly inadequate to address to the climate change challenge. The most effective way to address climate change is to adopt sustainable development pathway by shifting to environmentally sustainable development pathway by shifting to environmentally sustainable technologies and promotion of energy efficiency, renewable energy, forest conservation, reforestation, water conservation, etc. The issue of highest importance is the developing countries is to reduce the vulnerability they face from the climate change, and need to protect their socio-economic and natural systems in order to attain sustainable development. India and such other developing countries will face the challenges of mitigation promotion and adaptation of strategies and the bearing the cost for such an effort and it’s implication on the overall development.

Sustainable Development

Sustainable development, although a widely used phrase and idea, has many different meanings and therefore provokes many different responses. In broad terms, the concept of sustainable development is an attempt to combine growing concerns about a range of environmental issues with socio-economic issues. Sustainable development has the potential to address fundamental challenges for humanity, now and into the future. There needs to be more clarity in the meaning of sustainability, concentrating on sustainable livelihoods and well-being rather than well-having and long term environmental sustainability, which requires a strong basis in principles that link the social and environmental to human equity.

India is a large developing country with nearly 700 million rural population, directly depending on climate-sensitive sectors (such as water, biodiversity, mangrove, coastal zones, grasslands) for their subsistence and livelihoods. Further, the adaptive capacity of dry land farmers, forest dwellers, fisher folk, and nomadic shepherds is very low. Climate change is likely to impact all the natural ecosystmes as well as socio-economic systems as shown by the National Communications Report of India to the UNFCCC.

The latest high resolution climate change scenarios and projections for India, based on Regional Climate Modelling system, known as PRECIS developed by Hadley Center and applied for India using IPCC scenarios A2 and B2 shows the following research:

• There is an annual rise is the mean surface temperature ranging fron 3 to 5 degrees under A2 scenario and 2.5 to 4 degrees under B2 scenario, with warming more pronounced in the northern parts of India.

• There will be a 20% rise in all India summer monsoon rainfall and further rise in rainfall is projected over all states except Punjab, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu, which have shown a slight decrease.

• Extremes in maximum and minimum temperatures are also expected to increase and similarly extreme rainfall also shows a substantial increase particularly over the west coast of India and west central India.

Sustainable development basically means to use resources with the future generation in mind. To use in such a way that the forthcoming individuals have what we have, that is, saving what we can for the future. The Supreme Court in the Narmada Bachao Andolan v. Union of India case stated that “Sustainable development means what type or extent of development can take place, which can be sustained by nature/ecology with or without mitigation.”

Environmental scholars in recent times have put a lot of stress over sustainable development as preservation of the environment needs to be done with utmost urgency as time is running out. The forthcoming generations might not have even half of what we possess right now, so preservation and controlled usage must be our prime concern right now.

Preservation cannot be done without innovation in the way we use the resources. The need for development in the way of consumption is required to minimise inputs and maximise output and hence raise efficiency. The use of Biofuel, Hybrid Technology, Energy from Waste, etc. needs proper funding and attention. In India the use of CNG in public transport must be appreciated. The need to make use of resources which have more by-products and their uses help in cutting down use of non-renewable resources. Jatropha seeds in India are one of the major sources of fuel as a by-product. These seeds are very rich in oil concentration, nearly 40%. The cultivation and processing of Jatropha seeds in India is one of the major centres of Bio-Diesel or Bio-Fuel.

The use of Bio-Fuel puts forth the dilemma of Food v. Fuel. Food v. Fuel basically is the conflict over the use of agricultural land for the production of Bio-fuel and not food, but is very important to set our goals straight that whether we want food for us or resources for everyone even in the future as Fossil Fuels will run out in little time, but we can always cultivate food for all without risking food if we make proper use of land.

Climate Change and Sustainable Development

Sustainable development has become an integrating concept embracing economic, social and environmental issues. Sustainable development does not preclude the use of exhaustible natural resources but requires that any use be appropriately offset. This concept is not acceptable to many developing countries since it seems to disregard their aspirations for growth and development. Further, sustainable development cannot be achieved without significant economic growth in the developing countries.

However, there is a growing evidence to show that environmental conservation for sustainability of natural resources is not a luxury but a necessity when considering long term economic growth and development, particularly in the least developed countries. The decline and degradation of natural resources such as land, soil, forests, biodiversity and groundwater, resulting from current unsustainable use patterns are likely to be aggravated due to climate change in the next 25 to 50 years. The developing countries apart from India, in the regions of Africa, South Asia and Latin America are already experiencing severe land degradation and freshwater scarcity problems.

There are several ways of pursuing sustainable development and few examples may be listed below:

• Adoption of cost-effective energy-efficient technologies in electricity generation, transmission distribution, and end-use can reduce costs and local pollution in addition to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

• Shift to renewables, some of which are already cost effective, can enhance sustainable energy supply, can reduce local pollution and greenhouse and gas emission.

• Adoption of forest conservation, reforestation, afforestation and sustainable forest management practices can contribute to conservation of biodiversity, watershed protection, rural employment generation, increased incomes to forest dwellers and carbon sink enhancement.

• Efficient, fast and reliable public transport systems such as metro railways can reduce urban congestion, local pollution and green-house gas emissions.

• Adoption of participatory, approach to forest management, rural energy, irrigation water management and rural development in general can promote sustained development in general can promote sustained development activities and ensure long-term greenhouse gas emission reduction or carbon sink enhancement.

• Rational energy pricing based on a long run marginal cost principle can level the playing field for renewables, increase the spread of energy-efficient and renewable-energy technologies and the economic viability of utility companies, ultimately leading to greenhouse gas emission reduction.

The ability to adapt to climate change is intertwined with sustainable development and poverty reduction in both a positive and negative sense. In the positive sense, enhancement of adaptive capacity entails a variety of similar actions to sustainable development and poverty reduction. On the negative side, sustainable development and poverty reduction can be hampered by the impacts of climate change. Furthermore, some sustainable development activities could make countries more susceptible to climate change. Some climate policy-makers and development policymakers have supported the need to ‘mainstream adaptation’- where adaptation responses are considered and integrated into sustainable development and poverty reduction processes.

Conclusion

India is a large developing country with nearly two-thirds of the population depending directly on the climate sensitive sectors such as agriculture, fisheries and forests. The projected climate change under various scenarios is likely to have implications on food production, water supply and biodiversity and livelihoods. Therefore, India has a significant stake in scientific advancement as well as improving legislations to have an international understanding to promote adaptation. Hence, to have an effective future surrounding sustainable development, India needs to formulate more effective laws and also have an effective technological advancement.

Encephalization and Cognitive Evolution Among Early to Mid-Pleistocene Hominins: essay help online free

Abstract

Within the last 2 million years changes in hominin and early human brain size have become more frequent along with the advancement of cognitive abilities. Many researchers believe that encephalization, or “the evolutionary increase in the relative size of the brain” and cognitive development in early to mid-Pleistocene Homo may be closely related; arguing that as the brain became larger, more cognitive abilities developed. Despite believing this, researchers are unsure if the changes in brain size and newly developed cognitive abilities are a result of surrounding environmental pressures, or if they were evolutionarily inevitable. It can be theorized that these changes are a form of environmental adaptations that allowed early to mid-Pleistocene hominins to survive in their new environments. However, it can also be argued that as hominins experienced changes in body mass and size, encephalization, would have occurred in proportion to these physical changes. Consequently, it is unknown whether these two factors contributed jointly or separately to changes in brain size and the increase of cognitive abilities. This paper will discuss both factors in relation to encephalization and the progression of cognitive abilities amongst early to mid-Pleistoene hominins, and early humans, and will review various environmental conditions that may have been drivers for encephalization and cognitive evolution.

Introduction

Historically, brain size evolution or encephalization can be identified among early to Mid-Pleistocene hominins can be identified through changes in fossil cranial capacity. Early hominin Australopithecines were known to have a cranial capacity that was a bit larger than apes (Shultz, Nelson, and Dunbar 2130).  And The first sign of major brain size evolution was evident within the Homo clade, allowing researchers to hypothesize trends of changes in brain size for Homo (Rightmire 110). For about four million to three million years there were no major changes in average brain size, but around about 2 mya to 1.8 mya anthropologists began to see an evolution of brain size or encephalization. Evidence of a major increase in brain size was discovered in the specimen Homo erectus, displaying an increased cranial capacity compared to its predecessors. Encephalization was not a quick process, but instead was experienced over periods of accelerated brain size increase and periods of stasis (McHenry 161-162).  The sudden increase in brain size after three million years has been questioned by researchers, who have tried to determine the reasoning behind this evolutionary choice. As encephalization progressed, hominins gained an increase in cognitive abilities, that lead to the development of new social, innovational, spatial, linguistic practices. The process of encephalization was very expensive for early to mid-Pleistocene hominins, requiring more energy for brain growth and usage than other organs. Some researchers hypothesize that there may have been a long-term evolutionary benefit that outweighed the costs of expending a large amount of physical energy on brain development. The evolutionary mechanisms that triggered an increase in brain size are unknown, but there are two arguments that have been heavily debated. The first argument suggests that encephalization was influenced by a series of environmental factors that acted as drivers for encephalization, while the counterargument claims that encephalization was change proportionately to an increase body mass and size. Encephalization, or “the evolutionary increase in the relative size of the brain”, in relation to the advancement of cognitive abilities, can be attributed various environmental drivers, and physical changes in body mass and size among early to mid- Pleistocene hominins as they evolved and migrated from Africa to Asia and Europe.

TIMELINE AND PROCESS OF ENCEPHALIZATION

To understand the timeline and process of encephalization, a brief background on hominin brain evolution must be reviewed. In the early Homo species, which includes Homo habilis and Homo ergaster, one begins to see the beginnings of Homo encephalization, increasing from 497 cm3 to 600-700 cm3 (McMillen 2014). Subsequently, in the later Homo species, changes in brain size can be observed within Homo erectus and Homo sapiens. As previously stated, the biggest change in encephalization occurred about 1.8 mya with the appearance of Homo erectus within the fossil record. Hominin brain size increased to about 900 to 1000 cm3 from the previous size of 600 to 700 cm3 (Stiedter, 2005). With the major expansion in brain size came an increase in body mass, and it is believed that body mass relatively increased with brain size. The body mass had to increase, so that the body could support a larger brain that required more energy. Homo erectus had evolved to store larger amounts of fat to meet the metabolic requirements needed for encephalization (Leonard et al., 2003). The First Modern Homo sapiens increased to an overall size of 1200 to 1400 cm3, which is resembled the size of modern human brain.

Tempo of evolution is defined by short rapid changes, followed by long periods of stasis. These temporal changes may have been a gradual and continuous process, or a series of short bursts, with periods of delay between them. Due to the tempo of brain evolution, selective pressures may have been driven by “long term low-level directional selection”, however not much is known on the tempo of brain evolution. However, there is an issue with clearly defining the temporal timeline of encephalization (Shultz ,2132). Susanne Shultz argues that if encephalization was a “single, gradual process”, then it should be an increasing trend with brain size increasing each year. And, if brain size was triggered by a “series of punctuated events”, there should be period of fast growth then none, and if encephalization is a result of speciation events, then it should have been recorded as flat lines between several speciation events (2132). Tracking encephalization amongst early to mid-Pleistocene hominins began with Shultz et. al, researching temporal encephalization changes across all hominins (Shultz et. al, 2133). All hominins were broken down into four super species, including Australopithecus spp. and Homo habilis; H. erectus, which included both H. erectus and H.ergaster; H. sapiens, including H. sapiens, H. heidelbergensis and Homo neanderthalensis. The last group Shultz chose to classify and break down was H. sapiens into anatomically modern humans. Within these four super species, temporal changes were categorized as step changes, instead of previously suggested single, gradual processes (2133). The first step changes can be attributed to the appearance of H. habilis and H. erectus sensu lato, who both appeared around 1.9 mya and 1.8 Mya, and the second step changes coincides with anatomically modern humans at about 195 kya. The biggest and most drastic step change was seen with Early H. erectus sensu lato, but it may have been attributed to a change in body size (2133).  Although, there was much debate on temporal fluctuations of encephalization, Shultz et. al’s research provides evidence that the tempo of encephalization was instead a series of established step changes that have two major changes in brain size, eventually with two more major changes in brain size with a period of stasis in between.

BODY MASS & ENCEPHALIZATION

To determine the relationship between body mass and encephalization in Pleistocene Homo, one must look at the fossil remains of a range in body mass fluctuations over a series of individuals ranging from early Homo to late archaic H. sapiens. The body mass of Pleistocene Homo as averaged at about 10% larger than living humans (Ruff, Trinkaus, Holliday 173; 1997). According to Ruff, the major increase in encephalization within Homo occurred in the Middle Pleistocene 600 -150 kya and was immediately followed by a long period of stasis.

PRIME MOVERS FOR ENCEPHALIZATON

Majority of hominin species originated from East Africa and migrated into Eurasia after about two million years, and around 1.8 and 1.9 Mya Homo sensu stricto appeared with a new species called Paranthropus genera, marking the largest amount of hominin diversity at the time (Shultz, Maslin 1). During the same period, Homo erectus sensu lato experienced an increase in brain size, developing a brain that was 80% larger than the gracile Australopithecines and 40% larger than Homo habilis at the time. Homo erectus’ brain size averaged at about 900 cc, and late Homo erectus evolving to 1,100 cc (Rightmire 223-224; Donald 113; ). It was unknown as to why these major changes in encephalization had occurred after about 2 million years, so researchers began to hypothesize a series of environmental pressures that may have forced Homo erectus sensu lato to develop larger brain sizes (1). The environmental drivers are all interrelated, and caused what could be considered a series of triggers leading to changes in habitat, diet, social and linguistic, etc. for early Homo.

One of the first major environmental drivers that could have forced increases in encephalization is climatic fluctuations. Climatic fluctuations began in the East Africa with a theory called the savannah hypothesis, was increased aridity due to constant cooling and drying, causing the expansion of the savannah overtime (1; 2131). The variability selection hypothesis, states that in environments that experience unpredictable patterns of climate changes, often selects for “behavioral and ecological flexibility (1). Overtime, this forced hominins to move into novel habitats and alter their use of resources because these fluctuations created a dynamic and inconsistent habitat use (2131). Climatic pulses, such as the East African Rift system, introduced a series of selective environmental pulses, according to Shultz, drove a speciation and hominin future dispersal events. When trying to identify missing pieces within the fossil record that could provide evidence of brain expansion, The East African Rift system’s Rift lakes can be a climate indictor that can identify climatic fluctuations (Shultz). Hominin brain expansion coincided with deep water lakes, while following expansions coincided with extreme periods. The aridity of this environment can provide fossil evidence for speciation occurrences within the East African climate.

Due to the unpredictable climate, adaptive behavior was favored, which was flexibility and innovation in habitat, resource or space usage. Overtime a correlation between environmental variance and hominin brain size overtime became obvious (Shultz 2132). Consequently, hominins had to develop the cognitive ability to have a broad, flexible diet within a mosaic habitat and to develop tools to math their constantly changing environment, to maximize their chances of survival. The changes in savannah climate forced many hominins to move to wide open habitats, and increases their risk of predation (2132). Species such as, Homo erectus and Homo ergaster, were forced into open habitats as they lost many of the vegetation heavy refuges. Due to their small, predation was an issue for Australopithecines, stature, often being attacked by carnivores and raptors. It can be argues that as an adaptation their new environment and the risk of predation, H. erectus and H. ergaster developed a larger brain size and the cognitive ability to create defense strategies or escape plans (2132). Often predators preferred smaller brained prey, due to their ability to not be able to learn from constant predator attacks. A larger brain capacity would allow hominins to learn from previous predator attacks and prepare themselves accordingly. As a result of this selective pressure, hominins would have developed the ability to think and plan ahead, which is not an ability others share. Predation could possibly be a major factor in brain size development.

♣ Late Pliocene archaeological record (evidence)

♣ Lecture climatic fluctuations (FORAMS)

BIOLOGICAL/ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

There were changes in Earth temperature from about 5.0 to 3.2 mya , and after a few years, the Earth entered a cooling phase (Naya, Naya, Lessa 2015).  Another climatic hypothesis is the theory that due to decreases in Earth temperature lead to an increase in thermoregulatory costs (Naya, Naya, Lessa 2015). These fluctuations in temperature forced the brain to allocate energy to the brain to maintain a balanced temperature for the early human brain and body. The decrease in Earth temperature served as an evolutionary driver for the evolution of an “expanded, heat-generating brain”. It is implied from this hypothesis that the decrease in Earth temperature was a driver for brain enlargement, or it could have possible been a negative selective pressure, with the brain returning to its normal state, causing a change in costs of maintenance. Naya proposes two scenarios, one that focuses on a correlation between Earth temperature and brain costs, and the second, temperature causes other prime movers or drivers to influence encephalization. In order for the brain to maintain a safe temperature, during rises or decreases in temperature, the brain experiences fluctuations in energy usage. With the encephalization or expansion of brain size came other physical adaptations, such as “replacing body hair with a layer of fat that permits an efficient heat loss by sweating, and the retention of hair on the head, which protects the surface of the body from solar radiation at midday and reduces amount of heat that meets the head.

CULTURAL/COGNTIVE IMPLICATIONS

An increase in encephalization with the combination of environmental pressures leads to the innovation of new forms of technologies and subsistence patterns. This is can be observed in the practice of hunting and tool-making among Australopithecus and H. erectus. Hunting and tool making can be hypothesized as an indirect cognitive ability developed as a result of encephalization. It widely known that hunting was a selective pressure obtained during human evolution that allowed early humans to properly use their resources on their changing landscape. Dean Falk states that H. erectus could carry out hunting parties with groups of “tool-bearing males”, who operated away from their homebase (Falk 103; 1980). G.S. Krantz who is mentioned by Falk, theorized “persistence hunting” as the prime mover of brain evolution for Australopithecus and H.erectus (Krantz 1968). For early hominins to organize a successful hunting group, it requires hunters to be able to retain a form of long term memory because hunters would need to keep the hunting task on their mind for at least several days (Falk 1980). Increase in brain size or previous encephalization can assist in improved memory, leading to more successful hunting trips and more food, and eventually better chances of survival. As time progresses, large brain sizes are favored over smaller brains. Accordingly, both hominins could create new hunting strategies overtime allowing them to successfully utilize their landscape and resources.

Tool manufacturing increased immediately with the expansion of Homo erectus’ brain. Some of the Early H.erectus’ tools are associated with Oldowan-type stone tools, but the majority along with a sophisticated toolkit that is later on identified with the Acheulian culture (Donald 113). The Acheulian tools can be classified into two or three categories with varying degrees of detail and specialization. Also, One of the later Homo erectus sites, in Choukoutien, China where various tools were found, archaeologists also found various forms of continuous fire usage that occurred about 400 kya (Donald 113-114). It can be hypothesized that due to Homo erectus’ increased encephalization they were able to be well-organized groups of individuals, who had the cognitive ability to cook, manufacture tools, hunt, transmit skills, and have a small-scale form of culture.

Another indirect result of encephalization or increases in brain size, and environmental pressures is the development of sociality. Aiello and Dunbar, argue for a strong correlation between group size and brain size, using anthropoid primates as a comparison. To decrease their risk of being attacked by predators in their new open environment, most primates will increase their group size because smaller groups tend to suffer from large amounts of predators (Shultz 2132). This hypothesis was used to estimate the average social group size for hominin species, however the correlation between brain size and group size are not strictly correlated. Increasing their ability to live safely in large group sizes, early hominins had to develop the cognitive capacity to be able to coordinate themselves within a social environment. Hominins had to develop the ability to empathize, resolve conflict, cooperate, negotiate, implement perspective taking and theory of mind (Shultz 2133). Living within a social environment one can argue that the demands of language needs may have drove hominin brain evolution. Hominin brains needed create a form of communication, so they could effectively communicate within a large social group. Consequently, this may have led to the creation of a complex language.

Even though, there is much debate over which factors have selectively chosen for encephalization or increases in brain size in early to mid-Pleistocene hominins, it can be attributed to a series of factors that are both environmental and evolutionarily biological. It is the combination of these factors that have led to various derived selective behaviors, such a tool making, language creation, hunting, etc. that have proved that encephalization is not just a result of two separate occurrences, but instead an adaptation to changing environments and surroundings.  Encephalization, or “the evolutionary increase in the relative size of the brain”, in relation to the advancement of cognitive abilities, can be attributed various environmental drivers, and physical changes in body mass and size among early to mid- Pleistocene hominins.

Major depressive disorder (MDD)

Any given year, approximately 18.5% of adults in the United States, or 43.8 million people, will experience mental illness. This includes nearly 16 million adults in the United States who have suffered at least one episode of major depression in the past year. The World Health Organization estimates that worldwide, more than 300 million people suffer from some form of depression, making it the leading cause of disability in the world. Defined by the National Institute of Mental Health as a common but serious mood disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD) causes severe symptoms known to affect how a person thinks, feels, behaves, and functions in daily life. Several possible causes include genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Depression can be very difficult to diagnose and subtype due to its fluid nature and overlapping symptoms, as is the case with many mental illnesses. Nonetheless, mental health professionals have long tried to better define and understand depression’s subtypes in the hope that it would aid treatment efforts. Although it can be difficult to separate these different subtypes, clusters of symptoms have enabled the recognition of eight variations of major depressive disorder: postpartum, seasonal, catatonic, psychotic, anxious, mixed, melancholic, and atypical.

One of the most common subtypes of MDD, postpartum depression occurs in women after they give birth, and is believed to occur in approximately 15% of births (NIMH.gov). According to the DSM-V, the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association, symptoms must start within four weeks of giving birth in order for a major depressive episode to be considered postpartum depression. In the event symptoms begin during pregnancy, which is the case for roughly 50% of patients, the disorder is then referred to as “peripartum” depression (DSM-V). Significantly more severe than the usual “baby blues” that accompanies childbirth, postpartum depression poses serious challenges for new mothers, hampering their ability to care for themselves and their newborn. Commonly causing fatigue, insomnia, social withdrawal, and an irritable mood (all symptoms that most new mothers have mild forms of), patients may also fear that they are not good mothers and have difficulty bonding with their newborns. In severe cases, mothers may have thoughts of hurting themselves or their babies (mayoclinic.org). While there is no known specific cause for depression, the various subtypes are believed to have different causes. In the case of postpartum depression, while there is no single cause, it is very likely that the emotional and physical stress a pregnant woman experiences plays a role (mayoclinic.org).

Another widespread, relatively mild form of MDD is seasonal affective disorder, or SAD,  a recurring mood disorder related to the changes in seasons. Characterized by episodes of depression that recur annually at around the same time of year, SAD affects more than 3 million people in the United States per year (mayoclinic.org). While SAD is traditionally related to the fall and winter months, the Mayo Clinic notes that although less common, SAD can cause depression in the spring and early summer. Interestingly, while both fall-onset and spring-onset SAD may cause symptoms typical of major depression, they also each present their own unique symptoms. In the case of fall and winter depression, symptoms may resemble the traits of a hibernating animal, such as social withdrawal, weight gain, increased sleep, low energy, and irritability. This starkly contrasts with the symptoms specific to spring and summer depression, which include insomnia, weight loss, anxiety, and a poor appetite. As for potential causes, lower levels of natural sunlight in the fall and winter may disrupt the body’s circadian rhythm as well as decrease serotonin and melatonin levels, potentially triggering depression. For these reasons phototherapy, or light therapy, may be an effective treatment for fall-onset SAD (mayoclinic.org). However, patients can take solace in the fact that seasonal affective disorder is just that: seasonal. Although it returns annually, it does not last continuously, unlike the next form of depression.

Rather than a subtype of MDD, the most chronic form of depression is actually a mild mood disorder known as persistent depressive disorder, or dysthymia. When compared to the subtypes of MDD, the biggest distinctions between these two disorders are the duration and relative severity of their symptoms. While the symptoms of MDD occur in major depressive episodes that on average last six months, dysthymia is a chronic depression whose symptoms continuously last at least two years, with some cases lasting a lifetime (Lavid, DSM-V). At the same time, dysthymia’s symptoms are typically not as severe as those of MDD. Patients with dysthymia may exhibit more moderate forms of common MDD symptoms, such as a loss of interest in previously enjoyed activities and feelings of hopelessness, sadness, guilt, and personal inadequacy (mayoclinic.org). It is also worth noting that contrary to popular belief, depression (including both MDD and dysthymia) does not necessarily always cause sadness, but may instead cause extreme apathy or emptiness. However, depression is directly associated with sadness for a reason, and there are two forms in particular that while less prevalent, both have the potential to cause extremely severe symptoms.

Not limited to causing mental symptoms, major depressive disorder can also cause severe physical symptoms, as shown by the rare subtype known as catatonic depression. Characterized by causing disturbances in motor behavior, catatonia may also cause a marked decrease in reactivity to the environment, decreased engagement and reactivity, or excessive and peculiar physical activity. In addition, patients may maintain rigid or bizarre postures, and repeat stereotyped movements like staring and grimacing. Like in all disorders, symptoms range from severe to mild, with stupor and mutism, which cause a complete lack of physical and verbal responses to external stimuli, respectively, representing the severe end of the spectrum (mayoclinic.org, DSM-V).

Although slightly more common than catatonic depression, psychotic depression is by no means any less complex or severe. Having two distinct forms, mood-congruent and mood-incongruent, psychotic depression is characterized by the patient suffering delusions and hallucinations (DSM-V). Whether or not the themes of these delusions and hallucinations match their depressed mood are what define each subtype. The content of the hallucinations of patients with mood-congruent psychotic depression is always based on depressed themes, such as personal inadequacy, guilt, disease, death, and deserved punishment. On the other hand, the delusions of patients with mood-incongruent psychotic depression do not involve those typical depressed themes, although they may suffer from a mix of themes (DSM-V). Currently, the best treatment for psychotic depression may very well be electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), or electroshock therapy (Marano).

Depression with anxious distress is the most common subtype of MDD, with estimates that it makes up about 40% of all cases (Marano). Known for it’s difficulty to treat, patients are less likely to respond to treatment, resulting in a longer average recovery time. Combine this with a younger average age (20.6 years vs 28.4 for all patients), and it is easy to see why anxious depression can cause major problems in patients’ social, work, or school lives. It is also worth noting that about 40% of patients experienced symptoms of anxiety before they experienced depression (Marano). The symptoms of depression with anxious distress include the “presence of at least two of the following symptoms on the majority of days during an episode”: feeling keyed up or tense, feeling unusually restless, difficulty concentrating because of worry, a fear that something awful may happen, and a feeling and/or fear that the individual might lose control of themselves (DSM-V, mayoclinic.org). Although some of these symptoms may not seem to “fit” the typical idea of depression, this is not the only subtype to have such symptoms.

One of the more difficult subtypes to properly diagnose is mixed depression, or a mixed affective state, a form of depression that also presents symptoms of mania. Along with typical symptoms of MDD, the DSM-V states that at least three of the following symptoms are present nearly every day and during the majority of days of an episode: an elevated or expansive mood, an inflated self-esteem, being more talkative than usual or feeling a pressure to keep talking, a flight of ideas or the subjective experience that one’s thoughts are racing, an increase in energy or goal-directed activity (either socially, at work or school, or sexually), an increased or excessive involvement in activities that have a high potential for painful consequence, and a decreased need for sleep (feeling rested despite sleeping less than usual). The difficulty to properly diagnose mixed depression stems from the fact that symptoms may closely resemble bipolar disorder. In fact, if all symptoms of mania are met, that is most likely what the disorder is. Now down to the final two subtypes, these stand on their own in terms of their symptoms and natures.

Arguably the most severe subtype of depression is melancholic depression, believed to have a completely biological cause and the subtype of MDD most often resulting in patients being hospitalized (Kennard, Marano). Before going further, it is important to remember the difficulty faced in judging the severity of depression, especially when relying on a patients experiences. Although few mean to, most patients with depression believe they are doing worse than they actually are, at least relatively, because they don’t have a scale to base their judgement off of besides themselves.

Characterized by a near-complete absence of the ability to feel pleasure, the symptoms of melancholic depression are undoubtedly severe. While patients may be able to experience about 20% – 40% of happiness for short periods at a time, they almost always have extreme anhedonia (DSM-V, Black Dog Institute). In addition, the DSM-V states that patients have “three (or more) of the following” symptoms: a distinct quality of depressed mood characterized by profound despair or apathy, depression that is regularly worse in the morning, early-morning awakening (at least 2 hours before usual) or insomnia, marked psychomotor agitation or retardation, significant anorexia, weight loss, or lack of appetite, and excessive or inappropriate guilt, potentially caused by replaying the same thought or experience repeatedly.

Finally, there is atypical depression, an extremely common subtype and one whose nature defies most ideas of classical depression. Making up an estimated 23% to 36% of all cases of major depressive disorder, atypical depression is believed to affect 10 million people in the United States alone (Marano). Significantly more common in women than men, atypical depression also tends to have an earlier age of onset and be more chronic than the average case of depression (DSM-V).

Atypical depression, true to its name, has symptoms that do not match the conventional, classical view of depression that other subtypes, notably melancholic depression, fit so well. Rather, the defining feature of atypical depression is mood reactivity, or the capacity for a patient to be cheered up when presented with positive events. This means that a patient with atypical depression can actually feel better, if only for a short time. Compare this to melancholic depression, where a patient cannot feel sustained happiness (if they are even able to feel happiness at all), and the unique nature of atypical depression is revealed. In addition to the aforementioned mood reactivity, the DSM-V states that patients must have two (or more) of the following symptoms present during the majority of days of their MDD episode: significant weight gain or increase in appetite, hypersomnia (sleeping at least 10 hours a day), leaden paralysis (heavy, leaden feeling in arms or legs), and a long-standing pattern of interpersonal rejection sensitivity that results in significant social or occupational impairment.

Although the boundaries between subtypes can often be fuzzy and overlap, psychologists aim to define them in the goal of better treatment. However difficult it may be, and whether or not there is any practical benefit to it yet, by analyzing symptoms and treatment reactions, eight variations of major depressive disorder have been recognized. From the recurring seasonal affective disorder to the highs and lows of mixed depression, and from the depths of melancholic depression to the reactive nature of atypical depression, these variations help doctors better understand depression, and that will always help patients.

Youth Renu Skin Cream: essay help online free

Introduction

It is impossible to stop the aging of the human skin. It even makes no sense to have thoughts about it. It is a purely natural process that can only be managed and made to look better with the help of good beauty products. The process of skin aging can also be slowed and a healthy skin can be achieved even as age slowly winds down. The skin on a daily basis suffers exposure to harsh substances like smoke, UV rays, inflammation as well as other environmental components that have proved to be highly harmful to the skin. This means that rejuvenation of the skin as well as maintaining a healthy skin are important not just for values of beauty but also to provide the extra attention needed to treat the skin of these unhealthy effects of exposure. The conditions of wrinkles, sagging, fine lines as well as dryness and dark spots are some of the effects of increasing age which are not impossible to neutralize. This is what the Youth Renu Face Cream helps to do. It aids in getting rid of the tell-tale signs of aging on the skin.

The Youth Renu serum which has received FDA approval and safety certification, is made in GNP labs from purely natural and organic ingredients with absolutely no chemicals involved.  The cream helps to protect the skin from sunlight exposure and improves the glow and beauty that should characterize the skin.

Benefits of using this product

1. The product helps to increase the concentration of the all important skin component of collagen, boosting its presence in the skin to as much as 95%

2. It reduces dark circles concentration on the skin by 73%

3. It also reduces the presence of unpleasant facial wrinkles and fine lines by approximately 84%

4. It helps in skin rehydration

5. Also, it goes further to boost the production of collagen in the skin

6. When used, it also helps in reducing hyper-pigmentation

7. It is also a product of purely natural ingredients and is devoid of any side effects

8. It increases the regularity of oil release, thereby maintaining a control on its production

9. It contains caffeine which has been shown to shield the skin and protect it from UV rays of sunlight.

How it works

As a result of several external factors, the skin is usually exposed to uncomfortable distress and is most times in need of soothing. This is most particular for aging skin and this product contains the necessary ingredients to revive the beauty of such skin when used.

Youth Renu is generally a product of small molecules which are natural and contain no collagen that penetrates easily into the skin. These ingredients help to boost the skin’s production of oil, improves its elasticity and maintains the skin’s hydration status by making available needed moisture. This is done within the skin’s three compartments. The product also neutralizes and eradicates free radicals which have been accumulated in the skin from sunlight exposure, smoke and stress. This it does by way of its antioxidant ingredients. Of course, you surely know that free radicals constitute the major cause of aging of the human skin. Youth Renu distributes its ingredients among the three layers of the skin by making use of the Qusome delivery system.

Is it safe

The ingredients used in making this product are all natural and this means that it has minimal or zero side effects. There are no synthetic ingredients and this makes it suitable for most people who have sensitive skin. Having undergone testing by the FDA, the body released a study which showed that there no components of additives or chemicals in the serum. It rejuvenates the skin, grants it new glow and ensures its safety from harmful substances.

Ingredients used

Soy extracts

The skin requires protection from injuries, especially those of the free radical kind and soy extracts help in provide the needed protection. It has also been proven to aid skin stimulation by stimulating the regeneration of skin cells.

Green tea extracts

What these do is to reduce hyper-pigmentation which comes as a result of excessive smoking or prolonged exposure to sunlight. This then helps to lighten the skin. The extracts here are usually those which also contain antioxidants.

Chamomile

This ingredient usually contains antimicrobial elements which help in the prevention of infectious conditions that come as a result of the skin being weakened. It also soothes the skin by acting as an anti-inflammatory agent. Additionally, it has proved to be a stimulator of skin cells in the production of collagen which is a vital protein in the rejuvenation process.

Caffeine

This serves the dual purpose of protecting the skin from harsh UV rays of the sun which are usually harmful and providing needed energy and stimulation.

Coffeeberry

Provides the product with its rejuvenation properties

How to get this

There is currently an official online store for the Youth Renu Skin Cream and the serum can be accessed there in greater number. Only adults and persons who have registered on its page can access or own the product which can be ordered online. When you place your orders, the serum will be delivered to your doorstep. Also, the manufacturer warns against buying any of this product seen in medical stores as they are likely to be fake seeing that the product is generally not available in medical stores.

What action can we take to create sustainable life for future generations?

Humans have developed unhealthy behaviors due to the over consumption of resources and as a result, the environment is degrading. If the rate at which the environment is being destroyed continues, two Earths are needed by 2030 to support these lifestyles (The World Counts).

Nature is everywhere and it is the responsibility of human beings to protect the Earth and the resources it continuously provides. Humans must realize that they are causing the environmental problems and become aware of the current issues relating to the environment. It is endangered due to many threats from pollution to toxic contamination. Attempts must be made to prevent the problems from growing bigger and to ensure the lives of future generations. The environment can be improved by converting to renewable energy sources, altering policies of water bottle companies and constructing stronger landfill barriers. Although the biggest global matter is pollution, it can be reduced with the switch to renewable energy. Fossil fuel combustion and car exhaust from vehicles are the main pollutants. Fossil fuels, such as coal and natural gas, are used as energy sources in order to produce electricity and to run industries. Nevertheless, they release carbon dioxide that contributes to the rising amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Non-renewable sources also pollute water due to industrial waste, acid rain and oil spills. According to statistics Canada, the country’s primary energy sources are oil, natural gas and petroleum (Statistics Canada). Over the years, energy consumption has increased enormously as the human population rises and there will be even more greenhouse gas emissions. The solution is to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy sources. Wind, hydro and solar powers are better alternatives since they do not release greenhouse gases, thus improving the air and water quality of the environment. In addition, energy can be stored at the power plants for future use. Resources for fossil fuels are depleting because they are non-renewable and as a result, their costs will rise. Recently, the price for renewable energy sources has dropped significantly and is in fact, the same or cheaper than the price of fossil fuels. It costs $50 for wind and $100 for both solar and fossil fuels to generate the same amount of energy (The Independent).

Moreover, the installation of wind, hydro and solar powers is better in the long run since more money and work are required to operate and maintain fossil fuel power plants. Therefore, using renewable energy sources can reduce pollution. Secondly, water bottle companies are taking too much water from lakes and rivers across Canada, however, it can be limited if there is a change in policies. Companies, specifically Nestle, are essentially draining water from natural resources as a result of the large quantities that they take. In addition, they are continuing to pump water when there are droughts, which harms the environment even more. Nestle’s permit allows them to extract a total of 4.7 million litres of water everyday for a low cost of $3.71 per a million litres (Watercanada.net). Nearby communities are being affected by the actions of Nestle since their access to clean, drinkable water is reduced. The best solution in this situation is to modify the policies pertaining to water bottle companies. The amount of water that they are permitted to take each day needs to be reduced and the fees they have to pay in order to remove the water must be raised. As a result, the increased cost will cause water bottle companies to decrease the amount of water they drain and there will not be water shortages. The final issue is the contamination of the environment due to toxic substances, which can be resolved by constructing more secure landfills. When there are leaks in landfills, the toxins in the waste, such as mercury, are absorbed by the surrounding soil. They also enter water through ocean dumping or when rain carries the toxins into nearby bodies of water.

Consequently, the sea life is negatively affected since some materials, like plastic and styrofoam for example, are not biodegradable and animals may die from choking on plastic or from toxic poisoning (Clean Water Action). Thus, poor waste management leads to the suffering of living organisms and the environment. Currently, landfills are made with a clay liner at the bottom and a soil covering each day, but the clay can crack as it loses its moisture. This can be changed so that membranes, made of polyethylene and other organic materials, are put in place to separate waste from coming in contact with the environment (Handex Consulting and Remediation). Also, doubling the layers of membranes is a good idea in case of any accidents. Exposure to sunlight or chemicals will not provoke the liners to wear down over time, so they are safe to hold toxins. Furthermore, it is necessary to constantly monitor the groundwater so that contamination can be detected right away. Altogether, redesigning landfills will prevent toxins from contaminating its surroundings. In conclusion, the environment is deteriorating due to the impact of humans. Major environmental issues that require attention include the rapid increase of pollution, companies extracting large amounts of water from natural resources and toxic contamination. They need to be addressed before more problems continue to pile up and further destroy the environment. People need to reverse the damage and reduce their ecological footprints otherwise the future will not exist for humans. Solutions to the problems are to transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources, adjust the policies for water bottle companies and build landfills with better materials. Therefore, change is imperative in order to protect nature and people need to do their part to make it happen. It is crucial to raise awareness and create a sustainable life for future generations.

Automatic Crystal Puller System For Crystal Growth Applications

1. Introduction

Single crystals are highly established in the vital areas like radiation detection, solid state lasers, optical windows etc., and are also widely used in emerging areas like nano technology for the synthesis of   thin films and quantum dots in which the substrates used are invariably made from single crystals. There has been a higher interest in the study of alkali halide single crystals due to expanding possibilities of their practical applications [1-2]. The optical properties of alkali halide in pure and doped with rare earth materials are the main focus due to its enhanced applications in dosimetry, solid state lasers and scintillation applications. The use of alkali halide single crystals does not give us much room for quality improvement in certain domains and applications due to lack of crystalline perfections. The perfection of the grown crystal and doping with suitable elements are important aspects which influences the physical properties and optical characteristics [3]. Therefore, efforts are continuously being made for improving the techniques used to grow defect free crystals. As per the literature, nearly 80% of all the single crystals are grown by melt growth techniques due to relatively faster growth rates and suitability for large scale production. Out of the many melt growth techniques, Czochralski and Bridgman techniques are much popular and are used to grow most of the halide and oxide single crystals for material studies as well as for the industrial production. The Czochralski (Cz) technique is a popular method of crystal growth because it can produce large, dislocation free crystals at a relatively faster rate.  Vibration free slow translation and rotation movements are mandatory to produce good quality dislocation free crystals and many modifications and automations have been carried out by researchers in Bridgman and Czochralski instrumentation over a period of time [4]. Hence, to improve the quality of crystals, a stepper motor based remotely operated Czochralski set-up, Automatic Crystal Puller System (ACPS), was developed.  The system consists of mechanical translation and rotation set up carefully coupled to respective translation and rotation stepper motors operating in the micro stepping mode. Programmable System-on-chip (PSoC) based controller and a firmware tailored to suit the crystal growth applications was developed. This work concentrates on the development of a nano resolution Czochralski system, growth of alkali halide crystals using the system and optical and dosimetric properties of rare-earth ions in alkali halides. In this work, single doping of Eu  and Ce in KCl matrix and the effect of  Ce  co doping in KCl:Eu crystals were studied. Eu 2+, Sm2+ and Yb2+ are the most-studied divalent rare-earth species in this category but very few studies focussed on the dosimetric and scintillation applications of alkali halide crystals [5-6]. In this study, TL and OSL characteristics of  Eu and Ce doped KCl single crystals and the effect of double dopants in the base KCl matrix were analysed. An intense OSL emission of 420 nm was reported  for X-ray irradiated KCl: Eu by Nanto et.al [7] which paved the way for further investigation on the rare earth doped KCl crystals. The detailed design and development, salient features and advantages of the system along with the optical properties of the grown rare earth doped alkali halide single crystals with a prime focus on the dosimetric applications are depicted in this paper.

2. Design description of ACPS system

Crystal growth by Czochralski method is based on slow pull of seed from melt free surface. In this method, with changing of pulling speed of seed and rate of increasing and the decreasing of the furnace temperature, would result a crystal with needed size and shape [8]. In order to achieve vibration-free, uniform feed movements apart from slow translation rate, a high precision translation and rotation set up was developed. A  Cypress programmable device (PSoC) based controller manages all the operations of the ACPS with the help of the firmware tailored to suit the requirements. Modular development is followed for easy maintenance of the system.

2.1 Hardware design

The block diagram of the ACPS instrumentation design is shown in Fig 1.

The design of translation and rotation setup with commonly available Direct Current (DC) motors have many drawbacks like difficulty in motion control, position control etc. This leads to the incorporation of more sensors for the purpose which will complicate the electronics of the system. Stepper motors are used where high precision and accuracy is of major concern. Stepper motors available in the market are not really designed for smooth rotation as it rotates with a basic step of 1.8o, but they are designed to make position and speed control very easy. Most of the commercially available stepper motors take 200 step positions per revolution. Hence, on direct connection of stepper motor output shaft to a translation setup, the stepper will ‘jump’ from one position to the next where each position is 1/200th (1.8°) of a complete rotation[4]. This motion results in undesired jerk and vibration during the crystal growth which affects the quality of the crystals.  Smoother movements are essential for better quality crystals especially for growing crystals for dosimetric and scintillation applications using Bridgeman and Czochralski method. The position resolution and smoothness of conventional stepper motor can be increased by micro stepping mode. Hence, micro stepping mode operation of the motor is desirable for achieving smooth, vibration-free, and precise translation applications.

2.2. Implementation of micro stepping mode of operation

In micro stepping mode, instead of switching the current in a winding from ‘ON’ to ‘OFF’, the current is scaled up and down in smaller steps. When two phases are turned on and the current on each phase is not equal, the rotor position is determined by the current phase ratio. This changing current ratio creates discrete steps in the torque exerted on the rotor and results in smaller fractional steps of rotation between each full step [9]. A drive mechanism called ‘chopper drive’ is used to implement micro steps  by varying the current through the motor winding sinusoidally  with a 90o phase shift.  The total torque exerted is the vector addition of the torque exerted on the rotor due to the two windings. Each of the torques is proportional to the position of the rotor and the sine/cosine of the step angle.  Since the torque is proportional to the current in the windings, by varying the current, the position of the rotor can be controlled.

The  PSoC 3 (CY8C3866AXI) architecture consists of  digital subsystem which provides unique configurability of functions and interconnects. The stepper motor control uses these digital resources to implement timers, control registers, system bus, flash memory and clocking system to implement micro stepping [9].  A timer register generates periodic clock pulses that is used to generate each step (or micro step) of the motor according to the requirement. This timer can be used to run the motor at a specific speed, or to a specific position (exact number of steps). To set the speed of the motor, timer is updated by firmware when the set value was received from the remote desktop device, say a laptop.  The chopper drive has built-in microcontroller and receives clock pulses from PSoC controller. These clock pulses corresponding to the motor speed parameters as  set by the user,  would be converted into corresponding PWM outputs and applied to the Metal-Oxide-Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET) driver (2D M542 Leadshine Technology)[10]. The MOSFET drive controls the current output in the stepper motor windings to achieve micro stepping. Micro stepping is achieved by dividing the basic step of 1.8° by 25000 pulses using the firmware and further reduction of two times  by mechanical reduction gear. Hence, one complete rotation of the translation motor is achieved through 50000 effective steps. The linear translation is accomplished by coupling the rotating gear of the stepper motor to translation set up which has a moving rod with pitch of 1 mm, giving a resolution of 20 nm linear translation for one micro step. For this purpose, a translation set up has been manufactured with high precision Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machines. With this ultra-smooth and uniform speed control, vibration-free movement can be realized. Digital output port is used to drive the character Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) of the system which displays the real time status of the ACPS system, like mode of operation of the system, rotation and translation mode and speed, direction of motion of motors, total run time for the crystal growth etc. at the device end. Photograph of the ACPS system is shown in Fig. 2.

2.2 Software design

The application software was developed in two main categories, Firmware and Graphical User Interface. The firmware was developed using “PSoC creator” IDE, which executes the micro stepping algorithm based on the input values from the remote desktop device. Graphical User Interface developed in LabVIEW which helps the user to input the growth parameters to the ACPS.

2.2.1. Graphical User Interface (GUI)

A user friendly GUI was developed using LabVIEW software which runs in the remote desktop device. The developed GUI act as a bridge between the ACPS and the user and it will help the user to control the system without entering to the furnace room.  This also helps the user to input parameters for crystal growth in a simple and effective way.

ACPS has two mode of operation, Manual and Auto. Manual mode is mainly used at higher translation rates and will be useful for positioning purpose, i.e., for inserting the seed crystal into the melt and taking out the grown crystal from the furnace. In this mode rotational mode is not enabled.  In the auto mode, both translation and rotation motor direction and speed are programmable. The translation motion can be programmed from 0.001 mm/hr to 99.99 mm/hr and rotation motion from 0.001 rpm to 99.99 rpm. The direction of translation and rotation motors and mode of system operation are selected using a toggle switch and indicated by green LED in the GUI. All the required parameters for crystal growth viz., total run time, translation and rotation movement, rotation profile, are send to the ACPS system using Radio Frequency (RF) mode. The ACPS receives all the parameters from the external desktop device and calculates the number of clock pulses to be inputted to the stepper motor drives. Apart from the normal rotation mode, ACPS is provided with ‘Wave Profile Mode’ of rotation operation, which might be required for advanced crystal growth applications. In this mode, the rotation motor can be programmed such a way that the rotation rate can be reversed and accelerated/decelerated in equal intervals of time. Hence, the GUI presents wide options for a user to choose from for growing defect free crystals.

2.2.2. ACPS Firmware

The firmware, tailored to suit the requirement was created using PSoC creator” IDE. The firmware was burned in the PSoC Read Only Memory (ROM) that controls and manages the operations of the ACPS.  The firmware receives and decodes the commands and   by changing the pulse sequence applied to the windings of the motor drive to get the required translation and rotation rates and mode of operation.

2.3. Wireless connectivity

The RF connectivity between the ACPS and desktop device is established using Zig bee modules. ZigBee modules were attached to the PSoC board through Integrated Drive Electronic IDE) interface and to the desktop device through USB interface. The GUI is so developed that the desktop top device can be dis-engaged from the task once the ACPS commands are given, i.e. there is no need to have continuous connectivity for the ACPS system to operate. The device can be linked back to the ACPS to know the status of the system by clicking ‘Refresh’ button in the GUI.

3. Application of the ACPS for the growth of KCl crystals

Single crystals of KCl have always been a researchers favourite  due to its high band gap (6-10 ev) and many properties of KCl with and without dopants have been reported by many researchers . Intense research has been continuing to explore the characteristics of the crystals in diverse areas like optical window materials, scintillation and radiation detections etc. Developments over the past two or three decades in OSL and TL dosimetry have led to the application of these crystals in many of the radiation dosimetry fields, including personal, environmental, retrospective, space, neutron and medical dosimetry[11-12].  In the present work KCl:Eu, KCl:Ce, KCl:Eu ,Ce single crystals were grown using ACPS by Czochralski technique and optical characterization were carried out to find out the feasibility of their use in  the area of radiation dosimetry.

3.1 Experimental procedure

The powders for preparing various rare earth doped single crystals were KCl (99.99%, Aldrich) and EuCl3.6H2O (99.9%, Aldrich) CeCl3.7H2O (99.9%, Aldrich). The concentration of Eu and Ce in the KCl melt was 0.2 mol%. All the chemicals were carefully weighed and mixed thoroughly in alumina crucible and placed in the furnace having a temperature controller (accuracy is ±1 ◦C) and heated till the whole substance was melted. The temperature was set slightly above the melting point to ensure the homogeneous molten state. Single crystalline seeds of pure KCl were used. The pulling rate was maintained nearly 2-4 mm per hour and a rotation rate of 4–6 rpm. In all cases the single crystalline seed crystals were oriented along the [1 0 0] axis. Finally the furnace was allowed to cool to room temperature at the rate of 1oC per minute in order to avoid the cracks due to thermal shocks in crystals. The Photograph of the grown crystals are shown in Fig. 3(a), Fig. 3(b), Fig. 3(c), respectively.

XRD of all the samples in the powder form were recorded using X ray diffractometer (GNR Explorer, Italy). The PL spectra were recorded using a Jobin Yvon-Spex Spectro-fluorometer (Fluorolog version-3; Model FL3-11) at room temperature. The excitation source used was a Xenon arc lamp (450 W). The detector (PMT-R928P) has flat response from 200 to 900 nm. The TL glow curves and OSL spectra were recorded using TL/OSL reader supplied by Nucleonix India Pvt. Ltd.

4. Results and discussions

4.1 Structural properties

Crystallographic structure was determined using the XRD studies. Fig. 4 shows X-ray diffraction pattern of powdered samples of KCl:Eu, KCl:Ce and KCl:Eu,Ce single crystals.The XRD of  the crystals were  compared with ICDD patterns (00-041-1476) and  diffraction peaks can be assigned to KCl with the cubic crystal structure. However, a small shift in the diffraction peaks towards lower angle for Eu 2+ and Ce3+ doped KCl  was observed compared to undoped sample. This confirms the expansion of the KCl  lattice and existence of  dopants certainly in the KCl matrix. Since the ionic radii of  K+ (ri = 0.138 nm) is higher than that of Eu 2+and Ce3+ ion radii  ( ri =  0.131, 0.101 nm respectively) a contraction of the lattice and shift towards higher angle side was expected. However, we observed the shift in the XRD peaks towards the  lower angle side. A similar lattice expansion have also been observed in Ce3+ doped NaCl and Ce3+  doped KCl where the ion radius of Na+ (ri = 0.102 nm)  and  K+ are larger than that of Ce3+ [13-14]. This might be due to the fact that in case of divalent and trivalent substitution unlike monovalent atoms; more complex defects are formed satisfying the charge compensation [15] and also might be due to the presence of dopants in the interstitials.

4.2 Photoluminescence studies

Photoluminescence studies of  KCl:Eu, KCl:Ce and KCl: Eu, Ce were carried out to find out the emission characteristics of crystals. PL studies of KCl:Eu,  KCl:Ce phoshors and Ce and Tb doped glass matrices and have been reported earlier[ 16,17] . Fig. 5 (a) shows the PL spectrum of Ce co-doped  KCl:Eu at Room Temperature (RT).   KCl: Eu,Ce showed  good PL intensity peaking at 421 nm  which is the characteristics of the Eu2+ emission when excited at 280 nm. This showed that the crystal could give good PL emission possibly due to the coincidence of Ce3+ emission and Eu2+ excitation.

The energy level scheme of the KCl :Eu, Ce with optical transitions and energy transfer process is shown in Fig 5 (b).  As Ce3+ excitation energy is in 250-350 band, on excitation of 280 nm, electrons are pumped to 5d level and then relaxes non radiatively  to the lowest component of 5d level. It is seen that there is an overlapping of  emission of co activator Ce3+and excitation spectrum of Eu2+. As the value of  excited 5d state of Ce 3+ is close to the 4f65d1 levels Eu 2+ ions, it is highly possible that energy transfers from Ce3+ to Eu 2+ ions   occur and  giving rise to an intense PL emission due to the transition of  4f65d1  to  ground state 4f7 (8S7/2) of Eu 2+ [18].

4.3. Thermally Stimulated Luminescence (TSL) studies

The introduction of impurities is important for activation of phosphors and for the optimization of radiation dosimeters since it creates defects in the crystal lattice which can create trapping centers. The present investigation concerns the effect of different impurities on the TSL of  KCl crystals. TSL glow curves for KCl crystals incorporating various impurities are shown in Fig. 6.  The TSL of the samples were taken after gamma irradiation with Co-60 source. Glow curves for KCl crystals containing different concentrations of  Eu as an impurity has been already studied and observed that the presence of Eu2+ will enhance the TL emission [19]. The samples were read using TL reader  with a heating rate of  5oC/Sec. KCl : Eu2+ showed very low intensity TSL peak at ~225oC  and the same has been observed by many researchers [20]. At the same time, KCl:Ce gives good TL peak around 230oC and a small low temperature peak at ~100oC. Co-doping with Ce in  KCl: Eu showed that low temperature peak of KCl:Ce was suppressed  and only glow peak at  230oC became prominent with a slight intensity enhancement.  This study showed that that co-doping of Ce in KCl:Eu would result in a good TSL material compared to single doping as it suppresses the low temperature peak and enhances the intensity slightly. An ideal TL dosimeter should have a peak around 200-250oC since a low temperature peak can result fading of signals during storage.

4.4. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) studies

Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is the luminescence emitted by crystalline insulators and semiconductors that were previously irradiated on stimulation by light. This  transient signal is produced due to the release and recombination of charges trapped in defects in the material, which was created by exposing the material to ionizing radiation [21]. OSL is gaining momentum  in personal dosimetry use  due to the availability of high sensitivity detector materials, re-readability of the signal. The physical process underlying the OSL phenomenon is similar to that occurring in TL dosimeters, with the exception that light is used to stimulate the signal instead of heat[22]. OSL spectrum of  KCl:Eu, KCl:Ce and KCl:Eu,Ce single crystals were taken after irradiating with Co-60 source and is shown in Fig. 7.  Good OSL intensity emission from KCl: Eu and KCl:Ce was observed. Also it is found that by co doping with Ce in KCl:Eu, the OSL intensity increases by two fold. As TSL studies also showed similar trend which underline the fact that alkali halides with suitable rare earth combination can work as a good dosimeter.

The emission of Eu2+ is strongly dependent on the type of host lattice and hence the choice of host is critical in determining the optical properties of Eu2+ ions. In order to increase the emission of Eu2+ ions within the spectral range, a co-activator that has strong absorption in this spectral range and transfers its energy to Eu2+  can be chosen and this is another effective way of improving the photoluminescence properties of phosphors. Energy transfer from a co-activator Ce3+ to an activator Eu2+ has been reported for several hosts (23-25).  Co-doping of Ce3+ can enhance the emission of Eu2+ due to energy transfer from Ce3+ to Eu2+, and Ce3+ plays a role as a sensitizer.  Hence, observed TSL and OSL intensity  in KCl: Eu co-doped with Ce might be due to the possible energy transfer from Ce 3+ to  Eu2+ . The increase in intensity in TSL and  OSL showed that KCl:Eu, Ce exhibit good optical properties after gamma irradiation and suitable candidate for the application in radiation dosimetry.  However, more studies to be carried out to see whether the intensity can be further enhanced by varying the dopant concentrations

5. Conclusions

A stepper motor based remotely operated Automatic Crystal Puller System (ACPS) was developed for crystal growth applications using Czochralski technique.  The system consists of mechanical translation and rotation assembly coupled to respective translation and rotation stepper motors operating in a micro stepping mode. Cypress programmable device, PSoC, based hardware is used as the controller and   firmware was developed in ‘PSoC creator IDE “to control all the operations of the system.  The system has a programmable  bidirectional rotation speed of 0.001 rpm to 99.99 rpm and translational motion as low as 0.001 mm/hr to 99.99 mm/hr. Software controlled pulse based step reduction was effectively implemented for smooth movements. Linear translation resolution of 20 nm was achieved using the system. LabVIEW based user friendly GUI and the firmware enables remote operation of the ACPS from a remote desktop device without entering to the furnace room.  Rare earth doped alkali halide single crystals, KCl:Eu, KCl:Ce, KCl:Eu,Ce were grown using the system and optical characterisation were carried out. The TSL and OSL spectra of the grown crystals showed that co doping with Ce in KCl:Eu leads to enhanced optical properties compared single doping, though optimisation of impurity concentrations only can give the exact picture of high luminescence yield. These results indicate KCl:Eu, Ce can be potentially used as TL and OSL dosimeter due to the high  sensitivity when exposed to ionizing radiation.

Eagle-Picher Industries

Eagle-Picher Industries can trace its origins to 1916 when Eagle White Lead Works and Picher Lead Company merged to create a company that produced storage batteries, used to collect and store energy for later use. The company used mined zinc and diatomaceous earth to make the batteries that became integral to the U.S. efforts during World War II.

By 1938, Eagle-Picher expanded its product offerings to include asbestos-containing insulating cement, pipe coverings and block insulation. About the same time, health officials nationwide were publicizing information about the dangers of asbestos. Court records show the U.S. Bureau of Mines told Eagle-Picher officials directly that asbestos was “one of the most dangerous dusts to which man is exposed.”

Eagle-Picher filed for bankruptcy protection in 1996 and again in 2005 to protect the company from asbestos litigation.  The trust contains about $400 million.

How was the Eagle-Picher Trust Formed?

Eagle-Picher did not stop using asbestos in its products until the 1970s.  In the early 1980s, the company established a $45 million fund to pay out asbestos claims, but it was not enough to keep pace with the tidal wave of litigation. By 1991, the year the company filed for its first Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization, Eagle-Picher faced more than $2.5 billion in asbestos claims. The trust began accepting claims in 1997.

In 2005, Eagle-Picher again faced more financial responsibilities than it could handle related to its asbestos use. The company filed for bankruptcy protection for a second time to manage the more than $500 million in additional asbestos-related debt.

Currently, Eagle-Picher’s asbestos trust pays 33 percent, which is much higher than other funds of equal size. Like other asbestos trusts Eagle-Picher pays claimants a small percentage of funds requested.

Eagle-Picher High-Risk Occupations

As Eagle-Picher grew and diversified its product lines, so did the use of asbestos in its plants and products. The company manufactured specialty chemicals, construction materials, automotive parts, and industrial products. The diversified product line increased the risk for asbestos exposure across a multitude of occupations. Eagle-Picher’s products were also widely used in military applications, particularly in the U.S. Navy during World War II.

The leading occupations associated with Eagle-Picher asbestos exposure include:

Shipyard workers

In 1934, the U.S. Navy invited Eagle-Picher to produce asbestos-containing products for the military branch. Anyone who worked in shipyards or on Navy vessels is at risk for exposure.

Power plant workers

Eagle-Picher’s insulating cement, which contained asbestos, was used in power plants. Workers were exposed to asbestos when they mixed the dry product with water.

Petrochemical workers

Eagle-Picher’s asbestos pipe covering and block insulation was used in petrochemical plants for heat and chemical protection. The company also produced insulation for cold storage and low temperatures.

Steel mill workers

Eagle-Picher insulation products were widely used in steel mills, including in steel ovens, steam pipes and boilers. Asbestos-containing concrete was also used as an insulator.

Eagle-Picher Asbestos Exposure

Eagle-Picher primarily used asbestos as an additive to its products to increase the heat, chemical and fire resistance and tensile strength. According to the Eagle-Picher Industries Settlement Trust, nearly 7,000 companies have used Eagle-Picher asbestos-containing products.

Several of the company’s former plant locations are now Superfund sites. These sites, located in New Mexico, Illinois and Oklahoma, have been found to have high levels of hazardous waste that have contaminated the ground. Among the many environmental toxins on the properties is asbestos.

Eagle-Picher Settlements

Asbestos trust funds can provide claimants with the essential funds they need for treatment and living expenses.

Claimants who choose cash payments from trust funds usually gain access to their settlement quickly. Eagle-Picher pays cash claims, which are also known as discounted cash payments or DCPs, as follows:

Mesothelioma – $6,500

Lung Cancer – $2,000

Other Cancer – $1,000

Non-malignant – $400

Eagle-Picher claimants who choose individual reviews, also called individualized review claims or IRCs, usually receive larger settlements over DCPs, but the process takes longer. Eagle-Picher trust administrators base IRC settlements on factors that include an evaluation of exposure, loss, damages, injuries and other factors. If the claimant’s financial burden due to the asbestos-related disease is “exceptionally larger than the normal range,” the claimant might receive an Eagle-Picher IRC settlement that exceeds typical payments.

Eagle-Picher Asbestos Products

Eagle-Picher’s asbestos-containing products have been used in a variety of industries. The company was once the second largest supplier of lead and zinc products in the nation. The following are considered among the most dangerous of the company’s asbestos-containing products:

• Insulating cement

Eagle-Picher produced several cement products that contain asbestos. The dry powders were mixed with water to form a paste. Some of the brands include Super 66 Insulating Cement, One-Cote Insulating Cement and Hylo Finishing Cement (manufactured by Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp. but distributed by Eagle-Picher).

• Pipe covering

Eagle-Picher Pipe Covering and Hylo Pipe Covering were used to insulate pipes that carried liquids, gases and chemicals through machinery, homes and cities. The coverings were typically installed in high heat or extreme cold conditions to protect the pipes from damage.

• Block insulation

Hylo Block and Supertemp Block were among the two block insulations developed and manufactured by Eagle-Picher. The company advertised Supertemp to withstand temperatures up to 1900 degrees Fahrenheit and to contain 10 to 15 percent asbestos.

• Weatherproof coating

Sold under the name Insulseal, Stalastic, Spray-Mastic and Swetchek “B”, these liquid coatings were sold by the gallon or by the 55-gallon drum. Insulseal was made from petroleum, asphalt and asbestos, among other materials.

Other Eagle-Picher asbestos-containing products included Air Cell Type Low Pressure Covering, Fire & Water Resisting Jacketing, Triple-Slide Windows, house paints and mineral wool.

Sources

Bowker, M. “Fatal Deception: The Terrifying True Story of How Asbstos is Killing America.” Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=ILZEVieYOisC&pg=PA169&lpg=PA169&dq=Asbestos+Textile+Institute+Eagle-Picher&source=bl&ots=4I96VlgUPg&sig=-zuPkhPLoYw6eqpvPP8A1e7Gpww&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiB94_io53bAhVaHjQIHcV7CWkQ6AEIPDAE#v=snippet&q=Eagle-Picher&f=false

Eagle-Picher Industries Settlement Trust. Retrieved from https://www.cpf-inc.com/assets/1/6/Eagle-PicherApprovedJobSiteList.pdf

Feder, Barnaby. “Asbestos: The Saga Drags On.” The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/1989/04/02/business/asbestos-the-saga-drags-on.html

Eagle-Picher trust. Retrieved from https://www.cpf-inc.com/assets/1/6/Eagle-PicherApprovedJobSiteList.pdf

Benefits of immigrants to American society: college essay help online

The Immigration and Nationality Act, also known as the Hart-Cellar Act, was passed by President Lyndon Johnson in 1965 and is one of the more controversial acts. It was made to abolish the National Origins Quota and make immigration become international. Immigration to the United States has always been an uncertainty. It leads to a greater population, and immigrants may lack needed skills affecting the economy of the country since they wouldn’t know how to perform a specific task. They can have a favorable influence on the economy increasing the incomes, produce a more educated labor force, leading to more productivity, and better innovations. Even though they raise the population tremendously, immigrants can have a much more positive impact rather than a negative one.

Immigrants can raise incomes for Americans. The average income of a country is one of the best factors to look at when wanting to know a country’s standard of living (Isbister, The Immigration Debate). It’s one of the best since it lets people know how much a person is getting paid and if the country is efficient in its labor. Immigrants are paid less than natives even though they have similar skill sets since they do not have the power to bargain much with firms. Firms are earning profits since they “pay immigrants less than their marginal productivity” (Peri, Immigration, Labor Markets, Productivity). Marginal productivity is the change in output after adding a new unit of labor and since the immigrants are the “new unit of labor,” they change the output by getting more done; thus, the firms profiting. Many people think that immigrants would take the jobs of natives and increase the rate of unemployment but this is not the case at all. Their jobs complement the jobs of natives. Immigrants are given more productive tasks than natives yet are paid less and their jobs are not easily comparable to those of natives so the lower incomes cannot be categorized as discrimination (Peri, Immigration, Labor Markets, Productivity). Immigrants perform jobs that require manual labor rather than communication and language skills, natives perform better in those which are completely different (Penn Wharton, The Effects of Immigration). In this understanding, the incomes are raised since there is more productivity and less competition. People can argue that since immigration would increase the population, it would decrease the output per person. There is a possibility that the increase in population won’t be proportional to the increase in output and this can cause harm to American residents (Isbister, The Immigration Debate). Immigrants might not work as much and lack the needed skills reducing the index. But this is more than likely not the case, immigrants come to America looking for jobs, so they will willingly work, “immigration increases the demand for labor” (Isbister, The Immigration Debate).

Immigrants can lead to more productivity in the economy. They can bring a great amount of talent and dedication with them which is great for the economy as they will probably be creating better innovations. For example, a firm can produce a product with no problems at all, but if they welcome immigrants, they can produce more than double the initial amount. Immigrants would increase the size of the population, leading to an increase of the economy generating “economic growth to such an extent that [if] certain minerals and fuels became scarcer, the United States could trade with other countries for those resources” (Isbister, The Immigration Debate). An influx of immigrants can possibly lead to scarcer natural resources, but this won’t really be a problem for the United States since it can trade with other countries to replace the ones it lacks. Liberal opponents argue that the quality of the labor force is slowly deteriorating because more and more unskilled and uneducated immigrants are coming to the United States. This is not true at all. Supporters of immigration would argue that immigrants actually have very important skills and can provide a considerable amount to the productivity and growth of the economy (Isbister, The Immigration Debate). According to The Effects of Immigration published by Penn Wharton, a significant number of degrees in science and engineering are rewarded to foreign-born students that possess a temporary visa. This proves that not all immigrants are uneducated and unskilled. Even though there are the exceptions to the educated and skilled immigrants, they still have their incentive to be successful, they came to this country more than likely to get a better job, a better life, and provide better for their families.

Immigrants would improve the demographics of the country. The ethnic makeup of the country would be diverse, enhancing the country. In 1775, Benjamin Franklin disliked the idea of having other races immigrate to America, other races with the exception of whites. He referred to immigrants as “aliens” and mentioned they could never fit into the country or adopt the “language or customs, any more than they can acquire [their] complexion” (Isbister, The Immigration Debate). President Franklin expresses that immigrants are foreigners and have different skin tones, they could never adapt to the “American life.” But his opinion did not stop the “aliens” from arriving into the country. The number of immigrants rose in the nineteenth century reaching a peak at the beginning of the twentieth century. But then in the 1930s, the immigration fell, however the numbers began to rise again at the beginning of the end of WW2. In “southern and eastern  Europe… economic development and industrial capitalism grew…” (Isbister, The Immigration Debate). Also, according to America’s Demographic Future written by Joel Kotkin and Erika Ozuna, the global population growth has slowed down and this pattern is probably going to continue “declining to less than 0.8 percent by 2025… due to an unanticipated drop in birth rates in developing countries…” Despite that, immigrants’ children make up the difference for sustaining the population. A counterargument could be said about environmental damage because of the population growth. Since the economy will be larger, there will be more resources needed to cleaning up the increased pollution and slowly the number of resources will decrease. So “if the environmental damage is more than proportional to the growth in population and output, either environmental quality will deteriorate or the country will have to devote a higher proportion of its income to environmental preservation just to stay even, or both” (Isbister, The Immigration Debate). But as stated previously, the United States can just trade with other countries for insufficient resources.

The rise of immigrants throughout the United States has improved the economy and demographics of American society in a significant way rather than diminishing it. Immigration raises the incomes for Americans and benefits firms, they lead to more productivity in the economy since there is a greater number of them, they get more done, and lastly, they improve the demographics of the country. The country becomes more diverse and more innovations. While population growth, scarce resources, and environmental damages can be raising concerns because of immigration, they do fuel our economy and shape the world views of the United States.

Air quality in Canada

The purpose of this report is to identify the ways through which air quality is being monitored in Canada, and the implications on health that arise as a result of poor air quality.  In particular, this report focuses on the Indigenous communities in Northern America, namely the First Nations, Métis and Inuit communities.

It is well documented that Indigenous communities face disproportionately greater disadvantages in terms of health as compared to their non-Indigenous counterpart. One of the indicators used to assess health is air quality, as it correlates to respiratory health. In Canada, high levels of air pollutants are recorded every year. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Canada ranks near the bottom of all OECD countries in terms of total emissions of smog-causing pollutants. Despite the federal’s attempt, there has been little progress in reducing air emissions (Regulatory Framework for Air Emissions, 2018). Furthermore, due to the location of reserves that tend to be remote and situated in close proximity to industrial sectors, and/or their limited access to healthcare facilities, poor air quality is more prominent for Indigenous communities. The high concentrations of pollutants have direct implications on the health and wellbeing of Indigenous peoples.

Methodology

This report presents the findings on air quality from a collection of sources; including research published in scholarly journals, government publications, and websites.

Firstly, the environmental scans makes an analysis of the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) which is used in Canada to collect data on common pollutants. The environmental scan then describes air quality in relation to Indigenous communities’ and the health implications that arise from the respective findings. Subsequently, this paper will outline some of the measures taken at a federal level to address the issue of air pollution and what is being done on a community-level. Finally, some propositions will be made that will highlight how interventions can better convey to the need of Indigenous communities, understand health from their perspective and epistemology and ultimately improve their health and wellbeing.

AIR QUALITY HEALTH INDEX

Air pollution is a problem in Canada, that affects both larger and smaller communities. This is not only applicable to the larger cities and urban spaces, but is also valid to  more rural and coastal regions, especially Indigenous reserves that tend to be located downwind from industrial sectors or in close proximity (West Coast Environmental Law, 2005).

To assess pollution, air quality is monitored by collecting and assessing data for common air pollutants, which are: particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ground-level ozone, which is then published and made accessible to the public through the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) (Bertazzon & Underwood, 2018).

The AQHI is based on a combination of health risks from each of the pollutants mentioned above. It is interpreted by reading a scale ranging from 1 to 10+ that determines the health risks from low health risk, to moderate, high, and very high. Hence the aim of the AQHI is to communicate to the general population information about the quality of ambient air, as well as provide advice to minimize the risks due to air pollution accordingly (Monteiro et al., 2016). Another usage of the AQHI is to determine which communities have better air quality relative to others. (Hasselback & Taylor, 2010). By comparing values, priority can then be given to regions that are at higher risks.

According to Environment and Climate Change Canada, in the past two decades, there have been declines in overall ozone levels, and industrial emissions of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, volatile organic compounds, dioxins, and carbon monoxide. Nonetheless, it is important to keep monitoring these pollutants, that are expected to rise with the effects of climate change (Bell et al., 2007).

Health problems associated with ground-level, which is monitored using the AQHI, include asthma, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, and impaired lung development (Bell et al., 2007). The other pollutant monitored by the AQHI is nitrogen dioxide. The health implications are similar to that of ozone, whereby nitrogen dioxide induces respiratory problems, inflammation, but also tumour-promoting and carcinogenic effects (Newhook et al., 2016).

The third and last pollutant measured by the AQHI is particulate matter. This is of concern because, it is an exception to the otherwise downward trend of pollutant levels. This source of air pollution arises from the use of fuel in agriculture, construction operations, and emissions from paved and unpaved roads that has led to significant increases in particulate matter less than 2.5 in diameter (PM2.5). Particulate pollution is found to be the most widespread form of air pollution in British Columbia (West Coast Environmental Law, 2005).

This is critical since the presence of particulate matter was found to be of greater danger to human health than that of ground-ozone level, and other common pollutants (Kim et al., 2015). The suspended particles varies in size and contain various compounds ranging from nitrates, sulphates, organic compounds, and metals. These particles are able to travel in the air, and exposure to particulate matter has various health risks. Depending on the size and nature of the particles, it can enter and deposit onto the respiratory tract and result in respiratory diseases. According to Kim et al., (2015), mild problems include dyspnea, coughing and wheezing. On the other hand, more severe problems include chronic heart and lung disease, as well as a positive correlation to diabetes.

 

Temple Sholom located on Lake Shore Drive in Chicago: college application essay help

Those lost in obscurity and in need of wellbeing, are always welcomed to Temple Sholom located on Lake Shore Drive in Chicago, where legacy of democratic, inclusive, loving faith along with a modern approach to Judaism is constantly accessible. Founded in 1867, Temple Sholom, a Reform Judaism congregation, is known as one of the oldest synagogues in Chicago. During this paper, I will analyze and deconstruct Temple Sholom’s reformed Judaism by applying my basic understanding of religious studies theories and categories only implementing from Temple Sholom’s website. I will continue to expand on their open approach through a psychological lens point of view of personal actualization that is developed through the result of the community’s activities, referencing their religious resurgence that demonstrates their relevance in today’s world of democratic activism and equality. Also expanding on their dynamic community of women and men of Temple Sholom that reflects gender construction. Regardless of who stands in power, the association remains as an accessible community for all that genuinely thrives and exhibits its pledge for value, education, and social equality that continues to face the diversely of practicing their individual self-sufficiency from the basis of awareness and engagement.

Members of Temple Sholom demonstrates a welcoming atmosphere along with a range of spiritual and social programming. The LGBQT community is usually looked down upon by other religious groups or negatively commented on, unlike Or Chadash at Temple Sholom where it welcomes all members who recognize themselves as part of the LGBQT community and explains Gods intention of equality and furthermore in their documented Torah. Or Chadash was founded in 1977 when it combined its community with Temple Sholom, providing the new community with educational programs, social activities, religious services, like same sex marriage along with continuous events. For example, the Temple conjoins with the annually Pride Parade in June bringing people together to celebrate all members of LGBQT. The Reform Movement constantly urges Jewish LGBQT organizations to spread awareness and information of issues identified with sexual orientation. Temple Sholom supports civil rights and equality for LGBQT individuals and against any discrimination towards cultural and political principles of sexual orientation and equality.

When speaking about the principle of equality, gender construction or, mutuality, it is also reflected upon as an important factor to their dynamic community of women and men part of Temple Sholom. Temple Sholom provides opportunity for both gender roles, where women are no longer categorized and are considered to be superior just like men. Their stories followed in the covenant has helped introduce equal gender role positions, empowering binary opposition and equal Jewish leadership roles. Temple Sholom does not compare men or women against each other, nor look at women as an accessory rather, the Temple offers groups for both women and men that introduce the wonders of sisterhood and brotherhood. The Women of Temple Sholom, encourages all women who are concerned, committed, compassionate, and care to all come together to learn and spread the positive impact that Temple Sholom offers while fighting for social justice, women issues, and increase impact worldwide of Women of Reform Judaism (WRJ). The Brotherhood at Temple Sholom encourages all Jewish men, of all ages to join their brotherhood, allowing them to explore all aspects of Judaism as they build their community. The history of Temple Sholom provides a welcoming atmosphere “for disenfranchised people of all faiths, creeds, and color”, especially in the mid 20th century when the community became larger “and several community groups developed, including youth groups, young couples’ groups, a sisterhood, and a society of professional working women” for the sole purpose of equity, education, and social justice.

Reform Judaism at Temple Sholom remains as an open, accessible community for all individuals, practicing their individual self-sufficiency from the basis of awareness and engagement that genuinely thrives and exhibits its pledge for value, education, and social equality. Temple Sholom’s website provided a welcoming congregation of secular forces and modernity as it defines characteristics of modern democratic societies while their religion constantly expands and adapts to new traditions and practices. The members of Temple Sholom focuses on the past, present, and future of the community, only hoping to better and adapt the religion with changing practice through their personal actualization, religious resurgence of democratic activism and equality, along with fair gender construction. Reform Judaism has always underlined the moral parts of Jewish tradition but has started implementing everything it once rejected, providing the “Reform Movement” as an adaptive modern, political twist. Reform Judaism implies as an open-minded, aware community allowing you to understand and better the world around you with new possibilities. Acceptance and open-mind is what Reform Judaism at Temple Sholom holds and accomplishes while many other religions and communities miss these differentiating factors. Deconstructing and analyzing Temple Sholom’s website I learned that having an open mind to all helps us view everyone equally as it betters oneself and challenges those around us to continue making better choices. Temple Sholom’s Rabbi Sacks states, “We are strong when we care for the weak, rich when we care for the poor, invulnerable when we care for the vulnerable” enforcing that Reform Judaism at Temple Sholom is a sacred community that really embraces, inspires, and matters.

NYC plans for carbon dioxide emission reduction policy: essay help online

A policy is a set of plans or ideas that are used as a platform for decision making, particularly in economics, politics, and business. It is a set of principles, guidelines, and rules that are either adopted or formulated by a state to achieve both short-term and long-term goals. They are typically published in a booklet or any other relevant form so that it is widely accessed by people. Such plans include all considerable changes in economic reforms and foreign policies. It is the attitude of an organization policy is determined by how they choose to handle a specific issue for the betterment of the public interests. This paper seeks to analyze the City-wide plans for carbon dioxide emission reduction by summarizing the policy and its significance to the political landscape, the role of the policy, an evaluation of its costs and benefits, present the political actors by outlining the essential players as well as a description of how the policy fits in a larger political environment. It will highlight the significance of the politics of the city and how the policy relates to the built environment, the diversity, the politics and the interests of the city.

Summary of the Policy

The policy on city-wide plans for carbon dioxide emission reduction is a New York City Carbon Challenge and a voluntary leadership initiative that has partnered with institutional, public, non-profit and private sectors with a commitment towards reducing the level of greenhouse gas emission by 30% or more. It is estimated to take place for ten years. On a global scale, the urban population currently surpasses the rural population. According to the estimates established by the United Nations, by 2050, the urban populations are expected to extensively rise and double (Dhakal, 2010). The greatest growth curve is anticipated in the cities within the developing nations. Such an exponential population growth brings about myriad social, economic and environmental issues like increased demand for sanitation services, energy, transportation, and food.

All these factors will be affected by climate. Large cities like New York City are susceptible to different ravages of climate change, entailing storm surges and heat waves, following the fact that many of them are built along coasts or rivers. According to recent research, it was clear that urban areas heavily contribute local climate fluctuations due to influences on weather through the urban heat island effect and resultant particulate emissions. Such influences are however not just local because greenhouse emissions that contain a global impact. Almost 75% of global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels use are generated from cities that cover only 3% of the Earth’s land surface (Norman, MacLean, & Kennedy, 2006).

Currently, the urban populations are heavily rising which means the level of emissions is anticipated to increase much faster than the population. According to a study established by the World Bank in 2010, while the megacities’ populations are expected to grow by almost 4% on average in the following years, the greenhouse gas emissions are expected to rise by ten percent or more on an annual basis. The citywide plans for carbon dioxide emission reduction is a state policy that has partnered with state agencies in operating towards reducing the level of greenhouse gas emissions through monitoring carbon emissions (Dhakal, 2010). The policy seeks to determine how the decision makers meet the specific climate policy demands and how citizens, business people, and other stakeholders make efforts towards making a difference for the good of the environment.

Among the essential political actors behind the policy is the city’s Mayor. The NYC Mayor’s Office provides various programmatic resources and support to help all participants in their tireless efforts to reduce GHC emissions and allow the City to achieve the target of reducing citywide emissions by 20150. The Environmental Defense Fund holds a significant role within the Mayor’s Office of Sustainability following the project’s strategic development and recruitment. It works in partnership with the building owners and company managers in making pledges towards the reduction of carbon emissions in the coming ten years (Watts et al., 2015).

Participants have a commitment to the programs by pursuing varying energy efficiency improvements, sustainability initiatives, and efficient on-site generation. A good number of participants have taken up the NYC Carbon Challenge policy, including hospitals, the largest universities within the city, residential property management firms, commercial owners and tenants, retail organizations as well as hotels (Dhakal, 2010). These ten commercial owners with more than 58 million square feet of office space are willing to commit towards reducing emissions by more than 40% come in 2026. In partnership with the Real Estate Board of New York, it is now possible to reduce the amount of population generated by commercial office buildings. The policy operates by inspiring a high commitment level within various organizations.

It has a number of costs and benefits. It is an initiative that will enable New York to achieve the sustainable goals of climate mitigation by lowering the emissions generated from green gases by almost 80%. As the involved parties explore new ideas and different opportunities towards meeting the challenge goal, they are put in a better position to reveal effective strategies for enhancing energy efficiency that can be scaled up across New York City and beyond (Huisingh et al., 2015). By creating a collaboration with the Environmental Defense Fund, a leading international nonprofit organization, the strategy has created diverse transformational solutions to pressing environmental problems. It has created a link between science, law, economics, and other private sector partnership and made huge contributions towards achieving the much-anticipated sustainability goal (Norman, MacLean, & Kennedy, 2006).

The policy has enabled all participants to move aggressively and reduce their energy consumption ratio and the resultant emissions. Currently, more than twenty-one participants have notably met the 30% goal, with approximately 19 universities, commercial offices and hospitals expanding their commitment to a fifty percent or greater reduction come 2025 (Tietenberg & Lewis, 2016). Following a standard cost-benefit analysis that was recently performed by assigning a monetary value to save lives, the study researchers made an estimate that intending to reduce a ton of carbon dioxide emission was estimated at a value of $50 to $380. This estimate justifies the point of curbing carbon dioxide emissions from a human health point of view.

The selected policy fits in the larger political environment as it is a central issue. The City of New York is compliant with the Global Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy which is a global cooperative effort among the officials in the city and mayors towards reducing GHG emissions, tracking all progress as well as preparing for the impacts of climate change. The City has heavily committed to operating with other cities across the globe through the incorporation of consistent best practices in GHG emissions accounting in a cooperative effort towards achieving the climate mitigation goals (Norman, MacLean, & Kennedy, 2006). The policy mitigation goals are based on the GPCBASIC level- in boundary transportation, waste management as well as GHG emissions from stationary energy consumption. The city has developed strategies to enhance its commitment towards the reduction of GHG emissions by 80%, using a ten-year energy efficiency policy in the buildings within the city.

A Political Analysis of the Policy

Politicians contain a great significance towards the execution of the policy. A policy implementation right is essential because the failure of it could cause political frustrations, financial wastes and disruption of the rights if the ordinary citizens. Politics contain a practical account for making effective implementation of a policy in the wider and distinctive context of government. The body advocates for in-depth strategies to ensure that the policy on carbon emissions fits in the areas of social justice and the Institute of Government on how ministers and body strategies can give their policies the best chances of being delivered. The central government advocated for strong links that ensured change was happening to understand better the manner by which those policies were working in the real world. While the political world can add many complications to the process of policy implementation, ministers still hold a crucial role in setting milestones as well as incorporating regular stock-takes in keeping the required momentum. Of importance, it relates to the interest of politicians because it provides a firm ground for campaign purposes.

The politics of the city highly advocated for the execution of the policy on carbon dioxide emission reduction by making it a significant law that all actors in various departments in the town must adhere to. The political world is coupled with multiple interventions to help the policy to meet the anticipated project expectations. These are inclusive conditions that countries must understand if they intend to manage the consequences much more effectively. The measures put in place towards increasing food security and diversification of the systems of energy essentially provide useful insights to other states with a lower capacity to respond (Tietenberg & Lewis, 2016). The policy relates to the interests of the city because reducing greenhouse gas emissions contains the capacity to reduce pre-mature deaths and other environmental uncertainties. Carbon dioxide traps heat which in turn warms the globe. A surge in the levels of carbon dioxide is as a result of human activities and industrial revolutions which is causing a number of impacts around the globe. People will be expected to adapt to healthier lifestyles like finding alternatives to driving vehicles and using energy efficient technologies (Norman, MacLean, & Kennedy, 2006).

The policy relates to the built environment following the significant interactions between food, water, and energy in terms of environmental and economic outcomes. Understanding the procedures of reducing carbon emissions from the built environment can be practically complicated. However, conceptualizing such changes is important especially when one seeks to understand how buildings and infrastructure are designed, developed, renovated and managed and how these practices influence carbon emissions. According to a report from the UK government, construction companies contain the capacity to influence almost forty-seven percent of the total CO2 emissions in the UK through demolition, design, and operation of buildings (Dhakal, 2010). Although particular contracts allow construction companies to directly influence the specifications and design of developments, a good number do not. Companies are expected to build in exact specifications of the architect regardless of whether they are sustainable or not. As a result, while the construction firms might be in a position to identify where carbon savings could be established, it is not in their interest of power to change them.

The policy on Citywide plans for carbon dioxide emission reduction is of significance following its advocacy on maintaining environmental sustainability. Emissions have both short and long-term effects across national borders, human populations as well as air quality. Execution of policies that fight against this menace is an essential move for improving the quality of life and the environment that human beings thrive in. Aggressively reducing the greenhouse gases could prevent premature deaths and create a significant impact on the lives saved. The long term consequences of the policy will be realized through the reduction of the carbon footprint for saving the environment. Incidences of health problems from particulate matter will also be reduced (Norman, MacLean, & Kennedy, 2006). The policy was caused by the growing concern on a high level of GHG emissions that threatened the quality of the environment people live in, quality of health and the general well-being. This was a climate-conscious political decision that captured the interests of different political bodies and a networked effort to facilitate its implementation and management.

Is Brexit a step towards the break of the EU?

The purpose of this assignment is to explore if Brexit is a step towards the break of the European Union or a trigger for close integration among the remaining member of states. The European Union (EU) was established in order to prevent the horrors of modern warfare, experienced by most of Europe during the World Wars of the 20th century, from ever ensuing again, by aiming to create an environment of trust with the countries of Europe cooperating in areas such as commerce, research and trade (Adams, 2001). The United Kingdom joined the EU in 1973 and according to George, (1998) the UK remained an ‘awkward partner’. Additionally, due to this awkward partnership, the relations and interaction between the UK and EU have always remained unique, for example, the UK has remained one of the only EU member states to sustain their own currency and refusing to adopt the Euro which is shared among most European states. Nonetheless, since joining in 1973 the EU has always been an issue for some British citizens, therefore for many to move towards a break away from the European Union may have not been as shocking. On 23rd of June 2016, the Prime Minister at that time David Cameron held a referendum to fulfil a 2015 manifesto pledge which his conservative party had made during the general elections. The referendum sent the citizens of the United Kingdom (UK) to polls to decide on whether Britain should remain in, or leave, the European Union (EU).  The referendum still went ahead despite David Cameron having argued in 2012 that a wide support for the UK’s EU membership is necessary and may be gauged through a referendum (Kettle, 2016). The poles vote resulted in a 51.89 per cent majority to leave, the results stunned many including David Cameron, the British public, the major political parties, the polling organisations, the media, and as well as the whole of EU. The vote results showed most striking cleavages that appeared long before the referendum and it also showed the apparent divisions the urban/rural vote and in the devolved regions, for example in London majority of voters voted to remain within the European Union. (British Election Study 2016; Goodwin & Heath 2016).

Following the shocking results of the referendum David Cameron who had voted to remain, resigned shortly after as Prime Minister of  the UK and was succeeded by Theresa May. However, Theresa May too like Cameron had voted to remain. Nonetheless due to her new appointment as Prime Minister she had to honour the poles result and, emphasised on numerous occasions that the UK will leave the EU (Watts, 2016). Therefore, Theresa May invoked Article 50 on 29 March 2017 by notifying the EU Council President Donald Tusk of the UK’s intention to leave the EU (HM Government 2017b).

Brexit has brought a division in beliefs on how it will shape both the future of the UK and EU. The minority believes that Brexit will be good for the UK and EU. Whilst the common theme in most people is that Brexit will bring hardships both in the UK and EU.  Other people wait to see how the agreed Brexit withdrawal deal and negotiations will shape out. For the purpose of this assignment, I will firstly look at whether Brexit will trigger the break-up of EU. It is feared that post-Brexit the European Union will cease to exist with many authors agreeing and disagreeing on the matter. Authors such as Nicolaïdis, (2017) are somewhat sceptical of the idea that the EU can continue in its present form, arguing that flexibility, differentiation and opt-outs must become the new norm, since ‘a mosaic EU is more appealing than pushing half of its states to the brink of exit’. Gillingham, (2016) agrees stating that she is particularly unconvinced about the EU’s viability, arguing that ‘Europhoric values’ are not enough, and that the Commission and other institutions are too discredited to take a leadership role, meaning the only way forward is for a (difficult to imagine) consensus between the 27 post Brexit Member States

When it comes to Brexit many people have mainly focused on the implications for the UK, however, it also is important to reflect on the possible implications of Brexit for European integration more generally. According to Cini & Pérez-Solórzano, (2016) the challenges that Brexit brings is that it is not ‘the only game in town’, but rather one of several ‘crises’ that have been ailing the EU, and which will also affect European integration. The implications that have been discussed about the UK withdrawing from the EU include many areas that have been intertwined over the past decades such as immigration, the single market, politics, economic life, agriculture, criminal justice, judicial law and technology only to mention a few. I believe these factors raised will also have an impact on the EU, as well as refugees crossing into EU countries, Putin’s shadow over the Baltics, a threatening new eurozone debt crisis, the USA president threatening to undermine NATO and the new growing support for populist anti-European parties.

Britain’s decision to leave the European Union may have caused the uproar which may have triggered what seems to be a breakdown of the European Union as an establishment and as an economy. Britain being one of the European Union’s biggest economy and now set to leave the EU may trigger remaining states to feel vulnerable in remaining in the European establishment. Merritt, (2016) goes on to say that prior to the referendum, it was feared that the Brexit could create a precedent for many other EU countries and catalyse the dissolution of the EU.

 The UK ranks among the EU’s three largest trading partners as well as a significant contributor to financing the budget of the EU thus, accounting for 13% of trade in goods, services and almost £1 billion of British money given to the EU is spent on international aid.  Owen, (2004) stats that the decision of the UK to leave the EU is significantly going to affect budget financing of the EU, which will ultimately have great repercussions on international aid and other support and help to other parts of the world.

Therefore, it is also important to recognise that Brexit is likely to affect not only the United Kingdom but also the rest of the European Union economy through a variety of transmission channels, primarily trade, uncertainty, migration and investment. According to Charter, (2016) the implications of the Brexit referendum cannot be restricted to the UK only.

 With the government potentially not willing to sign up to the Brexit deal, this has heightened uncertainty in the United Kingdom and brings forth many questions that many political and scholars have no answers to, as well as the other EU Member States.  Hence this has brought a slowdown in investment decisions either by causing their cancellation or by delaying them while waiting for uncertainty to diminish (European Commission, 2017). This delay is bound to cause a continuous problem for the UK and EU in the future thereby affecting those countries in EU who are already financially struggling such as Italy, Greece, Spain.  The delay also creates a division between the people and the government as it heightens the collapse of the public’s trust in the government.

Britain as a state poses a great amount of influence on other European states, I believe that the divorce between the UK and the European Union could be the start of a domino effect and influence the remaining states that are less dependent on the European Union to break free and follow in the footprints of the UK. According to “office for the national statistics” (Anon., 31 October 2017) the UK contributed around £13.9 billion into the European Union also being one of the largest states to contribute.  The smaller states within the EU have already made it clear to Brussels that they would not be willing to compensate and pay more due to the

departure of the UK. After Germany, France and Italy, Britain in 2014 was one of the largest contributors to the EU budget contributing billions of euros into a very strong European economy and after 2015 it became one of the 3rd largest contributors with Italy’s economy weakening (Anon., 31 October 2017). Aside from the UK being a large contributor to the European economy it is also important to remember that the departure of the UK from the European Union will overtime present an economic dent in how progressive the European Union will move forward after the departure of the UK and such an issue could possibly move towards the break-up of the European Union.

On the other side who is to say that the EU will not grow stronger and build a closer integration of the remaining 27 states. Cini and Verdun  (2016),  laid out a counter argument stating that there will be  a more positive future for Europe once the ‘stumbling block’ of British membership has been removed, since the UK has historically blocked – or taken no part in – important moves towards greater integration, and since the lesson of Brexit may be that leaving the EU is seen to have very significant costs to the development of the European Union as an establishment. For the integration of the remaining states to be maintained or sustainable the remaining states will need to feel that they are doing it by choice. Citizens of Europe need to be allowed to exercise their right to leave democratically if they so wish to allow the integration to continue.  Caney, (2016) comments that lasting power of EU institutions would be bolstered to the extent that they conduct affairs in systematically self-reflexive ways, even when emergency action is required. Europe will need to reshape so that the EU and Non-EU members including Britain would like to be part but will this be an issue the EU take into consideration; possibly in the future. During Brexit talks, Thresa May has enhanced her want to work with Non-EU members such as China and The United States of America to strengthen trade and global affairs. The remaining European states will take note on how the EU concludes the Brexit talks, this might, therefore, determine the closer integration of remaining states. If EU shows flexibility and opt-outs with their negotiations with Britain this will allow the remaining states to not feel tied down or forced to remain unwillingly.  As Bellamy & Kröger, (2017) states the intergovernmental processes of the EU and the forms of differentiated integration it produces can be regarded not as pragmatic compromises but as matters of principle, whereby the EU seeks to achieve equality of concern and respect among the peoples of Europe.

To conclude, having understood both arguments I feel that it is fair to conclude that Brexit and future relations with the EU will be somewhat of a complex matter that even scholars and politicians will have to work with as the months go by. Currently, as the negotiations stand, the government have been in talks for several days about the context of the deal made by Theresa May and the possibility of the deal being agreed or rejected for the UK to leave the European Union in March 2019. I believe that, like many others that the UK departure from the European Union may be more problematic for the future of both parties as it will impact the economy and causes ambiguous conversations regarding Northern Ireland and their border, the future of British citizens living within the EU and those EU citizens currently living in the UK, but I feel the biggest issue would be how the EU responds to UK current deal being proposed for the departure of the EU does not favour Britain in enabling a stable future post-Brexit.

Feminist and Nationalism Ideology – 2018 Midterm Election: online essay help

John Stuart Mill; a famous influential British philosopher from the nineteenth century was one of the last systematic philosophers who made significant contributions in logic, metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political ideology, and social theory. He was a public figure who articulated on liberal platforms, pushed for various liberal reforms while serving on a seat in parliament. He was greatly admired during his time for his work in theoretical philosophy and political economy. Some of his greatest philosophical influence was in moral and political philosophy, especially towards the defense of liberalism.

To many he is believed to be the father of Utilitarianism. He once stated, “One person with a belief is equal to the force of 100,000 who have only interests” (Mills, John) . As we look at the historic 2018 Midterm Election, we can see how the Feminist and Nationalism Ideology played a role in the different candidate’s platform of 2018. For instance, many of the women candidate who won this election such as: Alexandra Ocasio-Cortez, Rashida Tlaib, Ihan Omar and many others rallied their supporter after basing the campaign on feminist ideology.

As many well know, person’s ideology is a closely held set of values and feelings, and it acts as a glass which can be used to see everything and everybody. Since these beliefs are deeply connected to the core of our existence, people often think these beliefs are natural and without a doubt are true. A person ideology is a powerful tool and it can be used to appeal to the ideal women vision of a society where women can establish and achieve political, economic, personal and social equality between both man and women. Thinkers such as Karl Marx believe ideology to be “a set of ideas used as a political tool to achieve hidden goals and interests by distorting social, political realities” (Marx, Karl) .

Everyday a nation’s population political views are constantly shifting when one factor’s in the different circumstances a person may have to endure daily. For instance, a background and circumstance can influence the decisions and views that we as people choose to cling to. Since the human mind and the world is constantly changing our views are constantly evolving and in this 2018 election that was proven to be true. Since our ideology is often affect one’s outlook on the world, this election women from different background enticed their supporters with the belief that everyone is entitled to the same rights to establish educational and professional opportunities regardless of gender and background. These women used the idea of feminism to give women hope that they can be seen as equals in a male dominant world. One particular candidate who stood out this election was Ihan Omar.

Ihan Omar is a Somali refugee, who also happened to be a first-generation Muslim immigrant who won Minnesota 5th congressional District. Ihan Omar and Rashida Tlaib both ran a progressive platform that push women of color to electoral victories across the nation during the 2018 midterm election. With Omar being a woman of Islamic descend it was astonishing to see her target controversial topic this country is currently facing such as Women’s Rights, Gun Violence Prevention strategies, Establishments of Economic Justice for working families, Creation of a just Immigration/ Justice system and etc. Omar was also considered to be unideal candidate because she has publicly identified herself as an Islamic Feminist.

An Islamic Feminist: activist and scholars, including veiled women, who carry out they’re towards women advancement and gender equality within an Islamic discursive framework (Moghadam, Valentine) . Many Islamic feminist believe that the most important key component in contemporary Muslim women’s struggle for rights is they reject the belief that they cannot be both free and equal with men and be good Muslims at the same time. They deny this proposition and instead they believe in the idea that a woman can a true Muslim only after she has achieved both freedom and equality as any individual citizen. Muslim women in our present day and age are claiming the right to freedom and equality as men although it seems as though that goal in near impossible in a male dominant society.

It is not a hidden secret that “social, economic, military, and political failures in postcolonial Arab countries have galvanized reactionary religious responses to Western domination and globalization and the corrupt values they are thought to spread” (Cooke, Miriam) . Many Islamist groups for the Middle-East are still calling for the establishment of an Islamic state governed by Islamic sanctioned by gender norms and values. This posing a threat to the Feminist ideology even though many objects to it’s ideal.

With Ihan Omar winning the election using a feminist background she pushed women to get involved in organized political movement. To many feminists, Feminism is not just a way to push women’s political agenda, it also a frame of mind that points out highlighted gender roles in understanding the organization of a society. Feminism provides the tools for assessing society’s expectations for men and women behavior, which has led to unjust situations, especially when it comes women. Miriam Cooke believes that” Feminism provides a cross-cultural prism through which to identify moments of awareness that something is wrong in the expectations for women’s treatment or behavior, of rejection of such expectations, and of activism to effect some kind of change” .

Being an Islamic woman in the public eye, Omar understood the stigma associated with Feminism and becoming a spokeswoman for women right placed a target on her form her opposing male candidate’s. As the American people are well familiar with the prevailing misogyny in the Islamic Culture, many understand the assigned gender roles that have been traditionally given to women. By being a progressive women of color Omar has re-defined the optics of Islamic women at a time where patriarchal voting patterns among Caucasian-American women are being more scrutinized. For that she has become of a symbol of American Hope and what she describes to be as the “Presidents nightmare” .

Another prevalent form of feminism that caught the nation attention was the Me-Too Movement. This is an online campaign that that supports the survivors of sexual abuse, assault and harassment. which has taken the social media world by storm. This initiative began nearly 10 years ago and has gain the media attention recently over the last couple of months. This movement began to virally spread in October 2017 as a hashtag on social media in an attempt to demonstrate the massive spread of sexual assault and harassment, especially with those in the workplace. Gloria Feldt stated in Time “that many employers are being forced to make changes in response to #Me-Too, for example examining gender-based pay differences and improving sexual harassment policies. Others have noted there has been pressure on companies, specifically in the financial industry, to disclose diversity statistics. ” When this topic came into light during the confirmation hearing, after the case between Brett Kavanaugh V. Blasely Ford, Omar made a publicize show of support towards Blasely Ford. Omar spoke out against Supreme Court Justice Kavanaugh agenda stating “We’re going to fight this nomination like our future depends on it—because it does. The next Supreme Court could undo decades of progress—rolling back reproductive freedom, affirmative action and environmental protections. We must organize, fight back and defeat this confirmation”

The topic of sexual harassment has become a dominant topic in American Politics during this Midterm election and with many female candidates on the line it was refreshing to see women like Ihan Omar speak out about this topic.

This movement has help shape women across the nation desire to get involved in politics. During campaign season Attorney General candidate Dana Nessel shot an ad campaign which brought up the issue of sexual misconduct among women. In her campaign ad she is asking voters “Who can you trust most not to show you their penis in a professional setting?”  Her response: the candidate who does not have one. For both republicans and Democrats alike, women voter was watching the candidate’s stance on sexual assault/ harassment scenarios especially after the ruling in the case of the Brett Kavanaugh v. Christine Blasely Ford public scandal. Voter polls reflected that women wanted a candidate that would be sympathetic to the cause and who better to fight for women then a woman.

Another ideology exhibited during this election was Nationalism. The emergence of Nationalism occurred during the sixteenth century inn Western Europe. This ideal was born out of Western European societies trying to shift the world’s position on Economic, Political, and Cultural leadership. The European used this ideal to “culturally unified by Western Christianity, which, independently of nationalism, and for the first time on such a broad scale in history, already began to bring other continents under its sway, thereby initiating the process of cultural, economic, and political globalization.” (Greenfeld, Liah) .

Therapeutic recreation

Therapeutic recreation may be defined as a profession that utilizes a variety of leisure-based activities as treatment modalities, to assist the lives of people with injury, illness, disability and other limitations. This is considered a helping profession because it focuses on the whole person to maximize potential. Six functional domains are considered including physical, cognitive, emotional, social, behavioral, leisure and play. It offers a unique and creative approach to meeting patients’ needs and leisure interests. This profession helps by teaching people to develop independence and form social relationships. Recreational therapists ultimately assist to reduce depression, stress and anxiety. Additionally, they recover basic physical and mental activities, build confidence and teach effective socialization strategies. Interventions including arts and crafts, dance or sports activities may be implemented as treatment modalities. Individuals with physical disability or visual impairment may benefit from learning adaptive activities. Recreational therapists also help individuals with disabilities integrate into the community by teaching them how to use community resources and recreational activities. A person in a wheelchair may be taught how to use public transportation. Social and coping skills may be developed by using a therapy dog, or animal assisted therapy to manage depression or anxiety. Therapeutic recreation values the right to leisure, autonomy, optimal health and quality of life. These are positive aspects of therapeutic recreation as a profession, while offering a unique and fun approach to helping others.

Recreational therapists endeavor to improve the well-being of their clientele. I feel that I am a good candidate as a practitioner in a helping profession because my personality is bubbly, warm and caring. I am also very understanding and patient. I have learned to develop these skills through my educational, professional and personal life experiences. Working as an intake coordinator has prepared me as a healthcare professional, by assisting to help families receive services for their children. I have had exposure to different diagnostic groups in this position including Autism, ADHD, anxiety and mood disorders, speech-language and communication disorders, etc. My genuine and humble personality has allowed me to establish a good rapport with families. It is incredibly important to develop mutual trust, friendship and affinity with others. This can also be very beneficial to a professional career. It ultimately helps one to establish good interpersonal relationships, while opening many doors for success and other opportunities. In addition, I have always had a passion and willingness to help others. This field will allow me to use my creative side and utilize diverse skillsets. I'm very driven by goals, and my enthusiasm helps to motivate and inspire others. My selfless orientation will support me in caring for, and putting my patients first. I possess empathy for others and motivation in anything that I do. I believe that I have the potential to address the needs of my patients.

Of the areas presented, I see myself working with either children or the elderly community. I feel that since working in a pediatric therapy office, I have gained increased patience, understanding, communication and listening skills. I also work well independently and as part of a team. I have the capacity to think on my feet and stay calm in stressful situations. I sincerely believe that helping children and families is the most rewarding career. Being able to help kids reach their full potential, while helping them feel happier and increase confidence would bring a huge smile to my face. Every day will be different while working with kids. I think it’s the fun challenge that interests me the most. I’ve never had the opportunity in working with the elderly population. This is something that I’ve always wanted to do. I believe having the luxury to work with the elderly will allow me to observe different personalities, behaviors and interests. It requires patience and good listening skills. The older generation love to share stories about their lives. Working with older adults will help decrease their potential of feeling lonely and allow them to experience companionship. I want to be able to make a difference in the lives of others. The elderly often appreciate your time and what you do for them. It gives a different perspective on life and you can learn from their experiences. For people with a higher level of care needed, your support is invaluable. As a recreational therapist, I will be able to support my patient’s by increasing their independence and dignity. This great accomplishment will feel rewarding, knowing that I have turned what could have been a really difficult day into a great one, full of laughter and fun activities. My interaction may be the highlight of someones day and help to enhance quality of life. Working with these groups will genuinely help support our values and beliefs as recreational therapists.

I believe that there is always room for improvement when it comes to developing professional skills. Other skills utilized by a recreational therapists that can always be improved may include critical-thinking skills, social perceptiveness, interpersonal skills, leadership skills, active listening and speaking skills, time management and organization skills , persuasion, detail orientation and creativity. Skills can be enhanced by trainings, attending workshops, taking additional courses, reading books or articles and observing other professionals. Professional skills are essential to any career and field of study. These skills are important in the field of therapeutic recreation because they will help the therapist to form a good relationship with the patient, family and other healthcare specialists. It ultimately benefits the patient which is our primary focus in this field.

What is it exactly that defines a ‘perfect’ leader for the nation?

If I were to ask if there exists a ‘perfect’ leader in our world today, the most common answer would probably be no. Still, some may answer yes – and these people would probably be able to name this leader without any hint of hesitation. This just proves more strongly that no ‘perfect’ leader exists. My point would be justified if I were to ask this question to someone who lives under a dictatorship – out of fear, these people would only have one answer. But what is it exactly that defines a ‘perfect’ leader? This would be a very difficult question to answer, especially given that a nation’s leader is not limited to their president or prime minister, but rather their whole administration or government. Thus, in assessing the leadership of a nation, we have to look much deeper and dive into the whole system of governance. However, through what aspects should this leadership be assessed?

University of Chicago scholar Jean Bethke Elshtain has proposed that “there is something mysterious about leadership, something not reducible to surveys and models.”. In my opinion, this is a very justified claim given how leaders have to deal with a broad spectrum of problems in different ways with different outcomes. It would thus be unjust to say that there exists a ‘perfect’ concept of leadership. Huang Zongxi has proposed how the happiness of the people is a duty of a leader, since the people are actually the ‘masters’ of the leader (p.33). He has also proposed how the peace and disorder of a nation is directly related to the happiness and distress of its people (p.35). Therefore, we can perceive that he correlates good leadership with the happiness of the people. However, does this apply to a nation whose people have been blindsided into happiness? Imagine if a leader had isolated a nation from the whole world, make its people live a harsh life but somehow have them believe that they are living a complete life full of happiness. This could be possible because they have nothing to reference to from the outside world to set their perspective on happiness. Of course, this is a very vague concept and many arguments can oppose its possibility. However, it still helps to present the how concepts of leadership will all have limitations. This is not limited to Huang Zongxi’s concept, but to many other concepts as well.

The perplexity of leadership has thus made it difficult to define a ‘perfect’ leader – but why am I even talking about this? Why is this perfect formula for a leader so important? Perhaps, this may be because I have observed something lacking in the leaders of today. I’m very sure that I am not alone in this opinion – constant protests around the world act as proof. Taking a look at the current situation of our world – the refugee crisis has proved to be one of the most heated topics of today. This crisis alone already shows what our leaders lack, and that is humanity. This would apply to the nations who are creating a home so atrocious that its inhabitants must flee, as well as those who aren’t sharing their home to these people who have nowhere else to go. Huang Zongxi has stated how a true leader would require the difficult task of having immense selflessness, contradicting our nature as humans to be attracted to ease (p.32). I understand that this is echoed in the refugee crisis. Taking in refugees would create a lot of problems, the solutions to which would require a lot of work. In weighing the benefits and drawbacks, humanity is often lost.

For this reason, I propose that it is now more than ever that we need to be introduced to the concept of humanistic leadership. A leadership in which morality is given the utmost importance, not ease or profits, as often seen today. We need something to help nurture us slowly into this concept of humanistic leadership. In my opinion, the texts chosen for the course In Dialogue with Humanity are in perfect harmony with this objective. Texts such as Waiting for the Dawn and The Social Contract introduce readers to a wider horizon of how a government can be run while also integrating humanity as an important aspect in governing. In analyzing these two texts, it’s very interesting to see how they begin with a self-introspection – how both these writers found within themselves a will to introduce their ideas to the world, for the sake of a better society.

Rousseau has mentioned during this part how his right to vote had alone validated his duty to express his ideas on public affairs (I, 3). I would like to emphasize on the word ‘duty’ here, as I believe the youth of today often neglect, or may perhaps sometimes even disregard their duty to engage in public affairs. However, please be advised that I am not talking about all youth. I do recognize that in today’s world of the internet many often express their opinions on world problems on social media, yet only a fraction actually seems hopeful for change and campaign for it. Perhaps they lack the determination that Huang Zongxi had shown when he talked about dawn breaking (p.32). Yet isn’t this determination important? Isn’t it a quality we require for our future leaders? It’s clear that we need to increase this fraction of the hopeful.

Jean Bethke Elshtain has shared her fascination on “what happens – what is kindled – when a particular person or persons in a particular context ignites something in others.”. It is very fascinating indeed, this ignition which she talks about. It is true that as humans, the ideas in our minds are products of inspiration, isn’t it? Even Huang Zongxi had begun “Waiting for the Dawn” with a quote from Mencius and his views on it (p.31). Rousseau would’ve never made “The Social Contract” if he didn’t realize that his society had flaws in its governance. It is valid to say then, that these two texts can in turn inspire today’s youth to develop and expound their own ideas. This is why exposure to these texts should be given importance. Perhaps this is key to the problem I have mentioned before – perhaps through Rousseau’s emphasis of his duty to engage in public affairs, or through Huang Zongxi’s candid hope for a better future, something is kindled within their readers. It wouldn’t be illogical to predict that through these texts, the fraction of the hopeful could increase.

It is not, however, limited to the attitude of these authors that readers could draw inspiration. I believe that the content of these texts could also activate the mind of their readers. I have deliberately chosen the word ‘activate’ as I believe this word better suits the objective of what I am trying to emphasize than the word ‘inspires’. This is because these works of writing have been carefully crafted to get a reaction out of their readers, making them think in new ways as well as explore greater horizons of ideas. With the integration of these texts, the possibility of greater activation only increases.

What I am saying may seem a little ambiguous at the moment, so let me present an example to help me substantiate my point. Huang Zongxi has presented the concept of ‘un-Lawful laws’ which could be said to be laws which are only set up to protect the power and the position of government officials (p.38). In a broader sense, these ‘un-Lawful laws’ could also represent those laws which benefit some and not others, or perhaps laws which are just frankly unfair. These kinds of laws are still very prevalent today – if they weren’t, I’m sure I wouldn’t be speaking about this topic at this moment. It is clear that these laws lack humanity. Rousseau, on the other hand, has mentioned how under the social contract, laws are formed through an act of agreement between the whole populace of a nation (II:VI,7-10). He has also mentioned how under this ‘contract’, the populace gives themselves into one union such that there is no interest to burden anyone within the population (I:VI,6).

Thus, we can loosely conclude that since the population is a union, the laws made by the populace will not do harm to others, as in doing so they will also harm themselves. Through this concept, an aspect of humanity has been added into the act of law-making. This concept can therefore act as a solution to the problem of ‘un-Lawful laws’, which are still evident today.

Whether this solution is a good solution or not is a whole other discussion – yet it is exactly this that I am trying to emphasize. How the concepts presented through these texts can be integrated to initiate discussions and synthesize ideas which can be applied to the modern world. The essence of humanity in these concepts adds on to the importance of these texts in training future leaders, since it is necessary for them to move towards a more humanistic way of leading. I have focused this thesis on two texts which talk more about governance, but I would like to bring light to the other, less politically charged texts as well. I believe that these texts present in the curriculum also play an important role in nurturing and developing a sense of humanity within its readers, a quality which is undoubtedly required in a leader.

I have thus far emphasized how the texts present in the curriculum for the course In Dialogue with Humanity promote the training of humanistic leadership. Humanistic leadership, however, is inevitably another concept of leadership. As I have mentioned before, every concept of leadership will have its limitations due to the complexity of leadership – this applies for humanistic leadership as well. Even Rousseau had blatantly acknowledged the limitations of the concept he had proposed – he mentions how even the general will of a population could be wholly misguided (II:VI,10). What I am trying to imply through this is that humanistic leadership is not a fully developed concept, and that these texts do not provide a complete and justified guide to the concept. However, they do give us an insight into the topic and can help us to formulate solutions to its limitations. Humanity is lacking in many of our current leaders, and these texts may hold the key to change this. Through inspiration and activation, our minds could formulate the answers we need to move towards a more humanistic future.

Murder and leadership – Joseph Stalin: essay help online free

Murder and leadership are two words that should not go together, but often in history it is inevitable for those words to have gone side by side. It is estimated that during Joseph Stalin’s reign from 1922 to his death in 1953, he took the lives of around 20 to 60 million people, yet in modern day Russian society he is one of the most respected historical figures. For decades after his death his legacy there is a continuous debate about his murderous policies versus his dedication to the Soviet Union becoming a communist world superpower. While some criticize his inhumane policies during his regime others praise Stalin for his economic and world war accomplishments. Stalin may have disregarded the human rights of his citizens, but he was able to maintain the Soviet Union during a time of great turmoil, domestically and internationally, and as a result he has earned many Russians’ respect for being a great leader and an advocate for Marxist ideology. Over the years, Stalin’s popularity and respect has progressed. In a 2017 poll by the Levada Center, sixteen hundred Russians were surveyed to the top ten most outstanding people of all time and all nations. As a result, thirty eight percent named Stalin, followed by Putin at thirty four percent, in a tie with Alexander Pushkin (Filipov 1). Although this may appear alarming at first, his popularity rating is related to the focus on the respect for his accomplishments in the Soviet Union and internationally. Joseph Stalin’s leadership in Russia is increasingly depicted not as the brutal leader of forced collectivization, and merciless political purges that claimed millions of innocent lives, but as the architect of industrialization and the leader of Soviet victory in World War II. Despite the brutality of Joseph Stalin’s political purges and forced collectivization, Joseph Stalin is considered an outstanding figure in Russian history because he transformed the Soviet Union into a world power.

To begin, Stalin’s reign of mass terror is one of the most representative characteristics of the Stalinist regime, yet it is increasingly being overlooked. It began with the mysterious assassination of Sergei Kirov, a prominent Bolshevik and a potential rival of Stalin. In response his death, Stalin created a campaign against alleged anti-Soviet conspirators. This was the beginning of Stalin’s great terror. His paranoia of anti-communist threats resulted in the imprisonment and execution of millions of people. Initially, Opposing members of the Communist Party, military officers and government officials were targeted, but as the terror reached its height, educated people and ordinary citizens such as doctors, writers, intellects, students, artists and scientists, were sent to the Gulag or executed. These Gulags, or prison camps, forced prisoners to work on large-scale construction, mining and industrial projects. The type of industry depended on the camp’s location and the area’s needs. Stalin imposed quotas for the police to carry out. The Politburo issued quotas to police authorities dictating how many were to be shot and how many sent to camps. “On June 2, 1937 there was a quota of 35,000 people do be repressed in Moscow city and province where 5,000 had to be shot. Soon after each region was given a quota and nationwide 70,000 were to be executed without trial” (Pipes 60). At its height at least one and a half million people were hauled before tribunals made up if the first secretary of the regional party, the procurator and the local security police. The proceeding lasted no more than a few minutes and the defendant would be sentenced to death, hard labor, or exile despite most being innocent. This purge even Included it’s own managers. Nikolai Ezhov, who administered the mass murders as the head of the NKVD between 1936 and 1938 was eventually removed from office, jailed, and executed. At the height of the terror, 1937-1938, there was an average of 1000 executions a day (Pipes 60). This great terror lasted throughout Stalin’s leadership and plagued society with a fear that outlasted communism. Yet in recent years, Russian President Vladimir Putin has “pushed for a revised view of Stalin’s legacy that downplays his role in mass purges as simply mistakes made by a great leader” (Fillipov 1).  This understatement of Stalin’s murderous actions to a leaders mistake from paranoia contributes to Russian citizens overlooking his and focusing on his achievements. Putin has not directly supported Stalin, but has stated that “excessive demonization’ of Stalin ‘is one means of attacking the Soviet Union and Russia” (RFE/RL, and Russian Service 2), and that “ Russia’s critics use Stalin’s legacy ‘to show that today’s Russia carries on itself some kind of birthmarks of Stalinism”( RFE/RL, and Russian Service 2).

Stalin’s indirect praise paired with the limited records available to the public results in Russian citizens overlooking Stalin’s terror. The respect for Stalin’s powerful leadership overshadows his brutal imprisonments and executions implemented during his reign.

Next, Stalin claimed the lives of many Russians through forced collectivization onto Russian peasants in his decision to fuel industrialization with collectivization. As part of Stalin’s first Five Year Plan, Stalin announced the collectivization of agriculture in 1929.  The need for collectivization was due to the Soviet Union’s industrialization where the peasants were expected to “supply the food for the industrial labor force, cities, and armed forces at rock bottom prices” (Pipes 58). This meant the liquidation of the kulak class, meaning they were to be executed or deported, as well as the abolition of private property and the concentration of the remaining peasants into collective farms. Middle and lower class peasants were obligated to work a certain amount at minimum wage on these farms for the state. Stalin would pretend that collectivization was carried out voluntarily but due to peasantry refusal to comply he resulted to imposing it through force. In resistance peasants destroyed their crops and slaughtered their wildlife so they wouldn’t have to succumb to collectivization. In response, Stalin created an artificial famine in 1932 where he shipped out all the food from entire districts and deployed the army to prevent peasants from leaving in search of food. Its estimated that 6-7 million people died (Pipes 58). Along with the famine, Stalin implemented impossible quotas for peasantry production.  He increased their starvation by implementing impossible quotas.  Soviet law required that no grain from a collective farm could be given to the members of the farm until the government’s quota was met, therefore peasants continued to lack the proper amount of food rations needed for basic nutrition. In 1932, “plans were stepped up to an unrealistic procurement quota of 45 percent of a harvest that had been much reduced by the adverse consequences of collectivization” (Livi-Bacci 746). These quotas specifically targeted the peasants in Ukraine and the North Caucasus. On average, these areas produced one-third of the harvest in the Soviet Union and about one-half of the marketed grain (Livi-Bacci 745). Despite the lack of food already, these quotas were continued to be raised. “In 1930, 32 percent of the harvest, in 1931, 38 percent, leaving the rural population with about 250 pounds of grain per capita, half the normal supply” (Livi-Bacci 745). As the famine grew, Stalin’s quotas grew as well and despite the starvation and accumulating death toll he insisted that every effort was conducted to fulfill these quotas. Stalin deliberately deprived these areas by taking away their food supply through unrealistic quotas. As a result Stalin weakened the possibility of a peasant revolt and  “by 1936, 89.6% of the peasantry were collectivized, but at the cost of at least ten million lives” (“Joseph Stalin” 3). Stalin was collectivizing these properties and forcing these mass quotas in his plan to finance the industrial revolution and solidify leadership.

Despite Stalin’s violence in collectivization, he transformed from a peasant society into an industrial and military superpower. With the First Five Year plan, Stalin developed the Soviet Union to stronger economy and increased the working class. Between 1926 and 1932 the urban population grew from 26 million to 38.7 million. Between 1928 and 1932 the number of employed jumped from 11.5 million to 24 million (Kenez 93). Women also were integrated into the industry. Prior to the New Economic Plan, less than a quarter of the industrial workers were female, but by the end of the 1930’s women made up forty percent of the industrial workforce (Kenez 94).  Stalin’s plan built up the workforce of the Soviet Union. Stalin’s First Five-Year Plan, adopted by the party in 1928, called for rapid industrialization of the economy, with an emphasis on heavy industry. “It set goals that were unrealistic—a 250 percent increase in overall industrial development and a 330 percent expansion in heavy industry alone” (“Collectivization and Industrialization” 1).  All industry was nationalized and thousands of new industrial plants were built throughout the country. In the beginning, Stalin instituted impossibly high production figures and realistic state planning went out the window because “‘planning’ was reduced to naming target figures which had little more than propaganda significance” (Kenez 90). However, this propaganda helped encourage and increase production. In 1934 there was a fifty percent increase in industrial output with an average annual growth rate of eighteen percent, while the population of industrial workers doubled (Kenez 90). Stalin approached industrialization as a preparation for another war and in return the citizens accepted lower standards of living as sacrifice for building a modern industrial infrastructure and economy. This industrialization was beneficial to the Soviet Union and increased their economic status. Many Russians link economic stability to the Soviet Union which contributes to their respect of Joseph Stalin and his role in industrialization. This is clarified by the independent polling firm, Levada, where “the percentage of Russians who regretted the Soviet collapse has dropped below 50 percent only once since 1992: in 2012, when it hit 49 percent. In the most recent polling, about 56 percent of Russians say they regret its fall” (Taylor 1). In the survey, the majority of responders listed that “the destruction of the union’s shared economic system was the main factor — in Levada’s most recent poll, 53 percent listed it” (Taylor 1). The planned and structured economy that Joseph Stalin built offered financial stability and in the aftermath of the Soviet Union’s fall, it quickly came to light that Russia’s new market economy contained less stability. This industrialization increased the Soviet Union’s economic stance but also contributed to the preparation of the Soviet Union’s strength and defense in World War II.

Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union played a strong role in World War II and helped the allied powers claim victory. This victory is a symbol of Joseph Stalin’s power and greatly contributes to his modern day appreciation and respect. Initially, Stalin had a virtual alliance with Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed a nonaggression pact with Nazi Germany on 23 August 1939. Stalin provided them with food, metals, and other scare material. Stalin even turned over some German communists who had sought refuge in the Soviet Union (Pipes 61).  Stalin ignored warnings from the Allied powers and his own intelligence services that Germans were massing troops in Poland for an attack. Then, in June 1941, Germany broke the Nazi-Soviet pact and invaded the Soviet Union.  In July 1941, Stalin reorganized the Soviet military and placed himself directly in charge of several military organizations. This allowed him complete control of the Soviet Union’s entire war effort , which was more control than any other leader in World War II. Stalin remained in Moscow where he directed the wartime policy. The Soviet Union played a very direct and personal role in the war and was subject to the major impact of the Nazi’s attack. In Ishaan Tharoor’s Washington Post article, “by one calculation, for every single American soldier killed fighting the Germans, 80 Soviet soldiers died doing the same” (Tharoor 2). The Soviet Union contributed more fighting efforts than any other country in the Allied powers. Compared to America, who lost slightly more than 400,000 soldiers and almost no civilians during World War II, The Soviet Union lost at least 11,000,000 soldiers and somewhere between 7,000,000 and 20,000,000 million civilians in World War II (Dykman 2). This contribution was essential to the victory for the Allied powers and could not be ignored during the Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam Conferences. Russian sacrifice and Stalin’s central leadership forced President Roosevelt and Winston Churchill to fully accept Soviet influence in Eastern Euro. The Red Army’s contribution to World War II and it’s leadership from Joseph Stalin, is a great source of pride and nationalism in Russia. Stalin is viewed as powerful leader whom constructed an industry and army that was the reason the Allied Powers were able to be victorious. Stalin was able to establish an gain the recognition of the Soviet Union and it’s communism system as strong world power.

Overall, Joseph Stalin’s forced collectivization and great terror are overlooked by current citizens in Russia because of Stalin’s success in industrialization and victory as an Allied power. Stalin established the communist country as a world power. He is seen as a symbol of power for nationalist pride. His crimes as a leader are increasingly being overlooked and Russians are accepting to look at the positives of his rule and their effect on Russia’s world status. Stalin’s policy put the country before it’s citizens yet he created a stronger economy and world superpower. This respect towards Stalin as a great leader are primarily born through his undeniable power as a leader and “it is easier to worship a living god than an abstract one, for his sheer power alone” (Arutunyan 1).

Ethnography

Ethnography refers to the systematic study of cultures and people that are particularly designed to examine cultural phenomena. In ethnography, the researcher explores the society from the perspective of the study subjects. The approach represents a group’s culture both in writing and graphically. The case report that the researcher presents portrays the system of meanings and the knowledge that exists within the target cultural group. Specifically, ethnography entails systematic model to learning the cultural and social lives of institutions and communities among other settings. The approach is investigative, scientific, uses accurate data collection techniques and research methods to minimize bias and promote data accuracy. Moreover, the approach applies both deductive and inductive to allow for the construction of local theories that are both culturally and socially valid so that they can be tested and utilized locally and globally. Further, ethnography emphasizes the development of the perspectives of the people involved in the research settings, whereby the researcher acts as the primary data collection tool.  Ethnography is based on the principle that how people make construct and make meaning, as well as human behaviour, are extensively locally specific and variable. This paper examines the shifting practice of ethnography from 1945 to date, and further illustrates how the shift teaches us about the relationship between the social sciences’ method and politics.

Ethnography in the Traditional Context

Traditionally, ethnography as a science differs from other scientific approaches of enquiry in that it is founded on the assumption that a researcher must focus on first discovering what people do and the factors that influence them to perform such functions before they can adequately interpret the actions using filters derives from theories derived from academic disciplines and personal experiences (Macdonald 2001).  Hence, ethnographic tools are designed for discovery before testing, and they mainly use the eyes and ears of the researcher who learn through systematic observation and interviews and systematically record what they observe, hear or see people do and assign meaning to the things that people make and do. A key weakness of the approach is that some individuals are uncomfortable with the idea of the researcher acting as the primary data collection tool, given their belief and perception of science as an objective. Hence, the interaction and presence of the researcher in environments comprising of such individuals increase the risk of achieving biased results.

Ethnography largely examines the concept of ethnicity, which applies to groups that constantly work together towards maintaining their political and cultural identity, as well as to facilitate access, advancement, and protection of the members’ resources within a national system. The position of individuals within a society is often reciprocal since it is manipulated by individuals themselves as well as the others. Commonly, people tend to act based on the structural constraints that others impose on them in the context of identities, as others tend to control the enactment of roles and redefine their limits (Macdonald, 2001). Moreover, individuals may manipulate their position by determining the people they opt to associate with and the manner in which they present themselves before others for purposes of increasing their cultural, political, and social power over other people.

These factors illustrate the need for ethnographers to determine the disadvantages that face research participants and the multiple power positions that the participants hold. However, the idea also demonstrates the need for the ethnographer to identify his or her characteristics and position, which place them both inside and outside the research site. Awareness of the position that the researcher occupies has become more significant in the recent years since it pertains to more than just the researcher being the last word to the story that is to be told based on the research. In both the traditional and modern contexts, ethnography seeks to examine the behaviour of participants and the interpretation of such behaviour (Kitching 1985). The behaviour that participants portray can be shaped by several factors, including constraints that the individuals experience following the prevailing situations in the society.

Traditionally, ethnography as an approach to research was first pioneered in the cultural, social, and biological branches of anthropology. However, in the since 1945, the approach is increasingly becoming popular in social sciences, including history, communication studies, and sociology (Kitching 1985). A typical ethnography comprises of a holistic study, including a short history, as well as an analysis of the climate, terrain, and habitat. Both the traditional and modern contexts require ethnography to be reflexive and make a tangible contribution towards understanding the humans’ social life, an express reality that is credible and present an aesthetic impact on the audience or reader. Hence, ethnographies record all observed behaviour and describe all the relations that exist between symbols and their associated meanings by applying concepts that evade causal explanations. In the traditional context, ethnography concentrated on the Western perception of the Far East, which was described as exotic. However, presently, researchers apply the approach in examining their social environments since although a society can be viewed as the native, another, or the other in the modern contexts, the society is still described as another since it is characterised by diverse facades that connect people to each other within the society as well as those facades that bring out their outstanding differences within the same society.

The Changing Concept of Ethnography and the Relationship between Politics and the Approach

The concept of ethnography has demonstrated significant changes since 1945. Berman (1996) describes the social sciences approach as more than a methodology or method, as well as more than mere observation of participants. Both in the traditional and present contexts, ethnography refers to both practice and product. Practice pertains to the fieldwork, where the researcher focuses on obtaining information about the study participants through quantitative surveys, interviews, and observations. On the other hand, the product pertains to the ethnographic monogram or the resulting written text. In modern societies, ethnography is central to the study of anthropology.

The concept examines the changes that have occurred, and it has contributed to the ramification of changes in the traditional subject matter of anthropology. In the 1920s, the term was applied to a particular tradition that defined a limited range of regional specialties in ethnography, series of theoretical problems, central monograms, a set of names in Britain (Macdonald 2001). However, the approach applied even to non-British individuals and further spread to other parts of the world, such as France. The numerous changes that have occurred to ethnography since 1945 have influenced the emergence of a new intellectual movement, beginning in the 1970s (Macdonald 2001). As observed in Britain today, anthropologists demonstrate greater diversity both in the range of research in anthropology and the immediate ancestors of anthropology that they claim.

Further, the concept of ethnography has evolved over the years, and it is presently considered as politics and politics considered as ethnography. This factor is largely associated with the idea that politics plays a vital role in influencing people’s behaviour, which forms the basis of ethnography, while the results of ethnography also influence politics by shaping the attitudes of the people towards the existing political systems through explaining the factors that lead to their behaviour towards the political systems. Berman (1996) illustrates this view through Kenyatta’s efforts to address the dilemmas that faced the Kikuyu community during the colonial period as their leader. For the leader to adequate resolve the problems; there was a need for him to satisfactorily understand the problems that faced his community by exploring the community’s behaviour at the time and seeking to establish why such behaviour dominated. The view portrays politics as ethnography in that the political process or politicians are required to study their subjects to understand their needs by observing their behaviour since the role of the system is to resolve the problems that affect their societies or people.

In the case of Kenyatta, he managed to effectively represent the needs of his people by examining the contradictions that existed between the external politics that pertained to group interests and the cultural community, which could be understood through behaviour observation. The external politics involves the extensive political debate within which African communities sought to negotiate the limits of the moral community and the foundations of social status that emerged as reactions to the changes that emanated from the introduction of such new and foreign elements as Christianity, foreign rule, print vernaculars, and capitalist production among others. These elements necessitated the establishment of boundaries and collective rule to counter the competitive forces of the ethnic objectives and leadership resulting from the alien intrusion. Berman (1996) notes that Kenyatta was able to address the people’s concerns successfully by bridging the identified gap by inventing his authority that aimed at uniting the Kikuyu community to ensure that they spoke in his voice, a united voice.

Although ethnography in the modern societies is considered to influence politics and vice versa largely, the approach faces extensive criticism as more people question the findings gathered through the approach, particularly in relation to the political perspective. However, Chilcott (1998) maintains that the structural functionalism, which is an approach to conducting research and analyzing ethnographic data is still a powerful tool today that researchers apply in social sciences. The approach possesses several strengths including the fact that it is effective in solving problems and easily understood among professional educators since it is mechanical. The functionalist approach plays a crucial role in the provision of solutions to problems that are otherwise difficult to justify through a theoretical perspective.

Critical ethnography has also demonstrated a significant contribution to politics particularly in the context of power in the culturally specific and reproductive processes. However, ethnography has changed towards the idea of the naturalization of inequalities and the construction of consent, which presents a distinct element from that of the method applied before 1945 (Banfield 2004). These changes demonstrate the close relationship between politics and ethnography through the processes of detachment, whereby the modern ethnography focuses on working with oppressed groups to understand their problems and their root courses so that they can be addressed effectively through the established political systems. According to Lather (2002) modern ethnography, which focuses on reflexive experimentation, is inseparable from politics in that it enhances the practical and political intent rather than diluting it in the context of critical ethnography.

From this perspective, de Volo and Schatz (2004) postulate that ethnographic approaches play a vital role in the study of politics and issues that influence or affect politics. In most political situations that require study, ethnographic methods form the ideal approaches for identifying the causes of problems and finding viable solutions to the problems. However, the advancements in technology, such as the computer-aided research approaches pose a threat to ethnography as it is seen as gradually becoming outdated. Despite this element, ethnography possesses a great capacity to provide insights into political life. Presently, researchers are increasingly embracing the new technological advancements in the field of research, contributing to the diminishing emphasis on ethnography in the study of politics (Li, 2011). The trend is detrimental to the study of politics because ethnography has demonstrated its strengths in adequately exploring problems affecting societies by studying human behaviour and determining the most suitable problems by analyzing the problems and the accompanying behaviour. These aspects cannot be adequately studied using such approaches as the computer-based data collection methods since some elements of human behaviour can only be studied through the direct interaction of the researcher and the study participants, which allows for the observation of non-verbal communication.

Conclusion

Ethnography has demonstrated significant changes since 1945, whereby the approach only focused on studying human behaviour with the researcher as the primary tool for collecting data as well as the final word to the results obtained. Presently, the methodology incorporates the perspectives of others as well as the inclusion of technological developments since it is applied in the study of politics as they relate to the needs of the people. The shifts in ethnography have further illustrated that politics cannot be separated from the social sciences method of research since the involve addressing the needs of the people so as the people’s objectives can be aligned with those of the political systems to minimize conflicts. Identify such needs require studying populations through ethnographic approaches, which focus on observing human behaviour and interpreting the behaviour to reveal underlying problems and suggest potential solutions. Therefore, although ethnography is increasingly getting outdated with the emergence of more sophisticated, technologically driven approaches to research, the methodology remains vital to the study of politics. Hence, there is a need to equip more researchers with the ideas of ethnography as well as the skills and knowledge essential in effectively studying human behaviour amidst the changing environment as a result of technology.

PERSONAL SKILLS AUDIT AND ACTION PLAN: college essay help near me

PERSONAL SKILLS AUDIT AND ACTION PLAN

Developing professionals

Assignment 2- MAN1087

Word count: 2986

– Executive Summary (don’t count)

The main purpose of my written report is to critically reflect on all my skills which I have developed on throughout my education and working. These skills will be analysed within my skills audit which will provide my current chosen skills and the level which I feel I am currently working at within it. This will include examples and how I feel I could improve to ensure I reach my maximum potential.  I will also include in this report an action plan which will include how I am planning on developing my current skills.

In this report I have additionally included an action plan with my three main key objective skills. The action plan consists of the tasks that I can attempt to help me make progress. Furthermore how the tasks will help, including a time frame to do this by will do and a time fame which will give a target to aim to achieve by.     

To understand the skills in which are most valuable when working in the travel and tourism industry which make someone more employable, I researched this and found a definition proposed by Mantz Yorke who suggested, the skills, personal attributes, and understanding will make graduates more employable and successful in their chosen occupation, which would therefore benefit themselves, the community, the workforce and the economy. (developing employability for business, 2013)

Introduction

In this report I will compare and analyse my current level of personal skills against the ones usually sort after in the travel and tourism industry. My current skill level will then be examined through a skills audit table, which will include a summary of a specific skill, how confident I am with this skill, an example of where I have used this skill and whether it needs to be developed. I will also develop a strategy for achieving this skill to the best of my ability.I will then continue to reflect on these skills and provide an action plan detailing how I will improve on these over the next couple of years throughout my time at university and my professional training year.

Skills audit

The table below shows my skills audit which lists many of my current skills which i have gained throughout my life, including education and part- time jobs.

Being in education for a large proportion of my life has benefited me massively as it has helped me gain skills (shown in figure 1), additionally working in a pub has allowed me to gained many new skills which I can further develop on as I get more experience and knowledge, in which the audit will show what I could improve on to make me reach my full potential in the chosen skill.

Figure 1:

Skill how I have used the skill Confidence level (1-5) Explain Improvement

Customer service Skills

This involves helping customers effectively, which involves being able to handle any issues to ensure customer satisfaction. When working in the pub, good customer service was essential to ensure customers where always happy, this involved handling complaints professionally and effectively, giving them good service to which they would want to come back. 4 I feel I have mainly good customer service skills, as recent customers who have visited the pub leave reviews and feedback about the customer service which is mainly all positive. I think I need to improve my knowledge of the business I am working for as it is a key factor in good customer service. This is something which I could have improved on when working as a waitress, when customers asks questions it is important to be able to know the answers to ensure quick customer service, for example not knowing the specials for that day when a customer asks. To improve this, I need to make sure I ask the manager when getting to work to ensure I am prepared, this will speed up customer service ensuring a happier customer.

Communication Skills

This is the ability to convey information to another, which can be verbal or non- verbal. when working in the pub it was essential to have good communication skills as it meant I would be able to regularly ask customers how the experience was and if there was anything that could be improved on to make it better. 3 My communication skills are good when in come to one to one communication but when it comes to public and group speaking I tend to not do as well as I feel more under pressure. When doing group speaking (presentations) I struggle a bit as I tend to feel under more pressure meaning I am not able to do my best which effects my confidence, but by doing this more often I would get used to it and become more confident.

Time management Skills

This is the process of planning and organizing how to use one’s time effectively or productively when working. This is a skill I developed on throughout college as I took all coursework-based subjects, this meant having multiple pieces of work due in on the same day, I was effective with this as I made sure to plan

And prioritise different pieces of work to ensure it to be done on time. 5 I would say this is one of my strongest skills which I have, as it has been developed on throughout secondary school and college from doing coursework and assignments. No improvements need to be made

Teamwork skills

This is often a crucial skill needed in life, which involves members bringing their individual skills together to construct a productive team.   This is a skill that I have recently worked on as my more recent piece of work was to create a presentation in a team, to ensure we got this work done to our best ability we made sure to have regular group meetings to ensure we all knew what we were doing, this helped as it meant we could all put our individual skills together in order to help each other out if we needed help. 3 I would say this is a skill I will need to further develop on, as it isn’t one of my strongest but there are some attributes within teamwork which I would say I fulfil, this includes being a good listener. I could improve on this skill by putting more of my input into group activities, as I stated in my communication skills, I need to develop further on public/ group speaking, ones I have improve on this I will then find it easier when it comes to putting my ideas into group work.  

Self- motivation skills

This includes the ability to effectively get things done without the influence or motivation of others. Self- motivation is a skill that I have used many times, this included in my education and part time jobs.

By having a job, it can mean occasionally having the early shift with long hours which can be demotivational, I made sure this didn’t happen by choosing a job I enjoyed this meant I would always be motivated to go to work, and wanting to work to my best ability. 5 This is a skill I feel I am good at as I know what motivates me, as I have needed to do this throughout most of my jobs. No improvements need to be made

Problem solving skills

This is the process of working through problems to try find a solution. Problem solving is a skill which I progressed on throughout working at the pub, as sometimes customers wouldn’t be happy with the food for example, and it was my job as an employee to ensure the customer was always right and deal with the complaint effectively and efficiently. 3 This is a skill I feel I am good at but I also feel there are parts which I could improve on to make me better. When working in customer service it is inevitable to come across problems which you have to resolve yourself, occasionally when faced with a problem I would panic in these situations as I would want to make sure I resolve the issue effectively but because I am under pressure I might make the wrong decision. I feel I could improve on this when faced with a problem I need to solve in the workplace it is important to be able to think how to resolve it qu

ickly and effectively, this is something I need to improve on as I tend to not work well under pressure which can result in bad decision making, consequently in the problem not being addressed as well as it could be.

Self- reflection (critical reflection and self- awareness)

My skills audit shown in (figure 1), displays all my strengths and what I can do to improve these skills to make myself more employable. When going into the travel and tourism industry there are many skills which are compulsory for employers, these are mainly customer based.

The most common skills required for employers when looking to employ someone in the T&T (Travel and tourism) industry include ‘communication and teamwork’, due to the job role being mainly customer based these skills are normally required when looking for new employees. (Skills to perfect in tourism, 2016)

– Learning skill Theories:

Figure 2, shows Gibbs Reflective cycle, this cycle makes someone think systematically about the points of experience or activity. This table is more popular amongst students as it helps when requiring reflective writing.

(Figure 2)

Reflective cycle, (Gibbs, 1988)

Figure 3, shows the Experiential cycle, this cycle has four stages of separate learning styles, as Kolbs theory involves a learner’s internal cognitive processes. Kolb’s explains in his cycle the theory that different people prefer certain individual learning styles.

(Figure 3)

The Experiential Cycle, (Kolb’s, 1984)

(Figure 2 and Figure 3) show the different learning skills learnt through either experiencing them first hand (Kolb’s) or through academia (Gibbs).  The theory which I think best suits me and my current skills is the Gibbs cycles as I prefer to write things rather than taking part in lots of activities, this cycle is best suited to most students also.

Skills that I currently working at can be found through looking at my past education and experiences, this include secondary school, college, university and past jobs.  

Most of my skills where developed when working and during college, as this was the stage at which I got my main qualification which help create my CV, this allowed me to see what I had achieved giving me self- motivation to achieve and further my education and knowledge. During college I received a Merit, Distinction and Distinction*, which helped motivate me further. Due to having to only go in four days a week for college it meant I could get a part time job on my days off which helped me gain valuable skills, these included working with new people and teamwork, this also helped me during college as it allowed me to improve my communicational skills further as this was being developed through meeting new people every day through my place of work. But working also had a negative impact, as due to me spending my only days off at work meant I didn’t have extra time to do coursework outside of college which meant I fell behind on assignments and coursework, which meant I wasn’t able to work to my full potential, this taught me to prioritise my coursework over most other things.

When starting at the university of surrey there are many new skills which I have developed as at first it is hard as you are out of your comfort zone, but it means gaining more independency.  

When first starting out at my job at the pub ‘chequers’, I found it difficult as I didn’t know the names of all the products we sold due to lack of training, as they threw me into the deep end, at first I struggled as it was my first job meaning I didn’t quite know how to deal with these situations, but using my communication skills helped as I realised I could speak to my colleagues about situations like this which I was eventually able to resolve, this also helped me develop on this skill.

Action plan

Action plans are important as they show someone the key objective skills, the tasks someone could take place in to help improve the chosen skill and how long it will take someone before they can do this skill to their full capability.

Objectives Tasks that will help develop the objective How will this task help? Time taken?

improving my Problem-solving skills To improve this skill, I could push myself when faced with a problem at work by creating measurable solutions and evaluate the best resolution when faced with a problem which means the customer is always happy. By pushing myself and resolving the issue more effectively it will mean I will learn to work better under pressure allowing me to make more tactical decisions. Always going to have problems to solve when working which means there is no time frame.

Improving communication skills To improve this skill, I could take part in my group and team-based activities involving public speaking. By taking part in more group activities and public speaking it will improve my confidence making me better at public speaking. 2 years (after university)

Improving my teamwork skills To improve this skill, I could take part in more team-based activity’s at university, for example joining more societies/ clubs. By taking part in more clubs it will allow me to improve my teamwork skills and will also help with leadership. 2 years (after university)

Conclusion

In conclusion, this report provides and comprehensive view of all my key skills, including both my strongest skills and my weakest ones. All of which I have analysed in order to find a solution to help me improve on these skills. Especially the skill required in the travel and tourism industry. This will help significantly in making me a more suitable candidate in the future when I go on to seek employment in the travel and tourism industry.

Appendices

Contacts:

Address:

Home: 69 Shelves Way, KT20 5QQ

University address: Hamilton drive 23 at Hazel Farm, GU2 9PL       

Email:  

[email protected] [email protected]     

Mobile no:                         

07539 083507                       

Skill level:

Sophie Robinson

About myself,

I am 18 years old and currently an undergrad at the University of Surrey, in my first year of university, studying international Tourism Management. I am confident and enthusiastic about working; I enjoy working with people and I am a driven team player with exceptional communication skills, I love completing tasks to my best ability. I am hard working and enjoy a challenge.

I am currently a full- time student which means I am not available to work every day, but the days I am available to work include, Tuesday before 4PM, Wednesday after 1, Friday before 3 and most weekends. After the 15th of December I am available to work most days.

Education/ Qualifications-

2018- 2021, University of Surrey

I am currently an undergraduate at the ‘University of Surrey’ in Guildford, studying International Tourism Management.

2016- 2018, Reigate college

I studied at ‘Reigate college’ from 2016 to 2018 at which I got a Distinction in Business studies, Merit in health and social care and Distinction star in Travel and Tourism, which I am currently studying at the university of Surrey to get a degree.

2011- 2016, Rosebery secondary school

I have studied at ‘Rosebery secondary’ school, from 2011-2016, during this time I was able to get 7 GCSEs; in English language, Core Science, Additional Science, Business studies and Health and social care, I also got a grade B in maths and Performing arts.  

2004-2011, Tadworth Primary School

Interest/ Hobbies:

My interests include…

Swimming, Gymnast

ics,              Ice skating, Gym and traveling.

Extras:

Full driving licence  

From November, 2017

Birthday

29th of August 2000

References:

Senior Tutor at college-

Susie Ferguson (Head of UVI Travel and Tourism) Reigate College, Reigate            01737 221118x 533 [email protected]

Manager-

‘Checkers pub’ Checkers Pub, Walton on the Hill 01737 812364   [email protected]

I have completed ‘The Duke of Edinburgh’ Bronze award which I achieved over the year in 2015. I also did a lifesaving course which I managed to get my Bronze, Silver and Gold award in (from 2013-2014), before this I got my Bronze, Silver and Gold Swimming Certificate (from 2012- 2013).  While I was at school I managed to get my Trinity College singing Certificate which I got to Grade 4, and Grade 5 in Musical theatre.  I have also got to level 7 in Trampolining (2014).

I also have a full driving licence since November 2017.

Experiences/ other-

 My experiences include being a shop assistant in Oxfam, Epsom which I did for my Bronze D of E as work experience, I volunteered here from September 2015- March 2016, which was around 7 Months.

I occasionally babysit for friends and family which I have done for a few years.  

When I was in year 11, I helped out with the Year 7, as a peer group leader. Me and a few other people in my year where chosen for this job as only a 10 where chosen in the year group, this job meant I helped the year 7s if they wanted advice of help with something.  

I also helped with a cake sale raising money for a charity in 2015 for my school as each class had to put together an event to help raise money.

Working in ‘The Checkers Pub’ in Walton on the Hill; I worked here for 6 months from January 2017- July 2017.

My most recent job was ‘Coughlan’s bakery’, which I work for around 4 Month (June- September), I enjoyed this job but had to leave as I went to university which wasn’t nearby.

References:

 

– Mary Lumley, James Wilkinson, M, 2013. Developing Employability for Business, 1st edition online edition (https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=zq8VAgAAQBAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s)  

– My world of book, M.W.O.B. c2016. Skills to perfect, if you want to work in tourism. (10/12/18). Online edition (https://www.myworldofwork.co.uk/five-soft-skills-perfect-if-you-want-work-tourism)

– Reflective writing: about Gibbs reflective cycle, R.W.c1998. Gibbs reflective cycle. Online edition (10/12/18) (https://www.brookes.ac.uk/students/upgrade/study-skills/reflective-writing-gibbs/)

– Kolb's learning styles and experiential learning cycle, E.L.C. c2017. Kolb's Experiential cycle. Online edition (10/12/18). (https://www.simplypsychology.org/learning-kolb.html)

Psychological and sociological variables influencing consumer behaviour: essay help free

Evaluation of psychological and sociological variables influencing consumer behaviour.

Consumer behaviour is the study of consumers and the processes they use to choose, use (consume), and dispose of products and services. A more in-depth definition will also include how that process impacts the world. Consumer behaviour incorporates ideas from several sciences including psychology, biology, chemistry and economics. I will be looking at an example of both psychological and sociological factors that can have an effect on consumer behaviour, why they do so and what effects they have on consumers- both positive and negative. I will also look at theory’s that can support the variables that have been discussed.

Sociological factors are the ‘experiences that influence individuals' personality, attitudes and lifestyle.  And can include factors such as ‘Reference Groups, Immediate Family Members, Relatives, Role in the Society  and opinion leaders.  An example of a sociological factor is opinion leaders, they can have a major influence on consumer behaviour as we look up to these people for inspiration and motivation. ‘An Opinion Leader is an individual capable to repeatedly persuade and influence other people's behaviours according to her/his own preferences. Opinion leadership is achieved and sustained through a person's technical competence, social skills and compliance with the values and norms of his current social system.' . Since the development of technology and the internet, ‘online influencers’ have become the new age celebrity and have influence over consumer behaviour through brand deals. ‘The media (influencer) injects the message into audience mind and it causes changes in audience behaviour and psyche towards the message. The audience are passive, and they can't resist the media message is called "Hypodermic Needle Theory" ’For example, Tammy Hembrow, an Australian Instagram model, YouTuber and all-round internet famous mum, collaborated with the White Fox Boutique  – an Australian brand- Tammy has over one million subscribers on YouTube and almost nine million followers on Instagram. As her audience sees her as a role model, they are likely to take influence from what she promotes and consume the brand's products, brand deals like this are also likely to include money off or a percentage discount. Whit fox Boutique is likely to have asked Hembrow to collaborate with their brand as she is the type of customer they are targeting, and by doing so are exposed to her followers who look to her for inspiration.

The positives of this are that it allows consumers to indulge is brands that they can receive reviews from people they trust, however, it has been discussed that influences like Tammy are paid to give good reviews of a product and has led to people questioning whether to trust the reviews , consumers are also getting tired of seeing the same old repetitive style adverts that promote brands, they want different rules in the way influencers can advertise brands, this is a negative side and proves that the hypodermic needle theory has become outdated. Despite this it allows consumers to see the products they may potentially buy on the influencer, giving them often; a full view of a product, they can also be told whether they need to size up or down depending on the fit- overall influencing their behaviour and decisions. Opinion leaders are also a positive for a business as well if they gain a good relationship with the brand, the influencers are likely to promote their brand to the consumers on a day to day basis, tagging them in ‘ootd’ outfit of the day post, giving the brand promotion when tagged.  

Factors such as opinion leaders and the hypodermic needle theory may also have some negatives for niche audiences and brands, as the smaller brands may not be able to afford to be sponsored by an opinion leader. Another downside of opinion leaders is that the way in which the promote brands they personally like means that the diversification of brands may not occur and the followers – a specific group of people- will buy into that specific brand, this controls their consumer behaviour. This theory was created in 1940- this theory may now be outdated- and the way in which we consume media may have changed since their theory was created. Even though the theory suggests that it changes the opinion and views of the audience the opinion of the opinion leader may be rejected, and the consumer’s behaviours may not change and may not have influence over their buying habits, their habits may be influenced by their age, gender, religion and all personal factors, making each customers reception individual.

However, this is not the only variable inflecting consumer behaviour, psychological factors also have an effect on consumer behaviour as well.  ‘Psychological factors refer to thoughts, feelings and other cognitive characteristics that affect the attitude, behaviour and functions of the human mind.’  Psychological factors include factors such as perception, motivation and attitudes, these factors will all have an influence over whether a consumer buys into a brand and all in all affects their behaviour. The psychological factors can be influenced by experience or taught behaviour.

Perception is a major psychological factor that affects consumer behaviour, perception is the way in which we are viewed by others or the way in which we view ourselves. Perception can affect which brand a consumer will buy from, for example a consumer in which buys from Primark may feel as though they perceive themselves as less wealthy or valuable, however, a consumer that buys from high-end brands such as Gucci or Louis Vuitton may perceive themselves as more valuable as the brand is more expensive, reflecting on their wealth personality. This psychological factor of consumer behaviour is individual and will vary depending on consumer and brand. As well as self-perception; what brand a person buys into may also make them be perceived differently by other people, higher-end brands may reflect a richer, more valuable person whereas, someone who buys into lower-end brands such as Primark and H&M may be lower class. Morals – bother perceived and actual may also be affected by perception- Buying into brands such as Canada goose may lead other people to believe that they support the techniques that the company use to gain raw materials such as the fur, leading people to believe that this consumer has low morals as it supports the killing of animals for consumption.

How we are viewed by other people can have an effect on consumers’ needs and wants. Maslow hierarchical structuring believe that self-actualisation is the final point of fulfilment and by then, all needs should be met, and the consumer will be happy, this will have a positive effect on both consumer and business. The consumers need will be met through material products, giving them a sense of self-worth and belonging, it will also help them identify to a certain group of people, whether that be through the style of clothing or wearing a specific brand. Another positive is that the business will gain a loyal group of customers that will want to identify with their brand, reflecting their brand values. It is also a positive thing that the perception of a brand can also increase sales , with on-trend products- fulfilling consumer needs- comes an influx of sales, meaning that brand and businesses will gain capital. However perception may also be a negative factor influencing consumer behaviour, the trends and influxes that come from people wearing a brand to become part of a group or to reflect a certain image may then lead to a decrease in sales if the brand is no longer ‘on-trend', this may be unexpected for a brand and may possibly lead to them having a sudden change in profits. ‘“Companies will need to fundamentally revisit their way of working a

nd transform themselves,”   re-branding or remarking to maintain consumer loyalty, even after they are on trend can be expensive and take time’.

Overall, I think perception has the biggest influence on consumer behaviour, customers may want to portray a certain look or support a brands ethics. I think that in the retail landscape although opinion leader have some influence over what we buy and what brands we buy into, overall it’s the consumers choice whether or not to buy into a brand or trend, we have become powerful in what brands we wear and support, some consumers will buy into a brand just to follow a trend however, many consumers have their chosen brands that they are loyal too who may or may not be buying into trends such as leopard print or floral prints- now-days may consumers are likely to stray from their favourite brand, however they will always return to consume their products. Consumers may also subconsciously be buying into trends depending on what theory preferred brand puts in their stores. Perception plays a big part in peoples mental health, consumers reflect what they want to look like, what their ethics are, and not how and brand wants them to wear, fulfilling their needs and wants. I personally think that perception of a brand has more influence over what I wear, I take some notice of what opinion leaders have to say, however, do not base my purchases on someone else's needs and wants, I focus on my own.

1541 words

Bibliography

Consumer goods: big brands battle with the ‘little guys’ Scheherazade Daneshkhu, 28/02/18 04:01am, The Financial Times,  https://www.ft.com/content/4aa58b22-1a81-11e8-aaca-4574d7dabfb6  DA(04/12/18)

CLOTHING/SWIMSUIT HAUL | White Fox Boutique, Tammy Hembrow, 15 Nov 2018, Youtube.com https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iry7eGZfNNQ DA(05/12/18)

Good one to know!, (author unknown) (publish date unknown) businessdictionary.com  http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/social-factor.html DA (04/12/18)

Magic Bullet Or Hypodermic Needle Theory Of Communication (author unknown) (publish date unknown), communication theory, https://www.communicationtheory.org/magic-bullet-or-hypodermic-needle-theory-of-communication/ DA(04/12/18)

Millennials And The 'Reverse Branding' Trend (author unknown) Josh Ong, Dec 6, 2017, 09:00am, , Forbes, https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbescommunicationscouncil/2017/12/06/millennials-and-the-reverse-branding-trend/#5c75547a4896 (DA-04/12/18)

People are getting sick of 'repetitive' influencer posts and 49% want stricter rules on ads Rebecca Stewart 02 August 2018 13:24pm, The Drum,  https://www.thedrum.com/news/2018/08/02/people-are-getting-sick-repetitive-influencer-posts-and-49-want-stricter-rules-ads DA(04/12/18)

Social factors affecting consumer behaviour, Prachi Juneja, (publish date unknown), managementstudyguide.com, https://www.managementstudyguide.com/social-factors-affecting-consumer-behaviour.htm DA(04/12/18)

What Are Psychological Factors?, (author unknown) (publish date unknown) Reference, https://www.reference.com/world-view/psychological-factors-1a0d49d475ccbf16 (DA-04/12/18)

What is an opinion leader? definition and meaning, ©2013 Brief, (publish date unknown), Mbabreif.com, http://www.mbabrief.com/what_is_opinion_leader.asp DA(04/12/18)

Where will you be in 5 years time?

In Five Years…

I will be in my Junior Year at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, working towards my Masters degree before going on to get a PhD at a medical school of my choice.

At IUP, I plan to start my career of becoming a neonatal Neonatal Nurse which is, “nursing that works with newborn infants born with a variety of problems ranging from prematurity, birth defects, infection, cardiac malformations, and surgical problems” (“Is A Career in Neonatal Nursing Right for You?”).

I want to do something that is challenging, interesting, and makes a difference in the lives of those around me everyday. Helping families through a difficult situation is a very satisfying thing and, being a person who gets bored of things quicker than I should, something that would help me maintain interest in the career would be, “the wide variety of options in terms of schedules, locations, and levels of responsibilities” (Santiago).

I want a career that doesn’t only involve me using the things I know but also learning and growing from the thoughts and ideas of those around me. I personally think that the nursing career is the most interesting and growing career there is available in this day and age. As a nurse, challenging yourself to do better would be a daily occurrence, wanting to make sure that your patients hospital visit is a success. I want to work in a place that can both challenge me mentally and physically rather than a place where I’m doing the same thing everyday.

I will be in my Junior Year at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, working towards my Masters degree before going on to get a PhD at a medical school of my choice. In my college career I plan to extend my arms and fully embrace clubs and extracurricular I would never do in high school. In five years I want to worry about myself and my goals, always reaching higher than I did the day before to make my dreams become my reality.

Education / Training

I am looking to enroll in Indiana State University, “a four year university.” However not the best school for Nursing it is well within my budget and very capable and, ““IUP does a really great job of preparing you. They have a 96 percent pass rate on that (referencing the […] exam)-on the first try,” said Megan Spangler, nursing major” (“Nursing, BS”). I will be able to be trained at a hands-on pace and my first year,  “I’ll spend taking required science and liberal studies courses” (“Nursing, BS”). Studying at IUP will also train me to have critical thinking skills needed for the operating room, leadership roles and communication skills needed for having a successful career.

Applying for extracurricular activities is a major part of my life so I plan to involve myself in at least a few clubs, like the Big Hearts Little Hands Mentoring Program because my career will deal with children so the program would help me connect with children easier. I plan to job shadow other Nurses to see what types of things they do as daily tasks, familiarize myself with the stuff I would have to do in an everyday situation.

IUP has a very good hands on program called “Simulation Labs” which are,  “state-of-the-art home health, birthing, and critical care suites that are equipped with computerized mannequins” (“Undergraduate Programs In Nursing and Allied Health Professions”). I would also like to work with their “Clinical Exposure” program which is a program that “gradually exposes you to the real-life world of nursing by placing you in various clinical environments for three of your four academic years”(“Undergraduate Programs In Nursing and Allied Health Professions”). As well as Simulation Labs and Clinical Exposure, “Nursing courses and clinicals begin in the first semester of your sophomore year” (“Nursing, BS”).

Junior Year of Bedford High School

My junior year I plan to take Anatomy, Biology, Chemistry, other classes related to Nursing and sciences and any other required classes like Maths and English. I plan to stay in SADD and hopefully find other interesting clubs to join. I need to maintain a high GPA, which could help me to get into College easier (gives me a better chance) and I would start preparing for the SATs or ACTs. I would want to start going to College Fairs or begin job shadowing nurses to see what things they actually do. I would also start touring colleges and might even apply to IUP early.

I would like to have a job by this point, most likely at Sheetz and would like to start saving up for college and/or other things I may or may not need throughout the rest of my high school life and through my college life.

In my junior year I really want to start branching out and maybe expanding my social skills or start learning about something I find interesting. I want to work on becoming more responsible.

I want to start speaking with my guidance counselor and researching what college life is like. I want to work on getting my life ready to start my senior year and I want to begin to gain perspective on how I want my life to turn out and what choices I need to begin making to be able to do the things I want to do with my life.

Senior Year of Bedford High School

My senior year I plan to keep my grades up, which may be easier said than done. I would start thinking more about what I would like to do in college, like what extra activities I would want to do and if I haven’t applied to IUP yet, I would do that now. I want to try and involve myself in more extracurricular activities.

In senior year I would like to try doing senior challenge, maybe I would start my freshman year of college as my senior year of high school. I also want to start going out of my comfort zone a bit in my senior year, like doing an activity I haven’t tried before. Considering I haven’t spent more than a week away from my own house maybe I’ll start preparing mentally for not being with my family as much when I start college.

I want to start speaking with others who plan to go into the medical field in college and ask them why they wanted to go into that field, maybe ask them what it takes to prepare yourself to be able to get the degree I want.

I may miss the security of always knowing what was coming for me when stepping through the high school doors. So, maybe I will take a year off to smell the roses and get my affairs in order before going to college, but I do know that either way I will always remember the fun I had in high school.

The Next Step

For me, the next step began with emailing Ian McIsaac, an Assistant Director of Admissions at IUP to ask about which prerequisites I should take in order to have a successful time throughout my college career. IUP doesn’t have required courses for nursing students during their high school career, “However, it is highly recommended that students interested in nursing take classes related to chemistry, biology and anatomy/physiology.” Classes in these areas during high school will lay a foundation that you can build upon during your career at IUP (McIsaac).

After being informed of the GPA and SAT scores I would need I also set up a system to make sure I kept my grades up, “The most important aspect of a nursing applicant is to maintain a high gpa (3.25 or greater on a 4.0 scale)   and high SAT scores (at least a 1030)” (McIsaac).

I began to talk with some of my friends that also considered joining the Nursing field and why they wanted to get into that field. I also began looking at blogs or other internet passages about nursing and what types of things Neonatal Nurses did on the daily. I began really worrying about my grades and constantly trying to get a better score so my GPA remained high.

I also plan to volunteer at the Bedford Humane Society to give me an idea of how helping people and/or animals get healthier and know how it is to actually work in a place that is trying to better society.

Claudius was a man of two sides and two faces (Hamlet): essay help free

One could consider the fact that mind is one’s greatest weapon. The conscious and the unconscious all serve as parts of the powers of the mind. Amazingly, the thoughts you think, or the way you perceive things affects a lot of what you do and how you feel. Claudius was a prisoner of his own mind, or a prisoner of his own conscience.  The conscience can either lead one in the right direction, or it can lead to one’s demise. When listened to, the conscience gives a clear judgment of one’s current status. It will then lead one to peace or ultimately to destruction. One could make the conscious decision to not follow one’s conscience and suffer the consequences, or one could listen to his conscience and be free of mental torment and anguishing feelings of guilt. When a bad decision is made and one is aware of the bad decision they have made, it leads to mental torment for the individual. This torment causes him to be in a constant mental battle with his conscience. Mental torment is the case for both Macbeth and Claudius. Throughout Hamlet and Macbeth, both by William Shakespeare, Macbeth and Claudius both experience mental torment for selfish murders committed in vain, against Duncan and Hamlet Sr., and this torment leads them to a life full of guilt and loneliness.

​In the play Hamlet, Claudius is thought to be the villain. He is the main character or the antagonist and is characterized as everything a villain is thought to be, deceitful, cunning, and manipulative. The villainous traits of Claudius are shown as we see the way that he was able to even get the throne to become King. The immediate reading of Claudius’s actions paints him to be the villain we feel he is in addition to making him Hamlet’s (the protagonist) enemy.  Hamlet commits many heinous acts throughout the play. After killing the king, he marries the King’s newly widowed wife. Claudius tries to discharge the slain king’s son; he turns others against the king’s young son and even convinces them to help him murder young Hamlet (1.5.42, 60-74). Claudius does not try to hide his actions either which makes him seem like a complete villain. Many villains have an excuse as to why they are villains Macbeth was influenced by witches, but Claudius was simply greedy and selfish and wanted everything his brother had so killed his brother and took it all.

​Through the soliloquy given by Claudius, we see the true thoughts and feelings he has. He says: “My offence is rank. It smells to heaven (3.3.37).” Claudius is showing that he knows his crime was wrong and he realizes the gravity of what he has done. He also says “Pray can I not (3.3.39).” which is where the he is evoking sympathy because he feels he cannot pray because of the guilt he is carrying. Although these do not justify his actions, these quotes do show that he is aware of what he has done and feels some sort of empathy, regret and guilt for what he has done. These emotions are not usually those of a complete villain. Claudius was driven by jealousy and greed and it is said that “Greed is a bottomless pit which exhausts the person in an endless effort to satisfy the need without ever reaching satisfaction.” Perhaps this bottomless pit of greed Claudius had in him was filled with guilt and remorse for all that he had done. Perhaps this greed drove him to do things he would regret for life, this does not make him purely evil, in some ways, this makes him a merely flawed human being overpowered by an addictive emotion.

Throughout “Hamlet” by William Shakespeare, Claudius, shows us two faces of himself when he shows himself as a good king publicly, while privately and mentally being a bad person. His actions, as well as the meaning behind everything he says to others, are proof of his morality. His leadership and characteristics regarding politics govern his potential as a “good” king, while his ideas, personal actions, and manipulative speech paint his “bad” side. Claudius is a good king and he tries to lead his country wisely. This can be seen throughout Act 1, scene 2 lines 16-38, where Claudius tells of Young Fortinbras’ assumption of Denmark’s political state of weakness, and his concern for getting back the lands that his father lost. The king reacts by sending ambassadors with a message to Young Fortinbras’ uncle, in hopes of resolving the issue peacefully. This choice of statesmanship over war shows that Claudius is wise and just when faced with the decisions of a king. The king is also shown to be flexible and caring for his subjects. He replies, “Take thy fair hour, Laertes; time be thine, and they best graces spend it at they will!” (I, ii, 62-63), when Laertes requests leave to France, this shows that Claudius is considerate and allows his subjects freedom of action. Seeing these specific traits show that Claudius can still be a good king, despite being a not so good person.

Claudius was a man of two sides and two faces. Sometimes one face overpowered the other. But, when one face became the main face and Claudius was not able to separate himself from that face and who it made him become, he became a prisoner in his own mind. Claudius was jealous and consumed by this jealousy and greed. Although he tried to be a good king, ill gotten positions can never be rightfully yours. I do believe that Claudius was somewhat remorseful for what he did but due to the fact that he wanted the throne and got it, he wasn’t able to fully show it except through his speech in his soliloquy. Claudius dies in the same way that he killed King Hamlet, with poison. In the end, Claudius did not end up growing old on the throne because the throne was never his, all he wanted was to be king.

The Trait Perspective – personality

Personality is “a dynamic organization inside the person of psychophysical systems that create the person’s characteristic patterns of behavior, thoughts, and feelings.” Personality itself is such an abstract concept and has been difficult for psychologists across the field to define.  The use of the term personality conveys a sense of consistency about the being of an individual.

The Trait Perspective is one approach to describing personality that suggests that people are consistent in their actions, thoughts, and feelings and that people differ from each other. The perspective assumes that traits are always changing and that this is reflected in our behaviors. Its basis is on a continuum that a set of traits can be applied to anyone, but individuals are different in what traits influence their personalities and behaviors. It indicates that our personality structures are based on a series of traits (Carver & Scheier, 2017).

The Five-Factor Model is a model that suggests that personality incorporates five superordinate factors. The model was first put forth by Ernest Tupes and Raymond Christal in 1961. It was further developed by JM Digman in 1990 and then Lewis Goldberg (2018). The system itself was created through a statistical procedure known as factor analysis. Factor analysis determines how ratings of different personality types are related in humans (Srivastava, 2018). The model itself took many years to develop as more and more evidence was discovered. Initially, psychologists attempted to recreate Raymond Cattell’s 16 factor model but found instead that there were 5 main personality traits. This occurred with many psychologists over the span of 20 years. All were able to conclude that 5 factors, rather than 16, was the most efficient and effective model to describe personality. This conclusion has been cross-cultural, as well. Studies conducted in the Philippines and Turkey have produced similar results.

The five factors are neuroticism, openness to new experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness. Neuroticism is considered to be a measure of one’s confidence. A high score would suggest  more negative traits. A low score would indicate more emotional stability and better temper. Some traits associated with a high neuroticism score include insecurity, nervousness, anxiety, oversensitivity, and awkwardness. Those who score low in neuroticism tend to be more self-confident while those who score high are likely to be awkward, temperamental, or worrisome.

Openness to new experience is the depth of someone’s mental state regarding life experiences. It can also be referred to as imagination. Some traits that are associated with a high openness to new experience score are intellectual, creative, adventurous, curious, and imaginative. Someone with a high score would think outside of the box, be vulnerable, and have a love learning. An individual with a low score would prefer a more routine lifestyle and would steer away from abstract ideas.

Conscientiousness is the ability to control an impulse. Conscientious people generally work towards goals, are organized, and act in socially acceptable ways. Traits that are associated with a high conscientiousness score are ambitious, reliable, self-disciplined, and thorough. Generally, conscientiousness is associated with success.

Extraversion is how someone interacts with others and how they garner their social energy. Extroverts prefer to spend time with others while introverts tire from interacting with others. A high score on the extroversion scale would indicate an extrovert while a low score would indicate an introvert. Extroverts generally tend to be social, outgoing, energetic, and friendly. Introverts are usually more quiet and reserved.

Lastly, agreeableness is how well an individual gets along with, and interacts with, others. Those who score highly in terms of agreeableness are helpful, considerate, loyal, and patient. Agreeable people are well respected, liked, and easy to work with. Unagreeable individuals are rude, unsympathetic, and can be abrasive.

The Trait-Perspective best explains personality because there is consensus across the field about its assessment and claims. In addition, the perspective has roots stemming in history, showing that the perspective has withheld time and is reliable. Lastly, the perspective accounts for a broad-range of factors that contribute to personality. Traits are relatively stable when it comes to personality and the perspective accounts for individual differences among people based on what traits dominate their personalities (Carver & Scheier, 2017).

Evidence

One unique aspect of the Trait Perspective and its assessment forms is that it can be used in the diagnosis of mental illnesses. One of the main forms of assessment in the Trait Perspective is the Five-Factor Approach which assesses openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. A study conducted in 2014, “Psychopathy from a Basic Trait Perspective: The Utility of a Five‐Factor Model Approach,” investigated how psychopathy can be related to the traits outlined in the Five-Factor Model. The study also aimed to determine the usefulness of the Five-Factor Model, which was later determined to be very functional. Lynam concluded that those who suffer from psychopathy produce very similar trait profiles based on the Five-Factor Model. Because of this, the Model allows for personality psychologists to better understand psychopathy, trait by trait (Lynam & Miller, 2014).

Another study, “Human nature and culture: A trait perspective,”explores how the Trait Perspective is promising in understanding human nature. Through this study, the Five-Factor Model was applied cross-culturally and was found to have validity in many different countries. The Model was best applied in countries that foster individualism rather than collectivism. The study was able to conclude that the Trait Perspective allows us to better understand personality and behavior, even in at an international setting. This is important in establishing which perspective best describes personality because it accounts for differences of all natures. The paper also discusses how the perspective continues to advance and celebrates the consensus of the Five-Factor Model (McCrae, 2003).

Lastly,  in “Trait-Based Perspectives of Leadership,” Stephen Zaccaro argues that because of the Trait Perspectives advances in its methods over the last ~15 years, the Perspective has become the most prominent in addressing differences among individuals and in the identification of leaders. Zaccaro suggests that the Trait Perspective can be used to predict whether or not someone has leadership capability based on trait patterns they exhibit. He also argues that the presence of certain traits can be situationally-based, especially when it comes to leadership effectiveness (Zaccaro, 2007).

The aforementioned studies and papers further indicate that the Trait Perspective has the most validity when explaining personality. They demonstrate that the Trait Perspective allows for psychologists to understand individual differences, trait by trait, can be used in the diagnosis of certain mental illnesses (especially personality disorders), has cross-cultural application, and can be used to predict how someone behave, especially based on situation.

Limitations of the Trait Perspective

While the Trait Perspective is the most comprehensive approach to understanding and explaining personality, there are also limitations to the approach. One of the biggest limitations is that the perspective doesn’t explain how an individual goes from trait to action. It doesn’t provide any information on intrapersonal functioning. Because of this, the Trait Perspective suggests that personality is unchanging. The traits outlined in the Five-Factor Model can characterize someone, but doesn’t explain why a person is that way or acts that way.

The Trait Perspective unfortunately can also be viewed as circular in its explanation of personality. Often times, personality psychologists (or individuals in general) determine that someone has x trait and use that to explain a behavior. Similarly, traits can be “concluded” from certain behaviors forming a circular explanation.

Lastly, because the Trait Perspective has been so consistent over time, it doesn’t always account for certain traits only being present in certain situations. It suggests that behavior is more static than it actually is. Despite this, the perspective is long-rooted in history and has been tested over time, implying some validity to its explanation of personality.

Limitations of Other Perspectives

Apart from the Trait Perspective, there are many other theories and perspectives that suggest explanations for behavior. However, these perspectives also have their limitations. One of these perspectives is the genetic influence of behavior. This perspective suggests that personality is inherited and certain behaviors are a result of evolution. While this may hold true, there is still much research left to be done regarding how genes influence our environment and how that later influences our behavior. In addition, it’s unclear how many traits are heritable and genetically influenced. Furthermore, the field of evolutionary psychology is mostly based off of hypotheticals and predictions due to how recent the field itself is. Evolutionary psychology is also criticized for its social implications due to its sometimes political and social overtones.

Another perspective is the motive perspective. This approach assumes that behavior is based on a set of needs. As these needs become more and more intense, behavior is more likely to be influenced. These needs include things such as need for affiliation, need for intimacy, need for power, and need for achievement. Because a lot of this perspective is based on assumption, the qualities that have been studied in this perspective have been arbitrary. The psychologist behind this study, Henry Murray, used his own intuition, rather than concrete scientific thought. Additionally, Murray said that personality was influenced by multiple needs. This has not been demonstrated in research as only individual needs and their influence on perspective have been investigated.

V. Conclusion

In conclusion, the Trait Perspective best explains personality. There is strong research evidence and data that further supports this claim. The Trait Perspective focuses on personality differences among individuals, measures different personality characteristics, and takes into account a range of personality traits. Finally, the perspective has cross-cultural evidence accounting for individual differences amongst a wide-range of individuals.

Designing change in organisations (Nardelli / Home Depot)

1a) According to Rafaelli when designing change, leaders must make choices that fit the gap in the organization and the set of challenges the change might face. These choices together are the ‘SORT’ of change the organization will need. After careful reading, it can be inferred that the SORT of change that Nardelli is implementing in Home Depot is radical in scope, top-down in origin, a system-wide rollout, and fast in timing.

Incremental changes are those make small modifications to existing organizational systems, processes, and routines, meanwhile, radical changes are those that affect almost every aspect of the organization including culture, assessment measures, etc. With this definition in mind, we can see that the changes Nardelli implemented were more radical. For example, he instituted common metrics that produced ‘companywide’ data in areas that had not been consistently measured before and he integrated new culture into the organization through two-hour Monday morning conference calls with 15 top executives which would later go out to all 1800 Home Depot stores. Going from an organization where managers could mark directives from HQ as “B.S.”, this Monday morning calls that required everyone to be engaged was indeed a big culture move.

The origin and timing of the change in Home Depot are top-down and fast because it was clearly planned with clear directives and goals by the leader Nardelli. We can see this right from the beginning of the case when he hired a trusted colleague shortly after arriving, signaling he was ready to initiate the change right away. Another example of how fast the change was is the “Super Saturday” where the entire structure of the organization was re-organized in just 3 hours 30 minutes. The leaders also initiated this.

The aforementioned examples also demonstrate that the rollout of change at Home Depot was system-wide. It involved all the divisions and branches across the United States.

b i) According to the Burton et al. model, climate is characterized by a readiness to change and degree of tension. When Nardelli arrived at Home Depot they were operating under an internal process which is marked by low readiness to change and high tension.

Some instances that illustrate how Home Depot had a low readiness to change include: “no one wanted an outsider, as Nardelli himself acknowledges that would GE-ize their company and culture”. Much of the top executive team left the company during Nardelli’s first year. And “a year and a half after Nardelli took over as CEO there was still significant opposition within the organization to the changes they were making” (Chamram, pg 3 & 7).

We can see the high levels of tension on page 5 of the case where the author notes that ‘people in merchandising, operations, and stores traditionally distrust each other… the vice president for stores in Home Depot’s southern region recounts that in the pre-Nardelli years a meeting involving these three groups “was basically a food fight.” ’. But these tensions seem to exist on a wider scale and not within the different stores. An illustration of this is on page 1 where the author describes Home Depot as a ‘freewheeling yet famously close-knit’, and also on page 3 where the author further describes the culture as having people that are ‘unusually passionate to the customer and the company”.

However, since Nardelli is rolling out a system-wide change, we can go ahead with the high tension categorization.

ii) An internal process climate is not appropriate for Home Depot because it creates a misfit with the strategic changes  Nardelli plans on implementing. Home Depot was not faced only with low inventory turns and low margins but also with a new competitor, Lowe’s. For Home Depot to avoid a decline in growth and avoid getting beat out by the new competition it needs to be in a climate with high readiness to change and high tension. The tension won’t necessarily be all negative, it should be just high enough to create urgency and drive performance.

Nardelli recognized that the readiness to change at Home Depot was low and would be detrimental to his plans if not tackled which is why he and Donovan set up set up a series of five-day learning forums for district store managers. The goal of this was to put the managers in the shoes of Nardelli and get them to understand and support the changes.

c) Corporate entrepreneurship (CE) strategies are recommended for established firms to solve growth- and economic performance- related problems they experience in competitive environments (Peltola, 2012). Nardelli’s proposed strategic change for Home Depot constituted corporate innovation because it was progressive, proactive and impermanent which are the key elements to CE strategies.

According to Peltola, a progressive strategy is one that proceeds in systematic stages, groups individual events together, establishes a particular order to the process, and justifies ongoing and forthcoming actions. Nardelli’s strategy was progressive in nature because he laid out a three-part strategy: enhance the core by improving the profitability of current and future stores in existing markets; extend the business by offering related services such as tool rental and home installation of Home Depot products; and expand the market, both geographically and by serving new kinds of customers, such as big construction contractors (Charan, 2006).

A proactive strategy is one that anticipates events, trends, and changes in the market. Although Home Depot was still very successful, they could recognize that if they continued operating the way they were, they would be faced with financial and operational problems. In addition, whenever people made comments that Nardelli was going too fast he would say “Good point. Give me five minutes. I am going to call Lowe’s and ask them to slow down for us”. This shows that Nardelli was not reactive.

Finally, an impermanent strategy is one that is ever-changing and requires constant renewal and modifications. An example of this in Home Depot’s case is with the SOAR planning. Not only was it a new innovation that Nardelli brought into the company, but it was also modified as time went on. For example, people were keeping the good ideas until the SOAR meeting before asking for funding. This was not efficient and was fixed by providing a process for interim approvals if capital requests. Moreover, to stop such happenings from repeating, half a day is now set aside at the end of every SOAR session to evaluate how the process can be refined.

An additional innovation that came with Nardelli’s strategy was the “toll gates”, which was a way of assessing and improving HR function.

2a) After Nardelli’s unsuccessful attempt for change Donovan was able to push again for a change in late 2002 early 2003 by creating a true sense of urgency. He accomplished this by using some of the strategies for increasing true urgency which include giving people important facts and winning hearts and minds (Kotter, 2008 pg 57). He set up a series of five-day learning forums for district managers which included competitive simulation and role-playing exercise where Donovan asked people to view the company from Nardelli’s perspective. He also set up a wide variety of ongoing leadership-training programs such as the Future Leaders Program, the Store Leadership Program, and the Merchandising Leadership Program. With these programs, the employees could feel a sense of urgency and began approving of the changes as well. For example, Liebert had been wanting to replace the manual box count used for tracking incoming goods at stores but he was unsuccessful. However, after he got the workers to become a part of the leadership training programs they were able to institute these changes themselves because they started to feel a true sense of urgency and realized that the bar code system was more efficient. According to Kotter (2008), with a real sense of urgency when people see an opportunity or a problem of significance to their organization, they naturally search for effective ways to get the information to whom it may concern. They come to work ready to cooperate energetically and responsively with intelligent initiatives from others. Donovan was able to stir these attitudes in people. Page 7 of the case notes of the passionate Home Depot worker: “The orange blood kind of starts boiling, and people say, ‘Bring it on’.”

b) To determine whether Nardelli would have been more successful with Tabrizi’s 90-days transformation model vs. Kotter’s accelerate model, we must compare their advantages and disadvantages if any.

Tabrizi’s 90-day model advantages:

– Embraces the critical success factors which include: all-encompassing, integrative, fast, and full passionate commitment and buy-in.

– Provides a framework for accelerating typical transformation efforts.

– Includes a 30 – 90 days pre-transformation period where the goals are to commit the organization to the transformation effort, address initial resistance to the effort, set the stage and create momentum for the 90 days effort, and more.

– Notes that actual full-fledged implementation of the effort will extend well beyond the 90 days (up to 6-12 months) so it prepares you for the ensuing days.

– The implementation period includes the importance of maintaining momentum by addressing resistance, celebrating often, and using a rewards system.

Disadvantages:

– Employees must be prepared to put in extra time and energy which might not be okay with some.

– All the critical success factors mentioned above must be embraced which means there is little room for flexibility or failure.

Kotter’s accelerate model advantages:

– Compared to the 8-steps model the accelerators are concurrent and always at work.

– Underscores the importance of creating a sense of urgency

– Pulls in as many people as possible from the organization.

– Emphasized head and heart and not just head.

Disadvantages:

– Designed to function only as a fluid, flexible and agile network which is completely different from Nardelli’s strategy of creating a centralized system.

From the above analysis, it can be concluded that Nardelli may have been more successful if he used Tabrizi’s 90-day model. Firstly, if there was a pre-transformation period, and momentum/buy-in was created before the change efforts, then Nardelli wouldn’t have had to deal with as much resistance as he did a year and a half into the change efforts. Secondly, the implementation period is very practical it ensures that the change efforts are not undermined. Nardelli would have also benefitted from having a reward or celebration system in place to incentivize more participation. Lastly, the accelerate method may not have worked for Nardelli because it does not fit with his style of leadership which was a more centralized style. For Home Depot to succeed with the accelerate model a different leader may be more suitable to lead with this style.

The American Revolution: writing essay help

The American Revolution established a framework of revolt that countries throughout the Americas, desiring independence from an overpowering mother country, would follow. The Revolution marked the transition from a state of dependence on the mother country to a state of independence in social, political, and economic aspects. Gordon Wood referred to the American Revolution as a  “full scale assault on dependency” (Wood 179). Wood defined dependents as “those who had no wills of their own” and by assaulting dependency, one is rebelling against a situation where they is reliant upon someone to meet their needs (Wood 56). This dependency was present politically through monarchy, patriarchal dependency, and social hierarchies that were inherited from the mother country. In order to have the “assault on dependency” Wood mentioned, the United States broke away from these ideals. During the early 1800s, the modern day nation of Colombia struggled to break free from the controlling and powerful country of Spain in order to establish a nation and assault their dependency upon the long-lasting Spanish rule. Colombia’s independence movement could be characterized as a partial assault on dependency due to attempts at drastic political movements and self-determination.

Prior to the independence movement, Spanish Americans had little involvement in government. Once the conquistadors created towns in New Granada, they appointed royal governors. These governors then created another source of royal authority, cabildos, or municipal councils. The governors appointed members to these councils, who were typically powerful encomenderos, and those members chose new officers among their peers. This form of aristocracy led to the creation of a “self-perpetuating [oligarchy]” (McFarlane 493). In order to strengthen the Royal Authority, Spain established the audiencia of Santa Fe in 1550. Audiencias were royal appellate courts. The goal of this audiencia was to centralize authority, but it failed to exert control over the Spanish settlers and their Creole descendents. The audiencia had a president that was appointed by the King and had power over the military. The Viceroyalty of New Granada was created in 1717 and failed in 1723 due to poor leadership, but was reestablished in 1739. Viceroys exercised jurisdiction over New Granada and “improved government finances, brought previously autonomous provincial governments under closer supervision, and strengthened Bogotá’s role as a center for a more integrated system of government” (McFarlane 494).

Charles III continued to reform New Granada’s government and commerce in the 1770s through the 1780s. He opened the region’s ports to free imperial trade and sent a visitor general to increase taxes and ensure that the colonial government would be more responsive to central commands. These steps to restructure administration and taxation were met with much opposition from the colonists. It triggered the Comunero Revolt of 1781. The Comunero Revolt united 20,000 people from multiple social groups. This uprising had clear consequences, including the repeal of the attempted reforms that triggered the revolt. It also caused an increase in opposition to colonial government, especially within the creole elite. These feelings of discontent were enhanced by Enlightenment ideals and resentment towards Spain for discrimination against Creoles.

These factors and many others caused the people of colonial Colombia to begin to desire independence from Spain. The colonists’ first attempt at independence was triggered by Napoleon’s capture of the Spanish throne that abdicated King Ferdinand VII in 1808. Without a legitimate monarch to rule the Spanish empire, Creole revolutionaries used this as an opportunity for self-governance. In 1810, they began overthrowing Spain’s royal subjects and establishing juntas, including a Supreme Junta in Bogota. Juntas were a patriotic alternative form of government to the Spanish colonial government. Juntas were an early example of the Colombians’ attempt at assaulting dependency through means of self-determination. However, when the Spanish regained control of their throne, they also took back control of New Granada by military force in 1815-1816. Following this reimposition of royal authority, there was “savage repression that…rekindled opposition to the colonial regime” (McFarlane 495). Liberator Simon Bolivar and his forces led the fight for Colombian independence. After victory in the Battle of Boyaca on 7 August 1819, Bolivar regained control of central New Granada.

This victory allowed Bolivar to create a foundation for the Republic of Colombia, and it was formally established in the Congress of Angostura in December 1819. This Republic is known to historians as Gran Colombia. It united the colonial territories of New Granada, Panama, Venezuela, and Quito under a single government and constitution that created a central yet conservative government. While New Granada may have been independent from Spain and a new government had been created, the assault on dependency had not occured yet. New Granada was still dependent, to some extent, upon the other countries that were included in Gran Colombia.

After Gran Colombia was dissolved, New Granada, formed its own country, which they named the Republic of New Granada. Under the Constitution of 1832, Colombian leaders created the structure for their new nation’s government: a republic. This republic included a president and a Congress. The complete change in structure of government from how it was during colonial times to the government outlined in the Constitution of 1832 exemplifies an assault on dependence to a great extent. New Granada’s decision to completely change their government demonstrated independence through self-determination. Now that they were no longer under Spanish rule, the people of New Granada utilized their grievances with the colonial government and Enlightenment ideals to establish a new form of government, as they now had the independence to do so.

Between the two main parties, liberals and conservatives, a highly disputed issue was the separation of church and state. The liberals supported lessening the power of the Catholic Church in government, while the conservatives wanted the opposite (“Politics”). Throughout Colombia’s beginnings as a nation the power shifted between the liberals and conservatives, and with it so did the Church’s role in the government. When the liberals were in power they instituted many reforms designed by the radicals of the party in order to “eradicate Colombia’s heavy colonial heritage”. These reforms included “a frontal attack on the institutional and cultural power of the Catholic Church (expropriations of wealth, removal from education, and expulsion of the Jesuit order)” (Mazzuca and Robinson 286).

The liberals attempts at removing the nation’s colonial heritage and limiting the power of the Church was an example of an assault on dependency. It was a complete change from how the government was structured during colonial times, as the church had been at the center of many aspects of life. In addition, with the Catholic Church in power, people were dependent upon it for their beliefs, and weakening it gave the people the power to think independently and have new ideas on how their government should be administered. However, these reforms were reversed when the Conservatives came back into power, reverting this to only a partial assault on dependency, as the reforms were not successful.

One might argue that Wood’s statement regarding the revolution being a “full-scale assault on dependency” does not apply to the Colombian independence movement at all because of the preservation of conservative ideals that existed. While the conservatives endorsed the previous methods of government, the existence of the liberal party proves negates this argument. The emergence of a two-party system itself demonstrates an assault on dependency. Prior to its independence, the people did not have very much say in its government or how it was run, so parties did not exist. By posing as a threat to the conservative values, the liberal party represents the bare minimum in the essence of Wood’s statement. As they were unable to retain their values that posed as a full-scale assault on dependency, the ability to challenge these ideals with swift reform permits the Colombian revolution to fall under Wood’s definition. The liberal agenda led the path towards Colombia’s sovereignty and development of power that allowed the country to act on their own terms, rather than at the hands of Spanish colonialism.

Marriott International historical growth

In the beginning, there was a root beer stand. Now, that root beer stand has evolved into

the multi-billion dollar hospitality company that is Marriott International. According to Marriott’s official website, the company’s journey began in 1927, when John Willard Marriott and his wife opened up an A&W root beer stand in Washington D.C. Little did these young entrepreneurs know that their shop would become so successful and that their business sense would be passed down to their son John Willard Marriott Jr., also known as Bill Marriott. The company reports that its first hotel was opened in 1957, in Virginia, under Bill Marriott’s supervision. From then on, the company widened its horizons and became one of the leading hotel and lodging companies within the hospitality industry.

Seeing as the company has grown so much over the years, it’s essential for Marriott

International to have great leadership, a headquarters, and a reliable way to be contacted. According to the “Executive Leadership” page provided by the company’s website, J.W. Marriott Jr., or Bill, is the “Executive Chairman and Chairman of the Board”, in addition to his 40 years as the previous Chief Executive Officer of the company. The current CEO is stated to be Arne M. Sorenson. The Marriott site also states that the current Chief Financial Officer (CFO) is a woman named Leeny Oberg, and she’s held that position for almost three years. Because Marriott is such a large company with properties all around the country and the world, there are many “main offices” scattered across the globe but the company’s corporate/head office is located at “10400 Fernwood Road, in Bethesda, Maryland”. If at any point, the public feels they need to get in contact with the company’s corporate office, they’d call the number “1-301-380-300” (“Corporate Overview”).

Marriott’s success in the hospitality industry comes as an outcome of the hard work that’s

been put in by the company and its employees to make/keep their customers satisfied, and returning. This is why Marriott International is viewed as one of the leading hospitality companies. With “more than 6,700 properties” under its belt, all committed to providing the customer with the best service, Marriott has become a household name associated with much praise (“Marriott Int. Brand Fact Sheet”). The company has even been acclaimed by the AAA for some of its four-diamond, five-diamond, and five-star hotels (“5-Star Hotels”). A lot of the company’s success is also due to its ability to keep up with innovating trends. In 2017, just a year ago, an article on the company’s “News Center” reported how it allowed reward members of its loyalty programs, of which there are three, to link their accounts. This development opened up more doors for members, allowing them to travel to more locations than they ever could with just one program. Marriott also launched mobile apps that make the guests’ stay easier like “Mobile Check-in, Mobile Requests, and Mobile Key” (“Forbes Names Marriott International”). These innovative developments not only benefit the consumers, but it saves the company money in the long run.

Marriott International’s stature in the hospitality industry means that there are other big companies competing right alongside it, trying to trump whatever service, or price they provide. Those companies include but are not limited to: Hilton, Hyatt, and Intercontinental Hotels Group. Having this competition is beneficial for Marriott customers because it potentially lowers room rates, and pushes the company to excel in whatever department they may be lacking in.

In addition, Marriott International is a publicly traded company that’s a part of the

NASDAQ Stock Market, and it can be found under the symbol MAR (“Corporate Overview”). As reported by the NASDAQ website, the current stock price of MAR, on the 10th of December, is $110.03; although, five years ago, the stock price was at $48.15. There’s an obvious increase that occurred which indicates that those who owned a share five years ago, now have an opportunity to make more money than that which they spent.

In essence, Marriott International is one of the biggest hotel and lodging companies in the

World. The hospitality industry is driven by companies like Marriott who strive for excellence and amazing service. Marriott International is a company that came from humble beginnings, and a family who’s dream to provide great goods and services to the public led to the creation of thousands of hotels around the globe. The company’s dedication to innovation, and great leadership is what makes it so successful in this day and age, and it would be almost impossible to imagine the hospitality industry without it.

Global Peacebuilding and Interfaith Leadership: college essay help

September 6, 2016

Peace Through Education

Non-governmental organizations (NGO’s) are created to help out those in need without the struggle of governmental restrictions. Most of the time they can have a great influence on the world but sometimes they can negatively affect those they try to help. Depending on whether or not a certain NGO is well funded, it affects the impact they can have on the community that they are trying to help. The power of an NGO comes from its funding and how much money they have at liberty to use. True help happens when those in need are able to live and prosper on their own without a constant need for outside help. Education is the most powerful form of “service” and help because it gives those in need the ability to succeed and help future generations.

The room to read organization focuses on two goals: the first step is to create an environment of literacy that will bring a demand for more children in developing countries to want to read from a young age. The second is to motivate girls to finish their secondary school and to go farther in their education. Not only are they trying to create a global movement, the more basic/strong aspects of the Room to Read model include: programs to support girls both financially and emotionally, both in school and after graduation; building new schools and providing training or supplementary materials to teachers; establishing and stocking libraries and publishing books in the local language. The organization has founded over 15,000 libraries and impacted the lives of 7.8 million children. Room to Read has now become a prominent in the world due to its mission and the way that they are approaching at it. Instead of just funneling money to villages, they are giving the proper teaching tools and knowledge that will positively affect the future of those communities.

Many countries are still ruled by people who grew up in turmoil and who have not learned how to properly educate their population. Cambodia has had a particularly rough century with the khmer rouge genocide and extreme political corruption. The country now has an extreme problem with correct education. Salt Academy is an organization that removes girls from abusive families or sex trade and place them in orphanages to then involve them in sports and education. Their overall mission is to create an education in which sports contribute to equal treatment, better development and peaceful competition. Team sports are a powerful agent for change and an effective programmatic tool to help achieve goals in health, education, gender equality, HIV/AIDS, child protection and child development. Education does not simply have to be through an academic lens, activities like sports can play a great role into furthering a goal of peace.  I worked with the Salt Academy in Cambodia for a month to construct roofs and shelters and to teach English to the orphan girls.  It doesn’t matter whether it’s a world renowned NGO or just and organization that focuses on helping on small group of people. As long as they educate those they help, then leave a positive imprint on the world. Another example of a Cambodian NGO is the Kdei Karuna Organization (KdK). For more than 10 years it has established itself as a one of the most valuable peacebuilding NGO’s in Cambodia. “Through participatory and community-engaged approaches, KdK has implemented truth-telling and memorialization initiatives between a number of groups, including former Khmer Rouge cadres and victims, ethnic minorities, and youth.” Kdei Karuna means “compassionate action to heal” in Sanskrit and it aims to contribute to sustainable peace efforts by addressing the scars of conflict inflicted over decades of instability and war.

The mission of the Fundatia Inocenti Romanian Children’s Relief Organization is to support Romanian children and families in need and prevent child abandonment. Inocenti has offered specialized professional therapy and services to children and families in need since 1990. They have also focused on giving resources and money towards teachers to help out the Roma people (gypsies). They currently have 500 volunteers that serve more than 2,000 abandoned and at-risk children with special needs in Bucharest and Bistrita-Nasaud County.

Peace can only be achieved by your own values, there is no third party or person that can come in and implement their own piece because in the end it never works out. Education helps teach those values and lets people decide on their own.

Personal Career Development Plan: college essay help online

Personal Career Development Plan

Preferred organizations/ establishments:

1) Chimera Event Sdn Bhd has started since 2008. The company is located at the heart of Petaling Jaya. Chimera Event aims to provide high quality and cost-effective sampling and event services by customizing a perfect way to promote clients’ products. In other words, the company focuses on creating effective brand communication.

2) Forth Dimension was established in year 2006. Pioneered by a group of energetic and vibrant entrepreneurs, the company has grown in leaps and bounds from humble roots in event management, to become one of the fastest growing event & sampling agencies in Malaysia today.

3) Kingdom Event with the motto ‘turning royal fantasies into realities’, provide total event management including venue finding, accommodation, creative designs, staging, lighting, and sound, audio visual, decor, catering, drink, entertainment, hosting, transport, signage and logistics.

Employability skills required for this career:

1) Communication skills which include both verbal and written are equally important in the field as the career intend to work with different people at all times, meeting various kind of clients and writing up letters, emails and reports.

2) Creativity is required as an event manager would have to constantly come up with new and preferably unique ideas.

3) Leadership skill that could help guides the team towards the end goal to produce successful events.

4) Problem solving skill is required when something unexpected has spur during an event. The whole process should be fast, quick and accurate to keep additional problems from forming.

5) Organizational skill is required in choreographing various elements that makes an event successful such as managing people, schedules or vendors.

Current skills:

1) Communication skill

2) Creativity

3) Leadership skill

4) Problem solving skill

5) Organizational skill Skills to be developed:

1) Communication skill

2) Creativity

3) Leadership skill

4) Problem solving skill

5) Organizational skill

Development Plans (i.e. What you want to improve, e.g. Communication skill: English proficiency)

Communication skill

1) Personal skill to maintain healthy body and mind that can enhance communication process.

2) Presentation skill to present effectively in front of a group of people either in a formal or informal setting.

3) Interpersonal skill to engage in face-to-face communication with effective listening and conveying. Creativity

To really strike a chord and put on an event that the guests have not seen before, it is important to show a good deal of creativity. Creativity in coming up with new ideas also proves originality which is one of the essential aspects that is required in this line of work. Leadership skill

1) Making decision skill in knowing how to choose a best course of action.

2) Develop people skill to lead and deal with the team.

3) Develop positive personal qualities that are needed to display at the work setting. Problem solving skill

1) Critical thinking skill allows event planning professionals to see the intricate details of a problem unemotionally and then turn the problem into an opportunity.

2) People skill is needed as an event manager must understand how to think with a team, not just make a one sided decision when solving problems.

Organizational skill

1) Planning skill to ensure that projects are completed within a specific time period.

2) Scheduling involves allocating time period for a specific task and assigning tasks to employees.

3) Coordinating resources to coordinate both internal and external resources.

Action Plans (i.e. How you want to improve, e.g. S.M.A.R.T. Plan)

Communication skill 1) Personal skill could be gained by building appropriate self-esteem and confidence through learning to control and relax myself when I am in the public/stage. For instance, I could practice relaxation techniques at home such as meditation or yoga for at least three times a week.

2) My presentation skill could be improved by practicing my class presentation for at least four times before my actual presentation. My presentation skill is said to improve once I can present an impromptu presentation well without any long pauses in between.

3) Interpersonal skill could be made better by understanding nonverbal communication, improving interactions when I speak with others and managing other people’s impression on me. I should constantly practice these when I am having conversation with others.

Creativity I can improve my creativity by changing my own mind set. Removing limitations, always challenging myself to try something new and being open to new experiences may improve my creativity. For instances, I should try to mingle with peers that possess different interest with me instead sticking with peers who shares similar interest with me. This could be done by joining more club activities and events. I will consider this goal achieved once I met at least two new friends in one event that I attend.

Leadership skill 1) I should expose myself to projects in college and take up more leader roles. This enables me to gain experience in tackling various obstacles which could improve my decision making skill. This goal could be done in the next two month, for instance, in the next upcoming event; I had volunteered myself as a group leader in 30-hour famine.

2) This could be done when I lead a team which then requires me to delegate task to the members. Other than that, I should give my views about their performances in a way that will be constructive to increase their motivation.

3) In terms of positive personal qualities, I should learn to be more charismatic, assertive and empathetic in the team. To measure whether my positive personal qualities is improve or not, I could ask feedbacks from my teammates after the end of project.

Problem solving skill 1) To practice critical thinking skill, at the beginning of each day I will choose a problem to work on. Figure out the logic of the problem by identifying its elements. In other words, systematically think through the questions: What exactly is the problem? How does it relate back to me?

2) This could be done when I lead a team which then requires me to delegate task to the members. Other than that, I should give my views about their performances in a way that will be constructive to increase their motivation.

Organizational skill 1) Projects are usually divided into many different tasks, and I must plan the tasks ahead of time to bring the project to fruition. I also should plan ahead in case certain problems come up that could potentially delay the project. My planning skill is said to be excellent if I submit my assignments on time.

2) Individually I should learn to schedule adequate amount of time to do revision for each subject for my finals to make sure I could score well in the exam. In group assignment, it is a good practice to allocate right task for each member as social loafer could be avoided.

3) I should learn on how to handle my weekly allowance so that I would not overspent and the money is being used appropriately. This could ensure that I always have enough money for myself whenever there is an emergency. By practicing this habit, it could give me a brief idea on the method of coordinating internal and external sources.

The therapeutic goods administration

The therapeutic goods administration contributes to the safe use of medications in two ways. The first way is through regulating therapeutic goods. This is achieved by having systems in place that ensure manufacturers meet standards for producing goods, authorise supply, monitor products once they reach the market and take action if there are any defects of the product and identify illegal activities like counterfeiting and stopping it from occurring. The second way in which they contribute is through employing highly qualified individuals who make sure Australia’s therapeutic goods meet quality and safety requirements. These include doctors, scientists and biomedical engineers, as well as many other specialists. (Government, n.d.)

Pharmacokinetics explains how the drug is altered as it makes its way through the body. This takes place through absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Absorption is the process of a substance entering the blood circulation. Distribution is the dispersion or dissemination of substances throughout the fluids and tissues of the body. metabolism is the recognition by the organism that a foreign substance is present. Excretion is the removal of the substances from the body.

(Ruiz-Garcia, Bermejo, Moss, & Casabo, 2007)

Pharmacodynamics explains how the drug affects the body. It explores the molecular mechanisms by which drugs cause biological effects

(Multimedia, Services, & Texas, 2008)

The first-pass effect is a phenomenon of drug metabolism where the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it experiences circulation. Rowland, Malcolm (1972). It is the fraction of drug which is not absorbed which is due to the liver and gut wall. Some drugs when consumed bypass the first pass effect. After a drug is consumed, it is absorbed by the digestive system and enters the hepatic portal system. It is carried through the portal vein into the liver and then makes its way into the body. The liver metabolizes many drugs which sometimes results in only a small amount of active drug moving from the liver to the rest of the circulatory system. This first pass through the liver significantly reduces the bioavailability of the drug. Alternative routes of administration like suppository, intravenous, intramuscular, inhalational aerosol, transdermal and sublingual avoid the first-pass effect because they allow drugs to be absorbed directly into the systemic circulation. Drugs with high first pass effect have a considerably higher oral dose than sublingual or parenteral dose. There is marked individual variation in the oral dose due to differences in the extent of first pass metabolism.

(Pond, Susan M.; Tozer, Thomas N. (1984))

glyceryl trinitrate (anginine) must be taken sublingually due to the fact that if it is taken orally, it will go through the first pass effect and as a result will not perform its function as bioavailability is 38% after sublingual and 1% after oral administration. It’s used for the treatment of chest pain presumed to be due to the heart and heart failure through acting as a nitric oxide donor from the endothelial cell in blood vessels, inducing vasodilation by relaxing the smooth muscles of the blood vessels. (Marshall, 2014)

roles and responsibilities of the doctor include establishing a trustful patient-doctor relationship, diagnosis and prognosis, complex decision-making, a multidisciplinary approach, leadership in health services and in the community and training the next generation of doctors. Patients need to be able to trust doctors and can be reassured if doctors support the patient in better understanding their condition and discussing the risk, benefit and uncertainties of various tests and treatments. Diagnosis is a key feature of a doctor as they need to respond to the illness by prioritizing and synthesizing information, forming an assessment and implementing the strategy in removing the illness. (Limited, 2015)

Roles and responsibilities of a nurse include being a caregiver, decision maker, communicator, patient advocate, teacher and management of care. A key role is being a patient advocate which entails protecting the rights of the patient. An example of this is when a patient is sick and unable to operate normally it is crucial that the nurse determines what the patient wants. A nurse is also a decision maker as they have to analyse the patient, observe the issue and carrying out interventions in order to promote the health of the client. Another role of the nurse is being a teacher which entails gving the patient an understanding of what their condition is. (LLC, 2014)

The main responsibility of a pharmacist helping the patient get healthier. Pharmacists train in all specialites of healthcare whether exposed to the public eye or not but pharmacists are important in nearly every facet of healthcare. Pharmacist responsibilities range from producing medications to monitoring patient health and progress to optimize their response to medication therapies. Pharmacists also educate patients on how to ideally use prescriptions and over-the-counter medications. Pharmacists educate and advise physicians, nurses, and other health professionals on medication therapy decisions. Pharmacists also provide expertise about the composition of drugs, including their chemical, biological, and physical properties and their manufacture and use. They ensure drug purity and strength and make sure that drugs do not interact in a harmful way.

Compare and contrast leadership and management: writing essay help

Leadership and management are closely related, yet differ. Compare and contrast leadership and management. Include an example.

As is explained in our textbook, leading is an important part of a manager’s job, though their key roles are to plan, organize and control. (DuBrin, 2012). “Managers [are] often viewed as task-oriented, and not necessarily focused on their employees. Leaders on the other hand are viewed as people-oriented; they impact and influence as well as work through and motivate their employees…”  (Bawany, 2014).  A leader’s job is to inspire, motivate and influence people. Leaders must have social and emotional intelligence to be successful whereas a manager does not require this to do their job successfully. (Bawany, 2014).  A leader needs to influence people to work towards a common goal. A manager has to control a process, project or activity. Leaders can delegate tasks to managers, whereas they cannot delegate leadership activities to others. For example, a company may be struggling with not hitting production goals. A manager must manage the issues with the production line, schedule shipments, etc. A leader must motivate and inspire the staff to work together to try to get back to hitting production goals.

Bawany, S. (2014, June 1). From Manager to Leader. Leadership Excellence, 34-35.

DuBrin, A. (2012). Leadership: Research findings, Practice, and Skills (7th ed). Mason: South-Western, Cengage Learning.

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Why are leaders essential, and what role does situation play in leadership? Compare and contrast contingency theory and situational leadership theory in your answer. Be sure to support your ideas with the scholarly research.

Leaders are essential because people need someone to follow, to be inspired by, motivated by, and to seek counsel from.  Situation plays a huge role in leadership because many times the situation will dictate what approach of leadership is going to be employed.

The path-goal theory of leadership is a situational leadership theory and was developed by Robert House. It describes the leader’s role in an employee’s goals and rewards. The theory says that a manager or leader sets the employee on the path toward his or her goal so that they will reach the goal (DuBrin, 2012). This is a good motivator for employees, and keeps leaders engaged in each employee’s path. Not only do the employees feel satisfaction by achieving their goals, but they also feel the involvement and coaching by their leaders. This leadership style can be effective over time. As employees reach one goal, a new path can be set for the next goal. A long-term cycle of working and reward is a great way to keep employees happy and working at the same company. However, if trying to mold the employee into a leader, this may not be the best style to employ because the leader is taking all of the initiative, leaving little self-leading to the employee

Vroom’s contingency theory takes all things into account when making a decision. It maintains that there is no one best way to lead. It says that the optimal leadership style is contingent on a variable number of factors. Each of these factors must be weighed to find the current optimal leadership style based upon the current situation. (Fiedler, Hersey, Blanchard, Vroom, & Yetton, n.d.). Each time the situation changes, all factors will need to be reevaluated to find the new best leadership style. This is a good style to employ when situations do not change often, which would require a lot of time to continuously reevaluate.

  

DuBrin, A. (2012). Leadership: Research findings, Practice, and Skills (7th ed). Mason: South-Western, Cengage Learning.

Fiedler, Hersey, Blanchard, Vroom, & Yetton (n.d.). Summary of Contingency Theory . Retrieved from http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_contingency_theory.html

Do you believe that leaders are born with certain traits or can they develop traits over time? What are the limitations of seeing leadership as traits?

DuBrin says that the personality traits of leaders can be categorized as being either general personality traits or task-related traits. General personality traits include self-confidence, humility, assertiveness, sense of humor, enthusiasm, extraversion, and authenticity.  These are personality traits that leaders have and apply in all scenarios in their lives. Task-related personality traits include passion, courage, internal locus of control, flexibility and adaptability, and emotional intelligence traits which include self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship management. These personality traits apply during specific scenarios or when doing work tasks (DuBrin, 2012). Other traits that leaders have are being inspirational, motivational, articulate, enthusiastic and optimistic (Bawany, 2014). I do not believe that one is born with these traits. I believe that people develop these traits in response to their environments and experiences, and that they are, and can be developed over time. The limitations of seeing leadership as traits is that this creates a sort of checklist in determining the ability to lead. By viewing leadership as specific traits, people either have them or do not. This limits the many different ways people can be leaders to one specific list.

Bawany, S. (2014, June 1). From Manager to Leader. Leadership Excellence, 34-35.

DuBrin, A. (2012). Leadership: Research findings, Practice, and Skills (7th ed). Mason: South-Western, Cengage Learning.

In what ways is a charismatic leader different than a transformational leader or a servant leader?

A charismatic leader is a leader who uses their personality to influence others and create positive relationships. They realize that the impression that other people have of them will determine whether or not they will be a charismatic leader (DuBrin, 2012). Charismatic leaders use these relationships that they build to establish and continue positive relationships to make leadership easier. A transformational leader is someone who brings major, positive changes to a company. They do this by working with people to transform their interests from self-serving to a larger, company-serving perspective (DuBrin, 2012).  Typically, someone is not both charismatic and transformational.  These leaders encourage people to perform better than the previously had expected of themselves (McLaurin, &  Amri, 2008). These leaders are out to complete a big goal and use their leadership to achieve it.

DuBrin, A. (2012). Leadership: Research findings, Practice, and Skills (7th ed). Mason: South-Western, Cengage Learning.

McLaurin, J., & Al Amri, M. (2008). DEVELOPING AN UNDERSTANDING OF CHARISMATIC AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP. Allied Academies International Conference: Proceedings Of The Academy Of Organizational Culture, Communications & Conflict (AOCCC), 13(2), 15-19.

What personal characteristics or traits of a leader should be emphasized in order to bring about improvements in the organization?

Transformational leaders have certain traits that make them better suited to be a transformational leader. These traits include being empowering, being able to instill vision in others, acting as role models, motivating other, considering each person individually, and being motivational (McLaurin, &  Amri, 2008). Other traits that should be emphasized are innovation, having emotional intelligence and being people-oriented (DuBrin, 2012). These traits are all important to transformational leaders because without them, they would be unsuccessful in attempting to bring about major changes in a company.

DuBrin, A. (2012). Leadership: Research findings, Practice, and Skills (7th ed). Mason: South-Western, Cengage Learning.

McLaurin, J., & Al Amri, M. (2008). DEVELOPING AN U

NDERSTANDING OF CHARISMATIC AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP. Allied Academies International Conference: Proceedings Of The Academy Of Organizational Culture, Communications & Conflict (AOCCC), 13(2), 15-19.

IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

An outline of the study into the topic of leadership finds that the collected works of leadership and organizational performance can be broadly classified into number of significant phases. Early scholarships on leadership (regularly classified as trait studies on leadership) focused on recognizing the personality traits which considered successful leader (‘Mahoney, 1960’), trait theory adopt that successful leader are born and that they have assured native qualities which distinguish them from non-leaders (‘See stodgill, 1948’). However, the dif. trouble in classifying and certifying these features led to widespread criticism of this trait approach, signaling the appearance of ‘Style’ and ‘behavioral’ methods to leadership.(‘stodgily, 1948’). Style and behavioral theorists moved the importance away from appearances of the leader to the behavioral and style leader adopted (‘Hemphill and coons, 1957; Likert 1961’) the code end studies seems to be that leaders who adopt democratic or participative styles are more successful (‘see, for example ‘, Bowers and Seashore, 1966’) in this wisdom, these initial studies are focused on recognizing the one best way of leading.

 Similarly to ‘trait theories’ the main weakness of style behavioral theories is that they ignore the significant part which situational features play in determining the value of individual leaders (“Mullins , 1999”), it is this drawback that gives increase to the (“ situational”) and (‘contingency’) theories of leadership (for example, ‘Fielder ,1967’;House, 1971; ‘Vroom and yetton, 1974’) which move the importance away from the one best way to lead to context- sensitive  leadership. While each study highlights the important of different factors the universal rule of situational and contingency perceptions is that leadership efficiency is dependent on the leader’s analysis and understanding situational aspects, followed by adoption of the suitable style to deal with each condition. However , in an apparent return  to the one best way leadership , recent studies on leadership have contrasted ‘ transactional’ leadership with ‘transformational’ leadership , transactional leader are said  be ‘instrumental’  and regularly focus on altercation relationship with their subordinates (“Bass  and Avolio 1993”) , In contrast , transformational  leaders are debated to be visionary and enthusiastic, with an inherent capacity to encourage subordinates (“ Bycio et al., 1995; Howell  and avolio, 1993”). While the momentary summary above specifies that research into leadership has gone through periods of skepticism recent interest has focused on the importance of the leadership role to the success of organizations. (“Fielder,1996”) , one of the most prized researchers on leadership , has provided a recent treatise on the significant of leadership by arguing that the effectiveness of a leader is a major factor of the success of the failure of a group, organization or even and entire country. Really, it has being debated that one method in which organizations have sought to handle with the increasing instability and confusion of the external environment is by teaching and developing leaders and kitting them with the skills to cope  (“Darcy and Kleiner, 1991; saari et al . 1998”) . The claims are based on hypothesis of direct link between leadership and organizational performance, this hypothesis needs critical review.

In Somalia, according to my awareness there are lack of literature shows organizational performance and the relationship between leadership specially in developing countries such Somalia, thus in the framework of study the researcher will look for the leadership in terms of  ‘laisses faire’ leadership ,’transactional ‘ leadership ,’transformational ‘ leadership and organizational performance .

The huge, regularly turbulent change that characterized business organizations in the 1970s and 1980s led to has been defined as the ‘ new paradigm’ with its underline on being charismatic (“House 1977”), visionary (“sashkin, 1988”), and transformational (“Bass ,1985”). These were seen as enlightening a conception of the leader as some who , by describing and organization’s mission and the values which will support it, states organizational genuineness .thus ,in the  “New leadership “ approach , leaders are seen as managers sense , rather than in term of simply an effect process. However, over the last few years –debatably powered by increasing fanaticism, the rapid changes in the universal world such as rapidly- relating technologies , and political and social influence have also called for the progress of effective leadership skills (“Cacioppe , 1998”) therefore , leadership growth plans have become an increasing significance for government organizations. The idea of leadership has produced lively interest, discussion and sporadic muddle as management thought has evolved. Even today, it is not easy to describe leadership, and assumed the density of the subject, there is no universal agreement about restriction of the field of analysis. According to (“Bass 1999)”, meaning of leadership is related to the purpose associated with the endeavor to define it, and so presents a varied range of possibilities. Leadership can be seen as a group process, an attribute of personality, the art of inducing complaisance, an exercise of influence, a particular type of action or behavior, a form of persuasion, a power relationship, an instrument to achieve goals, the result of an interaction, a differentiated role or initiation of a structure (Bass, 2000).

According to (“Kotter 1990”), without leadership, the possibility of errors happening rises and the opportunities for victory become more and more reduced. For these same authors, and in this context, leadership allows cooperation, reduces conflicts, contributes to creativity and has an mixing role, as it keeps people unified even when not physically so. In this way, leadership, organized with stimulants and motivations, promotes people’s motivation towards achieving common goals, having a appropriate role in the processes of forming, transferring and altering organizational culture (“Senge, 1990”).

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Generally notable cases of a direct leadership–performance linkage may be found in several subjective accounts of enhancements of company performance recognized to variations in leadership (see, for example, “Nicholls, 1988; Quick, 1992; Simms, 1997”).

However, empirical studies into the relations between leadership and performance have been missing. One notable exclusion is the detailed study of the “impact of leadership on performance in the somewhat amazing framework of Icelandic fishing ships”. (“Thorlindsson 1987”) suggests that differences in the performance of different fishing ships, under identical situations, can be accounted for by the leadership skills of captains. Over a three-year period, (“Thorlindsson, 1987”) discovered that the leadership talents of the ship captains accounted for (35 to 49 per cent) of difference in the catch of diverse crews. Other studies which observes the relations between leadership and performance coincide with the recurrence of the ‘one best way to lead’ discussion. Of particular significance is the resurgence of interest into charismatic leadership, which is regularly stated to as transformational leadership (“Bass and Avolio, 1993”). A number of investigators theorize that transformational leadership is related to organizational performance (see, for example, ‘Bycio et al., 1

995; Howell and Avolio, 1993’). Theoretically, it is debated that the visionary and inspirational aids of transformational leaders encourage followers to transport superior performance (“Nicholls, 1988; Quick, 1992”).

In summary, much of the above suggestion presented as subsidiary the claim of a leadership–performance relation is subjective and often over-concentrates on the ‘transformational’ role of leaders in corporate victories (“for example, Quick, 1992; Simms, 1997; Taffinder, 1995”). It would seem that few studies have replied to the observation of (“Porter and Mckibbin 1988”) that much of the study described as supporting this claim is either inadequate or empirically suspect. The limited or questionable character of exploration findings in this area proposes the need to examine Additional the nature of the relationship between leadership and performance.

In the framework of Somalia some commercial banking the kind of leadership style they operate is not appropriate for a given commercial banking to enhance sound managerial decisions. This caused that part of organizations encounter problems about their existence.  So this study investigates “impacts of leadership style on organizational performance” with particular interest on commercial banking in Banadir Region?

1.3 SIGNIFACANCE OF THE STUDY

The findings of this research will be supportive to the commercial banking in Benadir Region. For making available insights about the influence of leadership on organizational performance.

1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

This study investigated the main impacts of leadership styles on organizational performance at commercial banking in Benadir Region.

The research aims to attain and accomplish the following objectives:

1. To investigate the link between laissez-faire leadership style and organizational    performance at commercial banking in Benadir Region

2. To identify the link between transactional leadership style and organizational performance at commercial banking in Benadir Region

3. To explore the link between transformational leadership style and organizational performance at commercial banking in Benadir Region.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION OF THE STUDY

Built on the research objectives stated above, this study addresses three research questions

1. What is the link between laissez-faire leadership style and organizational    performance at commercial banking in Benadir Region?

2. Identify the link between transactional leadership style and organizational performance at commercial banking in Benadir Region?

3. What is the link between transformational leadership style and organizational performance at commercial banking in Benadir Region?

1.6 THEORETICAL AND ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK

There are as several dissimilar opinions of leadership as there are distinctive that separate leaders from non-leaders. Though most study today has moved from old-style trait or personality-based theories to a situation theory, which dictates that the situation in which leadership is exercised is strong-minded by the leadership skills and attributes of the leader (‘Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009’), all contemporary theories can fall under one of the following three viewpoints: leadership as a development or link, leadership as a mixture of traits or personality characteristics, or leadership as convinced behaviors or, as they are more generally mentioned to, leadership skills. In the more leading theories of leadership, there exists the concept that, at least to some grade, leadership is a process that involves effect with a group of people toward the recognition of goals.(‘Wolinski, 2010’).

Supposing “the essence of leadership is effect”, leadership could mostly be defined as “the art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for mutual aspirations” (Kouzes & Posner, 1995). Though, it could be reasoned this “effect, mobilization and struggle” is of tiny value in an organizational framework unless it finally yields a result in line with the “shared ambition” for leadership to be considered successful. Peter Drucker (‘quoted in Ulrich, Zenger& Smallwood, 1999’) captures this idea by simply declaring: “Leadership is all about results”. Creating results in today‟s ever changing and increasingly competitive world requires a very dissimilar kind of leadership from what was studied in the past. While leaders in the past accomplished possibly complex organizations, this was in a world of relation constancy and predictability. In today’s globalized world, with organizations managing with quickly changing environments, leaders face a new certainty. Working in flexible frameworks and linked by actual-time electronic communication, increasingly mobile workers have themselves become the serious resource of their organizations (Reger, 2001). What is currently desired are leaders who concurrently can be agents of change and centers of gravity, retain interior focus and allow people and organization to adapt and be successful, while at the same time never allowing go of the customer focus and external viewpoint (‘Alimo Metcalfe, 1998). Furnham (2002’) state that the suitable dimension result from leadership quality is effectiveness (‘reflecting the leader’s efficacy in achieving organizational outcomes, objectives, goals and subordinates‟ needs in their job’). Thus, the degree of organizational performance in the present research represents the point to which a company achieves its business purposes. The research model is illustrated below:

Figure 1.1 Conceptual Framework

1.7 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

1.7.1 Leadership

The idea of leadership is defined, according to (“Hersey and Blanchard 1979”), “as the process of effecting the actions of an individual or a group in efforts toward goal accomplishment”. For (“Senge, 1990”), leadership is related with stimulants and motivations that motivate people to reach common aims. (“Hersey et al. 2001”), states that the core of leadership involves realizing aims with and through people.  Leadership is one of the most observed and least understood phenomena on earth (Burns, 1978).

1.7.2 Laissez-Faire  

An avoidant leader may either not intervene in the work affairs of subordinates or may completely avoid responsibility as a superior and is unlikely to put in effort to build a relationship with them. Laisses-faire style associated with dissatisfaction unproductiveness and ineffectiveness (‘Deluga, 1992).

1.7.3 Transformational Leadership

Transformational leadership has its origins in James McGregor Burns’s 1978 publication in which he analyzed the ability of some leaders, across many types of organizations, to engage with staff in ways that inspired them to new levels of energy, commitment, and moral purpose (Burns, 1978).

1.7.4 Transactional Leadership

Transactional leadership involves an exchange process that results in follower compliance with leader request but not likely to generate enthusiasm and commitment to task objective. The leader focuses on having internal actors perform the tasks required for the organization to reach its desired goals (Boehnke et al, 2003). The objective of the transactional leader is to ensure that the path to goal attainment is clearly understood by the internal actors, to remove potential barrier within the system, and to motivate the actors to achieve the predetermined goals (House and Aditya, 1997).

1.7.5 Organizational Performance

Organizational performance refers to ability of an enterprise to achieve such objectives as high profit, quality product, large market share, good financial results, and survival (Koontz and Donnell, 1993).

Performance is a set of financial and nonfinancial gauges which bid infor

mation on the degree of attainment of objective and outcomes .(Lebans, 2006)(‘Lebans & Euske 2006 after Kaplan & Nortan , 1992’)

1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This research work will be based on the impact and relationship between leadership styles and organizational performance of commercial banking in Benadir Region. Some of the constraints encountered in carrying out this research work are;

Finance; the study is one that requires money to enable the researcher to browse more information and also to carry out the research work effectively but due to this financial constraint, the researcher could not get everything required for this project thereby hampering the best work on the study.

Time; this study is one that required longer time to enable the researcher get the necessary and quality data for effective work but since it is a project research of student which takes only three months that is a semester work as required by the school, the researcher is less of valid information to use.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 INTRODUCTION

The review of literature, the researcher will demonstrate ‘the impact of leadership on organizational performance’, In the first section, the researcher explains in depth the leadership with precise and detailed consideration on the previous studies about concept and definition of leadership and its dimensions(‘ transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership’), Concept and definition of organizational performance and also will explain link between leadership and organizational performance, in the last section will be the summary and conclusion of the chapter.

2.1 CONCEPT AND DEFFINITION LEADERSHSHIP

Leadership is identified as an important subject in the field of organizational behavior. Leadership has the most energetic properties during individual and organizational collaboration. In other words, capacity of management to implement ‘’collaborated efforts” depends on leadership ability.  (Chuang, 2009), describe that the brilliant leader not only motivates subordinates potential to improve productivity but also encounters their desires in the method of achieving organizational aims.(‘ Stogdill 1957’), defined leadership as the individual conduct to monitor a group to attain the common aim. (‘Fry, 2003) enlightens leadership as use of leading strategy to offer motivating aim and to improve the staff’s latent for growth and progress. A number of reasons specify that there should be a link between leadership style and organizational performance. The first is that today’s concentrated and energetic markets feature innovation-based competition, price/performance rivalry, decreasing returns, and the motivated destruction of existing abilities (‘Santora et al.,1999; Venkataraman,1997’). Studies have recommended that actual leadership behaviors can simplify the enhancement of performance when organizations face new challenges (‘McGrath and MacMillan, 2000; Teece, Pisano and Shuen, 1997’).

Style of leadership is the relatively consistent pattern of behavior that characterizes a leader (‘DuBrin, 2001’). Leadership regarding performance was considered by scholars and investigators, but philosophical and scientific foundation of leadership style is yet disseminated. Just, numerous investigators have studied the dominion of leadership styles, transactional and transformational leadership is the most perceptible (‘Dvir et al., 2002; Ehrhart, 2004; Whetstone, 2002; Avolio & Bass, 2004’). Transactional and transformational leadership are not considered as opposing styles of leadership (‘Lowe et al. 1996’). Leaders might be both transactional and transformational. Whole, transactional leadership is less effective than transformational leadership (‘Gardner & Stough 2002’). There is some indication supporting the hypothesis that transformational leadership is higher than transactional leadership (‘Bass et al., 2003; Dvir et al., 2002’). Transactional leadership also is less connected with higher performance and output than transformational leadership (‘Bass et al., 2003; Dvir et al., 2002’).

Moreover, transformational leadership has influence on the whole thinking and behavior of followers, launching a unified understanding to succeed in learning. Transformational leadership invites knowledgeable consideration to impending problems. It inspires revolution and learning thus enlightening the whole performance (‘Argyris & Scho¨n, 1996; Glynn, 1996; Hurley & Hult, 1998’). While transactional leadership is linked to penalty behavior and reliant reward which is regarded as the source of operative management, transformational mechanism is seen as enriching that source for better leader efficiency (‘Waldman, Bass, Yammarino, 1990’). The difference between transactional leadership and transformational leadership is the deliberation of leader. Both styles of leadership importance on the followers where transactional leaders provide feedback about performance, while transformational leaders attempt to encompass followers with goal attainment (‘Kelman 1958’). Also, transformational leaders in struggle of transactional leaders inspire followers through identification and internalization process instead of influential compliance. Therefore, although most transactional leaders offer response regarding performance, exceptional leaders participate in transformational leadership behavior as well. Therefore, the transformational behaviors recover the leader’s efficiency furthermore to what he/she could gain only through transactional leadership. General, scholarships on transactional leadership did not reflect leader behaviors as much as the variance in performance and other standard parameters.

2.2 DIMENSIONS OF LEADERSHSHIP

2.2.1 Transformational Leadership

Transformational Leadership is the talent to inspire and to encourage intellectual inspiration through motivation (‘Avolio, 2004; Dvir, 2002’). (‘McColl-Kennedy, & Anderson, 2005’) further defined transformational leadership style as guidance through individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized influence. Transformational leaders basically change the values, goals, and aims of followers who adopt the leader’s values and, in the end, accomplish their work because it is dependable with their standards and not because they believe to be rewarded (‘Kuhnert & Lewis, 1987; MacKenzie et al., 2001’).

Transformational leadership which inspires autonomy and challenging work became increasingly significant to followers’ job satisfaction. The idea of job security and loyalty to the firm for one’s entire career was disappearing. Steady pay, secure profits, and lifetime employment were no longer assured for commendable performance. At the same time, transactional leadership alone could not offer job satisfaction (‘Bass, 1999’).

Transformational leadership has its origins in James McGregor Burns’s 1978 publication in which he investigated the capacity of some leaders, across many types of organizations, to involve with staff in ways that motivated them to new levels of energy, commitment, and moral purpose (‘Burns, 1978’).

2.2.2 Transactional Leadership

This leadership style starts with the knowledge that team memberships agree to follow their leader when they accept a job. The transaction usually comprises the organization giving team memberships in return for their struggle and compliance. The leader has a right to penalize team members if their work doesn't encounter a suitable standard. The minimalistic working relations that outcome (‘between staff and managers or leaders’) are based on this transaction (struggle for pay).  Transactional leader’

s emphasis generally on the physical and the security needs of dependents. The link that develops between the leader and the follower is based on negotiating exchange or reward systems (‘Bass, 1985; Bass and Avolio, 1993’). Transactional leadership. “Using a carrot or a stick, transactional leadership is regularly considered as instrumental in followers‟ goal achievement” (‘Bass, 1997’). There are three components in transactional leadership – Contingent reward, whereby subordinates‟ performance is related with contingent rewards or exchange relationship; Active Management by exclusion, whereby leaders monitor followers‟ performance and take corrective action if deviations happen to guarantee results attained; Passive Management by exclusion, whereby leaders fail to intervene until problems become serious (‘Bass, 1997’).

2.2.3 Laissez-faire Leadership

An avoidant leader may either not interfere in the work matters of dependents or may totally escape duties as a superior and is unlikely to put in struggle to build a link with them. Laissez-faire style is related with disappointment, unproductiveness and incompetence (‘Deluga, 1992’).

Laissez-faire leadership may be the best or the worst of leadership styles (‘Goodnight, 2011’). Laisses-faire, this French phrase for “let it be,” when applied to leadership defines leaders who permit people to work on their own. Laissez-faire leaders abdicate responsibilities and avoid making decisions, they may give team’s complete freedom to do their work and set their own limits. Laissez-faire leaders usually permit their subordinate the power to make results about their work (‘Chaudhry & Javed, 2012’). They offer teams with properties and advice, if desired, but else do not get complicated. This leadership style can be actual if the leader monitors performance and gives response to team members commonly. The main advantage of laissez-faire leadership is that permitting team members so much independence can lead to high job satisfaction and enlarged productivity. It can be harmful if team members do not accomplish their time well or do not have the familiarity, skills, or inspiration to do their work successfully. This type of leadership can also arise when managers do not have enough control over their staff (Ololube, 2013).

2.3 CONCEPT AND DEFFINITION ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

Organizations have a significant role in our daily lives and therefore, successful organizations represent a key ingredient for developing nations. Therefore, many economists reflect organizations and institutions like to an engine in defining the economic, social and political progress. Precisely for this reason, in the last twenty two years, there were six Nobel prizes rewarded to investigators who have concentrated on the exploration of organizations and institutions. Continuous performance is the focus of any organization because only through performance organizations are able to grow and development. Thus, organizational performance is one of the most significant variables in the management investigation and debatably the most significant indicator of the organizational performance. Though the idea of organizational performance is very common in the academic literature, its description is difficult because of its many meanings. For this reason, there isn’t a generally recognized description of this idea. In the 50th organizational performance was defined as the extent to which organizations, observed as a social system fulfilled their aims (Georgopoulos & Tannenbaum, 1957).

Performance valuation through this time was focused on work, people and organizational structure. Later in the 60th and 70th, organizations have begun to discover new ways to assess their performance so performance was well-defined as an organization's capacity to exploit its environment for retrieving and using the incomplete resources (Yuchtman &Seashore, 1967). The years 80th and 90th were marked by the recognition that the identification of organizational aims is more complex than initially measured. Managers began to understand that an organization is successful if it accomplishes its goals ‘effectiveness’ using a minimum of resources ‘efficiency’.  Thus, organizational theories that followed supported the indication of an organization that attains its performance aims based on the limitations imposed by the limited resources (Lusthaus and Adrien, 1998 after Campbell, 1970). In this framework, profit became one of the many indicators of performance.  (Lebans and Euske , 2006), offer a set of definitions to explain the concept of organizational performance: Performance is a fixed of financial and nonfinancial pointers which offer information on the degree of attainment of aims and outcomes. Performance is dynamic, requiring judgment and interpretation. Performance may be illustrated by using a fundamental model that describes how current actions may affect future results. Performance may be assumed in a different way contingent on the person involved in the assessment of the organizational performance (e.g. performance can be understood inversely from a person within the organization linked to one from outside) to describe the concept of performance is necessary to know its elements characteristic to each area of responsibility. To report an organization's performance level, it is necessary to be able to compute the results. Outcomes (Lebans and Euske 2006 after Kaplan and Norton, 1992)

2.4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERSHSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

This study examined ‘effects of leadership style on organizational performance in small and medium scale enterprise (SMES)’ in Nigeria by which its objective was to define the effects of leadership style on organizational performance in small and medium scale enterprise (SMES). The study followed a survey design and employed evaluative quantitative analysis method Data was collected from a population and sample of 70 staff of the organisations and examined with Friedman’s chi-square statistics using SPSS. The results show that transformational leadership style exert a positive but unimportant effect on employee performance while transactional leadership style has a positive important effect on employee performance. It is concluded that transactional leadership style is more suitable in making performance in small scale enterprises in Makaduri city than transformational leadership style. (Saasongu, 2015)

Another study which conducted relationship between transformational, transactional leadership styles and job performance of Academic Leaders, which its objective was approved out to classify the influence of styles of leadership on job performance. Its method was based on design methodology approach, the empirical research was directed through survey on ‘450’ randomly designated respondents from all the take part banks in the survey. And their result was that several performance efforts were unsuccessful as a finding of factors such as satisfactory leadership style of leaders. Leadership has positive influences on important organizational outcomes, including human resource results and performance (Peterson & Luthans, 2003; Luthans, 2005). Moreover, (‘Howell and Avolio, 1993) indicated that styles of leadership are main forecasters of human resources performance. (Maryam Mahdinezhad1, 2013)

  Another Study examined Leadership styles and job satisfaction: empirical indication from Mogadishu universities. The aim of this study was to scan the link between leadership styles and job satisfaction between instructors working in three selected universities in Mogadishu-Somalia. The Method conducted via survey, data was gathering using questionnaire. The result of the research indicated that there’s a positive and significant relationship among transformational and transactional leadership and job satisfaction. In other words,

there is a strong link between transformational leadership style and job satisfaction while there is weak link between job satisfaction and transactional leadership. That means the instructors prefer transformational leadership than transactional leadership. (Ali Yassin Sheikh Ali, 2013)

This research was explored   the impact of leadership on student: An Investigation of the Variance Effects of Leadership Types. The aim of this research was to observe the relation influence of dissimilar types of leadership on students’ academic and non-academic outcomes. And it used the primary methodology inside which this research can be positioned is that of meta-analysis. Meta-analysis is an empirical, knowledge-building style that allows the results of quantitative researches of the relationship between two concepts to be united so that an estimate of the average measure of the influence of one on the other can be consequent (‘Glass, McGaw, & Smith, 1981; Hedges & Olkin, 1985; Lipsey & Wilson, 2001’). The maximum current review of the impact of instructional leadership on student outcomes determined as follows: “The size of the effects that principals indirectly contribute toward student learning, though statistically Significant is also quite small” (Hallinger, 2005, p. 229). This decision was reached as part of a literature review and debate of study on instructional leadership rather than as outcome of the calculation of the conclusion size statistic for each applicable study. (Rowe, 2008)

The research was showed the effect of leadership styles on organizational performance at State Corporations in Kenya. Its purpose was to investigate the main effects of leadership styles on organizational performance at state-owned corporations in Kenya. The method used was a descriptive survey research built on the views of middle and senior managers in thirty state-owned corporations built in Mombasa, Kenya was assumed. The result became that laisses- faire leadership style is not meaningfully correlated to organizational performance. (‘Namusong, 2012’)

Other Study explored a review of leadership Theories, Principles and Styles and Their Relevance to Educational Management, The objectives of this theoretical debate is to explore the broader context of leadership and its efficiency towards improving school management, the Method used was face-to-face discussions with staff. The outcomes of the effective educational leadership style applications are feasible for a number of objectives, which include advance administrative performance, team-building, and improved individual and school improvement in teaching and learning. (‘Rose Ngozi Amanchukwu1, 2015’)

Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood

The birth of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in 1928 heralded the emergence of political Islam and modeled the Islamist movements of the future. Subsequent Islamist movements surfaced as diverse responses to the problems of authoritarianism, foreign intervention, and failed Arab nationalist movements in the post-war environment. Hamas and Hezbollah illustrate the diversity of political Islam in the modern Middle East; for each Islamist movement has different origins and goals than the next, developed within particular geographies and sociopolitical contexts, and the relationship between each movement proves that Islamism is not uniform but rather an umbrella term that encompasses a vast spectrum of competing ideologies. Yet Hamas and Hezbollah, developed according to a shared pattern, that is, that they all envisioned a world free of foreign resistance in which the family, community, and state are organized and mobilized consistently with Islamic principles. While Hezbollah is Shiite and Hamas is Sunni, those sectarian differences do not eclipse their mutual nationalist, Islamic, and anti-Israeli aspirations. Both groups have a military wing that has committed acts of terrorism, and both participate significantly in local politics.  It is therefore easy but problematic to lump all Islamist movements together as a monolithic threat to Israel and ultimately to the West. For despite the similarities in Hezbollah’s and Hamas’s understandings of resistance, there are differences in how these organizations interpret and apply this concept. These differences are linked less to their respective Shia or Sunni Islamist political ideologies than to the contexts the two groups operate in and the strategic interests and alliances they pursue.

The 1967 Six Day War marked a point of departure for initial Palestinian resistance through the Palestinian Liberation Organization. The new land won by Israel after their victory was occupied by Palestinian refugees. Palestinian resistance was able to strengthen its rhetoric as the “movement could claim to speak on behalf of Palestinians in occupied territories for the first time.” Prior to 1967, Palestinian refugees lived in neighboring Arab states among people who had their own, different agendas and were not motivated to actively support a Palestinian resistance movement. This changed when Israel unethically controlled these lands. The emerging success of the PLO showed the Palestinians coalescing around a common goal that emerged and strengthened after years of frustrated oppression. The newly created PLO represented Palestinian rights within the occupied regions and was quickly controlled by Fatah, an organization that used military tactics to fight for liberation. The PLO had success as it “not only kept the Palestinian issue alive” but it also “brought it [to] center stage.” By 1974, Yasser Arafat, leader of the PLO, was able to bring the often-neglected issue of a Palestinian nation to the UN and argue for a two-state solution, just five years after Golda Meir, prime minister of Israel, stated “there were no such thing as Palestinians”. Even though a Palestinian state has not as of date materialized, the PLO “played the same role for Palestinian nationalism that the Balfour Declaration played for Zionism,” legitimizing the Palestinian need for recognition and sovereignty in the region. They were able to at least question the legitimacy of Israel to a further extent than ever before because of increased organization. Palestinians had their strongest and most successful rally against the external force of Israel and they made progress towards attaining statehood. And yet, by 1979, “their [the Palestinians] hopes of deliverance [independence] by other Arab states were dashed when Egypt concluded a peace treaty with Israel in 1979, and their hopes for liberation at the hands of the PLO collapsed after the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon.”

Inspired by the transnational Muslim Brotherhood, Islamic activists established Hamas in late 1987, coinciding with the first Palestinian uprisings against Israeli occupation in Gaza and the West Bank. Over the years, Hamas succeeded in positioning itself as an alternative to the corrupt, inefficient, and largely discredited leadership of Yasser Arafat and the Palestine Liberation Organization. On December 8, 1987, simmering resistance was brought to a boil with the killing of Palestinian workers at the hands of Israeli soldiers. The funerals that were held the next day were overshadowed by mass demonstrations in which demonstrators were once again killed by Israeli forces. This mirrored the repeated cycle of humiliation and repression that existed years before the killings of December 1987–resist, die, mourn, repeat. Resistance to this cycle became known as the Intifada, Arabic for uprising. Hamas emerged as an underground movement in Gaza to give direction and teeth to the Intifada. Hamas operated in juxtaposition to the failing domestic operations of the PLO, and so, too, the ideologies of each were juxtaposed: “They also captured the increasingly bitter struggle between the secular nationalist forces of the PLO and the rising Islamist movement for control of the Palestinian national movement within the Occupied Territories.” The origin of Hamas is also inextricably linked to the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood whose leader, Shaykh Ahmad Yassin, took action on the night troubles broke out, convening “the leaders of the Brotherhood to coordinate action” and transform the Muslim Brotherhood into the Hamas resistance movement. The Hamas movement would draw continued inspiration from the Muslim Brotherhood’s influential Islamic reformers; for example, the importance of organized resistance based on Islam rather than secular ideals was transmitted by Sayyid Qutb in his radical essay Milestones on “both the bankruptcy of Western materialism and the authoritarianism of secular Arab nationalism. The social and political systems that defined the modern age were man-made and had failed for that very reason….” A general disdain for the pitfalls of secular resistance meant that Islam would therefore entrench itself as the organization’s central organizational tenet.

Hezbollah’s founding preceded Hamas in 1985 in a parallel faith-based response to a similar struggle against Israeli occupation in Southern Lebanon. The 1982 invasion of Lebanon by Israel only exacerbated the economic and political marginalization of Lebanese Shia Muslims harkening back to post-independence struggles against Christian minorities. Hezbollah’s members were united in their unswerving Islamic faith and their willingness to sacrifice themselves for God’s call to action, “The Israeli invasion brought the Islamic movement to Lebanon…the Lebanon conflict provided external enemies for the Islamist movement to fight…[and] the emergence of a new Shiite Islamist movement…a militia called itself the Party of God, or Hezbollah.” The fellow Shiite state of Iran served as a model for Hezbollah structurally, for “the 1978–79 revolution in Iran served as an inspiration to action, a proof of what can be accomplished when the faithful gather under the banner of Islam.” Under the auspices of Iranian and Syrian aid, Hezbollah developed around a central objective “to create an Islamic state in Lebanon.” However, whereas Hamas defined its goals positively, that is, to establish an Islamic Palestinian state, Hezbollah can be accurately characterized as negative resistance aimed at the expulsion of Israel.

Yet despite the similarities in Hezbollah’s and Hamas’s understandings of resistance, their regional alliances and strategic interests diverge. Ultimately, the rise of former Egyptian president Mohamed Morsi and the Muslim Brotherhood (the aforementioned parent organization of Hamas) pushed Hamas to sever its relations with Syria and cons

equently deviate from Hezbollah. The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood is Hamas’s ideological predecessor, and Hamas believed it would strongly benefit politically and economically from the Muslim Brotherhood’s ascent to power in Egypt and elsewhere in the Middle East. Hamas hoped that a close alliance with the Muslim Brotherhood would increase its international legitimacy and end Gaza’s economic and political isolation. Hamas anticipated that the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood would be able to replace its former allies: Iran, Syria, and Hezbollah. Furthermore, Hezbollah has been more effective at achieving its expressed goals; after the group’s guerrilla war forced Israel to end its eighteen-year occupation of southern Lebanon, in May of 2000, Hezbollah was acknowledged throughout the Arab world for compelling Israel to relinquish land without a peace agreement, a feat no Arab army had accomplished.

Designing change in organisations (Nardelli / Home Depot)

1a) According to Rafaelli when designing change, leaders must make choices that fit the gap in the organization and the set of challenges the change might face. These choices together are the ‘SORT’ of change the organization will need. After careful reading, it can be inferred that the SORT of change that Nardelli is implementing in Home Depot is radical in scope, top-down in origin, a system-wide rollout, and fast in timing.

Incremental changes are those make small modifications to existing organizational systems, processes, and routines, meanwhile, radical changes are those that affect almost every aspect of the organization including culture, assessment measures, etc. With this definition in mind, we can see that the changes Nardelli implemented were more radical. For example, he instituted common metrics that produced ‘companywide’ data in areas that had not been consistently measured before and he integrated new culture into the organization through two-hour Monday morning conference calls with 15 top executives which would later go out to all 1800 Home Depot stores. Going from an organization where managers could mark directives from HQ as “B.S.”, this Monday morning calls that required everyone to be engaged was indeed a big culture move.

The origin and timing of the change in Home Depot are top-down and fast because it was clearly planned with clear directives and goals by the leader Nardelli. We can see this right from the beginning of the case when he hired a trusted colleague shortly after arriving, signaling he was ready to initiate the change right away. Another example of how fast the change was is the “Super Saturday” where the entire structure of the organization was re-organized in just 3 hours 30 minutes. The leaders also initiated this.

The aforementioned examples also demonstrate that the rollout of change at Home Depot was system-wide. It involved all the divisions and branches across the United States.

b i) According to the Burton et al. model, climate is characterized by a readiness to change and degree of tension. When Nardelli arrived at Home Depot they were operating under an internal process which is marked by low readiness to change and high tension.

Some instances that illustrate how Home Depot had a low readiness to change include: “no one wanted an outsider, as Nardelli himself acknowledges that would GE-ize their company and culture”. Much of the top executive team left the company during Nardelli’s first year. And “a year and a half after Nardelli took over as CEO there was still significant opposition within the organization to the changes they were making” (Chamram, pg 3 & 7).

We can see the high levels of tension on page 5 of the case where the author notes that ‘people in merchandising, operations, and stores traditionally distrust each other… the vice president for stores in Home Depot’s southern region recounts that in the pre-Nardelli years a meeting involving these three groups “was basically a food fight.” ’. But these tensions seem to exist on a wider scale and not within the different stores. An illustration of this is on page 1 where the author describes Home Depot as a ‘freewheeling yet famously close-knit’, and also on page 3 where the author further describes the culture as having people that are ‘unusually passionate to the customer and the company”.

However, since Nardelli is rolling out a system-wide change, we can go ahead with the high tension categorization.

ii) An internal process climate is not appropriate for Home Depot because it creates a misfit with the strategic changes  Nardelli plans on implementing. Home Depot was not faced only with low inventory turns and low margins but also with a new competitor, Lowe’s. For Home Depot to avoid a decline in growth and avoid getting beat out by the new competition it needs to be in a climate with high readiness to change and high tension. The tension won’t necessarily be all negative, it should be just high enough to create urgency and drive performance.

Nardelli recognized that the readiness to change at Home Depot was low and would be detrimental to his plans if not tackled which is why he and Donovan set up set up a series of five-day learning forums for district store managers. The goal of this was to put the managers in the shoes of Nardelli and get them to understand and support the changes.

c) Corporate entrepreneurship (CE) strategies are recommended for established firms to solve growth- and economic performance- related problems they experience in competitive environments (Peltola, 2012). Nardelli’s proposed strategic change for Home Depot constituted corporate innovation because it was progressive, proactive and impermanent which are the key elements to CE strategies.

According to Peltola, a progressive strategy is one that proceeds in systematic stages, groups individual events together, establishes a particular order to the process, and justifies ongoing and forthcoming actions. Nardelli’s strategy was progressive in nature because he laid out a three-part strategy: enhance the core by improving the profitability of current and future stores in existing markets; extend the business by offering related services such as tool rental and home installation of Home Depot products; and expand the market, both geographically and by serving new kinds of customers, such as big construction contractors (Charan, 2006).

A proactive strategy is one that anticipates events, trends, and changes in the market. Although Home Depot was still very successful, they could recognize that if they continued operating the way they were, they would be faced with financial and operational problems. In addition, whenever people made comments that Nardelli was going too fast he would say “Good point. Give me five minutes. I am going to call Lowe’s and ask them to slow down for us”. This shows that Nardelli was not reactive.

Finally, an impermanent strategy is one that is ever-changing and requires constant renewal and modifications. An example of this in Home Depot’s case is with the SOAR planning. Not only was it a new innovation that Nardelli brought into the company, but it was also modified as time went on. For example, people were keeping the good ideas until the SOAR meeting before asking for funding. This was not efficient and was fixed by providing a process for interim approvals if capital requests. Moreover, to stop such happenings from repeating, half a day is now set aside at the end of every SOAR session to evaluate how the process can be refined.

An additional innovation that came with Nardelli’s strategy was the “toll gates”, which was a way of assessing and improving HR function.

2a) After Nardelli’s unsuccessful attempt for change Donovan was able to push again for a change in late 2002 early 2003 by creating a true sense of urgency. He accomplished this by using some of the strategies for increasing true urgency which include giving people important facts and winning hearts and minds (Kotter, 2008 pg 57). He set up a series of five-day learning forums for district managers which included competitive simulation and role-playing exercise where Donovan asked people to view the company from Nardelli’s perspective. He also set up a wide variety of ongoing leadership-training programs such as the Future Leaders Program, the Store Leadership Program, and the Merchandising Leadership Program. With these programs, the employees could feel a sense of urgency and began approving of the changes as well. For example, Liebert had been wanting to replace the manual box count used for tracking incoming goods at stores but he was unsuccessful. However, after he got the workers to become a part of the leadership training programs they were able to institute these changes themselves because they started to feel a true sense of urgency and realized that the bar code system was more efficient. According to Kotter (2008), with a real sense of urgency when people see an opportunity or a problem of significance to their organization, they naturally search for effective ways to get the information to whom it may concern. They come to work ready to cooperate energetically and responsively with intelligent initiatives from others. Donovan was able to stir these attitudes in people. Page 7 of the case notes of the passionate Home Depot worker: “The orange blood kind of starts boiling, and people say, ‘Bring it on’.”

b) To determine whether Nardelli would have been more successful with Tabrizi’s 90-days transformation model vs. Kotter’s accelerate model, we must compare their advantages and disadvantages if any.

Tabrizi’s 90-day model advantages:

– Embraces the critical success factors which include: all-encompassing, integrative, fast, and full passionate commitment and buy-in.

– Provides a framework for accelerating typical transformation efforts.

– Includes a 30 – 90 days pre-transformation period where the goals are to commit the organization to the transformation effort, address initial resistance to the effort, set the stage and create momentum for the 90 days effort, and more.

– Notes that actual full-fledged implementation of the effort will extend well beyond the 90 days (up to 6-12 months) so it prepares you for the ensuing days.

– The implementation period includes the importance of maintaining momentum by addressing resistance, celebrating often, and using a rewards system.

Disadvantages:

– Employees must be prepared to put in extra time and energy which might not be okay with some.

– All the critical success factors mentioned above must be embraced which means there is little room for flexibility or failure.

Kotter’s accelerate model advantages:

– Compared to the 8-steps model the accelerators are concurrent and always at work.

– Underscores the importance of creating a sense of urgency

– Pulls in as many people as possible from the organization.

– Emphasized head and heart and not just head.

Disadvantages:

– Designed to function only as a fluid, flexible and agile network which is completely different from Nardelli’s strategy of creating a centralized system.

From the above analysis, it can be concluded that Nardelli may have been more successful if he used Tabrizi’s 90-day model. Firstly, if there was a pre-transformation period, and momentum/buy-in was created before the change efforts, then Nardelli wouldn’t have had to deal with as much resistance as he did a year and a half into the change efforts. Secondly, the implementation period is very practical it ensures that the change efforts are not undermined. Nardelli would have also benefitted from having a reward or celebration system in place to incentivize more participation. Lastly, the accelerate method may not have worked for Nardelli because it does not fit with his style of leadership which was a more centralized style. For Home Depot to succeed with the accelerate model a different leader may be more suitable to lead with this style.

The American Revolution: writing essay help

The American Revolution established a framework of revolt that countries throughout the Americas, desiring independence from an overpowering mother country, would follow. The Revolution marked the transition from a state of dependence on the mother country to a state of independence in social, political, and economic aspects. Gordon Wood referred to the American Revolution as a  “full scale assault on dependency” (Wood 179). Wood defined dependents as “those who had no wills of their own” and by assaulting dependency, one is rebelling against a situation where they is reliant upon someone to meet their needs (Wood 56). This dependency was present politically through monarchy, patriarchal dependency, and social hierarchies that were inherited from the mother country. In order to have the “assault on dependency” Wood mentioned, the United States broke away from these ideals. During the early 1800s, the modern day nation of Colombia struggled to break free from the controlling and powerful country of Spain in order to establish a nation and assault their dependency upon the long-lasting Spanish rule. Colombia’s independence movement could be characterized as a partial assault on dependency due to attempts at drastic political movements and self-determination.

Prior to the independence movement, Spanish Americans had little involvement in government. Once the conquistadors created towns in New Granada, they appointed royal governors. These governors then created another source of royal authority, cabildos, or municipal councils. The governors appointed members to these councils, who were typically powerful encomenderos, and those members chose new officers among their peers. This form of aristocracy led to the creation of a “self-perpetuating [oligarchy]” (McFarlane 493). In order to strengthen the Royal Authority, Spain established the audiencia of Santa Fe in 1550. Audiencias were royal appellate courts. The goal of this audiencia was to centralize authority, but it failed to exert control over the Spanish settlers and their Creole descendents. The audiencia had a president that was appointed by the King and had power over the military. The Viceroyalty of New Granada was created in 1717 and failed in 1723 due to poor leadership, but was reestablished in 1739. Viceroys exercised jurisdiction over New Granada and “improved government finances, brought previously autonomous provincial governments under closer supervision, and strengthened Bogotá’s role as a center for a more integrated system of government” (McFarlane 494).

Charles III continued to reform New Granada’s government and commerce in the 1770s through the 1780s. He opened the region’s ports to free imperial trade and sent a visitor general to increase taxes and ensure that the colonial government would be more responsive to central commands. These steps to restructure administration and taxation were met with much opposition from the colonists. It triggered the Comunero Revolt of 1781. The Comunero Revolt united 20,000 people from multiple social groups. This uprising had clear consequences, including the repeal of the attempted reforms that triggered the revolt. It also caused an increase in opposition to colonial government, especially within the creole elite. These feelings of discontent were enhanced by Enlightenment ideals and resentment towards Spain for discrimination against Creoles.

These factors and many others caused the people of colonial Colombia to begin to desire independence from Spain. The colonists’ first attempt at independence was triggered by Napoleon’s capture of the Spanish throne that abdicated King Ferdinand VII in 1808. Without a legitimate monarch to rule the Spanish empire, Creole revolutionaries used this as an opportunity for self-governance. In 1810, they began overthrowing Spain’s royal subjects and establishing juntas, including a Supreme Junta in Bogota. Juntas were a patriotic alternative form of government to the Spanish colonial government. Juntas were an early example of the Colombians’ attempt at assaulting dependency through means of self-determination. However, when the Spanish regained control of their throne, they also took back control of New Granada by military force in 1815-1816. Following this reimposition of royal authority, there was “savage repression that…rekindled opposition to the colonial regime” (McFarlane 495). Liberator Simon Bolivar and his forces led the fight for Colombian independence. After victory in the Battle of Boyaca on 7 August 1819, Bolivar regained control of central New Granada.

This victory allowed Bolivar to create a foundation for the Republic of Colombia, and it was formally established in the Congress of Angostura in December 1819. This Republic is known to historians as Gran Colombia. It united the colonial territories of New Granada, Panama, Venezuela, and Quito under a single government and constitution that created a central yet conservative government. While New Granada may have been independent from Spain and a new government had been created, the assault on dependency had not occured yet. New Granada was still dependent, to some extent, upon the other countries that were included in Gran Colombia.

After Gran Colombia was dissolved, New Granada, formed its own country, which they named the Republic of New Granada. Under the Constitution of 1832, Colombian leaders created the structure for their new nation’s government: a republic. This republic included a president and a Congress. The complete change in structure of government from how it was during colonial times to the government outlined in the Constitution of 1832 exemplifies an assault on dependence to a great extent. New Granada’s decision to completely change their government demonstrated independence through self-determination. Now that they were no longer under Spanish rule, the people of New Granada utilized their grievances with the colonial government and Enlightenment ideals to establish a new form of government, as they now had the independence to do so.

Between the two main parties, liberals and conservatives, a highly disputed issue was the separation of church and state. The liberals supported lessening the power of the Catholic Church in government, while the conservatives wanted the opposite (“Politics”). Throughout Colombia’s beginnings as a nation the power shifted between the liberals and conservatives, and with it so did the Church’s role in the government. When the liberals were in power they instituted many reforms designed by the radicals of the party in order to “eradicate Colombia’s heavy colonial heritage”. These reforms included “a frontal attack on the institutional and cultural power of the Catholic Church (expropriations of wealth, removal from education, and expulsion of the Jesuit order)” (Mazzuca and Robinson 286).

The liberals attempts at removing the nation’s colonial heritage and limiting the power of the Church was an example of an assault on dependency. It was a complete change from how the government was structured during colonial times, as the church had been at the center of many aspects of life. In addition, with the Catholic Church in power, people were dependent upon it for their beliefs, and weakening it gave the people the power to think independently and have new ideas on how their government should be administered. However, these reforms were reversed when the Conservatives came back into power, reverting this to only a partial assault on dependency, as the reforms were not successful.

One might argue that Wood’s statement regarding the revolution being a “full-scale assault on dependency” does not apply to the Colombian independence movement at all because of the preservation of conservative ideals that existed. While the conservatives endorsed the previous methods of government, the existence of the liberal party proves negates this argument. The emergence of a two-party system itself demonstrates an assault on dependency. Prior to its independence, the people did not have very much say in its government or how it was run, so parties did not exist. By posing as a threat to the conservative values, the liberal party represents the bare minimum in the essence of Wood’s statement. As they were unable to retain their values that posed as a full-scale assault on dependency, the ability to challenge these ideals with swift reform permits the Colombian revolution to fall under Wood’s definition. The liberal agenda led the path towards Colombia’s sovereignty and development of power that allowed the country to act on their own terms, rather than at the hands of Spanish colonialism.

Marriott International historical growth

In the beginning, there was a root beer stand. Now, that root beer stand has evolved into

the multi-billion dollar hospitality company that is Marriott International. According to Marriott’s official website, the company’s journey began in 1927, when John Willard Marriott and his wife opened up an A&W root beer stand in Washington D.C. Little did these young entrepreneurs know that their shop would become so successful and that their business sense would be passed down to their son John Willard Marriott Jr., also known as Bill Marriott. The company reports that its first hotel was opened in 1957, in Virginia, under Bill Marriott’s supervision. From then on, the company widened its horizons and became one of the leading hotel and lodging companies within the hospitality industry.

Seeing as the company has grown so much over the years, it’s essential for Marriott

International to have great leadership, a headquarters, and a reliable way to be contacted. According to the “Executive Leadership” page provided by the company’s website, J.W. Marriott Jr., or Bill, is the “Executive Chairman and Chairman of the Board”, in addition to his 40 years as the previous Chief Executive Officer of the company. The current CEO is stated to be Arne M. Sorenson. The Marriott site also states that the current Chief Financial Officer (CFO) is a woman named Leeny Oberg, and she’s held that position for almost three years. Because Marriott is such a large company with properties all around the country and the world, there are many “main offices” scattered across the globe but the company’s corporate/head office is located at “10400 Fernwood Road, in Bethesda, Maryland”. If at any point, the public feels they need to get in contact with the company’s corporate office, they’d call the number “1-301-380-300” (“Corporate Overview”).

Marriott’s success in the hospitality industry comes as an outcome of the hard work that’s

been put in by the company and its employees to make/keep their customers satisfied, and returning. This is why Marriott International is viewed as one of the leading hospitality companies. With “more than 6,700 properties” under its belt, all committed to providing the customer with the best service, Marriott has become a household name associated with much praise (“Marriott Int. Brand Fact Sheet”). The company has even been acclaimed by the AAA for some of its four-diamond, five-diamond, and five-star hotels (“5-Star Hotels”). A lot of the company’s success is also due to its ability to keep up with innovating trends. In 2017, just a year ago, an article on the company’s “News Center” reported how it allowed reward members of its loyalty programs, of which there are three, to link their accounts. This development opened up more doors for members, allowing them to travel to more locations than they ever could with just one program. Marriott also launched mobile apps that make the guests’ stay easier like “Mobile Check-in, Mobile Requests, and Mobile Key” (“Forbes Names Marriott International”). These innovative developments not only benefit the consumers, but it saves the company money in the long run.

Marriott International’s stature in the hospitality industry means that there are other big companies competing right alongside it, trying to trump whatever service, or price they provide. Those companies include but are not limited to: Hilton, Hyatt, and Intercontinental Hotels Group. Having this competition is beneficial for Marriott customers because it potentially lowers room rates, and pushes the company to excel in whatever department they may be lacking in.

In addition, Marriott International is a publicly traded company that’s a part of the

NASDAQ Stock Market, and it can be found under the symbol MAR (“Corporate Overview”). As reported by the NASDAQ website, the current stock price of MAR, on the 10th of December, is $110.03; although, five years ago, the stock price was at $48.15. There’s an obvious increase that occurred which indicates that those who owned a share five years ago, now have an opportunity to make more money than that which they spent.

In essence, Marriott International is one of the biggest hotel and lodging companies in the

World. The hospitality industry is driven by companies like Marriott who strive for excellence and amazing service. Marriott International is a company that came from humble beginnings, and a family who’s dream to provide great goods and services to the public led to the creation of thousands of hotels around the globe. The company’s dedication to innovation, and great leadership is what makes it so successful in this day and age, and it would be almost impossible to imagine the hospitality industry without it.

Global Peacebuilding and Interfaith Leadership: college essay help

September 6, 2016

Peace Through Education

Non-governmental organizations (NGO’s) are created to help out those in need without the struggle of governmental restrictions. Most of the time they can have a great influence on the world but sometimes they can negatively affect those they try to help. Depending on whether or not a certain NGO is well funded, it affects the impact they can have on the community that they are trying to help. The power of an NGO comes from its funding and how much money they have at liberty to use. True help happens when those in need are able to live and prosper on their own without a constant need for outside help. Education is the most powerful form of “service” and help because it gives those in need the ability to succeed and help future generations.

The room to read organization focuses on two goals: the first step is to create an environment of literacy that will bring a demand for more children in developing countries to want to read from a young age. The second is to motivate girls to finish their secondary school and to go farther in their education. Not only are they trying to create a global movement, the more basic/strong aspects of the Room to Read model include: programs to support girls both financially and emotionally, both in school and after graduation; building new schools and providing training or supplementary materials to teachers; establishing and stocking libraries and publishing books in the local language. The organization has founded over 15,000 libraries and impacted the lives of 7.8 million children. Room to Read has now become a prominent in the world due to its mission and the way that they are approaching at it. Instead of just funneling money to villages, they are giving the proper teaching tools and knowledge that will positively affect the future of those communities.

Many countries are still ruled by people who grew up in turmoil and who have not learned how to properly educate their population. Cambodia has had a particularly rough century with the khmer rouge genocide and extreme political corruption. The country now has an extreme problem with correct education. Salt Academy is an organization that removes girls from abusive families or sex trade and place them in orphanages to then involve them in sports and education. Their overall mission is to create an education in which sports contribute to equal treatment, better development and peaceful competition. Team sports are a powerful agent for change and an effective programmatic tool to help achieve goals in health, education, gender equality, HIV/AIDS, child protection and child development. Education does not simply have to be through an academic lens, activities like sports can play a great role into furthering a goal of peace.  I worked with the Salt Academy in Cambodia for a month to construct roofs and shelters and to teach English to the orphan girls.  It doesn’t matter whether it’s a world renowned NGO or just and organization that focuses on helping on small group of people. As long as they educate those they help, then leave a positive imprint on the world. Another example of a Cambodian NGO is the Kdei Karuna Organization (KdK). For more than 10 years it has established itself as a one of the most valuable peacebuilding NGO’s in Cambodia. “Through participatory and community-engaged approaches, KdK has implemented truth-telling and memorialization initiatives between a number of groups, including former Khmer Rouge cadres and victims, ethnic minorities, and youth.” Kdei Karuna means “compassionate action to heal” in Sanskrit and it aims to contribute to sustainable peace efforts by addressing the scars of conflict inflicted over decades of instability and war.

The mission of the Fundatia Inocenti Romanian Children’s Relief Organization is to support Romanian children and families in need and prevent child abandonment. Inocenti has offered specialized professional therapy and services to children and families in need since 1990. They have also focused on giving resources and money towards teachers to help out the Roma people (gypsies). They currently have 500 volunteers that serve more than 2,000 abandoned and at-risk children with special needs in Bucharest and Bistrita-Nasaud County.

Peace can only be achieved by your own values, there is no third party or person that can come in and implement their own piece because in the end it never works out. Education helps teach those values and lets people decide on their own.

Personal Career Development Plan: college essay help online

Personal Career Development Plan

Preferred organizations/ establishments:

1) Chimera Event Sdn Bhd has started since 2008. The company is located at the heart of Petaling Jaya. Chimera Event aims to provide high quality and cost-effective sampling and event services by customizing a perfect way to promote clients’ products. In other words, the company focuses on creating effective brand communication.

2) Forth Dimension was established in year 2006. Pioneered by a group of energetic and vibrant entrepreneurs, the company has grown in leaps and bounds from humble roots in event management, to become one of the fastest growing event & sampling agencies in Malaysia today.

3) Kingdom Event with the motto ‘turning royal fantasies into realities’, provide total event management including venue finding, accommodation, creative designs, staging, lighting, and sound, audio visual, decor, catering, drink, entertainment, hosting, transport, signage and logistics.

Employability skills required for this career:

1) Communication skills which include both verbal and written are equally important in the field as the career intend to work with different people at all times, meeting various kind of clients and writing up letters, emails and reports.

2) Creativity is required as an event manager would have to constantly come up with new and preferably unique ideas.

3) Leadership skill that could help guides the team towards the end goal to produce successful events.

4) Problem solving skill is required when something unexpected has spur during an event. The whole process should be fast, quick and accurate to keep additional problems from forming.

5) Organizational skill is required in choreographing various elements that makes an event successful such as managing people, schedules or vendors.

Current skills:

1) Communication skill

2) Creativity

3) Leadership skill

4) Problem solving skill

5) Organizational skill Skills to be developed:

1) Communication skill

2) Creativity

3) Leadership skill

4) Problem solving skill

5) Organizational skill

Development Plans (i.e. What you want to improve, e.g. Communication skill: English proficiency)

Communication skill

1) Personal skill to maintain healthy body and mind that can enhance communication process.

2) Presentation skill to present effectively in front of a group of people either in a formal or informal setting.

3) Interpersonal skill to engage in face-to-face communication with effective listening and conveying. Creativity

To really strike a chord and put on an event that the guests have not seen before, it is important to show a good deal of creativity. Creativity in coming up with new ideas also proves originality which is one of the essential aspects that is required in this line of work. Leadership skill

1) Making decision skill in knowing how to choose a best course of action.

2) Develop people skill to lead and deal with the team.

3) Develop positive personal qualities that are needed to display at the work setting. Problem solving skill

1) Critical thinking skill allows event planning professionals to see the intricate details of a problem unemotionally and then turn the problem into an opportunity.

2) People skill is needed as an event manager must understand how to think with a team, not just make a one sided decision when solving problems.

Organizational skill

1) Planning skill to ensure that projects are completed within a specific time period.

2) Scheduling involves allocating time period for a specific task and assigning tasks to employees.

3) Coordinating resources to coordinate both internal and external resources.

Action Plans (i.e. How you want to improve, e.g. S.M.A.R.T. Plan)

Communication skill 1) Personal skill could be gained by building appropriate self-esteem and confidence through learning to control and relax myself when I am in the public/stage. For instance, I could practice relaxation techniques at home such as meditation or yoga for at least three times a week.

2) My presentation skill could be improved by practicing my class presentation for at least four times before my actual presentation. My presentation skill is said to improve once I can present an impromptu presentation well without any long pauses in between.

3) Interpersonal skill could be made better by understanding nonverbal communication, improving interactions when I speak with others and managing other people’s impression on me. I should constantly practice these when I am having conversation with others.

Creativity I can improve my creativity by changing my own mind set. Removing limitations, always challenging myself to try something new and being open to new experiences may improve my creativity. For instances, I should try to mingle with peers that possess different interest with me instead sticking with peers who shares similar interest with me. This could be done by joining more club activities and events. I will consider this goal achieved once I met at least two new friends in one event that I attend.

Leadership skill 1) I should expose myself to projects in college and take up more leader roles. This enables me to gain experience in tackling various obstacles which could improve my decision making skill. This goal could be done in the next two month, for instance, in the next upcoming event; I had volunteered myself as a group leader in 30-hour famine.

2) This could be done when I lead a team which then requires me to delegate task to the members. Other than that, I should give my views about their performances in a way that will be constructive to increase their motivation.

3) In terms of positive personal qualities, I should learn to be more charismatic, assertive and empathetic in the team. To measure whether my positive personal qualities is improve or not, I could ask feedbacks from my teammates after the end of project.

Problem solving skill 1) To practice critical thinking skill, at the beginning of each day I will choose a problem to work on. Figure out the logic of the problem by identifying its elements. In other words, systematically think through the questions: What exactly is the problem? How does it relate back to me?

2) This could be done when I lead a team which then requires me to delegate task to the members. Other than that, I should give my views about their performances in a way that will be constructive to increase their motivation.

Organizational skill 1) Projects are usually divided into many different tasks, and I must plan the tasks ahead of time to bring the project to fruition. I also should plan ahead in case certain problems come up that could potentially delay the project. My planning skill is said to be excellent if I submit my assignments on time.

2) Individually I should learn to schedule adequate amount of time to do revision for each subject for my finals to make sure I could score well in the exam. In group assignment, it is a good practice to allocate right task for each member as social loafer could be avoided.

3) I should learn on how to handle my weekly allowance so that I would not overspent and the money is being used appropriately. This could ensure that I always have enough money for myself whenever there is an emergency. By practicing this habit, it could give me a brief idea on the method of coordinating internal and external sources.

The therapeutic goods administration

The therapeutic goods administration contributes to the safe use of medications in two ways. The first way is through regulating therapeutic goods. This is achieved by having systems in place that ensure manufacturers meet standards for producing goods, authorise supply, monitor products once they reach the market and take action if there are any defects of the product and identify illegal activities like counterfeiting and stopping it from occurring. The second way in which they contribute is through employing highly qualified individuals who make sure Australia’s therapeutic goods meet quality and safety requirements. These include doctors, scientists and biomedical engineers, as well as many other specialists. (Government, n.d.)

Pharmacokinetics explains how the drug is altered as it makes its way through the body. This takes place through absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Absorption is the process of a substance entering the blood circulation. Distribution is the dispersion or dissemination of substances throughout the fluids and tissues of the body. metabolism is the recognition by the organism that a foreign substance is present. Excretion is the removal of the substances from the body.

(Ruiz-Garcia, Bermejo, Moss, & Casabo, 2007)

Pharmacodynamics explains how the drug affects the body. It explores the molecular mechanisms by which drugs cause biological effects

(Multimedia, Services, & Texas, 2008)

The first-pass effect is a phenomenon of drug metabolism where the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it experiences circulation. Rowland, Malcolm (1972). It is the fraction of drug which is not absorbed which is due to the liver and gut wall. Some drugs when consumed bypass the first pass effect. After a drug is consumed, it is absorbed by the digestive system and enters the hepatic portal system. It is carried through the portal vein into the liver and then makes its way into the body. The liver metabolizes many drugs which sometimes results in only a small amount of active drug moving from the liver to the rest of the circulatory system. This first pass through the liver significantly reduces the bioavailability of the drug. Alternative routes of administration like suppository, intravenous, intramuscular, inhalational aerosol, transdermal and sublingual avoid the first-pass effect because they allow drugs to be absorbed directly into the systemic circulation. Drugs with high first pass effect have a considerably higher oral dose than sublingual or parenteral dose. There is marked individual variation in the oral dose due to differences in the extent of first pass metabolism.

(Pond, Susan M.; Tozer, Thomas N. (1984))

glyceryl trinitrate (anginine) must be taken sublingually due to the fact that if it is taken orally, it will go through the first pass effect and as a result will not perform its function as bioavailability is 38% after sublingual and 1% after oral administration. It’s used for the treatment of chest pain presumed to be due to the heart and heart failure through acting as a nitric oxide donor from the endothelial cell in blood vessels, inducing vasodilation by relaxing the smooth muscles of the blood vessels. (Marshall, 2014)

roles and responsibilities of the doctor include establishing a trustful patient-doctor relationship, diagnosis and prognosis, complex decision-making, a multidisciplinary approach, leadership in health services and in the community and training the next generation of doctors. Patients need to be able to trust doctors and can be reassured if doctors support the patient in better understanding their condition and discussing the risk, benefit and uncertainties of various tests and treatments. Diagnosis is a key feature of a doctor as they need to respond to the illness by prioritizing and synthesizing information, forming an assessment and implementing the strategy in removing the illness. (Limited, 2015)

Roles and responsibilities of a nurse include being a caregiver, decision maker, communicator, patient advocate, teacher and management of care. A key role is being a patient advocate which entails protecting the rights of the patient. An example of this is when a patient is sick and unable to operate normally it is crucial that the nurse determines what the patient wants. A nurse is also a decision maker as they have to analyse the patient, observe the issue and carrying out interventions in order to promote the health of the client. Another role of the nurse is being a teacher which entails gving the patient an understanding of what their condition is. (LLC, 2014)

The main responsibility of a pharmacist helping the patient get healthier. Pharmacists train in all specialites of healthcare whether exposed to the public eye or not but pharmacists are important in nearly every facet of healthcare. Pharmacist responsibilities range from producing medications to monitoring patient health and progress to optimize their response to medication therapies. Pharmacists also educate patients on how to ideally use prescriptions and over-the-counter medications. Pharmacists educate and advise physicians, nurses, and other health professionals on medication therapy decisions. Pharmacists also provide expertise about the composition of drugs, including their chemical, biological, and physical properties and their manufacture and use. They ensure drug purity and strength and make sure that drugs do not interact in a harmful way.

Compare and contrast leadership and management: writing essay help

Leadership and management are closely related, yet differ. Compare and contrast leadership and management. Include an example.

As is explained in our textbook, leading is an important part of a manager’s job, though their key roles are to plan, organize and control. (DuBrin, 2012). “Managers [are] often viewed as task-oriented, and not necessarily focused on their employees. Leaders on the other hand are viewed as people-oriented; they impact and influence as well as work through and motivate their employees…”  (Bawany, 2014).  A leader’s job is to inspire, motivate and influence people. Leaders must have social and emotional intelligence to be successful whereas a manager does not require this to do their job successfully. (Bawany, 2014).  A leader needs to influence people to work towards a common goal. A manager has to control a process, project or activity. Leaders can delegate tasks to managers, whereas they cannot delegate leadership activities to others. For example, a company may be struggling with not hitting production goals. A manager must manage the issues with the production line, schedule shipments, etc. A leader must motivate and inspire the staff to work together to try to get back to hitting production goals.

Bawany, S. (2014, June 1). From Manager to Leader. Leadership Excellence, 34-35.

DuBrin, A. (2012). Leadership: Research findings, Practice, and Skills (7th ed). Mason: South-Western, Cengage Learning.

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Why are leaders essential, and what role does situation play in leadership? Compare and contrast contingency theory and situational leadership theory in your answer. Be sure to support your ideas with the scholarly research.

Leaders are essential because people need someone to follow, to be inspired by, motivated by, and to seek counsel from.  Situation plays a huge role in leadership because many times the situation will dictate what approach of leadership is going to be employed.

The path-goal theory of leadership is a situational leadership theory and was developed by Robert House. It describes the leader’s role in an employee’s goals and rewards. The theory says that a manager or leader sets the employee on the path toward his or her goal so that they will reach the goal (DuBrin, 2012). This is a good motivator for employees, and keeps leaders engaged in each employee’s path. Not only do the employees feel satisfaction by achieving their goals, but they also feel the involvement and coaching by their leaders. This leadership style can be effective over time. As employees reach one goal, a new path can be set for the next goal. A long-term cycle of working and reward is a great way to keep employees happy and working at the same company. However, if trying to mold the employee into a leader, this may not be the best style to employ because the leader is taking all of the initiative, leaving little self-leading to the employee

Vroom’s contingency theory takes all things into account when making a decision. It maintains that there is no one best way to lead. It says that the optimal leadership style is contingent on a variable number of factors. Each of these factors must be weighed to find the current optimal leadership style based upon the current situation. (Fiedler, Hersey, Blanchard, Vroom, & Yetton, n.d.). Each time the situation changes, all factors will need to be reevaluated to find the new best leadership style. This is a good style to employ when situations do not change often, which would require a lot of time to continuously reevaluate.

  

DuBrin, A. (2012). Leadership: Research findings, Practice, and Skills (7th ed). Mason: South-Western, Cengage Learning.

Fiedler, Hersey, Blanchard, Vroom, & Yetton (n.d.). Summary of Contingency Theory . Retrieved from http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_contingency_theory.html

Do you believe that leaders are born with certain traits or can they develop traits over time? What are the limitations of seeing leadership as traits?

DuBrin says that the personality traits of leaders can be categorized as being either general personality traits or task-related traits. General personality traits include self-confidence, humility, assertiveness, sense of humor, enthusiasm, extraversion, and authenticity.  These are personality traits that leaders have and apply in all scenarios in their lives. Task-related personality traits include passion, courage, internal locus of control, flexibility and adaptability, and emotional intelligence traits which include self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship management. These personality traits apply during specific scenarios or when doing work tasks (DuBrin, 2012). Other traits that leaders have are being inspirational, motivational, articulate, enthusiastic and optimistic (Bawany, 2014). I do not believe that one is born with these traits. I believe that people develop these traits in response to their environments and experiences, and that they are, and can be developed over time. The limitations of seeing leadership as traits is that this creates a sort of checklist in determining the ability to lead. By viewing leadership as specific traits, people either have them or do not. This limits the many different ways people can be leaders to one specific list.

Bawany, S. (2014, June 1). From Manager to Leader. Leadership Excellence, 34-35.

DuBrin, A. (2012). Leadership: Research findings, Practice, and Skills (7th ed). Mason: South-Western, Cengage Learning.

In what ways is a charismatic leader different than a transformational leader or a servant leader?

A charismatic leader is a leader who uses their personality to influence others and create positive relationships. They realize that the impression that other people have of them will determine whether or not they will be a charismatic leader (DuBrin, 2012). Charismatic leaders use these relationships that they build to establish and continue positive relationships to make leadership easier. A transformational leader is someone who brings major, positive changes to a company. They do this by working with people to transform their interests from self-serving to a larger, company-serving perspective (DuBrin, 2012).  Typically, someone is not both charismatic and transformational.  These leaders encourage people to perform better than the previously had expected of themselves (McLaurin, &  Amri, 2008). These leaders are out to complete a big goal and use their leadership to achieve it.

DuBrin, A. (2012). Leadership: Research findings, Practice, and Skills (7th ed). Mason: South-Western, Cengage Learning.

McLaurin, J., & Al Amri, M. (2008). DEVELOPING AN UNDERSTANDING OF CHARISMATIC AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP. Allied Academies International Conference: Proceedings Of The Academy Of Organizational Culture, Communications & Conflict (AOCCC), 13(2), 15-19.

What personal characteristics or traits of a leader should be emphasized in order to bring about improvements in the organization?

Transformational leaders have certain traits that make them better suited to be a transformational leader. These traits include being empowering, being able to instill vision in others, acting as role models, motivating other, considering each person individually, and being motivational (McLaurin, &  Amri, 2008). Other traits that should be emphasized are innovation, having emotional intelligence and being people-oriented (DuBrin, 2012). These traits are all important to transformational leaders because without them, they would be unsuccessful in attempting to bring about major changes in a company.

DuBrin, A. (2012). Leadership: Research findings, Practice, and Skills (7th ed). Mason: South-Western, Cengage Learning.

McLaurin, J., & Al Amri, M. (2008). DEVELOPING AN U

NDERSTANDING OF CHARISMATIC AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP. Allied Academies International Conference: Proceedings Of The Academy Of Organizational Culture, Communications & Conflict (AOCCC), 13(2), 15-19.

IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

An outline of the study into the topic of leadership finds that the collected works of leadership and organizational performance can be broadly classified into number of significant phases. Early scholarships on leadership (regularly classified as trait studies on leadership) focused on recognizing the personality traits which considered successful leader (‘Mahoney, 1960’), trait theory adopt that successful leader are born and that they have assured native qualities which distinguish them from non-leaders (‘See stodgill, 1948’). However, the dif. trouble in classifying and certifying these features led to widespread criticism of this trait approach, signaling the appearance of ‘Style’ and ‘behavioral’ methods to leadership.(‘stodgily, 1948’). Style and behavioral theorists moved the importance away from appearances of the leader to the behavioral and style leader adopted (‘Hemphill and coons, 1957; Likert 1961’) the code end studies seems to be that leaders who adopt democratic or participative styles are more successful (‘see, for example ‘, Bowers and Seashore, 1966’) in this wisdom, these initial studies are focused on recognizing the one best way of leading.

 Similarly to ‘trait theories’ the main weakness of style behavioral theories is that they ignore the significant part which situational features play in determining the value of individual leaders (“Mullins , 1999”), it is this drawback that gives increase to the (“ situational”) and (‘contingency’) theories of leadership (for example, ‘Fielder ,1967’;House, 1971; ‘Vroom and yetton, 1974’) which move the importance away from the one best way to lead to context- sensitive  leadership. While each study highlights the important of different factors the universal rule of situational and contingency perceptions is that leadership efficiency is dependent on the leader’s analysis and understanding situational aspects, followed by adoption of the suitable style to deal with each condition. However , in an apparent return  to the one best way leadership , recent studies on leadership have contrasted ‘ transactional’ leadership with ‘transformational’ leadership , transactional leader are said  be ‘instrumental’  and regularly focus on altercation relationship with their subordinates (“Bass  and Avolio 1993”) , In contrast , transformational  leaders are debated to be visionary and enthusiastic, with an inherent capacity to encourage subordinates (“ Bycio et al., 1995; Howell  and avolio, 1993”). While the momentary summary above specifies that research into leadership has gone through periods of skepticism recent interest has focused on the importance of the leadership role to the success of organizations. (“Fielder,1996”) , one of the most prized researchers on leadership , has provided a recent treatise on the significant of leadership by arguing that the effectiveness of a leader is a major factor of the success of the failure of a group, organization or even and entire country. Really, it has being debated that one method in which organizations have sought to handle with the increasing instability and confusion of the external environment is by teaching and developing leaders and kitting them with the skills to cope  (“Darcy and Kleiner, 1991; saari et al . 1998”) . The claims are based on hypothesis of direct link between leadership and organizational performance, this hypothesis needs critical review.

In Somalia, according to my awareness there are lack of literature shows organizational performance and the relationship between leadership specially in developing countries such Somalia, thus in the framework of study the researcher will look for the leadership in terms of  ‘laisses faire’ leadership ,’transactional ‘ leadership ,’transformational ‘ leadership and organizational performance .

The huge, regularly turbulent change that characterized business organizations in the 1970s and 1980s led to has been defined as the ‘ new paradigm’ with its underline on being charismatic (“House 1977”), visionary (“sashkin, 1988”), and transformational (“Bass ,1985”). These were seen as enlightening a conception of the leader as some who , by describing and organization’s mission and the values which will support it, states organizational genuineness .thus ,in the  “New leadership “ approach , leaders are seen as managers sense , rather than in term of simply an effect process. However, over the last few years –debatably powered by increasing fanaticism, the rapid changes in the universal world such as rapidly- relating technologies , and political and social influence have also called for the progress of effective leadership skills (“Cacioppe , 1998”) therefore , leadership growth plans have become an increasing significance for government organizations. The idea of leadership has produced lively interest, discussion and sporadic muddle as management thought has evolved. Even today, it is not easy to describe leadership, and assumed the density of the subject, there is no universal agreement about restriction of the field of analysis. According to (“Bass 1999)”, meaning of leadership is related to the purpose associated with the endeavor to define it, and so presents a varied range of possibilities. Leadership can be seen as a group process, an attribute of personality, the art of inducing complaisance, an exercise of influence, a particular type of action or behavior, a form of persuasion, a power relationship, an instrument to achieve goals, the result of an interaction, a differentiated role or initiation of a structure (Bass, 2000).

According to (“Kotter 1990”), without leadership, the possibility of errors happening rises and the opportunities for victory become more and more reduced. For these same authors, and in this context, leadership allows cooperation, reduces conflicts, contributes to creativity and has an mixing role, as it keeps people unified even when not physically so. In this way, leadership, organized with stimulants and motivations, promotes people’s motivation towards achieving common goals, having a appropriate role in the processes of forming, transferring and altering organizational culture (“Senge, 1990”).

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Generally notable cases of a direct leadership–performance linkage may be found in several subjective accounts of enhancements of company performance recognized to variations in leadership (see, for example, “Nicholls, 1988; Quick, 1992; Simms, 1997”).

However, empirical studies into the relations between leadership and performance have been missing. One notable exclusion is the detailed study of the “impact of leadership on performance in the somewhat amazing framework of Icelandic fishing ships”. (“Thorlindsson 1987”) suggests that differences in the performance of different fishing ships, under identical situations, can be accounted for by the leadership skills of captains. Over a three-year period, (“Thorlindsson, 1987”) discovered that the leadership talents of the ship captains accounted for (35 to 49 per cent) of difference in the catch of diverse crews. Other studies which observes the relations between leadership and performance coincide with the recurrence of the ‘one best way to lead’ discussion. Of particular significance is the resurgence of interest into charismatic leadership, which is regularly stated to as transformational leadership (“Bass and Avolio, 1993”). A number of investigators theorize that transformational leadership is related to organizational performance (see, for example, ‘Bycio et al., 1

995; Howell and Avolio, 1993’). Theoretically, it is debated that the visionary and inspirational aids of transformational leaders encourage followers to transport superior performance (“Nicholls, 1988; Quick, 1992”).

In summary, much of the above suggestion presented as subsidiary the claim of a leadership–performance relation is subjective and often over-concentrates on the ‘transformational’ role of leaders in corporate victories (“for example, Quick, 1992; Simms, 1997; Taffinder, 1995”). It would seem that few studies have replied to the observation of (“Porter and Mckibbin 1988”) that much of the study described as supporting this claim is either inadequate or empirically suspect. The limited or questionable character of exploration findings in this area proposes the need to examine Additional the nature of the relationship between leadership and performance.

In the framework of Somalia some commercial banking the kind of leadership style they operate is not appropriate for a given commercial banking to enhance sound managerial decisions. This caused that part of organizations encounter problems about their existence.  So this study investigates “impacts of leadership style on organizational performance” with particular interest on commercial banking in Banadir Region?

1.3 SIGNIFACANCE OF THE STUDY

The findings of this research will be supportive to the commercial banking in Benadir Region. For making available insights about the influence of leadership on organizational performance.

1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

This study investigated the main impacts of leadership styles on organizational performance at commercial banking in Benadir Region.

The research aims to attain and accomplish the following objectives:

1. To investigate the link between laissez-faire leadership style and organizational    performance at commercial banking in Benadir Region

2. To identify the link between transactional leadership style and organizational performance at commercial banking in Benadir Region

3. To explore the link between transformational leadership style and organizational performance at commercial banking in Benadir Region.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION OF THE STUDY

Built on the research objectives stated above, this study addresses three research questions

1. What is the link between laissez-faire leadership style and organizational    performance at commercial banking in Benadir Region?

2. Identify the link between transactional leadership style and organizational performance at commercial banking in Benadir Region?

3. What is the link between transformational leadership style and organizational performance at commercial banking in Benadir Region?

1.6 THEORETICAL AND ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK

There are as several dissimilar opinions of leadership as there are distinctive that separate leaders from non-leaders. Though most study today has moved from old-style trait or personality-based theories to a situation theory, which dictates that the situation in which leadership is exercised is strong-minded by the leadership skills and attributes of the leader (‘Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009’), all contemporary theories can fall under one of the following three viewpoints: leadership as a development or link, leadership as a mixture of traits or personality characteristics, or leadership as convinced behaviors or, as they are more generally mentioned to, leadership skills. In the more leading theories of leadership, there exists the concept that, at least to some grade, leadership is a process that involves effect with a group of people toward the recognition of goals.(‘Wolinski, 2010’).

Supposing “the essence of leadership is effect”, leadership could mostly be defined as “the art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for mutual aspirations” (Kouzes & Posner, 1995). Though, it could be reasoned this “effect, mobilization and struggle” is of tiny value in an organizational framework unless it finally yields a result in line with the “shared ambition” for leadership to be considered successful. Peter Drucker (‘quoted in Ulrich, Zenger& Smallwood, 1999’) captures this idea by simply declaring: “Leadership is all about results”. Creating results in today‟s ever changing and increasingly competitive world requires a very dissimilar kind of leadership from what was studied in the past. While leaders in the past accomplished possibly complex organizations, this was in a world of relation constancy and predictability. In today’s globalized world, with organizations managing with quickly changing environments, leaders face a new certainty. Working in flexible frameworks and linked by actual-time electronic communication, increasingly mobile workers have themselves become the serious resource of their organizations (Reger, 2001). What is currently desired are leaders who concurrently can be agents of change and centers of gravity, retain interior focus and allow people and organization to adapt and be successful, while at the same time never allowing go of the customer focus and external viewpoint (‘Alimo Metcalfe, 1998). Furnham (2002’) state that the suitable dimension result from leadership quality is effectiveness (‘reflecting the leader’s efficacy in achieving organizational outcomes, objectives, goals and subordinates‟ needs in their job’). Thus, the degree of organizational performance in the present research represents the point to which a company achieves its business purposes. The research model is illustrated below:

Figure 1.1 Conceptual Framework

1.7 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

1.7.1 Leadership

The idea of leadership is defined, according to (“Hersey and Blanchard 1979”), “as the process of effecting the actions of an individual or a group in efforts toward goal accomplishment”. For (“Senge, 1990”), leadership is related with stimulants and motivations that motivate people to reach common aims. (“Hersey et al. 2001”), states that the core of leadership involves realizing aims with and through people.  Leadership is one of the most observed and least understood phenomena on earth (Burns, 1978).

1.7.2 Laissez-Faire  

An avoidant leader may either not intervene in the work affairs of subordinates or may completely avoid responsibility as a superior and is unlikely to put in effort to build a relationship with them. Laisses-faire style associated with dissatisfaction unproductiveness and ineffectiveness (‘Deluga, 1992).

1.7.3 Transformational Leadership

Transformational leadership has its origins in James McGregor Burns’s 1978 publication in which he analyzed the ability of some leaders, across many types of organizations, to engage with staff in ways that inspired them to new levels of energy, commitment, and moral purpose (Burns, 1978).

1.7.4 Transactional Leadership

Transactional leadership involves an exchange process that results in follower compliance with leader request but not likely to generate enthusiasm and commitment to task objective. The leader focuses on having internal actors perform the tasks required for the organization to reach its desired goals (Boehnke et al, 2003). The objective of the transactional leader is to ensure that the path to goal attainment is clearly understood by the internal actors, to remove potential barrier within the system, and to motivate the actors to achieve the predetermined goals (House and Aditya, 1997).

1.7.5 Organizational Performance

Organizational performance refers to ability of an enterprise to achieve such objectives as high profit, quality product, large market share, good financial results, and survival (Koontz and Donnell, 1993).

Performance is a set of financial and nonfinancial gauges which bid infor

mation on the degree of attainment of objective and outcomes .(Lebans, 2006)(‘Lebans & Euske 2006 after Kaplan & Nortan , 1992’)

1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This research work will be based on the impact and relationship between leadership styles and organizational performance of commercial banking in Benadir Region. Some of the constraints encountered in carrying out this research work are;

Finance; the study is one that requires money to enable the researcher to browse more information and also to carry out the research work effectively but due to this financial constraint, the researcher could not get everything required for this project thereby hampering the best work on the study.

Time; this study is one that required longer time to enable the researcher get the necessary and quality data for effective work but since it is a project research of student which takes only three months that is a semester work as required by the school, the researcher is less of valid information to use.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 INTRODUCTION

The review of literature, the researcher will demonstrate ‘the impact of leadership on organizational performance’, In the first section, the researcher explains in depth the leadership with precise and detailed consideration on the previous studies about concept and definition of leadership and its dimensions(‘ transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership’), Concept and definition of organizational performance and also will explain link between leadership and organizational performance, in the last section will be the summary and conclusion of the chapter.

2.1 CONCEPT AND DEFFINITION LEADERSHSHIP

Leadership is identified as an important subject in the field of organizational behavior. Leadership has the most energetic properties during individual and organizational collaboration. In other words, capacity of management to implement ‘’collaborated efforts” depends on leadership ability.  (Chuang, 2009), describe that the brilliant leader not only motivates subordinates potential to improve productivity but also encounters their desires in the method of achieving organizational aims.(‘ Stogdill 1957’), defined leadership as the individual conduct to monitor a group to attain the common aim. (‘Fry, 2003) enlightens leadership as use of leading strategy to offer motivating aim and to improve the staff’s latent for growth and progress. A number of reasons specify that there should be a link between leadership style and organizational performance. The first is that today’s concentrated and energetic markets feature innovation-based competition, price/performance rivalry, decreasing returns, and the motivated destruction of existing abilities (‘Santora et al.,1999; Venkataraman,1997’). Studies have recommended that actual leadership behaviors can simplify the enhancement of performance when organizations face new challenges (‘McGrath and MacMillan, 2000; Teece, Pisano and Shuen, 1997’).

Style of leadership is the relatively consistent pattern of behavior that characterizes a leader (‘DuBrin, 2001’). Leadership regarding performance was considered by scholars and investigators, but philosophical and scientific foundation of leadership style is yet disseminated. Just, numerous investigators have studied the dominion of leadership styles, transactional and transformational leadership is the most perceptible (‘Dvir et al., 2002; Ehrhart, 2004; Whetstone, 2002; Avolio & Bass, 2004’). Transactional and transformational leadership are not considered as opposing styles of leadership (‘Lowe et al. 1996’). Leaders might be both transactional and transformational. Whole, transactional leadership is less effective than transformational leadership (‘Gardner & Stough 2002’). There is some indication supporting the hypothesis that transformational leadership is higher than transactional leadership (‘Bass et al., 2003; Dvir et al., 2002’). Transactional leadership also is less connected with higher performance and output than transformational leadership (‘Bass et al., 2003; Dvir et al., 2002’).

Moreover, transformational leadership has influence on the whole thinking and behavior of followers, launching a unified understanding to succeed in learning. Transformational leadership invites knowledgeable consideration to impending problems. It inspires revolution and learning thus enlightening the whole performance (‘Argyris & Scho¨n, 1996; Glynn, 1996; Hurley & Hult, 1998’). While transactional leadership is linked to penalty behavior and reliant reward which is regarded as the source of operative management, transformational mechanism is seen as enriching that source for better leader efficiency (‘Waldman, Bass, Yammarino, 1990’). The difference between transactional leadership and transformational leadership is the deliberation of leader. Both styles of leadership importance on the followers where transactional leaders provide feedback about performance, while transformational leaders attempt to encompass followers with goal attainment (‘Kelman 1958’). Also, transformational leaders in struggle of transactional leaders inspire followers through identification and internalization process instead of influential compliance. Therefore, although most transactional leaders offer response regarding performance, exceptional leaders participate in transformational leadership behavior as well. Therefore, the transformational behaviors recover the leader’s efficiency furthermore to what he/she could gain only through transactional leadership. General, scholarships on transactional leadership did not reflect leader behaviors as much as the variance in performance and other standard parameters.

2.2 DIMENSIONS OF LEADERSHSHIP

2.2.1 Transformational Leadership

Transformational Leadership is the talent to inspire and to encourage intellectual inspiration through motivation (‘Avolio, 2004; Dvir, 2002’). (‘McColl-Kennedy, & Anderson, 2005’) further defined transformational leadership style as guidance through individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized influence. Transformational leaders basically change the values, goals, and aims of followers who adopt the leader’s values and, in the end, accomplish their work because it is dependable with their standards and not because they believe to be rewarded (‘Kuhnert & Lewis, 1987; MacKenzie et al., 2001’).

Transformational leadership which inspires autonomy and challenging work became increasingly significant to followers’ job satisfaction. The idea of job security and loyalty to the firm for one’s entire career was disappearing. Steady pay, secure profits, and lifetime employment were no longer assured for commendable performance. At the same time, transactional leadership alone could not offer job satisfaction (‘Bass, 1999’).

Transformational leadership has its origins in James McGregor Burns’s 1978 publication in which he investigated the capacity of some leaders, across many types of organizations, to involve with staff in ways that motivated them to new levels of energy, commitment, and moral purpose (‘Burns, 1978’).

2.2.2 Transactional Leadership

This leadership style starts with the knowledge that team memberships agree to follow their leader when they accept a job. The transaction usually comprises the organization giving team memberships in return for their struggle and compliance. The leader has a right to penalize team members if their work doesn't encounter a suitable standard. The minimalistic working relations that outcome (‘between staff and managers or leaders’) are based on this transaction (struggle for pay).  Transactional leader’

s emphasis generally on the physical and the security needs of dependents. The link that develops between the leader and the follower is based on negotiating exchange or reward systems (‘Bass, 1985; Bass and Avolio, 1993’). Transactional leadership. “Using a carrot or a stick, transactional leadership is regularly considered as instrumental in followers‟ goal achievement” (‘Bass, 1997’). There are three components in transactional leadership – Contingent reward, whereby subordinates‟ performance is related with contingent rewards or exchange relationship; Active Management by exclusion, whereby leaders monitor followers‟ performance and take corrective action if deviations happen to guarantee results attained; Passive Management by exclusion, whereby leaders fail to intervene until problems become serious (‘Bass, 1997’).

2.2.3 Laissez-faire Leadership

An avoidant leader may either not interfere in the work matters of dependents or may totally escape duties as a superior and is unlikely to put in struggle to build a link with them. Laissez-faire style is related with disappointment, unproductiveness and incompetence (‘Deluga, 1992’).

Laissez-faire leadership may be the best or the worst of leadership styles (‘Goodnight, 2011’). Laisses-faire, this French phrase for “let it be,” when applied to leadership defines leaders who permit people to work on their own. Laissez-faire leaders abdicate responsibilities and avoid making decisions, they may give team’s complete freedom to do their work and set their own limits. Laissez-faire leaders usually permit their subordinate the power to make results about their work (‘Chaudhry & Javed, 2012’). They offer teams with properties and advice, if desired, but else do not get complicated. This leadership style can be actual if the leader monitors performance and gives response to team members commonly. The main advantage of laissez-faire leadership is that permitting team members so much independence can lead to high job satisfaction and enlarged productivity. It can be harmful if team members do not accomplish their time well or do not have the familiarity, skills, or inspiration to do their work successfully. This type of leadership can also arise when managers do not have enough control over their staff (Ololube, 2013).

2.3 CONCEPT AND DEFFINITION ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

Organizations have a significant role in our daily lives and therefore, successful organizations represent a key ingredient for developing nations. Therefore, many economists reflect organizations and institutions like to an engine in defining the economic, social and political progress. Precisely for this reason, in the last twenty two years, there were six Nobel prizes rewarded to investigators who have concentrated on the exploration of organizations and institutions. Continuous performance is the focus of any organization because only through performance organizations are able to grow and development. Thus, organizational performance is one of the most significant variables in the management investigation and debatably the most significant indicator of the organizational performance. Though the idea of organizational performance is very common in the academic literature, its description is difficult because of its many meanings. For this reason, there isn’t a generally recognized description of this idea. In the 50th organizational performance was defined as the extent to which organizations, observed as a social system fulfilled their aims (Georgopoulos & Tannenbaum, 1957).

Performance valuation through this time was focused on work, people and organizational structure. Later in the 60th and 70th, organizations have begun to discover new ways to assess their performance so performance was well-defined as an organization's capacity to exploit its environment for retrieving and using the incomplete resources (Yuchtman &Seashore, 1967). The years 80th and 90th were marked by the recognition that the identification of organizational aims is more complex than initially measured. Managers began to understand that an organization is successful if it accomplishes its goals ‘effectiveness’ using a minimum of resources ‘efficiency’.  Thus, organizational theories that followed supported the indication of an organization that attains its performance aims based on the limitations imposed by the limited resources (Lusthaus and Adrien, 1998 after Campbell, 1970). In this framework, profit became one of the many indicators of performance.  (Lebans and Euske , 2006), offer a set of definitions to explain the concept of organizational performance: Performance is a fixed of financial and nonfinancial pointers which offer information on the degree of attainment of aims and outcomes. Performance is dynamic, requiring judgment and interpretation. Performance may be illustrated by using a fundamental model that describes how current actions may affect future results. Performance may be assumed in a different way contingent on the person involved in the assessment of the organizational performance (e.g. performance can be understood inversely from a person within the organization linked to one from outside) to describe the concept of performance is necessary to know its elements characteristic to each area of responsibility. To report an organization's performance level, it is necessary to be able to compute the results. Outcomes (Lebans and Euske 2006 after Kaplan and Norton, 1992)

2.4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERSHSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

This study examined ‘effects of leadership style on organizational performance in small and medium scale enterprise (SMES)’ in Nigeria by which its objective was to define the effects of leadership style on organizational performance in small and medium scale enterprise (SMES). The study followed a survey design and employed evaluative quantitative analysis method Data was collected from a population and sample of 70 staff of the organisations and examined with Friedman’s chi-square statistics using SPSS. The results show that transformational leadership style exert a positive but unimportant effect on employee performance while transactional leadership style has a positive important effect on employee performance. It is concluded that transactional leadership style is more suitable in making performance in small scale enterprises in Makaduri city than transformational leadership style. (Saasongu, 2015)

Another study which conducted relationship between transformational, transactional leadership styles and job performance of Academic Leaders, which its objective was approved out to classify the influence of styles of leadership on job performance. Its method was based on design methodology approach, the empirical research was directed through survey on ‘450’ randomly designated respondents from all the take part banks in the survey. And their result was that several performance efforts were unsuccessful as a finding of factors such as satisfactory leadership style of leaders. Leadership has positive influences on important organizational outcomes, including human resource results and performance (Peterson & Luthans, 2003; Luthans, 2005). Moreover, (‘Howell and Avolio, 1993) indicated that styles of leadership are main forecasters of human resources performance. (Maryam Mahdinezhad1, 2013)

  Another Study examined Leadership styles and job satisfaction: empirical indication from Mogadishu universities. The aim of this study was to scan the link between leadership styles and job satisfaction between instructors working in three selected universities in Mogadishu-Somalia. The Method conducted via survey, data was gathering using questionnaire. The result of the research indicated that there’s a positive and significant relationship among transformational and transactional leadership and job satisfaction. In other words,

there is a strong link between transformational leadership style and job satisfaction while there is weak link between job satisfaction and transactional leadership. That means the instructors prefer transformational leadership than transactional leadership. (Ali Yassin Sheikh Ali, 2013)

This research was explored   the impact of leadership on student: An Investigation of the Variance Effects of Leadership Types. The aim of this research was to observe the relation influence of dissimilar types of leadership on students’ academic and non-academic outcomes. And it used the primary methodology inside which this research can be positioned is that of meta-analysis. Meta-analysis is an empirical, knowledge-building style that allows the results of quantitative researches of the relationship between two concepts to be united so that an estimate of the average measure of the influence of one on the other can be consequent (‘Glass, McGaw, & Smith, 1981; Hedges & Olkin, 1985; Lipsey & Wilson, 2001’). The maximum current review of the impact of instructional leadership on student outcomes determined as follows: “The size of the effects that principals indirectly contribute toward student learning, though statistically Significant is also quite small” (Hallinger, 2005, p. 229). This decision was reached as part of a literature review and debate of study on instructional leadership rather than as outcome of the calculation of the conclusion size statistic for each applicable study. (Rowe, 2008)

The research was showed the effect of leadership styles on organizational performance at State Corporations in Kenya. Its purpose was to investigate the main effects of leadership styles on organizational performance at state-owned corporations in Kenya. The method used was a descriptive survey research built on the views of middle and senior managers in thirty state-owned corporations built in Mombasa, Kenya was assumed. The result became that laisses- faire leadership style is not meaningfully correlated to organizational performance. (‘Namusong, 2012’)

Other Study explored a review of leadership Theories, Principles and Styles and Their Relevance to Educational Management, The objectives of this theoretical debate is to explore the broader context of leadership and its efficiency towards improving school management, the Method used was face-to-face discussions with staff. The outcomes of the effective educational leadership style applications are feasible for a number of objectives, which include advance administrative performance, team-building, and improved individual and school improvement in teaching and learning. (‘Rose Ngozi Amanchukwu1, 2015’)

Peace Intervention: A Case Study Of Civil War In Chad

June 19, 2017

Peace intervention: a case study of civil war in Chad

1. Introduction

Chad declared its independence in 1960s when it got rid of the colonial ruling of French. In 1965, however, Chad suffered from its civil war, which is due to complicated tribal and religious conflict. The contending for leadership continued for decades, which divided the nation, damaged normal production, and resulted in loss of citizen’s lives.

In 1965, Francois Tombalbaye, the leader of South Chad, took over the army in south Chad and dominated this region after the pull out of France troop. Tombalbaye implemented the racism policies that he enforced several bans toward northern Muslims, including wearing turbans, gathering of three or more (Chai, 2004). Some of the Muslims, including old, young, women and men, were insulted and punished due to the violation. Besides, the corruptions were everywhere among the army that taxes were collected compulsorily, which resulted in the revolt and rebellion and finally the armed struggle. As a result, the Front Liberation Nationale du Tchad, aimed at the establishment of a real independent government, was established and governed by Ibrahim Abacha. The war between these two parties worsened the economic development of Chad and even a split took place within the high-level authority of the government.

Finally, the France implemented military intervention and Tombalbaye was replaced with the former General Felix Malloum, who preferred solve the conflict between south and north Chad through negotiation. At the same time, the Front Liberation Nationale du Tchad was split to two parties after the death of Abacha, one was led by Hissene Habre, the other one was led by Goukouni Weddeye, who was supported by the Libya government. In 1976, Habre signed a peace agreement with the government of Malloum and established the Temporary National Unity Government and agreed Malloum to be the “President” when faced with the threat of Weddeye.

Weddeye kept launching large-scale attacks toward the control area of Malloum, who in turn with the help of France tried hold off these attacks. Nonetheless, there was an armed conflict between Malloum and Habre because of power struggle. As a consequence, other groups seized the chance drifted into the war, which threw the Chad into chaos.

2. International interventions

2.1. European Union

Human rights in Chad were violated significantly due to insecurity, including internal violence, frequent attacks. People in Chad were threatened by death, felt insecure, had no access to health care, food and water, and become destitute and homeless. The state no longer has the ability to  stop the violation and protect people from wars, therefore, with respect to humanitarianism, the European Union  undertook the  responsibility to protect Chadians, which was consented by the with the United Nation(书上war).

The mission and goals were to improving security by reducing the frequency of human rights violation and the possible threats of rebels, which prescribed by the United Nations Security Council (UNSCR). The EU were supposed to provide foods and water to people who suffered from these wars, protect free movement of not only refugees but also humanitarian personnel.

The build of democracy was also their objective. From the Democratic Peace point of view, democracies rarely fight each other, which means that democracies are more peace internally and externally (书). Therefore, by democratizing non-democratic country, the root course of war could be addressed and the peace zone will be expanded, which ultimately promote the reconciliation and achieve peace and stability. The EU were allowed, however, only to deal with issues regard to humanitarianism (out). Therefore, the EU were making efforts to helping the Chad build a more peaceful environment.

In order to promote the peacekeeping process, EU also deployed a large military force, which contributed largely by France. The French troops came into play when there were rebel attacks in order to protect refugees, the international personnel and promote security. Besides, France provide military training to strengthen the ability of Chad army, which will increase the possibility of government army to protect citizens from the rebellions.

2.2. Organization of African Unity

The OAU decided to mediated the conflict within Chad in 1979 when the civil war had been lasted for 12 years. What the EU did is bring the major parties of Chad together and hold a conference for the sake of a negotiated settlement of the conflict. Negotiated settlement is not likely to seek a military victory as defined by traditional war end, which will result in a genocide to the losing side since the victors are more likely to give punishment. In contrast, the negotiated settlement is more likely end the war in a peaceful manner, which will result in power sharing and government institutions and less causalities.

The negotiation lasted for five days that internal (Malloum, Habre, Weddeye, etc.)  and external actors (Libya, Nigeria, etc.) communicated with each other and make coordination, which resulted in a peace accord. The peace accord comprises of six provisions, including ceasefire, neutral peacekeeping force, transitional government of national union, etc.

However, these attempts didn’t work well and only one provision, which is the peacekeeping army provided by Nigeria, was fulfilled and the conflict condition after the first conference even worsened. Therefore, a second conference was held, which aimed at the establishment of the transitional government of national union. With the intervention and influence of some African countries, the peace agreement concluded that the leader of the transitional government was “appointed” from one of the major parties of Chad and the election will be hold eighteen months after.

This agreement then was protested by other minority groups and the temporary peace cannot be sustained, which led to the third conference. In the conference, as argued by the minorities, the transitional government was mandated to be dismissed, which was opposed by the majority groups who argued it is a significant interfere of the domestic politics.  

The fourth conference, therefore, was held to mediated the conflict among these parties. At this time, the 11 parties of Chad joined the conference, including the majorities and minorities. The conference ended with an agreement that requires the ceasefire of all parties, which was monitored by the OAU peacekeeping troops composed of the neighbor countries of Chad, and a regeneration of a transitional government of national union, which consisted of the representatives of the 11 parties.

3. Evaluation and analysis

3.1. Success of the engagement of EU

The effectiveness of humanitarian intervention of EU could be evaluated by the level of security and humanitarian condition. The efforts that the EU made could be valued as positive since the

Hillary Clinton: essay help free

Last year’s presidential election has been one of the most interesting election cycles in recent history. Trump pulled ahead of his rivals and won the general election on November 8, 2016 by gaining a majority of electoral college votes.

At the beginning of the season, the Democrats offered two major candidates. One of the candidates, Hillary Clinton, was a longtime Democrat politician. As a former Senator from New York, Secretary of State under President Barack Obama, and a former First Lady, Clinton was seen by many as the ideal nominee for the position.

My presentation is about Hillary Clinton and it will have four main parts:

The first part will describe her early days, up to and including her tenure as First Lady during the 1990s.

The second part will then proceed to discuss her career as a Senator from New York and then Secretary of State under the Obama administration.

The third part will reflect on the presidential elections.

The fourth part will consider her future political prospects from this point onward.

Finally, I will draw a conclusion.

1. The Early Days

Hillary Diane Rodham was born on October 26, 1947, at Edgewater Hospital in Chicago, Illinois. Her father, Hugh Ellsworth Rodham was of Welsh and English descent; he managed a successful small business in the textile industry. Her mother, Dorothy Emma Howell was a homemaker of English, Scottish, French Canadian, Welsh and Dutch descent. Hillary has two younger brothers, Hugh and Tony.

As a child, Hillary was a favorite of her teachers at the public schools that she attended in Park Ridge, a city in Illinois. She participated in sports such as swimming and baseball and earned numerous badges as a Brownie and a Girl Scout.

Interestingly, it would seem that Clinton originally began her political career as a young woman as Republican. As Biography.com has indicated: "Hillary was active in young Republican groups and campaigned for Republican presidential nominee Barry Goldwater in 1964. She was inspired to work in some form of public service after hearing a speech in Chicago by the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr., and became a Democrat in 1968. Over the subsequent years, Clinton attended Yale Law School, worked on various legislative committees and presidential campaigns, and engaged in various advocacy projects within the State of Arkansas. Her skills as a lawyer increasingly gained public notice and acclaim over this period of time. She also met Bill Clinton at Yale who was also a law student and they began dating in the late spring of 1971.

In 1992, Clinton became the First Lady of the United States when her husband, Bill, won the presidency.

At that time Clinton was a leading advocate for expanding health insurance coverage, ensuring children are properly immunized, and raising public awareness of health issues. Some people did not like it when the planning meetings were kept secret away from the public. In the end, too many people did not want the changes that she wanted.

This role was clearly in congruence with her previous work over the course of her political career; and she continued to win a great deal of acclaim and prestige for her commitment to social issues, and especially those involving children. This was the primary role fulfilled by Clinton over the course of the eight years that she was married to the President of the United States.

2. Clinton's Later Career

In late 2000, Clinton was elected as a Senator by the State of New York. She was the first female senator from New York, and the first first lady to win elective office.

In 2008, though, after losing the Democratic presidential nomination to Obama but then also being selected by Obama as his nominee for Secretary of State, she resigned from the Senate in order to accept the nomination. Thus began the next phase of her political career.

One of the main events that emerged during this phase of Clinton's political career pertained to the American embassy in Benghazi, Libya. This embassy was attacked on the 11th of September, 2012 by terrorists and resulted in the deaths of both the ambassador, J. Christopher Stevens, himself and another official within the embassy. This event has cast a dark cloud over Clinton's tenure as Secretary of State as a result of questions over the potential role she could have played (and evidently did not play) in becoming aware of the danger sooner and preventing the attack from occurring.

In any case, Clinton resigned from the post of Secretary of State in 2013. It would not seem that this had anything to do with the Benghazi affair, insofar as Clinton had consistently made it clear that she was only interested in serving one term as Secretary of State. Moreover, despite the Benghazi affair, it cannot be said that Clinton's tenure was fundamentally unsuccessful.

On the balance, then, it can be stated that Clinton's political career was in a good place by the time she resigned in 2013, and that she was well-positioned to contend for the Democratic presidential nomination for the 2016 election.   

Which brings me to the third part,

3. The Presidential Elections

Last year Clinton became the first woman in the History of the United States to be a major party presidential candidate. Clinton initially did not want to run for president, but after much of a majority support from the Democratic party, on April 12, 2015, speculation ended as Clinton formally announced her candidacy via email and the release of a video saying, "Everyday Americans need a champion. And I want to be that champion." In the polls, Clinton maintained her lead for the nomination although she faced several challenges from Senator Bernie Sanders. Clinton lost the general election to Donald Trump winning 227 of the electoral college votes to Trump's 304. His win certainly came as a shock: he claimed many battleground states that various polls simply did not predict.

Last year’s elections raises one big question though: Why did Clinton lose?

Trump is a literally unprecedented candidate in American history: He is the first American president to be elected with no military or political experience of any kind. During his campaign, he multiple times insulted about every ethnic group in the country aside from white people. Twelve women came out to accuse him of sexual assault. On paper, Trump would seem to be the easiest opponent to beat imaginable, and yet, he won.

Democrats have already started arguing bitterly about who is to blame for the loss. As unpleasant as it is, there's no getting around this.

At this early stage, I see four major factors that may have led to Clinton's loss. First is her extraordinary weakness as a candidate. It simply can't be a coincidence that, during the primaries, she barely managed to put away Bernie Sanders, despite having the greatest head start of any candidate in primary history in terms of endorsements and elite support.

Second, there are the hackers, apparently affiliated with the Russian government, who got into the emails of the Democratic National Committee and Clinton campaign chair John Podesta and dribbled the contents out in a fashion calculated to do maximum harm to Clinton's campaign. It was one of the greatest acts of political sabotage in American history, and it did a significant amount of damage.

Third is Trump's appeal to bigotry. His signature plan is a campaign of ethnic cleansing, coupled with a wall to keep out brown people. He wants to ban Muslims from entering the country. Many of his supporters are white nationalists.

But finally, take a look at the political map. Trump's victory was in the Rust Belt states, which is an area located in east-central North America. The Rust Belt states used to be the greatest industrial center in the world, but have since been cored out by deindustrialization.

4. Future Prospects

She has already bee

n a highly successful lawyer, the First Lady of the United States, a Senator from the State of New York, and the Secretary of State under the Obama administration. This is a highly impressive resume, to be sure; and in truth, there would be nowhere else for her to go from here except to the presidency itself.

As we already know, she lost the presidential elections. It looks to have destroyed Hillary Clinton’s political ambitions.

So is her political career dead in the water?

More than likely yes. Commentators say last year’s Presidential election was ‘gift wrapped’ for the democrat.

Insiders say she’s now simply too old, and too controversial, to mount another Presidential campaign and it is extremely unlikely that there would be much, if any, enthusiasm for Clinton who would, by 2020, be approaching 72 years of age.

Ofcourse, she’d still be an “elder statesman” in the Democratic Party, meaning that her thoughts will continue to be valued by the media, and her – and Bill’s – backing will still be prized by the next generation of Democratic leadership.

Plus, there is also the Clinton Foundation, which ensures that the Clintons as a whole will remain active in the public sphere.

Conclusion

In summary, this presentation has consisted of a discussion of Clinton's political career. It began with a discussion of her early days, proceeded to her later career, reflected on the recent presidential elections, and finally considered her future prospects.

Ultimately, the conclusion can be reached that she is one of the most accomplished people ever to run for presidency. Although losing the elections, she still called on her supporters to keep fighting for a “better, stronger fairer” America.

This fits in well with one of her most famous quotes: “Every moment wasted looking back, keeps us from moving forward.”

Thank you for listening.

How does EI differ from traditional conceptions of intelligence?

How does EI differ from traditional conceptions of intelligence?

Traditionally, intelligence is tested as a score known as an IQ, or intelligence quotient. An intelligence quotient is a score that is derived from a series of standardized tests, that measure general intelligence. General intelligence refers to the general competent of a person’s mind, or their mental ability. It refers to the understanding, reasoning, problem solving, and learning, of complex materials (Roberts, 2001). On the other hand, emotional Intelligence, or EI, is the intelligent use of emotions (Ackley, 2016). Emotional Intelligence differs from traditional conceptions of intelligence because it is non-cognitive, and measures how someone regulates their emotions in different situations and environments. EI is also different from traditional conceptions of intelligence because it is not measured in a single way, and does not have a distinct meaning.

After completing the emotional intelligence test, do you think that emotional intelligence can be “learned?” Do you see value in focusing on working to increase your emotional intelligence? Why or why not?

After completing the emotional intelligence test, I do think that it’s something that can be learned. A lot of the questions/statements that I answered, or responded to in the emotional intelligence test that I took online were learned behaviors. For example, “I can listen without jumping to judgment”. While some people have a naturally process information this way, someone who does not can be taught to. Since emotional intelligence has been linked to effective leadership, I think it is important to focus on increasing one’s emotional intelligence. In the Mittal article, there were interviews conducted for research about correlation between effective leadership and emotional intelligence. This research came back with the following conclusive statements:

1.Effective leaders and aware of their impact on others and use it to their advantage, 2. Effective leaders have empathy for others; yet can still make tough decisions, 3. Effective leaders are astute judges of people without being judgmental, 4. Effective leaders are passionate about what they do, and show it, 5. Effective leaders balance feeling and logic in making decisions, 6. Effective leaders are excellent communicators, 7.Effective leaders create personal connections with their people, and 8.Effective leaders temper drive for results with sensitivity to others (Mittal, 2012).

The list mentioned above is common things that emotional intelligence tests measure for, and also things that make the most effective leaders. It is important for those who are interested in leadership positions to focus on their emotional intelligence so they are able to be as effective as possible.

Is there a relationship between EI and leadership, between EI and motivation? How would you define those relationships?

There is undoubtedly a relationship between EI and leadership. AT&T noted that leaders in their management who had a high EI account for 20% more productivity than leaders who were low in EI (Doe, 2015). I would define the relationship between EI and leadership and a dependent one. Research that has been conducted has proven that leaders who have high emotional intelligence are the most effective leaders. As far as the relationship between EI and motivation, I am unsure if the two relate, and how they would relate if they did. I guess it could be said that as a manager, it is possible that the way they handle situations and decisions could increase motivation in employees that work for them if they exhibit a high emotional intelligence.

Have you worked for a manager that you think exhibited a high degree of EI? Conversely, have worked for a manager that exhibited a low level of EI? What was the impact of this manager(s) on your own motivation, productivity, and job satisfaction? Do you think the manager’s EI was beneficial when interacting with employees from culturally diverse backgrounds? Provide specific examples to explain the effects on cultural diversity in the workplace.

Unfortunately, I have not had the opportunity to work for a manager that I think exhibited a high degree of emotional intelligence. After doing research on EI for this paper, I believe that EI should be a factor that is taken into account when hiring or appointing someone to a managerial position, as well as having periodic EI training courses for managers, and/or supervisors. I have worked for several managers who in my opinion, exhibited a low level of EI. Going back to the article written by Mittal and Sindhu, there are a number of emotional intelligence qualities that a person must possess to be an effective leader. The low level of EI that I experienced from a previous manager affected my work tremendously. I would dread going to work and show up late most days, I was reluctant to take on new tasks, especially ones that were helpful to said manager in any way, and would spend a lot of my time at work looking for other jobs. Two of the biggest areas of EI that this manager lacked in were empathy, and being aware of their impact on others and using it their advantage. Lacking empathy and speaking to people in demeaning ways makes it hard to interact with anyone but makes it even harder when dealing with cultural diversity. Unfortunately, this specific workplace I have been making reference to in this section, was not very diverse. Being that there weren’t many minorities in the workplace, the manager should have been more mindful of the impact that he had on making the minorities feel welcomed, rather than making them feel like they were there to meet a quota.

Volunteering in the community (reflective): essay help online free

Volunteering in the community is truly an important to do in today’s society. Many doubt part of my generation, millennials, as community givers. This means that many think that the “youngsters” aren’t helping in the community. Whether it’s by volunteering at the local hospital or at a nursing home, we can be productive and change that ideology. By working together, the millennials of this generation can do more than the expected. We can gain knowledge, touch lives, and pave a better way for those that come after us and service work is the way to do that.

 

Service Learning Reflection Paper

When I was picking a volunteer site to do my hours, I immediately thought of, The Paramount Rehabilitation and Healthcare Center. I grew font of this site as two of my friends work there as CNA’s. The many jovial experiences they would always share with me made me grow more font of the place. As I’m right now in college to be a future nurse, going to a nursing home also made sense to me. With this experience, I would be face to face to my near future as an RN. The Paramount Rehabilitation and Healthcare Center, established its doors on INSERT. This nursing home offers aid with custodial care such as bathing, helping patients get dressed, drink medication and helping them eat. Other than custodial care, they also provide rehabilitation and physical therapy. Patients at this nursing home also have a chance to be recreational and do fun activities with each other

My experience started as soon as I stepped inside the facility. I was immediately greeted by so many patients being absolutely nice to me. The staff was just as the patients as well, they were so caring and helpful as I was learning the facility floors. The day I started to actually volunteer, I was truly excited. When I arrived the patients were celebrating a birthday of one of them. I helped with the party in all ways possible. I had to bring the patients from their rooms to the cafeteria. Some I had to push in their wheelchairs, while others I had to help with their walker. At these celebrations, many were excited to sing and dance while enjoying a fresh lemonade and cake. The facility hired a comedian so the patients would get a good laugh as well. This was one of the common things I did at the nursing home, whether it was a party or bingo night, I was the one to help with recreational activities. Another thing that I loved to do with the patients was doing their manicures. This was a chance for me to get to know them on a one-to-one basis. Some shared with me such sad stories about their lives, while others seemed to have no hardships. One particular story that stayed with me was a lady that said her husband was in the Army. Her husband basically left for combat, but never came back, leaving her with 2 kids and a big house to herself.

Service learning is a truly remarkable “tool” to include learning strategies with actual community assistance. These experiences help to provide new learning skills with urban authority. When different students like myself, constantly volunteer they are becoming devoted to be active citizens in their community. The more they volunteer, the more active they’ll be. Students gain newly skills such as; leadership , problem-solving and critical thinking.

“The benefits of service learning for students are wide ranging. Students feel useful and may experience a sense of personal growth and enhanced self-esteem by becoming more aware of their positive inner resources. Social skills may improve because so much of the process is a group effort. Critical thinking skills may also improve because the students are solving real-life problems.” [1] In other words, when these students become integrated with their community, their whole perspective in learning changes. New ways to learn on a hands on approach is important as it allows students to gain knowledge, but at the same time being completely focused with changing their community. Service learning is truly captive as it is not just community assistance, but service to the community while you are actually learning material. This elevates the success of the students as service and academic learning are both equal in perspective.

By doing this they are able to better connect with the surrounding communities. The service work will help them gain a better understanding of people that come from different sociological backgrounds in tern cultivating a greater impact on not only those they interact with but themselves as well. Individuals that take advantage of these great opportunities are more empathetic and are able to communicate better with those they come into contact with in the future. The volunteer will not only full filled through the knowledge gained but also the lives they've touched through the project.

With this volunteering experience, I was able to relate what I learned in psychology with the psychosocial stages of development of Eric Erickson. By observing the elderly patients’ behavior and by interacting with them, I noticed that the majority of them were on the last stage of “Ego Integrity vs. Despair.” From this majority, about 80% were feeling “Ego Integrity” when we talked about their lives, what they were proud of, and what they accomplished in their lifetime. The other 20% would sadly talk to me about how they feel old and unwanted and how they wished to go back in time to change their past decisions. The minority of the patients there were unconscious of where they were, with difficulties such as speaking and mental disorders. Some of them were living on their past and couldn’t accept that some of their loved family members weren’t here anymore. I was also able to observe the differences between “Intimacy vs. Isolation” most of the patients were very social and loved getting attention by talking to others. While a few of them were very isolated and didn’t ever want to come out of their room. They also preferred to eat in their rooms instead of joining everybody else in the cafeteria.

The experience that I obtained by volunteering at The Paramount, was very satisfying as I have always enjoyed helping others. Ever since I started taking this class, I started focusing more on people’s behavior and trying to apply psychology into it. As I volunteered, I gained more knowledge of the psychosocial stages such as the ones of Erik Erikson’s. Also, I got to experience “Service Learning” hands on. This truly helped me learn and work for my elderly community at the same time. When I filled out the volunteer I put that I was going to be volunteering for an indefinite time. I committed to both the staff and patients that I would continue to volunteer once a week until I give birth to my baby.

Motivation and motivational theories

Theoretical framework

Motivation

This paragraph first gives insight on what motivation is. Thereafter, different theories on this concept are explained, namely: the need theory, the hierarchy of needs and the self-determination theory. Lastly, the theory on motivation of Herzberg that is used in this paper will be broadly discussed.

  Motivation comes from the Latin word ‘movere’, which means to move (McShane & Glinow, 2011). There are various definitions of motivation. To give a little insight in this phenomenon, several definitions are given below.

Motivation can be defined as “the choices made by individuals regarding which goals to achieve (direction), how much effort they invest in achieving a certain goal (intensity of action) and how long a person can maintain effort (persistence)” (Diefendorff & Seaton, 2015; (McShane & Glinow, 2011). Kamery (2004) defined motivation as an art “motivation is a process of changing one’s willingness to exert effort” (p. 92). Reiss (2004) states that motivation is simply “the reasons people hold for initiating and performing voluntary behaviour” (p. 179). Kardes, Cronley and Cline (2014) defined motivation as “a driving force that moves or incites us to act and is the underlying basis of all behavior. Individuals are driven to satisfy their needs, wants and desires” (p. 168). From the previous given definitions can be concluded that motivation is an attitude that drives people to exhibit certain behavior.

  Having motivated employees is beneficial for organizations. Firstly, motivated employees have proven to be more creative, productive and are more likely to deliver high-quality work, which has a positive influence on performance (Amabile, 1993). Secondly, research also found that employees who are motivated are also more likely to share their knowledge with others in the organization (Lin, 2007). Knowledge sharing can lead to a competitive advantage for organizations (Kearns & Lederer, 2003). Furthermore, Hoogbergen, Steenhuis and Verhoeff (2017) found that a lack of motivation to work is associated with a burn-out. A burn-out is a type of work related stress which causes employees to absent at work. The absence of employees is detrimental to the organization and can be very costly. For the above stated reasons, is it important to get a better understanding of this concept.

4.1.1 Theories on motivation

Over the years, various theories have been created about motivation. One of the first theories was that of David McClelland (1987), he introduced the need theory. This theory identifies three types of needs which influence a person’s motivation and effectiveness. The first need is the need for achievement, which is the drive to excel. Secondly, the need for power, which refers to the desire to make others behave in a way they would otherwise not have. The last need is the need for affiliation, which is the desire for friendly and close relationships (Robbins and Judge, 2012). A need only becomes a source of motivation when it is unsatisfied (Sashkin & Burke 1987).

  One of the well-known theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs of Abraham Maslow. He states that humans have certain needs and when those needs are not being met it puts people into action to fulfill those needs. In other words, it will motivate them to fulfill those needs. This theory recognizes five levels of needs: physiological (breathing, food, sleep), safety (security of body, employment of property), love and belongingness (friendship, family), esteem (self-esteem, confidence, achievement) and self-actualization (morality, creativity, spontaneity) (Kardes et al., 2014; Maslow, 1954). The first two needs are lower-order needs and are satisfied externally. Whilst social, esteem and self-actualization are higher-order needs and are satisfied internally (Maslow 1943, 1954). When a need is satisfied, the next one becomes dominant. For example, when people buy a house, they have fulfilled their need for safety. Now they will seek for the next level of the pyramid which is love and belongingness (Robbins & Judge, 2012; Maslow, 1954).

Another theory on motivation is the self-determination theory, which builds on the theory of Maslow. This theory makes a distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is the desire to pursue an activity or goal for ones’ own sake (Kardes et al., 2014). The motivation comes from within the person or from the activity itself, it is not driven by an extrinsic reward (Deci & Ryan, 2010). Intrinsic motivation is high when people feel like they have a free choice (autonomy), are part of a group (belongingness) and feel like they are very good at what they do (competence). Extrinsic motivation on the other hand, is the desire to perform an activity to receive rewards and praises or to avoid punishment. The motivation comes from outside the individual (Pintrich & Schunk, 1996; Kardes et al., 2014). This theory states that people who pursue intrinsic goals are more creative, hard-working and content.

  The theory on motivation that is used in this paper is the two-factor theory also known as the motivation-hygiene theory of Herzberg. This theory is a combination of the hierarchy of needs by Maslow and the self-determination theory of Deci and Ryan and adds more depth to these theories by looking at different aspects which drive motivation. This theory was developed on basis of the work of Mayo, Coch and French (Herzberg, 1954). They found that the relationship between managers and their subordinates has the biggest impact on the output of a worker (Herzberg, 1959). Herzberg elaborated their theory with the two-factor theory. This theory measures job satisfaction and dissatisfaction which explain motivation. Organizations should strive for job satisfaction, because it is positively related to organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, worker turnover and performance (Fruend, 2005; Mannheim & Papo, 2000; Chiu & Chen, 2005; Kirkman & Shapiro, 2001).

  The two major sources of job satisfaction and ultimately motivation are motivators and hygiene factors (Herzberg, 1966). Motivators are satisfiers that intrinsically motivate an individual. The motivation a person has comes from the work itself. Herzberg identified 5 intrinsic aspects of the work itself: achievement, advancement, work itself, recognition and growth. When these factors are present, basic needs are satisfied, positive feelings are activated and performance is improved (Miner, 2015).  In contrast, hygiene factors are dissatisfiers and results from extrinsic factors which characterize the context in which the work is performed. These factors are: the company’s policy, supervision, job security, salary and interpersonal relationships. These two terms are no continuum, but two totally independent concepts. The opposite of satisfaction is no satisfaction and the opposite of dissatisfaction is no dissatisfaction (Miner, 2015). As stated earlier this theory can be compared to the theories of Maslow, Deci and Ryan. Motivators and hygiene factors are in line with the hierarchy of needs. Motivators are intrinsically achieved and can be perceived as higher needs. Whilst hygiene factors can be compared to the lower level needs, since they are achieved extrinsically. This distinction between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation is also being emphasized in the self-determination theory.

  Organizations need to focus on the scores of motivators and keep them high. These are the factors that can positively influence performance. Dissatisfiers on the other hand need to be good, but only benefit to a certain point. These dissatisfying factors cannot generate intense positive feelings or high levels of performance (Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman, 1959). Furthermore, hygiene factors are not reliable, they are short-term motivators and constan

tly require external rewards, which can be costly. Besides, scoring low on hygiene factors is not enough. People search for higher level psychological needs, referring to Maslow’s pyramid. People start with satisfying external needs, while continuously reaching to a higher-level intrinsic need (Maslow, 1954; Miner, 2015). Besides that, motivators are valued higher than hygiene factors. When there is a lack of motivators, people will try to compensate with hygiene factors. To provide the same level of performance a continuous higher dose of hygiene is needed to compensate. For these reasons, companies need to focus on building motivators (Herzberg, 1966).

4.2 Leadership

As mentioned earlier, the success of an organization in achieving its goals and objectives is highly dependent of leadership (Mohammad Mosadegh Rad & Hossein Yarmohammadian, 2006). This paragraph contains literature concerning leadership in general and the different leadership styles as defined by Lewin, Lippitt and White (1939). The first part contains different definitions of leadership based on existing literature. Thereafter, the definitions of the different leadership styles will be given, namely: autocratic, laissez-faire and democratic leadership.

  For centuries scholars and practitioners have tried to define the term leadership (Northouse, 2012). Leadership is considered as one of the most complex and multifaceted phenomena’s in organizational research (Van Seters & Field, 1990). Until today, no universal consensus has been reached on the definition of leadership (Wirba, 2017). Stogdill (1974) states that there are almost as many different definitions of leadership as there are people who have tried to define it (p. 7). The next definitions provide a brief oversight of the evolution of leadership definitions. In 1927, Moore defined leadership as “the ability to impress the will of the leader on those led and induce obedience, respect, loyalty and cooperation” (p. 124). Five decades’ later leadership was more than just an ability and was viewed as a process. Burns (1978) defined leadership as “a reciprocal process of mobilizing by persons with certain motives and values, various economic, political and other resources, in a context of competition and conflict, in order to realize goals independently or mutually held by both leaders and followers” (p. 425). Robbins and Judge (2012) on the other hand viewed leadership more as an influence and define leadership as “the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of as vision or set of goals” (p. 368). Despite all the different definitions, the following concepts are mainly present in the definitions of leadership: leadership is a process, it involves influence, it occurs in groups and involves common goals.

Although there is no consensus about the definition, this paper will make use of the definition of Northouse (2012):

‘Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.’

This definition can be seen as a combination of the different definitions, which contains all three most common used terms.

  Leaders can adopt different styles of leading their followers. The different styles will be discussed in the next section.

4.2.1 Leadership styles

Eccles (1993) emphasizes the importance of employee involvement in decision-making. He states that participation is beneficial for the employees as well as the organization. Decisions made by employee involvement will be of higher quality than when decisions are merely made by management. This is advocated by the fact that employees are closer to the process and therefore are better able to gauge how problems can be solved. Also by involving them, they will be more motivated to solve problems, because they have taken part in the

decision-making process and thus agree with how it will be solved. Employees will be more motivated than when they only execute the assigned solution, which may not be in line with how they would prefer to do it. Lastly, employees are closer to the customer and have more knowledge about their needs and preferences. Concluding that involving employees in decision-making is essential.

  This paper lays its focus on three leadership styles that highlight decision-making identified by Lewin, Lippitt and White (1939): autocratic, laissez-faire and democratic.

4.2.2 Autocratic

Leaders with an autocratic style do not include followers in decision-making, they solely provide clear expectations about what needs to be done and how it should be done. They lead without asking anyone for input and can be considered dictators. Subordinates simply have to execute the goals that are set by their manager (Morsidi, Sian, Shahrill & Abdullah, 2015; (Van Vugt, Jepson, Hart & De Cremer, 2004; Nurmi, 1996). Referring to Eccles (1993),

the subordinates of autocratic leaders will be less motivated. They are not being included in any decision-making and are basically pawns that are being controlled by their leader.

Spector (1986) found that employees that have autonomy and perceive a level of control in the organization are more satisfied, committed and motivated. Since this is not the case with the employees of autocratic leaders, the following hypothesis can be proposed:

Hypothesis 1: Autocratic leadership in startups will negatively influence employee motivation

4.2.3 Laissez-faire

Another extreme is laissez-faire leadership. Leaders engaging the laissez-faire style are little or not involved in decision-making. Bass and Avolio (2003) described this leadership style as ‘the absence of the leader’. A laissez-faire leader does not seek control over his employees, so they are free to decide what they do (Morsidi, Sian, Shahrill & Abdullah, 2015). Giving subordinates full responsibility has disadvantages for the members of the organizations and thereon the performance of the organization. According to Lewin et al. (1939), this style of leading results in chaos and causes frustration, stress and a feeling of being overwhelmed and lost. The subordinates of these leaders are dissatisfied with their job, leader and the effectiveness of their leader (Bass & Avolio, 1994; Judge & Piccolo, 2004; Yammarino, Spangler, & Bass, 1993). Supported by previous research I propose that too much autonomy and involvement is not good either. People need some degree of direction. For this reason the second hypothesis is:

Hypothesis 2: Laissez-faire leadership in startups will negatively influence employee motivation.

4.2.4 Democratic leadership

Besides the two extremes mentioned above, there is also a medium called democratic leadership. Democratic leaders have an active role in decision-making, but they also involve their followers, require them to take responsibility of their action and encourage them when they take risks and mistakes. This leadership style develops employee’s self-esteem (Morsidi, Sian, Shahrill & Abdullah, 2015). There are two types of democratic leaders: participative and consultative. Participative leaders make a collaborated decision. They first discuss the problem or idea together with their subordinates, thereafter a final decision is made together. Whereas a consultative leader talks to his subordinates about their opinions, takes them in account, but the final decisions are made by the leader himself.

  Democratic leadership is the balance between strictness and autonomy. Employees are being involved, while given directions at the same time. I propose that the subordinates of democratic leaders are more satisfied with their job, because they have a say in what is happening in the organization. It can be compared to the ‘IKEA effect’, which proposes that when people make products themselves, those products are valued higher (Norton, Mochon & Ariely, 2011). Thus, when employees have a say in what happens in the organizatio

n, they will value their assigned tasks higher, which in turn may lead to an increase in motivation. Therefore, the third hypothesis is:

Hypothesis 3: Democratic leadership in startups will positively influence employee motivation.

The next figure shows the conceptual model of the previously mentioned hypotheses. This model assumes that the independent variable leadership style influences the dependent variable employee motivation. Since leadership style is dependent of the characteristics of the situation, leadership style may differ in each life cycle phase. This study will look at the relationship between leadership style and employee motivation in the context of startups.  

Figure 1. Conceptual model

5. Methodology

5.1 Design & Sample

In this paragraph the methods used to conduct this research and way of data collection are discussed. Quantitative research was done to analyze the relationship between leadership style and the motivation of employees. The sample was collected through several startup websites and personal contacts (I Amsterdam, n.d.; Dutch Startup map, n.d.). The startups have been collected based on two criteria: 1) The companies exist no longer than four years. 2) The companies consist of a team between 2 and 25 employees. The sample consisted of 21 complete duos. The response rate was 36.67%. Each duo consisted of a manager (N= 21) and one employee (N= 21). In total there were 42 respondents of which 18 were female. The sample of managers contained 6 females, whilst the employee sample consisted mainly of females, namely 12. The participants are employed in startups in different sectors like hospitality, fashion and IT. Managers’ age varied between ‘under 21 years and 41 years and older with an average age between 31 and 35 years, while employees’ age varied between ‘under 21 years and 41 years and older’ with an average age between 26 and 30 years. Managers’ and employees’ experience ranged from ‘less than 6 months to longer than 36 months, with a mean managerial tenure of 19 months (M= 19 months) and a mean of employee tenure of 9 months (M= 9 months). There were two different surveys, one for the manager and one for the employee. The managerial survey contained questions about himself, while the employee survey contained questions about himself and his or her manager.

5.2 Measurements

5.2.1 Motivation

Motivation, the dependent variable, was measured with a 14-item scale based on the motivation-hygiene theory of Herzberg (1954; 1966). Six questions measured the factors that predict job satisfaction, named the motivators. Whilst, 5 questions measured the factors which predict job dissatisfaction, called hygiene factors. The questions have been answered through a 5 point Likert scale. This scale is ranged from (1) strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree. The other three questions were self-made and measured the degree and sources of motivation of an employee. These questions were multiple choice and were stated as follows: ‘How motivated are you at your current job?’, ‘How important is independence to your motivation?’ and ‘What sort of leadership style motivates you the most?’.

The data on motivation has been collected through the survey filled in by employees. An example of the items asked about motivators is: “I am empowered enough to do my job”. A high score means that an employee is highly satisfied about his job and is therefore motivated. The questions asked about the hygiene factors are positively asked. Which means that a high score on hygiene is positive and a low score is negative. An example of an item asked on hygiene is: “I am encouraged to work harder because of my salary”.  A low score means that an employee is highly dissatisfied about his job and is therefore not motivated.

5.2.2 Leadership style

Leadership style, the independent variable, was measured twice. Once by the manager and once by the employee about his manager. This has been done to check if the employees perceive their leader the same as the leader states to be. The questionnaire of the manager contained 18 questions in total. Each different leadership style contains 6 questions. The questions have been answered on a 5 point likert scale. This scale ranged from (1) strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree. An example of a question asked on the autocratic section is: “I tell my employees what needs to be done and how it is done”. Measurement of laissez-faire leadership was done by questions like: “In general, it is best to leave subordinates alone”. The questions on democratic leadership were stated like the following: “I ask for employee’s ideas and input on upcoming plans and projects”. A high score on these items means that a leader highly adopts a certain leadership style.

  The questions in the employee’s survey about leadership style contains in total 16 questions: 5 about autocratic leadership, 5 about a laissez-faire leadership style and 6 about democratic leadership. The same questions of the managerial survey have been used, but they have been put in the perspective of the employee. An example of a question on autocratic leadership is: “I am told what to do by my manager and how to do it”. Laissez-faire leadership was measured by questions like: “I carry out the decisions on the job”. The questions on democratic leadership were like the following: “I am asked to give ideas and input on upcoming plans and projects”. These questions are also based on a 5 point likert scale, ranging from (1) strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree.

  The questions on leadership style and motivation were randomized and contain a different order in each survey. This has been done to prevent bias. The complete survey can be found in the appendix.

Machiavelli’s The Prince and William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar

Intertextual perspectives reveal the attitudes, perceptions and point of view of composers which inspire new conceptual understandings. Both, Machiavelli’s The Prince and William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar study the ambition to obtain power and maintain it, intertwined with issues such as morals and ethics. The issue of personal morality underpins the examination both texts provide. The context and human experiences of both composers, reveal the distinctive qualities within the texts that shape meaning about ones behaviour, and how an individual goes about attaining and maintaining power through ambition. Ultimately, an individual’s personal morality is shaped by their context. Writing during Renaissance Italy in 1513, Machiavelli produces a didactic treatise for one individual, Lorenzo Di Medici. Contrastingly, Shakespeare wrote a political dramatic piece for the Elizabethan audience of the early 17th century, in a time of political uncertainty as Queen Elizabeth I had no heir. As both texts deal with the issue of power and ambition, the composers’ contexts shape their perspectives on political ethics, and religion in terms of personal morality. While Machiavelli’s treatise explores how to obtain and maintain power abruptly, Shakespeare goes further by exploring the consequences.

Both Julius Caesar and The Prince, focus on the notion of ‘political ethics’ stemming from their own personal context, and the ideology that power is more important than ethics and morals. In Machiavelli’s text, in terms of politics and power, there are no moral considerations, the end justifies the means. Distinctively, Shakespeare explores the complexity of political ethics and the notion of personal morality through the characters of Antony, and Brutus in relation to Caesar’s death. In Act 3 Scene 2, Brutus in a speech before the plebeians, in justification he regards himself as honourable and reveals that in killing Caesar, he acted out of love for Rome. Brutus is conflicted by his own personal ethics and manipulation from Cassius. Shakespeare demonstrates the power of manipulation again through Antony, who persuades the mob to see the immoral being that he believes Brutus is. As Antony repeats, “Brutus was an honourable man,” Shakespeare uses sardonic flattery and dramatic irony to entertain his audience but also reveals Antony’s desired manipulation to gain power. This reveals the character’s political ethics and personal morality, but also persuades the audience to choose a side when viewing the play further subtly mimicking his context as the instability of the Queen during that period shaped his perspective.

Additionally, in the last scene of the play, Act 5 Scene 5, Shakespeare highlights the character of Octavius who majorly changes the nation from the republic which Brutus sacrificed himself for, to the realm Caesar had always intended. Shakespeare highlights this absence of morals in politics, through the satirical rhyme, “So call the field to rest and let’s away/ To part the glories of this happy day.” This further highlights to the Victorian audience, Shakespeare’s perspective on the notion of political ethics and to gain power and leadership in the end you have to disregard your morals.

Distinctly different from Shakespeare, Machiavelli projects his own perspective in conjunction with his own experiences that in politics there are no moral considerations. He states, “Anyone compelled to choose will find greater security in being feared than in being loved” the famous saying, demonstrates the separation of politics and ethics in his view, in order to become a successful leader. Influenced by the Italian Renaissance and a forming of a more secularised society he uses a persuasive and didactic form. Machiavelli uses animalistic imagery quoting, “he (a prince) should take on the traits of the fox and the lion…you have to play the fox to see the snares and the lion to scare off the wolves.” He employs this to reveal what he believes in his perspective, makes a successful leader, through an absence of morals and ethics, to have ultimate power. The notion of political ethics, expressed through different perspectives about personal morality, is a prime point where both texts explore a typical, ‘Machiavellian’ figure and the sacrificing of one’s own morals in replacement for power.

An individual’s religion influences their own personal morality and in the case of Julius Caesar and The Prince, influencing how an individual attains and maintains power through ambition. Due to each composer’s different context, which employs their distinctive qualities within the texts, they both have different ways that religion has influenced their ethics and morals. Like many composers of the time, Shakespeare infused his dramatic works with biblical and religious references. He does in, Julius Caesar through the character of Brutus, in the instance of Caesar’s death, to shape meaning about personal morality. In Act 2 Scene 1, Brutus tries to disguise the murder, for his own gain and morals, as a religious sacrifice stating, “Let’s carve him as a dish fit for the gods…We shall be called purgers, not murderers.” The biblical imagery used by Shakespeare, highlights how Brutus uses religion in a way which disguises what he has actually done and makes it seem as though his morals are in line with religion. Contextually, during the 17th century, religion was a vital part of everyday life, and Shakespeare skillfully uses his own perspective to shape meaning for the Elizabethan audience in a way that they would largely connect to.

Like Shakespeare’s context, Machiavelli is also influenced by his time, in particular the Renaissance period and the change to a human centric society instead of one characterized by religion. Machiavelli quotes, “frequently obliged to act against loyalty, against charity, against humanity, and against religion.” The didactic tone reveals Machiavelli’s approach towards personal morality and how his personal perspective involves the notion that a true leader, does not need morals and ethics fueled by religion to gain power through ambition and rather his treatise instead. Machiavelli adopts these views through his many years in Italian politics, and his understanding of humanistic and a secularised society, disregarding morals.

In closing, intertextual perspectives reveal the attitudes and view points of an individual, more specifically Shakespeare and Machiavelli in The Prince and Julius Caesar. Both comprehensively explore the notion of personal morality and how this hinders on gaining power through ambition, in relation to political ethics, and religion. Both their perspectives are characterized by their contexts, of Victorian England and Renaissance Italy, this means that they share both similarities in their perspectives but also many distinct differences including how to attain and maintain power, and most importantly, and what is morally correct or incorrect.

A Violent Transition: A Study of the Guinea-Bissau War of Independence: essay help online free

Title. A Violent Transition: A Study of the Guinea-Bissau War of Independence.

The Guinea-Bissau War of Independence was a process of decolonization that took place in Portuguese occupied Guinea-Bissau between 1963 and 1974. Guinea had been a Portuguese territory from 1446, and was a major trading post for both natural resources and slaves.

Amílcar Lopes da Costa Baral was born to a middle class family in GUinea-Bissau, in West Africa. His parents were originally from Cape Verde; his father worked as a teacher, and his mother owned a shop. Cabral studied lower school in Cape Verde, and later moved to Lisbon to study agronomy (the study of soil and crops), and he developed connections with nationalistic -African students and anti-fascists. He became involved in the Movement for democratic Unity, where the communist party was present. It was at this period that Cambral became involved with Marxism. HOWever, the maxis that Cabral became involved in was the marxism of the STalinist parties, a rigid and mechanical theory. Cabral connects himself towards communism and soon after this would aft his life work. [7]After several failed attempts to set up anti-imperialist organisations, the African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC) was founded in September 1956 under the leadership of Cabral and his brother, Luis. They initially tried to mobilise the working class of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde and to challenge Lisbon through mass protests rather than through clandestine or guerrilla methods. The PAIGC scored some successes and won the support of the colony’s urban workers. The 1950s had been a decade of industrial strife in Guinea-Bissau where an embryonic workers’ movement had begun to crystallise, and the PAIGC was initially able to tap into this agitation, leading several strikes and demonstrations for better working conditions and democratic rights. As Cabral explained: When Cabral returned to Guinea-Bissau , he and his brother Luis attempted to set an anti-imperialist organization, and after several failed attempts the African Party for the INdependence of GUinea Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC) was founded. In the beginning, 1956, a small groups of Cape Verdeans, headed by Cabral, and a small group from Guinea-Bissau, started The African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC). They demanded better conditions relating to economic, political, and cultural efforts in Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau. They have peaceful talks and negotiating independence with Portuguese colonizers. They first tried to challenge the colonizers through peaceful protest rather than guerrilla methods. ONe of the most important tactics that narval used when approaching the revolution was his pleas to the Portuguese soldiers, workers, and peasants. HE was attempting to bring peace between his people and the portuguese, so they would lie in solidarity. Cabrel knew that Portugal was a class society, and was oppressed with a dictatorship that was sending these people across seas to Africa. Cabral was different as say only the portuguese government as the enemy, but saw his European brothers and sister sas an Aly in the revolution.  The PAIGC gained the support of the colonies urban worlds. during this time Guinea Bissau started their industrial streak and the workers union became to start, and PAIGC led many protests for better working conditions and workers rights. However, this didn't last longer and soon the Portuguese were deploying warplanes and bombing civilians. The colonizers started to bombs and raid guerrilla hideouts. Nevertheless, PAIGC began to hold elections around the country as they gained civilian support. The Portuguese were confined to their towns. Soon afterward, the rebels introduced missiles and bang to bomb the Portuguese air force planes in 1973.Guinea-Bissau (1962-74) War of Independence resulted in 5,000 civ. + 10,000 mil. = 15,000 deaths. By 1967, the PAIGC had successful had 147 attacks on the Portuguese, and controlled 2/3 of Guinea. The next year, Portugal started to fight back more seriously by installing a new governor of the colony. The new governor attempted to improve housing and communications in Guinea in order to gain support. However, in 1970, the Portuguese became to fight the rebels with napalm and defoliants.The PAIGC was supported by China, Cuba, the USSR, Senegal, Guinea, Libya, and Algeria. The PAIGC used guerrilla operations and warfare to combat their opponents. They were equipped with rifles, rocket launchers, and machine guns. They were met with napalm.Without Amilcar Cabral,the war for independence wouldn't have been possible, and Guinea Bissau would have remained colonized, and because of the ideology that Cabral possessed based on his study of the marxist theory, his tactics to approaching the war was the very thing that caused them to win. The war for decolonization and independence from Portugal was an impactful moment for Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde. The main rebel group started out a as small group who tried to change history with peaceful negotiations. Amilcar Cabral gained much supported because of charismatic personality, and intelligence. His methodology and ideology permeated the country and led the group to gain many supporters. Cabrak describes explains that the ultimate purpose of PAIGC was communist, even though they usually referred to themselves as marxists. Marxist by definition usually reject violence, and beast themselves not the struggle of workers in the city. The essence of Bolshevism is more flexible when it comes to its adaptation to the real need and the march of revolutionary process. Guinea-BIssau and Cape Verde were poor third world countries, something they had in common with the rest of Africa during the time of decolonization. Colonial capitalism had failed int he's countries, turning them into providers of cheap raw materials. They failed to raise the living of the peasant, who made up the majority of the population. Cabral conceded, the man desire of peasant was to see tales reduced, not to build socialism. Amilcar Cabral was assassinated in 1973 by members of his own movement. However, even though the Portuguese are winning more often, Portugal itself was being bankrupt, and in 1974, following a coup, the Portuguese negotiated with the rebels, and on October 10 independence was won, and Luis, Amilcar brother, came the first president. 1874 Portuguese soldiers, 6,000, and 7,000 civilians were killed during the 11 year war. Cape Verde voted for separation from Guinea and successfully won. After his death, his brother quiz took over and oversaw the decolonization for eh country HE attempted to carry out the original program but his attempts to industrialize the counter required the heavy taxation of the peasants. This led to food scarcity in urban area, and the villagers became angry and separated with the PAIGC. In 1989 Luiz was overthrown, and the regime of JOAO Vieira became and he reintroduced capitalism. In the 1990’s the country was gripped with civil war. Today GUInea-Bissau is one of the poorest countries in the world, it has also become a central hub for  drug trafficking. In third world countries with no work in gels, where poverty is widespread, bureaucratic decline emerge faster, and politicians to exploit their position of power. Cabral talks about the theory of permanent revolution, studies in tsarist russia. The negative influence of stalin's communism held back cabals ideas. The Stalinists distortion of Marxism and leninism, the obliteration of Trotsky's legacy, and the continuation of the systems they defended created a wall that Cabral tried to break through . He hesitated to openly connect himself with marxist Leninist doctrines. According to historian Patrick Chabal “He came to view Marxism as a methodology rather than an ideology…Although the main thrust of his argument I undoubtedly marxist, what is more interesting are the qualification and innovation which Cabral makes.” Amilcar Cabral was the revolutionary socialist leader of the nationalistic movement that freed GUinea-Bissau fro portuguese colonizers. His work in guinea sa n agronomist for the colonial serve gave him knowledge of the socio-economic ttricitre of colonialism. Panic connected were petty bourgeois civil servant and other workers of the state. Cabral revolutionary ideology was more centered around around the political mobilization of the masses around practical protests and nonviolent resistance, rather than grand ideals and guerrilla movement. In 1962, independence arrived for Guinea-Bissau. Cabral theory of socialist revolution, based on marxism, was based on his understanding of the economic system of the third world.

References.

http://www.war-memorial.net/Guinea-Bissau-War-of-Independence-3.152

http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/guineabissau.htm

https://www.marxists.org/subject/africa/cabral/1966/weapon-theory.htm

https://www.marxists.org/subject/africa/cabral/1966/weapon-theory.htm

Acknowledgments. Thank you to Amilcar Cabral and Sekou Toure, who without the war for independence wouldn't have been possible

Does the US States government behave differently now than it did during the Cold War?

On September 2, 1945, following the official surrender of the Japanese government, the Second World War ended. In the aftermath of the brutal conflict, with much of Europe and Asia in ruins, America and the Soviet Union emerged as the world’s two superpowers. With opposing economic philosophies, yet similar ambitions for global influence, these two countries soon became locked in an undefined and increasingly aggressive rivalry known as the Cold War. In 1949, the Soviet Union successfully tested their first nuclear bomb, creating a wave of panic among government officials and civilians in the United States. Determined to respond to the expanded Russian threat, the United States government proposed a new set of civil defense measures, strategies which were meant to help Americans survive a nuclear attack. While these strategies alleviated the fears of millions of citizens, they would have been useless in the event of a nuclear attack. The true purpose of United States civil defense policy between 1949 and 1961 was to create a false sense of security for Americans, instilling in them a confidence and willingness to curb the growth of the Soviet Union and the global spread of communism.

For most Americans, conflict with the Soviet Union became a serious issue after the country conducted its first successful nuclear test. After the United States first used atomic bombs, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin ordered his military to begin the development of their own nuclear weapons. Four years later, on August 26, 1949, the Soviet Union conducted their first successful test. When President Harry Truman informed the nation of the test on September 23rd of the same year, Americans were quick to fear the start of a nuclear war. Major news papers such as The New York times ran stories the next morning which stoked fears of such a conflict occurring. The nuclear test did not just frighten American civilians. Government officials were also surprised and worried by the progress made on the Soviet nuclear program.

Many within the United States government, which had not expected a Soviet atomic bomb until 1953, were caught off guard and frightened by the progress of the country’s nuclear program. In the months following the test, internal government reports discussed the increased likelihood of a nuclear conflict. A State Department memo from 1950, for example, described possibility of war as being “considerably greater” due to a Soviet commitment to the “defeat of the United States.” In response to these mounting concerns, President Truman tasked the National Security Council with drafting a new set of principles by which the United States could approach relations with the Soviet Union. In April of 1950, the National Security Council presented to Truman NSC-68, a report which would become the driving force behind America’s early Cold War policy. The report insisted that the United States had to stop the growth of the Soviet Union and impede the spread of communism by amassing a strong nuclear arsenal at home and fostering favorable economic conditions around the world. As President Truman and his advisors began to implement their new policy, known as deterrence, they began to focus on the importance of civil defense.

For many Americans, the threat of nuclear war created a crippling fear that the world would end in a flash of fire and light. This fear, which came to be known as nuclear terror, was disastrous for President Truman’s deterrence policy. Nuclear terror had the potential to undermine deterrence by either convincing Americans that it was unwise to fight a war with such grave consequences, or by making people believe that no country, including the United States, should have nuclear weapons.  The only way of overcoming this terror, the government realized, was to convince Americans that a nuclear war could be survived by taking appropriate civil defense measures.

Consequently, on December 1, 1950, President Truman signed an executive order establishing the Federal Civil Defense Administration (FCDA). The expressed goal of the FCDA was to “prepare comprehensive Federal plans and programs” that would be utilized to protect Americans in the event of a nuclear attack.  In reality, the FCDA focused on much more than just protecting civilians. The organization cared more about creating an illusion of safety than it did about actually working to guarantee the protection they promised.

From its earliest days, the FCDA was unmistakably focused on the importance of strengthening American confidence and resolve. The organization’s first project, in fact, had very little to do with the actual implementation of civil defense. Weeks before he the FCDA became operational, President Truman directed the group to conduct a study assessing the effects that civil defense could have on the mindset of the American public. Soon after, a group was created within the FCDA to focus specifically on public relations. It was this division which worked exclusively on projecting an image of stability and safety to the American people – regardless of whether that image was accurate or not. Throughout the 1950s, members of the American media frequently consulted the FCDA for specific information regarding the nation’s civil defense planning. In response to these requests, the FCDA selectively released information they felt would make Americans feel safer, hiding less appealing information behind the cover of federal secrecy and classification laws.

Many other civil defense policy initiatives also demonstrated the government’s goal of creating a false sense of safety for the American people. In 1950, the National Security Resources Board, close counterpart to the FCDA, distributed a pamphlet titled Survival Under Atomic Attack across the United States. The booklet, which describes nuclear bombs as being “just another…explosion” with “limited” power, grossly understated the risk posed by nuclear weapons. Perhaps not surprisingly, Survival Under Atomic Attack concluded by focusing on the dangers of a “panic” that would surely result in avoidable death and destruction. In 1951, the FCDA released a short film promoting a strategy known as Duck and Cover. The video, which was aimed at children, stated that hiding under desks during a nuclear blast would ensure survival for those not caught directly underneath a bomb.  Again, the government downplayed the risk posed by radiation to give civilians a false sense of security. Hiding under a desk might save students in the short term, but it would provide no defense from the lasting danger of nuclear radiation. Unquestionably, a desire to maintain calm continually prevailed over the government’s responsibility to accurately inform American people of the hazards they faced.

As the Cold War progressed, the FCDA expanded their efforts to mislead Americans about the reality of a nuclear war. In 1954, under the leadership of President Dwight Eisenhower, Americans began participating in Operation Alert, an annual, nationwide simulation of a Soviet nuclear strike. While Operation Alert was described to civilians as an accurate simulation, it was really another elaborate attempt at creating a false sense of security for Americans. Starting in 1955, the government relentlessly censored media coverage of the simulation in order to control what Americans would see at home. Weeks before Operation Alert 1955, FCDA and White House officials met with media executives to set up “ground rules for covering” the event, giving the government the chance to “frame and streamline” the public interpretation of the simulation. While many within the government were quick to accept this blatant dishonesty, some officials attempted to expose the true nature of Operation Alert. Following Operation Alert 1955, the Deputy Director for Civil Defense in Washington D.C. criticized the exercise as being nothing more than a “s

how.”  He was fired immediately.

In addition to representing an appalling instance of government interference with the press, Operation Alert also exposed the true shortcomings of Cold War civil defense policies. After Operation Alert 1958, the Central Intelligence Agency conducted a review of the simulation which was presented to President Eisenhower and his cabinet. The report slammed civil defense planning as being “grossly inadequate,” and the President was encouraged to overhaul his civil defense programs. Hoping to streamline the nation’s civil defense apparatus, Eisenhower merged the FCDA with the Office of Defense Mobilization – another government body which focused on the functions of government during wartime – to create the Office of Civil Defense Mobilization (OCDM). In the end, the merger had little substantive effect on Eisenhower’s civil defense policy. Following the lead of its predecessors, the OCDM soon began to value American morale over the distribution of accurate analysis and information.

When the OCDM became operational in 1958, it assumed the task of educating American households on how to conduct themselves during a conflict with the Soviet Union. Much of this training focused on preparing families to survive in the immediate aftermath of a nuclear attack. From its inception, the OCDM worked to perpetuate a troubling narrative first crafted by the FCDA. In an FCDA produced film titled Facts About Fallout, Americans were informed that radioactive fallout was nothing more than “dust” and that it could be “removed like dust” as well. While it may have been comforting to hear that radioactive material was little more than a common housekeeping nuisance, handling fallout irresponsibly could have had catastrophic consequences for ill-informed civilians. The OCDM presented nearly identical information about radioactive material in a television series co-created with CBS. The series exploited public trust in the accuracy and independence of a media station like CBS to further convince Americans of their guaranteed safety. Despite creating an image of reform and progress in his administration’s civil defense institutions, President Eisenhower did little more than give the government’s longtime fabrications a new face.

Today, it is fair to ask whether the United States government behaves any differently than it did during the Cold War. In a society plagued by fears of terrorism, we trust our government to protect us just like civilians did throughout the Cold War. It only seems right that American lives will be valued above strategic goals. In the end, however, we cannot know this for sure. Does relinquishing our laptops when we fly protect us from terrorism any more than hiding under desks would have saved us from radiation poisoning? Is a travel ban rooted in any more truth than Operation Alert? As citizens of a nation that prides itself on governmental transparency, these are the questions we must be asking.

For the United States, few times have been marked by more uncertainty and tension than the Cold War. Following hardship of World War Two, Americans expected the latter half of the twentieth century to be a time of peace and global stability. In reality, a new enemy and new fears soon overwhelmed society. During the 1950s and 60s, the government fought back against the spread of communism around the world, while playing a dangerous game of disinformation at home. Americans lived their daily lives comforted by a carefully fabricated nuclear reality – one that was meant to ensure the cooperation, not safety, of the American people.

Change and leadership – positives and negatives: online essay help

Introduction

This essay will be about change and leadership, with evaluating the positives and negatives of each using the appropriate models. by exploring Ooredoo and their management change we can gauge the effect of change and leadership. Change is usually defined as “the modifications in organisational structures, goals, technology and work tasks, but also modifications in attitudes and values” (Linstead and Pullen, in Linstead et al, 2009). While leadership is “the skill of motivating, guiding and empowering a team towards a socially responsible vision” (LIHC, 2011). Ooredoo is an international communication company that is based in Qatar, it operates in more than 10 countries around the world with a vast customer base of more than 100 million customers (Ooredoo, 2017). They were looking at changing their management team to help deliver their vision of growth and completed this in 2013; the global mobility programme.

Literature Review

Topic 1: Change

Change is something that happens in our everyday life, it is what we do in order to advance as humans. There are several factors that trigger change in an organisation internally and externally. An external trigger might be a result of developing technology, changing trends and change in the consumer's conscious. An example of internal change would be new staff or management, updated technology and newly developed products and services (Alvesson and Sveningsson, 2008, p.14-15). Change is not only about being reactive to triggers, it is about being proactive as well by anticipate trends and opportunities (Buchanan & Huczynski, 2013, p.619). Change has types including the transformational change that happens when an organisation changes completely, Kotter’s eight stage theory is an example of transformational change. When implementing the change Kotter suggested eight stages of change as a sequential process of “creating a sense of urgency” as the first step as it's important to shift people’s thinking with the provided analysis  (Kotter, P. and Cohen, 2002, p.1-3). However, it is argued that the if it is not applied correctly it will be ineffective. In addition, the theory is mainly for big scale change and big organisations. Another implementation theory is the Lewin’s three steps model. It is similar to Kotter’s theory in motivating people in order to start a change (Burnes, 2004).

Change is what keeps organisation successful. Nevertheless, change can have problems which can cause major disruptions. Resistance to change is one of the difficulties that change possess and it is “the act of opposing or struggling with modifications or transformations that alter the status quo in the workplace” (Heathfield, 2017). This could be as a result of selfishness, misunderstanding, opposing opinions and the difficulty in coping with change (Buchanan & Huczynski, 2013, p.629-30). In addition, it is ironic that the managers view the resistors as the wrong party in where they need to change their behaviour when managers are equally blamed (Ford and Ford, 2009). Strong leader or managers often underestimate reactions to change and how they can be a strong influencing character when dealing with retaliations, furthermore Kotter and Schlesinger (2008) recommended 6 ways for managers to deal with resistance. For example,  educating the employee about the change by pointing out the benefits and the logic behind the change, offering negotiations such as a raise or a promotion, and offering them emotional support when needed.

Resistance can be an understood as a damaging force for the health of an organisation, Waddell and Sohal (1998) concluded that resistance was the function of multiple social factors counting rational factors, non-rational factors, political factors and management factors. However, resistance can be a constructive tool for change management, it is not necessarily a negative reaction but a response that shows that change can be a harmful thing too. It also creates a semblance of balance against external and internal factors that encourage change (Waddell and Sohal, 1998). Thus managers can use resistance as a sign for the cause of it, and instead of avoiding it they can solve the problems behind it.  

Topic 2: Leadership

Leadership is a critical factor for a group’s effectiveness. Leaders are often viewed as having the top position in the market, the ones that hold the position of power, but leadership can be found at every level in the organisation (Buchanan & Huczynski, 2013, p.652). Leadership and management have been an arguable topic, some state that they completely differ from one another, others say that leadership is a part of management. “Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right thing” this is the most used reference stated by Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus (1985), which proves that while both of them are different it does not mean that one is good and the other is bad. Each has its pros and cons, for example, leaders are viewed as visionary and approachable, while managers are the opposite. However, leaders can become megalomaniacs who spend too much money on pet projects and follow wish-driven strategies. Managers on the other hand are can be humble, think before they act and follow realistic strategies (Buelens, 2004). That is why leadership is usually over romanticised by people, they tend to be associated with better sounding words than management (Knights and Willmott, 1989). Kotter (2001) stated that leadership is about coping with change while management is coping with complexity, both are needed in order to have a successful organisation.

A traditional approach towards leadership is the trait approach. The trait approach or the trait-spotting theory, which is “the search for good qualities in a leader” was influenced by the great man theory that specifically talked about political figures and the power they hold (Buchanan & Huczynski, 2017). A list of typical traits was written by Ralph Stogdill (1948,1975) including a strong drive for responsibility, self-confidence and the ability to influence the behaviour of others. Nevertheless, these traits are not committed to leadership only, they can be found in various roles as well. Also, most of the traits on his list have been found in one study, they are vague and unhelpful in leadership selection context (Buchanan & Huczynski, 2017, p.601-2).

Case Study: OOREDOO

Change and leadership notions that are linked to Ooredoo as they have recently changed their CEO and their management team. The global mobility programme in 2013 was about changing their management team because the organisation shifted their strategy from growth to integration (Arnold, 2015). The programme is a part of a commitment to expand talent and build stronger talent management across the group (Relocate global, 2015). The change was necessary for Ooredoo as they have spent the years before that doing an aspiring acquisition spree and by 2012 and became the fastest growing telecoms operator by revenue in the world (Arnold, 2015). They wanted to unify all brands they overtook into one brand and deliver explosive value through change. In addition, the market they operate in is the fastest growing market in the world and they needed to keep up with it. This gives them the opportunity to focus on what they actually wanted their international telecom company to deliver and stand for a standout recognition, help the Muslim culture to catch up with the modern trends and give women a voice. Overall they wanted a transformational change in the telecom sector. 62% of the previous employees had positive reviews other disagreed for reasons such as unrealistic goals, aims with tight deadlines, little personal time and inexperienced management team (Glassdoor, 2017).

Sheikh Saud bin Nasser Al-Thani is the current CEO of Ooredoo, he started working in 1990 and weaved his way to the top gaining experien

ce along the way and was appointed as the group’s CEO in 2015 (Ooredoo, 2017). He is a born leader as he is a part of the royal family, which follows the trait and the great man theories that leaders are born and not made. However, Sheikh Saud used his inborn talents in addition to what he learned in his career in order to become a leader. The difference in culture for many employees made it hard for them to adapt, so a diverse management team was formed to promote leadership and companionship.

Recommendation

Ooredoo’s transformational change has been a major success for them as they had applied to Kotter’s 8 stages theory (2007) when they used their strategic change as a reason to change. They also created a highly diverse managerial team to help implement the change and deliver the vision they had for their new organisation. However, even with the success they have, they need to keep it. Boris Ewenstein et al. (2015) suggested the use of digital tools to help to implement the change as well as making the change meaningful for them and for the employees. Ooredoo can use this to give employees immediate feedback, deliver personalised information to their roles and needs, remove all political influence from the hierarchy and establish direct contacts between them and the employees. In addition, create a community that has a shared purpose for physically distant people and finally demonstrate their achievement in real life. All of this will help them create a culture that connects the foreign employees they get to the culture of the country work in.

There is a major difference on how western people view leadership than other countries. In order to combine those Ooredoo an ethnically diverse management team. However, the countries Ooredoo resides in are highly political countries, they use their power to get most of the important positions, which some employees found unfair to the hard working ones. So I recommend the use of middle managers to create a sense of equality and balance between change and continuity (Huy, 2001). This also leads to creating closer bonds between the employees and people from higher positions. There are dangers Ooredoo should avoid with leaders who consider themselves as the white nights, Khurana illustrated 4 criticism of them such as dismissing the rules. They also encourage errors and ignore impersonal forces that shape their efforts and destabilising the organisation.

Conclusion

To conclude a change is needed to keep up with the constant developments occurring every day in the economic, geographic, political and technological departments. Failure to change is a risk for the organisation’s future. Change can be triggered by various factors internally and externally, but change is also about anticipating trends and opportunities. It is a difficult process and takes a long time to be done, but with the help of theories and models like Kotter’s 8 stages theory and Lewin’s three step model, it can be done. Kotter’s theory is what we call a transformational change. Resistance to change is a normal reaction that can happen to every organisation, it is usually blamed on the employees but managers are also blamed. Managers can tackle it easily with theories like Kotter and Schlesinger 6 ways to deal with resistance. Finally, Sohal looked at resistance as warning that the change is not a good thing to the company.

Leadership is needed for the organisation to be successful, it can be found in many organisational levels and is not restricted to CEOs only. Leadership and management are different than each other, leadership is said to be a part of management, doing things right or what is needed for change. Management, however, is about doing right things and deals with complexity. Both have their advantages and disadvantages, but they are both needed to have a successful organisation. One of the traditional theories is the trait theory which is influenced by the great man theory. Ralph Stogdill wrote a list with traditional traits,  however, it is not a reliable list to use when choosing a leader.

Ooredoo is an international telecom company that had the major managerial change in 2013 because of the change of their strategy from growth to integration. The change was a needed action in order to make Ooredoo an international organisation and to deliver explosive value through change. In addition, they are operating in a fast growing market so they had to change to keep up with it. This gave them the opportunity to deliver what they stand for recognition, help women gain a voice and make the Muslim world a modern one. The altogether they wanted a transformational change. The CEO Sheikh Saud bin Nasser Al-Thani is considered to be a born leader because of his familial position, but he has weaved his way into leadership and did not depend solely on his family name. As for the managers, they had to create a multinational team in order to create a culture that can combine the western and the eastern culture together. This proved to work well for foreign employees and citizens.  

The Downfall of Corrupt Leaders Throughout History: essay help free

See Evil; Hear Evil; Do Evil: The Downfall of Corrupt Leaders Throughout History

Imagine watching a favorite movie from childhood. The villain is most likely consumed by greed and ambition. At some point in the movie, it is probably revealed that this antagonist had some type of tragic backstory or horrific event in their past that leads them to accumulate power in order to compensate for their loss. Nonetheless, good conquers evil and the hero is ultimately able to defeat the villain. This storyline is congruent to the lives of many powerful and/or evil leaders in the past. The overactive ambition of many powerful or evil leaders throughout the course of history ultimately led to their downfall. This ambition is often due to mental instability or an attempt to fill a void that resulted from a tragic event in that leader’s past.

On December 15th, 37 C.E., Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus was born into a power struggle within the royal family, which later led to his blind ambition and at last to his disgrace. His mother Agrippina was desperate to see her son on a throne. Agrippina married her uncle Claudius and convinced him to make her son his heir. She later poisoned him along with his son using mushrooms (Wishnia). Nero immediately replaced Claudius as emperor of Rome at the age of seventeen (Nardo). At the beginning of his rule, Nero was fair and gained the faith of his people. Author Steven Wishnia describes how Nero “reduced taxes, regularly distributed grain to the people, and staged massive spectacles to entertain the Romans”. However, a darker side of the ruler was revealed after the sun fell. On various occasions, Nero and his friends began to steal items from Roman citizens and assault them in the streets for their own entertainment. As Nero’s rule progressed, it became apparent that he had inherited his mother’s blind ambition. When Nero’s mother refused to permit him to divorce Octavia, his first wife, he ironically had her killed (Wishnia). He continued this spree and condemned Octavia, his second wife Poppaea, and his step brother to death. Nero’s adviser, Seneca, warned the leader to be wary of his own actions. Nero ignored him and later forced Seneca to kill himself (Nardo). Additionally, Nero had spoken of overzealous plans to expand his palace and reconstruct a large part of Rome (Wishnia). In the summer of 64 C.E., two-thirds of the city burned to the ground. Many were suspicious that Nero was to blame because of his construction plans and began to lose faith in the emperor. Although Nero blamed the incident on the Christians of Rome, tension between the impulsive ruler and his subjects mounted over the next four years (Nardo).  It had become apparent that Nero’s thirst for power had overcome him. Two assassination attempts were organized but ultimately failed. In 68 C.E., Nero’s troops saw the corruption in their leader and believed their military commanders were better suited to rule the empire. That same year, the Roman Senate declared Nero an “enemy of the people” (Nardo). Panicked by the Senate’s decree, Nero fled to the North of Rome with soldiers following behind stealthily. When the disgraced emperor noticed the soldiers, he committed suicide, shouting, “What an artist dies in me!” (Wishnia). This statement suggests Nero felt no remorse for his actions and thought very highly of himself. It was this mindset of superiority that contributed to Nero’s ambitious method of governing his people, and eventually his downfall. However, leaders such as Ivan the Terrible would live to recognize the error in their ways.

In 1528, the boy that would grow up to become the first tsar of Russia and allow his violent upbringing to dictate his reckless methods of rule was born. At age five, Ivan lost his father. Five years later, his mother died as well. Many people within the palace where Ivan grew up fought for control of the Russian government by killing and capturing their enemies. The young Ivan mimicked the violent behavior he witnessed by beginning to throw animals off of roofs at age 12. At age 15, Ivan began throwing people. The following year, Ivan IV was crowned tsar (Yurganov). Ivan proved to be a ruthless leader. He was so fixated on power he directed all blame of wrongdoing onto those around him. His actions would eventually earn him the title “Ivan the Terrible”. When the Russian army lost battles, Ivan would blame others and have them killed or forced to leave the country in order to secure his power. As his sovereignty progressed, Ivan became reckless when exiling officials. In 1564, Ivan threatened to abdicate the throne if he was not granted more political power and allowed to administer harsher punishment. The country was divided into Oprichnina, areas under Ivan’s complete control, and Zemshchina, areas under control of nobles. Oprichniki were officials that carried out torture and execution in Ivan’s name, while nobles that controlled Zemshchina were the Boyar Duma. Ivan used his newfound power to torture and execute his own cousins (Yurganov). This is similar to how his family members turned against each other after the death of Ivan’s parents. His ambition was fed by gaining more and more control over Russian citizens. Many nobles were tortured and killed. By eliminating the majority of the higher class, Ivan’s power became even more concentrated. Many Russians became fearful of Ivan’s wrath, creating folk songs including lyrics such as, "Wherever Ivan the Terrible went, there the cocks don't crow" (Yurganov). This is symbolic of the fear that froze the people of Russia, preventing them from carrying out normal activities. When Russia was attacked by Poland and Sweden in 1583, the divided country was too weak to defend itself. The country lost a substantial amount of land to their attackers. Ivan later admitted his mistakes to his heir before accidentally killing him. Along with his power, Ivan’s physical health began to deteriorate. He had saline deposits surrounding his spinal cord that led to pain and weakness. Fortune tellers predicted Ivan would die on March 18, 1584. They were proven right when the tsar mysteriously stopped breathing, possibly due to poison (Yurganov). Although Ivan eventually realized his wrongdoing, violence similar to the actions Ivan witnessed as a child had already been inflicted upon his people as a result of his aggressive leadership.

Like Ivan the Terrible, tragic events witnessed during his youth most likely led Hitler to his ambitious ways and hatred of Jews that eventually motivated his own self destruction. Adolf’s mother, Klara Hitler, was unsuccessfully treated for breast cancer by Jewish doctor Eduard Blochy. Hitler’s father was born out of wedlock with a Jewish father. However, it is most likely the loss of his mother that solidified Hitler’s hatred for Jewish people. Additionally, Hitler was rejected twice by the Fine Arts Academy in Austria (“Origins of Evil”). It is likely that Hitler carried his bitterness with him later in life because he was not skilled enough to fulfill his dreams of becoming an artist. Later, Hitler fought for Germany in World War I, then blamed Germany’s loss on the Jews.  After the war, Hitler moved to Munich, Germany. There, he embraced extreme nationalism and joined the National Socialist German Workers’ Party or Nazi Party. The Nazi Party began to gain political momentum by promising economic reforms. The Nazis also hoped to reject the Treaty of Versailles. This treaty was created following World War One in an attempt to limit Germany’s military and economic power. Once Hitler was elected into office, a secret German police force known as the Gestapo enforced principles of Nazi ideology. One of the objectives of the Gestapo was to rearm the military, therefore violating the Treaty of Versailles. After gaining control of Germany, Hitler’s ambition drove him to expand his

power throughout Europe. The Nazis conquered Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1939. However, when the Nazi army invaded Poland, England and France became involved in the conflict and World War II began. By 1940, Hitler's army had conquered a large portion of Europe. The following year, he attempted to take control of Russia, but to no avail. Russia became very involved in the war.  The United States joined World War Two in 1941. Hitler feared he would be unsuccessful and ordered the extermination of Jews in concentration camps in what he called “The Final Solution” (“Adolf Hitler”).

Shortly after, many German military officials realized Hitler had been overcome by ambition and had become reckless. They planned to eliminate the maddened leader. An assassination attempt failed, angering Hitler even further. His paranoia led him to execute five thousand of his own men. Afterwards, Hitler spent much of 1945 in a bunker in Berlin. During this time, Russians took control of the city (“Adolf Hitler”). Fritz Gerlich observed that Hitler most likely suffered from Parkinson’s Disease and Giant Cell Arteritis towards the end of his life (“Origins of Evil”). The deterioration of Hitler’s health is comparable to that of Ivan the Terrible during his downfall from power in Russia hundreds of years previous. While in the bunker, Hitler married Eva Braun. Then on April 30, 1945, Hitler committed suicide by shooting himself, while Eva purposefully ingested poison (“Adolf Hitler”). Unwilling to face the world plagued by his own atrocity, Hitler’s ambitious way of life came to a screeching halt at his own hand.

Various characters and situations in literature mirror those of history. Although it was displayed on a much smaller scale, the ambition of Madame Defarge in Charles Dicken’s A Tale of Two Cities is not unlike that of Adolf Hitler. Hitler witnessed the death of his mother from cancer. He blamed her doctor for being unable to provide effective treatment. Since that doctor was a Jew, Hitler took it upon himself to exterminate the Jewish race in order to exact his revenge. Similarly, Madame Defarge witnessed the death of her family by the Evremonde brothers’ hands as a girl. She then was consumed by her need to eliminate the entire Evremonde family. Ultimately, their lives were both ended at gunpoint when their thirst for revenge became too extreme.

In Antigone, a play by Sophocles, a struggle for power within the royal family ultimately ended in tragedy. Creon turned against his family when they made his people doubt his authority. This mirrors the conflict within the Russian royal family when Ivan was a child. Antigone’s brothers, Eteocles and Polyneices, fought for the throne of Thebes. Both men perished in the battle and Creon became king. However, he declared that Eteocles was to be buried honorably, while Polyneices would be left to decay in disgrace. When Antigone buried her brother in spite of her uncle Creon’s decree, she was condemned to die. He was infuriated when Antigone challenged his authority and became reckless. Likewise, many nobles would murder each other over the throne in Russia following the death of Ivan’s parents.

In summary, powerful and evil leaders have historically endured emotional trauma or witnessed the destructive behavior of others in the past. These events most likely left the psychological wounds that said leaders attempted to heal by demonstrating cruel behavior and grasping for power throughout their lives. This ambitious struggle to gain control fundamentally became their weakness and caused their descent from authority. Nero and Ivan both observed those around them going to extreme lengths in order to obtain influence over their countries. On the other hand, Hitler’s desire to avenge the death of his mother compelled him to attempt to exterminate an entire ethnicity.

Where was the public sphere most prone to radicalism?

Where was the public sphere most prone to radicalism? Answer with reference to either the eighteenth or the nineteenth century

The public sphere, as coined by Habermas, is where ‘private people come together as a public… to engage in a debate over the general rules governing relations’ (Jürgen Habermas, 1989). Habermas argued that the eighteenth century saw an expansion in the realm of public interactions, in public urban spaces such as coffee houses, parks, and theatres, and in the literature of the public sphere: printed sermons, pamphlets, newspapers, vernacular books, and journals (Craig Calhoun, 1992). He argues by the nineteenth century it was expanding beyond the bourgeois, to include popular participation. To limit the question of where this public sphere in the nineteenth century was most prone to radicalism to a mere national comparison would be a simplification, which would ignore both the transnational element of the European public sphere (whilst differences in timescale of emergence, there were notable similarities and shared communications across Europe), and would ignore the more important sociological patterns of radicalisation. The public sphere was most radical where it was least legitimate, as participants were radicalised by their marginalised. Calhoun defines a radical position as those who ‘sought systematic, rapid or thoroughgoing change’, though radicalism is not a ‘stable ideological position’: something that is radical at one time can be merely liberal or even conservative at another. Radical ideas informed the public sphere and helped shape its form, as sharp contention grew in the social movement field; not just classic conflicts about distribution of power and wealth. but also about voice, recognition, and the capacity to participate in the public sphere (Calhoun, 2012). The modern public sphere was shaped by struggles over inclusion and exclusion, and these struggles in turn shaped radicalism throughout Europe.

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The classic Habermas ideal of the seventeenth and eighteenth century public sphere is of a legitimate, bourgeois sphere, structured around rational, critical argument, which included a narrow segment of the European population: educated, propertied men. Their discourse was exclusive, and prejudiced against the interests of those that they excluded. Habermas writes of a ‘structural transformation’ of the public sphere, expanding continuously in the nineteenth century to include more and more participants, including the previously marginalised. This essay will attempt to argue that these marginal groups, once they had some form of voice, were the most radical. Habermas claims that as the public sphere expanded it became more of an arena for advertising than a setting for rational-critical debate, such as legislators appealing to constituents and special-interest organisations reinforcing their own positions. He sees this reflected in political parties, which allegedly shifted in the nineteenth century from being groups of voters to becoming bureaucratic organisations aimed at motivating abstract voters (Calhoun, 1992). Habermas’ thesis of transformation includes an expansion of participation but a contraction in quality of discourse. And yet, those included did have genuine, critical discussions, and many had radical views of their own. In the nineteenth century, there was a wide European trend of the democratisation and radicalisation of the cultural sphere, with a new craze for societies and associations. These new collectivities, despite the inclusion of common members, were still sites for rational discourse, and provided effective social mobilisation in the purist of a common goal by individuals united by common interests (Abigail Green, 2001).

Critical to the radicalisation of the public sphere during the era of expansion was the fact that, in the midst of the transformation, elites attempted to keep certain groups marginalised; this would feed their radicalisation. The era of the French Revolution has increased diverse debate, but the rise of Napoleon, war, and fear of revolution, led to attempts to exclude radical voices and prevent a Plebeian influence in the ‘legitimate’ public sphere. These included arrests and stamp taxes in London (Calhoun, 2012), and similar measures in Paris, with strict laws in the nineteenth century intended to limit the number of papers, restrain their radicalism and raise their price to a level that only the well-off could afford (Jeremy D. Popkin, 2001). The first half of the nineteenth century, due to the upheaval of the last decades of the previous century, saw a distinct attempt to expel less wealthy, more democratic voices, which forced radicals into more violent strategies, such as public protest. This further increased fear of revolution, and increased attempts to close the public sphere. An alternative strategy, of peaceful collective action, developed due to these attempts to exclude popular radicals from the political public sphere, such as craft organisations, churches, and social movements. Radicals were able to adapt to circumstances by making and remaking their own public sphere. It is for this reason that Habermas separates the plebeian public discourse from the bourgeois public sphere, as well as the difference of their focus: the plebeian sphere focused more on material interest and straightforward logic, although they engaged in rational discourse nonetheless. In the nineteenth century, compared to prior ages, attempts at exclusion from the legitimate public sphere were experienced especially bitterly, as recognition as a legitimate, valued part of the nation was seen as crucial (Calhoun, 2012). In Germany, voluntary societies were central to national and liberal politics prior to the revolutions of 1848-9, but repressive restoration governments placed restrictions on associational activity out of fear of unrest. This forced many societies to become anti-establishment by default. Scholarly and cultural societies began to often mask real subversion, such as the Schiller Society in Leipzig, which was the front for the political activities of the Saxon democrat Robert Blum (Green, 2001).

The role of suppression in feeding radicalisation of the public sphere can be most clearly seen in regard to censorship. In Germany, as soon as censorship was removed in 1848, the existing political press was radicalised. Links between political groupings and particular newspapers grew, such as the Beobachter developing ties with the Württemberg democrats. The local press became politicised by their new entitlement to print political articles, and often reprinted articles from high-profile opposition newspapers. There was a rapid proliferation of local newspapers, who began to write for the countryside too. Many writers sized the chance to express their views in print for the first time. The prior suppression of the public sphere had manifested in its later proliferation and radicalisation. This can be clearly seen by the realisation of and actions by governments throughout Germany in the mid-1860s of the dangerous radicalisation of the free press, such as Bismarck in June 1863 introducing hard-line press controls in Prussia in an attempt to weaken the untied stand taken by literals in the constitutional conflict. These measures made the press less critical but did not change public opinion; in fact, the opposite. The press decree provoked outrage for being introduced unconstitutionally and without parliamentary backing, and Bismarck withdrew the decree shortly afterwards. Other German governments soon too concluded that repression was radicalising and harmful, with the head of the Hanoverian Press Office, Oskar Meding, recommending in 1863 that suppressing opposition newspapers was counterproductive because ‘every time that a newspaper loses its concession, the reputation and circulation of that newspaper increases, whilst the standing of the government in public opinion falls’ (Green, 2001). In Russia,

in the first half of the nineteenth century, official disapproval of popular secular reading grew, and in 1865 the Ministry of Internal Affairs sharply restricted the activities of lubok sellers, requiring them to gain permission from authorities to sell in each locale. Whilst it is hard to measure quantitatively the effect of censorship on the selection of works published in Russia, the case often appeared to be that the kinds of books prohibited by censors would appear, and gain popularity, on the market later (Jeffrey Brooks, 1985). France showed similar patterns to Germany and Russia. In November 1815, the police finally authorised three periodicals in Lyon, but only allowed one to report on politics. Despite restrictions, the early 1820s saw several efforts to create unofficial local newspapers, such as the 1820 Gazette universelle and the Précurseur, a daily with a print format as large as many Paris papers. Lyon liberals succeeded in creating a substantive press, and the popular notion of a local press to reflect distinct local interests was growing in spite of legal obstacles and strong opposition from authorities. Louis Philippe’s ministers in the 1830s attempted to censor the press for working-class readers by proposing a law against street sellers, intended ‘to protect a monopoly on publicity for the daily newspapers that address themselves to the bourgeoisie’, and in an even more draconian law banned associations in March 1834. This increasing censorship and marginalisation led to radicalisation, with republican uprisings sparked in Paris and Lyon in March 1834 (Popkin, 2001).

One group who were especially marginalised, and hence especially radical in the public sphere, were workers. In France, the history of labour struggles (the paradigmatic social movement) is essential in the history of broader struggles for republican, and eventually democratic, government. Struggles for inclusion in the dominant public sphere were important to both radical intellectuals, and more widely to workers who wanted to be recognised as citzens, and have the state consider their needs and wants. Workers voices in the public sphere spoke in defence of their economic positions (such as those based on craft skills), against eradication by progress in the interests of others (capitalist and consumers), and to defend the rights or resources that they had won during previous struggles. The main grievances of this audience combined concerns for political liberty with economic threats to their crafts and communities. Yet the common features amongst worker groups throughout Europe was not their characteristic ideology or social base, but ‘radical’ resistance to efforts to narrowly define the public sphere and exclude them. They were less concentrated in the capital and more dispersed around the country than the participants of the bourgeois sphere. The most consistent advocates for a truly open public sphere were the artisan leaders this ‘Popular radicalism’, following the expulsion of artisan intellectuals from the legitimate, propertied public sphere. This led to new alliances, and whilst many intellectuals still idealized a cross-class public sphere, they discovered a consistent readership amongst artisans and workers. A new generation of English writers developed who sought readers amongst workers, and engaged with traditional cultures, communities and crafts, such as T.J. Wooler and Richard Carlile; these writings sharpened the radicalism of popular discontent (Calhoun, 2012). In France, following the 1830 July Revolution, the public sphere widened throughout France to include workers. In Lyon, papers such as the Échoe de la fabrique developed to specifically target workers, and existing papers such as the Précurseur and Glaneuse started producing simplified version of the publications, sold as individual pamphlets and intended to bring political discourse to a popular audience. The politicisation of workers became a radical threat: Mayor Prunele of Lyon proclaimed that ‘These are not simple press-law violations; collisions and fights in the street are being provoked and incited. In a word, they want a new revolution; they don’t even avoid the word!’ (Popkin, 2001).

Another notable marginalised group who, upon eventual access to the public sphere, gained radical voices, were the peasants. 1848 saw the last ‘classical urban mode’ of Western European revolution, and whilst it was concentrated in the cities, it engaged those outside the urban public sphere and normally relatively apolitical, such as peasants and small-town professionals (Calhoun, 2012). Radicalisation of peasants was especially significant where serfdom had existed and emancipation occurred much later: Eastern Europe. Here, the ‘structural transformation’ of the public sphere emancipation manifested later than Western Europe, but with similar patterns. Between 1861 and 1917, popular culture arose in Russia based on a newly developed common literacy, as the lower classes learnt to read. Most of the people reading the new popular literature were peasants and former peasants. The pioneer in reaching the newly diverse reading public were illustrate weekly magazines, known as ‘thin magazines’; the most successful of these, Niva (shown left, 1891 edition), had a circulation in 1890 of 120,000 copies.  The most important theme in Russian popular literature was freedom and rebellion, which was a cross-cultural theme: in Western Europe and North America popular culture too, the rebellious individual was an iconic figure in writings. These writings both reflected and stimulated disrespect for established authority, mere decades before one of the largest rebellions in history. Literary themes regarding national identity also shows the growth of radical new attitudes amongst peasants in the public sphere. Physical and human geography of the empire replaced the place of the tsar and Church in shaping national identity in Russia, demonstrating the stress placed on traditional religious and political loyalties. The growing spirit of rebellion was leading to a breakdown of authoritarian ideals, and new materials for a popular audience advocated increasingly more radical behaviour, feeding the radical feeling that would culminate in the twentieth century (Brooks, 1985). The reason that twentieth century in Russia saw successful popular revolts, compared to the doomed peasant rebellions of the past, was popular communication and the access to the public sphere for the marginalised. Poland, like Russia, developed a public sphere later than the West. The legitimate bourgeoisie public sphere that appeared in seventeenth and eighteenth century Western Europe only appeared in the second half of the nineteenth century, due to restrictions on public assembly. From this point, the larger rural community also began to enter political life, with modern institutions of democratic governance making their appearance in the Polish countryside. Yet premodern forces such as belief in witchcraft and evil spirits informed village discussions, and villagers brought ‘validity claims’ to public debate, including criteria radically different to the value norms of the Polish bourgeoisie and gentry. Ideals of nationalism were growing throughout Poland, but peasants took a different, more radical as less official, approach to nation forming, and characterised national fortunes in terms of devils and angels, witches and miracle workers (Keely Stauter-Hasled, 1998).

To ignore the role of gender in the public sphere would be to ignore half the population; by the default of their exclusion, female involvement in the public sphere was radical. In Paris, women held ‘salons’ for men of letters, and held similar roles in cities such as Brussels, Milan, Berlin and Moscow. Whilst salonniéres could gain dignity, respect and authority, their role was ultimately marginalised: they governed male conversation and enabled male work, but their own voices were absent. Whil

st female readers grew, accessing the public sphere, they had little space as writers, with pressure exerted on women to limit writing activity to private consumption. Yet this marginalisation just fed radicalisation, as it had with workers and peasants. Authority in the salon called into question for women their traditional subordination to men in the world outside of the salon. These modern institutions of feminine space would facilitate the growth of a feminist movement, radical by default for the novelty of its ideas of equality (Dena Goodman, 1998). Following the July Revolution, papers in France that addressed women began to seriously raise the question of their exclusion from public discussion. The creation of the Conseiller de femmes in 1833, a ‘radical’ feminist publication, was a serious effort to challenge the exclusion of women from the public sphere. It proposed a radical plan for an Athénée des femmes, an institution to offer public education for women and allow them to make intelligent contributions to the discussion of public issues (Popkin, 2001). In Spain, women too turned to radical measures to join or be heard in the public sphere. In February 1878 in Valencia, the fematers (countryside boys who emptied the city’s waste) and verduleras (female vegetable peddlers from the countryside) went on strike, and these radical actions meant for the first time there was a voice for the tension between the peasant countryside economy and urban groups. Peasant figures invaded the urban public sphere, and women played a key role in this. In the peasant strike, peasant women (and young boys) made themselves visible and even implicit participants in middle class urban debates and newspaper articles of the public sphere (Mónica Burgeura, 2004).

Even journalists themselves formed a marginalised, and hence radicalised, group. The revolutionary situation of the early 1830s in France meant high ideological stakes, and unofficial journalists tended to be ‘movement entrepreneurs’, representing radical political views of marginalised groups such as workers, women, and ‘youth’. They were willing to ignore the unprofitability of their work and risk of legal punishment due to the urgency of their causes. Provincial journalists in general were marginalised figures in French society, despite being literate and ‘bourgeois’ in their social origins. In Paris, newspaper writers were often stigmatised as ‘prostitutes’, and in Lyon the public nature of their activities set them apart from the rest of the population. They risked being challenged to duels, put on trial and imprisonment. They were harshly controlled by contracts and laws, and held responsible directly for their papers through editors being forced to be gérants. Due to the risks and demands of their occupation, most journalists had strong commitments to their ideals, such as Eugénie Niboyet, founder of La Voix des Femmes, the first feminist daily newspaper in France, who notable for her gender but typical in her radicalisation. Her letters show her dedication, leadership abilities and willingness to speak out on behalf of her own ideals. The widely publicised defiance of the police in July 1830 by Jérôme Morin, editor of the Précurseur, also marked the era of outspoken, individualistic, radical newspaper writers. The leading French satirical journal of the early nineteenth century was Charles Philipon’s La Caricature, in which newspapers were symbolically represented as individual figures. The cartoon on the left, ‘Le Revue de Lyon’, portrays Lyon’s ‘journalist field’ in early 1835, with each symbolical figure representing a rival periodical. The popularity of these caricatures shows that periodicals were understood as symbolic persons, held responsible for their political views, and the conflict of the image demonstrates the radical opposition that occurred between various newspapers and journalists (Pompkin, 2001).

In conclusion, the public sphere in nineteenth century Europe was most prone to radicalisation amongst those who were the largest victims of marginalisation: workers, peasants, women, and even journalists. The development of the public sphere was not identical across Europe, but highly interconnected. In Western Europe in the nineteenth century, an expansion of the public sphere occurred (first in England, then France, then Germany, and so on), but in parallel to this wider democratisation were increased attempts at contraction and exclusion of groups regarded as unable to contribute to discourse, or threats to the fragile public order. This expansion, with rising literacy rates and developing cheap print, gave voice to marginalised groups, and where combined with this attempted suppression of these same groups, their contribution to the public sphere became radical. Longstanding biases about gender, civil freedom, and property only gave way slowly, but those who found themselves excluded kept up with public discourse through public meetings and publications, despite harassment from authorities and defenders of the bourgeois order (Calhoun, 2012). In Eastern Europe, the development of a bourgeois public sphere did not occur until the nineteenth century (over a century later than the West), but this delayed expansion too gave voice to marginalised groups, notably former serfs, who too presented radical voices within the old regime. As Geoff Eley wrote, the multiplication of voices in the nineteenth century European public sphere meant it became ‘an arena of contested meanings, in which different and opposing publics manoeuvred for space’ (Eley, 1992), and the most radical of these publics were those who had to manoeuvre hardest: the marginalised. In fact, marginalised groups were almost always radical by default, just for presenting different interests and perspectives to the ‘legitimate’ bourgeois public sphere, and for insisting on having a voice where they were told to have none.

Sources

A copy of Niva from 1891. These illustrated weekly magazines, known as ‘thin magazines’, were pioneering in reaching a wide and diverse reading public was less serious and ideological than monthly ‘thick journals’ for educated readers. The most successful was Niva, 1890 circulation of 120,000 copies. As can be seen, it features large images and large text, and images of peasants. The founder of Rodina (A. A. Kaspari), Niva’s major competitor which appealed to an even wider audience explained Niva was for ‘the first, second, and even, let’s say, the third class of the secondary institution’.

‘La Revue de Lyon’, portraying Lyon’s ‘journalistic field’ in early 1835. This caricature was originally published in a large, brightly coloured format. Each periodical is represented by a symbolic figure. In the foreground, the Papillion and the short-lived Épingle, two rival cultural magazines, attack each other. The other papers, identified by captions that state their place in the press system, look on. On the hills in the background, columns of soldiers and working-class insurgents can be seen. This demonstrates the insurrectionary atmosphere in which Lyon’s diversified press had developed. On the upper left, an unidentified publication is being taken to the ‘literary burying ground’, which indicates the fragile nature of press enterprises in this period.

Bibliography  

Jürgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, (Cambridge, 1989)

Craig Calhoun (ed.), Habermas and the Public Sphere, (Cambridge, Mass. and London, 1992)

Geoff Eley, Nations, publics, and political cultures: placing Habermas in the nineteenth century, (1992)

Jeffrey Brooks, When Russia Learned to Read. Literacy and Popular Literature, 1861-1917, (Princeton, 1985)

Keely Stauter-Halsed, Natio

nalism and the Public Sphere: The Limits of Rational Association in the Nineteenth Century Polish Countryside, (1998)

Jeremy D. Popkin, Press, Revolution, and Social Identities in France, 1830-1835 (Philadelphia, 2001)

Abigail Green, Fatherlands. State-Building and Nationhood in Nineteenth-Century Germany, (Cambridge, 2001)

Dena Goodman, Women and the Enlightenment, (1998)

Craig Calhoun, The Roots of Radicalism, (2012)

Mónica Burguera, Gendered Scenes of the Countryside: Public Sphere and Peasant Family Resistance in the Nineteenth-Century Spanish Town, (2004)

Exodus 33:12-23: essay help free

Introduction

Exodus 33:12-23 describes an exchange between Moses and Yahweh that allows the audience to gain an understanding of God’s presence. This understanding is for both the original audience of people in biblical times, as well as for people reading the Bible today.  

There is no agreement among biblical scholars about who wrote Exodus, though the two most widely held views are that either a “J” source contributed to the book (document hypothesis view,) or that Moses wrote the book. It is most likely that Moses wrote the book, as the way it is composed seems fitting that Moses was writing in the literary style of his time. For the purpose of studying this passage, the exegesis will be done according to the view that Moses was the author of Exodus. This being the case, the book was written by Moses sometime near the end of the forty-year period after the Israelites left Egypt and before they entered Canaan. Moses intended the book of Exodus to be for the second post exodus generation, as a reminder of who they were and what their origins had been. Along with this, he wanted the people to be reminded of what was required of them in the covenant God made with their parents in the generation preceding them.

During the time period in which Exodus takes place, there are many significant historical events occurring. Some of these events include: an increase in the population of Israelites in Northeast Egypt, the Egyptian population control plan that involved killing male infants, the plagues, and the national and international escape from Egypt, that being the “exodus.”  In response to the crises occurring at this time, Exodus is often thought to be a theological response to these events.  

Exodus is written in bifold composition, meaning there are two separate parts of the book that express different meanings or themes. The themes in Exodus are expressed through stories from an author’s point of view, and because of this the book of Exodus as a whole is considered to be a narrative genre. This means that the telling of historical events is from a narrator’s perspective. Exodus is commonly seen as containing a mixture of narration as well as law and liturgical matter, meaning the passages are and were used regularly in public worship. The Law is certainly a major portion of the book of Exodus, with the Ten Commandments being received by Israel at Sinai in the second half of the book, along with the specific instructions for the tabernacle given by Yahweh to the Israelites. The passage specifically being studied here is a narrative containing important theological concepts. Along with the two main genres of Exodus, there are two main themes that are expressed through the writing of Moses. The first is the theme of rescue from human bondage, and then the rescue from sin’s bondage. Another theme is the theme of servanthood, which begins with Israel being the servant of Pharaoh in Egypt, and then transitioning into Israel becoming God’s servants at Sinai, where the law is given.

Overall, it is most generally accepted that the core purpose of the writings in Exodus is covenantal liberation.  This can be seen throughout the whole book, as well as in the specific text being studied.

Extended Exposition      

The verses in Exodus 33:12-23 describe an event in history in which Yahweh and Moses have an interaction regarding the presence of God. However. in order to understand the deeper theological concepts of this passage, it is necessary to realize that this chapter proceeds the story of the Golden Calf, in which Israel rebelled and turned from God, causing Him to punish them by limiting His presence among the people. This created a sense of loss of God among the Israelites.  Looking ahead from this point to the beginning of Chapter 33, the interaction in verses 12-23 can be even further understood by looking back to verses 7-11 of Chapter 33. In these verses, God allows His presence to be found within a tent. This tent was used by Moses as a tabernacle of meeting, and the Israelites who were seeking the Lord went there. According to many bible scholars, these verses and reference to the tent are used as a “pause,” or a way to relieve the pressure of the narrative. Because Israel’s future survival and well-being relied on the presence of Yahweh, this tent may have given the people assurance of Yahweh’s promise. These verses highlight the emphasis on presence in chapter 33 of Exodus that has many theological implications, and is expanded on in the verses being exegeted.

The verses being studied contain two major sections: the first being in verses 12-16, where an exchange occurs between Yahweh and Moses about presence. The second section of the passage, in verses 17-23, contains the final resolution, in which God grants a less than complete self-exposure.  

Verses 12-16: Exchange Between Yahweh and Moses

The first section of this passage begins with Moses realizing that without God, he could achieve nothing. At this point, Israel had begun to panic over the state of their covenantal relationship with Yahweh. They had two main worries concerning presence: whether they would be able to continue being present as a nation, and whether God would be present with them on their continued journey to the promised land. As God’s representative, Moses wanted to act accordingly to God’s ways, which is why he asked for God to show him His “ways.” God’s presence has previously been denied to the rebellious people of Israel, so Moses also wanted to guarantee that presence to his people as well. These actions of Moses, asking for his people rather than for just himself, have been regarded as exemplary for those who are leaders in service to the Lord. Moses acting as an intercessor for his people here is an important concept of this passage. Before him, Abraham acted as an intercessor for his people; after him, Amos acted as an intercessor Israel, and finally; Jesus was the intercessor for all of humanity.

 For Moses, in this passage, his plea to God is the first step in the bargaining process for God to give him His presence. Moses believed that just an angel was no substitute for God.One technique he uses is telling God that it is His presence with the people of Israel that makes them special and will stand out to the Gentiles in testimony. Moses also uses God’s own words in attempt to persuade God to concede to his requests. An example of this is that throughout Moses’s conversation with God, the phrase “māsā hēn bĕcênê” (to find favor/be pleased with) appears five times. This refers to God being pleased with Israel and Moses, and is used by both Moses and God. Moses uses it as a persuasive tool, as the words came from God himself describing Moses and his people.

  Upon hearing Moses’s pleas, God makes two concessions: the first being that his presence will go with him, and the second being that He will give him rest. “To go” is translated from hlk, which was before seen in Exodus 33:1 with God commanding Moses and Israel “to go.” For this reason, God’s promise to Moses that He will make His presence “to go” with him gave Moses significant comfort, as it showed that God was committed to what he requires of the people.

The second part of the promise, the rest promised to Moses, has a few possible implications. The first implication is simply that Moses’s job of leading the people would be easier with God’s help. Another way that God has already given Moses rest here in this passage, is by His words and promises of reassurance. This is more of a personal rest from Moses’s anxieties about His leadership and the fate of Israel. By knowing that God will go with Him, Moses is granted this “rest.” However, the more likely audience for this statement was Israel as a whole. The “rest” was that which was already promised to the people, the promised land of rest in Canaan. Along with this, rest is an expression often used in the Pentateuch to describe entering a land and receiving rest from engaging in war with the enemies.  

After God makes His first concession, Moses asks for more reassurance, not just for himself, but for all the people of Israel. A pertinent point to consider in verses 12-16 of chapter 33 is that the argument Moses uses serves the purpose of ensuring that the people of Israel will not be left behind. This is a concern Moses has after God’s punishment of withdrawing His presence from the people. In verse 14, God says to Moses “My Presence will go with you and I will give you rest.” Moses sees no benefit of entering the promised land, and in continual intercession for his people responds using the pronoun “us” to be sure that God is not excluding the people of Israel.

Verses 17-23: The Final Resolution

 After God responds to Moses that He will make His “face” go with the people, Moses wishes for more- to see God’s glory. The word for glory here, “kavod,” literally means “weight,” and in this context this means the inner reality that makes up what is God’s character.  To this request, God responds with four “I will” statements that provide assurance for Moses. He says: “I will cause all my goodness to pass in front of you, I will proclaim my name in your presence, I will have mercy…., and I will have compassion….” These statements are affirmative and direct- God does not hold back from Moses, as he is pleased with him and is ready to restore His covenant with Israel.

When God says that he will allow his “goodness” to pass in front of Moses, this means His whole character and nature. This goodness that God speaks of, rather than glory, is more abstract and is beyond any simple manifestation of the kind of God He is. Goodness, being an all-encompassing word for God’s characteristics, is all that His people need for well-being.

Along with the promise of His goodness, God promised to proclaim His name in front of Moses, a further aspect of His revelation. The original phrase here, “qārāh bĕsēm” is an idiom meaning “call on the name of” or “call out to.” Through this, God made his promise to Moses to speak His own name so that Moses would have no doubt of what he was experiencing. In the culture of the time of Exodus, a person’s name expressed much more about a person than simply just a name- it expressed something important or a type of power the person holds. This is true in the context of this passage, where the name of God shows His true power. The name of God includes his nature, character, person, and standards of living. It also includes characteristics that God mentions in this passage, “mercy” and “compassion.” These things were guaranteed to all of God’s covenant people, as well as to Moses specifically.

To Moses, what was more important than what he could see is what he could hear, which is this proclamation of God’s name. Hearing this was a special type of theophany. Unlike previous theophanies to Moses, such as the burning bush, in this case it was more important to Moses to know what kind of God he was experiencing than to physically see what kind of God his God is. The theophany promised here would reassure Moses by strengthening him and giving him confidence. Although Moses and other Old Testament figures receive God’s presence in theophanies, these are not a rule of God’s revelation to humans, rather, they are exceptions. God clearly has a special relationship with Moses, and because of this and His pleasure with Moses, He allowed him this experience. More often, God limits His presence to people, as He did initially in this chapter of Exodus.

The immediacy of both the first and second responses of God seem to demonstrate that a test of Moses was taking place in these verses. Because God is omniscient and omnipotent, He did not need persuasion to be argued down from a position he was holding to. Instead, here God acts as a teacher who desires a specific response from a student. Moses was a good student, and did as God wanted, which made God overjoyed.

An interesting aspect of God’s response to Moses is that it was not a complete revelation- He said that Moses could not see His face. God assured Moses that this would be more than any man could bear. When Moses interacted with God, what he saw of Him was his “tĕmunāh,” meaning his “likeness” or “depiction.” This word is paired in a parallel structure with the word pānayinn,” which means “face.” This implies that Moses was having a personal encounter with God, rather than meaning Moses could already see the face of God. Being able to physically see the face of God is only possible through Jesus Christ, veiled by human flesh, which He accomplished in His time on earth. The reason that humans cannot see the face of God is because God as He is, in all his divine mystery, is more than a living being can comprehend. Thus, humans must wait for Jesus.

After God promises to reveal himself to Moses, he gives Moses a location where the revelation will occur. In verse 21, he tells Moses he will stand “on a rock.” Following this in verse 22, God tells Moses that He will put him in a “cleft” in the rock and cover him with His hand. These references to the rocks indicate the specific location as Mt. Sinai. This makes sense, as Sinai had been God’s temporary dwelling place throughout the book of Exodus.

Finally, at the end of the passage being studied, God tells Moses that he will see God’s back rather than his face. This does not literally mean that Moses will see a physical “back” of God, but is anthropomorphism meaning “the after-effects” of all his glory. Another way to understand this is that Moses would understand God more fully in retrospect, in light of what he had done.

Overall, chapters 32-34 of Exodus are intended to convey a message of rebellion, mediation, and restoration. The mediation and restoration are the themes that are namely seen in the specific passage being studied here. In Chapter 34 of Exodus, the restoration of the covenant between Israel and God occurs with Moses going up to Mt. Sinai and getting the stone tablets. Here, God gives Moses further laws for the people of Israel, as well as more promises, such as the promise to do wonders with the nation of Israel. Because of God’s covenant with his people, He gives them grace and mercy despite their rebellious ways. The messages Moses intended for the post exodus generations to hear were both this message of God’s grace despite rebellion, as well as where they had come from and what God had done for them.

Conclusions

Overall, this passage is a passage that, with context, demonstrates not only the importance of God’s presence, but also the implications of God’s covenantal relationship with His people. Israel rebelled, and they were to be punished by God. With the absence of God, Israel was doomed to fail. However, with Moses acting as an intercessor, the people were given God’s grace. This was done without their efforts or work, but solely by God’s goodness. Moses intended for his audience to hear these words and this interaction, and to understand the restoration of the covenant that God allowed to happen despite the people’s sinful ways. Along with this, this passage of Exodus shows that without God’s presence, the people would be lost and unable to make a great nation for themselves. They would be no witness to the Gentiles, and would not survive or prosper in the Promised Land. Prior to this passage, in earlier chapters of Exodus, the law is clearly stated for the people to follow. This passage is not an excuse for the people to argue with God or to sin and still have God’s presence be with them, but rather a reminder of what God expects and what His true character is like. God is compassion, mercy, and goodness.

Without this bible passage, it would be hard to understand the importance of God’s presence, and what it truly means to experience His presence. For Moses, he was able to experience a revelation of God, but not fully see God’s “face,” for he would have to be in heaven to experience that. However, this passage allows the audience to see God in a way that shows His characteristics and why those things make His presence so magnificent.

The verses in this Bible passage are the climax of Chapters 32-34 of Exodus. They provide deep theological insight through the presentation Moses gives in his speech and communication with God.  If read and understood properly, both from understanding of the original context and from an understanding of how the original meaning can apply to now, there is much value to the content of this passage.

Connections and Applications

The text being studied here in chapter 33 of Exodus is unique in that it depicts an image of God that most people today are uncomfortable with. Upon first reading, it seems that God is harsh to remove His presence from the people, which would ultimately lead to their downfall. This makes God appear condemning, angry, and jealous. It also raises the question of why God is so condemnatory in the beginning of this Old Testament, as opposed to the all-forgiving, loving God of the New Testament. This leads to one of the initial warnings of reading this passage and applying it to the world today- it is crucial to realize that this passage occurs before there is any official means of grace or atonement for the sin of mankind. The covenant is in place between God and Israel, and the punishment for breaking of the covenant is loss of relationship with God, meaning God is not unfair to punish the people for his rebellion in the beginning of chapter 33. Because the Savior had not yet come to earth and the New Covenant was not yet in place, this passage shows God as He used to be, not as He is. This is not to say that the nature of God himself has changed, it simply means that the mediator has not come yet at this time in history. For Israel, Moses was the mediator, and God was gracious in granting corporate compassion even though His favor was with Moses, who had remained faithful. It is clear to see here direct parallels between this Old Testament story and Moses’s intercession on behalf of his people, and the New Testament where Jesus was the intercessor for all of humanity.

Although human prayer in today’s world cannot “change” God’s mind, Moses does provide an example of what prayer and conversation with God can be like. It is natural for humans to engage God in a very “human” way, which is why logic and arguments are sometimes brought into prayer- because this is the level on which humans know how to interact with a non-human being. This is not wrong, but rather simply a fact of human relationship with God. God has favor with His beloved people, and sees them in a way similar to the way He looked upon Moses in their encounter.

Another interesting point to consider when applying this passage to the world today and current situations is God’s change of heart after Moses’s pleading with Him. If read without context or understanding, it seems that a person may be able to change God’s mind by simply presenting a good argument, or using God’s own words to convince Him to do what one wants. In this passage- the dilemma God was facing was true, he fully intended to destroy Israel. In the bible, there are different ways God is presented, depending on the overall goal of the passage or intended purpose. In some instances, God is presented in the most divine, heavenly way. In other cases, God is presented in human ways for the audience to better understand.  Here, the author is focusing more on Moses’s role as intercessor than on God’s inner workings or divine characteristics. For this reason, it cannot be deduced that God will change His mind based on a prayer, for this would have implications regarding his omnipotence. It also is not to say that God does not care about prayers or that prayers are not effective, but the emphasis today is still on the intercessor- that is, Jesus Christ. Because of Him, mankind has access to God despite failure to keep humanity’s side of the covenant with God.

Along with God’s change of heart, it can be challenging not to apply God’s words of compassion and mercy to personal salvation and circumstances. God is compassionate and merciful to all His beloved people, but in this passage He is speaking to the Israelites specifically. This relates back to the overall purpose of Moses writing the book of Exodus- for the post- Exodus generation to see what God has done for them. God’s speaking of his compassion and mercy is a summary of what He has done for them in the past by bringing them out of slavery in Egypt.

Although it is not wise to begin applying each part of this passage, as much of it is specific to the original intended audience or Old Testament circumstances, there are some themes that are applicable to contemporary context. For example, there is a great deal of liturgical matter in this text relating to the parallels between Moses and Jesus as intercessors for Israel, or for all of mankind. Along with this, there is the overall theme of presence, which can certainly apply today. The people of God on Earth today experience God’s presence in a way similar to how Israel experienced it in Exodus- limited for now. God is present to His people through His own designated “tents” today, which can be seen as the church, where God has promised to be present. His presence is also available to His people through prayer and the power of the Holy Spirit. However, like Moses, God’s people on earth today are unable to fully know the “ways” of the Lord, or see His “face” until heaven, when God and His presence will be revealed in all His power and glory.

In application to the theme of “Sleep, Surrender, and Sabbath,” God makes a significant part of his promise to Moses the promise of rest. Whether this is rest on the individual level, just for Moses in his job of leading the people through the promised land, or rest on the level of all of Israel once they reach the promised land, God’s words here are important. In more than just this Bible passage, God gives a promise of rest to His people, making it clear that rest is something he finds to be valuable. God also shows He cares to ease Moses’s doubts and worries, giving him rest in this way. This can give assurance to people today that God desires for His people to have rest from their anxieties as well. Rest is a blessing given by God to mankind in His covenant with His people, and it is to be appreciated as one of God’s gracious gifts to the underserving and rebellious people.

Another important application of this passage is the implications of leadership and how servants of the Lord are to serve Him in a way He desires. God was pleased and found favor with Moses, as he was a faithful student. As mentioned before, Moses saw no benefit of entering the promised land alone, and persisted in pleading with God on behalf of all the people of Israel. This selfless nature is parallel with Jesus’s attitude towards His sacrifice- there is no glory in getting to the promised land of heaven alone, without the people God loves. It is also an example for earthly leaders and how God desires for people to approach Him- not with selfish requests, but with requests that will further His mission and hope for His people.

Finally, a small portion of this passage raises an interesting thought to ponder. In verse 23, when God tells Moses that he shall only see God’s back, this was previously discussed as being the “afterglow” of God’s glory, or that Moses would understand God more only after God’s revelation. If this can be applied to today, it is possible that all of humanity now will also not be able to fully see God’s “face” or fully understand Him until it is the “afterglow” that is being experienced, either in heaven or on the day of final judgment.  

e…

Taiwan vote based system

A huge number of demonstrators, a large portion of whom are youth in universities, assembled in the lanes around Taiwan's Parliament a month ago for almost 2 weeks to demonstrate their resistance to an exchange settlement marked by Taiwan and the People Republic of China governments, testing the president's strategy of drawing the popularity based island nearer to Mainland China regard to financial aspects. A publication titled Trade challenge disgraces Taiwan vote based system, distributed by Global Times, emphatically censured the dissent as a careless or even over-radical activity. Be that as it may, while what the columnist examined bodes well in a specific regard, I think his announcement on the economy and mentality toward dissent, saying that financial intrigue ought to offer approach to majority rule rights, are fraudulent and begging to be proven wrong, in light of the fact that the right to speak freely is a fundamental ideal for people in current society around the world, and we ought to attempt our best to secure this privilege for a brighter future. I contend that the show ought to be upheld and energized and my objective of composing this paper is to convey my contemplated the right to speak freely to my gatherings of people by bringing the idea of vote based system into authentic occasions and breaking down the impact on financial matters, legislative issues, and instruction circumstance in a country or locale. I earnestly trust that, regardless of what my pursuers' experience might be, they will be propelled in the wake of perusing this article.  

Going back to 1919, the May Fourth Movement, an against settler, social, and political development exhibited by understudies who meant to challenge the Chinese government's apprehensive reaction to the Treaty of Versailles, rang up the window ornament on majority rule dissent and significantly impacted the political circumstance and understudy status in the country. Albeit free ideal to exhibit is as yet limited in the People Republic of China, the thoughts on equitable yearning are very much created and generally spread in Republic of China (Taiwan), and that is the reason such a variety of individuals support against the undemocratic choice. The issue is the debate over the right to speak freely and challenge, which identified with the present dissent in Taiwan about the discovery operation of an exchange agreement contract amongst Taiwan and Mainland China. A few people think challenge the exchange settlement will hurt the shot for Taiwan to gain ground on the economy, which is the fundamental thought unequivocally appeared in the article. While, a large portion of the regular people, particularly undergrad, in Taiwan hold the solid feeling that the exchange settlement ought to be withdrawn in light of the fact that the entire procedure was kept in mystery. In spite of the fact that the officer asserted doing it for security of data amid the arrangement, the publics don't get it in light of the fact that the issue, which firmly identified with individuals' advantage, ought to be talked about or balloted by regular folks. Much the same as what Harry S. Truman says, "Once a legislature is focused on the guideline of quieting the voice of restriction, it has just a single approach, and that is down the way of progressively severe measures, until it turns into a wellspring of dread to every one of its nationals and makes a nation where everybody lives in dread." If the publics don't concur with the administration, they have the privilege to communicate.  

The right to speak freely, a characteristic right of human, means an eagerness to stand and let individuals say things with which we oppose this idea. As between that individual intrigue and those social interests, it appears to be anything but difficult to presume that the individual intrigue ought to dependably give away… But we need to recollect that not exclusively do we have the social enthusiasm for request, and in the training of the youthful, and in ethics, however that flexibility of itself a social intrigue; that one of the reasons for which society exists the same amount of concerning the support of request is the revelation and the spread of truth (Zechariah). At the point when the interests are influenced, individuals will shield themselves from loss of interests. In the article, the writer asserted that if the legislature of Taiwan did not acknowledge the understanding, its economy would choke. This announcement is erroneous. Rivals of the exchange strategy think it would cost Taiwan huge work position since neighborhood private companies on the island will battle to contend with very much well-to-do Chinese premium gatherings, who expectation on putting resources into Taiwan. They additionally anxious that inexorably enterprise between two districts will elevate China's legislature to recover the island, which split from the P.R.C since 1949. On the off chance that each side [protestor and supporter], says it is justified, and that does not bring us anyplace by any means. I think we will do well to make tracks in an opposite direction from this word "right" altogether, and take a gander at it from another perspective, not from the lawful perspective, but rather essentially from the perspective of the individual people, which constitute the general public in which he talks. That is, we have his individual advantages and the interests of society everywhere (Zechariah 367). Living in majority rule administration, regular people in Taiwan certainly have the legitimate ideal to battle for their own particular advantages, both in the field of financial aspects and political life.  

When we discuss the significance of the right to speak freely in governmental issues, we ought to mindful that regular citizens' right to speak freely ensures the political honesty and furthermore exchange equity. With the supervision by people in general, government or gathering may perform better when managing exchange collaboration. I need to concede that the exchange brings advantages to the Taiwan economy, yet it likewise conveys harm to the constitution framework. As George Washington says, "If the right to speak freely is taken away, then stupid and noiseless we might be driven, similar to sheep to the butcher", a nation without a law ensuring individuals' entitlement to voice themselves are bound to be over-turned. For instance, Qing Dynasty in old China was toppled by majority rule activists, who had propel liberal musings, because of its extraordinary control on the right to speak freely, including execute artists who judge against the rulers and their power, detain ideologists who spread the considerations about vote based system, and even rebuff standard individuals who read scholarly articles discussing the administration. Luckily, drove by law based progressive pioneer Sun Yat-sen, who advocate the right to speak freely, discouraged individuals left the shadow of the defiled realm and strolled onto the street of popular government (OCAC et al.). A standout amongst the most fundamental elements of flexibility of challenge or discourse is that basic leadership at all levels is considered by exchange of an agent scope of sentiments. A choice made after adequate meeting is probably going to improve things, which less defectively mirrors the perspectives, requests and interests of all worried, than a choice made by one lord or specialist with next to zero discussion. It is additionally useful for stable political administration and notoriety of the legislature. What's more, if the youthful protestor's anxious to communicate were stifled, they are probably going to wind up noticeably a more forceful adversary or even sociopath. Subsequently, giving individuals a chance to have an opportunity to scrutinize the specialist ought to be organized truly by the pioneers of any nation in present day society and in particular, those valuable qualities ought to be passed on to the people to come.

 

As the principle compel in the dissent, undergrads in Taiwan demonstrated the dynamic energy of our young era with solid popularity based awareness and an awareness of other's expectations toward society. Urging understudies to battle for individuals' lawful right is important in light of the fact that the possibility of flexibility of challenge or discourse should be passed on. Albeit some of their activities, for example, possessing Taiwan's lawmaking body, might be excessively neglectful, I am profoundly moved by what they had done, in light of the fact that the impact they made let general society give careful consideration to the issue and excited individuals' consciousness of their lawful appropriate to dissent. One of Harvard President had said in his answer to the Corporation regarding the matter of the right to speak freely:  

"Instruction has demonstrated, and likely nobody would now deny, that information can progress, or if nothing else can progress most quickly, just by methods for liberated scan for truth with respect to the individuals who dedicate their lives looking for it in their particular fields, and by entire opportunity in giving to their students reality that they have found. This has turned into a saying in advanced education, notwithstanding the way that a searcher may find mistake rather than truth, and be misdirected, delude others, in this manner. We trust that if enough light is let in, the genuine relations of things will soon be seen, and they can be found in no other way. "  

This citation, which was composed in Zechariah's book Freedom of Speech, can be viewed as a Magna Charta by each Harvard educator as for scholarly research, yet it can likewise apply to the training of social duty. On the off chance that the cutting edge can develop the just thought, the entire social atmosphere will show signs of improvement and better due to the disposal of organization when the greater part comprehend, regard, and crusade for right of discourse. The way to take care of the issues we specified above as far as political and monetary issues. With a specific end goal to keep the "custom", educators in school ought not just show understudies how to tackle arithmetic issues or analysis in science, additionally show them how to wind up noticeably dependable regular citizens that worry the world he or she lives and build up the feeling of liberal majority rule government.  

Taking everything into account, a solid society is a relentlessly creating country or locale that possesses open instruction framework and honest government with legitimate security for human rights. Among them, the right to speak freely and challenge is a standout amongst the most principal and fundamental rights since it ensures the social equity straightforwardly and open's welfare by implication. Reorganizations or other semblable activities that objective to change the out of line circumstance in a group have a long procedure to go, and the young, as the primary trooper amid the battle, has a greater obligation for a more equivalent and congruity society. Subsequently, the challenge in Taiwan ought to be upheld by individuals and the right to speak freely ought to be freed with legitimate law keeping in mind the end goal to give rich soil to individuals, particularly for the youthful, to develop the seed containing popularity based beliefs, contemplating the issue that may influence their day by day life and making development to enhance the cutting edge cultivated world.  

Work Cited  

Zechariah Chafee, Freedom of speech. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.  

The Overseas Chinese Affairs of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China (OCAC), Common Knowledge about Chinese History. Higher Education Press, 2007. Print

Multi-Agent Systems For Supply Chain Management College Application Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Discussion Suggestion Conclusion References

Introduction

A supply chain comprises all the steps involved in providing a product to a consumer or client. Because traditional supply chains are dependent on long-term relationships between corporate partners, they are primarily static. As internet or computer network applications, contemporary supply chains are considered virtual in nature. In these applications, agents are the software programs responsible for assembling the supply chain. This strategy for forming supply chains has established itself as a method for introducing flexibility, dynamism, and intelligence into supply chains.

When a purchase order is placed, the order's restrictions are received and then configured in one class of agents. Initiates a series of negotiations between this type of agents and others. Ultimately, a supply chain is built, with or without agents' compromise. The bullwhip effect, which results from a product's fluctuating demand, is one of the issues that plague supply networks. Among its effects is a rise in inventory levels.

As a countermeasure, actors in the supply chain will stockpile inventory in response to demand fluctuations. A further consequence of the bullwhip effect is a decrease in supply chain agility. The final repercussion of the bullwhip effect is a decline in customer service standards. Inconsistent demand can lead to a stock-out, rendering an organization unable to meet fresh client demands and resulting in a decline in customer service levels. These effects might add up to substantial losses for a manufacturing business.

Discussion

Walsh and Wellman feel that automation is the key to enhancing the supply chain design process (1). The optimum model for a supply chain should incorporate certain factors. Before examining these challenges, it is essential to understand what a supply chain agent is. An agent is a computer entity that manages one or more supply chain tasks. One of the difficulties to be incorporated into the model is competition amongst agents for resources.

There may be a scarcity of a single resource if multiple agents require it. The model should be able to handle this conflict by guaranteeing that the parties involved in the conflict do not operate in the supply chain simultaneously. This gives rise to a sub-issue concerning the worth of an agent. To address this issue, the model must consider value from three dimensions. The first dimension is the agent's monetary cost, i.e., is it justifiable? The second dimension is the time required by the agent to complete a specific task. The third component is quality, which refers to the quality of the agent's work. Hierarchical subtask decomposition is the second key factor that the model should evaluate. Hierarchical subtask decomposition is a characteristic that enables agents in a supply chain to do complex jobs.

This is because agents are intended to specialize in certain supply chain functions. When a task is difficult, an agent divides it into segments before distributing them to other agents who may continue the process until the task is completed. Uncertainty, which is the direct possibility of deliberate or unintended supply chain failures, must also be considered. For instance, an agent may decide to decommit in order to pursue a better offer elsewhere.

Failures of this nature and others can interrupt a company's supply chain, which can be costly. The third aspect to be incorporated into the paradigm is agent decentralization. Decentralization in the supply chain entails granting all agents decision-making authority. Consequently, no single agent possesses all the essential information to independently manage or direct the supply chain. In this situation, it is advantageous for the model to generate a strategic interaction scheme.

Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the planning and coordination of supply chain activities, beginning with the procurement of raw materials and ending with the delivery of finished goods (Al-zu'bi, 106). In order to maximize a company's earnings, SCM knowledge is essential. Effective supply chain management is essential for boosting the timely and cost-effective fulfillment of client needs. Therefore, it is essential for offering a manufacturing company the necessary competitive edge over its rivals. As market conditions fluctuate daily, traditional supply networks that are predominantly static are inadequate for conducting business operations.

Thus, there is a need for more adaptable and dynamic supply chains that can connect customers to suppliers based on the desired product. E-business is a method of completing business procedures with the use of internet technology (Al-zu'bi, 106) that has emerged with the internet. A business that successfully uses E-business opens the door to increased supply chain efficiency, among other benefits. Because of this, efficiency has increased.

utilizing intelligent supply chains, a shortened supply chain time cycle, and customers' strong loyalty.

Activities and infrastructure for Electronic Supply Chain Management (ESCM) encompass six processes (Al-zu'bi, 106). The first is E planning, which emphasizes collaborative planning to create a single, shared forecast for suppliers and customers. The demand forecast includes the corresponding supply strategy. On a frequent basis, the forecast should be revised depending on information shared on the Internet. E-replenishment refers to the combined manufacturing and distribution process. In numerous ways, replenishment knowledge is extremely beneficial:

Eliminating stocking points and increasing the rate of replenishment to reduce inventory levels.

E-procurement refers to the use of the Internet to conduct essential procurement procedures. For Web-based procurement, documents such as shipping notices, contracts, etc. are made available online. The fourth is E-Collaboration, which emphasizes collaboration amongst multiple companies participating in the development of a product. This is done to ensure the success of the product's market introduction and to decrease the time required for it to reach its intended market. E-Logistics is the application of Web-based technologies to improve warehouse and transportation systems. The sixth is E-B2B Exchange, which emphasizes the usage of B2B exchanges to serve as e-supplies. Electronic supplies provide an alternative to conventional supply systems.

According to Walsh and Wellman, multi-agent system (MAS) technology is well-suited to the development of realistic models for the supply chain creation process (1). Multi-Agent-Based Supply Chain Management systems are founded on these models. According to Kovalchuk, the multi-agent strategy is used because it introduces flexibility into the system architecture, among other benefits (2). Kovalchuk continues by stating that agent technology has become a common method for developing distributed SCM systems (2)

. According to him, the reason for this is that they enhance the management of links within the supply chain, making it more responsive and dynamic (2). Multi-agent SCM systems have two primary benefits. Because they have the ability to make their own decisions, they are able to respond quickly to disturbances and changes. The second benefit is that they permit tasks to be studied independently and in relation to one another. In multi-agent-based SCM systems, agents must exhibit four essential qualities (Moyaux et al, 7).

The first quality is autonomy, which indicates that agents may carry out their jobs without direct or indirect interference from humans or other entities. In addition, it means that the agents must have an internal system for controlling their behaviors and internal state. The second criteria is social capacity, which indicates that the agents must interact with one another and, if necessary, with humans. The majority of interactions are conducted utilizing one of the Agent Communication Languages (ACLs).

ACL is a computer language with its own linguistic rules, semantics, and pragmatics, and it is the foundation upon which independent communication between software means is designed. KQML and FIPA ACL are two examples of ACL. KQML and FIPA ACL stand for Knowledge Query and Manipulation Language and Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents / Agent Communication Language, respectively. The third quality is reactivity, which requires agents to be attentive to their surroundings and responsive to changes in it. The agent's environment comprises the physical world, a collection of other agents, or a user of multi-agent-based technology. The fourth trait that agents should possess is proactivity, which means that they should be initiative-driven. The diagram below illustrates a conceptual framework for multi-agent supply chain management.

The conceptual Framework, as seen in Figure 1.

The ACL is captured by the outermost layer, therefore communication services emerge from this point. The offered communication services permit the exchange of messages between agents from two distinct sources. The first source is domain-dependent and relays communicative activities in its messages, whereas the second source is domain-independent and relays content requirements in its messages. Following this layer and contained within the framework is the conversational coordination layer.

Conversations can characterize many agent-to-agent interactions. For instance, the purpose of a particular interaction may be a request for or submission of information, or merely a reaction to a particular event. The innermost layer is composed of five actions and behaviors. Organizational models, decision-making, behavior planning, behavior execution, and domain-specific solvers are the features. Here, general models of action and behavior, as well as the obligations and prohibitions of agents, are provided.

The work of Chen et al. is one of the proposed models; it is a negotiation-based MAS (Chen et al, 1). Supply Chain Management Systems is among the terminologies employed by the framework (SCMS). This is the system that assumes the role of the supply chain's overall manager. This paradigm also employs the phrase functional agents, which refers to agents that are heterogeneous in character and serve as the means of achieving various SCM functionality. The first class of functional agents designated by the framework as information agents give information about the system.

The second class of functional agents is associated with certain objects, and each is specialized to do a particular task. The framework also includes the term negotiation, which describes the relationship between the functional agents. The negotiating process is implemented within a system protocol containing product information and rules for agent interaction. The language used during negotiations is an example of Agent Communication Language (ACL). One of the concerns that functional agents negotiate is the order's due date.

The amount of a certain product to be manufactured is likely to be a subject of negotiation. The framework also employs the word "negotiation performatives" to define elements that are utilized to construct the required and optional protocols for the system. A fundamental characteristic of this framework is that it permits existing functional agents to leave the system and new functional agents to join and remain. A second fundamental characteristic of the framework is that the negotiating process is limited to functional agents. The concept depicts the supply chain as fully or partially automated negotiating processes (Chan et al, 2).

Figure 2 depicts the conceptual structure of the model.

A buyer agent captures an order for a certain product when it is placed. Currently, the buyer agent meets with the information agents in an effort to discover prospective seller agents. Identified agent for the buyer and representative for the seller enter into negotiations. The goal of this negotiation process is for the buyer's agent to identify one seller's agent who will adequately represent its interests.

The selling agent can carry out its responsibilities in one of two ways. In the first step, an exhaustive search of the information agent is conducted to find manufacturing agents. In the second, the seller agent might publish a request for the manufacturing agents to respond to. Thus, these ongoing conversations produce a virtual supply chain beginning with retailer agents and ending with provider agents. All of these agents may be confined within the Internet or a vast network of specialized parties or collaborators.

The examination of available offers in a supply chain is one of the issues that this model addresses. Information agents provide details about these deals. Information is entered into the agents by applying specific limitations. The following is an illustration of how this model can be utilized to address this issue. Consider a number of businesses interconnected by a supply chain. These are portrayed as functional agents that negotiate with one another using a pair-wise negotiation process. Allow firm C to have the following production schedule.

T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

D 400 240 340 260 360 0 0

T 15 16 17 18 16 20 21

D 290 340 140 370 390 0 0

Now, T indicates the period and D represents the quantity a consumer will receive.

The first constraint is that agent C requires these quantities during varying time intervals. Also connected to firm C are companies W and Z, which are respectively represented by agents W and Z. The initial dialogue occurs between C, W, and Z when agent C submits a CFP, which is a request for proposals. W and Z submit their own ideas in the form of limitations in response to C's CFP. The following algorithm represents a typical response by W.

(if ((supply W X) is less than (2supply lead time 4)) ((quantity ≤800) Ù (unit price X 5)))

(if ((supply W X) is less than (5supply lead time 10)) ((quantity ≤1500)^ (unit price X 3.00)))

(if ((supply W X) is less than (supply lead time is less than 11)) (unit price X2.95))

This response method indicates that W can only deliver 800 units of a product in two days at a cost of $5 per unit.

A similar but distinct offer from Z can be incorporated into the algorithm.

(if ((supply Z X) is less than (2supply lead time 3)) ((quantity ≤&00) ^ (unit price X 4.90)))

(if ((supply Z X) is less than (4supply lead time 8)) ((quantity ≤1600) ^ (unit price X 2.90)))

(if ((supply ZX) is less than (supply lead time is less than 9)) (unit price X2.85))

This response algorithm is interpreted as follows.

Multi-Agent Systems For Supply Chain Management College Application Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Discussion Suggestion Conclusion References

Introduction

A supply chain comprises all the steps involved in providing a product to a consumer or client. Because traditional supply chains are dependent on long-term relationships between corporate partners, they are primarily static. As internet or computer network applications, contemporary supply chains are considered virtual in nature. In these applications, agents are the software programs responsible for assembling the supply chain. This strategy for forming supply chains has established itself as a method for introducing flexibility, dynamism, and intelligence into supply chains.

When a purchase order is placed, the order's restrictions are received and then configured in one class of agents. Initiates a series of negotiations between this type of agents and others. Ultimately, a supply chain is built, with or without agents' compromise. The bullwhip effect, which results from a product's fluctuating demand, is one of the issues that plague supply networks. Among its effects is a rise in inventory levels.

As a countermeasure, actors in the supply chain will stockpile inventory in response to demand fluctuations. A further consequence of the bullwhip effect is a decrease in supply chain agility. The final repercussion of the bullwhip effect is a decline in customer service standards. Inconsistent demand can lead to a stock-out, rendering an organization unable to meet fresh client demands and resulting in a decline in customer service levels. These effects might add up to substantial losses for a manufacturing business.

Discussion

Walsh and Wellman feel that automation is the key to enhancing the supply chain design process (1). The optimum model for a supply chain should incorporate certain factors. Before examining these challenges, it is essential to understand what a supply chain agent is. An agent is a computer entity that manages one or more supply chain tasks. One of the difficulties to be incorporated into the model is competition amongst agents for resources.

There may be a scarcity of a single resource if multiple agents require it. The model should be able to handle this conflict by guaranteeing that the parties involved in the conflict do not operate in the supply chain simultaneously. This gives rise to a sub-issue concerning the worth of an agent. To address this issue, the model must consider value from three dimensions. The first dimension is the agent's monetary cost, i.e., is it justifiable? The second dimension is the time required by the agent to complete a specific task. The third component is quality, which refers to the quality of the agent's work. Hierarchical subtask decomposition is the second key factor that the model should evaluate. Hierarchical subtask decomposition is a characteristic that enables agents in a supply chain to do complex jobs.

This is because agents are intended to specialize in certain supply chain functions. When a task is difficult, an agent divides it into segments before distributing them to other agents who may continue the process until the task is completed. Uncertainty, which is the direct possibility of deliberate or unintended supply chain failures, must also be considered. For instance, an agent may decide to decommit in order to pursue a better offer elsewhere.

Failures of this nature and others can interrupt a company's supply chain, which can be costly. The third aspect to be incorporated into the paradigm is agent decentralization. Decentralization in the supply chain entails granting all agents decision-making authority. Consequently, no single agent possesses all the essential information to independently manage or direct the supply chain. In this situation, it is advantageous for the model to generate a strategic interaction scheme.

Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the planning and coordination of supply chain activities, beginning with the procurement of raw materials and ending with the delivery of finished goods (Al-zu'bi, 106). In order to maximize a company's earnings, SCM knowledge is essential. Effective supply chain management is essential for boosting the timely and cost-effective fulfillment of client needs. Therefore, it is essential for offering a manufacturing company the necessary competitive edge over its rivals. As market conditions fluctuate daily, traditional supply networks that are predominantly static are inadequate for conducting business operations.

Thus, there is a need for more adaptable and dynamic supply chains that can connect customers to suppliers based on the desired product. E-business is a method of completing business procedures with the use of internet technology (Al-zu'bi, 106) that has emerged with the internet. A business that successfully uses E-business opens the door to increased supply chain efficiency, among other benefits. Because of this, efficiency has increased.

utilizing intelligent supply chains, a shortened supply chain time cycle, and customers' strong loyalty.

Activities and infrastructure for Electronic Supply Chain Management (ESCM) encompass six processes (Al-zu'bi, 106). The first is E planning, which emphasizes collaborative planning to create a single, shared forecast for suppliers and customers. The demand forecast includes the corresponding supply strategy. On a frequent basis, the forecast should be revised depending on information shared on the Internet. E-replenishment refers to the combined manufacturing and distribution process. In numerous ways, replenishment knowledge is extremely beneficial:

Eliminating stocking points and increasing the rate of replenishment to reduce inventory levels.

E-procurement refers to the use of the Internet to conduct essential procurement procedures. For Web-based procurement, documents such as shipping notices, contracts, etc. are made available online. The fourth is E-Collaboration, which emphasizes collaboration amongst multiple companies participating in the development of a product. This is done to ensure the success of the product's market introduction and to decrease the time required for it to reach its intended market. E-Logistics is the application of Web-based technologies to improve warehouse and transportation systems. The sixth is E-B2B Exchange, which emphasizes the usage of B2B exchanges to serve as e-supplies. Electronic supplies provide an alternative to conventional supply systems.

According to Walsh and Wellman, multi-agent system (MAS) technology is well-suited to the development of realistic models for the supply chain creation process (1). Multi-Agent-Based Supply Chain Management systems are founded on these models. According to Kovalchuk, the multi-agent strategy is used because it introduces flexibility into the system architecture, among other benefits (2). Kovalchuk continues by stating that agent technology has become a common method for developing distributed SCM systems (2)

. According to him, the reason for this is that they enhance the management of links within the supply chain, making it more responsive and dynamic (2). Multi-agent SCM systems have two primary benefits. Because they have the ability to make their own decisions, they are able to respond quickly to disturbances and changes. The second benefit is that they permit tasks to be studied independently and in relation to one another. In multi-agent-based SCM systems, agents must exhibit four essential qualities (Moyaux et al, 7).

The first quality is autonomy, which indicates that agents may carry out their jobs without direct or indirect interference from humans or other entities. In addition, it means that the agents must have an internal system for controlling their behaviors and internal state. The second criteria is social capacity, which indicates that the agents must interact with one another and, if necessary, with humans. The majority of interactions are conducted utilizing one of the Agent Communication Languages (ACLs).

ACL is a computer language with its own linguistic rules, semantics, and pragmatics, and it is the foundation upon which independent communication between software means is designed. KQML and FIPA ACL are two examples of ACL. KQML and FIPA ACL stand for Knowledge Query and Manipulation Language and Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents / Agent Communication Language, respectively. The third quality is reactivity, which requires agents to be attentive to their surroundings and responsive to changes in it. The agent's environment comprises the physical world, a collection of other agents, or a user of multi-agent-based technology. The fourth trait that agents should possess is proactivity, which means that they should be initiative-driven. The diagram below illustrates a conceptual framework for multi-agent supply chain management.

The conceptual Framework, as seen in Figure 1.

The ACL is captured by the outermost layer, therefore communication services emerge from this point. The offered communication services permit the exchange of messages between agents from two distinct sources. The first source is domain-dependent and relays communicative activities in its messages, whereas the second source is domain-independent and relays content requirements in its messages. Following this layer and contained within the framework is the conversational coordination layer.

Conversations can characterize many agent-to-agent interactions. For instance, the purpose of a particular interaction may be a request for or submission of information, or merely a reaction to a particular event. The innermost layer is composed of five actions and behaviors. Organizational models, decision-making, behavior planning, behavior execution, and domain-specific solvers are the features. Here, general models of action and behavior, as well as the obligations and prohibitions of agents, are provided.

The work of Chen et al. is one of the proposed models; it is a negotiation-based MAS (Chen et al, 1). Supply Chain Management Systems is among the terminologies employed by the framework (SCMS). This is the system that assumes the role of the supply chain's overall manager. This paradigm also employs the phrase functional agents, which refers to agents that are heterogeneous in character and serve as the means of achieving various SCM functionality. The first class of functional agents designated by the framework as information agents give information about the system.

The second class of functional agents is associated with certain objects, and each is specialized to do a particular task. The framework also includes the term negotiation, which describes the relationship between the functional agents. The negotiating process is implemented within a system protocol containing product information and rules for agent interaction. The language used during negotiations is an example of Agent Communication Language (ACL). One of the concerns that functional agents negotiate is the order's due date.

The amount of a certain product to be manufactured is likely to be a subject of negotiation. The framework also employs the word "negotiation performatives" to define elements that are utilized to construct the required and optional protocols for the system. A fundamental characteristic of this framework is that it permits existing functional agents to leave the system and new functional agents to join and remain. A second fundamental characteristic of the framework is that the negotiating process is limited to functional agents. The concept depicts the supply chain as fully or partially automated negotiating processes (Chan et al, 2).

Figure 2 depicts the conceptual structure of the model.

A buyer agent captures an order for a certain product when it is placed. Currently, the buyer agent meets with the information agents in an effort to discover prospective seller agents. Identified agent for the buyer and representative for the seller enter into negotiations. The goal of this negotiation process is for the buyer's agent to identify one seller's agent who will adequately represent its interests.

The selling agent can carry out its responsibilities in one of two ways. In the first step, an exhaustive search of the information agent is conducted to find manufacturing agents. In the second, the seller agent might publish a request for the manufacturing agents to respond to. Thus, these ongoing conversations produce a virtual supply chain beginning with retailer agents and ending with provider agents. All of these agents may be confined within the Internet or a vast network of specialized parties or collaborators.

The examination of available offers in a supply chain is one of the issues that this model addresses. Information agents provide details about these deals. Information is entered into the agents by applying specific limitations. The following is an illustration of how this model can be utilized to address this issue. Consider a number of businesses interconnected by a supply chain. These are portrayed as functional agents that negotiate with one another using a pair-wise negotiation process. Allow firm C to have the following production schedule.

T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

D 400 240 340 260 360 0 0

T 15 16 17 18 16 20 21

D 290 340 140 370 390 0 0

Now, T indicates the period and D represents the quantity a consumer will receive.

The first constraint is that agent C requires these quantities during varying time intervals. Also connected to firm C are companies W and Z, which are respectively represented by agents W and Z. The initial dialogue occurs between C, W, and Z when agent C submits a CFP, which is a request for proposals. W and Z submit their own ideas in the form of limitations in response to C's CFP. The following algorithm represents a typical response by W.

(if ((supply W X) is less than (2supply lead time 4)) ((quantity ≤800) Ù (unit price X 5)))

(if ((supply W X) is less than (5supply lead time 10)) ((quantity ≤1500)^ (unit price X 3.00)))

(if ((supply W X) is less than (supply lead time is less than 11)) (unit price X2.95))

This response method indicates that W can only deliver 800 units of a product in two days at a cost of $5 per unit.

A similar but distinct offer from Z can be incorporated into the algorithm.

(if ((supply Z X) is less than (2supply lead time 3)) ((quantity ≤&00) ^ (unit price X 4.90)))

(if ((supply Z X) is less than (4supply lead time 8)) ((quantity ≤1600) ^ (unit price X 2.90)))

(if ((supply ZX) is less than (supply lead time is less than 9)) (unit price X2.85))

This response algorithm is interpreted as follows.

Hope For New Life Ministries’ Organizational Leadership College Application Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Analysis of SHRM's evolution and competitive advantage Conclusion Bibliography

Introduction

The goal of this paper is to examine the theoretical underpinnings of strategic human resource management (SHRM) and to examine its characteristics and functions. Personnel is becoming increasingly vital for organizations in the contemporary environment, as the proper operation of any business depends heavily on its employees. Due to the fact that a clear and well-established system of personnel management is a potent competitive advantage in the modern day, businesses must devote considerable effort to the development of a successful human resource strategy.

Development of SHRM

The economic upheavals of the 1970s and 1980s of the 20th century and the following shift to a new technological technique of production prompted the evolution of labor management (Rotich 62). The third industrial revolution, which began in these years, resulted in an innovative rearrangement of people management. This necessitates improving a company's technical and organizational flexibility, which is nearly impossible within the context of a technocratic organization and conventional techniques of labor stimulation. According to academics, personnel management issues did not become significant until a huge number of individuals were working together in one organization (Oke 377). To recruit a highly qualified staff that is adaptable, capable of making decisions, and invested in attaining the company's overall objectives, it was necessary to revisit the fundamental concepts of labor management.

Consequently, in the 1990s, a radically new approach to human management was adopted. The objects of managerial behavior are not individuals, their work, or procedures, but rather diverse organizational cultures. It is believed that a strategic human resource manager's major responsibility is to identify critical HR areas where solutions can be adopted to boost overall employee motivation and productivity (Malik 7). Modern managers view the organization's culture as a vital strategic instrument that enables them to focus all departments on similar goals, mobilize employee initiative, and facilitate communication.

Personnel management in the twenty-first century involves the strategic management of personnel within a productive organizational culture. According to Dessler, strategic human resource management is the formulation and implementation of human resource policies and procedures that generate the personnel capabilities and behaviors necessary for the organization to achieve its strategic objectives (18). Essentially, people management evolves into human resource management. The roles and objectives are shifting, and the status of HR personnel is rising.

SHRM analysis and competitive advantage

Competitive advantage is comprised of the organization's resources and efforts to minimize risk and maximize possibilities for achieving the desired position. Therefore, resource-focused strategic HRM is the key to competitiveness. According to Boxall and Purcell, strategic human resource management is concerned with the strategic decisions related to the organization of work and the use of labor in organizations, and with understanding why some firms manage them more effectively than others (65). According to the notion of resource-based strategic HRM, a firm can acquire a competitive advantage by developing human resources that enable it to use its knowledge more effectively than its competitors. When competing firms are incapable of duplicating the enterprise's distinctive and effective resources, the enterprise's competitive edge will be maintained. The major characteristics of SHRM are its long-term nature, its interaction with the organization's overall strategy, and the evaluation of multiple external and internal elements that necessitate its adaptation.

SHRM entails locating, selecting, and recruiting employees that are innovative, have initiative and a high degree of contact, are prepared to take risks and are not scared of taking on responsibility. In this situation, it is essential to prevent employee turnover and preserve the core team. Human resources are one of the most important variables that can provide a corporation with a competitive advantage (Sondhi and Nirmal 2013). In order to preserve the exchange relationship, researchers explain that if a firm invests in its employees, the employees may respond with favorable attitudes and actions toward the organization (Kaifeng and Messersmith 2018). Since the end result of strategic management is the achievement of the organization's goals, the staff is given a key role in the SHRM process.

The choice of SHRM depends on a number of variables, including the life cycle of the company, its development plan, its size, and the external environment's features. Effective strategic human resource management is not possible if the work of staff consists solely of administrative duties and is limited to completing operational tasks. Personnel is frequently viewed as an expense that must be decreased, while being the company's most important resource that must be managed competently. The human aspect, which will become increasingly crucial in the future, is required to initiate strategic adjustments in the majority of situations. Managing a company's labor potential is increasingly characterized by the application of strategic HRM practices. For example, Toyota employs SHRM techniques based on a well-considered market strategy (Liker and Hoseus, 2010). An emphasis is placed on the evaluation and construction of human resources, their professional development, and the expansion of creative and organizational activity.

This boosts the organization's competitiveness, enables it to concentrate more on client needs, and adds to its survival in an increasingly competitive environment. According to Browning et al., one developing source of competitive advantage for service businesses is their employees' knowledge, abilities, and attitudes (741). In addition, the study by Faugoo demonstrates that "Indian global firms are responding to the challenges of globalization by investing in HR capabilities of the firm, by developing the knowledge base, desired skills and attitudes of the employees, which results in higher firm performance and competitive advantage" (129). Competitiveness is ensured by a high level of professionalism and competence, personal traits, and innovative and motivational potential.

Conclusion

Currently, strategic human resource management is the most essential element of a company's entire management plan. Strategic human resource management must provide opportunities through the selection of qualified persons and motivated employees in order to achieve a competitive edge. HRM seeks to satisfy the commercial requirements of the firm as well as the individual and collective demands of employees. Strategic HRM should consider the interests of all groups within a firm, including not only the owners and management, but also the employees. Employees, along with all firm resources, must be managed; it is essential not only to organize their work correctly, but also to formulate future goals. This plan must be integrated with the organization's overall objectives, primary responsibilities, and operating characteristics. A well-formed and well implemented HR strategy enables businesses to efficiently manage their staff and provides a firm platform for future growth.

Sources Cited

Peter Boxall and John Purcell. Strategy and Human Resource Management, published in 2011 by Macmillan International Higher Education.

Realizing Competitive Advantage Through HRM in New Zealand Service Industries. Browning, Vicky, et al.

The Service Industries Journal, volume 29, issue 6, pages 741-760, 2009.

Human Resource Management, 12th edition, US hardcover, Dessler, Gary, 2011.

Faugoo, Deepika. The impact of globalization on strategic human resource management, competitive advantage, and organizational success. International Review of Business Research Papers, volume 5, number 4, pages 123-133, 2009.

Kaifeng, Jiang, and Messersmith Jake. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, volume 29, issue 1, 2018, pages 6-33.

Liker, Jeffrey K., and Michael Hoseus. Human Resource Development in Toyota Culture. International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, volume 10, number 1, pages 34-50, 2010.

Academic leadership: The Online Journal, volume 7, issue 1, pages 1-15, 2009, Nadeem Malik, "Emergence of Strategic Human Resource Management: A Historical Perspective."

Human Resources Management. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies (IJHCS), volume 1, issue 4, pages 376-387, 2016.

History, Evolution, and Development of Human Resource Management: A Contemporary Perspective. Global Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 3, no. 3, 2015, pp. 58-73. Rotich, Kipkemboi Jacob.

Sondhi, Vasudha, and Prerana Singh Nirmal. A Reality Check on Strategic Human Resource Management ” Review of Management, vol. 3, no. 1/2, 2013, pp. 4-10.

[supanova question]

Hope For New Life Ministries’ Organizational Leadership College Application Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Analysis of SHRM's evolution and competitive advantage Conclusion Bibliography

Introduction

The goal of this paper is to examine the theoretical underpinnings of strategic human resource management (SHRM) and to examine its characteristics and functions. Personnel is becoming increasingly vital for organizations in the contemporary environment, as the proper operation of any business depends heavily on its employees. Due to the fact that a clear and well-established system of personnel management is a potent competitive advantage in the modern day, businesses must devote considerable effort to the development of a successful human resource strategy.

Development of SHRM

The economic upheavals of the 1970s and 1980s of the 20th century and the following shift to a new technological technique of production prompted the evolution of labor management (Rotich 62). The third industrial revolution, which began in these years, resulted in an innovative rearrangement of people management. This necessitates improving a company's technical and organizational flexibility, which is nearly impossible within the context of a technocratic organization and conventional techniques of labor stimulation. According to academics, personnel management issues did not become significant until a huge number of individuals were working together in one organization (Oke 377). To recruit a highly qualified staff that is adaptable, capable of making decisions, and invested in attaining the company's overall objectives, it was necessary to revisit the fundamental concepts of labor management.

Consequently, in the 1990s, a radically new approach to human management was adopted. The objects of managerial behavior are not individuals, their work, or procedures, but rather diverse organizational cultures. It is believed that a strategic human resource manager's major responsibility is to identify critical HR areas where solutions can be adopted to boost overall employee motivation and productivity (Malik 7). Modern managers view the organization's culture as a vital strategic instrument that enables them to focus all departments on similar goals, mobilize employee initiative, and facilitate communication.

Personnel management in the twenty-first century involves the strategic management of personnel within a productive organizational culture. According to Dessler, strategic human resource management is the formulation and implementation of human resource policies and procedures that generate the personnel capabilities and behaviors necessary for the organization to achieve its strategic objectives (18). Essentially, people management evolves into human resource management. The roles and objectives are shifting, and the status of HR personnel is rising.

SHRM analysis and competitive advantage

Competitive advantage is comprised of the organization's resources and efforts to minimize risk and maximize possibilities for achieving the desired position. Therefore, resource-focused strategic HRM is the key to competitiveness. According to Boxall and Purcell, strategic human resource management is concerned with the strategic decisions related to the organization of work and the use of labor in organizations, and with understanding why some firms manage them more effectively than others (65). According to the notion of resource-based strategic HRM, a firm can acquire a competitive advantage by developing human resources that enable it to use its knowledge more effectively than its competitors. When competing firms are incapable of duplicating the enterprise's distinctive and effective resources, the enterprise's competitive edge will be maintained. The major characteristics of SHRM are its long-term nature, its interaction with the organization's overall strategy, and the evaluation of multiple external and internal elements that necessitate its adaptation.

SHRM entails locating, selecting, and recruiting employees that are innovative, have initiative and a high degree of contact, are prepared to take risks and are not scared of taking on responsibility. In this situation, it is essential to prevent employee turnover and preserve the core team. Human resources are one of the most important variables that can provide a corporation with a competitive advantage (Sondhi and Nirmal 2013). In order to preserve the exchange relationship, researchers explain that if a firm invests in its employees, the employees may respond with favorable attitudes and actions toward the organization (Kaifeng and Messersmith 2018). Since the end result of strategic management is the achievement of the organization's goals, the staff is given a key role in the SHRM process.

The choice of SHRM depends on a number of variables, including the life cycle of the company, its development plan, its size, and the external environment's features. Effective strategic human resource management is not possible if the work of staff consists solely of administrative duties and is limited to completing operational tasks. Personnel is frequently viewed as an expense that must be decreased, while being the company's most important resource that must be managed competently. The human aspect, which will become increasingly crucial in the future, is required to initiate strategic adjustments in the majority of situations. Managing a company's labor potential is increasingly characterized by the application of strategic HRM practices. For example, Toyota employs SHRM techniques based on a well-considered market strategy (Liker and Hoseus, 2010). An emphasis is placed on the evaluation and construction of human resources, their professional development, and the expansion of creative and organizational activity.

This boosts the organization's competitiveness, enables it to concentrate more on client needs, and adds to its survival in an increasingly competitive environment. According to Browning et al., one developing source of competitive advantage for service businesses is their employees' knowledge, abilities, and attitudes (741). In addition, the study by Faugoo demonstrates that "Indian global firms are responding to the challenges of globalization by investing in HR capabilities of the firm, by developing the knowledge base, desired skills and attitudes of the employees, which results in higher firm performance and competitive advantage" (129). Competitiveness is ensured by a high level of professionalism and competence, personal traits, and innovative and motivational potential.

Conclusion

Currently, strategic human resource management is the most essential element of a company's entire management plan. Strategic human resource management must provide opportunities through the selection of qualified persons and motivated employees in order to achieve a competitive edge. HRM seeks to satisfy the commercial requirements of the firm as well as the individual and collective demands of employees. Strategic HRM should consider the interests of all groups within a firm, including not only the owners and management, but also the employees. Employees, along with all firm resources, must be managed; it is essential not only to organize their work correctly, but also to formulate future goals. This plan must be integrated with the organization's overall objectives, primary responsibilities, and operating characteristics. A well-formed and well implemented HR strategy enables businesses to efficiently manage their staff and provides a firm platform for future growth.

Sources Cited

Peter Boxall and John Purcell. Strategy and Human Resource Management, published in 2011 by Macmillan International Higher Education.

Realizing Competitive Advantage Through HRM in New Zealand Service Industries. Browning, Vicky, et al.

The Service Industries Journal, volume 29, issue 6, pages 741-760, 2009.

Human Resource Management, 12th edition, US hardcover, Dessler, Gary, 2011.

Faugoo, Deepika. The impact of globalization on strategic human resource management, competitive advantage, and organizational success. International Review of Business Research Papers, volume 5, number 4, pages 123-133, 2009.

Kaifeng, Jiang, and Messersmith Jake. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, volume 29, issue 1, 2018, pages 6-33.

Liker, Jeffrey K., and Michael Hoseus. Human Resource Development in Toyota Culture. International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, volume 10, number 1, pages 34-50, 2010.

Academic leadership: The Online Journal, volume 7, issue 1, pages 1-15, 2009, Nadeem Malik, "Emergence of Strategic Human Resource Management: A Historical Perspective."

Human Resources Management. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies (IJHCS), volume 1, issue 4, pages 376-387, 2016.

History, Evolution, and Development of Human Resource Management: A Contemporary Perspective. Global Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 3, no. 3, 2015, pp. 58-73. Rotich, Kipkemboi Jacob.

Sondhi, Vasudha, and Prerana Singh Nirmal. A Reality Check on Strategic Human Resource Management ” Review of Management, vol. 3, no. 1/2, 2013, pp. 4-10.

[supanova question]

Impact Of International Trade On China College Application Essay Help

China has the largest population and the fastest-growing economy in the world. China's gross domestic product is expected to have increased by 9.9 percent in 2005, which is stratospheric growth for any country. It is anticipated that China's economic performance will remain strong in the future years. Inflows of foreign direct investment into China totaling $86.1 billion in 2005 and China's merchandise trade surplus rising to $102 billion in 2005 are other indicators of optimism towards China's future. (Energy Information Management)

This enormous change in China's economic future is partly attributable to the country's entry into the global market. With China's admission into the World Trade Organization and its pledge to further liberalize its market, it is anticipated that the phenomenal growth rate will persist. China has been the country most affected by trade liberalization in the 20th century, and China has also played a crucial role in defining the economics of trade and even the economics of the energy sector around the globe. (Energy information Management)

To comprehend China's progress, we must comprehend its history and the events that propelled it into the global marketplace, as well as how these events ultimately influenced its trade policy.

Early in the 20th century, foreign nations dominated the majority of China's coastline and eastern region. At that time, China's primary trading partners were the United States, England, France, Germany, and Japan. Therefore, the ports were accessible to international trade and managed by the Chinese Maritime Customs office. From the 1950s through the 1970s, China's economy was mainly closed and trade was little. During this period, the United States imposed trade penalties on China for its support of the South Korean War. This prompted China's trade links with Moscow to expand. (The Towering Heights)

Deng Xiaoping's economic reforms marked the beginning of the most significant period for China's flourishing international trade. He recommended an open-door approach for trade and investment. Special Economic Zones were established for international investment along the shore. From that point on, there was nothing that could stop China from becoming the fastest and most dangerous foreign rival. By 1985, trade accounts for twenty percent of China's gross domestic GDP.

Textiles are the nation's biggest export, followed by petroleum and food. Machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured items, and chemicals were the leading imports. Japan was China's most important trading partner at the time, followed by Hong Kong and the United States. During the 1980s and early 1990s, China decentralized and integrated itself into the global trading system. (The Towering Heights)

Between 1990 and 1995, foreign investment increased by a factor of 10. Despite the cumbersome contractual and legal restrictions inherent in China's regulations, China was able to attract a large number of investors, particularly ethnic Chinese in regions near Hong Kong and Taiwan.

China's international commerce was $353 billion in 1999. It enjoyed a trade surplus of $36 billion. During this time period, China's trading partners included Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Germany, Singapore, Russia, and the Netherlands. China and the United States reached a bilateral market access deal in 1999, which prepared the path for China's entry into the World Trade Organization. In the year 2000, China signed a bilateral WTO agreement with the European Union and other trading partners and commenced work on a multilateral WTO membership package.

China devised a policy to stimulate the creation of factories that combined imported components into consumer items for export in order to improve its export volume. Bill Clinton sanctioned a permanent trading partnership between the United States and China, and he signed the China Trade Relations Act of 2000. Shanghai held the annual APEC leaders conference from 2001 to 2003. China became a permanent and influential WTO member after 2001. China has reduced several taxes and regulations since it became a permanent member to demonstrate its cooperation, but there are still significant claims that China is manipulating its currency.

However, China's exports have become more diverse, and China's imports from all countries, particularly Asia, where China plays an increasingly significant role in regional specialization, have increased in tandem with China's market penetration in industrialized nations (Thomas, Rumbagh, Nicholas, Blancher). Its export share to industrial economies has expanded and become more diverse than ever before. China has also assumed a significant role in the Asian Regional economy.

Vertical specialization has made it significant in terms of the volume of imports from that region into China. China's inclusion into the global economic system has been facilitated by the trade reforms and pledges undertaken as part of its WTO membership. These reforms involve a large reduction in tariffs and the elimination of the majority of non-tariff obstacles.

From an initial significant reliance on textiles and other light industry, China's exports have diversified. Light manufacturing accounted for more than forty percent of China's exports in the early 1990s. This comprised footwear, apparel, toys, and several other manufactured goods. The exports were dominated by manufactured items (mostly textiles), machinery, and transport vehicles (small electronics).

China has made significant progress in other export categories in recent years, including more advanced electronics (office machines and automated data processing, equipment, telecommunication, sound equipment, and electrical machinery), furniture, travel items, and industrial supplies. Statistics show that the share of electronics manufacturing climbed from 17% in 1993 to 41% in 2003, while the share of other manufacturing decreased from 42% to 28%. (Thomas, Rumbagh, Nicholas, and Blancher).

Indicators also reveal a notable dispersion and overall growth in exports. For instance, according to specific U.S. import data, there was a large increase in diversification between 1990 and 2000 at both the 2-digit and 3-digit levels, based on changes in China's percentage of U.S. imports (Table 6). (Thomas, Nicholas, Rumbagh, Blancher)

A smaller number suggests greater diversity (i.e. less dispersion in shares). The categories 6, 7, and 8 correspond, respectively, to fundamental manufacturing, machinery and transportation, and miscellaneous manufacturing. Coefficient of dispersion (standard deviation relative to sample mean). Herfindahl index (sum of squared export shares).

New difficulties that have arisen as a result of China's rapid economic growth have primarily involved energy constraints. China's energy demand is increasing rapidly. EIA (Energy Information Administration) forecasts that China's oil consumption would increase by about 500,000 barrels per day in 2006, accounting for 38% of the global increase in oil demand. China is now the third largest net importer of oil in the world, after the United States and Japan. The competition to acquire access to oil is intensifying, and the stakes are quite high.

Even though China's GDP growth has been nothing short of remarkable, it has been uneven. Coastal urban regions have possibly undergone the most rapid economic expansion. As strong growth rates persist, the government has taken steps to moderately decelerate the economy to a tolerable rate. In August 2006, the central bank increased interest rates by 0.27 percent and reserve requirements for commercial banks by 0.5%. The government's intention in implementing these restrictions was to reduce the money supply in an effort to cool the economy.

China also suffers widespread international criticism for the devaluation of its currency. In July 2005, China decoupled its currency, the renmimbi, from the US dollar, resulting in an initial devaluation of 2.1%. Currently, the renminbi fluctuates within a limited range of 0.3% versus the basket of currencies of China's key trading partners. Clearly, the devaluation allowed Chinese goods to become cheaper and more appealing on the foreign market, consequently causing an uproar.

There have been other charges made against China. A Times Magazine piece drew attention to the fact that, as a result of China's vast production and import, it has become nearly difficult to maintain adequate quality control. The huge quality of items that enter the United States is unrestricted by regulation or lawsuits, until the current public outcry over a few incidences that shed attention on this issue.

Bibliography

2007 Web publication of “Energy Information Administration”

Times, 2007. Web. Thottam, Jyotti. "The Growing Dangers of China Trade."

"Commanding Heights," Web site, 2007.

Thomas, Rumbagh and Nicholas Blacher “ China: International Trade and WTO Accession” IMF Working Paper, IMF.

[supanova question]

Researching Of Toyota’s Organizational Politics College Application Essay Help

What patterns have you observed in corporate behavior? How have these developments affected your business?

Lately, corporate executives have begun to recognize the effects of organizational behavior on the financial and social performance of their organizations. As of late, the world is recovering from the global financial crisis; with the emergence of the potential effects of globalization, Toyota Motor Corporation in the United States, 2008 called a staff meeting to alert the staff about the crisis; since then, the behavior of staffs has changed significantly. The revelation is believed to have prompted cautious operations and sensitivity among employees. Staff members are cautious in their decision-making because they fear being laid off. Individually and collectively, employees are working hard to find a solution to the company's problems; new employees are coached and mentored to ensure they adopt comparable organizational behavior. The corporation is diverting from leader-managed teams to goal-oriented teams as a result of the challenging business environment it is currently facing.

Employees have become more accountable and responsible for their actions as a result of the change in organizational behavior to some form of individualism and improved efficiency to ensure that at least one employee is retained in the company. This has resulted in an improved business and self-motivated employees, none of whom are willing to risk losing their career jobs.

Do you believe that your organization is a learning organization?

Why are you asking?

I consider Toyota, United States to be a learning environment because the managers are knowledgeable and willing to achieve goals and organizations through their human resources, training and career development in the company are accomplished through formal and informal training, and there are frequent programs designed to provide employees with information that will help them make sound decisions. For instance, in the sales and marketing department where I work, the company has mentorship and coaching programs focused at enhancing the knowledge and skills of the employees; these programs are geared for certain individuals and groups within the organization.

The corporation encourages employees to attend regular work-related courses at domestic and foreign colleges. On the other hand, they have their own training school in Chicago called the Toyota Technological Institute that, among other things, serves as a breeding ground for personnel. It has a policy that allows graduates with diverse backgrounds appropriate to the specific assignment to join and advance within the organization. By providing a demanding environment in which staff members are encouraged to engage in decision-making, the organization can be deemed to have embraced a second learning strategy. Human resources learn more strategies and are enlightened in various ways during the decision-making procedure.

Toyota US recruits from all over the world; this provides a rich diversity training environment. The diversity in perspectives and cultural backgrounds of the personnel has contributed to the company's success, particularly in the field of innovation. The university grants scholarships to those with talent, particularly in the motor and design of the motor vehicle. This is a purposeful effort to continuously improve its operations (Toyota Motor Company corporate website, 2011).

How has globalization affected your business? What initiatives may a company take to increase its global competitiveness?

Globalization has resulted in the integration of nations; businesses are now able to market and sell their products in nations distant from their country of incorporation. Similarly, there are a lot of companies operating in the United States vehicle market on the local market. In the United States and everywhere in the world, Toyota faces an expanding market and growing competition. Due to the intense competition and increased consumer expectations, the company must have policies and plans that enable it to operate effectively in the dynamic market.

On the other side, governments have collaborated on policies related to global governance, including environmental legislation and labor laws.

To remain competitive in a globalized environment, Toyota has devised ways to increase its competitiveness; the following are the most important tactics.

To sell its products and services abroad, the company must adopt an integrated Communication marketing strategy (MARCOM); MARCOM is a marketing strategy that combines multiple marketing tactics into a single, successful strategy to combat competition. Developing an effective advertising strategy, adopting a personal selling strategy when appropriate, establishing solid public relations, and utilizing direct marketing are the areas that the plan focuses on.

Product differentiation: the company has continued to improve its goods in order to increase its competitiveness. In response to environmental concerns, the corporation has developed "green cars."

The organization has begun to implement its operational strategies, which include Kaizen (continuous improvement), teamwork, challenges, and respect, as well as Genchi Genbutsu (go and see).

How has technology altered your business? What efforts has your organization made to assist employees in adapting to technological changes?

Changes in the company's processes and products have resulted from advances in technology; different degrees of technology have been adapted depending on the age of the technology. There is a research section whose mission is to implement the Genchi Genbutsu policy (go and see). This component is tasked with conducting a market analysis and coming up with recommendations to improve the services. As the corporation performed this responsibility, the issue of technology arose, and it was necessary to implement the modification. In addition to merely implementing, it initiated a long-term policy to guarantee continuity. The company's early automobiles, designated A1 and G1, were high-fuel-consumption passenger vehicles. The vehicles were modeled manually. Due to computer-aided modeling, the market is currently flooded with models. We have always heard about the new Toyota X model. This demonstrates how they consistently enhance their products to remain competitive in the global market. The corporation has also increased the fuel efficiency of its automobiles. This has been a continuous process, and in the 1980s, the company received a Japanese Quality Control award for its advancements, particularly in the fuel section. Currently, the corporation has developed EMV automobiles in order to benefit from efforts against environmental pollution. Internally, the corporation has embraced computerized labor systems utilizing robots; the move is attributed to the technology's efficacy and reasonable costs.

In an effort to increase the usage and acceptance of technology by its employees, the corporation undertakes frequent coaching and mentoring programs. The workshops are designed to aid employees in comprehending the current technology and appreciating the benefits it is likely to offer to the firm. The corporation manages every technical breakthrough and development as a transition process (Toyota Motor Company corporate website, 2011).

Learning overview

The course has made obvious the necessity for a company to have a positive corporate culture that encourages innovation and creation. Human and physical resources are necessary for the successful functioning of an organization; leaders are responsible for creating teams that are focused on achieving corporate goals and objectives; to do so, they require a positive organizational culture that fosters team learning and development. As communication inside an organization is vital to achieving its goals and objectives, leaders should be at the forefront of involving their subordinates in decision-making and policy creation. These actions are likely to build employee confidence and improve company settings characterized by enhanced human relations. Technology development and adoption should be one of an organization's policies, as it leads to product differentiation and increased customer satisfaction.

When designing frameworks and policies, managers should take into account the diversity of human resources; they should also build task performance and interpersonal connection developments, as these actions will foster productive team learning environments. When resolving conflicts in a firm that promotes diversity, managers must be culturally savvy in order to make sound judgments. Visionary leaders are actively involved in the internal and external group dynamics of their teams; effective teams do not arise by default.

Reference

Corporate website for Toyota Motor Company (2011). Toyota. Web.

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Fruit Juice Company’s Marketing And Sales Strategy College Application Essay Help

Table of Contents
Summary of the Company's Target Market Company's Market Rivalry Message from the Organization The Marketing Methods Must Be Employed to Establish the Company's Brand Marketing Budget References in Section 2

Abstract

This paper presents a detailed marketing plan and sales strategy for a company in Waldorf, Maryland that plans to produce and sell mixed fruit juice. The location chosen is suitable in terms of climate and population density. Waldorf, which has a population of about 60,000, will provide the essential customer base for the company's products. Through product differentiation and efficient promotion and marketing techniques, the company will obtain a competitive edge despite the presence of other market participants. Customers and potential prospects will be engaged through the company's website, mailing list, and social media platforms such as Facebook, LinkedIn, YouTube, and Twitter. These channels are preferred because they can simultaneously contact a huge number of individuals.

Target market of the company

This company's target market consists of children and adults of any age, with annual household incomes of up to $90,000. Waldorf, Maryland residents are also included. This company sells mixed fruit juice in Waldorf, Maryland, and the surrounding areas. Waldorf has a strong pace of population growth, making it an ideal market for this product. In 2000, the population of the region was 22,312; by 2010, that number had increased to 67,755. Consequently, the population increased by 203.7% from 2000 to 2010 (CensuViewe, 2010). In 2013, the median family income in Waldorf, Maryland was $84,930. As such, middle-income earners are the target market. Regarding age, the company will target both the young and the elderly. This is due to the fact that the median age of Waldorf residents is 35.6 years. This criteria is based on the fact that mixed fruit juice is appropriate for all age groups. In addition, people of either gender can consume mixed fruit juice, therefore the company targets both females and guys in Waldorf, Maryland and the surrounding areas. In 2013, there were 31,171 males and 36,581 females in Waldorf.

Company's Market Rivalry

Competition is now a typical issue to examine when contemplating the launch of a business because it affects the techniques that a company will employ to achieve a competitive advantage over its rivals (Abrams, 2003; Argote &amp; Ingram, 2000). Due to the increasing demand for non-alcoholic beverages, this company is anticipated to confront intense competition in the market for non-alcoholic beverages. In terms of retail shelf space and consumer acceptance, the company will compete with other companies selling comparable beverages.

The corporation will specifically face direct and indirect competition from alternative beverage industries. This company will face competition in Waldorf, Maryland, from a number of juice and smoothie companies. Tropical Smoothie Café, Orange Julius, and Tropicana Products Inc. are some of the rivals.

Despite this, the corporation has a competitive edge due to a variety of variables, which are described below. For instance, it will ensure that its operations have a minimal budget by utilizing online retailers and social media channels to market its products to its target consumers. Such an approach will be significant because the corporation will obtain a pricing advantage over its competitors.

This company will sell fresh fruit-based items at affordable prices. Effective customer relationships will ensure that customers' problems are effectively addressed in order to create and preserve their confidence. Regarding the current market position, there are additional market participants with extensive company experience. Tropicana and Tropical Juice Inc. are well-established juice manufacturers. These businesses have a substantial cash base and extensive industry expertise, leaving just a limited portion of the market for new entrants. Therefore, the company must employ effective market entry tactics in order to survive the fierce competition from the industry leaders.

Important competitive strategy is product differentiation (Abrams, 2003; Cellini &amp; Lambertini, 2002). In order to obtain a competitive advantage, this company will focus on the product differentiation strategy. In this situation, the market leaders are solely focused on the manufacture of orange juice. As a result, offering a variety of fruit juice blends will provide an option to the fruit juices sold by the majority of market leaders in Waldorf, Maryland.

Message from the Organization

The message a firm delivers to its clients about its services and products has a significant impact on their purchasing decisions (David &amp; David, 2014). Therefore, it is essential to ensure that the message to be sent corresponds with the wants and demands of the target clients for a certain product or service. In the case of this company, the motivation of the target market will be influenced by the functions, finances, and sentiments of the customers regarding the characteristics of the mixed fruit juice they are offered.

Functions: quenches thirst Costs: quench your thirst at reasonable rates Leaves you without thirst and feeling cool You will want to drink more in the future.

Each of the aforementioned messages is essential for encouraging the target market to purchase. Consequently, the company will express its messages to consumers via the business name, tagline, keywords in marketing materials, product design, corporate logo, packaging, and interior design, among other components of the business.

Name: Thirst Quencher Juicy Organizations Fruit juice that quenches your thirst; slogan. In marketing materials, the keywords mixed fruit juice, quench thirst, and fresh fruits are used.

The Marketing Methods Must Be Employed to Establish the Company's Brand

The success of communicating the targeted message to customers in order to create the company's brand will be attained via the use of appropriate marketing vehicles. Several market vehicles can be utilized in the branding of a corporation. Websites, Search Engine Optimization, email newsletters, blogs, social media, and other online advertising platforms are examples of such marketing vehicles. In this instance, the business will utilize a website, email newsletters, and social networking platforms to attract and engage consumers and prospects.

Initially, the company will have a business website that will aid in product promotion. The fundamental objective of establishing a company website is to add credibility to the firm so that consumers have access to all brand-related information before making a purchase choice. Additionally, the website will enhance the business's legitimacy by serving as a source of client confidence.

In addition, weekly and monthly email newsletters will be distributed to engage with consumers and potential prospects. These newsletters will feature all pertinent information regarding the company's product and the market advantages it possesses. Customers who visit the company's website will be prompted to sign up for the company's newsletters in order to get promotional material and other offers through email.

Thirdly, the company's social media pages will be accessible in order to expand its consumer base. LinkedIn, YouTube, Twitter, and Facebook are four of the most prominent social media networks to examine. The selection of these social media platforms is based on their big following, which makes them ideal for drawing a large number of clients. With the growth of information technology, many individuals around the world have turned to internet platforms in order to research products and services before deciding what to purchase (Mangold &amp; Faulds, 2009). This trend implies that businesses can use technology in the form of social media platforms to gather and establish a pool of potential clients (Divol, Edelman, &amp; Sarrazin, 2012). Coca-Cola is an example of a firm that uses social media platforms to engage its customers, as evidenced by its "Share a Coke" campaign.

The combination of these three strategies will ensure that the company builds an exceptionally big client base for the purpose of promoting its products and other relevant information (Vorhies &amp; Morgan, 2005). In the end, the corporation will be able to achieve its goal of establishing a powerful brand in the marketplace.

Budget for Marketing in Section 2

A marketing budget is essential for any organization because it details the company's costs over a certain time period. The following table provides an outline of the budget proposal.

References

Abrams, R. (2003). The successful business plan: techniques and secrets (4th ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Planning Shop.

Argote, L., & Ingram, P. (2000). Knowledge transfer is the foundation for organizations' competitive advantage. 82(1), 150-169, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

Cellini, R., &amp; Lambertini, L. (2002). A differential game method to product diversification investment. 27(1), 51-62, Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control.

CensuViewe (2010). Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, and Quick Facts for Waldorf, Maryland from CensusViewer (2016). Censusviewer.com. Web.

David, F., & David, F. R. (2014). A competitive advantage methodology, concepts, and cases for strategic management (15th ed.). Pearson, New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Divol, R., Edelman, D., & Sarrazin, H. (2012). McKinsey Quarterly, 2(12), 66-77, "Demystifying social media"

Mangold, W. G., & Faulds, D. J. (2009). The social media is the new hybrid component of the marketing mix. Business Horizons, 52(4), pages 357 to 365.

Vorhies, D. W., & Morgan, N. A. (2005). Comparing marketing capabilities for a competitive edge that is sustainable. Marketing Journal, 69(1), 80-94.

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Quality Management: Business Ethics College Application Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Introduction to quality administration Organizational morality Ethics from the standpoint of quality management Conclusion References

Introduction

There is a great deal of literature on how firms might enhance their operations to become more competitive. Diverse authors have proposed ideas that, in general, outline how firms can achieve optimal performance. In recent years, many organizations, both public and private, have made efforts to establish initiatives targeted at enhancing the quality of their operations and relationships, such as quality management, quality circles, and empowerment, which have garnered considerable attention (Geuras and Garofalo, 2005, p.307).

Schminke (1998, p.115) argues that the vast research conducted in the field of maintaining organizational integrity has not been integrated into business, education, and management practice, despite the fact that the research findings literature is beneficial to practicing managers. Moreover, the concepts of ethics development and quality management have been neglected to such an extent that they only emerge when major problems befall companies or when they become global disasters (Schminke, 1998, p.115); in fact, when such crises occur, the middle managers and the technical experts are typically tasked with finding a solution. Schminke (1998, p.115) argues that businesses do not need to wait for the worst to occur; rather, they need an integrated strategic leadership that continuously improves organizational integrity and quality systems to impact their reciprocal advantages.

Many firms have incorporated ethics into their quality management duties, recognizing the significance of organization development and the necessity for quality improvement. Therefore, this study will focus mostly on analyzing the notion of ethics in quality management in the context of the organization.

Introduction to quality administration

Companies continue to play an important ethical role in contemporary society (Malachowski, 2001, p.1). Modern society continues to endure a dynamic corporate environment, which has necessitated the dynamic management of most firms (Stahl and Grigsby, 1997, p.2). According to Lauuisset (2009), firms continue to implement numerous programs and approaches to improve their global performance; as a result, overall quality management rules and practices are deeply ingrained in organizational mindsets (p1). According to the writers, the primary responsibility of business managers is to keep the organization in contact with the external world. "With such close contact, the manager is prepared to capitalize on opportunities and avoid threats in the external environment; consequently, effective managers must link the organization to its environment and then direct internal activities to maximize external opportunities and minimize external threats" (Stahl and Grigsby, 1997, p.2). Japan and the majority of Western European nations, for instance, have expanded their new technology and other forms of industrial capital.

Countries have developed new management systems based on the concepts of comprehensive quality management in order to successfully function and achieve outcomes. These systems have raised the quality and decreased the costs of products and services (Stahl and Grigsby, 1997, p.3). Total quality management (TQM) is "the system approach to management that aims to continuously improve customer value by designing and continuously improving organizational processes and systems" (Stahl and Grigsby, 1997, p. 3). In many firms, TQM has involved the majority of employees and functions both backward and forward, encompassing the supply chain and the customer chain (Stahl and Grigsby, 1997, p.3). Moreover, TQM is concerned with managing the entire system, as opposed to subsystems or functional departments. In this context, systems are the collections of processes and resources, whereas processes are groups of activities that take an output, add value to it, and then deliver it to an internal or external customer (Stahl and Grigsby, 1997, p.12). Gilks (1990, p.1) suggests that total quality programs must be tailored to their specific characteristics; he identifies six essential elements that characterize successful TQ programs in all industries, regardless of their nature: "customer focus, meeting company commitments, being involved in process management, ensuring the elimination of waste, initiating employee empowerment, and being committed to continuous improvement" (Gilks, 1990, p.1).

Edwards Deming presented a fourteen-point model to illustrate the notion of quality management. His method was highly influenced by the business world, and the points outline the technical procedures that adopt a philosophical stance (American College of Medical Quality, 2005, p. 3). The 14 philosophical interventions that, according to Deming, should be the focus of company managers are: create consistency of purpose; adopt a new philosophy; cease dependence on inspection; cease awarding business on the basis of price alone; improve continuously and forever; institute training and retraining on the job; adopt an institute leadership; drive out fear; break down barriers between staff members; eliminate slogans, exhortations, targets for the workplace; eliminate slogans, exhortations, targets for the workplace; eliminate slogans, exhortations, targets (American College of Medical Quality, 2005, p. 3). These factors define the scope of quality management.

In their analysis of the quality management in a company, Gardner and Cariopio (1996) stated that a growing number of companies are implementing quality management programmes with the goal of enhancing corporate performance, and that when an organization is in the process of initiating a quality program, its primary objective is to enhance product and service quality. Such improvement programs may include incorporating employees in the organizational decision-making process, empowering and training staff, as well as focusing more on organizational processes and using data gathering and analysis tools more frequently (Gardner and Cariopio, 1996). Consequently, what is noticed now is a rise in firms' approaches and initiatives to establish attainable objectives. Nevertheless, according to Ron (2002), "setting a goal is one thing, but sticking to the game plan is another; staying on track to implement an effective quality management system (QMS) requires a corporate culture change more than a technical transformation, and the benefits the organization realizes once there are real and tangible." Consequently, a good system will create both profit increases and increased customer happiness for the business.

Organizational morality

Today, numerous groups are concerned with business ethics and corporate social responsibility (Lamberti and Lettieri, 2009). Ethics is "the systematic attempt to make sense of individual, group, organizational, professional, social, market, and global moral experience in order to determine the desirable, prioritized ends that are worth pursuing, the right rules and obligations that ought to govern human conduct, and the virtuous intentions and character traits that deserve development in life, and to act accordingly" (Petrick and Quinn, 1997, p. 42). Simplified, ethics is the study of individual and communal moral consciousness, judgment, character, and behaviour. Indeed, modern organizations, particularly business-oriented ones, are embracing ethics at their operational sites and advancing rapidly.

Management ethics is the descriptive and normative study of moral consciousness, judgment, character, and behaviour at all levels of managing activity (Petrick and Quinn, 1997, p. 44; Spencer, 2000, p.5). In addition, Petrick and Manning (1990) note that "organizational ethics has become an essential component of the business strategy, product quality, and service image of any company that wishes to be taken seriously in the marketplace." Lastly, they highlight the great quality of life within these groups. Moreover, the writers recognize the significance of organizational integrity, which they define as the expression and adherence to organization-specific value concepts (Petrick and Manning, 1990).

Nielsen, however, believes that in order to comprehend organizational ethics phenomena, a detailed grasp of organizational activities in the real world is necessary (Nielsen, 2009, p.1). Further, Sekerka, Bagozzi, and Charnigo (2009, p.1) state that many organizational ethics scholars have in the past acknowledged the need to encourage the development of moral strength in the workplace, and that this requires more than the typical reinvention of programs, policies, and penalties; thus, organizations must adopt a behavioral shift that requires a revolution of character and a reintroduction of personal conscience, responsibility, and values. The author regrets that most firms rely on a penalty-based approach rather than fostering moral fortitude in the workplace (Sekerka, Bagozzi and Charnigo, 2009, p.1).

The most frequently asked question is who can implement business ethics. Recent study has shown, however, that in the majority of organizations, top managers are crucial to the successful management of ethics, and hence their perspectives on organization ethics are quite significant (Anonymous, 2008). It has been determined that senior managers are more likely than junior employees to portray a positive perception of organizational ethics. This is partially due to the fact that the seniors identify with the organization more than the juniors, and also because their role as managers requires them to protect the organization's reputation more than the juniors can (Anonymous, 2008). However, Murchland (2008) provides a thorough view and study of corporate culture when he claims that the corporation is structured on "five dimensions of corporate stories, including the cultural, interpersonal, organizational, civic, and environmental." In addition, any intended implementation of ethics within the organization must include these key characteristics. Murchland (2008) is determined that as the organization pursues its mission of meeting basic necessities, it must also ensure that human rights are upheld and respected. Brandt (2007) emphasizes the nature of business in relation to ethics by claiming that "the ethical issues in organizational behavior have become more apparent in recent years, particularly with the emergence of a more explicit market approach." Moreover, the business and other organizations must take into account the business's internally and externally well-defined values and other moral views. In addition, Brandt (2007) illustrates the ethical tension that exists in many firms as a result of pressure, and he cautions that the pressure should not deter enterprises from providing quality services and cutting expenses.

Emanuel (2000), referenced in Wall (2007), page 2, concludes that "moral demand exists not only on the individual, but also on organizations, systems, and institutions." In addition, organizations can have moral obligations despite not being alive, because structures contain interactions and organizations become alive when they come into existence. Consequently, "morality is focused on what we owe each other, what we owe institutions, and what institutions owe us" (Wall, 2007, p.2). From this, it can be argued that an organization ethics framework enables organizations to be other-focused by focusing on economic, political, and social challenges (Wall, 2007, p.2).

Ethics from the standpoint of quality management

"Quality affects every aspect of our lives; even if we are not always conscious of it, there are professionals everywhere ensuring the quality of products and services" (Anonymous, 2010). To date, the term quality has received a variety of definitions based on what constitutes quality. For instance, IBM has used the term "market-driven quality" to refer to programs aimed at achieving overall customer satisfaction (Duggan and Reichgelt, 2006, p.30). Crosby (1979) defined quality as "user requirements conformance" (cited in Duggan and Reichgelt, 2006, p.30). Quality is described by Naagarazan (2005) as "productivity, competitive costs, on-time delivery, and customer satisfaction," whereas Watts (1990) examined the topic of quality in the software business and defined quality as "achieving excellent levels of fitness for use" (Duggan and Reichgelt, 2006, p.30). In recent years, however, ISO 9001 has defined quality as "the extent to which a set of inherent characteristics meets the requirements" (Duggan and Reichgelt, 2006, p.30). The American National Standard Institute (ANSI) and the American Society for Quality (ASQ) defined quality in 1978 as "the totality of a product's or service's features and characteristics that contribute to its ability to meet specified needs" (cited in; Schminke, 1998, p.117).

Quality management consists of three fundamental processes: quality planning, quality control, and quality enhancement (Duggan and Reichgelt, 2006, p.35). In many organizations, the issue of quality has become important to the Code of ethics, with ethics considered as the supreme ringmaster who maintains the participants within the circle of quality standards (Al-Assaf and Schmele, 1993). Chryssides and Kaler (1993, p. 3) state that in the recent past, there has been a great deal of interest in business ethics, which has been accelerated by the total quality management (TQM) and that TQM is a concept that requires organizations to define in advance what kind of quality is acceptable within the firm and especially to ensure the use of appropriate systems that will ensure the existence of a predetermined standard of quality. Moreover, the TQM has a double impact on company ethics: The first consequence is the need to define the level of quality that must be maintained, compelling management to consider in great detail what is acceptable to the consumer at the end of the process and to answer questions such as: do consumers want a durable product or will they be satisfied with a cheap one? Consequently, such concerns generate issues regarding the quality of goods and services, and consumer interests cannot be ignored (Chryssides and Kaler, 1993, p.3). The second consequence is that management is necessary to develop and strictly codify acceptable procedures. This results in the establishment of codes of practice that elaborate on what management expects of employees at all stages of the production process, as well as what employees