Critical Review II – The Dependency Theory

Latin American countries have always been exposed to western influence. With its neo-liberalist stance the west encourages Latin America to open up its trade and cooperate with the west. During the 1960s many countries wanted to keep Western influence outside because they were convinced that this would negatively influence their development. A consequence of this attitude was the development of a theory that criticized the western liberalist stance; the dependency theory. Dependency theory criticizes western modernity. This critical stance can be explained by the fact that Latin America is historically exposed to the political, economic, cultural and intellectual influence of the US and its recurrent attempt to diminish US domination (Tickner 2008:736). The region, being part of the non-core, wants their understanding of global realities to be explored. (Tickner 2003b). However, the theory has been influenced by the west and thereby has lost strength. Moreover, its empirical validity has been questioned. For the above mentioned reasons the theory is hardly used anymore. It should not be forgotten, however, that the theory has some qualities which do contribute to the field of international relations. First this essay will discuss the post-colonial argument that dependency theory is not critical enough and gives an explanation why the theory is Eurocentric. Afterwards it will discuss its empirical validity and finally it addresses the theory its contribution to the field of international relations. Dependency theory originated in the 1960s in Latin America. Frank, the leading theorist, argues that due to the capitalist system, developing countries are underdeveloped and development is impossible as long as they remain in the capitalist system (Frank 1969). Opposed to Frank, Cardoso and Faletto argue that development is possible despite structural determination and that the local state has an important role, they call it associated dependent development ((1979:xi). Yet, both Frank and Cardoso and Falleto eventually argue that dependency paths need to be broken by constructing paths toward socialism. The dependency theorists are thus critical of Western liberalism. As mentioned above, dependency theory attempts to criticize western-modernity. Post-colonialism, however, argues that dependency theory is not counter-modernist and not critical enough. Post-colonial theorists, in contrast to many conventional theorists, state that attention to colonial origins is needed to get a better understanding of the expansion of the world order (Seth 2011). Dependency theory does pay attention to its colonial origins. For example, Frank argues that dependency occurred historically through slavery and colonialism and continues today through western dominance of the international trading system, the practices of multinational companies and the LDC’s reliance on Western aid (Frank 1969). However, post-colonialism does criticize the way how dependency theorists address the colonial origins. The first critique stems from the fact that the homogenizing and incorporating world historical scheme of dependency ignores, domesticates, or transcends difference. It does not take into account the differences in histories, cultures and peoples (Said, 1985: 22).The second critique stems from the fact that to get a sufficient understanding of the emergence of the modern international system, it should not be examined how an international society that developed in the West radiated outwards, but rather the ways in which international society was shaped by interactions between Europe and those it colonized. (Seth 2011:174). Pos-colonalists, however, argue that dependency theory is Eurocentric. Dependency theorists are not aware of the way in which culture frames their own analysis. While trying to look at imperialism from the perspective of the periphery, dependistas fail to do this (Kapoor 2002:654). For dependistas the ‘centre’ continues to be central and dominant so that the West ends up being consolidated as sovereign subject. Dependency’s ethnocentrism appears in its historical analysis as well. Dependistas use the way how capitalism developed in Europe as a universal model that stands for history and see developing countries as examples of failed or dependent capitalism. (Kapoor 2002:654) Post colonialism thus would argue that while challenging the current capitalist system, dependency theory is not critical enough because it does not adequately address history and culture and is Eurocentric. Tickner (2008) may provide an explanation of why dependency theory is not critical enough and why it is described in terms of adherence to the capitalist system dominated by the west. IR thinking in Latin America is influenced by -among other things- US intellectual knowledge. As Tickner argues, dependency theory is not a genuine non-core theory but it is influenced by US analysts. According to Cardoso (1977) this led to severe distortions in its original contents because it local internal problems of greatest concern to social scientists in Latin America became invisible and external factors such as US intervention and multinational corporations were prioritized. Furthermore, IR thinking in that region has been influenced by conventional theories. For example, through the influence of realism in Latin America, much attention was paid to the role of the elite and furthermore, theorists were concerned with the concept of power but replaced it with a more suitable concept autonomy (Tickner 2008:742).Thus the influence of US IR knowledge and conventional theories may have contributed to the fact that dependency theory is not critical enough and has lost its influence. Although post-colonialism addresses dependency’s problem – that is does not sufficiently addresses culture because of its sole focus on capitalism – it should be noted that not only culture is not taken into account but a whole range of other factors which could help explain underdevelopment are left out the theory as well. This shortcoming clarifies why dependency theory is empirical invalid.For example, dependency does not address local, physical, social or political forces that might have had a role in the inability to generate industrial development and does not acknowledge that imperialism is only partly responsible for underdevelopment (Smith 1981). As Smith argues; ”dependency theory exaggerates the explanatory power of economic imperialism as a concept to make sense of historical change in the south” (1981:757). Smith rightly points out that in some instances dependistas do recognize the influence of local circumstances but this is only so to reaffirm ultimately the overriding power of economic imperialism. Moreover, the theory does not pay any attention to the positive effects that the contact with the international system can provide for developing countries. Thus, dependistas solely look at economic power and state that as long as countries remain part of the international capitalist system development is impossible. The only way to escape is to isolate from this system or if the colonizer relinquishes political power. (Kapoor 656) However, South-Korea’s development shows the invalidity of this argument. South-Korea experienced rapid growth during the 1970s despite its dependency on the US. The case of South-Korea shows that development is possible despite dependency and that dependency can have positive effects. Another case which shows dependency’s invalidity is Ghana. During the 1980s Ghana adopted dependency policies that were consistent with the denial of the relevance of the western economic principles and tried to keep western influence outside. However, instead of bringing prosperity and greater independence for the Ghanasian economy, these policies caused poverty and greater dependence on international aid or charity (Ahiakpor 1985:13). The dependency policies did not support Ghana’s development because it only focused on capitalism without taking other factors into account. The theory thus has significant shortcomings which explains its loss of influence. However, it should be noted that the theory has some qualities as well. Despite its homogenizing and Eurocentric history, the theory is aware that history is an important factor. The advantage of dependency’s structural-historical perspective is that broad patterns and trends can be recognized. Moreover, it allows one to learn from past mistakes to change the future (Kapoor 2002:660). On top of that, as Wallerstein argues ”One of the crucial insights and contributions of dependency is the conceptualization of the unicity of the world system” (1974:3). It clearly describes how the world is incorporated in the capitalist system and it shows the importance of economic considerations on political issues. Furthermore, it addresses the importance of local elites and foreign companies to the internal affairs of weak states whereby it provides an analytical framework. (Smith 1981:756). For example, Cardoso and Faletto argue that if there is no strong local state, the ruling elite may ally themselves with foreign companies pursuing their own interests and this way upholding dependency and underdevelopment. This analysis is applicable to Congo and shows for example that Congo’s development is restrained because a strong local state is absent and the local elite allies with foreign companies pursuing their own interests (Reno 2006). In short, dependency theory has lost influence because – from a post-colonial perspective – it is not counter-modernist and not critical enough. It does not adequately address history and culture and is Eurocentric. Moreover, it is empirically invalid because it solely focuses on capitalism without taking other factors into account. In contrast to what dependistas argue, dependent development is possible within the capitalist system and the proposed isolation from this system may even worsen the economy instead of bringing prosperity. However, the theory did influence foreign policymakers and analysts not only in Latin America but also in Africa between the 1960s and the 1980s and it is still useful because it provides an analytical framework on which other analysts can elaborate.

Natural or organic solidarity

Emile Durkheim, a French anthropologist in the late nineteenth and mid twentieth centuries, became absolutely fascinated with the thought of ‘what is it that binds human beings together in communities both large and small’ (Crandall 9). To answer this inquiry, he created the idea of social solidarity. This was to be made out of two subdivisions: natural or organic solidarity, taking into account the thought of common reliance and dependence on others to make a community function, and mechanical solidarity, in which every group produces and contributes what is important for survival (Crandall 9-11). Emile Durkheim’s social solidarity applies to numerous societies. We can see this illustrated in Elizabeth Fernea’s Guests of the Sheik. In the city of El Nahra, Iraq, social hindrances between the many groups’including the sheiks family, the vagabonds, and the womenfolk’make it troublesome for these groups of people to interact efficiently. This solidarity made it troublesome for Fernea to make genuine associations and relationships with these people, butt through a cognizant push to respect social conventions and traditions, she finds herself able to unite with them.

In the ethnography, Guests of the Sheik composed by Elizabeth Fernea, the Sheiks family, particularly the ladies, are a pervasive group inside the town of El Nahra. These ladies, additionally portrayed as the group of concubines, are all the wives and girls of the Sheik. Living respectively in a little compound, they illlustrate Emile Durkheim’s rule of mechanical solidarity. The ladies do not depend on each other to give everything key to survival in light of the fact that they are given these necessities through the Sheik and other individuals in the town. Rather, family ties, and their marriage to the Sheik predic

ament them. This solidarity was not picked by the women seeing that they didn’t decide to be bound together as a family, subsequently debilitating the union. However, they have been able to work together and cooperate.

The relationship of these women is rather complex, where age and wisdom do not determine the hierarchy. The Sheik leads the harem, however the female with the most power among them is Selma, who received this position by being most loved wife of the Sheik. The other women show their respect for Selma. Her leadership within the group is illustrated when Fernea is ushered in by the women when she first visits the harem. She was led by the women to Selma, where she was finally greeted (Fernea 28). This illustration diagrams the fundamental structure of the harem, and relates to Durkheim’s model of mechanical solidarity, as there is generally a leader in a group who makes the rules. This unity creates a force that keeps the family together, fortifying the solidarity between the women.

Women in El Nahra make up their own social group. Because of social convictions, ladies are not permitted to associate with obscure men, making a social hindrance between the sexes. Fernea does not comprehend this at the beginning, and is irritated when a lady pulls her abayah over her face as she and her spouse pass. She inquired as to whether this was on account of the women feeling that she had been hostile, and Bob clarified, ”The women always seem to cover their faces quickly when caught unawares by strange men’ (Fernea 25). The abayah that they wear create barriers between the men and the women. A black veil is a social custom and is an indication of humility and ethical quality. ”They say an uncovered woman is an immoral woman’. The tribesmen ask why a woman would want to show herself to anyone but her husband” (Fernea 6). This adds to other viewpoints that ceaselessly separate men and women from interacting, limiting social relationships between the genders.

The women of El Nahra initially saw Fernea as an oddity, and are to a great degree keen on her. She is

the first western woman most of them have seen or connected with. However, a little while later this excitement starts to wear off and it is clear that the ladies are not intrigued or inspired with Fernea. They are just interested about her western way of life. This is obvious through their refusal to drink her tea when they visit her home, them refusing to eat her bread, and their comments about her inability to do laundry (Fernea 77). This dismissal of an offering from a host is greatly rude in Iraqi culture, and demonstrates that not just do the ladies not have a security with Fernea, yet they additionally don’t regard her or take her endeavors to join their way of life genuinely. This irritates Fernea, and her feelings are shown when she states, ‘I felt hurt. They did not find me sympathetic or interesting or even human, but only amusing as a performing member of another species’ (Fernea 77).

Another social boundary that keeps Fernea from uniting with the women, language barrier. The local tongue of the populace of Iraq is Arabic, and Fernea just started to study Arabic a year before moving to El Nahra. She is not ready to comprehend what individuals are stating and it is difficult for her to communicate. Despite the fact that these circumstances are casual and appropriate for the blending of Fernea with the women of the town, her constrained learning of the dialect makes it difficult to feel included in the discussion. This makes Fernea feel uninvolved, and frequently hurt. This social barrier pushes her far from needing to bond with the women and thwarts the interaction between them.

The gypsies are another group depicted in the ethnography Guests of the Sheik by Elizabeth Fernea. From the outside the gypsy convoy looks incredibly glitzy and flashy as they parade through Iraq with their ‘bright clothing and gaily saddled animals’ (Fernea 57). On the other hand, once seen from within, it is evident that they are battling and troubled. At the point when Fernea, her spouse, and Razzak go to meet the gypsies they were exhausted, filthy, cold, and sick.

This gathering is sure to each other on the reason of mechanical solidarity, as they don’t each have a specific aptitude that is germane to manag

ing the troupe, yet they are bound by conviction and family ties. It is clear that this solidarity is extremely powerless when Fatima asks Abdul Razzak “why he didn’t bring hashish so she can forget her troubles” (Fernea 61). This demonstrates a craving to escape the world she is living in. A solid solidarity will even now have its inconveniences, however those inside the group won’t have any desire to escape it. Along these lines it is clear that their bonds to each other are decaying. The gypsies are dependent upon the populace of the town for cash to survive when they perform for them, accordingly making a detached natural solidarity between the populace of El Nahra and the gyspsy troupe. This solidarity is essential to the wanderers, yet not indispensable to the townspeople, making it a fragile relationship. The wanderers are always voyaging and migrating, so they depend on different towns for remuneration, and in this manner would not be totally devastated if their solidarity with the populace of El Nahra was disassembled.

Fernea had a difficult time building relationships with the majority of the gatherings due to the social boundaries displayed, however as her time in El Nahra carried on, she found herself able to leap forward some of these social obstructions and assemble fellowships. As her insight into the Arabic dialect enhanced so did her association with the women. Laila clarified later that when Fernea initially touched base in El Nahra the women thought about whether she was hard of hearing, moronic, or not knowledgeable in light of the fact that she would seldom react in discussion. As Fernea’s opportunity in Iraq passed, her Arabic enhanced and Laila advised Fernea she had sprung up and that her ‘company had improved immensely’ (Fernea 135). Having the capacity to speak with the ladies in the teasing way that they entertained one another permitted Fernea the opportunity to be included with the ladies and comprehend them, hence starting to construct a relationship.

The ladies of El Nahra anticipated that Fernea would demonstrate her value as a lady before she was acknowledged by them and seen as an equivalent. She discovers that to b

e acknowledged by the ladies she needs to reveal to them she can perform the errands of a suitable wife. Restricted in which Fernea performs this is through figuring out how to legitimately cook rice to the gauges of the Iraqi ladies. Through the assistance of a couple of the ladies from the town, she realizes this ability and performs it when cooking lunch for the Sheik. As news voyages rapidly in El Nahra, all the ladies were soon mindful of the supper that Fernea had set herself up for the Sheik and the other tribesmen, and that it was a vast feast, as well as a dinner that was all that much delighted in by the tribesmen. This demonstrated the ladies that Fernea was considering their way of life important and was a decent wife.

Despite the fact that it is not standard for the ladies of El Nahra to take up with men, Fernea has the capacity add to an association with Mohammad, the young man who was tasked with serving Fernea and her spouse. This companionship was structured more rapidly than Fernea’s association with the ladies of the town in light of the fact that she was compelled to figure out how to correspond with Mohammad from the time she touched base in El Nahra, despite the fact that this at first was troublesome and obliged rehashing words and utilizing hand signals. She was reliant on him to get basic needs and perform different errands, thus she saw him consistently, subsequently building up the relationship at a fast pace. It is obvious that Fernea has an association with Mohammad through her looking for his endorsement in the wake of serving the Sheik and the other tribesmen, and her recognizing his assistance in setting up the feast.

They groups depicted in the ethnography Guests of the Sheik by Elizabeth Fernea epitomize Emile Durkheim’s standards of natural solidarity and mechanical solidarity. The gypsies, the Sheiks harem, and the women of the town all showcase solidarity inside their sets with different groups. This solidarity was stronger in a few circumstances than others due to variables including how the gathering was shaped and what

made them stay together. There are social hindrances including dialect and social traditions that make social connection between groups troublesome in a few circumstances. These hindrances additionally influence Elizabeth Fernea’s capacity to make earnest associations with people in El Nahra, yet through perseverance in taking in the Arabic dialect and the Iraqi society, she is inevitably ready to associate with both the women of the town and Mohammad and make genuine relationships with them.

The Japanese earthquake and tsunami disaster: essay help online

The earthquake damaged hundreds of thousands of structures and triggered a tsunami that devastated the eastern coast of Japan. The tsunami, in turn, led to level 7 meltdowns in three nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, leading to the evacuation of hundreds of thousands of residents. Natural disasters happen and some, even with preparatory warning can be devastating. All that people and government can do is maximize preparedness to manage and assume the risks of natural disasters. (Goldberg, 2013) When a data threat has been confirmed then the effect and size of the threat must be evaluated to determine which response is necessary. In making a response certain factors must be included such as the individuals, stake holders, and the type of data that has been breached. These include structural and social preparedness and these two are always part of the main concerns in relation to risk management of natural disasters. When Hurricane Katrina hit on 23 August 2005, it hit New Orleans with such force and the city, although leveed, easily filled up like a bath tub – much of the city, almost all low-lying was inundated by rain and high winds that flooding soon happened, trapping people in their homes making rescue difficult. Those who managed to seek shelter in government-prepared evacuation centers soon found themselves homeless as, even as the storm dissipated, New Orleans remained flooded and the life that they knew was lost to many.

Herded to welfare housing hastily set up by the government, most looked forward and waited for a successful rebuilding of their city so that they can live their lives out, as before once again. meanwhile, looting went on in the abandoned and flooded parts of the city while the US Corps of engineers scrambled to fix the levees, all this happening under the glare of the media side by side with grim images from New Orleans and stories of tragedy and survival. Blame in the handling of the mishap and the red tape that prevented relief came under heavy scrutiny and FEMA’s methods and the way local, state and Federal governments handled the crisis were under fire. So was there really an implementation problem? If so, what were they?

#2 question ( emergency plan by the State Emergency Operations Center was developed because of the growing concerns of with keeping a safety, assessing roads and conditions, monitoring the weather reports and minimizing the effect of an emergency events in the state of Tennessee ( As part of a bigger comprehensive plan linked to vary other specialist situations. Its importance lies in the fact that in the last decade natural disasters in American has increased due to varied factors. ( plan focuses on a prevention associated with natural disasters, but, in order to prepare concerned staff, agencies and offices for their role and appropriate action should an emergency arise the state of Tennessee has the National Guard units available( ( Emergency Support Function are structured by elements and basic contained annexes structure. ( An evacuation, movement & logistics plans of evacuating from varied points of the area in case of said situation arising must already be in place ( A group of individual will be in charge of such a situation putting in plan movement in and out of particular open spaces of a number of individuals to large groups. The emergency plan must be laid out plan it should be available any given time in case of emergency arising. ( In terms of logistics and movement of equipment as well as responders on site, a similar plan involving movement to and from varied points. ( Data access will be override of security protocols for said information access must be put in place.


Vulnerability to the effects of a disaster arises from a combination of factors, including physical proximity to a threat (e.g., living in a floodplain), the characteristics of the home (including construction and ownership), lack of a political voice, financial constraints, and choices made by an individual. It is widely accepted that high-risk groups vulnerable to a disaster include those with lower incomes, the very young and the elderly, the disabled, women living alone, and female-headed households. elevation of their homes (Race and class are certainly factors that help explain the social vulnerability in the South, while ethnicity plays an additional role in many cities. When the middle classes (both White and Black) abandon a city, the disparities between the very rich and the very poor expand. Add to this an increasing elderly population, the homeless, transients (including tourists), and other special needs populations, and the prospects for evacuating a city during times of emergencies becomes a daunting challenge for most American cities. Employment opportunities were limited for inner city residents as jobs moved outward from the central city to suburban locations, or overseas as the process of globalization reduced even further the number of low skilled jobs

The proliferation of firsthand accounts of victims and witnesses in text (newspaper articles, published stories, etc.) and in oral accounts via the media and the continuing investigation of independent agencies, academic groups as well as the government itself show a story of human tragedy that depict the initial response of the government as weak and mostly ineffective. FEMA’s initial response and the militarization of the relief & rescue effort created a picture of a government losing its grip on the effect of the disaster, coordination missing. The questions “Who is in-charge?” and “What’s being done?” volleyed in the minds of Americans across the nation, gripped by the images and stories of disaster. Many trooped to New Orleans to ‘help’ but found no one to talk or work with about a ‘coordinated effort’ to get the victims out of the Dome and give them initial Housing and Food relief. The unprecedented cataclysm that became of New Orleans when Katrina hit resulted to the first evacuation of a major US city (ordered by Mayor Ray Nagin); those who cannot escape the city trooped to refugee centers like the Superdome who soon —- together with the compounded problems of rescue, floods and destruction became an unmanageable sea of human trauma. Outside reports of looting, rape, murder and theft were lodged, but in the first week the police were undermanned and powerless resulting to the militarization of the management of the city. To process the massive number of refugees required an effort unprecedented in U.S. history.

Faced with a city in ruins, military management was seen as necessary but this had a negative social impact in terms of management of relief & rescue operations as well as the lack of coordinated efforts Americans expect from their government. Essential facilities such as hospitals, transportation hubs, and communication systems were severely damaged by the earthquake and this hampered the delivery of humanitarian aid. Due to the widespread damage to infrastructure and overwhelming number of casualties, the Haitian government was unable to respond in a timely manner. The country’s morgues were overloaded and people had to be buried in mass graves. There was an outpouring of refugees to the neighboring Dominican Republic, which accepted refugees temporarily but itself did not have sufficient supplies of food or medicine.

Although there was a significant amount of international aid from governments, including $48 billion from the United States, as well as international aid agencies such as the Red Cross and Catholic Relief Services, there were problems with recovery efforts, in part due to health problems such as a cholera epidemic, and problems inherent in Haiti such as complexity of land tenure laws, government inaction, and indecision among donor countries. It was also noted that there was an inadequate response to needs on the ground, with millions spent on advertisements promoting hand washing in areas without water or soap available.

Three strategies to prepare for future disasters include community preparedness, emergency public information and warning, and information sharing. Community preparedness involves identifying potential health risks, building community partnerships and engaging public health, medical, and social organizations, and coordinating training in preparedness efforts.

The Satyam scam and corruption in India

Chapter 1: Objectives:

I. An introduction about the scams and corruption.

II. Studying in detail about Satyam scam.

III. Impact of Satyam scam on Indian economy.

IV. Steps for preventing and eradicating corruption in India.

V. Chapter 2: Review of literature:

The studies documenting performance effect of board composition are inconclusive; grounding on the agency theory prescription of board independence, the study of Baysinger and Butler (1985) indicates that board composition in terms of the proportion of outside (independent) directors has a lagged effect on organizational performance. ‘Firms with more independent board in the early periods not only enjoyed better performance later on but seem to have enjoyed an advantage over firms with less independent boards.’ Ira M. Millstein, a stout proponent of ‘independent board’ conducts a study with Paul W. MacAvoy (Millstein and MacAvoy, 1998) which demonstrates a substantial and statistically significant correlation between an active, independent board and superior corporate performance. Rosenstein and Wyatt (1997) research reports that announcement of outside director appointment is associated with a 46Vignettes of Research significant excess return of 0.20% and that announcement of inside director appointment is associated with an insignificant excess return. The literature advocating the inside directors on the board of directors of company on the ground of ‘better’ knowledge about the company and the industry, is equally profuse. Barnhart, (1994) investigate the effect of board composition on overall corporate performance and reported performance to be negatively related to the proportion of outside directors. Similar results of negative correlation between the fraction of outside directors and Tobin’s Q are obtained by Agarwal and Knoeber (1996). The work of Bhagat and Black (2001) is often cited in the literature. The study reports that firms experiencing poor performance tend to appoint more outside directors but that does not lead to an improvement in performance. There are several other studies which find no relationship between board composition and firm performance. Baysinger and Hoskisson (1990) report no link between board composition and performance when both relate to the same year. Hermalin and Weisbach (1991) find no strong relationship between percentage of outside directors and firm performance. The study concludes that ‘if such a relationship does exist, it is small with little economic significance’. Empirical studies on the corporate governance in India are few. This is because despite a long corporate history, corporate governance assumed importance in India only in 1993 with the opening up of the Indian economy. Post liberalization, a few research studies have been conducted investigating the relationship between one or more variable of corporate governance and financial performance of India companies. Most of these studies capture the impact of share ownership (managerial ownwership or institutional shareholding including by the foreign institutional investors) on th performance of firms. Noteworthy among these are the studies of Chhibber and Majumdar, (1996); Khanna and Palepu, (2000); Sarkar and Sarkar,(2000); and Patilbandla, (2006). In short, the extant literature on the subject, mainly US based does not give clear evidence on the performance effect of independent directors. An attempt is made in this study to enrich the literature by documenting evidence from India.

Das-Gupta (2007), Basu (2011), Bardhan (1997, 2005), and Quah (2008) along

bring a compact and virtually comprehensive survey of corruption in Asian country, a subject

on that there’s an awfully restricted tutorial literature. Das-Gupta (2007) makes a

distinction between powerful bribes and voluntary bribes. powerful bribes are what

Basu (2011) calls ‘harassment bribes’, bribes to be obtained what’s AN title or

what a politician is absolute to do as a part of their duties anyway. Voluntary bribes refer

to bribes for favors, like the award of a license or a contract. Powerful bribes

include bribes for refraining from victimization power to cause hurt, as an example, bribes to

the police or to tax officers to urge a refund. Powerful bribes profit bribe-takers solely,

while voluntary bribes create the bribe-taker and bribe-giver partners in crime at the

expense of the pecuniary resource and also the general public, as well as those deprived of equal opportunity to compete for contracts and licenses.

Das-Gupta (2007) cites a Transparency International survey of 2002 that ranks

the following seven government agencies in decreasing order of corruption: police,

judicial services, land administration, education, tax, and health services. Bribes to

the police are paid to avoid harassment. A big finding is that official

corruption payments were paid on to officers and to not middlemen, and

mostly to officer-level employees and to not subordinate employees. Associated with the presence

of official corruption, there’s additionally large-scale corruption in government

recruitment, and postings, and transfers to ‘lucrative’ positions, those during which

coercive bribes may be extracted. The speed of bribes ranges from 10’20 % of

the legal sums concerned for varied services.

It was found that companies tend to know what rate they have to pay in bribes for various favours and this is built into their cost calculations. As for ‘speed money’ promoting efficiency within a regulated economy, Bardhan (1997, 1323) and Banerjee (1994) point out that officials cause administrative delays and red tape to increase their capacity to extract bribes.

A second major form of corruption is large-scale or ‘grand’ corruption in the form of huge bribes on major government contracts, particularly on large imports of arms, an inherently non-transparent area, subject to national security considerations; bulk commodities; large infrastructure contracts; allocations of natural resources, such as minerals; or the telecom spectrum, all of which are controlled by politicians in certain key economic ministries with carefully selected bureaucrats colluding with them.

A third major form of corruption is direct theft of government funds from development programs such as irrigation and roads, from social and anti-poverty programs, from publicly funded loans to the poor, and the diversification of price-controlled goods, that are in short supply, for sales at higher market rates. These involve both bureaucratic and political corruption and overlap with cultivating electoral constituencies. This form of corruption, that is, direct misuse of government funds and materials, take place down to the village-level.

The causes of bureaucratic corruption are a combination of discretionary regulatory powers along with very weak monitoring and accountability mechanisms, the latter being deliberately designed to be weak in many programs.

Chapter 3: Introduction:

3.1 Definition of Scam:

Dishonest behavior by those in positions of power, such as managers or government officials. Corruption can include giving or accepting bribes or inappropriate gifts, double dealing, under-the-table transactions, manipulating elections, diverting funds, laundering money and defrauding investors. One example of corruption in the world of finance would be an investment manager who is actually running a Fraud scheme.

The crime of giving or receiving money, gifts, a better job in exchange for doing something dishonest or illegal.

When someone who has the power or authority uses it in a dishonest or illegal way to get money or any advantage.

Prevention of corruption-

To prevent corruption in the financial services industry, Chartered Financial Analysts and other financial professionals are required to adhere to a code of ethics and avoid situations that could create a conflict of interest. Engaging in corrupt behavior could result in job loss and revocation of a professional designation, such as the CFA title. Other penalties for being found guilty of corruption include fines, imprisonment and a damaged reputation.

Top 10 Corruption Scams in India-

1) Indian Coal Allocation Scam ‘ 2012 ‘ Size 1.86L Crore

2) 2G Spectrum Scam ‘ 2008 ‘ 1.76 L Crore

3) Wakf Board Land Scam ‘ 2012 ‘ 1.5-2L Crore

4) Commonwealth Games Scam ‘ 2010 ‘ 70,000 Crore

5) Telgi Scam ‘ 2002 – 20,000 Crore

6) Satyam Scam ‘ 2009 ‘ 14,000 Crore

7) Bofors Scam ‘ 1980s & 90s ‘ 100 to 200 Crore

8) The Fodder Scam ‘ 1990s – 1,000 Crore

9) The Hawala Scandal ‘ 1990-91 ‘ 100 Crore

10) Harshad Mehta & Ketan Parekh Stock Market Scam ‘1992 ‘ 5000 Crore Combined.

Chapter 4: Research methodology

Research Methodology: The process used to collect information and data for the purpose of making business decisions. The methodology may include publication research, interviews, surveys and other research techniques and could include both present and historical information.

Data collection method: The way facts about a program and its outcomes are amassed. Data collection methods often used in program evaluations include literature search, file review, natural observations, surveys, expert opinion, and case studies. There are two types of Data collection methods:-

Primary Data – Data collected by an evaluation team specifically for the evaluation study.

Secondary Data – Data collected and recorded by another (usually earlier) person or

organization, usually for different purposes than the current evaluation.

Hereby, the current research is conducted through the information received from various books, journals, newspapers, magazines and internet sources and the key findings are given below

Chapter 5: Key Findings:

About Satyam scam-


‘ Satyam Computer Services Limited was founded in 1987 by Mr. Ramalinga Raju.

‘ The company offers consulting and information technology services spanning various sectors, including engineering and product development, supply chain management, client relationship management, business process management and business intelligence.

‘ The company was listed with New York stock exchange, National stock exchange, and the Mumbai stock exchange. In June 2009, the company unveiled its new brand identity ‘Mahindra Satyam’

‘ Satyam Scam ‘ 2008 – 14000 crores

B Ramalinga Raju, the disgraced chairman of Satyam Computers Services Ltd, along with 13 individuals and entities including Chintalapati Srinivasa Raju of iLabs, made Rs 2,000 crore in illegal wealth in the Satyam scam. As financial frauds go, the one perpetrated by Raju & Co was quite uncomplicated. Satyam’s top management simply cooked the company’s books by overstating its revenues, profit margins and profits for every single quarter over a period of five years, from 2003 to 2008. Not for them complex methods like derivatives accounting or off-balance sheet transactions that were used by Enron’s executives.

Keen to project a perpetually rosy picture of the company to investors, employees and analysts, the Rajus manipulated Satyam’s books so that it appeared to be a far bigger enterprise than it actually was. To achieve this, they sewed up deals with fictitious clients, had large teams working on these pet ‘projects’ of the chairman, and introduced over 7,000 fake invoices into the company’s computer systems to record sales that simply didn’t exist. For good measure, profits too were padded up to show healthy margins.

Over the years, these ghostly clients understandably never paid their bills, leading to a big hole in Satyam’s balance sheet. The hole was plugged by inflating the debtors (dues from clients) in the balance sheet and forging bank statements to show a mountain of cash and bank balances.

After several years of such manipulation, Satyam was reporting sales of over ‘5200 crore in 2008-09, when it was in reality making about ‘4100 crore. Its operating profit margins were shown at 24 per cent when they were actually at 3 per cent and its handsome profits on paper covered up for real-life losses. It was when the company ran out of cash (of the real variety) to pay salaries that Ramalinga Raju decided that he couldn’t ride the tiger any longer and made his confession.

Full story

‘ Ramalinga Raju founded Satyam Computers in 1987 and was its Chairman until January 7, 2009 when he resigned from the Satyam board after admitting to cheating six million shareholders.

‘ After being held in Hyderabad’s Chanchalguda jail on charges including cheating, embezzlement and insider trading,

‘ Raju was granted bail on 25.3.2011. Raju was granted bail on condition that he should report to the local police station once a day and that he shouldn’t attempt to tamper with the current evidence

‘ A botched acquisition attempt involving Maytas in December 2008 led to a plunge in the share price of Satyam.

‘ In January 2009, Raju indicated that Satyam’s accounts had been falsified over a number of years.

‘ He admitted to an accounting dupery to the tune of 7000 crore rupees or 1.5 Billion US Dollars and resigned from the Satyam board on January 7, 2009.

What crime he has constituted( Ramalinga Raju)?

1. Raju and his brother, B Rama Raju, were arrested by the Andhra Pradesh police on charges of breach of trust, conspiracy, cheating, falsification of records.

2. Raju has mislead various investors.

3. Raju had also used dummy accounts to trade in Satyam’s shares.

4. He has violated the insider trading norm.

5. Funds from Satyam were diverted to Maytas

6. On 22 January 2009, CID told in court that the actual number of employees is only 40,000 and not 53,000 as reported earlier and that Mr. Raju had been allegedly withdrawing INR 20 crore rupees every month for paying these 13,000 non-existent employees.

7. In Venture Global Engineering vs Satyam Computer Services Ltd 2010 (8) SCC 660 On being questioned by criminal investigation department of the Andhra Pradesh police, Mr. Raju reportedly admitted to using Satyam (respondent no.1) money for buying prime land in and around Hyderabad.

8. Ten Imaginary fixed deposits Raju admitted that Satyam’s fixed deposits which supposedly grew from Rs. 3.35 crore in 1998-99 to a massive Rs. 3320.19 crore in 2007-08 are all fake.

Reasons for Satyam Scam-

1. Raju wanted to take over his MAYTAS INFRA and MAYTAS PROPERTIES.(company of his sons).

2. He was blamed that he was using the funds of the investors for the family business.

3. World bank had banned the satyam to take any services for 8 years (due to illegal profit and lack of essential document).


‘ Maytas refers to a group of companies founded by B. Ramalinga Raju. It includes Maytas Properties and Maytas Infra Limited.

‘ A property development company founded in 2005.

‘ Maytas Infra Limited: An infrastructure development, construction and project management company. Maytas Infra was originally run by Satyam Computer Services founder B Ramalinga Raju.

‘ It came under the scanner due to its association with B. Ramalinga Raju.

‘ Various agencies, including the state Crime Investigation Department, probed the Maytas affair after B Ramalinga Raju admitted to serious financial scam in Satyam Computer.

‘ There were allegations that funds from Satyam were diverted to Maytas, causing the Government agencies to verify the infrastructure company’s records as well.

‘ In August 2009, Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services replaced B Ramalinga Raju as promoter of Maytas Infra.

‘Society’s Reaction’-

‘ The people of his native village, Garagaparru, hail the development works undertaken by the Raju Foundation, the charitable arm of Satyam.

‘ The Citizens for a Better Public Transport in Hyderabad (CBPTH) demanded a CBI inquiry into the process of how Maytas bagged the Hyderabad Metro Rail project.

‘ Analysts in India have termed the Satyam scandal India’s own Enron scandal.

‘ Some social commentators see it more as a part of a broader problem relating to India’s caste-based, family-owned corporate environment.

Role of auditors, in light of Satyam scam-

This fraud was not committed overnight; it was building up continuously from over years. The role of Satyam’s auditors is under scanner. They ignored some of the obvious indications of embezzlement and thus failed to catch on the massive scam, which could have been caught much before it acquired the ‘massive’ status.


‘ Before the scandal its share price was Rs 300 in oct 2008. Just after this scandal the share price goes down to Rs 6.30.

‘ On 10 January 2009, the Company Law Board decided to bar the current board of Satyam from functioning.

‘ Bank of America and State Farm Insurance terminated its engagement with the company.

‘ SEBI, the stock market regulator, also said that, if found guilty, its license to work in India may be revoked.

‘ The New York Stock Exchange has halted trading in Satyam stock

‘ India’s National Stock Exchange has announced that it will remove Satyam from its S&P CNX Nifty 50-share index.

‘ Satyam’s shares fell to 11.50 rupees on 10 January 2009, their lowest level since March 1998, compared to a high of 544 rupees in 2008

‘ Satyam was the 2008 winner of the coveted Golden Peacock Award for Corporate Governance under Risk Management and Compliance Issues, which was stripped from them in the aftermath of the scandal.

‘ Present time its share price is 107.89. Mahendra Satyam’s market growth is 7,800crore.

‘ Before the scandal Satyam was the 4th ranked among IT companies of India and on 9th jan2009 it became least valuable IT company in India.


‘ Although several companies are trying to have a bite into Satyam Computers, according to Gartner study, the company is likely to exist in its current form. It is expected to discontinue some of its businesses, service lines or cease to exist in certain geographies.

‘ Huge losses to investors aside, the Satyam scandal has caused ‘serious damage’ to India Inc’s reputation as well as the country’s regulatory authorities outside.

‘ The Government certainly cannot remain aloof and allow Satyam to die off especially when it provides occupation to 53,000 odd people and indirectly supports more than a million Indians.

‘ The Satyam scam effect has started its infectious presence. U.S. listed stocks of other Indian companies have started taken a severe beating.

‘ Indian firms are looking into methods to avoid scenarios of such scams within their companies.

Chapter 6: Suggestions:

5 ways to reduce corruption:

We are all aware of the term ‘corruption; and do a lot of discussion on how to control it. It may be defined as the misuse of the public office for one’s own advantage or for the purpose of any other illegal benefits by a public servant. According to sec. 2(c) (vii) of Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988, a public servant is, ‘any person who holds an office by virtue of which he is authorized or required to perform any public duty’. But in reality this has been seen to be abused. Every person has his/her own dignity and some fundamental rights. Corruption also affects the fundamental rights. How? It has been seen that a common (general) man fears to go to police station even when his/her right(s) is violated. Why? Because he/she does not want to face a series questioning of the police. Normally, what actually happens is, a person when goes to a police station for FIR, he/she has to struggle a lot and face a lot in order lodge his/her FIR in the order of it being properly written. If therefore suggests that we need such a body that could provide us a corruption free society. As per Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988. Sec. 13 (1) d (ii) of POC Act, ‘a public servant is said to commit the offence of criminal misconduct, if he, by abusing his position as a public servant, obtains for himself or for any other person any valuable thing or pecuniary advantage’. This seems to be omnipresent be it in any police department or medical department and even in judiciary.

The question again arises how to control this increasing corruption in our country? There are several bodies that are working for a corruption free system. Here are suggested some of the tools to reduce the corruption;

‘ The first tool is ‘education’. With the help of education we can reduce corruption. According to a survey conducted by India today the least corrupt state is Kerala, the reason being that in Kerala literacy rate is highest in India. So we can see how education effects education. In most of the states, normally a fairly large number of people are uneducated. Those who are uneducated do not know about the process, provisions and procedures through which they can get justice. Corrupt public servants try to make fool of them and often demands for bribe. It is due to unawareness in the field of law, public rights and procedures thereof that a common and an uneducated suffer out of the corrupt society. This suggests that if we are educated, we can understand our rights well.

‘ We need to change the government processes. If the members of the governing body are government officials, there will certainly be less reports of the criminal cases. The reverse may be possible only when there are no more criminal politician in our government. The provision is that, if there is any case filed against a person then he would not be eligible for election. But if we see hundred politicians then about sixty percent of them would be criminal in nature. If these criminal politicians command us and make laws, what types of law would be formed, we can guess! Thus during election, we should keep in mind the person for whom we shall not vote. In India there is a provision that no person as a criminal shall be allowed as a Member of Parliament or member of legislative. Unfortunately a fairly large number of them are a part of it.

‘ We can reduce corruption by increasing direct contact between government and the governed. E-governance could help a lot towards this direction. In a conference on, ‘Effects of Good Governance and Human Rights’ organized by National Human Right Commission, A. P. J. Abdul Kalam gave an example of Delhi metro rail system and online railway reservation as good governance and said that all the lower courts should follow the explanation of the Supreme Court and High Court and make the judgments online. Similarly, SivrajPatil said that the Right to information should be used for transparency. We have legal rights to know any information. According to this act, (Right to Information act 2005), generally people should follow the procedure of law given to then when their work is not being implemented in a proper way in public services. This act is a great help in the order to control corruption.

‘ Lack of effective corruption treatment is another reason. That means, instruments which are in use, are not running properly. For example Prevention of Corruption Act 1988 came into force on 9th September, 1988. But corruption is still flourishing. Why? Because of weak actions and proceedings towards corrupt people. People don’t have any fear of this act and the court. The act may thus be revised for its better implementation.

‘ Lack of transparency and professional accountability is yet another big reason. We should be honest to ourselves. Until and unless we will not be honest, we can’t control corruption. If each of us is honest towards our profession, then corruption will automatically decrease. We need to pay attention towards professional accountability i.e., how much we are faithful and truthful towards our profession. Corruption may be controlled by handling five major professions: lekhpal, medical, revenue, police and judicial.

Chapter 7: Conclusion:

There is a much better grasp today of the extent to which corruption is asymptom of fundamental institutional weaknesses. Instead of tackling such a symptom with narrow intervention designed to ‘eliminate’ it, increasingly it is understood that the approach ought to address a broad set of fundamental institutional determinants. However, the challenge of integrating this understanding with participatory process has barely begun. The implementation of institutional reforms can benefit significantly from the participatory process that is being developed for anti-corruption activities. Equally important, any participatory process, however sophisticated, ought to lead to concrete results beyond enhanced participation and heightened awareness.

Thus, identifying key institutional reforms in India, and mobilizing support for such reforms, needs to be fully integrated into the participatory process from very early on. Such early convergence is likely to promote a better balance between prevention and enforcement measures in addressing corruption. Until recently, the pendulum was firmly in the ‘enforcement’ corner. The gradual swing towards middle ground has taken place due to recognition of the limitations of ex post legalistic enforcement measures, since rule of law institutions themselves are currently part of the corruption problem in India.

The problems that foreign workers face in a host country: college essay help

According to the latest figures CSO (Central Statistical Office), the number of foreign workers in Mauritius has been constantly increasing and is now at approximately 39, 032. From those figures we can state that there are 27, 408 men and 11 624 women. This amount of expatriates is mainly made up of workers coming from Bangladesh, 18 429, from India, 9105, China, 4656 and Madagascar with 3596.

It is the manufacturing sector that employs the largest number of foreign workers, that is29 846, while the construction comes second with 6070 workers. Last September, the ministry of Labour took the decision to freeze the recruitment of foreign workers in the construction sector. In all case, the bar of 40 000 foreign workers in Mauritius will quickly be reached by the end of the year announcing an increase of 20% compared to 2008. Those workers are supposed to be treated the same way as local workers and to take advantage of the local welfare.. Though Mauritius did not signed ICRMW (International Convention on the protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers), the country needs to apply its own laws. Here, it is the Employees Rights Act (2008) which stipulates all the law concerning any work related issues. This causes the migrant workers to rebel in order to voice out through violent actions. Those persons are actually migrating to another country in order to get a better living conditions, also, promises are made but rarely respected. From the point of view of management, they prefer employing migrants as they are more hard-working, skilled and cheaper compared to a local worker. It is a fact that it is not always easy for the foreign workers to cope with the working conditions applied to them and moreover their cultures and those that we have in Mauritius are not always the same.


The research objectives of this study are:

‘ To explore the different difficulties that the expatriates face in the host country

‘ To explore the foreign workers’ opinions about the way they are treated

‘ Propose recommendations to those organizations who employ foreign workers to improve their working and living conditions.


Wilson & Dalton (1998) describe expatriates as, ‘those who work in a country or culture other than their own.’

Connerly et al. (2008) stated that ‘many scholars have proposed that personal characteristics predict whether individuals will succeed on their expatriate assignment.’ Due to globalization, there is the need for expatriates. Thus, companies dealing with external workers should find ways to solve problems faced by these workers and make them comfortable in their daily life so that they do not want to go back to their native country. (Selmer and Leung, 2002)


1. Culture Shock

Hofstede (2001) defined it as ‘the state of distress following the transfer of a person to an unfamiliar environment which may also be accompanied by physical symptoms’.

According to Dr Kalvero Oberg, expatriates are bound to experience four distinct phases before adapting themselves to another culture.

Those four phases are:

1. A Honeymoon Phase

2. The Negotiation Phase

3. An Adjustment Phase

4. A Reverse Culture Shock

During the Honeymoon Phase, the expatriates are excited to discover their new environment. They are ready to lay aside minor problems in order to learn new things. But eventually, this stage ends somehow.

At the Negotiation Phase or the Crisis Period, the expatriates start feeling homesick and things start to become a burden for them. For example, they might feel discomfort regarding the local language, the public transport systems or the legal procedures of the host country.

Then the Adjustment Phase starts. Six to twelve months after arriving in the new country, most expatriates start to feel accustomed to their new home and know what to expect. Their activities become routines and the host country is now accepted as another place to live. The foreign worker starts to develop problem-solving skills to change their negative attitudes to a more positive one.

The final stage called the Reverse Culture Shock or Re-entry Shock. It occurs when expatriates return to their home country after a long period. They are surprised to find themselves encountering cultural difficulties.

There are physical and psychological symptoms of culture shock such as:

1. Physical factors

‘ Loss of appetite

‘ Digestion problems

2. Cognitive factors

‘ Feeling of isolation/ home sickness

‘ Accusing the host culture for own distress

3- Behavioural factors

‘ Performance deficits

‘ Higher alcohol consumption

2. Communication/ Language Barrier

Communication is crucial to both management and employees. Sometimes, due to this language barrier, employees do not understand what is expected from them. They thus tend to make mistakes at the workplace and conflicts arise between the parties concerned. Also, the language barrier is the major obstacle when it comes to the changing of environment for expatriates. These people usually feel homesick and lonely as they are unable to communicate with the local people they meet. This language problem becomes a barrier in creating new relationships. A special attention must be paid to one’s specific body language signs, conversation tone and linguistic nuances and customs. Communicative ability permits cultural development through interaction with other individuals. Language becomes the mean that promotes the development of culture. Language affects and reflects culture just as culture affects and reflects what is encoded in language. Language learners may be subconsciously influenced by the culture of the learned language. This helps them to feel more comfortable and at ease in the host country.

3. Industrial Laws

Laws are vital for the proper conduct of such activity as that of welcoming expatriates in Mauritius. The Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations and employment are meant to produce a ‘Guidelines for work permit application (February 2014)’ manual for those organisations which are engaged in this activity. This manual describes procedures that should be followed in case of a Bangladeshi, Chinese or Indian worker. Any breach of the law will lead automatically to severe sanctions.

For example, Non-Citizens (Employment Restriction) Act 1973 which provides, among others, that ‘a non-citizen shall not engage in any occupation in Mauritius for reward or profit or be employed in Mauritius unless there is in force in relation to him a valid work permit.’ A request to the government should be made if an organization wishes to recruit foreign workers in bulk.

Expatriates are human beings so they should have some fundamental ‘Rights’ in the host country. In Mauritius, the contract for employment of foreign workers stipulates all the necessary information concerning the expatriates’ rights, conditions of work, accommodation and remuneration amongst others. This contract is based on the existing Labour law and the contents of the contract are to large extent the same with some slight differences in conditions of work. Mauritius has adopted the good practices in relation to labour migration and has spared no efforts to develop policies and programmes to maximize benefits and minimize its negative consequences. However, there are still improvements to be brought to the living and working conditions of foreign workers.

4. Living Conditions

The NESC published a report in February 2007 which advocated that foreigners working in the island should enjoy the same rights as local workers. In reality, many foreign workers suffer from bad working conditions. Some workers have intolerable living conditions, sleeping in dormitories on benches without mattresses or in tiny bedroom containing many people. Those who intend to voice out or those considered as ‘ring leaders’ are deported.

In 2006, some workers from China and India who tried to form a trade union or to protest were deported. Peaceful demonstrations often turn into riots which the police brutally suppressed.

In August (2007) some 500 Sri Lankans were demanding better wages at the company Tropic Knits and in response, the Mauritian authorities deported 35 of them. At the Companie Mauricienne de Textile, one of the biggest companies of the island employing more than 5,000 people, 177 foreign workers were deported after taking part in an ‘illegal demonstration’ about the lack of running water, the insufficient number of toilets and poor accommodation.

During the year (2011) a visit at two of the Trend Clothing’s Ltd by (Jeppe Blumensaat Rasmussen) shows how several Bangladeshi workers were living under inhumane living conditions. Furthermore, workers were paid an hourly rate of Rs15.50, which was even less than the previous amount of Rs16.57 bringing the monthly salary to an amount of Rs3500 ‘ 5000 depending on overtime. One woman even said that she had work 43 hours and was paid only 32. The Bangladeshi workers were also living in dormitories containing several holes in the ceilings and signs of water damage next to electrical sockets. We also have the case of the migrant Nepal’s workers who decided to leave Mauritius due to their bad working and living conditions. They were living in an old production space which was turn into dormitories, hosting 34 migrants’ workers. There were no water connection in the kitchen and no running water to flush toilets. They also did not receive any allowance and their salary was decreased from Rs5600 to Rs5036 per month. On the 9th June 2011, eight workers wrote a letter to their boss, giving their employer a month notice.

In September (2013) more than 450 Bangladeshi workers working in the textile company, Real Garments, in Pointe-aux-Sables were on strike claiming for better working conditions. They also protested in the streets of Port-Louis and had gone to the Ministry of Labor to submit their claims one day before (L’Express; Mauritius). Fourteen Bangladeshi workers were considered as the main leaders and were deported by the authorities.

5. Foreign workers and Income

Foreign workers take the decision to leave their native country to work in other countries with the aim of making more money and then send it to their family. However, they did not predict that they will be paid less than that was promised to them before their departure to the host country. Some organisations pay them only half of what they were supposed to. Having already signed their contract, they are forced to work hard for a low salary. Many Bangladeshis, Indians or Chinese choose to leave the host country after their contract termination and the more courageous ones stay and renew their contract for more years. Despite their low paid jobs, it is still better than in their native country where they are even more exploited or where life is far more difficult for them.

The Employment Rights Act (2008) stipulate that if a local worker ‘works on a public holiday, he shall be remunerated at twice the national rate per hour for every hour of work performed.’

However, some expatriates who are forced to work on a public holiday are usually paid the same amount as a usual day. As human beings, they should be treated as any other worker either local or foreign, with the same rights and possibilities.

6. Unions

Unionism is about workers standing together to improve their situation, and to help others. Some unions are reactive, that is waiting for the employer to act and then choosing how to attack or respond and others are proactive, that is developing their own agenda and then advancing it wherever it’s possible. When unions and management fail to reach agreement, or where relations break down, the union has the option of pursuing industrial action through a strike, a go-slow, a work-to-rule, a slow-down, an overtime ban or an occupation.

However, the Expatriates are often not aware of the law protecting their rights (e.g. many migrant workers are not informed of the laws that provide them with the same level of protection as Mauritian nationals and Employers refused to recognize union representatives. It is also often difficult for unions to get access to and organize for foreign workers.

An ICFTU-AFRO (the African regional organization of the former International Confederation of Free Trade Unions) mission to Mauritius in February 2004 was told that the few men they saw were mainly supervisors who were said to be hostile to unions.

During 2006 there were a series of reports that workers from China and India who had tried to form a trade union or protest against their employers had been summarily deported. On 23 May 2006, policemen armed with shields and truncheons beat female workers from Novel Garments holding a sit-in in the courtyard of the factory in Coromandel protesting against plans to transfer them to other production units.

According to the MAURITIUS 2012 HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT, section 7: Worker Rights, a. Freedom of Association and the Right to collective Bargaining, the constitution and law provide for the rights of workers, including foreign workers, to form and join independent unions, conduct legal strikes, and bargain collectively With the exception of police, the Special Mobile Force, and persons in government services who were not executive officials, workers were free to form and join unions and to organize in all sectors, including in the Export Oriented Enterprises (EOE), formerly known as the Export Processing Zone.

Asthma: college admission essay help


Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease with a global prevalence of more than 200 million. It is a heterogeneous disease identified by reversible airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and inflammation. Treatment of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and/or combination of long acting ??-agonist (LABA) may deviate in dosage depending on the measure of severity among patients. Asthma can also be classified into two categories; extrinsic (atopic) and intrinsic (non-atopic) asthma (Fahy, 2014). For this case study, I would be discussing some characteristics of asthma, diagnosis and treatment recommendations and current research in stratified medicine.


Atopic asthma is triggered by environmental stimuli such as allergens (e.g. pollen, pet hair, dust mites etc.), air pollution, weather change and childhood exposure to tobacco smoke. Less than 15% of children with continuous wheezing would develop asthma in adolescent while others with eczema, obesity, atopic rhinitis and dermatitis are at higher risk of developing asthma. These comorbidities may complicate asthma management in adulthood (Subbarao, 2009). Furthermore, there is a higher prevalence of asthma among boys than girls, and a higher incidence among women than men, due to hormonal factors. Boys generally undergo asthma remission as a result of enhanced lung development and airway growth (Spahn, 2008) whereas hormonal influences could affect asthma control in pregnancy (Padmanabhan, 2014).

Other risk factors which could affect the immune system in new-onset asthma are exercise, emotional stress and occupational exposure to chemical substances such as paint, hair dyes, cleaning liquids and the use of marijuana. Viral infections affecting the lungs in childhood (e.g. bronchiolitis) could also affect airway epithelial cells, thus resulting in the development of T-helper (TH2) related asthma (Fahy, 2014).


Asthma is characterized by a cumulative loss of lung function over time. Changes to airway structure and composition such as thickening of basement membrane, increased bronchial vascularity, smooth muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy and goblet cell hyperplasia, which leads to mucous hypersecretion, also promotes to airflow obstruction. This is known as airway remodelling (Tschumperlin, 2011).

As a result of allergen exposure, inflammatory cells invade airways and releases mediators such as leukotrienes, histamine, cytokines and chemokines triggering bronchoconstriction, airway remodelling and hyper-reactivity, as shown in Table 1 (Padmanabhan, 2014).


Patients experience wheezing, cough, dyspnea and chest tightness. Symptoms may vary in frequency if treatment is received, depending on their severity and displays hypersensitization to allergens that could trigger exacerbations. The difficulty with this disease is that its symptoms often overlap with other allergies (e.g. allergic rhinitis) making it strenuous to determine the primary cause and relieve symptoms (Padmanabhan, 2014).


Symptoms that are alleviated by bronchodilators indicates asthma as the underlying cause. Therefore, it’s critical that tests are performed while patients are symptomatic allowing accurate diagnosis.

The age on asthma-onset should also be considered. Although asthma in children and adults share similar characteristics, there are significant differences between them. For example, adult-onset asthma develops sensitization to occupational factors and are often misdiagnosed for COPD or chronic bronchitis (Holgate et al. 2006).

As it is a hereditary disorder, a detailed patient history is required to determine whether there are any signs of family history, atopy or long-term chemical exposure. Asthma displays a decrease in FEV1 (forced expired volume in 1 second) and a reduced FEV1/FVC ratio (0.75) ( 6 )

f_e= 1.88 ‘ ’10’^6 ‘ (t/b)^2 ‘k=[kg/’cm’^2] ( 7 )

f_y = Specified minimum yield point of the material or 72 [%] of the specified minimum ultimate strength whichever is less.

t = Thickness of the web plate reduced by 10 [%] as an allowance for corrosion.

b = Depth of plate panel.

K is a function of different types of loading, aspect ratio and boundary conditions. BigLift is using the following conditions for their buckling analyses.

Figure 2: Load condition Compression and Bending

K corresponding to axial Compression and Bending:

Where a’b ‘1.0=4 ( 8 )

Where a’b 0.75 “then ” f_t= ??_y )'[1- ((3??_y)'(16f_e ))] ( 17 )

In this load case the is f_e'(??_y >0.75 )so f_t is calculated according to equation ( 17 ). These results are used for calculate f_crc:

f_crs= f_t ( 18 )

Then the Compression area is calculated:

A_s= (a+b) ‘t ( 19 )

The force that is actual causing the Compression and Bending is calculated as:

Q=q ‘b ( 20 )

This force is a distributed load on the structure that’s been analysed. Dividing equations ( 20 ) an ( 21 ) gives the stress that occurs.

f_s= Q’A_s ( 21 )

Shear Calculation

The K factor for shear is different than for Compression and Bending. The K factor for Shear needs to be determinate as following:

“If ” a’b >1 “then ” K= ‘3’ [5.34+4 ‘(b’a) ‘^2 ] ( 22 )

“If ” a’b 0.75 “then ” f_t= ??_y )'[1- ((3??_y)'(16f_e ))] ( 26 )

In this load case the is f_e'(??_y >0.75 )so f_t is calculated according to equation ( 26 ). These results are used for calculate f_crc:

f_crs= f_t”3 ( 27 )

Then the shear area is calculated:

A_s=minimum of 2a ‘t or 2b ‘t ( 28 )

The force that is actual causing the shear stress is calculated as:

Q=q ‘b ( 29 )

This force is a distributed load on the structure that’s been analysed. Dividing equations ( 28 ) an ( 29 ) gives the stress that occurs.

f_s= Q’A_s ( 30 )


In this section the combined calculations of Compression and Bending and Shear are calculating if buckling occurs.

“No Buckling when: ” (f_c’f_crc )^2+'(f_s’f_crs ) ‘^2 1.00 ( 32 )

Finite Element Method

The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a numerical solution of equations (matrixes). In FEM a construction is divided in a finite number of elements. Every element is connected with each other, these connections are called nodes. With the use of matrix equations, it’s possible to calculate the displacement, forces and stresses of these nodes in certain load cases. By using FEM software it’s possible to divide the model in small nodes. Then the program calculates the displacement of every node, which will result in a very careful analysis.

For the complete derivation of the Finite Element Method (Hofman, 1994).

Chapter 5 describes the current buckling calculation according the equation of Euler. But it neglects the surrounding structure and the method. Therefore a more accurate analysis of the complete tanktop structure is necessary. The choice for these analyses is based on the Finite Element Method.

FEM-based tanktop model

In the FEM-based tanktop analyses the model will be exposed on several loads. The analysis that’s been used is the ‘NX Nastran Static and Buckling’. This analysis calculates the model on the static stresses that occur during the load case and on buckling as well. The program calculates a so called: ‘Eigenvalue’, for the buckling situation. This Eigenvalue is a factor for the number of times that the current load could be multiplied before the construction succumbs under buckling.

Step 1

For analysing a similar calculation as BigLift uses in the Excel-sheets, it’s necessary for modelling a plate in FEMAP with the same conditions as used in the Excel calculation. The FEM-calculation reviews the construction based on the mesh. A mesh is an assembly of element. If the elements are small the calculation is more accurate, but it will also result in longer calculation time. For these analyses the mesh size of 50 [mm] by 50 [mm] is used.


Material Steel – [-]

Load Force per Area on Surface 2 [N/mm2]

Constrains Fixed on the Shell – [-]

Analyses NX Nastran Static and Buckling – [-]

Mesh size – 50 [mm]

This will result in several stresses as result from compressing and bending, shear and of course buckling.

The results of this analyses is shown in figure 212

Step 2

Since the FEM analysing of buckling situations is relative new for BigLift Shipping, verifying the results is difficult. Therefore splitting the modelling and analysing was necessary to insure the accuracies of the model. So after verifying that the previous step resulted in a good analyse, the model could be expanded. So stiffeners and other girders where added and the nodes where connected to each other. This resulted in a very basic and local construction of the tanktop. The footprint of the saddle was added as load case. Different values of the load where added to insure the accuracies of the model in different situations.


Material Steel – [-]

Load Force per Area on Surface 2 [N/mm2]

Constrains Fixed on the Shell – [-]

Analyses NX Nastran Static and Buckling – [-]

Mesh size – 50 [mm]

The results of these analyses are shown in figure 221

Step 3

After step 2, the construction of the tanktop is expended. The construction is modelled from frame 52 till frame 58. This is the construction, which according the Distribution calculation sheet of BigLift Shipping, is exposed at the most forces and stresses during sea-going conditions. The footprint of the load case is modelled as a surface with a very high Young’s modules. BigLift Shipping assumes in there calculation that the load is infinitely rigid. With this assumption the relation between the cargo and the construction of the vessel can be ignored. In this final step the analyses calculates the complete construction that’s been modelled. With this step it’s also possible to review the construction that acutely is exposed on the stresses.


Material Steel – [-]

Load Force per Area on Surface 2 [N/mm2]

Constrains Fixed on the Shell – [-]

Analyses NX Nastran Static and Buckling – [-]

Mesh size – 50 [mm]

Analysing calculation results






Asmus, K. (2001). Bijzondere Aspecten van de sterkte van Scheepsconstructies.

Hofman, G. E. (1994). Eindige elementen methode: HB Uitgevers.

Lambe, T. W., & Whitman, R. V. (1969). Soil Mechanics: Wiley.

Lewis, E. V. Principles of Naval Architecture (Second Revision), Volume I – Stability and Strength: Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME).

Okumoto, Y., Takeda, Y., Mano, M., & Okada, T. (2009). Strength Evaluation. In Y. Okumoto, Y. Takeda, M. Mano & T. Okada (Eds.), Design of Ship Hull Structures (pp. 33-80): Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Taggart, R., Architects, S. o. N., & Engineers, M. (1980). Ship design and construction: Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers.


Biglift. (2015). from

Chevron. (2015). Wheatstone project. Retrieved 04-03-2015, from

Rules and Regulations

Rules for Ships, Det Norske Veritas ?? Ch. 1 Sec. 1 (Det Norske Veritas 2009).

Internet Addiction in the Students of Fiji School Of Nursing and Its Impact on Academic Performances: online essay help

1. Introduction

1.1 Background

The world is advancing every day and with that advancement comes along new trends, inventories and creations that has been incorporated into the lifestyles of many people. One of the most astonishing creation of mankind has been the internet. Internet usage as increased drastically in the recent years. Internet is widely used for work, communication, shopping, entertainment and information. However, despite the benefits, the vast increase in internet usage has led to internet addiction in many people. Kim et al (2004), describes internet addiction as a compulsive need to spend a lot of time on the internet to the point where a person’s relationships, work and health suffers. Internet addiction is not only prevalent in developed countries such as South Korea, Japan and USA, where the technology and internet is readily available but also in developing countries such as Malaysia, India, China and even some Pacific Island countries where people recognizing the works of internet, possibly considering it to be a daily lifestyle necessity (Lee et al, 2014). Majority people in the developed countries have access to internet, young old, rich or poor, are frequently online, therefore internet addiction rates in developed countries are higher than developing countries (Wellman & Hogan, 2004). Internet addiction is likely to be present in our society as the number and size of internet uses are increasing per day, however the use of internet is influenced by the socio-economical gap because the poorer folks are not increasing their usage rate in comparison to the wealthier folks (Wellman & Hogan, 2004). It has been known that young adults, mostly college or university students are more likely to go online, then any other population. It has become common amongst the students to be Googling or Facebooking like it’s a daily activity such as eating or sleeping. Young (1996), has stated that addiction to internet is similar to being addicted to drugs, alcohol which ultimately result in academic, social and occupational impairment. The students with internet addiction tend to face severe academic performances since the amount of study time is spent on ‘surfing irrelevant websites, using social media and online gaming’ (Kandell, 1998).

1.2 Problem Statement

Internet addiction may be a new concept for the local societies but that does not mean it is not present. College or university life is known to bring in serious challenges in the lives of many students. Undergoing all these challenges makes the students exposed to the environment influences and one of them being internet addiction. According Mercola (2014), internet addiction or internet use disorder may not yet be defined as a mental disorder under the Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM-5), however many researchers have argued that Internet addiction may be a contributing factor towards or be a borderline addictive disorder. Various countries such as Korea, China and Taiwan has recognize the threat internet addiction brings about as a public health problem and are trying to address the problem (Lee et al, 2014). The purpose of this research is to investigate the existence of internet addictions among the local population of college students, particularly students of Fiji School of Nursing and to explore the relationship of internet addiction and its impact on the academic life of the students. Another reason is that people should be aware of the psychological impairment that is caused by internet addiction especially among the college students.

1.3 Literature Review

According to Byun et al (2008), internet addiction in any individual is assessed through five dimensions, compulsive use, withdrawal, tolerance, interpersonal and health problems, and time management issues. The researchers (Byun et al, 2008) discovered that there is relationship of internet addiction with interpersonal skills and personality and intelligence. It was stated that as an individual’s internet usage or internet addiction increases, then there would be an attention deficit, hyperactivity and impulsiveness increase. The Meta- analysis (Byun et al, 2008) discovered that increasing network capabilities contributes to social isolation and functional impairment of daily activities.

Moving on, Yen et al (2007) states that one of the causes of internet addiction is a result of family factors. Since families play a large role in adolescent development and socialization, family factors are one of the major risk factors for internet addiction. In a quantitative study conducted by Yen et al (2007), it was demonstrated that the negative attitude or behaviours of the families, such as parent- adolescent conflict, lower family function, alcohol use of siblings and abuse, all contribute toward internet addiction in adolescents. This research suggested that internet addiction may be a form of problematic behaviour and ineffective discipline and supervision and poor intrafamily relationships aid in the initiation of problematic behaviours.

On the other hand, Fu et al (2010), recognize internet addiction as a social problem where the people of younger ages are considered to be less self-regulated, coordinated or focused therefore they become more susceptible to media influences so easily. this study (Fu et al,2010) also states that out of 511 participants(students) from 439 households in Japan, 38% of them aged 16 ‘ 24 are categorized to be internet addicted.

One argument placed by Fu et al (2006) is that female students are likely to be addicted to internet. This statement is however, contradicted by Young (1996), Yen et al (2007), Liu & Kuo (2007) and Niemz et al (2005) stating that male students are more likely to be internet addicted. Niemz et al (2005) and Young (1996) state that internet addiction rate is higher in the males as they use internet to fuel their addictions of online gaming, gambling and pornography and unlike females, male find difficulty in admitting that they are facing problems.

Moving on to consequences of internet addiction. In an overview of internet addiction, Murali & George (2006) state that internet addiction affect many aspects of an individual’s life is through interpersonal, social, occupational, psychological and physical aspects. The negative impacts are known to be on the family and social life as the internet addicts tend to neglect regular family, social activities and interests. Also internet addiction also contributes to poor performances in schools and colleges. Psychosocial consequences include loneness, frustration, depression and suicidal tendencies. (Murali & George, 2006)

Further on, the main negative effect of internet addiction of college students lies on the academic performance. According to Akhter (2013), the academic problems by internet addiction include decline in study habits, significant drop in grades, missing classes, being placed on academic probation and poor management of extracurricular activities. Akhter (2013) suggested that university students are considered to be high risk groups of internet addicts because of their available free time, with no parent supervision and a need to escape the tough university life. Akhter (2013) used Young’s internet addiction test to conduct a survey on the undergraduates of National University of science and technology in Pakistan and concluded that 1 in every 10 university student is internet addicted and out of the internet addicted students, 65% of them are likely to fail or drop out of school.

Moving on, another research conducted by Anderson (2001) on college students concluded that excessive internet use of students results in sleep problems and reducing everyday activities which lead to academic failure. From the survey Anderson (2001) discovered that the average time a student is online in a day is for 100 minutes. She also stated that out of all the participants, 16% were confirmed with internet addiction and the total amount of time these students spend online was more 400 minutes. Even Young (1996) states that internet availability does not improve the academic performance of students and 58% of students’ participants in this researched showed signs of decline in study habits and low grades due to internet addiction and out of those participants 43% failed their annual examination.

2. Objectives and Aim

Aims: To find out about the impact of internet addiction on academic performances of the students of Fiji School of Nursing.


‘ To find out the factors associated with the internet addiction in students.

‘ To find out about the direct and indirect impacts of internet addiction on the students.

3. Methodology

3.1 Study type

The study type for this research is a descriptive quantitative study that will be carried out in Fiji School of Nursing. A quantitative study approach will assist in quantifying the relationship internet addiction has with the academic performance of the students. A descriptive study will aid in describing the actual relationship within the variables, and in this case with internet addiction and academic performance. The reason for choosing this study type is that the source of data chosen is questionnaires, as it will make it more effective in gathering data. Questionnaires is the best option for data collection as the students can complete the questions in their free time rather than trying to make time out for interview and such. Another reason questionnaire are best suited for this study is that the focus group of this study is based on a limited number of students.

Study design

This is a prospective cross- sectional study to clarify how internet addiction affects academic performances of students. The reason for choosing a prospective study is because it is an easier and efficient method of gathering data. Prospective study will aid in looking out for the occurrence of internet addiction among the students over a certain period of time and are able to observe the impact of internet addiction on the academic performance of the students. For choosing cross-sectional study, data will be collected from the students of Fiji School of Nursing at one given time and this will be used as the overall picture of the population.


Some of the variables that the study may include will be:

– The demographical data of students will be: age, gender, and ethnicity

– The number of students that use internet daily.

– The availability of technology to use internet: laptops, tablets, phone, school ICT.

– The number of cases of internet addiction among the students of Fiji school of Nursing.

– The academic performance/ grades of the students of Fiji school of nursing.

– The amount of time students spend studying in a day.

– The amount of data (estimation) a student uses in a month for internet usage.

3.2 Sampling

This study will be carried out in Fiji School of Nursing in Tamavua, Suva, Fiji Islands. A sample of undergraduate students from all the three years, students from each year, year one, year two and year three, of the said school will be recruited in the study. The participants are to be recruited voluntary, with both verbal and written consent given. For this research, stratified sampling technique is being used because from all of the student population of Fiji school of Nursing, year 1, 2, and 3 will be divided into two groups, group one (A) is consistent of students who have access to internet on a daily basis e.g. students with internet phones, laptops and tables. Group two (B) is consistent of students who do not have continuous access to internet on daily basis e.g. students who do not have smartphone or laptops. The questionnaires will be demonstrated amongst only group one (A), the students with access to internet on daily basis.

Inclusion Criteria: Students of Fiji School of Nursing who use internet daily through their internet phones, laptops, tablets or either through school library or ITC (Group A).

Exclusion Criteria: Students who do not use internet daily through smartphones, laptops, tablets, school library or ITC (Group B).

3.3 Plan for data collection

A structured and pre-tested questionnaire will be prepared and distributed among all the three year level of students of Fiji School of Nursing who fall under group one (A) category, those having access to internet on daily basis. The questionnaires will be based on the student’s lifestyle revolving around internet, how often the students use internet, through what means, how often do the students study and does internet usage clashes with their study time and what effect does daily usage of internet have on their grades. The data will be collected from April to June 2015. Informed consent, both oral and written will be taken from the students during the distribution of the questionnaires. The questionnaire will be typed and printed in English and a sample questionnaire will be attached in the annex of the proposal.

3.4 Plan for data processing and analysis

The data will be collected from the structured questionnaire distributes to the students and the questionnaires will be analyze using the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) for Windows version 21.0 software. SPSS is a programming statistical analysis that is used for managing, analyzing and presenting data.

Confidentiality will be maintained throughout the research, where all the personal data of the participants will be only accessible to the researchers only. The data will be analyzed numerically and quantified. The words will be transformed into quantitative categories through the process of coding. Then the numbers will be analyzed statistically to determine, for instance, the percentage of students facing academic problems due to internet addiction.

3.5 Ethical Consideration.

The ethical approval for carrying out this research will be obtained from the local research committee. Approval will be first send to the Department of research Committee of Fiji school of Nursing and then it will be send to the College of Health Research Ethics Committee and then forwarded to the Fiji National Research Ethics Review Committee. Once the approval for this research is given, a written permission will be asked from the head of School, Fiji School of Nursing, to seek permission to start data collection in the school.

Written and verbal consent will also be gathered from the participants upon distribution of questionnaires. Confidentiality will be maintain and the participants will be assured that no personal data such as name and address will be An information sheet will be given with the consent form, explaining what the research is about, what they are actually asked to participate in, what are the risks for participation and how they got selected to participate the research.

4. Work Plan

Activity M O N T H

March April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

Submission of research proposal to DRC

Submission to CHREC

Data collection

Data analysis

Report writing

Dissemination seminar

5. Budget

Expenses Total

1. Data collection and data entry-Research assistant F$80.00

2. Supplies- priniting questionnaires, stationaries, packaging box, F$80.00

3. Telecommunications F$10.00

4. Transport Allownace F$30.00

5. Data Analysis F$80.00

6. Publication F$100.00

Grand Total F$380.00

6. Plan for administration, monitoring, and utilization of results

The work plan will be strictly followed in order to complete the research, data collection and data analysis at the given time. The expenses will be kept within the budget and time and resources will be used wisely. The results will be presented in numeric and percentage form. The results will be presented through bar graphs, pie charts and line graphs. The final report with recommendations will be submitted to the Ministry of Health to the following departments:

‘ Research office, Ministry of Health

‘ Local and Pacific Regional Health research conference

‘ Tutors and students of the Fiji school of Nursing

‘ Presentation in Local Health research conference and symposium

Reference List

Akhter, N. (2013). Relationship between Internet Addiction and Academic Performance among University Undergraduates. Academic Journals, 8(19), 1793-1796. Retrieved from

Anderson, K. (2001). Internet Use Among College Students: An Exploratory study. Journal of American Health, 50(1), 20-28. Retrieved from

Byun, S., Ruffini, C., Mills, J. E., Douglas, A. C., Niang, M., Stepchenkova, S., Lee, S. K., … Blanton, M. (2009). Internet Addiction: Metasynthesis of 1996’2006 Quantitative Research. CYBERPSYCHOLOGY & BEHAVIOR, 12(2), 203-207. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/NishantSharma/Downloads/InternetAddictionMetaAnalysis-cpb.2008.0102.pdf.

Fu, K., Chan. W. C,. Wong. C. W. P, & Yip. P.W (2010). Internet addiction: prevalence, discriminant validity and correlates among adolescents in Hong Kong. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 196(6), 486-492. Retrieved on 8315 from

KANDELL, J. J. (1998). Internet Addiction on Campus: The Vulnerability of College Students. Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 1(1), 11-17. Retrieved on, 8315 from

Kim H. S, Chae K. C, Rhim Y. J, Shin Y. M. (2004). Familial Characteristics of Internet Overuse Adolescents. . Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors, 43(6), 733-739. Retrieved on 5315 from

Lee, J. Y., Shin, K. M., Cho, S., & Shin, Y. M. (2014). Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with Internet Addiction in Korea. Psychiatry Investigation, 11(4), 380-386. Retrieved on 8315 from

LIU, C., & KUO, F. (2007). A Study of Internet Addiction through the Lens of the Interpersonal Theory. CYBERPSYCHOLOGY & BEHAVIOR, 10(6), 801-804. Retrieved from

Mercola. (2014). Internet Addiction is the New Mental Health Disorder. Retrieved March 6, 2015, from – See more at:

Murali, V., & George, S. (2006). Lost online: an overview of internet addiction. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 13(1), 24-30. Retrieved on 5315 from

NIEMZ, K., GRIFFITHS, M., & BANYARD, P. (2005). Prevalence of Pathological Internet Use among University Students and Correlations with Self-Esteem, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and Disinhibition. Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 8(6), 562-568. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/NishantSharma/Downloads/PathologicalInternetUse_cpb.2005.8.pdf.

Wellman, B., & Hogan, B. (2004). The Immanent Internet. NetLab, Retrieved from, on 8315

YEN, J., YEN, C., CHEN, C., CHEN, S., & KO, C. (2007). Family Factors of Internet Addiction and Substance Use Experience in Taiwanese Adolescents. CYBERPSYCHOLOGY & BEHAVIOR, 10(3), 323-329. Retrieved on 8315 from

Young K. S. (1996). Internet addiction: the emergence of a new clinical disorder. CyberPsychology & Behavior. 1(3), 237-244. Retrieved on 8315 from,


Questionnaires: Internet Addiction in Students of FSN and its Impact on Academic Achievements


sex: m f

personal status:

student: yes: no:

if yes, what are you studying?

1. How many hours do you spend for surfing in one week?

2. How often do you find that you stay online longer than you intended?

3. How often do you neglect school work to spend more time online?

4. How often do others in your life complain to you about the amount of time

you spend online?

5. How often do your grades or school work suffer because of the amount of

time you spend online?

6. How often do you become defensive or secretive when anyone asks you what

you do online?

7. How often do you block out disturbing thoughts about your life with soothing

thoughts of the Internet?

8. How often do you find yourself anticipating when you will go online again?

9. How often do you fear that life without the Internet would be boring, empty,

and joyless?

10. How often do you snap, yell, or act annoyed if someone bothers you while

you are online?

11. How often do you lose sleep due to late-night log-ins?

12. How often do you try to cut down the amount of time you spend online and


13. How often do you try to hide how long you’ve been online?

14. How often do you choose to spend more time online over going out with


15. How often do you feel depressed, moody, or nervous when you are off-line,

which goes away once you are back online?

Multicultural competence

In the modern context today, demographic changes are becoming more prominent across the globe and this phenomenon suggests that multicultural counseling is inevitable. Hence, the importance of counselors’ multicultural competence, which refers to the ability to interact effectively to individuals that are culturally of socioeconomically different, cannot be overstated. For this instance, counselor would have to be multicultural competent in order to effectively communicate to client that comes from different culture. With that in mind, this essay I will further discuss the relevance of multicultural competence on the effectiveness of multicultural counseling.

Due to the increasing diversity of culture in the society, individuals seeking help from counselors could show up with various cultural backgrounds. In order to adapt to this arising situation, counselors are required to have an understanding of various way that culture could have an impact on the counseling relationship. For example, a male counselor might be casually greeting his client, who happens to be a female Muslim, with a handshake. Unaware of the Muslims’ cultural background where in males are not permitted to touch or give a handshake to the opposite gender, the counselor is actually performing a forbidden action. This lack of sensitivity to individuals’ cultural background can cause serious consequences, such as, individuals’ refusal to participate, which in turn hinder the development of counseling relationship (Ahmed, Wilson, Henriksen Jr., & Jones, 2011). Therefore, I believe that the counselors’ role have evolved with the diversity of culture, requiring them to be more cultural wary and provide multicultural guidance, in other words, being multicultural competent.

To further elaborate, multicultural competent is the fluency in more than one culture or specifically, whichever culture that the individual is currently in. Moreover, Sue and Sue (2012) defined multicultural competent counselor with three main dimensions. Firstly, being multicultural competence mean to be actively aware of their own assumption about behaviors, values or biases. Secondly, multicultural competence counselor attempts to understand from the perspective of a culturally different client. Lastly, multicultural counselors actively develop and practice intervention strategy when guiding client with different cultural background. All in all, being multicultural competence enables counselor to realize that standard counseling method might not be beneficial to client with different cultural background and also understand that culture is not to be hold accountable for clients’ problem.

However, despite being multicultural competent, cultural groups are not discrete, instead, cultural groups are overlapping. In today’s multicultural context, individuals ultimately acculturate to different culture, which results in a blurring difference between each individual. Furthermore, even if it were possible to classify every client into different subgroup, it would be an insurmountable task to be prepared for every possible client. Therefore, instead of emphasizing on the clients’ differences, Patterson (2004) suggested to employ a universal system that known as the person-centered approach. With reference from the person-centered approach, counselors’ role remains the same, as to assist and guide their client to reach goals and objective, however their focus have been shifted from having proper skill set or technique, being knowledgeable, informative and focuses more on genuinity, empathetic and shows unconditional positive regard (Raskin, Rogers, & Witty, 2008).

Even though it may be impossible to classify every client into a specific subgroup, multicultural training has shown to decrease implicit racial prejudice and increase cultural self-awareness (Castillo, Brossart, Reyes, Conoley, & Phoummarath, 2007). By increasing cultural self-awareness and acknowledging how culture could affect the process of counseling, this will enable the counselor to develop an empathic understanding towards their client. Moreover, by reducing racial prejudice, counselors refrain from judging clients based on their own values or cultural beliefs and also help clients reach goals and objectives without imposing their personal cultural values on clients. Whereas a typical counselor without multicultural competent are seen to be less empathic, lack of cultural-specific knowledge and may even seen as having racial stereotypes or biases (Chang & Berk, 2009). This feeling of mistrust towards the counselor would eventually lead to an undermined counselors’ credibility, which can have an impact on the counseling relationship.

In conclusion, with the numerous studies’ findings, I believe that multicultural competence could improve the effectiveness of counseling. As the society becomes more interconnected through the globalization process, multicultural competent counseling become increasingly important to address the issue that may surface from an array of cultural background. Although it may be difficult to identify which cultural group a particular client belongs to in order to practice specific intervention, being multicultural competent have shown to be generally increasing the effectiveness of counseling by decreasing implicit prejudice and increasing counselors’ self-awareness of personals’ values and clients’ values. Furthermore, focusing on the knowledge and skill set of the counselor, encourage counselor to be more problem-focused rather than emotion-focused, which might cause client to feel that the solution provided were not tailored to their specific life context. Therefore, despite the contrary, counselor who are multicultural competent would still yield benefits in the society today.

Young peoples' perceptions of smoking: college essay help near me

The world Health Organization (WHO 2014) recognises that engaging in risk behaviours, puts you at greater exposure of mortality and morbidity. A risk behaviour has been defined as something that intentionally or unintentionally puts that person at greater risk to themselves, of injury or disease. This essay will look at the risk of smoking in young people, including the health implications, epidemiology and prevalence. An age range of 12-21 year olds will be used when identifying literature. There will be a primary focus on policies and guidance for health improvement in Scotland. In addition legislation and reports from the whole of the UK will support the discussion of health improvement in young people. It will aim to analyse literature to try to determine the reasons why young people smoke, and also consider the rise in social media and electronic cigarettes. Furthermore, it will explore the context of care within schools and the community, and discuss health inequalities. Additionally, this essay will Identify and critique a recent Health improvement Campaign video, aimed at young people. The content and design of the video will be discussed in detail, to analyse the appropriateness for the target age group. Throughout the critique, it will make reference to underpinning models of behaviour change, and health improvement within Scotland and the UK.

Health improvement is at the forefront of Scotland’s current policies and aims. The mission is to build a healthier Scotland, focus on inequalities and develop actions that will improve the overall population health (NHS Scotland 2014a). Policies aim to support everyone in Scotland to live healthier and longer lives, delivered by quality healthcare. The government has set aside national approaches to target underlying causes of poor health, such as smoking (The Scottish Government 2010). The Scottish government recognises that smoking is still one of the leading causes of preventable deaths. It aims to make Scotland a smoke free generation, by targeting health promotion towards young people, in an effort to reduce poor health in later life (The Scottish Government 2008).

In Scotland, a quarter of all deaths are smoking related, with 56,000 people being admitted to hospital each year from smoking related illnesses (ASH 2014). This figure continues to put substantial strain on our national health service (ScotPHO 2012). Smoking increases the risk of Cancers, heart attacks, and stokes. It also worsens and prolongs conditions such as asthma and respiratory diseases (NHS 2013). Early exposure to harmful toxins in tobacco puts you at a greater risk of related cancers. Young smokers are also prone to short and long term respiratory conditions such as wheezing, coughing and phlegm. Girls, in particular, who start smoking at a younger age are 79% more likely to develop bronchitis or emphysema in later life, compared to those who began smoking in adult life (Home Office 2002). The total annual cost of treating smoking related illnesses in Scotland is estimated at around ??409 million. Consequently, one of the NHS Scotland’s heat targets for 2013/2014 was to deliver at least 80,000 successful quits before march 2014 (Gov 2014 Scotland Heat Targets).

A young person is classified by the World health organisation (WHO 2015) and the NHS as those ranging from ages 10 and 24 years old (NHS Health Scotland 2014c). Around 15,000 young people in Scotland start smoking each year (NHS health Scotland 2014b). Although this figure is high, the proportion of young people who have ever smoked, has dropped dramatically by half in the last decade. There has been an improved reduction from 42% of young people in 2003 smoking, to 22% in 2013 (ASH 2014). Evidence has shown that the younger a person begins to smoke, the more likely they are to continue during adulthood. This puts them at increased risk or morbidity and mortality in later life (RCP 2010). It has been discussed that risk behaviours can set life patterns, and similarly have long lasting negative future effects on the persons health and wellbeing (WHO 2015). Most smokers begin smoking before the age of 18, which is why health improvement in young people, is of high importance in the UK (The Information Centre 2006). The UK laws have changed considerably within the last decade in an effort to reduce smoking. In 2007, the legal age a person could purchase tobacco products was increased from the age of 16 to 18 years old (The Secretary of State for Health 2007). One year prior the UK parliament introduced the smoking ban, which prohibited smoking in any public premise (The Secretary of State for Health 2006). The main focus of this legislation, was the protection and health of young people. Early intervention is said to be one of the key areas in reducing mortality and morbidity for young people (Department of health 2013).

More recently, the government have highlighted new concerns about the rise in popularity of electronic cigarettes. There are fears that electronic cigarettes could normalise smoking, thus backtracking on the efforts of the past decade to de-normalise it (Britton and Bogdanovica 2014). There is a real debate on whether electronic cigarettes appeal to young people. Electronic cigarettes come in a variety of exciting flavours such as bubblegum and banana and are marketed in colourful and fun packages, that may be appealing to young people (Public health England 2015). Statistically, however, it has been shown that young people’s use of electronic cigarettes is primarily confined to those who are already experimenting with regular cigarettes (Office For National Statistics 2012). Electronic cigarette use is found to be rare amongst young people who have never smoked before (Ash 2014).

Although statistically the UK and Scotland have shown that smoking in young people seems to be on the decline, it is still clear that a sizable minority of young people still continue to start smoking (Ash 2014). In order to try to campaign for a smoke free nation, it is important to understand the reasons behind why young people smoke. It has been noted that young people are susceptible to what is attractive and risky. Like following fashion, media and the internet, young people want to be in with the crowd. Where you live plays a big role, alongside if your parents or friends smoke. To add to this, positive tobacco advertisement pave the wave for young people to see smoking at exciting and relatively normal (BMA Board of Science 2008). A recent report (Amos et al 2009) summarized their findings on the key reasons young people smoke. These included individual beliefs and self image, social factors such as parents or friends smoking, community factors and ease of access to tobacco. Gough et al (2009) conducted a focus group study. The study invited 87 males and females, aged between 16 and 24 years to talk about reasons for smoking. Although a relatively small study, the focus group found that young people understood smoking to be a rational decision. Although the young people had a very clear awareness of health issues, the majority did not link smoking in young age and health as something to be worried, about until they are ‘older’ (Gough Et al 2009). A larger study in Romania found strong peer influence, alongside lower self-efficiency to be the primary reason for smoking in 13 to 14 year olds (Lotrean 2012). The age range of 13 to 14 year old was not sufficient enough to make a valid argument for the term young people. The latter two of these studies also did not delve much into the connections of youth smoking, being associated with social deprivation. There still continues to still be a strong association of smoking alongside health inequalities. In Scotland it was found that smoking in the most deprived areas equated to 36% of the figures, with only 10% in the least deprived areas (ASH Scotland 2014). Health inequalities is at the heart of public health improvement. The overall health of the public seems to be improving, yet the inequalities of health have worsened and the gap has increased (Health development agency 2005). Other levels of influences noted were price, marketing and promotion, self esteem and values and beliefs (Edwards 2010). A person’s values and beliefs can also play a role in health behaviours.

When looking at health improvement in young people, it is important that everyone working in national and local government, healthcare, social care, and the school and education system all contribute (Department of Health 2012). It has been recognised that school plays a vital role in the education and promotion of young people’s health, to build knowledge of personal wellbeing . School nurses play an important role in health promotion and health education, and can be incredibly valuable members of staff for early intervention. It has been suggested that school nurses, may have a lifelong impact on a young person’s health in adulthood, through early intervention (RCN 2012).Current guidelines dictate that every school must have a no smoking policy. These policies should be widely available, and be visible all over the school so that young people are aware. Schools and school nurses should also support smoking cessation information in partnership with NHS services, and offer help, information and health education to young people on smoking (NICE 2010). However A systematic review of school interventions to stop young people smoking, found no significant effect of interventions in schools to discourage smoking. There was however positive data for interventions which taught young people how to be socially competent, and resist social influences. The strength of this study is the size of the systematic review, which included 134 studies and 428,293 participants. Two authors independently reviewed the data in order to compare and contrast the evidence. On the contrary bias may have been introduced at low level due to the high variability of outcome measures that were used. The trial looked at the age range of five to 18, which only addressed some of the focused age range of youths aged 12-20 (Thomas et al 2013).

Another systematic review and meta-analysis found strong associations between parental and sibling smoking, as a factor for Young people’s uptake of smoking themselves. The analyses confirmed that when young people are exposed to smoke in the household, the chances of them starting smoking themselves are significantly increased (Leonardi-Bee et al 2011). It can be debated therefore that education on health promotion should also start at home, and in communities. The earlier the interventions the more effective it is in preventing health damaging behaviours. Actions need to be taken into a social, environmental and economic level, as well as legislative factors (NICE 2007).

Current UK guidelines advise using a range of strategies to change young people’s perceptions of smoking, and promote health improvement. Resources include posters, leaflets, campaigns and creating new opportunities from arising social media. All of which in an effort to alert young people of the dangers of smoking (NICE 2010). In November 2014 Cancer Research UK launched a UK-wide campaign via YouTube. The video urges young people to use social media, to protest against the tobacco industry (Cancer research 2014). The YouTube video features UK recognised Olympic gold medallist Nicola Adams, and music star wretch 32. The video tells the tobacco industry that young people are no longer puppets on a string and will not be contributing to their industry profits, which make more than coca cola, McDonalds and Microsoft combined. It invites young people to take a ‘selfie’ giving two fingers up to the tobacco industry and post it via twitter and Facebook. The campaign is also supported by UK tobacco control agency ASH. As of March 2015 the YouTube video has received almost a quarter of a million views in just 4 months.

We are currently in a new digital age where social media, and technology are part of daily life for young people. If the government are serious about reaching out to young people they need to step into the new social media and technology world of young people, and fully embrace it (nicholson 2014). The YouTube video by Cancer research aims to get to the very heart of young people, by doing just that. This resource is accessible and approachable for young people, as users can view in privacy, watch on their mobile phones or with friends. The language in the video is very focused on connecting with young people. The video uses words such as “selfie”, “coca cola”, “McDonalds” and “Hashtag”. These are modern words and brands that most young people will recognise. The video is also empowering and revolutionary with inspiring words such as “connected”, “informed” and “talk back”, thus creating a positive message that our generation is smarter, and makes better choices. “Be a part of it” is a phrase near the end, which creates a feeling of wanting to be part of something, and in a group. Recent social media statistics for the UK (Social Media Today 2014) show Facebook now has 31.5 million users, and Twitter has 15 million users. Social media can provide health promotion opportunities for patients, and be used as a communication tool for nurses. Social media can be incredibly powerful), however as professional nurses we must also adhere to professional boundaries (Farrelly 2014) such as NMC guidance for misuse of the internet (NMC 2009).

In order to change risk behaviours, it has been noted that Key elements for success include using resources that are targeted and tailored to the specific age and gender. Similarly alternative choices to risk behaviours should be given, rather than just simply telling an individual to do something (Health Development Agency 2004). The video is encouraging to young people, as the content has connotations of choice.

The YouTube video is unlike current leaflets and posters promoting anti-smoking messages to young people. Instead of listing shock tactics and diseases associated with smoking, it is instead focusing on trying to make smoking sound ridiculous from a financial point of view. It does this by expressing how much money the tobacco industry makes. The characters in the video are relatable, with varying genders and accents. This broadens the appeal of the campaign, instead of focusing on just one target group. The video also asks viewers to upload a picture of themselves to social media, giving the fingers up to the tobacco industry and using the hashtag #smokethis. This appeals to young people, who use social media nowadays as a way of spreading messages and connecting to others. A leaflet or poster may not have the same effect, as there is no social interaction. A twitter or Facebook post, however, can be shared and viewed worldwide. This enables young people to feel like they have a voice and a sense of empowerment. Social media is powerful. Although the video is about promoting anti-smoking, it may also be accessible for young people to share worldwide in negative forms. The hashtag #smokethis has recently been used showing young people uploading photos of themselves smoking both cigarettes and cannabis, in rebellion.

The world health organisation identified key underlying principles of health promotion in their Health for All and Health 21 movements (WHO 1999). These included equity, empowerment, participation, co-operation and primary care. The #Smokethis campaign encompassed both empowerment and participation. The video encourages participation by social media, and empowerment by standing up for something. A new revised health improvement model by Tannahil (2005) suggests that one of the biggest factors in health promotion is social and economic factors. The video encompasses both by showing how much money is wasted on the tobacco industry. It is also relevant to his earlier model of health improvement where he mentions the importance of health education and prevention. This video is very much preventative, in that it is trying to prevent the uptake of young smokers.

Cancer research have been clever in taking a new social media approach. In 2010, (Jepson et al 2010) did a study. They found that although some evidence suggests that media interventions may be effective in reducing the uptake of smoking in young people, the overall evidence was not strong. It would be interesting to see the findings of a more recent study, given the rise of social media in the last 5 years.

The main theme of the video is to try to recruit 100,000 young people to not start smoking this year. It is estimated that in the whole of the UK, 207,000 young people start smoking each year (Hopkinson 2013). Given this figure, if it were possible to half the amount of young people who start smoking each year, it would have a dramatic impact on the relevance for clinical practice. Not only would it decrease the amount of admissions in GP practices for symptoms such as coughing and wheezing, it would also have an incredible effect on later life hospital admissions such as heart disease, stokes and cancers.

The only negative about this video is that there is also the possibility for young people to share pictures of themselves smoking online, as a rebellious stance. This may influence the views of other young people. Is it still does not address the issue of health inequalities and community factors either, which remains an issue in the background as a reason for smoking. It has been well documented by the 1980 The Black Report to show that those in a lower social class have a higher risk of illness and premature death than those in a higher class. Rates of substance abuse are also higher (Department of Health 1980). As well as health promotion online and UK campaigns, there still needs to be community, social, school and family interventions to tackle those who are less deprived. An example is a study by Bond et all (2011), in which they found residents in disadvantaged areas of Glasgow had higher rates of smoking, and less likelihood of quitting smoking. The study found that area with better housing had better rates of quitting suggesting that your environment plays a key part in your health.

As a whole, the Cancer Research video is inventive, modern and appropriate for the target age range. It is easily accessible and creates discussion and the opportunity to be involved in something. Mass media campaigns can promote health improvement. However, there still needs to be approaches such as family, community and school interventions to address health inequalities and social circumstances affecting behaviour. The statistics have shown a steady decline in young people smoking, which is encouraging. The UK is currently in the process of introducing plain packaging on all tobacco products, in a further effort to discourage people from smoking (Barber and Conway 2015).

Statistically the UK and Scotland show that each year, fewer young people begin smoking. Despite the efforts of the government, legislation and regulations may not always discourage young people from smoking. As the UK prepares for further legislation to introduce plain tobacco packaging, it is evident that it is becoming increasing more difficult for young people to access tobacco. It is indisputable however that social factors, peer pressure and health inequalities continue to be an underlying cause of risk behaviours. There is also some contrasting literature on whether health promotion in schools can discourage young people smoking. Despite this, best practice would suggest early intervention is better than no intervention. Social media is on the rise and is quickly becoming a daily habit for young people. They use is to connect, talk, share and interact. It is constantly changing and requires healthcare professionals to be up to date on it. More recent studies would be beneficial to determine the effect of health improvement interventions via YouTube and Facebook. It could potentially become one of the biggest communication tools, for nurses in future practice when looking to get the heart of young people.

A Report on E-Commerce Industry: essay help site:edu

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry

Executive Summary

Following report has been made on the ‘Indian E-commerce Industry’. All the data has been collected from the internet, research papers and surveys. The e-commerce is one of the biggest things that have taken the Indian business by storm. It is creating an entire new economy, which has a huge potential and is fundamentally changing the way businesses are done. It has advantages for both buyers as well as sellers and this win-win situation is at the core of its phenomenal rise. Rising incomes and a greater variety of goods and services that can be bought over the internet is making buying online more attractive and convenient for consumers all over the country.

The report gives information on different aspects of the Indian E-commerce industry. For simplicity it is divided into various chapters.

Chapter 1 ‘ Introduces to the Indian E-commerce industry and defines its importance to the economy. The objective of the study is set in this chapter.

Chapter 2 – Briefs about the Global and Indian scenario. Comparison of U.S and Indian E-commerce

Chapter 3 ‘ Provides a brief insight into the Structure of the industry with the HHI index the Chapter 4 ‘ Has the macro environmental analysis of E-Commerce industry which includes the PESTEL analysis.

Chapter 5 – Briefs the Competitive analysis using Porters 5 Forces.

Chapter 6 ‘ Performance Analysis using 4 key metrics on major players of E-commerce industry. Also included the Internet users traffic comparison on top 10 e-commerce sites in India.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry




A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


1.1 Introduction

Since from few years, Growth of internet has changed the world in terms of expectations of

the consumer and consumer behaviour. Online websites for product purchasing concentrate

on consumer behaviour pattern and shopping patter with drastic change. Company are now a

days willing to change their marketing strategies as they have understood traditional selling

practices won’t work with changing technology world.

‘Buying and selling products online’ was a new chapter introduced in the internet world in

year 1991. played a significant role to create a revolution in the online ecommerce.

Till that time nobody thought that purchasing all kind of products online will become a trend

in world and India will share a good part of success. In the late 1990’s,

and gave a first-hand experience for Indians towards E-retail.

Initially when it use to come for weekly shopping of groceries, clothes, shoes and cosmetics,

majority of the people preferred to get into their cars and drive to the supermarket to get the

groceries, shops or malls for other basic products. Now it is becoming common news that

people even buy their groceries online in India.

1.2 Business Model of E-commerce Industry

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


Deals Websites

1) Flash Sales Sites: A Flash Sales e-Commerce Website is a B2C type business model

where the website sells the products directly to the end customers. They normally

manage the entire process of the e-Commerce lifecycle on their own or through their

partners and the consumer make the payment directly to the business owning and

managing the website. The consumers take the benefit of huge discounts, which at

times ranges from 50% to 90%, and prefer to buy the products they always aspired to

own. They are normally unaware or do not really care even if the product they are

buying from such websites are obsolete or no longer in fashion.

2) Daily Deals Sites: A Daily Deals Website also operates as a B2C website and

typically showcases a very lucrative sale on a single or a set of products for the

customers. Unlike the Flash Sales website, such a deal is time bound (usually for a

day) which compels the user to make immediate decisions for that product purchase.

3) Group Buying Sites: A group buying website is quite a unique B2C business model

where the website invites the buyers to buy the products / services at a discounted or

at a wholesale price. Like the Daily Deals site, the products advertised on the group

buying sites are also time bound, but usually not limited to a day.

Online Subscriptions

An online subscription website works in a similar manner like an offline subscription

for any kind of service. Such websites showcase the entire catalogue of subscription

options for the users to choose from and subscribe online.


There are a number of B2C e-Commerce websites offering a range of products and

services to customers across different brands and categories. Such websites buy the

products from the brands or their distributors and sell to the end customer on market

competitive prices. Though their modus operandi is same like a flash sales website,

but their business objective is to offer the latest products to the end customers online

at the best possible prices.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry



Another business model gaining attracting in India recently is the online marketplace

model which enables the buyers get in touch with the sellers and makes a transaction.

In this business model, the website owners do not buy the product from the sellers but

act as mediators to facilitate the entire e-commerce transaction. They do assist the

sellers in various services like payment collection, logistics, etc. but do not prefer to

hold inventory in their own warehouse.

1) C2C Marketplace

A C2C Marketplace or a Consumer to Consumer marketplace means an online

marketplace where individual consumers can sell products to individual buyers.

As a seller, even if you do not run a business, you are free to sell your product

through such marketplace to the end customers.

2) B2C Marketplace

A B2C Marketplace or a Business to Consumer marketplace means an online

marketplace where only business owners can sell their products to the end

customer. The process is more or less the same like that of a C2C Marketplace

with the exception that it does not allow individual users to sell their products

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


online. Best example of this kind of a website would be which has

now become a B2C Marketplace.

3) B2B Marketplace

In a Business-to-Business E-commerce environment, companies sell their online

goods to other companies without being engaged in sales to consumers. B2B web

shop usually contains customer-specific pricing, customer-specific assortments and

customer-specific discounts. and TATA groups are few

popular sites in India.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


Exclusive Brand Stores

This is the latest business model of its kind recently started in India. In this business

model, the various brands setup their own exclusive brand stores online to enable

consumers buy directly from the brand. A few examples of brands operating through

an Exclusive Online Brand Store are Lenovo, Canon, Timex, Sennheiser, HP,

Samsung, etc.

1.3 Role of Internet in E-Commerce

Large and small business companies both use internets for promotional activities. Some of

the advantages of E-Commerce are:-

1. Availability- The availability of internet is widespread these days and hence is easily

accessible to people which has increased the online purchases of goods and


2. Open to All- Internet open page allows everyone to access and transact from any

global location. Moreover it provides an extension of product choice to the customers

which in turn is not possible at local retail stores, etc .

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


3. Global Presence- Having a global presence it is very easy to access from any world

location just by having a laptop and an internet connection. All such happenings have

encouraged E-Commerce as any commodity is just a step away from oneself.

4. Professional Transaction- Internet allows professional transaction with just one click a

professionalism that consists of decision making.

5. Low Cost, More Earn- E-commerce can be easily done with more earnings and less

expenses. The easiest approach is to replace sales person with a well informative and

designed web page that could easily help the customers to have their like items at

their doorsteps with a click of a mouse.

1.4 Changes due to online shopping in India

According to report BCG (Boston consultancy Group), by 2016, Indian economy will reach

$10.8 trillion. In global chart India’s rank is 8th. India ranks top in services and china occupies

top position in goods in terms of export through internet. As of now, June 2014, India has

user base of about 250.2 million. It is estimated that by 2024-26, e-commerce market in India

will be $260 billion.

At an Exponential rate, E-commerce is growing in India. According to recent online retailing

report by Forrester, twenty eight percentage of growth is experienced by every retailer year

after year in 2012. As per the study digital consumers spend alomostaround$1.46 billion on

cyber cafes. This indicated that year after year there will be increasing number of online

users. Consumer behaviour is one of the biggest reasons of e-commerce boom in India.

Major reasons for online shopping growth in India

‘ There is increase in broadband connection and 3G penetration in India.

‘ Much wider range of products are available then what is available in brick and mortar


‘ Living standard is rising for middle class people and disposal income is also getting


A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


‘ Online products are usually available at discount which is less than the products

available in normal shops.

‘ Lack of time and busy lifestyle for offline shopping.

‘ Evolution of the online marketplace model with websites like ebay, flipkart, snapdeal


‘ Takes less time for purchasing as there is no need to stand in the queues which usually

done in offline shopping.

1.5 Advantages of E-Commerce

‘ With E-Commerce as an alternative shopping is no longer a barrier for the customers

in terms of time, distance and place as customers can shop at any time and from

anywhere they prefer to.

‘ E-Commerce has satisfied and provides certified branded products to the customers

that even typical Indian customers are ready to buy products such as clothes, shoes,

etc. without even touching or trying them for fitness.

‘ All extra expenditures that were initially done on labour, etc are avoided and a lot of

funds get saved.

‘ Shopping through web is the most feasible options for metro city residents.

‘ Transaction time has reduced.

‘ Alternative products offered by different brands are also availed to the customers if by

chance the current product in a particular brand is unavailable.

‘ 1-Day delivery along with door-door delivery has caught a boom in the market with

the evolution of E-Commerce.

1.6 Disadvantages of E-Commerce

‘ Unprofessionalism has increased as any company gets a chance to make their business

portal out of trust or belief.

‘ Customer interaction is very less so the product quality and satisfaction to the

customer remains a matter for concern.

‘ Hackers and crackers are day in and day out searching for a chance to hack into

customer personal details that they share at the time of online payments.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


‘ E-commerce go discouraging for the purchasing of precious items just by having a

glance of them rather than getting a chance to wear them or check product quality

such as jewellery etc.

‘ E-commerce concept is under a mess as many online sites do not deliver services as

promised at the time of placing the order.

‘ Authenticity for the product is untrustworthy.


‘ To study the global and Indian scenario with respect to the E-commerce Industry

‘ To study the structure of the Indian E-commerce industry

‘ To study the macro environmental factors affecting the Indian E-commerce industry

‘ To analyze the industry using Porters 5 Forces

‘ To study the performance of major players in the industry

‘ To compare the U.S and Indian E-commerce industry

‘ To study the future opportunities and prospective growth in the industry

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry





A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


2.1 Status of the global e-commerce industry

Middle class in many of the developing countries, including India, is rapidly embracing

online shopping. However, India falls behind not only US, China and Australia in terms of

Internet density, but also countries like Sri Lanka and Pakistan. Sri Lanka has an internet

penetration of 15 percent. Better internet connectivity and the presence of an internet-savvy

customer segment have led to growth of e-commerce in Sri Lanka with an existing market

size of USD 2 billion. Pakistan, with an internet penetration of 15 percent has an existing

market size of consumer e-commerce of USD 4 billion. Incidentally FDI in inventory-based

consumer ecommerce is allowed in both these countries. (IAMAI-KPMG report, September


A.T. Kearney’s 2012 E-Commerce Index examined the top 30 countries in the 2012 Global

Retail Development Index’ (GRDI). Using 18 infrastructure, regulatory, and retail-specific

variables, the Index ranks the top 10 countries by their e-commerce potential.

Following are some other major findings of the Index:

i) China occupies first place in the Index. The G8 countries (Japan, United States, United

Kingdom, Germany, France, Canada, Russia, and Italy) all fall within the Top 15.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


ii) Developing countries feature prominently in the Index. Developing countries hold 10 of

the 30 spots, including first-placed China. These markets have been able to shortcut the

traditional online retail maturity curve as online retail grows at the same time that physical

retail becomes more organized. Consumers in these markets are fast adopting behaviors

similar to those in more developed countries.

iii) Several “small gems” are making an impact. The rankings include 10 countries with

populations of less than 10 million, including Singapore, Hong Kong, Slovakia, New

Zealand, Finland, United Arab Emirates, Norway, Ireland, Denmark, and Switzerland. These

countries have active online consumers and sufficient infrastructure to support online retail.

iv) India is not ranked. India, the world’s second most populous country at 1.2 billion, does

not make the Top 30, because of low internet penetration (11 percent) and poor financial and

logistical infrastructure compared to other countries.

It is seen that countries making in the top list of the table of e-commerce have required

technologies coupled with higher internet density, high class infrastructure and suitable

regulatory framework. India needs to work on these areas to realize true potential of ecommerce

business in the country.

2.2 Comparison of E-Commerce in US and India

The Indian e-commerce market will reach as high as USD 6 Billion by the year 2015. This

implies that if we compare the e-commerce market with the statistics from the year 2014,

there is a substantial growth of 70%. It is evident that India is slowly becoming like the US in

the area of e-commerce.

It is stated that India has started doing well in the market of e-commerce because of the

growing number of people who have access to mobile Internet. Broadband usage has

increased by about three times in the last two years (2013 & 2014).

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


2.2.1 Cash on Delivery (COD) system in India

Cash on Delivery is an Indian thing. US consumers mainly transact online using Credit Cards

or through PayPal. Indians are known to be price sensitive. Even though with heavy

discounting e-retailers are trying to lure them to buy online, consumers are still wary of

making prepaid orders.

The situation is different in US. Even though the discounting games continue, users generally

go with prepayment. This is also because the penetration of credit cards and electronic

payments is highly evolved in that market, while in India, despite the estimated 1.252 billion

strong population of India, only 18.8 million credit cards existed in the country, with

approximately 331 million debit cards till last year. The popularity of CoD is directly

dependent on the trust issues consumers have on the online retailers.

2.2.2 Offers and excitement created among customers

The trend of mega online shopping festivals started in the West. From offline trends of

Macy’s Day parade and Black Friday to taking these festivals online, and creating further

new trends like Cyber Monday.

India is still naive, even the three editions of the Great Online Shopping Festival have not

been able to make the impact they were expected to. The festive season of Diwali is a time

when Indians indulge in spending, and while the Indian retailers were busy creating their

respective versions of ‘mega sales’, US based Amazon was the first to step on this

opportunity with ‘Diwali Dhamaka Sale’. Also, the consumer shopping behaviour is different

in the two countries.

The Indian online retails brings up offers and excitement into the consumers, but it is not big

like how it is in US.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


2.2.3 Type of Product that People Buy Online.

Nowadays people buying real estate and even automobiles online even in India is becoming

common. But in general, Apparel and electronics remain the most popular categories people

buy online, and the same is seen in the US as well. These two categories dominate both the


An area where India is lacking is online grocery retail. Grocery retail and logistics is highly

evolved in US. In India, it was a taboo, and wasn’t touched for a long time even though the

sentiment was strong. Players are emerging now in this segment, with start-up’s like

BigBasket, LocalBanya etc. and mature players like Reliance Fresh taking the lead.

The local Indian ‘banya’ is still stronger than online stores. The unorganised retail in India is

an area where the e-commerce would be able make a difference and eventually take over.

2.2.4 Logistics and Regulations

The logistics infrastructure is still not up to the mark in India. While India Post is doing a

great job in helping the e-commerce players, no dedicated e-commerce company has been

able to scale up its operations to reach all the postal codes. The penetration of internet in

India is 18% as against 87% in US, is a big hindrance.

When it comes to technology, site crashes, issues in ERP systems etc. are commonly heard

things in India. Whereas in US, the technology is very strong.

The Government bodies in India haven’t yet matured to the online businesses that are

operational. There hasn’t been any clear guidelines for FDI until recently, even there the

Government has decided to treat both online and offline retail alike. Some of the other online

marketplace keeps running into warehousing policy issues. The heavy discounting is another

questionable area, since the Government has clear guidelines for Maximum Retail Price,

there is no lower bar set.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry





A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry



A commonly accepted measure of market concentration. It is calculated by squaring the

market share of each firm competing in a market, and then summing the resulting numbers.

The HHI number can range from close to zero to 10,000.

The HHI is expressed as: HHI = S1^2 + S2^2 + S3^2 + … + Sn^2 (where Sn is the market

share of the Ith firm) the closer a market is to being a monopoly, the higher the market’s

concentration (and the lower its competition).

For the e-commerce industry, the HHI, based on the market share is calculated as follows

Company Sales(in cr) market


HHI index

Flipkart 2846.13 53.89683186 2904.868484

Jabong 202 3.82525044 14.63254093

Myntra 441.58 8.362148958 69.92553519

Snapdeal 830 15.7176132 247.0433646

Amazon 168.99 3.20014392 10.24092111

Ebay 107 2.02624652 4.105674961

naptol 460 8.710966349 75.88093474

Yebhi 120 2.272426004 5.163919944

Yepme 80 1.514950669 2.295075531

bewakoof 25 0.473422084 0.22412847

total sales 5280.7 100 3334.38058





The HHI can have a theoretical value ranging from close to zero to 10,000. If there exists

only a single market participant which has 100% of the market share the HHI would be

10,000. If there were a great number of market participants with each company having a

market share of almost 0% then the HHI could be close to zero.

‘ When the HHI value is less than 100, the market is highly competitive.

‘ When the HHI value is between 100 and 1000, the market is said to be not concentrated.

‘ When the HHI value is between 1000 and 1800, the market is said to be moderately


‘ When the HHI value is above 1800, the market is said to be highly concentrated.

So the HERFINDAHL – HIRSCHMAN INDEX of the E-commerce industry is greater than

1800. Hence it is highly concentrated.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry




A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry



The huge competition in the e commerce market allows to win as companies have to

keep their prices in check to attract buyers.

Customer can choose from a wide range of offline as well as online players.

Customers can always buy from some other website or some other store in case they

are not satisfied with any one player

Buyers in this industry are customers who purchase products online. Since this

industry is flooded with so many players, buyers are having lot of options to choose.

Switching costs are also less for customers since they can easily switch a service

from one online retail company to other one. Same products will be displayed in

several online retail websites. So, product differentiation is almost low. So, all these

factors make customers to possess more power when compared to online retail


Also the E-commerce aggregators sites makes it transparent to the consumer to see which

site offers the product in the least price

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


4.1.1 Bargaining Power of Buyers

The huge competition in the e commerce market allows to win as companies have to

keep their prices in check to attract buyers.

Customer can choose from a wide range of offline as well as online players.

Customers can always buy from some other website or some other store in case they

are not satisfied with any one player

Buyers in this industry are customers who purchase products online. Since this

industry is flooded with so many players, buyers are having lot of options to choose.

Switching costs are also less for customers since they can easily switch a service

from one online retail company to other one. Same products will be displayed in

several online retail websites. So, product differentiation is almost low. So, all these

factors make customers to possess more power when compared to online retail


Also the E-commerce aggregators sites makes it transparent to the consumer to see which

site offers the product in the least price

4.1.2 Bargaining Power of suppliers

Tens of millions of sellers list their products on ecommerce marketplaces; hence

their individual bargaining power is limited.

However, sellers can also list their products on multiple platforms and sites,

including Amazon, and various international e-commerce sites. Hence, if

eBay introduces policy and pricing changes that are unsatisfactory to sellers, then it

could result in lower number of product listings on its marketplace.

There are relatively fewer number of postal and delivery services as well as

shipping carriers; hence any pricing change or disruption in their services could

hamper eBay’s ability to deliver products on time. Hence, these carriers hold some

bargaining power.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


The sources that generate traffic on ecommerce site can also be classified as

suppliers. Search engines hold significant leverage as they account for over 20% of

traffic on eBay if we account for both organic and paid search (according to Similar

Web estimates). Changes in Google SEO (search engine algorithm) have a negative

impact on traffic. eBay’ seller marketplace model leads to large amounts of

unstructured data on the site, which is detrimental to its SEO efforts.

Additionally, several referring sites such as, and social

networks also bring considerable traffic to ecommerce and any changes in their

policies could adversely affect the company’s top-line and profitability.

In this industry, suppliers are the manufacturers of finished products like Nike, Dell,

Apple etc. Online retail companies sell various products ranging from books to

computer accessories to apparels to footwear. Since there are many suppliers for any

particular category, they can’t show power on online retail companies. For example,

if you take computers category, there are many suppliers like Dell, Apple, Lenovo,

and Toshiba who wants to sell their products through these online retail companies.

So, they won’t be having power to control the online retail companies. Online

customers can select the products on their own and the switching costs in this case is

zero. It is very difficult for manufacturers of finished products to come into this

industry because of challenges in Logistics. Online retail industry is important to

suppliers because it acts as one of the channel to sell the products. Now, with most

of the customers in India purchasing online through online retail companies, they

can’t afford to lose this channel. So, they can’t dictate terms with online retail

companies. So, in this industry the supplier power is low.

4.1.3 Competitive Rivalry within the Industry

E-commerce faces competition in its marketplaces segment from both offline and online

players. Customers can buy products from a wide range of retailers, distributors,

auctioneers, directories, search engines, etc and hence the competition is intense.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


Various factors such as price, product selection and services influence the purchasing

decision of customers. E-commerce companies frequently engage in price-based

competition to woo buyers, which limits their ability to raise prices.

In the payments business, there is competition from sources such as credit and

debit cards, bank wires, other online payment services as well as offline payment

mechanisms including cash, check, money order or mobile phones.

Considering the entry of newer players such as Apple Pay and Alibaba, the

competition is expected to heighten in the online payments space.

Competition is very high in this industry with so many players like Flip kart,

Myntra, Jabong, Snap deal, Amazon, India plaza, Homeshop18 etc.

4.1.4 Threat of New Entrants

Given the nature of the business, there is always a threat of new entrants as it is

relatively less costly to enter the market and setup operations. There is no additional

cost incurred to set up any physical stores and locations. In addition, traditional

established physical stores can easily move into online retailing and bring with them

their substantial consumer base. These stores such as Target or Wal-Mart, already enjoy

economies of scale, have recognizable brands and a strong supply chain. So they do

pose strong competition to Amazon.

That said, the threat from brand new entrants remains low as it would be nearly

impossible for a new company to match the cost advantages, economies of scale and

variety of offering as These advantages will deter most brand new

entrants to the market.

Substantial Economies of Scale

Ecommerce like Amazon works with over 10,000 vendors and boasts an impressive 75

percent repeat purchasers. Its market capitalization is substantially ahead of its nearest


A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


First Mover Advantage

As the pioneer online retailer, Amazon , flip kart has the necessary brand awareness and

credibility as a strong reliable presence in the market.

Massive product Variety

Way beyond a bookstore now, , Flipkart provides any type of product

there is in its online stores. This means that there is a strong supplier base relationship

that cannot be replicated. In addition, as a bookseller and a provider of other

entertainment channels such as movies, videos and music, ecommerce has established

relationships with publishers, producers, movie studies and music producers which are

not easy to form and replicate.

The e-commerce market is characterized by low barriers to entry. It is relatively easy

for newer players to enter the market and start selling products. Having said that, it’s

difficult for newer players to gain brand recognition and attain high ranking on search


Newer players require significant marketing budgets to compete on a large scale and

this restricts entry of newer players to an extent.

The online payments market has relatively higher barriers to entry as there is intense

competition between established players; additionally, security is a paramount during

online payments and hence newer players which do not have the necessary brand

recognition will find it difficult to attract new customers.

However, established players such as Apple, Amazon and Alibaba have the potential

to make a dent in PayPal’s strong market position.

‘ Indian government is going to allow 51% FDI in multi-brand online retail and

100% FDI in single brand online retail sooner or later. So, this means foreign

companies can come and start their own online retail companies.

‘ There are very less barriers to entry like less amount of money required to start a

business, less amount of infrastructure required to start business. All you need is

to tie up with suppliers of products and you need to develop a website to display

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


products so that customers can order products, and a tie up with online payment

gateway provider like bill desk.

‘ Industry is also going to grow at a rapid rate. It is going to touch 76 billion $ by

2021. Industry is going to experience an exponential growth rate. So, obviously no

one wants to miss this big opportunity.

4.1.5 Threat of substitute products

The threat of substitutes for ecommerce is high. The unique characteristic Amazon has is

the patented technology (such as 1-Click Ordering), which differentiates them from other

possible substitutes. However, there are many alternatives providing the same products

and services, which could reduce Amazon’s competitive advantage. Therefore, Amazon

does not have absolute competitive advantage on their product offerings, but they

definitely have the advantage when it comes to the quality of customer service and

convenience provided.

There is no technology that can substitute the Internet so far in the market. Even, analog

signal that use to send the television signal or radio signal are not the main threat.

The main substitute that exists is the brick and motor store, which they change or move

their place to be on the Internet. Therefore, the e-commerce industry has low threat of

substitutions. When we compare relative quality, relative price of product that he/she

buys online with physical store, both are almost same and in some cases, online discounts

will be available which makes customers to buy products online.

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Porters 5 Force Model of E-Commerce Industry

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A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry



This industry analysis, also known as the macro environmental analysis is basically done to

determine the conditions in which the industry is operating in. The analysis of these factors

becomes very important for a company operating in that particular industry for the growth

and sustenance.


E-commerce has introduced many changes in the Indian consumers and customers. However,

e-commerce in India has also given rise to many disputes by the consumers purchasing the

products from e-commerce websites. In fact, many e-commerce websites are not following

Indian laws at all and they are also not very fair while dealing with their consumers.

Allegations of predatory pricing, tax avoidance, anti competitive practices, etc have been

levelled against big e-commerce players of India. As a result, disputes are common in India

that is not satisfactorily redressed. This reduces the confidence in the e-commerce segment

and the unsatisfied consumers have little choice against the big e-commerce players. At a

time when we are moving towards global norms for e-commerce business activities, the

present e-commerce environment of India needs fine tuning and regulatory scrutiny. In fact,

India is exploring the possibility of regulation of e-commerce through either Telecom

Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) or through different Ministries/Departments of Central

Government in a collective manner.

It is obvious that e-commerce related issues are not easy to manage. E-commerce disputes

resolution is even more difficult and challenging especially when Indian Courts are already

overburdened with court cases. Of course, establishment of e-courts in India and use of online

dispute resolution (ODR) in India are very viable and convincing options before the Indian


Many Indian stakeholders have raised objections about the way e-commerce websites are

operating in India. These websites are providing deep discounts that have been labeled as

predatory by offline traders and businesses. Further, Myntra, Flipkart, Amazon, Uber, etc

have already been questioned by the regulatory authorities of India for violating Indian laws.

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Laws regulating ecommerce in India are still evolving and lack clarity. Favorable regulatory

environment would be key towards unleashing the potential of ecommerce and help in

efficiency in operations, creation of jobs, growth of the industry, and investments in back-end

infrastructure. Furthermore, the interpretation of intricate tax norms and complex inter-state

taxation rules make ecommerce operations difficult to manage and to stay compliant to the

laws. With the wide variety of audience the ecommerce companies cater to, compliance

becomes a serious concern. Companies will need to have strong anti-corruption programs for

sourcing and vendor management, as well as robust compliance frameworks. It is important

for the E-Commerce companies to keep a check at every stage and adhere to the relevant

laws, so as to avoid fines.Myntra, Flipkart and many more e-commerce websites are under

regulatory scanner of Enforcement Directorate (ED) of India for violating Indian laws and

policies. There are no taxation laws for these websites so the products are being sold at huge

discounts in these sites. Some of the major causes not keeping taxation laws over ecommerce

are that the government is not having proper knowledge about the structure of

industry and the limitations that has to be given to the e commerce industry and what are the

rights that should be given to them for selling the product Security of the information

provided during the online transaction is a major concern. Under section 43A of the I T Act

the ‘Reasonable practices and procedures and sensitive personal data or information Rules,

2011’ have been proposed, which provide a framework for the protection of data in India

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry



Mass usage of internet:

The usage of internet is increasing rapidly in INDIA, it is said that India is said to be the 3rd

largest internet population country after USA and CHINA. Current India internet users are

205 millions .The total no of users are expected to be 330-370 millions in just 3 years. The

internet usage in cities has been increased rapidly.

Increased aspiration levels and availability

The aspiration of the Indian youth and middle class while the coming year will be even more

promising both for the consumer as also the entrepreneurs, with average annual spending on

online purchases projected to increase by 67 per cent to Rs 10,000 from Rs 6,000 per person.

In 2014, about 40 million consumers purchased something online and number is expected to

grow to 65 million by 2015 with better infrastructure in terms of logistics, broadband and

Internet ready devices will be fuelling the demand in ecommerce. The smart phones and

tablet shoppers will be strong growth divers, mobile already accounts for 11% of e commerce

sales, and its share will jump to 25% by 2017. Computer and consumer’s electronics as well

as app

eral and accessories account for the bulk of India retail ecommerce sales will contribute 42%

of its sales.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


Liberal policies (FDI in Retail and Insurance)

The E-commerce Association of India (ECAI) is looking for a positive response from the

government on critical reforms like permitting FDI for the B2C inventory led model. This has

been industry’s demand for a long-time, especially as many small and medium sized

ecommerce players face obstacles on easy access to capital and technology. The industry has

been hoping that the government would at least review a partial opening of the sector to FDI.

In 2015 budget the FDI has been increased to 51 %. So there is a positive response from the

international e commerce industry that is trying to enter into India. Even is also

trying to enter into India with the help of But on the other side the small e

commerce companies are finding it difficult because may face difficulty in the future when

the MNC e commerce companies enter India.

Supply chain and the productivity growth

The most important impact of ecommerce is maintained supply chain and the productivity of

the products. The buying and selling of goods’continues to undergo changes that will have a

profound impact on the way companies manage their supply chains. Simply put, e-commerce

has altered the practice, timing, and technology of business-to-business and business-toconsumer

commerce. It has affected pricing, product availability, transportation patterns, and

consumer behavior in developed economy in India. Business-to-business electronic

commerce accounts for the vast majority of total e-commerce sales and plays a leading role in

supply chain network. In 2014, approximately 21 percent of manufacturing sales and 14.6

percent of wholesales are done in India.

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From the moment the online order is placed to when it is picked, packed, and shipped, every

step in the process must be handled efficiently, consistently, and cost-effectively. In ecommerce,

the distribution center provides much of the customer experience. Simply

delivering the goods is no longer an adequate mission for the fulfillment center’customer

satisfaction has to be a critical priority. The typical e-commerce consumer expects a wide

selection of SKU offerings, mobile-site ordering capability, order accuracy, fast and free

delivery, and free returns. Understanding how online consumers shop and purchase across

channels is critical to the success of online fulfillment. More consumers are browsing the

Internet for features and selection, testing products at brick-and-mortar stores, acquiring

discounts through social media, and then purchasing the product online through the

convenience of their mobile device. Some retailers,’including those that also sell through

catalogs’have been in the direct-to-consumer marketplace for some time. These companies

have fulfillment facilities established and information technologies in place to manage orders

with speed and efficiency, doing it well and profitably. But to many distribution executives,

online fulfillment poses a significant challenge to their existing knowledge, experience, and



A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


Better comfort level and trust in online shopping:

‘ Consumers feel easy to access the ecommerce sites 24×7 support. Customer can do

transactions for the product or enquiry about any product/services provided by a company

anytime, anywhere from any location. Here 24×7 refers to 24 hours of each seven days of a


‘ E-Commerce application provides user more options and quicker delivery of products.

‘ E-Commerce application provides user more options to compare and select the cheaper and

better option.

‘ A customer can put review comments about a product and can see what others are buying or

see the review comments of other customers before making a final buy.

‘ E-Commerce provides option of virtual auctions.

‘ Readily available information. A customer can see the relevant detailed information within

seconds rather than waiting for days or weeks.

Advantages to the society:

‘ Customers need not to travel to shop a product thus less traffic on road and low air pollution.

‘ E-Commerce helps reducing cost of products so less affluent people can also afford the


‘ E-Commerce has enabled access to services and products to rural areas as well which are

otherwise not available to them.

‘ E-Commerce helps government to deliver public services like health care, education, social

services at reduced cost and in improved way.

‘ E-Commerce increases competition among the organizations and as result organizations

provides substantial discounts to customers.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


5.4 Technological factors:

Cloud computing in e commerce:

According to analysts, within 10 years’ time 80% of all computer usage worldwide, data

storage and e-commerce will be in the cloud. It is called the third phase of the internet.

During the first phase software and operating systems were combined to create a simple flow

of communication through ‘ for instance ‘ email. The second phase brought the user to the

World Wide Web, where he had access to millions of websites. This increased internet usage

by a factor of one hundred in only 2 years’ time. In the third phase everything is in the cloud,

both data and software.

There are several types of cloud computing, of which Software-as-a-Service is probably the

best-known. The others are Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure-as-a-Service


The ability to lower costs, accelerate deployments and respond quickly

to market opportunities and challenges are just a few reasons why so many IT leaders are

leveraging cloud based e commerce applications. Given the variety of solutions, IT leaders

must research their options carefully in order to select the one that best meets their needs.

Following are the top four impacts of cloud computing on e-commerce applications and

steps IT leaders should take during their evaluation process.

It’s easy for business leaders to focus on the benefits of cloud computing without considering

the time and effort involved in implementing a viable solution. However, whatever cloud

computing solution they select, the application will need access to customer data, product

data, fulfilment systems and other operational systems in order to support e-commerce. Cue

the IT team.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


Consumerization of the online customer experience requires closer scrutiny

of e commerce:

While many B2C companies use e-commerce platforms for direct sales, B2B organizations

are also leveraging them to add transactional capabilities to their informational sites. In

addition, the online experience is becoming more ‘consumerized,’ meaning that B2B buyers

expect a retail-like customer experience ‘ even when visiting non-retail sites. Cloud solution

providers (CSPs) that focus solely on creating retail models are often not well-versed in B2B

requirements which can be more complex. As a result, their offerings don’t include B2B

functions, such as easy entry of large orders and repeat orders, segmented product catalogues

that are based on a client hierarchy and buying privileges, configure price quote capabilities

and extended payment terms. IT leaders have an unprecedented number of CSPs from which

to choose. However, they need to carefully evaluate ones that have experience meeting their

industry-specific needs, whether it’s B2B, B2C, or a combination of both.

Usage of bandwidth for E-commerce:

Transmission capacity of a communication channel is a major barrier for products that

require more graphical and video data. For this e commerce companies need higher

bandwidth than usual. These all depend on the no of the customers visiting websites, the

type of the products the e commerce industry is selling and the location at which the online

users are mostly visiting the website. These all are some of the factors that affect the usage

of bandwidth. Web processing is also some of the key factors that make e commerce

industry to run. Another key factor is: High cost of developing, purchasing new software,

licensing of software, integration into existing systems, costly e business solutions for


Benefits of using cloud computing over E-commerce:

‘ Trust. Cloud computing enables online store owners to use the same platform and use

the same functionality. That means that new features can be made available to

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everyone with a simple modification. Moreover, the maintenance is taken care of

centrally, which means that store owners can rely on a stable platform.

‘ Cost saving. In many cases this is the most important reason for companies to choose

cloud computing. Since companies do not need to purchase hardware or bandwidth,

costs can be decreased by 80%.

‘ Speed. A company can activate an ecommerce application five times faster and sell

directly through a platform that is managed remotely.

‘ Scalability. Cloud computing makes a company more elastic and able to respond to

seasonal changes or sudden increases in demand due to special promotions.

‘ Security. Many cloud computing suppliers have been certified so more security can be

guaranteed to customers.

‘ Data exchange. The explosive growth of cloud ecommerce will lead to more data

exchange between the clouds. Suppliers will offer more and more possibilities to add

features to their clouds for users, partners and others.

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A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry



‘ Flipkart

‘ Snapdeal

‘ Amazon

Four key metrics have been used to evaluate the performance of

E-Retailers in India.

1. Gross Margin

2. Subscriber Growth Rate

3. Average Order Size:

4. Percentage of Mobile Visits

6.1 Gross Margin (Financial year 2013-2014)

Online shopping in India is growing at a very fast clip. At the same time, there is an intense

competition in ecommerce space, especially among the top 3 players. There is aggressive

pricing and discounts are being paid by Venture Capitalists’ pockets.

Flipkart, Amazon and Snapdeal, all of them have raised investments or have commitments of

$1 Billion or more. This money is being burned to acquire new customers, offer discounts

and pump up products on offers. At the same time these sites are losing money, the quantum

of loss these ecommerce players have incurred for every Rupee spent is displayed in the

below figure.

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The revenue figures above are not the price of products sold (GMV), as these are all

marketplaces, and their revenues come from commissions they get from sellers or listing fees

that they charge to list the products on their site.

GMV or Gross Merchandize Value represents the price of products sold and net revenues are

just a fraction of that.

Flipkart leads the race with net revenue of 179 crore followed by Amazon at 168.9 crore and

Snapdeal at 154.11 crore.

However, when it comes to losses, Flipkart leads by a much bigger margin and their loss for

2013-14 stands at Rs. 400 Crore. Comparatively, Amazon losses are pegged at Rs. 321.3

crore and Snapdeal had least losses of 3 with 264.6 crore.

The figure below shows the loss each player incurs for every rupee in net revenues.

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Flipkart leads the race to losing 2.23 rupees for every 1 rupee of revenue. Amazon loses 1.90

and Snapdeal has least amount of losses at Rs. 1.72.

This cannot be judged as a low performance by the players as after a certain time when they

gain major part of market. Every product they sell would be a profit for them.

6.2 Subscriber Growth Rate

Flipkart was founded in the year 2007. By the end of year 2013 they have acquired 22

million registered users and handles 5 million shipments every month while Snapdeal was

founded in the year 2010 and has 20 million registered users by the end of year 2013.

Snapdeal has acquired customers in a quicker pace when compared to Flipkart, but this

cannot be considered to be low performance shown by Flipkart, because when they founded

e- retail in India, the people were not much familiar to e-commerce and online purchasing at

that period.

6.3 Average ordering size of Flipkart for Financial year 2011-2012

Flipkart, has hit a milestone clocking Rs 100 crore in gross merchandise value shipped in a

month for the first time in June 2012. The jump is from an average of around Rs 42 crore

financial year 2010-2011. Flipkart had clocked Rs 500 crore for the 12 months ended March

31, 2012.

In the year 2012 the number of daily orders has hit 25,000 mark (or seventeen orders per

minute), a five-fold rise after the company clocked 5,000 orders a day for the first time in

May 2011. Flipkart first clocked 1,000 orders a day in March 2010.

Average order size= Total Revenue/Number of Orders

=Rs.5000000000 / 25,000 x 365


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6.4 Percentage of Mobile Visits

Mobile is now one of our most strategic channels for driving revenue and customer acquisition. The eretailers

are investing to build strong technology and marketing platforms that will allow them to

accelerate their growth on mobile

Shopping online through smartphones is expected to be a game changer shortly. In the year 2014

there were nearly 123 million smartphone users in India. Affordability of smartphones is

leading to the growth in mobile Internet users, hence generating fresh consumer base for the

online players. Mobile Internet users in India are estimated to be 120 million compared to 100 million

users using Internet on their personal computers.


60 percent of Snapdeals orders are coming over mobile in the end of year 2014. It is growing really fast.

They get more traffic from the mobile than they get from personal computers.


Flipkart a year ago, less than 10 percent of their orders, transactions and visits used to come from mobile


Now those numbers are greater than 50 percent for them. It is accelerating at a very rapid pace. Flipkart

is seeing more than 2 times or 3 times growth from the mobile front compared to desktop,

where Flipkart is growing overall but mobile is growing at a much faster pace.

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6.5 Top 10 Indian E-Commerce Sites Traffic Comparison

Stats have been taken for month of April 2014

Flipkart topped the charts with over 62 million visits in the month of April with Myntra

coming shade lower at 59.5 million. Given that both of them have now come together, purely

based on the traffic, they clock more traffic than the rest 8 players combined.

While we expected either Amazon or Snapdeal to grab the 3rd place in terms of traffic,

Jabong took the bronze position with 42.5 million visitors followed by Snapdeal (31.4

million). clocked a respectable 27.6 million visits in month of April (Remember, they have

not even completed a year since launch as yet). Also, if you combine Junglee, which is

owned by Amazon, their traffic bulges to close to 40 million visits.

Infibeam and Tradus both have not been doing too well in terms of traffic. They clocked 3.4

million & 3 million respectively. Also, according to similar web, their traffic has been

steadily dropping over last 6 months. Both of them had close to 5 million visits at the start of

the year.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


Stats have been taken for month of April 2014

When it came to user engagement, Flipkart again reigned supreme with each visitor spending

an average of 8:35 minutes per visit. Ebay also had very high levels of engagement with 8:15

mins followed by Snapdeal (7:49 mins).

Myntra had surprisingly low (in fact lowest of all) visitor time spent at 3:04 minutes. Junglee

and Jabong were other two sites who had low visitor time spent.

Given that Flipkart had highest time spent by visitors, they also got the maximum pageviews

per visitor (8.53) followed by Ebay (8.04). Surprisingly, Tradus did quite well in terms of

page views with a average of 7.57 views per visit.

6.6 Conclusion

Ecommerce industry in India is in their blooming stage now. E-commerce including online

retail in India constitutes a small fraction of total sales, but is set to grow to a substantial

amount owing to a lot of factors such as rising disposable incomes, rapid urbanization,

increasing adoption and penetration of technology such as the internet and mobiles, rising

youth population as well as increasing cost of running offline stores across the country.

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Electronic banking


The term electronic banking means all day access to cash through an Automated teller machine or direct deposit of pay checks into checking or savings account. But electronic banking involves many different types of transactions, rights, responsibilities and sometimes, fees. Electronic banking can also be defined in a very simple form, it can mean provision of information or services by a bank to its customers, via a computer, television, telephone, or mobile phone.


During the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) in 1986, in Babangida regime brought to an end the kind of banking services rendered by the first generation of banks in Nigeria. The SAP changed the content of banking business. Just as the number of banks increases from 40 in 1985 to 125 in 1991, the SAP provided licence to more banks which posed more threat to existing ones and the more aggressive the marketing techniques adopted by them. In the process competition among themselves, the adoption of electronic banking was put in place in order to maintain a good competitive position.


Banking as come from a very long way from the periods of ledger card and other manual filling system to a period of computer age. Computerization in the banking industry was first introduced in the 1970s by Society General Bank (Nigeria) Limited. Until the mid-1990, the few banks that were computerised made use of the Local Area Network (LAN) within the banks. The sophisticated ones among the banks then implemented the WAN by linking branches within cities while one or two implemented intercity connectivity using leased lines (Salawu and Salawu, 2007).

Banks have adopted technology to their operations and have advanced from very simple and basic retail operations of deposits and cash withdrawal as well as cheque processing to the delivery of sophisticated products which came as a result of keen competition in view of unprecedented increases in the number of banks and branches. There was the need to modernize banking operation in the face of increased market pressure and customers demand for improved service delivery and convenience. According to Sanusi (2002) as cited by Dogarawa (2005). The introduction of e-banking (e-payment) products in Nigeria commenced in 1996 when the CBN granted All States Trust Bank approval to introduce a closed system electronic purse. It was followed in February 1997, with the introduction of similar product called ‘Pay card’, by Diamond Bank.

CBN additionally gave permission to a number of banks to introduce international money transfer products, on-line banking via the internet, and telephone banking though on a limited scale. It must also be stated that the deployment of Automated teller machine (ATM) by some banks to facilitate card usage and enhance their service delivery. Today, nearly all banks in Nigeria make use of a website. The service or ordering bank drafts or certified cheque made payable to third parties has also been increasingly automated (Irechukwu, 2000).


The revolution in the Nigerian banking system which led to the increase in paid up capital from N2 billion to N25 billion effective from 1st of January 2006. This result to liquidation of weak banks in Nigeria that could not find merger partners. The revolution brought about changes to banking operations in Nigeria with aggressive competition among various banks. Each banks came up with new products, repackaged the old ones and came up with more efficient service delivery strategies. This more efficient service delivery was made possible through investment in information and communication technology (ICT) (Sanni, 2009). The huge investment in ICT has been the backbone of electronic banking, using different distribution channels. It should be noted that electronic banking is not just banking via the Internet. The term electronic banking can be described in many ways.


Personal Computer used by customers allows the customer to use all e-banking facility at home without them going to the bank. It gives consumers a variety of services so they can move be able to move money between accounts, pay their bills, check their account balances, and buy and sell goods.


Mobile phones are used a lot for financial services in Nigeria. Banks enable their customers to conduct banking services such as account inquiry and funds transfer through the mobile telephone.


This is an electronics device provided by the banks which allows bank’s customers to make to withdraw cash and to check their account balances at any time of the day without the need for a human teller. Many ATMs also allow people to transfer money between their bank accounts or even buy postage stamps. To withdraw cash, make deposits, or even transfer funds between accounts, you will insert your ATM card and enter your personal identification number known as pin. Some ATMs impose usage fee on consumer who are not member of their institution. ATMs must allow the customers to be aware of the fee that will be charged provided on the terminal screen or on a sign next to the screen. If one incurred a loss or stolen ATM card, he or she should notify the bank.


This is involves conducting of banking transactions through the use of electronic cards such as (Value Card, ATM Card, Debit Card, Credit Card etc.). It makes it easy for bank customers to have access to cash, carry out transfers and make enquiries about their accounts balance without them visiting the banking hall.

(i) Credit cards: These are cards that are plastic in nature encoded with electromagnetic identification. Credit cards allow the holders of the cards to make purchases without any immediate cash payment. Credit limit is fixed by the issuing banks based on the financial history of the user.

(ii) Debit card: When compare with credit cards is an instrument which enables an immediate charge or debt into cardholders account on the sales of goods and services made to him or her in other words the holder is using the balance standing in is deposit account


A Point of Sales (POS) Terminal are machines that are used to accept cards for payment of goods and services. POS Terminal allows owners of card to have a real-time online access to funds and information in his or her bank account through the use of debit or cash cards.


Customers carry out debit or credit transactions on their accounts on daily basis and the need to keep track of those transactions prompted the creation of the alert system by the Bank to notify customers of those transactions when it take place. The alert system also notify or reach out to customers when necessary information need to be communicated.


The transfer of information between organizations in machine readable form.


Internet banking permits bank customers to perform or conduct transaction on the account from any location across the world such as making enquiries, bills payment etc. with speedy respond through the web and email system online.


This allows users of the internet to pay their bills directly over the internet without having to send the paper cheque.


Electronic banking is important to both customers and banks in various ways

To banks;

(1) Improve customer service: Electronic banking allow banks to provide new, faster and better service to its customers, thereby, bringing up the banks to international standards and enhancing competition among other banks.

(2) Reliability of transaction: when transaction are done manually, error is prone to happen, but Electronic banking helps to ensure accurate and timely transactions.

(3) Satisfy: Electronic banking ensures the safety of bank dealing with their customers. Unsafe banking practice can cause huge loses to the bank especially in the cause of misrepresentation of account owners.

(4) Reduction in workload: Due to introduction in electronic banking the workload of the bank as reduce as more people conduct their various transactions electronically rather than them coming to the bank.

(5) Information: Electronic banking makes it easy for banks to convey information about their service to customers through the use of internet, banks can also easily communicate or send information to customers through the use of Electronic mail.

These are some of the services provided by banks to customers, they can also provide statement of account easily to their customers, by sending it to their e-mails, this will make it more comfortable for the customers.

To customer;

Electronic banking provide various benefit to customers such as;

(1) Availability of cash: Electronic banking makes it easy for customers to easily get cash any time they need it from their account, this is possible through the use of Automated Teller Machine (ATM)

(2) Stress Relieve: Since transaction can be done anywhere through the use of electronic banking, this will make customers comfortable.

(3) Payment of bills: It is easy for customers to pay their bills such as PHCN bills (Power holding company of Nigeria) Payment for DSTV card when it as expire. This is possible because banks as provide various means for this payment to occur such as Quick teller etc.

(4) Access to Information: Bank customers can easily get information from their banks about the provision of new product or about a problem that as occur.

(5) For Consumers: Increase convenience for customers, more service options for customers, reduced risk of cash-related crimes, cheaper access to banking services and access to credit.


According to Idowu (2005), the following are the reasons for adoption of e- banking in Nigeria; (a) to the bank

(1) Facilitation for easy decision making

(2) Availability of quality information

(3) Improve in service delivery

(4) Development of new product

(5) Savings in space and running costs

(6) Relevance among league of global financial institution.

(b) To the customer

(1) The quality of service they enjoy

(2) Reduction in time being spent at banking halls

(3) Confidentiality

(4) Statement of account obtain easily

(5) 24 hours service delivery.

(6) Customer account could be accessed almost anywhere in the world

(c) To the economy

(1) Creation of jobs

(2) Improvement in commerce

(3) Development in technology

(4) Data bank for National planning


Some of the problems facing electronic banking in Nigeria are;

(1) MONEY LAUNDERING: Money laundering can be defined as a derivation of washy money from illicit activities especially drugs trafficking, advance fee fraud and other forms illegal activities. Development in Electronic banking makes it possible to transact business electronically which can be used to launder money.

(2) FRAUD: Fraud which literally means a conscious and deliberate action by a person or group of persons with the intention of altering the truth or fact for selfish personal gain. The high exposure of the system to fraudsters, and other criminally minded persons who could access confidential information from the system if security measures are weak to check personal files is a challenge of electronic banking.

(3) CONSUMER PROTECTION: Another problem of electronic banking is the absence of regulatory body to protect the consumers of the product or services.

(4) SYSTEMS OPERATIONAL RISKS: Bank rest on the use of electronic banking to conduct business which could result to system failure.

(5) POOR NETWORK: Bad network is a major challenge facing electronic banking in Nigeria, poor network can lead to inability to withdraw money from the Automated Teller Machine (ATM), inability to send alert to the customer if money has been deposited into is account or if money has been deducted from is account.

(6) LITERACY ISSUES: This can be refer to as a situation when all targeted people are not educated, while some do not know how to make use of electronic banking. For instance, a dubious businessman may see a customer finding it difficult to operate the POS (POINT OF SALE) terminal and decided to deduct more than what the person consume.


Fraudsters or 419, which is one of the most popular of all internet frauds in Nigeria, Has its origin from Nigeria in the 1980s. Its development and spread started through the developments in information technology at inception. Later in the early 1990s, it became integrated into the telecommunication facilities such as fax and telephone from the late 1990s following the introduction of internet and computers, 419 crimes became prevalently perpetrated through the use of e-mail and other internet means (Amedu, 2005). The latest dimension taken by this fraudsters is the use of fake internet bank site, and using it to encourage victims to open accounts with them. These issues basically causes problem to electronic banking, which includes confidentiality, integrity and availability.

Several factors are responsible for the above situation. They include weakness of the judicial institutions to make and enforce laws on cyber-crimes; inordinate tolerance for corruption among Nigerian public and government agencies; unemployment among graduates, and the gap between the rich and the poor caused mainly by bad governance. In the main, erosion of good value principles and corruption constitute the greatest cause of rising cyber-crimes among Nigerian (Domestic electronic payment in Nigeria) (Amedu, 2005).


Jamal (2003) defined customer satisfaction as the meeting of one’s expectations relating to the product used by the customer; these are sentiments and feelings about the product used by the customer. Previous studies (Schultz and Good, 2000; Churchill and Surprenant, 1982; and Patterson, (1993) they agreed that the service performance has direct impact on customer satisfaction. They believed that interaction between them and the customer plays a key role in organizational success or failure and customer satisfaction is a critical performance indicator. File and Prince, (1992) according to File and Prince they explained that satisfied customers will be loyal to the organization and they will tell others about their favourable experience thereby leading to positive word of mouth advertising. Sahereh et al, (2013) identified ten (10) factors influencing satisfaction as follows:

(1) Properly behaviour with friendly: Being polite and friendly to customers will definitely generate more customers and will make customer relationship with bank strong. Friendly service is a necessary condition for development of activities and impress a good name about the bank.

(2) To speed in delivery of services: Anything that leads to customer satisfaction will help them to reach their goal earlier.

(3) Accuracy in providing services: This factor wants to minimize in error rate of doing things and improving quality of work to the standards and acceptable by the people so as to result to the trust and confidence of customers and increasing their satisfaction.

(4) Standard-Oriented: If customers have to ensure that the relationship does not rule and providing facilities request them is done based on standard and criteria, trust isn’t deprive and will not lead to their disappointment.

(5) Interest of deposits: Without doubt depositors are attending to the actual interest that should be considered inflation and other costs carefully.

(6) Secrecy: The banks customers expect that bank personnel in maintaining statements of accounts function or other financial issues do not disclose their account to anybody even their closest relatives.

(7) Skills of personnel: based on the researches done the necessary conditions for employment post include: The ability to move, speed in the work, balancing, and the ability of such.

(8) Guiding and presenting the necessary information and helpful: The right guidance on how to use customers from service will result to the speed of work and customer satisfaction.

(9) Discipline: Discipline is a very important features in all aspect of human life. Discipline led to focusing on the work and higher level of service delivery.

(10) Ease of access to services: Banks could easily apply to most services, this will result to greater customer satisfaction.


Bank customer relationship, is a special contract where a person entrusts valuable items (the customer) with another person (the bank) with the intention that such items shall be retrieved on demand from the keeper by the person who so entrust. The banker is the one entrusted with above mentioned valuable items, while the person who entrust the items a view to retrieving it on demand is called the customer.

The relationship between the bank and customer is based on contract. It is based on certain terms and conditions. For instance, the customer has the right to collect his money on demand personally or by proxy. The banker is under obligation to pay, so long the proxy is duly authorized by the customer. The terms and conditions governing the relationship should not be allowed to be leaked to a third party, particularly by the banker. Also the items kept should not be released to a third party without authorization by the customer.

A key issue here is how to handle the rising level of frauds prevalent in the entire banking system, and how to make the Internet banking fit so well in the banking structure of a country.



CBN will monitor the technology acquisitions of banks, and all investments in technology, which exceed 10% of free funds, will henceforth be subject to approval. Where banks use third parties or outsource technology, banks are required to comply with the CBN guidelines.


(a) Networks used for transmission of financial data must be demonstrated to meet the requirements specified for data confidentiality and integrity.

(b) Banks are required to deploy a proxy type firewall to prevent a direct connection between the banks back end systems and the Internet.

(c) Banks are required to ensure that the implementation of the firewalls addresses the security concerns for which they are deployed.

(d) For dial up services, banks must ensure that the modems do not circumvent the firewalls to prevent direct connection to the bank’s back end system.

(e) External devices such as Automated Teller Machines (ATMs), Personal Computers, (PC’s) at remote branches, kiosks, etc. permanently connected to the bank’s network and passing through the firewall must at the minimum address issues relating to non-repudiation, data integrity and confidentiality. Banks may consider authentication via Media Access Control (MAC) address in addition to other methods.

(f) Banks are required to implement proper physical access controls over all network infrastructures both internal and external.


Banks must take additional steps to ensure that whilst the web ensures global access to data enabling real time connectivity to the bank’s back-end systems, adequate measures must be in place to identify and authenticate authorized users while limiting access to data as defined by the Access Control List.

Banks are required to ensure that unnecessary services and ports are disabled.

Standards on Application and System Software

(a) Electronic banking applications must support centralized (bank-wide) operations or branch level automation. It may have a distributed, client server or three tier architecture based on a file system or a Database Management System (DBMS) package. Moreover, the product may run on computer systems of various types ranging from PCs, open systems, to proprietary main frames.

(b) Banks must be mindful of the limitations of communications for server/client-based architecture in an environment where multiple servers may be more appropriate.

(c) Banks must ensure that their banking applications interface with a number of external sources. Banks must ensure that applications deployed can support these external sources (interface specification or other CBN provided interfaces) or provide the option to incorporate these interfaces at a later date.

(d) A schedule of minimum data interchange specifications will be provided by the CBN.

(e) Banks must ensure continued support for their banking application in the event the supplier goes out of business or is unable to provide service. Banks should ensure that at a minimum, the purchase agreement makes provision for this possibility.

(f) The bank’s information system (IS) infrastructure must be properly physically secured. Banks are required to develop policies setting out minimum standards of physical security.

(g) Banks are required to identify an ICT compliance officer whose responsibilities should include compliance with standards contained in these guidelines as well as the bank’s policies on ICT.

(h) Banks should segregate the responsibilities of the Information Technology (IT) security officer / group which deals with information systems security from the IT division, which implements the computer systems


Mobile Telephony: Mobile phones are increasingly being used for financial services in Nigeria. Banks are enabling the customers to conduct some banking services such as account inquiry and funds transfer. Therefore the following guidelines apply:

(a) Networks used for transmission of financial data must be demonstrated to meet the requirements specified for data confidentiality, integrity and non- repudiation.

(b) An audit trail of individual transactions must be kept.

Automated Teller Machines (ATM): In addition to guidelines on e-banking in general, the following specific guidelines apply to ATMs:

(a) Networks used for transmission of ATM transactions must be demonstrated to meet the guidelines specified for data confidentiality and integrity.

(b) In view of the demonstrated weaknesses in the magnetic stripe technology, banks should adopt the chip (smart card) technology as the standard, within 5 years. For banks that have not deployed ATMs, the expectation is that chip based ATMs would be deployed. However, in view of the fact that most countries are still in the magnetic stripe conversion process, banks may deploy hybrid (both chip and magnetic stripe) card readers to enable the international cards that are still primarily magnetic stripe to be used on the ATMs.

(c) Banks will be considered liable for fraud arising from card skimming and counterfeiting except where it is proven that the merchant is negligent. However, the cardholder will be liable for frauds arising from PIN misuse.

(d) Banks are encouraged to join shared ATM networks.

(e) Banks are required to display clearly on the ATM machines, the Acceptance Mark of the cards usable on the machine.

(f) All ATMs not located within bank premises must be located in a manner to assure the safety of the customer using the ATM. Appropriate lighting must be available at all times and a mirror may be placed around the ATM to enable the individual using the ATM to determine the locations of persons in their immediate vicinity.

(g) ATMs must be situated in such a manner that passers-by cannot see the key entry of the individual at the ATM directly or using the security devices.

(h) ATMs may not be placed outside buildings unless such ATM is bolted to the floor and surrounded by structures to prevent removal.

(I) Additional precaution must be taken to ensure that any network connectivity from the ATM to the bank or switch are protected to prevent the connection of other devices to the network point.

(j) Non-bank institutions may own ATMs, however such institutions must enter into an agreement with a bank for the processing of all the transactions at the ATM. If an ATM is owned by a non-bank institution, processing banks must ensure that the card readers, as well as, other devices that capture/store information on the ATM do not expose information such as the PIN number or other information that is classified as confidential. The funding (cash in the ATM) and operation of the ATM should be the sole responsibility of the bank. (k) Where the owner of the ATM is a financial institution, such owner of the ATM must also ensure that the card reader as well as other devices that capture information on the ATM does not expose/store information such as the PIN number or other information that is classified as confidential to the owner of the ATM.

(l) ATMs at bank branches should be situated in such a manner as to permit access at reasonable times. Access to these ATMs should be controlled and secured so that customers can safely use them within the hours of operations. Deplorers are to take adequate security steps according to each situation subject to adequate observance of standard security policies.

(m) Banks are encouraged to install cameras at ATM locations. However, such cameras should not be able to record the keystrokes of such customers.

(n) At the minimum, a telephone line should be dedicated for fault reporting, and such a number shall be made known to users to report any incident at the ATM. Such facility must be manned at all times the ATM is operational.


Banks should put in place procedures for maintaining the bank’s Web site which should ensure the following:-

(a) Only authorized staff should be allowed to update or change information on the Web site.

(b) Updates of critical information should be subject to dual verification (e.g. interest rates)

(c) Web site information and links to other Web sites should be verified for accuracy and functionality.

(d) Management should implement procedures to verify the accuracy and content of any financial planning software, calculators, and other interactive programs available to customers on an Internet Web site or other electronic banking service.

(e) Links to external Web sites should include a disclaimer that the customer is leaving the bank’s site and provide appropriate disclosures, such as noting the extent, if any, of the bank’s liability for transactions or information provided at other sites.

(f) Banks must ensure that the Internet Service Provider (ISP) has implemented a firewall to protect the bank’s Web site where outsourced.

(g) Banks should ensure that installed firewalls are properly configured and institute procedures for continued monitoring and maintenance arrangements are in place.

(h) Banks should ensure that summary-level reports showing web-site usage, transaction volume, system problem logs, and transaction exception reports are made available to the bank by the Web administrator.


(a) Banks are obliged not only to establish the identity of their Customers (KYC principle) but also enquire about their integrity and reputation. To this end, accounts should be opened only after proper introduction and physical verification of the identity of the customer.

(b) Digital signature should not be relied on solely as evidence in e-banking transactions, as there is presently no legislation on electronic banking in Nigeria

(c) There is an obligation on banks to maintain secrecy and confidentiality of customer’s accounts. In e-banking scenario, there is the risk of banks not meeting the above obligation. Banks may be exposed to enhanced risk of liability to customers on account of breach of secrecy, denial of service etc. because of hacking /other technological failures. Banks should, therefore, institute adequate risk control measures to manage such risks.

(d) Banks should protect the privacy of the customer’s data by ensuring:

(1) That customer’s personal data are used for the purpose for which they are compiled. (2) Consent of the customer must be sought before the Data is used

(3) Data user may request, free of cost for blocking or rectification of inaccurate data or enforce remedy against breach of confidentiality

(4) Processing of children’s data must have the consent of the parents and there must be verification via regular mail.

(5) Strict criminal and pecuniary sanctions are imposed in the event of default.

(e) In e-banking, there is very little scope for the banks to act on stop payment instructions from the customers. Hence, banks should clearly notify the customers the time frame and the circumstances in which any stop-payment instructions could be accepted.

(f) While recognizing the rights of consumers under the Nigerian Consumer Protection Council Act, which also apply to consumers in banking services generally, banks engaged in e-banking should endeavour to insure themselves against risks of unauthorized transfers from customers account’s, through hacking, denial of services on account of technological failure etc., to adequately insulate themselves from liability to the customers.

(g) Agreements reached between providers and users of e-banking products and services should clearly state the responsibilities and liabilities of all parties involved in the transactions.

12 years a slave: college essay help

According to Drew Faust, author of Culture, Conflict, and Community, There was a slave owner named James Henry Hammond who did not really have any idea of how to control the slaves. He did not know what to do and how to command them. He had been married into it. He began to listen to his friends who had suggested to ‘Be kind to them make them feel an obligation and by all means keep all other Negros away from the place, and make yours stay at home- and raise their church to the ground-keep them from fanaticism for God’s sake and your own.’ So he did just that. He began to tear down churches just so they could assimilate more into the white Churches and hopefully show up by taking their churches away. They began to become less religious for quite some time but then they began to rise up again. They started to act lazy and defiant because of the lack of authority. ‘The slaves, accustomed to a far less rigorous system of management, resented his attempts and tried to undermine his drive for efficiency.’ Because of the disobedience he began to severely punish them. Constantly beat them senseless if they did not follow orders. That was the norm throughout most slave owners. They would casually beat their slaves for disobeying their master and sometimes even for the hell of it. This is evidently clear in 12 years a Slave.

In 12 Years a Slave, an African American man named Solomon Northup is a free man in the North, living in New York with this wife and two children. He is a savvy violinist and is approached by two individuals asking if he wants to perform for a circus they are opening up in Washington which would pay greatly. He agrees but is drugged and sent back to the South under the name Platt, a runaway slave from Georgia. He gets sold to a plantation but is later sent to another. The reason why will be later stated. In this second plantation, his owner John Epps is known as not being the nicest slave owner. He was actually known for being incredibly cruel for those who disobey his order. He interprets the bible in a way saying that if the slaves were to disobeyed their master they would get 100 slashes if necessary. Epps would have the slaves pick cotton. The average pounds picked by slaves were 200 pounds and whoever didn’t meet the average would get whipped. Northup would usually not meet the quota so he would usually take part of those lashings. Epps would lash out at slaves when he didn’t get what he wanted. His wife would also beat one of the slaves because of jealousy towards her.

Now of course most slave owners are not usually that mean when it comes to the way they treat their slaves. According to Faust before Hammond took the course of action to beat the slaves for their disobedience, he began to kind of give slaves some of what they asked for. After he took away their churches and they failed to join the white churches he began to become more lenient and allowed a traveling minister just for slave services. ‘For a number of years he hired itinerant ministers for Sunday afternoon slave services.’ He would also imply a system of reward for those who did well in their task, instead of not getting any gratitude. Of course he would still punish those that failed in their duties but I suppose it is a start. ‘Hammond seemed not so much to master as to manipulate his slaves, offering a system not just of punishments, but pf positive inducements, ranging from contests to single out the most diligent hands, to occasional rituals of rewards for all, such as Christmas holidays; rations of sugar, tobacco, and coffee; or even pipes sent to all adult slaves from Europe when Hammond departed on the Grand Tour’ So as you can see sometimes some slave owners would be kinder to their slaves than most other slave owners.

In 12 Years a Slave, this is evident as well. Northup, during the slave auction gets sold to a plantation owner named William Ford. Ford tries to convince the seller to give sell him the daughter of a woman he was buying just to keep their family together but the man wouldn’t budge after Ford practically begged for her. Once they all arrive to the farm, Northup works and shows his ingenuity by impressing Ford with a waterway that will help transport logs quickly and cheaper. Ford’s carpenter, John Tibeats, said that couldn’t work and when it did he quickly resented Northup for it. One day he began to harass Northup and they both got into a scuffle in which Northup won but Tibeats threatened him. Ford’s overseer Chapin came and told him to stay on the plantation because if he left he would not be able to protect him. Tibeats came back later with two of his friends and began to lynch Northup. That’s when Chapin came and rescued him from the three men and warned them with a gun pointing at them saying that Ford held a mortgage on Platt and if they hung him, he would lose that money. He then told them to leave Northup and run away. Chapin then left Northup on his tip toes just so the noose won’t wring his neck all day until Ford came and rescued him. That night, Ford keeps Northup in the house protecting him and tells him in order to save his life he has given his debt to Epps. This shows how tender and nice some slave owners were compared to some cruel slave owners like Epps.

Elizabeth Keckley

Elizabeth Keckley’s life was an eventful one. Born a slave in Dinwiddie Court-House, Virginia, from slave parents, she did not have it easy, as her early years were crowded with incidents.

She was only four year old when her mistress, Mrs. Burwell delivered a beautiful black-eyed baby, whose care was assigned to Elizabeth, a child herself. This task didn’t seem very hard to her, as she had been educated to serve others and to rely much on herself. If she met Mrs. Burwell’s expectations, it would be her passport into the plantation house, where she could work alongside her mother, who did most of the cooking and sewing in the family. Trying to rock the cradle as hard as she could, she dropped the baby on the floor and immediately panicked, attempting to pick it up with the fire-shovel, until her mistress came into the room and started screaming at her. It was then that she received her first lashing, but that would not be her last punishment. It was the one she would remember most, though.

At seven years old, Elizabeth saw a slave sale for the first time. Her master had just acquired the hogs he needed for the winter and didn’t have enough money for the purchase. To avoid the shame of not being able to pay, he decided to sell one of his slaves, little Joe, the cook’s son. His mom was kept in oblivion, in spite of her suspicions. She was told little Joe was coming back the next morning, but mornings passed and his mother never saw him again.

By the time she was eight, the Burwell family had four daughters and six sons, with a large number of servants. She didn’t see much of her father, as he served a different master, but it was also because they were enable to be together as a family only twice a year, at Christmas and during the Easter holidays. Her mother, Agnes, was thrilled when Mr. Burwell made arrangements for her husband to come live with them, and little Lizzie, as her father used to call her, was ecstatic to finally have her family together. That only lasted until Mr. Burwell came on one fine day bringing with him a letter saying that her father had to leave to the West with his master, where he had decided to relocate. And that was the last time she ever saw her dad.

Another memory that Elizabeth could not shake was the death of one her uncles, another slave of Mr. Burwell’s. After one day, he lost his pair of plough-lines, but Colonel Burwell offered him another, a new one, and told him he would be punished if he lost those too. But a couple weeks later his new pair got stolen and he hung himself for fear of his master’s reaction. It was Lizzie’s mother that found him the next morning, suspended by one of the willow’s solid branches, down by the river. He chose taking his life over the punishment from his master.

Because they didn’t have any slaves of their own, at 14 Lizzie was separated from her mom and given as a chore girl to her master’s oldest son, who lived in Virginia. His wife was a helpless, morbidly sensitive girl, with little parenting skills. Reverend Robert Burwell was earning very little money, so he couldn’t afford to buy Elizabeth, only to benefit from her services thanks to his father. Living with the minister, she had to do the work of three people, and they still didn’t find her trustworthy. By the time she was 18, Elizabeth had grown into a proud, beautiful young woman. It was around that time that the family moved to Hillsboro, in Northern Carolina, where the minister was assigned a church of his own.

Mr. Bingham, the school principal, was an active member of the church and a frequent visitor of the church house. He was a harsh, pitiless man who became the mistress’s tool in punishing Lizzie, as Mrs. Burwell was always looking for vengeance against her for one reason or another. Mr. Burwell was a kind man, but was highly influenced by his wife and took after her behavior fairly often. One night, after Elizabeth had just put the baby to sleep, Mr. Bingham told her to follow him to his office , where she was asked to take her clothes off because he was going to whip her. Then she did something that no slave had ever done. She refused. She dared him to give her a reason or otherwise he would have to force her, which he did. She was too proud to give him the pleasure of seeing her suffer, so she just stood there like a statue, with her lips firmly closed, until it was over. When he finally let her go, she went straight to her master and asked for an explanation, but Mr. Burwell didn’t react in any way, and only told her to leave. When she refused to go, the minister hit her with a chair. Lizzie couldn’t sleep that night, and it wasn’t from the physical pain, but more from the mental torture she had suffered. Her spirit stoically refused this unjust behavior and as much as she tried, she couldn’t forgive those who had it inflicted it upon her.

The next day all she wanted was a kind word from those who had made her suffer, but that didn’t happen. Instead, she continued to be lashed on a regular basis by Mr. Bingham, who convinced Mrs. Burwell it was the right thing to do to cure her pride and stubbornness. Lizzie continued to resist him, more proud and defiant every time, until one day he started crying in front of her, telling her she didn’t deserve it and he couldn’t do it anymore. He even asked Lizzie for forgiveness and from that day on he never hit one of his slaves ever again.

When Mr. Bingham refused to perform his duty anymore, it was Mr. Burwell’s turn to do it, urged by his jealous wife. Elizabeth continued to resist though, and eventually her attitude softened their hearts and they promised to never beat her again, and they kept their promise.

Sadly, this kind of event was not the only thing that caused her pain during her residence at Hillsboro. Because she was consider fair-looking for one of her race, she was abused by a white man for more than four years, when she got pregnant and gave birth to a boy, the only child she ever had. It wasn’t a child that she wanted to have, because of the society that she was part of, as a child of two races would always be frowned upon and she didn’t want him to suffer like she did.

The years passed and many things happened during that time. One of Elizabeth’s old mistress’s daughters, Ann, married Mr. Garland, and Lizzie went to live with them in Virginia, where she was reunited with her mother. The family was poor and couldn’t afford a living in Virginia, so Mr. Garland decided to move away from his home to the banks of Mississippi, in search of better luck. Unfortunately, moving didn’t change anything, and the family still didn’t have the resource needed to make a living. It got to a point where they were considering putting Agnes, her mother, out of service. Lizzie was outraged by the idea that her mom, who was raised in this family and grew up to raise their children years later and love them as her own, would have to go work for strangers. She would have done anything to prevent this from happening. And she did. She convinced Mr. Garland to let find someplace to work to help the family and to keep her mother close to her. It wasn’t hard to find work , and she soon had quite a reputation as a seamstress and dress-maker. All the ladies came to her for dresses and she never lacked clients. She was doing so well that she managed to support a seventeen-member family for almost two and a half years. Around that time, Mr. Keckley, whom she had met earlier in Virginia, and regarded with a little more than friendship, came to St. Louis and proposed to her. She refused at first, saying that she had to think about his offer, but what scared her was the thought of giving birth to another child that would live in slavery. She loved her son enormously, but she always felt it was unfair for the free side of him, the Anglo-Saxon blood that he had, to be silenced by the slave side that he was born with. She wanted him to have the freedom that he deserved. After thinking about it for a long time, he decided to go to Mr. Garland and asked him the price she should pay for her freedom and her son’s. he dismissed her immediately and told her to never say such a thing ever again, but she couldn’t stop thinking about it. With all the respect the had for her master, she went to see him again and asked him what was the price she had to pay for herself and her son to be free.

He finally gave in to her requests and told her that 1200$ was the price of her freedom. This gave her a silver lining to the dark cloud of her life and with a perspective of freedom she agreed to marry Mr. Keckley and start a family with him. But years passed and she couldn’t manage to save that amount of money because her duties with the family were overwhelming and she didn’t leave much time for anything. Also, her husband, Mr. Keckley, proved to be more of a burden than a support for her and the boy. Meanwhile Mr. Garland died and Elizabeth was given to another master, a Mississippi planter, Mr. Burwell, a compassionate man who told her she should be free and he would help with anything she needed to raise the amount of money needed to pay for this freedom.

Several plans were thought through, until Lizzie decided she should go to New York and appeal to people’s generosity to help her carry out her plan. All was set; all she needed now was six men to vouch with their money for her return. She had lots of friends in St. Louis and didn’t think it would be a problem, and she easily gathered the first five signatures. The sixth one was Mr. Farrow, an old friend of hers, and she didn’t think he would refuse her. He didn’t, but he didn’t believe she would came back either. Elizabeth was puzzled that he didn’t believe in her cause, and she couldn’t accept his signature if he really thought it was the final goodbye from her. She went home and started to cry, looking at her ready-to-go trunk and at the luncheon her mother had prepared for her, believing that her dream of freedom was nothing but a dream and she and her son would die slaves, the same way they were born.

And then something happened, something she never expected. Mrs. Le Bourgois, one of her patrons, walked in and changed her world around. She said it wouldn’t be fair for her to beg strangers for money and it was the ones who knew her that should help her. She would give her 200$ from her and mother and she would ask all her friends do help Elizabeth. She was successful and rapidly managed to find the 1200$ Elizabeth needed. And that was it. Lizzie and her sixteen year old son, George, were finally free. Free to go anywhere they wanted. Free to start over and to have the life they always wanted. Free by the laws of men and by the smile of God.

Critical review II: The Dependency theory

Latin American countries have always been exposed to western influence. With its neo-liberalist stance the west encourages Latin America to open up its trade and cooperate with the west. During the 1960s many countries wanted to keep Western influence outside because they were convinced that this would negatively influence their development. A consequence of this attitude was the development of a theory that criticized the western liberalist stance; the dependency theory. Dependency theory criticizes western modernity. This critical stance can be explained by the fact that Latin America is historically exposed to the political, economic, cultural and intellectual influence of the US and its recurrent attempt to diminish US domination (Tickner 2008:736). The region, being part of the non-core, wants their understanding of global realities to be explored. (Tickner 2003b). However, the theory has been influenced by the west and thereby has lost strength. Moreover, its empirical validity has been questioned. For the above mentioned reasons the theory is hardly used anymore. It should not be forgotten, however, that the theory has some qualities which do contribute to the field of international relations. First this essay will discuss the post-colonial argument that dependency theory is not critical enough and gives an explanation why the theory is Eurocentric. Afterwards it will discuss its empirical validity and finally it addresses the theory its contribution to the field of international relations. Dependency theory originated in the 1960s in Latin America. Frank, the leading theorist, argues that due to the capitalist system, developing countries are underdeveloped and development is impossible as long as they remain in the capitalist system (Frank 1969). Opposed to Frank, Cardoso and Faletto argue that development is possible despite structural determination and that the local state has an important role, they call it associated dependent development ((1979:xi). Yet, both Frank and Cardoso and Falleto eventually argue that dependency paths need to be broken by constructing paths toward socialism. The dependency theorists are thus critical of Western liberalism. As mentioned above, dependency theory attempts to criticize western-modernity. Post-colonialism, however, argues that dependency theory is not counter-modernist and not critical enough. Post-colonial theorists, in contrast to many conventional theorists, state that attention to colonial origins is needed to get a better understanding of the expansion of the world order (Seth 2011). Dependency theory does pay attention to its colonial origins. For example, Frank argues that dependency occurred historically through slavery and colonialism and continues today through western dominance of the international trading system, the practices of multinational companies and the LDC’s reliance on Western aid (Frank 1969). However, post-colonialism does criticize the way how dependency theorists address the colonial origins. The first critique stems from the fact that the homogenizing and incorporating world historical scheme of dependency ignores, domesticates, or transcends difference. It does not take into account the differences in histories, cultures and peoples (Said, 1985: 22).The second critique stems from the fact that to get a sufficient understanding of the emergence of the modern international system, it should not be examined how an international society that developed in the West radiated outwards, but rather the ways in which international society was shaped by interactions between Europe and those it colonized. (Seth 2011:174). Pos-colonalists, however, argue that dependency theory is Eurocentric. Dependency theorists are not aware of the way in which culture frames their own analysis. While trying to look at imperialism from the perspective of the periphery, dependistas fail to do this (Kapoor 2002:654). For dependistas the ‘centre’ continues to be central and dominant so that the West ends up being consolidated as sovereign subject. Dependency’s ethnocentrism appears in its historical analysis as well. Dependistas use the way how capitalism developed in Europe as a universal model that stands for history and see developing countries as examples of failed or dependent capitalism. (Kapoor 2002:654) Post colonialism thus would argue that while challenging the current capitalist system, dependency theory is not critical enough because it does not adequately address history and culture and is Eurocentric. Tickner (2008) may provide an explanation of why dependency theory is not critical enough and why it is described in terms of adherence to the capitalist system dominated by the west. IR thinking in Latin America is influenced by -among other things- US intellectual knowledge. As Tickner argues, dependency theory is not a genuine non-core theory but it is influenced by US analysts. According to Cardoso (1977) this led to severe distortions in its original contents because it local internal problems of greatest concern to social scientists in Latin America became invisible and external factors such as US intervention and multinational corporations were prioritized. Furthermore, IR thinking in that region has been influenced by conventional theories. For example, through the influence of realism in Latin America, much attention was paid to the role of the elite and furthermore, theorists were concerned with the concept of power but replaced it with a more suitable concept autonomy (Tickner 2008:742).Thus the influence of US IR knowledge and conventional theories may have contributed to the fact that dependency theory is not critical enough and has lost its influence. Although post-colonialism addresses dependency’s problem – that is does not sufficiently addresses culture because of its sole focus on capitalism – it should be noted that not only culture is not taken into account but a whole range of other factors which could help explain underdevelopment are left out the theory as well. This shortcoming clarifies why dependency theory is empirical invalid.For example, dependency does not address local, physical, social or political forces that might have had a role in the inability to generate industrial development and does not acknowledge that imperialism is only partly responsible for underdevelopment (Smith 1981). As Smith argues; ”dependency theory exaggerates the explanatory power of economic imperialism as a concept to make sense of historical change in the south” (1981:757). Smith rightly points out that in some instances dependistas do recognize the influence of local circumstances but this is only so to reaffirm ultimately the overriding power of economic imperialism. Moreover, the theory does not pay any attention to the positive effects that the contact with the international system can provide for developing countries. Thus, dependistas solely look at economic power and state that as long as countries remain part of the international capitalist system development is impossible. The only way to escape is to isolate from this system or if the colonizer relinquishes political power. (Kapoor 656) However, South-Korea’s development shows the invalidity of this argument. South-Korea experienced rapid growth during the 1970s despite its dependency on the US. The case of South-Korea shows that development is possible despite dependency and that dependency can have positive effects. Another case which shows dependency’s invalidity is Ghana. During the 1980s Ghana adopted dependency policies that were consistent with the denial of the relevance of the western economic principles and tried to keep western influence outside. However, instead of bringing prosperity and greater independence for the Ghanasian economy, these policies caused poverty and greater dependence on international aid or charity (Ahiakpor 1985:13). The dependency policies did not support Ghana’s development because it only focused on capitalism without taking other factors into account. The theory thus has significant shortcomings which explains its loss of influence. However, it should be noted that the theory has some qualities as well. Despite its homogenizing and Eurocentric history, the theory is aware that history is an important factor. The advantage of dependency’s structural-historical perspective is that broad patterns and trends can be recognized. Moreover, it allows one to learn from past mistakes to change the future (Kapoor 2002:660). On top of that, as Wallerstein argues ”One of the crucial insights and contributions of dependency is the conceptualization of the unicity of the world system” (1974:3). It clearly describes how the world is incorporated in the capitalist system and it shows the importance of economic considerations on political issues. Furthermore, it addresses the importance of local elites and foreign companies to the internal affairs of weak states whereby it provides an analytical framework. (Smith 1981:756). For example, Cardoso and Faletto argue that if there is no strong local state, the ruling elite may ally themselves with foreign companies pursuing their own interests and this way upholding dependency and underdevelopment. This analysis is applicable to Congo and shows for example that Congo’s development is restrained because a strong local state is absent and the local elite allies with foreign companies pursuing their own interests (Reno 2006). In short, dependency theory has lost influence because – from a post-colonial perspective – it is not counter-modernist and not critical enough. It does not adequately address history and culture and is Eurocentric. Moreover, it is empirically invalid because it solely focuses on capitalism without taking other factors into account. In contrast to what dependistas argue, dependent development is possible within the capitalist system and the proposed isolation from this system may even worsen the economy instead of bringing prosperity. However, the theory did influence foreign policymakers and analysts not only in Latin America but also in Africa between the 1960s and the 1980s and it is still useful because it provides an analytical framework on which other analysts can elaborate.

Data Acquisition and Analysis – Curve fitting and Data Modelling: college application essay help

1 Part 1: Track B: Linear Fitting Scheme to Find Best-Fit Values


In a linear regression problem, a mathematical model is used to examine the relationship between two variables i.e. the independent variables and dependent variable (the independent variable is used to predict the dependent variable).

This is achieved by using the least square method using excel plotting data values and drawing a straight line to derive the best fit values. A nonlinear graph was obtained on plotting the data points provided but the least square method applied obtained a linear graph with a straight line which estimated and minimized the squared difference between the total sum of the data values and model values.


The aim of this coursework Part1, Track B is to carryout data analysis assessment with respect to linear model fitting by manual calculation working obtaining the best-fit values with the decay transient data provided in table 1 below which is implemented using excel.

Time (sec) Response (v)

0.01 0.812392

0.02 0.618284

0.03 0.425669

0.04 0.328861

0.05 0.260562

0.06 0.18126

0.07 0.1510454

0.08 0.11254

0.09 0.060903

0.1 0.070437

Table 1.1: data for decay transient


The data in the table 1.1 above represents decay transient which can be modelled as an exponential function of time as shown below:

V(t)=V_0 exp'(-t/??) ”””””””””””””’ (1.1)

The equation above is nonlinear; to make it linear the natural logarithm method is applied

Logex = Inx ”””””””””””””””. (1.2)

From the mathematical equation of a straight line

Y = mx + c”””””””””””””””. (1.3)

Y = a0 + a1x + e””””””””””””””. (1.4)

Y = Inx”””””””””””””””’… (1.5)

In this case

Y = InV”””””””””””””””’… (1.6)


InV = InV0 + Ine(-t/??) ””””””””””””’. (1.6)

But Inex = x; eInx = x

InV = InV0 ‘ t/”””””””””””””’??. (1.7)

Applying natural logarithm method to the equation obtained two coefficients InV0 and t/?? which represent a0 and a1 respectively from equation (1.4)

The normal equation for a straight line can be written in matrix form as:

[‘(n&’[email protected]’xi&”xi’^2 )] {‘([email protected])} = {‘(‘[email protected]’xiyi)} ”””””””””.””. (1.8)

This is separated to give

[‘(‘(1&1)&’&[email protected]'(xi&x2)&’&xn)] [‘(‘([email protected])&'([email protected])@’&’@1&xn)]{‘([email protected])} = [‘(‘(1&1)&’&[email protected]'(x1&x2)&’&xn)] [‘(‘([email protected])@’@yn)] ””’.””. (1.9)

From (1.9) the general linear least squares fit equation is given as

[[Z^T ] [Z]]{A}= {[Z^T ] {Y}}

The main purpose is to calculate for {A} (InV0 and t/??) which are the coefficients of the linear equation in (1.7). Matrix method using excel is used to achieve this by finding values for [Z],[Z^T ],[Z^T ][Z],[Z^T ][Y],’and[[Z^T ] [Z]]’^(-1).

The table below shows the calculated values for InV when natural logarithm was applied to the response V using excel.

Table 1.2: Excel table showing calculated values for InV

[Z]= [‘(1&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&0.1) ]

The transpose of [Z] is given as

[Z]= [‘(1&1&1&1&1&1&1&1&1&[email protected]&0.02&0.03&0.04&0.05&0.06&0.07&0.08&0.09&0.1)]

The product of [Z^T ][Z] is given as

[Z^T ][Z] = [‘(10.0000&[email protected]&0.0385)]

The inverse [[Z^T ] [Z]]^(-1) of the matrix [Z^T ][Z] is given as

[[Z^T ] [Z]]^(-1) = [‘(0.4667&[email protected]&121.2121)]

The product of the transpose of [Z], [Z^T ] and [Y] (InV) is given as

[Z^T ][Y] = [‘([email protected])]

To obtain {A} the product of [[Z^T ] [Z]]^(-1) and [Z^T ][Y] was calculated to give

{A} = [‘([email protected])]; {A}= [‘([email protected]/??)]


InV0 = a0; and – 1/?? = a1

{A} = [‘([email protected])]


InV0 = 0.0626; and 1/?? = -28.8434

V0 = exp(0.0626) = 1.0646; and ?? = 1/-28.8434 = 0.03467



Since Y = InV(t)

Y = 1.0646exp'(-t/0.03467)

Table 1.3: Excel table showing calculated values for InV [Y] and InV(t) [Y]

Table 1.4: Diagram of Excel calculation for curve fitting

Figure 1.1: Diagram of transient decay for response V and response V(t)

Figure 1.2: Diagram of transient decay for response V and response V(t)


The solutions to this linear regression exercise was achieved by manually calculating the generalized normal equation for the least square fit using the matrix method and Microsoft excel program obtaining the unknown values of the coefficients V0 and ??. The method provides accurate results and the best fit values obtained show the relationship between the straight line response and the transient line response shown in figure above and is seen to have given

2 Part 2: Track B: Type K thermocouple


The thermocouple is a sensor that is used to measure temperature and is commonly used in many industries. For this lab work, a Type K thermocouple is used to acquire a first order transient data (non-linear) response to a temperature change, a signal conditioning element called the AD595 thermocouple amplifier is used to improve thermocouple signal since it produced a low voltage output proportional to the input temperature, a data acquisition device the NI-USB 6008 is used to acquire signals from the signal conditioning circuit, a resistor-capacitor (RC) low-pass filter is built for reduce the frequency and noise of the signal generated and further investigations and analysis are carried out. In this part, the non-linear regression was used to obtain the transient response of thermocouple signal using Labview program


The aim of the assignment is to produce a Labview program which can obtain transient real data values from a Type K thermocouple which is a sensor that produces voltage by the differential temperature its conductors sense (i.e. a first order response) followed by a non- linear model fitting procedure which allows the user capture the thermocouple initial first order response to a rising input temperature and an appropriate response function model to the transient response. The program displays the transient data, fitted model response and calculated model parameters.

Reason of the choice of model response

The model output transient response obtained from the input (temperature) of the Type K thermocouple was a first order can be defined as having only s to the power of one in the first order transfer function which is characterised with no overshoot because the order of any system is determined by the power of s in the transfer function denominator and has a transfer function as 1/(??s+1) for a unit step signal of 1/s in the Laplace transform domain or s domain and is given as

Y(s) = 1/(s(??s+1)) ””””””””””””””’… (2.1)

Partial fraction method is used to find the output signal Y(t) to give

Y(s) = A/s+B/(??s+1) ””””””””””””””’ (2.2)

A = [s * Y(s)] for s = 0 = 1

B = [(??s+1) * Y(s)] for s = (-1)/?? = -1

Y(s) = 1/s-1/(??s+1) ””””””””””””””’ (2.3)

Therefore the output signal in the time domain is given as:

Y(t) = L-1 [1/s-1/(??s+1)] ”””””””””””””’ (2.4)

Y(t) = U(t) – e^((-t)/??) ”””””””””””””’ (2.5)

Y(t) = 1- e^((-t)/??) where t’0 ””””””””””” (2.6)

Substituting the output response V(t) for Y(t) , the equation (2.6) can also be re-written as:

V(t) = 1- e^((-t)/??) ”””””””””””””’ (2.7)

Assuming for a given input temperature T0 an output response V0 was derived and for a given increase in temperature T1 an output response voltage V1 was derived, so therefore the output voltage for the change in voltage relative to the change in temperature is given as:

V(t) =(V1 ‘ V0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) ”””””””””””. (2.7)

V(t) =V0 + (V1 ‘ V0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) (thermocouple voltage response) ”””’. (2.8)

V(t) = (V1 ‘ V0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0 ””””””””””. (2.9)

Where (V1 ‘ V0) = ??V

V(t) = ??V ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0 ”””””””””””. (3.0)

T(t) = ??T ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + T0”””””””””””. (3.1)

T(t) = a ( 1- e^((-t)/b) ) + c

Equation (3.1) is similar to the general nonlinear model given as:

F(x) = a ( 1- e^((-t)/b) ) + c ”…””””””””””’. (3.2)


F(x) = V(t) ; a = ??V; b = 1/??; and c = V0

The thermocouples voltage output is nonlinear given a first order response curve (Digilent Inc., 2010)


0 (-t)/??

Table 2:1: showing thermocouple output voltage first order response curve

Explanation on the principles of non-linear regression analysis

The principle of non-linear regression is a method that can be used to show how the response and the unknown values (predictors) relate to each other by following a functional form i.e. relating Y as being a function of x or more variables. This is to say that the non-linear equation we are trying to predict rely non-linearly mainly upon one or more variables or parameters. The Gauss Newton Method is a method used to solve non-linear regression by applying Taylor series expansion to express a non-linear expression in a linear for form.

A non-linear regression compared to a linear regression cannot be manipulated or solved directly to get the equation; it can be exhausting calculating for this as an iterative approach is used. A non-linear regression model is given as:

Yi = f(xi, a0, a1) + ei


Yi = responses

F = function of (xi, a0, a1)

ei = errors

For this assignment the non-linear regression model is given as

f(x) = a0(1 ‘ e-a1x) + e


F(x) = V(t) ; a0 = ??V; b = (-t)/??; and e = V0

T(t) = (T1 ‘ T0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + T0 ””””””””””. (3.3)

V(t) = (V1 ‘ V0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0 ””””””””””. (3.4)

Where (V1 ‘ V0) = ??V

V(t) = ??V ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0 ”””””””””””. (3.5)

Description of measurement task

The intent of the measurement experiment was to seek, identify, analyse the components of that make measurement task and to examine the transient response from the Type k thermocouple. It analyses the method, instruments and series of actions in obtaining results from measurements. Equipment such as the Type K thermocouple, NI-PXI-6070E 12 bit I/O card, AD595 thermocouple amplifier, and a Labview software program which was used for calculation of model parameters were used to carry out this task.

The measurement task is to introduce the Type K thermocouple sensing junction in hot water to analyse the temperature change and the corresponding voltage response is generated and observed on a Labview program. This activity is executed frequently to acquire the best fitted model response and parameters.

Choice of signal conditioning elements

The choice of a signal conditioning element used in measurement is important because the signal conditioning element used can either enhance the quality and efficiency of a measurement system or reduce its performance.

The AD595 thermocouple amplifier is the choice signal conditioning element used with the Type K thermocouple for this experiment because it is has a built in ice-point compensation (cold junction compensator) and amplifier which is used as a reference junction to compare and amplify the output voltage of the Type K thermocouple which generates a small output voltage corresponding to the input temperature. AD595AQ chip used is pre-calibrated by laser trimming to correspond to the Type K thermocouple characteristic feature with an accuracy of ??3oC, operating between (-55 oC – 125 oC) and are available with 14 pins/low cost cerdip. The AD595 device resolves this issue by providing amplification of low output voltage (gain), linearization of the nonlinear output response of the thermocouple so as to change to the equivalent input temperature, and provide cold junction compensation to improve the performance and accuracy of thermocouple measurements.

Equipment provided for measurement

There were three equipment provided for the measurement exercise and they include:

Type K thermocouple

The Type K thermocouple (chromel/alumel) is the most commonly used transducer to measure temperature with an electromotive force (e.m.f) of 41 microvolts per degree(??V/ oC) which is nonlinear and the voltage produced between its two dissimilar alloys changes with temperature i.e. the input temperature corresponds to the output voltage it generates. It is cheap to buy with the ability to perform in rugged environmental conditions and is calibrated to operate at wide temperature range of about -250 oC to 1370 oC. It is made of a constituent called nickel which is magnetic and its magnetic component may change direction or deviate when subjected to a high enough temperature and can affect its accuracy.

Signal connector signal conditioner


Cold junction ‘([email protected])

Figure 2.2: Circuit diagram of a thermocouple, signal connector and signal conditioner

NI-USB 6008

The NI-USB 6008 is a National Instrument device that provides DAQ functionality for some applications like portable measurements, data logging and lab experiments. It is cheap for academic purposes and is used for more complicated measurement tasks. It has a ready to run data logger software which allows the user to perform quick measurements and can be configured by using Labview National Instruments software. It provides connection to 8 analog single-ended input channels (AI), 2 analog output channels (AO), 12 data input and output (I/O) channels, 32 bit counter bus with a very quick USB interface and are compatible with Labview 7.x, LabWindowsTM/CVI, and Measurement Studio DAQ modules for visual Studio.

Figure 2.3: NI-USB 6008 pin out

AD595 thermocouple amplifier

The AD595 thermocouple amplifier is a thermocouple amplifier and a cold junction compensator on a small chip of semiconductor material (microchip or IC) which produces a high output of 10 mV/oC from the input signal of a thermocouple as a result of combining a cold junction reference with a pre-calibrated amplifier. It has an accuracy of ??10C and ??30C for the A and C performance grade version respectively and can be powered by a supply including +5V and a negative supply if temperatures below 00C are to be measured. It laser trimmer is pre-calibrated so as to conform to the Type k thermocouple specification and is available in 14-pin side brazed ceramic dips (Devices, 1999).

Figure 2.4: Block diagram showing AD595 in a functional circuit

Configuration of the I/O channel(s)

The I/O channel(s) provide a way (path) for communication between the input device (thermocouple sensor) and the output device (DAQ). The thermocouple senses temperature as input and sends the data to the DAQ which receives the data and displays the information through a computer on the Labview front panel graph.

The following explain the configuration of the DAQ for the thermocouple measurement:

Channel Settings: this is used to select an I/O channel in the DAQ device either AI0 or AI1 can be chosen and rename to suit user

Signal Input Range: this is used to select the minimum and maximum voltage of the AD595 thermocouple amplifier which also helps to achieve better resolution of the NI-USB 6008 Data Acquisition Device

Scale Units: this is used to select the scale unit of the analog signal generated and since the thermocouples output signal measured corresponding to temperature is Voltage, then the Scaled unit chosen will be ‘Volts’

Terminal Configuration: this is used to choose terminal on the DAQ for which the signal conditioning circuit is connected

Custom Scaling: No scale was chosen since no custom scale was adopted

Acquisition Mode: this is used to select how the sample are played, the continuous samples was chosen because it allows the DAQ to collect data signals continuously from the circuit until the user decides to stop

Samples to Read: this allows the user to choose how many samples to read depending on the frequency of the input signal generated. It is important to choose at least twice the frequency signal to acquire all the desire signals. One thousand (2K) samples was chosen

Rate (Hz): this allows the user to choose the rate of the sample signals generated. Rate (Hz) 1k was chosen.

Connection of Circuit to DAQ and Configuration of I/O channel(s)

The connection of the circuit to the NI-USB 6008 data acquisition device was carried out by connecting two wires from the output voltage and ground of the signal conditioning unit i.e. the AD595 device.

The red wire from the signal conditioning unit was connected to the positive port of the analog input channel 0 (+AI0) of the DAQ device and the black wire from the ground was connected to the negative port of the analog input channel 0 (-AI0) of the DAQ. The diagrams below show the connections between the signal conditioning circuit and the connector block (DAQ).

Figure 2.5: Picture showing the connection of the signal conditioning circuit with the DAQ

Description of the Labview VI

Labview is a National instrument programming system design software that is optimal for control measurements and provides an engineer with tools to test, solve practical problems in a short amount of time, and the design of control systems. It is less complex and very easy to use compared to other programming simulation applications. The Labview Virtual Instrument (VI) program includes the Front Panel and the Block diagram and for this lab experiment, it is used to examine and determine the thermocouple frequency response and to carry out an analysis of the noise present in the filtered and unfiltered signal of the thermocouple voltage generated, displaying the result on its Graph indicators. The description of the Labview VI Front Panel and Block diagram are as follows:

Figure 2.6: Block diagram of the Labview design

Block diagram:

It is where a user can create the basic code for the Labview program. The program can be created when the block diagram is active by using the functions palette which contains objects like structure, numeric, Boolean, string, array, cluster, time and dialog, file I/O, and advanced functions which can be added to the block diagram.

Front Panel:

It is a graphic user interface that allows the user to interact with the Labview program. It can appear in silver, classic, modern or system style. The controls and indicators are located on the controls palette and used to build and add objects like numeric displays, graphs and charts, Boolean controls and indicators etc. to the front panel.

DAQ Assistant:

It allows a user to configure, generate and acquire analog input signals from any one of the data acquisitions (DAQ) input channel. For this experiment the signal conditioning circuit was connected to the analog input 0 channel of the NI-USB 6008 data acquisition device and the DAQ assistant is used to configure to DAQ so as to be able to acquire signals from the AD595 thermocouple amplifier.

For Loop:

The For loop like the while loop allows codes to be executed repeatedly by executing a subdiagram a required number of times (N). The For loop is found on the structure palette and can be placed on the block diagram. It is made up of the count and iteration terminal.

Trigger and Gate VI:

It is used to take out a part (segment) of a signal and its mode of operation is either based on a start or stop condition or can be static.

Curve Fitting VI:

It is used to calculate and determine the best fit parameter values that best depict an input signal. It can be used for linear, non-linear, spline, quadratic and polynomial models type. It minimizing the weighted mean squared error between the initial and best fit response signal generated. For this experiment initial guesses were made for the coefficients of non-linear model used.


It is a type of special indicator accepts different data types and used to display an array of input data or signals. In this case a waveform graph was used.

Numeric Function:

It is used to carry out mathematical and arithmetic actions on numbers and converts numbers from one data type to another. The multiply numeric function was used to return the products of inputs.

Figure 2.7: Configuration of Trigger and Gate

Figure 2.8: Curve fitting configuration

The diagram in figure 2.8 above is a window showing the configuration for curve fitting and the configuration steps are as follows:

Model Type: Non-linear model was chosen because the signal observed is a first order response (non-linear) curve.

Independent variable: t was the independent variable chosen

Maximum iterations: The default maximum iterations 500 is chosen.

Non-linear model: The equation for the non-linear model a*( 1- exp'(-t/b)) ) + c

Initial guesses: Values for a, b, and c were chosen to get the best fitting values for the curve. The values for a, b, and c are 15.000000, 0.040000, and 29.000000 respectively.

Figure 2.9: Transient response of the thermocouple for best fit 1st measurement

Figure 3.0: Transient response of the thermocouple for best fit 2nd measurement

Figure 3.1: Transient response of the thermocouple for best fit 3rd measurement

The diagrams in figures 2.9, 3.0 and 3.1 above show the transient response of the thermocouple after being inserted in warm water to get the best fit curve i.e. to replicate the actual thermocouple response curve. It is observed that with the use of the Trigger and Gate Express VI, the delay experienced in the in the three graphs were removed making the thermocouples signal response more appropriate providing a more decent best fit curve result. Carrying out multiple measurements to get the best fit curve reduces the time constants and produces a better response curve compared to taking one measurement. The table below shows the results from the three measurement activities with their residual and mean squared error values.

Model Parameters First Measurement(1st) Second Measurement(2nd) Third Measurement(3rd)

a (0C) 21.4671 10.2373 8.60708

b (sec) 0.0232065 0.039578 0.0432934

c (0C) 32.1068 29.661 29.4745

Residual 0.666461 0.0357227 0.124069

Mean Squared Error 0.431833 0.0181012 0.0227711

Table 2.1: Showing results from the three measurements with best fit parameters mean squared error and Residual for curve fitting.

From Table the second measurement was observed to have the best fitting curve with the minimum residual and Mean Squared error that are closest to zero compared to the 1st and 3rd measurements. The best fit parameter results of the second measurement will be inserted in the non-linear model equation which is given as:

y = a*( 1- exp'(-t/b)) ) + c””””””””””””(3.6)

T(t) = ??T ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + T0””””””””””””…(3.7)


a is the change in temperature of thermocouple (??T)

b is the time constant (??)

c is the initial temperature of the thermocouple (T0)

t is the time

Substituting values for a, b, and c of third measurement in the equation

T(t) = 10.2373( 1- exp'(-t/0.039578)) ) + 29.661”’..”””””..(3.8)

Equation 3.7 above is the non-linear model equation with best fit parameters for the thermocouple response signal at every value of time (t).

To achieve the output voltage response, the change in temperature and the initial temperature values from equation 3.7 need to be converted to volts this can be obtained by dividing the temperature value by 100 since 100oC is equal to 1V. So the resulting output voltage of the thermocouple is as follows:

V(t) = ??V ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0”’..””””””””””'(3.9)


a = ??V; b =1/??; and c = V0

V(t) = 0.102373( 1- exp'(-t/0.039578)) ) + 0.29661””””””’.(4.0)


The curve fitting experiment using the Type K thermocouple, the AD595 signal conditioning device, and the NI-USB 6008 to acquire and display signals using Labview software was carried out successfully. Curve fitting of the transient response signal of the thermocouple was achieved by analysing and obtaining the transient response of the thermocouple and using a non-linear model implementing best fit values to replicate the response curve by subjecting the thermocouple to temperature. This can be used to obtain the behaviour of an input response signal and improve efficiency for control systems.


Cimbala, J. M., 2013. Dynamic System Response. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 10 March 2014].

Devices, A., 1999. Analog Devices. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 2 March 2015].

Digilent Inc., 2010. Introduction to First Order Responses. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 6 March 2014].


Job evaluation

Job evaluation is defined as a method for determining the worth of a job in comparison to the different jobs in the organization. To establish a justified pay structure for all the employees of the organization, job evaluation gives a means to compare the quality of the work in a particular job, in other words, the worth of a job.

It is different from job analysis; rather job evaluation is done after the stage of job analysis in order to obtain some information about the concerned jobs. Job analysis is defined as a process of determining the skills, duties and responsibilities, in a systematic way, required for a particular job. Thus job evaluation is a method which commences from job evaluation from job analysis but it ends at a point where the worth of the job is determined by ensuring internal as well as external pay equity. In this competitive business environment, it is essential to maintain pay equity otherwise the organization may lose its crucial talent.


Overpayment Inequity (Positive Equity):

Underpayment Inequity (Negative equity):


Input: Any value that person brings to a job.

Outcome: any sort of benefit that an employee is awarded from his/her job.

Objectives of job evaluation

‘ To build a systematic, reasonable, deliberate structure of jobs based on their worth to the organization.

‘ To support a current pay rate structure or to build up one that accommodates internal equity.

‘ To support in setting pay rates that are tantamount to those of in comparable jobs in different organizations to contend in market place for best talent.

‘ To give a balanced premise to arranging pay rates when bargaining collectively with a recognized union.

‘ To guarantee the reasonable and fair remuneration of workers in connection to their obligations.

‘ To guarantee equity in pay for jobs of comparable efforts, responsibility, efforts and working conditions by utilizing a framework that reliably and precisely surveys contrasts in relative quality among jobs.

‘ To create a system of techniques to determine the grade levels and the resulting pay range for new jobs or the jobs which have advanced and changed.

‘ To distinguish a ladder of progression for future development to all workers who are interested in enhancing their remuneration.

‘ To comply with equal pay legislation and regulations deciding pay contrasts as indicated by job content.

‘ To add to a base for merit or performance-related pay.

Characteristics of job evaluation

The essential goal of job evaluation is to figure out the value of work; however this is a quality which differs occasionally and from spot to place affected by certain economic pressure. The principle features of job evaluation are:

‘ To supply bases for compensation arrangement established on realities as opposed to on dubious moderate thoughts.

‘ It endeavors to assess jobs, not individuals.

‘ Job evaluation is the yield given by job analysis.

‘ Job evaluation does not plan pay structure, it helps in supporting the framework by decreasing number of separate and diverse rates.

‘ Job evaluation is not made by people rather it is carried out by gathering of specialists.

‘ Job evaluation decides the estimation of job. Further the estimation of each of the perspectives, for example, aptitude and obligation levels are additionally related and concentrated on regarding the job.

‘ Job evaluation helps the administration to keep up abnormal amounts of representative gainfulness and worker fulfillment.

Process of job evaluation

Job analysis describes the skills, duties and responsibilities required for a job. Job evaluation adds to an arrangement for contrasting jobs regarding those things the association considers vital determinants of job worth. This procedure includes various steps that will be quickly expressed here and afterward talked about all the more completely.

1. Job Analysis: The primary step is an investigation of the jobs in the association. Through job analysis, data on job substance is acquired, together with a valuation for worker prerequisites for effective execution of the job. This data is recorded in the exact, steady dialect of a job description.

2. Compensable Factors: The following step is choosing what the association “is paying for” – that is, the thing that variable or elements put one job at a more elevated amount in the job chain of importance than an alternate. These compensable elements are the measuring sticks used to focus the relative position of jobs. As it were, picking compensable components is the heart of job evaluation. Not just do these variables spot jobs in the association’s job progressive system, yet they additionally serve to advise job officeholders which commitments are remunerated.

3. Building up the Method: The third venture in job evaluation is to choose a technique for evaluating the association’s jobs as indicated by the factor(s) picked. The technique ought to allow reliable situation of the association’s jobs containing a greater amount of the elements higher in the job progression, than those jobs lower in the progressive system.

4. Job Structure: The fourth step is contrasting jobs with build up a job structure. This includes picking and relegating chiefs, arriving at and recording choices, and setting up the job progression.

5. Pay Structure: The last step is evaluating the job structure to land at a compensation structure.

Merits of job evaluation

Job evaluation is a procedure of deciding the relative worth of a job. It is a procedure which is useful actually for encircling remuneration arranges by the personnel manager. Job evaluation as a methodology is worthwhile to an organization from multiple points of view:

‘ Decrease in disparities in pay structure – It is discovered that individuals and their inspiration is needy upon how well they are being paid. Accordingly the primary target of job evaluation is to have outer and interior consistency in compensation structure so that imbalances in pay rates are lessened.

‘ Specialization – Because of division of work and subsequently specialization, an expansive number of endeavors have landed hundred positions and numerous representatives to perform them. Hence, an endeavor ought to be made to characterize a job and accordingly settle pay rates for it. This is conceivable just through job evaluation.

‘ Aides in choice of representatives – The job evaluation data can be useful at the time of determination of applicants. The elements that are resolved for job evaluation can be considered while selecting the workers.

‘ Amicable relationship in the middle of workers and administrator – Through job evaluation, agreeable and harmonious relations can be kept up in the middle of representatives and administration, so that a wide range of pay rates debates can be minimized.

‘ Institutionalization – The procedure of deciding the pay differentials for distinctive jobs get to be institutionalized through job evaluation. This aide in bringing consistency into compensation structure.

‘ Pertinence of new jobs – Through job evaluation, one can comprehend the relative estimation of new jobs in a worry.

Demerits of job evaluation

‘ In spite of the fact that there are numerous methods for applying job evaluation in an adaptable way, fast changes in innovation and in the supply of and interest for specific aptitudes, make issues of change that may need further study.

‘ At the point when job evaluation brings about considerable changes in the current pay structure, the likelihood of executing these progressions in a generally brief time may be limited by the money related breaking points inside which the firm needs to work.

‘ At the point when there is an extensive extent of motivating force workers, it might be hard to keep up a sensible and worthy structure of relative profit.

‘ The methodology of job rating is, to some degree, vague on the grounds that a portion of the components and degrees can be measured with precision.

‘ Job evaluation takes quite a while to finish, requires specific specialized staff and quite expensive.

Methods of job evaluation

Job Ranking:

As indicated by this technique, jobs are arranged from highest to lowest, in place of their worth or legitimacy to the organization. Jobs can likewise be organized by relative trouble in performing them. The jobs are analyzed in general instead of on the premise of essential considers the job; the job at the highest priority on the rundown has the most astounding quality and clearly the job at the base of the rundown will have the least esteem. Jobs are typically positioned in every division and afterward the office rankings are joined to build up an authoritative positioning. The variety in installment of compensations relies on upon the variety of the way of the job performed by the workers. The positioning technique is easy to comprehend and practice and it is ideally equipped for a little association. Its straightforwardness however attempts to its inconvenience in huge associations on the grounds that rankings are hard to grow in an extensive, complex organization. Besides, this sort of positioning is very subjective in nature and may outrage numerous workers. In this way, a more investigative and productive method for job evaluation is called for.

Job Classification:

As per this system, a predetermined number of job groups or job classes are built and jobs are allotted to these characterizations. This technique spots gatherings of jobs into job classes or job grades. Separate classes may incorporate office, administrative, administrative, work force, and so on.

Class I – Executives: Further order under this classification may be Office Manager, Deputy Office administrator, Office director, Departmental chief, and so forth.

Class II – Skilled workers: Under this classification may come the Purchasing partner, Cashier, Receipts assistant, and so forth.

Class III – Semiskilled workers: Under this classification may come Stenotypists, Machine-administrators, Switchboard administrator and so on.

Class IV – Unskilled workers: This classification may involve peons, delivery people, housekeeping staff, File agents, Office young men, and so forth.

The job reviewing system is less subjective when contrasted with the prior positioning strategy. The framework is straightforward and adequate to pretty much all representatives without a second thought. One in number point for the system is that it considers all the elements that a job involves. This framework can be viably utilized for a mixed bag of jobs. The shortcomings of the Grading technique are:

‘ Actually when the prerequisites of distinctive jobs contrast, they may be joined into a solitary class, contingent upon the status a job conveys.

‘ It is hard to compose all inclusive descriptions of a grade.

‘ The system distorts sharp contrasts between diverse jobs and distinctive evaluations.

‘ At the point when individual job depictions and grade portrayals don’t match well, the evaluators tend to characterize the job utilizing their subjective judgments.

The problems that foreign workers face in a host country: essay help online

According to the latest figures CSO (Central Statistical Office), the number of foreign workers in Mauritius has been constantly increasing and is now at approximately 39, 032. From those figures we can state that there are 27, 408 men and 11 624 women. This amount of expatriates is mainly made up of workers coming from Bangladesh, 18 429, from India, 9105, China, 4656 and Madagascar with 3596.

It is the manufacturing sector that employs the largest number of foreign workers, that is29 846, while the construction comes second with 6070 workers. Last September, the ministry of Labour took the decision to freeze the recruitment of foreign workers in the construction sector. In all case, the bar of 40 000 foreign workers in Mauritius will quickly be reached by the end of the year announcing an increase of 20% compared to 2008. Those workers are supposed to be treated the same way as local workers and to take advantage of the local welfare.. Though Mauritius did not signed ICRMW (International Convention on the protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers), the country needs to apply its own laws. Here, it is the Employees Rights Act (2008) which stipulates all the law concerning any work related issues. This causes the migrant workers to rebel in order to voice out through violent actions. Those persons are actually migrating to another country in order to get a better living conditions, also, promises are made but rarely respected. From the point of view of management, they prefer employing migrants as they are more hard-working, skilled and cheaper compared to a local worker. It is a fact that it is not always easy for the foreign workers to cope with the working conditions applied to them and moreover their cultures and those that we have in Mauritius are not always the same.


The research objectives of this study are:

‘ To explore the different difficulties that the expatriates face in the host country

‘ To explore the foreign workers’ opinions about the way they are treated

‘ Propose recommendations to those organizations who employ foreign workers to improve their working and living conditions.


Wilson & Dalton (1998) describe expatriates as, ‘those who work in a country or culture other than their own.’

Connerly et al. (2008) stated that ‘many scholars have proposed that personal characteristics predict whether individuals will succeed on their expatriate assignment.’ Due to globalization, there is the need for expatriates. Thus, companies dealing with external workers should find ways to solve problems faced by these workers and make them comfortable in their daily life so that they do not want to go back to their native country. (Selmer and Leung, 2002)


1. Culture Shock

Hofstede (2001) defined it as ‘the state of distress following the transfer of a person to an unfamiliar environment which may also be accompanied by physical symptoms’.

According to Dr Kalvero Oberg, expatriates are bound to experience four distinct phases before adapting themselves to another culture.

Those four phases are:

1. A Honeymoon Phase

2. The Negotiation Phase

3. An Adjustment Phase

4. A Reverse Culture Shock

During the Honeymoon Phase, the expatriates are excited to discover their new environment. They are ready to lay aside minor problems in order to learn new things. But eventually, this stage ends somehow.

At the Negotiation Phase or the Crisis Period, the expatriates start feeling homesick and things start to become a burden for them. For example, they might feel discomfort regarding the local language, the public transport systems or the legal procedures of the host country.

Then the Adjustment Phase starts. Six to twelve months after arriving in the new country, most expatriates start to feel accustomed to their new home and know what to expect. Their activities become routines and the host country is now accepted as another place to live. The foreign worker starts to develop problem-solving skills to change their negative attitudes to a more positive one.

The final stage called the Reverse Culture Shock or Re-entry Shock. It occurs when expatriates return to their home country after a long period. They are surprised to find themselves encountering cultural difficulties.

There are physical and psychological symptoms of culture shock such as:

1. Physical factors

‘ Loss of appetite

‘ Digestion problems

2. Cognitive factors

‘ Feeling of isolation/ home sickness

‘ Accusing the host culture for own distress

3- Behavioural factors

‘ Performance deficits

‘ Higher alcohol consumption

2. Communication/ Language Barrier

Communication is crucial to both management and employees. Sometimes, due to this language barrier, employees do not understand what is expected from them. They thus tend to make mistakes at the workplace and conflicts arise between the parties concerned. Also, the language barrier is the major obstacle when it comes to the changing of environment for expatriates. These people usually feel homesick and lonely as they are unable to communicate with the local people they meet. This language problem becomes a barrier in creating new relationships. A special attention must be paid to one’s specific body language signs, conversation tone and linguistic nuances and customs. Communicative ability permits cultural development through interaction with other individuals. Language becomes the mean that promotes the development of culture. Language affects and reflects culture just as culture affects and reflects what is encoded in language. Language learners may be subconsciously influenced by the culture of the learned language. This helps them to feel more comfortable and at ease in the host country.

3. Industrial Laws

Laws are vital for the proper conduct of such activity as that of welcoming expatriates in Mauritius. The Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations and employment are meant to produce a ‘Guidelines for work permit application (February 2014)’ manual for those organisations which are engaged in this activity. This manual describes procedures that should be followed in case of a Bangladeshi, Chinese or Indian worker. Any breach of the law will lead automatically to severe sanctions.

For example, Non-Citizens (Employment Restriction) Act 1973 which provides, among others, that ‘a non-citizen shall not engage in any occupation in Mauritius for reward or profit or be employed in Mauritius unless there is in force in relation to him a valid work permit.’ A request to the government should be made if an organization wishes to recruit foreign workers in bulk.

Expatriates are human beings so they should have some fundamental ‘Rights’ in the host country. In Mauritius, the contract for employment of foreign workers stipulates all the necessary information concerning the expatriates’ rights, conditions of work, accommodation and remuneration amongst others. This contract is based on the existing Labour law and the contents of the contract are to large extent the same with some slight differences in conditions of work. Mauritius has adopted the good practices in relation to labour migration and has spared no efforts to develop policies and programmes to maximize benefits and minimize its negative consequences. However, there are still improvements to be brought to the living and working conditions of foreign workers.

4. Living Conditions

The NESC published a report in February 2007 which advocated that foreigners working in the island should enjoy the same rights as local workers. In reality, many foreign workers suffer from bad working conditions. Some workers have intolerable living conditions, sleeping in dormitories on benches without mattresses or in tiny bedroom containing many people. Those who intend to voice out or those considered as ‘ring leaders’ are deported.

In 2006, some workers from China and India who tried to form a trade union or to protest were deported. Peaceful demonstrations often turn into riots which the police brutally suppressed.

In August (2007) some 500 Sri Lankans were demanding better wages at the company Tropic Knits and in response, the Mauritian authorities deported 35 of them. At the Companie Mauricienne de Textile, one of the biggest companies of the island employing more than 5,000 people, 177 foreign workers were deported after taking part in an ‘illegal demonstration’ about the lack of running water, the insufficient number of toilets and poor accommodation.

During the year (2011) a visit at two of the Trend Clothing’s Ltd by (Jeppe Blumensaat Rasmussen) shows how several Bangladeshi workers were living under inhumane living conditions. Furthermore, workers were paid an hourly rate of Rs15.50, which was even less than the previous amount of Rs16.57 bringing the monthly salary to an amount of Rs3500 ‘ 5000 depending on overtime. One woman even said that she had work 43 hours and was paid only 32. The Bangladeshi workers were also living in dormitories containing several holes in the ceilings and signs of water damage next to electrical sockets. We also have the case of the migrant Nepal’s workers who decided to leave Mauritius due to their bad working and living conditions. They were living in an old production space which was turn into dormitories, hosting 34 migrants’ workers. There were no water connection in the kitchen and no running water to flush toilets. They also did not receive any allowance and their salary was decreased from Rs5600 to Rs5036 per month. On the 9th June 2011, eight workers wrote a letter to their boss, giving their employer a month notice.

In September (2013) more than 450 Bangladeshi workers working in the textile company, Real Garments, in Pointe-aux-Sables were on strike claiming for better working conditions. They also protested in the streets of Port-Louis and had gone to the Ministry of Labor to submit their claims one day before (L’Express; Mauritius). Fourteen Bangladeshi workers were considered as the main leaders and were deported by the authorities.

5. Foreign workers and Income

Foreign workers take the decision to leave their native country to work in other countries with the aim of making more money and then send it to their family. However, they did not predict that they will be paid less than that was promised to them before their departure to the host country. Some organisations pay them only half of what they were supposed to. Having already signed their contract, they are forced to work hard for a low salary. Many Bangladeshis, Indians or Chinese choose to leave the host country after their contract termination and the more courageous ones stay and renew their contract for more years. Despite their low paid jobs, it is still better than in their native country where they are even more exploited or where life is far more difficult for them.

The Employment Rights Act (2008) stipulate that if a local worker ‘works on a public holiday, he shall be remunerated at twice the national rate per hour for every hour of work performed.’

However, some expatriates who are forced to work on a public holiday are usually paid the same amount as a usual day. As human beings, they should be treated as any other worker either local or foreign, with the same rights and possibilities.

6. Unions

Unionism is about workers standing together to improve their situation, and to help others. Some unions are reactive, that is waiting for the employer to act and then choosing how to attack or respond and others are proactive, that is developing their own agenda and then advancing it wherever it’s possible. When unions and management fail to reach agreement, or where relations break down, the union has the option of pursuing industrial action through a strike, a go-slow, a work-to-rule, a slow-down, an overtime ban or an occupation.

However, the Expatriates are often not aware of the law protecting their rights (e.g. many migrant workers are not informed of the laws that provide them with the same level of protection as Mauritian nationals and Employers refused to recognize union representatives. It is also often difficult for unions to get access to and organize for foreign workers.

An ICFTU-AFRO (the African regional organization of the former International Confederation of Free Trade Unions) mission to Mauritius in February 2004 was told that the few men they saw were mainly supervisors who were said to be hostile to unions.

During 2006 there were a series of reports that workers from China and India who had tried to form a trade union or protest against their employers had been summarily deported. On 23 May 2006, policemen armed with shields and truncheons beat female workers from Novel Garments holding a sit-in in the courtyard of the factory in Coromandel protesting against plans to transfer them to other production units.

According to the MAURITIUS 2012 HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT, section 7: Worker Rights, a. Freedom of Association and the Right to collective Bargaining, the constitution and law provide for the rights of workers, including foreign workers, to form and join independent unions, conduct legal strikes, and bargain collectively With the exception of police, the Special Mobile Force, and persons in government services who were not executive officials, workers were free to form and join unions and to organize in all sectors, including in the Export Oriented Enterprises (EOE), formerly known as the Export Processing Zone.

Alzheimer's disease (AD): college essay help online

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and chronic neurodegenerative disorder among the aging population. Dementia is a syndrome characterized by progressive illnesses affecting memory, thinking, behavior and everyday performance of an individual. Dementia affects older people, but 2% of people starts developing before the age of 65 years (Organization 2006). According to the Worlds Alzheimer Report 2014, 44 million of people are living with dementia all across the globe and its set to get doubled by 2030 and triples by 2050 (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014). Its estimated that 5.2 million Americans have AD in 2014 (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). This includes 200,000 individuals under 65 age have early onset of AD and 5 million people of age 65 and above (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). Women are affected more than men in AD and other dementias (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). Among 5 million people of above 65 years of age, 3.2 million are women and 1.8 million are men (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). The Multiple factors that leads to AD are age, genetics, environmental factors, head trauma, depression, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and vascular factors. There are no treatments for AD that slows or stops the death and malfunctioning of neurons in the brain, indeed many therapies and drugs are aimed in slowing or stopping neuronal malfunction (Association 2014). Currently five drugs have been approved by the U.S food and Drug Administration to improve symptoms of AD by increasing the amount of neurotransmitters in the brain (Association 2014). It has been estimated that Medicare and Medicaid covered $150 billion of total health care for long duration care for individuals suffering for AD and other dementias (Association 2014).

Diagnostic criteria

Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke’Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS’ADRDA) in 1984 proposed a criteria which is as follows (1) clinical diagnosis of AD could only be designated as ‘probable’ while the patient was alive and could not be made definitively until Alzheimer’s pathology had been confirmed post mortem (McKhann, Drachman et al. 1984) and (2) the clinical diagnosis of AD could be assigned only when the disease had advanced to the point of causing significant functional disability and met the threshold criterion of dementia (McKhann, Drachman et al. 1984).

In 2007, IWG proposed criteria that AD could be recognized in vivo and independently of dementia in the presence of two features (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2007). The first criteria was a core clinical that require evidence of a specific episodic memory profile characterized by a low free recall that is normalized by cueing (Dubois and Albert 2004). The second is the presence of biomarker evidence on AD which include (1) structural MRI, (2) Neuroimaging using PET (18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET [FDG PET] or 11C-labelled Pittsburgh compound B PET [PiB PET]), and (3) CSF analysis of amyloid ?? (A??) or tau protein (total tau [T-tau] and phosphorylated tau [P-tau]) concentrations (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2007)

In 2011, the NIA and Alzheimer’s association proposed guidelines to help pathologist and categorizing the brain changes with AD and other dementias (Hyman, Phelps et al. 2012). Based on the changes absorbed, they classified into three stages (a) preclinical Alzheimer’s disease, (b) mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer’s disease, (c) Dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease (Hyman, Phelps et al. 2012). In pre-clinical AD, the individual have changes in the cerebrospinal fluid but they don’t develop memory loss. This reflects that Alzheimer’s related brain changes occur 20 years onset before the symptom occurs (Petersen, Smith et al. 1999, H??nninen, Hallikainen et al. 2002, Reiman, Quiroz et al. 2012). In MCI due to AD, individuals suffering from MCI has some notable changes in thinking that could be absorbed among family members and friends, but do not meet criteria for dementia (Petersen, Smith et al. 1999, H??nninen, Hallikainen et al. 2002, Reiman, Quiroz et al. 2012). Various studies show that 10 to 20% of individual of age 65 or above have MCI (Petersen, Smith et al. 1999, H??nninen, Hallikainen et al. 2002, Reiman, Quiroz et al. 2012). Its is estimated that 15% and 10% progress from MCI to dementia and AD every year (Manly, Tang et al. 2008). In Dementia due to AD, Individual is characterized by having problem in memory, thinking and behavioral symptom that affects his routine life (Association 2014).

In 2014, IWG proposed criteria for maintaining the principle of high specificity, based on the framework they classified as follows (1). Typical AD can be diagnosed in the presence of an amnestic syndrome of the hippocampal type, which could be associated with different cognitive or behavioral changes and having one of following changes in vivo AD pathology such as decreased A??42 together with increased T-tau or P-tau concentration in CSF or increased retention on amyloid tracer PET (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (2) Atypical AD could be made in the presence of the following, which includes clinical phenotypes that is consistent with one of the known atypical presentation and at-least one of the following changes indicating in-vivo AD pathology (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (3) Mixed AD can be made in patients with typical or atypical phenotypic feature of AD and presence of at-least one biomarker of AD pathology (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (4) Preclinical states of AD require absence of clinical symptoms of AD (typical or atypical phenotypes) and inclusion of at-least one biomarker of AD pathology for identifying the presence of asymptomatic at-risk state or the presence of a proven AD autosomal dominant mutation of chromosome 1, 14 or 21 for the diagnosis of presymptomatic change (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (5) To differentiate biomarkers of AD diagnosis from those of AD progression (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014).


Dr. Alois Alzheimer, a German physician in 1906 observed pathologic abnormalities in autopsied brain of women who suffered from memory related problems, confusion and language trouble (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014). He found the presence of plaques deposits outside the neurons and tangles inside the brain cells (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014). Thus, the senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles have became two pathological hallmarks of AD (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014).

The histological hallmarks of AD in brain are intracellular deposition of microtubule-associated tau protein called neurofibrillary tangles (NTF) and extracellular accumulation of amyloid ?? peptide (A??) in senile plaques (Bloom 2014). A?? derived from the larger glycoprotein called amyloid precursor protein (APP) can processed through two pathways amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic (Gandy 2005) . In amyloidogenic pathway ??-secretase and ??-secretase proteolysis APP to produce soluble amyloid precursor protein ?? (sAPP??) and a carboxyl terminal fragment CTF?? (C99) to produce A?? peptides (Gandy 2005). Alternatively APP is proteolysed by the action of ?? and ??- secretase generating soluble amino terminal fragments (sAPP??) and a carboxyl terminal fragment CTF?? (C83) to produce non amyloidogenic peptide (Esch, Keim et al. 1990, Buxbaum, Thinakaran et al. 1998).

Figure 1. Amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways of APP

APP is cleaved by ??-?? secretases (amyloidogenic) releasing amyloid A?? peptide(s) or by ??-?? secretases (non-amyloidogenic), adapted from (Read and Suphioglu 2013)

The amino acid sequences of A?? include A??42 and A??40. During normal condition A??40 is 10-fold higher concentration level, when compared to A??42 central nervous system (CNS) (Haass, Schlossmacher et al. 1992). However during inflammation, stress and injury in the brain causes A??40 and A??42 for a dynamic change and leads to an upregulation of A??42. In AD A??42 accumulates as misfolded proteins in extracellular space (Gurol, Irizarry et al. 2006).

Tau is a microtubule-associated protein (MAP), most abundant in central and peripheral nervous system that help in assembly and stabilizing of microtubules that is crucial among the cellular morphology and trafficking (Tolnay and Probst 1999, Iqbal, Liu et al. 2010, Cohen, Guo et al. 2011). NFT is the major hallmarks of AD patients in brain. In AD, phosphorylation of tau leads to the loss of neuronal function and death. Degeneration of synapse strongly correlates with cognitive decline in AD, while soluble oligomeric tau contribute to synapse degeneration (Morris, Maeda et al. 2011). Although, the protein aggregating into NFT are unclear, number of NFT and the progression of neurodegeneration as well as dementia showed a significant positive correlation in AD (Cohen, Guo et al. 2011) (Arnaud, Robakis et al. 2006).

Figure 2. AD pathology

Deposition of A?? and tau in neurons. The boxes shows the different biomarkers which are used for examination, adapted from (Nordberg 2015)


A characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic process or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention (Atkinson, Colburn et al. 2001).The pathology of neurodegenerative for individuals is provided by using imaging and fluid biomarkers (Dickerson, Wolk et al. 2013).

CSF Biomarkers

The CSF biomarkers play a major role in diagnosing probable AD. However, abnormality in the CSF is found long before the symptoms occur.

Amyloid beta (A??) is synthesized in brain and diffused into CSF. In cognitively normal individuals A?? appears in moderate condition, however for individuals suffering from AD has reduced A??42 in CSF which act as an useful biomarker during diagnosis (Sunderland, Linker et al. 2003). The low levels of A??42 appears at-least 20 years prior to clinical dementia in individuals with familial AD mutations (Ringman, Coppola et al. 2012). In addition, reduced levels of A??42 appear early in cognitively normal which precedes MCI by years (Fagan, Head et al. 2009). Therefore A??42 cannot be used individually as a specific biomarkers in discriminating from other dementia hence it should be combined with other biomarkers for determining specific dementia.

Tau in CSF relates with the progression of tau related pathology in cerebral cortex. Increased in the tau level in CSF for AD patients reflects the neuronal loss in brain (de Souza, Chupin et al. 2012). Similarly, like A??42 elevation in tau seems to occur at cognitive normal individuals (Fagan, Head et al. 2009). Hence its important to consider other biomarker for differential diagnosis of AD. Moreover, phosphorylated (p)-tau have 85% sensitivity and 97% specificity in discriminating AD from other neurological disorder (Tan, Yu et al. 2014). P-tau is therefore more superior to t-tau in differentiating diagnosis, thus helps in overcoming the short coming of A??42 and t-tau in differentiating diagnosis (Buerger, Zinkowski et al. 2002). CSF t-tau and p-tau occurs after A??42 initially aggregates and increases as amyloid accumulates (Buchhave, Minthon et al. 2012).

Imaging Biomarkers

Structural MRI

Structural MRI studies helps in subjects diagnosed with AD and MCI who consistently show change in atrophy in entorhinal cortex and hippocampus of medial temporal lobe (MTL) and cortical thinning in AD signature region are the MRI sign of emerging AD (Du, Schuff et al. 2001). MRI studies focus on normal subjects who have maternal history of AD, has reduced volume of MTL and precuneus (Berti, Mosconi et al. 2011). Voxel based analysis on whole brain determines the structural MRI could be used to identify the presence of brain atrophy in cortical regions up to 10 years before clinical symptoms of AD, with greater impact in MTL (Du, Schuff et al. 2001).

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

PET is based on the principle of spontaneous emission of positron by the nuclei of unstable radionuclide, whose number of protons exceeds that of electrons (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013). PET images in-vivo distribution of radiopharmaceutical substances with higher resolution and sensitivity (Fahey 2003). The positron which is a ??-particle with positive charge annihilates with an electron of negative charge, releasing equal number of gamma photons of same energy (511 keV) moving in 180 degree opposite to each other to conserve momentum (Kukekov and Fadeev 1986, Fahey 2003).

The components involved in the PET scanner are movable bed, detector, gantry and computer. The detector consist of multiple crystals attached with a photomultipliers (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013). The interaction among the gamma photon and crystal produces scintillation which induces electric impulse in the photomultipliers and could be detected and processed using computer (Khmelev, Shiryaev et al. 2004). If the two detectors are in coincidence, then the positron emitted along the line connects the detectors which is termed as line of response (LOR) (Fahey 2003).In most of the scanners the two detectors are in coincidence, if they are detected with in 10 seconds (Fahey 2003). The sensitivity of the PET can be increased by increasing the number of detectors into a ring. The data examined from the individual is acquired in computer in the form of sinogram. There are different techniques of reconstruction such as filtered back projection (FBP), Iterative Method, OSEM are used for reconstructing an image. In modern PET scanners, LSO crystals with minimum size are used which permits high resolving capacity, high resolution, effective algorithm for image reconstruction and field of view sufficient for single stage scanning of the brain or heart (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013).

The cyclotron, a particle accelerator provides the production of radionuclides for clinical use. Heavy particles are accelerated to a higher energy level of 5-100MeV using cyclotron (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013). The beam of particles is focused on the target substance by using radio magnetic lens. The target material is bombarded with heavy particle to generate the required radionuclide (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013).

The requirements of a good tracer which include higher affinity towards the target receptor, selectivity versus other receptors (Bmax / Kd of at least 10-fold,where Bmax is the density of the receptor and Kd is the concentration of the radiotracer) and good permeability (McCarthy, Halldin et al. 2009). The tracers has to be a poor substrate of p-glycoprotein if it has been developed for imaging targets in brain (Terasaki and Hosoya 1999). It has been found that low hydrogen bonding plays an important role in predicting good PET tracers (McCarthy, Halldin et al. 2009). For a good tracers, time to binding equilibrium should be long relative to washout of non-specifically bound tracer, but short relative to isotope decay (McCarthy, Halldin et al. 2009) .

Amyloid PET

PET imaging of amyloid binding agent Pittsburg compound B (PET-PiB) helps to determine the ??-amyloid (A??) and its distribution over the brain that were previously restricted to postmortem studies. The longitudinal study provided evidence relating with a direct relationship between PET-PiB and likelihood of conversion from clinical diagnosis of MCI to AD over three years (Klunk 2011). Since there is significant overlap between amyloid imaging and CSF- A??42, researchers attempt to address the areas where these two biomarkers may be equivalent and areas where one measurement could hold unique advantages (Vlassenko, Mintun et al. 2011). In addition, current hypothesis states that higher amyloid burden assessed by florbetapir 18F (18F-AV-45) amyloid PET is related with lower memory performance among clinically normal older subjects (Sperling, Johnson et al. 2013).


FDG-PET (2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose) is one of the neurodegeneration biomarkers included in the new research criteria proposed for the various diagnosis of AD by the International working group (IWG) in 2007 and 2010, also in the new diagnostic criteria of AD by National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer Association (NIA-AA) (McKhann, Drachman et al. 1984, Dubois, Feldman et al. 2007, Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). FDG-PET measures the local glucose metabolism for neuronal activity at resting state to asses cerebral function. It is evident that AD individuals has reduced FDG uptake predominantly in tempoparietal association areas, precuneus and posterior cingulate region (Minoshima, Giordani et al. 1997). These changes could be observed in subjects from 1-2 year before the onset of dementia and are closely related to cognitive impairment (Herholz 2010). Although MRI is more sensitive in detecting and monitoring hippocampal atrophy (Fox and Kennedy 2009), FDG is more sensitive in detecting neuronal dysfunction in neocortical association areas. Hence FDG is well suited for monitoring the progression of the disease syndrome (Alexander, Chen et al. 2002).

Regional functional impairment of glucose metabolism in AD is related with the severity and progression of different cognitive deficits (Langbaum, Chen et al. 2009)


Great Britain had colonized the nation of India amid the 1700’s when East India organization picked up control of India in 1757 however the Company ruled India without impedance from British Government until 1800s With the measure of crude materials and the developing business for British products, the British government starts to build its control. In 1858, British government takes complete control of India after the Sepoy Mutiny and the British subdued and displayed bigotry against local Indians. Indian nationalistic developments, for example, ones drove by the Indian National Congress, had endeavored endeavors at lead toward oneself yet had never been entirely effective. The immense supporter of a free India, Gandhi, was influential in the Indian Pro-independence Movement. Known as the Mahatma, or the Great Soul, Gandhi constrained change and an end to British colonization through a strict approach of peacefulness, or detached resistance. This development picked up energy after the world war 1 however the llianwala Bagh Massacre where number of individuals had gathered at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar for going to the yearly Baisakhi reasonable were encompass by the armed force at the requests of General Dyer and opened fire on the swarm, slaughtering several individuals. The Aftermath of this slaughter brought about general hubbub when the swarms took to the roads in numerous north Indian towns. The British utilized ruthless suppression, trying to embarrass and threaten individuals. Individuals were flagellated and towns were besieged and this savagery constrained Gandhi to stop the development

A feeling of solidarity and patriotism was motivated by history and fiction, folktale and melodies, prevalent prints and images. Abanindranath Tagore’s picture of Bharat Mata and Bankim Chandra melody Vande Mataram united numerous individuals and groups During the Swadeshi Movement; a tri-shading (red, green and yellow) banner was outlined. It had eight lotuses speaking to eight regions of British India and a sickle moon, speaking to Hindus and Muslims In 1921, Gandhi had planned the tri-shading Swaraj banner (red, green and yellow) with the turning wheel at the focal point. This banner spoke to the Gandhian perfect of self improvement and turned into an image of resistance. This ingrained pride and united the Indians.

However Despite the impact of Gandhi, India fell into confusion. Hindu individuals needed an all-Hindu state and Muslims, drove by the Muslim League needed a different state. Gandhi was killed in light of this contention. In the end, Pakistan was framed as a different Muslim state. Along these lines, the quality and will of the basic individuals both attained to Indian autonomy and shredded India. The tale of Mahatma Gandhi and Indian patriotism is one of history’s most prominent ironies


Soon after the end of World War II, most European countries were sometime during closure magnificent control of Africa. Skillet Africanism got to be overwhelming on the mainland of Africa. Container Africanism is a nationalistic development that requires the solidarity of all African countries. While is has immense impact, for example, the African National Council, it has never succeeded in uniting all of Africa. Difference and a hefty portion of the issues confronting Africa since the end of WWII into present-day can be faulted for European colonialism. Political defilement is uncontrolled in light of the fact that European colonialists left without making stable governments. Ethnic pressure exists in light of the fact that European fringes were made with no idea given to the tribal framework. Tribalism is one of the greatest impediments to Africa in light of the fact that conventional adversaries were contained inside one European-made outskirt. A decent sample of ethnic strain is the contention between the Hutus and Tutsis in which 1,000’s on both sides were slaughtered and numerous more fled to Zaire to look for shelter. Both the countries of Rwanda and Burundi had noteworthy populaces of Hutus and Tutsis, both customary tribes. Notwithstanding the mind-boggling issues, there have been some significant achievements where patriotism has brought about positive change.

The principal Arab-Israeli clash set two nationalistic developments against one another. The War for Independence (1948-49) was the disappointment of the Arab world to prevent Israel from being framed as a Jewish sovereign state. This war brought about Jerusalem falling under the control of the Israelis and the end to a proposed arrangement for a free Palestinian state to be shaped. The Suez War of 1956 brought about Nasser’s Egypt losing control of the Sinai Peninsula, debilitating the dependability of the immeasurably critical Suez Canal. The Six-Day War of 1967 saw large portions of the encompassing Arab countries assault Israel and afterward continue to lose region (the challenged ranges recorded above) to Israel in under a week. The Yom Kippur War of 1973 was an Egyptian assault over the Sinai and turned into a Cold War occasion as the Americans and Soviets got to be included. Nasser’s successor, Anwar al-Sadat, (envisioned here) was the first Arab pioneer to perceive Israel as a country. For this alone, he was killed, viably finishing any endeavors at enduring peace. The contention proceeds with today.


During the days of empire-building, the nation now called Ghana was called the Gold Coast, an English settlement. The nationalist leader Kwame Nkrumah called on the souls of the African people by renaming the obviously imperial European “Gold Coast” to something that back to the golden age of western Africa, the Empire of Ghana. As he was a believer in the principles of Gandhi. He established autonomy for Ghana through civil defiance and passive resistance. Through the superiority and bravery of Nkrumah and the Ghanaian people, Great Britain left. To quote the words of Nkrumah, “No people without a government of their own can expect to be treated on the same level as people of independent sovereign states. It is far better to be free to govern or misgovern yourself than to be governed by anybody else . . .


The situation in the British colony of Kenya was similar to Ghana. The exploitation of Kenyan resources and oppression of its people were the typical traits of British domination. The path to independence, however, was radically different. Kenya’s nationalist leader, Jomo Kenyatta, initiated his movement by means of passive confrontation. However, Great Britain refused to end its imperial rule of Kenya and had confined Kenyatta for paramilitary warfare he may or may not have asked for. Irrespective, the Mau Mau, Kenyan guerilla troops, resisted British troops until Great Britain released Kenyatta and left in 1963 with Kenyatta as the prime minister of a free Kenya.

South Africa:

The circumstance in South Africa was distinctive. It had encountered colonialism, however the nation had picked up self-rule when the new century rolled over. White setters called Afrikaners had control of the South African government and had forced a social structure known as apartheid. Apartheid comprised of two social classes, upper white and lower dark. The races were kept separate and unequal, with the dark populace enduring awful ill-uses. Illustrations of this misuse incorporate pass cards for blacks just, voting rights for whites just, and isolated reservations called Home Lands.

However the most acclaimed of all African patriot pioneers Nelson Mandela talked against these segregations and began his hostile to apartheid developments. Anyhow Mandela, because of taking a stand in opposition to apartheid, was detained for a long time and not discharged until the mid 1990’s. South African president F.W. De Klerk liberated Mandela and finished the bigot convention. In 1994, South Africa had its first free race and Mandela was chosen president. Mandela and De Klerk earned the Nobel Peace Prize together for their endeavors.

Canada Current Immigration Policies: essay help online free

A policy is a plan or course of action that an organized body undertakes to guide in decision making and other matters. Immigration policies are meant to guide the immigration of people into a country for which ever reason. Canada is a country found on the northern part of North America’s continent. It has ten provinces and three territories. Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a federal parliamentary democracy headed by queen Elizabeth II. It is a bilingual state that has a diverse cultural base owing to the large influx of immigrants to the country. The country’s economy is among the world largest since it depends on its natural resources and developed trade networks.

Canada has been shaped greatly by immigration in society and culture. With Its small population and large tracts of unoccupied Canada’s immigration policy was fuelled by the need for expansion with immigrants encouraged to settle in rural areas .In the early 20th century the country began to control the flow of immigrants using policies that excluded the applicants of non Europeans .1n 1976 new laws removed the ethnic criteria and it became a destination for all from a variety of countries.

There are three categories of immigrants the family class which consists of those closely related, independent immigrants who are admitted on the basis of skill capital and labor market requirements and refugees. When applying for settlement immigration officers are instructed to give priority to family reunifications and refugees before independent job seekers with skill or capital without families. Arrivals in the family category are usually unskilled or the skills they posses do not match the community they have settled in thus disrupting the labor market. This results to economic insecurity which might create disappointment and hostility among the immigrants or among Canadians who feel threatened by the newcomers.

Canada’s immigration policy encourages dispersal of immigrants across the country. Current policy has attempted to encourage immigrants to settle in smaller communities in the less-populated province of Canada. The organizations within the society that are tasked with the formulation of immigration policies and regulations are churches, employers, organized labor groups and community-based and ethnic organizations. Many of these organizations aims is to promote family reunification and to attain financial adjustment schemes.

Canada policy is non discriminatory to ethnicity however individuals suffering from diseases that pose a danger to the public, those with no clear means of financial support or criminals and terrorists are excluded. An undetermined number of persons in this undesired category have however gained entry through back doors while others who have been admitted rightfully on short term visas choose to remain by extending the time permitted by the Canadian law. The group of those entering the country illegally has grown for the recent and has become a major challenge to the government especially at border crossings and airports. This group usually operate in low tones and are unnoticed till they try to acquire some public service which will bring them to the attention of government authorities .the government is working towards sealing any loop holes that have facilitated the admission of persons not authorized under the current regulations and legislations. Claims falsified by refugees status trying to avoid normal overseas screening and processing constitute one of the more serious problems confronting immigration officials.

In accommodating the immigrants Canada provides immigrants with language training and access to Canada’s national health care and social welfare programs. However, the immigrants in the 80s do not match the economical success of those in the 90s and many find difficulty in finding jobs according to their qualifications. Other immigrants are not fluent in either English or French to be able to exploit their degrees while other qualifications are not recognized by the country.In employment a Canadian born income rises same as those of European origin individuals unlike the non -white Canadians who receive low income rates.

The admission of highly skilled professionals to Canada from less developed countries has continued to provoke controversy since the governments of these countries where these immigrants originate complain of poaching of people they cannot afford to lose. Canada has maintained the need for freedom of movements of people in the midst of the controversy that it should not encourage the outflow of trained individuals from the regions that require there services.

For the immigrants who are seeking asylum Canada is known for having a fairly liberal policy on asylum. Any person who arrives in Canada can apply for refugee status at any border, airport, or immigration office inside the country. Anyone who arrives and claims to be a refugee Canada will look at the claim even if they are could not be as considered to be a in other countries. The process is divided into two a claim is submitted to Citizenship and Immigration Canada . CIC determines within three days whether the claim is eligible to be referred to the Immigration and Refugee Board , the body that makes the final determination as to whether the applicant will receive protected status. After a person has received refugee status, he or she can apply for permanent residency. This system has been criticized as to encourage backdoor applications and posing a threat to security since after they apply they are free to move around as they wait for their determination

The Canadian policy is divide into two parts temporary entry to the country and permanent entry. Under the temporary entry one can apply while inside the country or outside the country. While outside the one applies for a visitor visa when they wish to visit the country as a tourist or a visitor. The purpose of such a visit should be to visit relatives, to attend a business meeting, to attend a conference or convention, pleasure trip or participating in a cultural show. the second class is the student authorization or the student visa which is granted to a person who wishes to come to the country to study as an international student. The third class is the employment authorization or work permit which is granted to one who wishes to come to Canada and work for a Canadian company. It is referred to work permit visa in many countries. Under any of this classes one can apply for an extension of their visas while they are within the country. While in the country one may apply for an immigrant visa as a conventional refugee also referred to as a political asylum work permit visa as a live-in-caregiver known as a domestic help, immigrant visa of Canada as a spouse granted to an application made if one gets married in Canada while on a temporary visa and immigrant visa of Canada under humanitarian and compassionate reasons. If an individual changes the visa status this may lead to permanent immigration visa of Canada.

One can apply for permanent immigration to Canada under three categories while outside Canada. In the independent class assessment is done based on a point system. It is a very popular class also called professional class or skilled worker class. This category is based on an individual’s desire to come to Canada based on qualification, work experience and knowledge of English or French. The other class is the entrepreneur class investor class or self employed class. It is also known as business migration class. Entrepreneur class and self employed is for individuals who wish to start a business in Canada while the investor class is for those who do not wish to start a business in Canada. Applying for immigrant visa to Canada under the family class is for those who have close relatives in Canada under family sponsorship.

Canadian citizens and permanent residents may make an application to sponsor their relatives under the class of family class relatives and private sponsorship for refugees. Another application is by a permanent resident if one wishes to stay outside Canada for more than six months and wants to return. It’s called a return resident permit. A person can be granted Canadian citizenship provided he or she is a permanent resident of Canada for more than three years. When applying for proof of citizenship, also called citizenship certificate the applicant may do this while within or outside of Canada.

Canada is currently a country of choice for many people from all over the world. That may not be the case in future, especially for highly skilled people. The current policies have both positive and negative effects to the society of Canada.. Some of the positive impacts of the current policies include refocusing the federal skilled worker program, an initiative to bring in skilled trades to the country who bring with them jobs and investments.

Increased protection for caregivers who come into the country for the nanny jobs or housekeeping. Those who go into foreign countries are usually abused by their workers at times and end up working in deplorable conditions such as working for long hours without time to rest, depriving them day-offs and confiscation of vital documents such as passports for the immigrants. Some also face sexual harassment which is against the laws .The immigrants are thus faced with difficult conditions yet they cannot report or if reported they cannot get help. The current policies have therefore come in handy to protect this individuals from such torture. Permanent resident status to be granted to eligible students. The students who apply for student visas and perform exemplary well will be granted permanent residency in Canada after completion of studies. This can enable students to acquire citizenship and settle in the country after completion of studies. This ensures a retention of skilled people to work towards the growth of the economy.

The current policies have helped in addressing the current short-term labor market needs for the country because of the small population of Canada which cannot meet its labor requirements. The immigrants solve the labor situation which otherwise the country would not have addressed.

These policies have their negative sides. In the long term Canada will be viewed as no longer welcoming as it was. These include decision to wipe out immigration application backlogs legislatively. The applications of immigrants to get visas for whatever reason has been denied by immigration officers thus preventing serious developments on either the job market or education sector. A suspension or delay on family sponsorships which will deny the coming in of family to reunite with the rest of the families. This will affect the status of those who seek to migrate to Canada for the fear of being isolated from their families.

Reliance on temporary foreign workers to meet labor market needs. These has affected the attitude of the skilled workers who jet into the country and have not been able to get jobs. The Canadian citizens at times feel insecure by the immigration of the people into the country since they view them as a threat to their jobs and opportunities in the country. Hostility has been reported against the immigrants to an extent of some losing their lives. Organized crime has been witnessed against the immigrants to scare them so as to instill fear in them.

Tightened citizenship requirements which has locked out a lot of people who have genuine reasons to apply for the citizenship. Some of the requirement has locked out skilled workers and potential job creators to get into the country. Jobs would have boost the economic state of the country but due to the being looked out vast opportunities are also shut out. A list of refugees tagged as safe whose claims would be checked vigorously to determine if the claims are true. This has affected those who genuinely seek to immigrate as refugees.

Mandatory detention of asylum seekers who arrive for the fear terrorist or criminal activities especially after the 9/11 attack on the us. The asylum seekers will not be allowed to walk freely before the determination of their pending applications. This usually creates unnecessary anxiety for the asylum seekers.

These policies are made in a flashy speed and the breadth of them is likely not to be understood by the masses. The way the policies interact with each other is also an issue that will impact negatively on the society.


The current policies on immigration has impacted the society of Canada in both negative and positive ways. Some have been very fruitful to the growth of the economy and the cultural state of the country. The cultural state of the country has been made diverse by the different origins of the immigrants. the economic growth has been made possible by the influx of highly qualified individuals to the job market and the coming in of investors and job creators.

Canada has however been accused of poaching of the best brains from less developed and still developing countries worldwide. In its defense however it has said that there is freedom of movement for all the people.

In general the current immigration policies have helped in several ways for the betterment of the society but has introduced some problems too to the people living in Canada.

Sex Offenders in the Community

The United States government has rules in place to register the names of sex offenders, but unfortunately seems to overlook the idea of sex offenders living near children. In that respect, there is an injustice in the fact that sex offenders live on the same streets as children without parole officers making this information explicit to the parents. There are many child molesters who, even if they do have a professional job, work near minors. The government has laws, which state that a sex offender must be registered, but there are no laws saying that a sex offender cannot live around children. I do not agree with the idea that sex offenders are allowed to live in communities near children. In order to keep our children safe, child molesters should be banned from living and working near a school.

Realistically, allowing sex offenders to continue living near school systems enables them to target individuals, the majority of which are adolescents. Unknowingly, I worked with a sex offender when I was sixteen. Between the ages of sixteen and eighteen, a different sex offender targeted me. Any child could come into contact with a situation in which she is vulnerable and unaware of the danger. As a young person, one should not have to worry about whether or not he or she will be a victim of rape or sexual assault. I was fortunate enough not to be a victim, but I could have been. There was another situation where I had to stay with my grandparents for a period of time because my parents were fearful of the child molester who lived nearby. These are perfect examples of why we need laws that regulate an offender’s proximity to young children. Individuals should not have to be frightened in their daily life.

According to Understanding Child Molesters, there are a number of ways in which a sex offender may be disciplined, including probation, parole, and incarceration. When an individual decides to assault another person, there are consequences, such as having a parole officer, experiencing felony or misdemeanor changes, and registering as a sex offender’among many other methods of discipline. Even though a sex offender has to register every year, he is able to continue living in the community. This registration is compiled into an online database, but some individuals may have difficulty accessing this information due to a lack of technology. Sometimes sex offenders even have jobs where they work with minors and this should be prevented to minimize the perpetuation of a reoccurring crime.

The Washington Department of Corrections goes into further detail regarding sex offenders who live in our communities. The sex offenders must allow their parole officers to know where they live, and the parole officers must visit the sex offender regularly. Parole officers must be notified if the sex offender moves, and the parole officer must also approve of where the offender lives. From this point, sex offenders must become registered and allow the neighborhood to know that they are living within the community (‘Rules’). Registration alone is not sufficient because having their name on list will not prevent sex offenders from committing future sexual assault.

After a person becomes known as a sex offender, he must follow precise supervision. A parole officer will then monitor the offender for a period of time that is determined by the court system. Then, the offender will register as a child molester, and continue to do so indefinitely. By order of the court, he cannot leave the state. A parole officer will make a determination of whether or not the sex offender is allowed to live in a particular location. If the offender decides to move, he must also get the approval of the parole officer (‘Rules’).

The offender’s parole officer will ensure that the offender does not have possession of a computer or any other forms of media. Having possession of magazines, computers, televisions, phones, or any similar item could enable the offender to have access to pornography. The offender must also ensure not to attend any events partaking in an adults’ club. Essentially, the offender must stray from any type of pornography or sexual setting. If an offender decides to date or marry, the potential candidate must be notified of the offender’s criminal history (‘Rules’).

In addition to notifying the potential dating or marriage partner, a sex offender must also alert family and friends of the incident. Once a person becomes labeled as a sex offender, the neighborhood must be aware that there is a sex offender living amongst the community (‘Rules’). The public is only notified via a website they can visit if they choose, but this information should be presented to them more explicitly. There are many individuals who do not know how to use a computer. A parole officer should visit the neighbors to discuss safety protocol and other warnings. The offender’s address should be shared with all of the local residents, as well as individuals who find the offense report on the internet. Having the offender’s information online is not sufficient. In order to protect children, we must make better efforts to notify the community in a better way. Making sure that the public is aware of sex offenders in the community is crucial, and may save the lives of many children.

Sex offenders may be required to attend counseling sessions, for the duration of time determined by the court system. The offender must continue to update the parole officer to ensure proper attendance of the sessions. A polygraph may be used on the offender, if necessary. He is required to submit to the polygraph, as well as any drug tests that may be administered. With that being said, the offender must refrain from consuming alcohol or using drugs. Taking a polygraph and being drug-free are required to show that the offender is making changes in his life. Ideally, making these requests is to ensure that the offender will not sexually assault another child.

The offender cannot, by any means, contact the victim of the crime. Possible contact of the victim is one of the reasons as to why the offender cannot have a phone or a computer. Offenders cannot have any methods of communication with the victim, but the offenders still live in communities, near children. Since the offenders cannot contact their victims, it is essential that the offenders not be able to contact other innocent children. Seeking Justice in Child Sexual Abuse explains that, ‘Child abuse is one of the most difficult crimes to detect and prosecute, in large part because there often are no witnesses except the victim,’ (Staler 3). Unfortunately, many times when a minor is sexually assaulted, there are no witnesses. Having a sex offender near school districts enables more children to possibly be harmed and ultimately, there may not be any witnesses.

Through Civil Disobedience, Thoreau argues that breaking laws is sometimes necessary. Thoreau goes on to justify his argument, saying that breaking the law can often be the only thing that changes the mindsets of individuals. In a parallel example of Thoreau’s theory, we must break the misconception that having sex offenders living near children is perfectly acceptable. Change will not happen unless we, as a community, do something drastic to make a change happen (Thoreau).

Unfortunately, children are still placed in danger when sex offenders live near the school systems. In Martin Luther King Jr’s Letter From the Birmingham Jail, he makes a comment that his children are afraid of their surroundings. In today’s society, children are still afraid of their environment. Martin Luther King Jr. has the idea that one should break a law, if he or she deems it as ‘unjust.’ (King). I completely agree with King, and in this situation, I feel as though it is completely unjust to have sex offenders live near children. Ultimately, we cannot simply remove sex offenders from the communities, because they must live somewhere. But, as Martin Luther King Jr. was calm and rational in his approach, I believe that is the best method for the nation to make a difference.

Martin Luther King Jr. and Henry David Thoreau are very similar in the sense that they both want to take a stand for the people, and essentially, do what is morally right. They both agree that if a law is unjust, it needs to be broken. And both men stay determined to break the laws that they deem ‘unjust.’ Neither man is willing to give up on what he believes, yet both men face imprisonment for doing the right thing. If these men can be incarcerated for doing the right thing, perhaps sex offenders can have more severe punishments for doing horrendous acts to children (Thoreau, King).

Both of these men are true inspirations as to how we can handle our disagreements in a rational manner. I do not feel comfortable having sex offenders live near children. We cannot completely remove child molesters from our streets, but there are many other ways to reduce the amount of rapes and sexual abuse. The first possibility is that sex offenders stay imprisoned indefinitely. Yes, that is an unfortunate experience, but the children that are raped are emotionally scarred for the rest of their lives. So, maybe it would be rational for sex offenders to stay in prison indefinitely.

Another alternative may be to have a ban, where sex offenders cannot live within a certain radius of schools. Either way, a list of sex offenders will still be posted to notify the community. But, in my proposal, there will be more ways of warning everyone. These registries will be abundantly clear, even to those who may not have access to the existing lists. Not everyone has access to the internet, or knows how to operate a computer. Perhaps, in addition to being posted online like they are now, the lists will also be given to each homeowner in a more noticeable method. Advising the community is the first step in making this situation better. Maybe we cannot eliminate sex offenders from our streets, but we can take better precautions.

I believe that, in order to protect innocent adolescents, it is necessary to make a stand. We, as a community, should make every effort to ensure that children are not put into a situation where they are harmed. No child should be raped, sexually assaulted, or murdered. There are simple changes that this country can take at this very moment to ensure better safety of children. Law enforcement can improve methods of notifying the public that there is a sex offender present. Sex offenders can have a ban on how close they live to a school system, or they can be incarcerated indefinitely. Child sex abuse is a very serious issue that we could possibly eliminate, or reduce the number of victims.

Facebook as a learning platform


The past decade has seen a growing popularity of social networking sites and out of all that is available, Facebook is the one that stands out for being unique and offering a range of user-friendly features. This site has frequently topped the ranks with record number of memberships and daily users. Facebook is often considered as a personal and informal space for sharing pictures, information, webpages, forming ‘Groups’, participating in discussions and debates, and providing comments on wall posts etc. The aim of this paper is to explore the use of Facebook as learning and teaching tool. It will highlight some of the theoretical debates and existing research to understand the effectiveness of this site as an informal and learner driven space, and ways in which it empowers students and stimulates their intellectual growth. The conclusion highlights the on-going contested nature of technological advances and its influences on traditional ideas of teaching and learning.

Keywords: Facebook; Situated Learning Theory; Community of Practice; Connectivist Approach; Personal Learning Environment; Informal Learning; Criticical Thinking; Creativity; Communicative Confidence; Collaborative Learning.


Over two decades ago, theorists Jean Lave & Etienne Wenger (1991) introduced a theory of learning called ‘situated learning’ and the concept of community of practice (CoP from here on), so as to describe learning through practice and participation. The CoP can be bracketed as a group of individuals who share a common interest and a desire to learn from and contribute to the community. Wenger (2010) elaborated the idea by stating that:

Communities of practice are formed by people who engage in a process of collective learning in a shared domain of human endeavor: a tribe learning to survive, a band of artists seeking new forms of expression, a group of engineers working on similar problems, a clique of pupils defining their identity in the school, a network of surgeons exploring novel techniques, a gathering of first-time managers helping each other cope. In a nutshell: Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly.

According to Wegner, the CoP needs to meet three essential characteristics i.e. domain, community and practice. The CoP has an identity defined by a shared domain of interest. Therefore, membership implies a commitment to that particular domain, and a shared competence that distinguishes members from other individuals (namely non-members). The community then becomes a way through which members can pursue interest in their domain, engage in collaborative activities and discussions, provide assistance to each other, and share or disseminate information. They build a co-operative relationship that enables them to learn from each other. Wegnner terms the members of a CoP as practitioners ‘ as they develop a shared repertoire of resources, experiences, stories, tools, and ways of addressing repetitive problems. This in short can be called a shared practice, which takes time and sustained interaction. It is the combination of these three components constitutes a CoP, and it is by developing these in parallel that one cultivates such a community (ibid).

Social networking sites are often seen as promoting CoP. In simple terms, these sites can be defined as: ‘web-based services that allow individuals to (1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system.’ (Boyd and Ellison, 2008: 211). What makes social networking sites unique is not whether they allow individuals to meet new people, but rather that they enable users to articulate and make their social networks visible (ibid). Therefore, social networking can be seen as ‘the practice of expanding knowledge by making connections with individuals of similar interests’ (Gunawardena et al. 2009:4). Researchers have frequently concluded that social networking sites are at the core of what is described as online CoP (Watkins, and Groundwater-Smith, 2009).

According to Wong et al. (2011), growth in technology and social networking sites have contributed to an increase in the opportunity to operate in an improved learning environment through enhanced communication and incorporation of collaborative teaching and learning approaches. Amongst all the social networking sites, Facebook (FB from hereon) is the one that stands out the most. There are a number of reasons as to why FB can be used for building an online CoP and ways in which its features are considered as unique and suitable for Higher Education purposes:

1) Ability to create a ‘Group’: FB is equipped with dynamic features, such as, messaging, and ability to post videos, weblinks and pictures. However, Group is one of the most powerful features on the site, and it can encourage and enhance collaborative learning. Learners can create a Group or join an existing Group related to their interest, and they can use the site features for sharing information and performing variety of tasks. FB Group features can build an online CoP, as they meet the three fundamental components of communities (i.e. domain, community and practice). (ibid: 319)

2) Share information: FB features, such as, Groups, Chats and Docs enable sharing of information. Learners can form groups for a specific purpose, and post messages, have discussions/debates and share resources on a specific domain within the group. The members of a CoP are practitioners, and they can develop a shared repertoire of resources.(ibid:319)

3) Encourage collaborative tasks: ‘Docs’ feature on FB site can help with collaborative tasks, and it can allow Group members to work collectively (if required). Any/all group members can view, edit, add or remove sections of the ‘Doc’. (ibid:319)

While the above shows the ways in which FB can be useful in building an online CoP, a more careful analysis is required, in order to establish its usefulness as learning and teaching tool in Higher Education. Therefore, rest of this paper will draw upon theoretical debates and evidence from within the literature, so as to explain the ways in which FB could be a powerful tool ‘ one that could enhance learning and criticality amongst learners, and also boost their communicative confidence.

Why Facebook?

Created in 2004, by the end of 2013 FB was reported to have more than 1.23 billion monthly active users worldwide, and 24 million Britons logged on to the site each day (The Guardian, 2014). Due to its ease of use and availability in the form of mobile applications, FB has now become integral part of its users social lifestyle ‘ conventional estimates suggest that a typical user spends around 20 minutes a day on the site, and 2/3 of users log in at least once a day (Ellison et al. 2007). Since its creation, FB has been subjected to immense academic and scholarly scrutiny, especially for its uses within the educational settings. The initial literature largely focused on the negative aspects associated with its use, such as, identity presentation and lack of privacy (See Gross & Acquisti, 2005). It was argued that, amount of information FB users provide about themselves, (somewhat) open nature of the information, and the lack of privacy controls could put users at risk online and offline, for e.g. bullying, stalking and identity theft (Gross and Acquisti, 2005). However, constant changes made to the privacy settings have subsequently reversed these concerns. The users can control the release of information by changing the privacy settings. Issues surrounding student perceptions of lecturer presence and self-disclosure (Mazer, Murphy, & Simonds, 2007), and inconsistent patterns of use were also highlighted as potential causes of concern (Golder, Wilkinson, & Huberman, 2007). However, the positive effects of social networking tools in teaching and learning soon took precedence, as these computer-mediated communication modes are often seen as lowering barriers to interaction and encouraging communicative confidence amongst students. For instance, during a qualitative study at the Yale University, the members of staff praised FB for breaking the barriers between themselves and students, and it also encouraged students to feel part of the same academic community (mentioned in Bosch, 2009). Similarly, a study conducted by Ellison et al. (2007) explored maintained social capital, which assesses one’s ability to stay connected with members of a community. They concluded that FB usage amongst students is linked to psychological well-being, and it could especially be of benefit to students with lower self-esteem and low life satisfaction. It could also trigger a process, whereby goal attainment amongst students is significantly increased.

The above uses of FB in Higher Education and as a tool for enabling the maintenance of social capital, can be contrasted with its value as a learning environment. Selwyn (2009) has strongly cautioned against the use of FB for teaching and learning, as students might be reluctant to use it for learning purposes, shifting its focus away from being an academic tool and becoming considered purely as a site for socialisation and sharing mundane information. Selwyn presented an in-depth qualitative analysis of the FB ‘wall’ activity of nearly 1000 students in a British educational establishment, and his study offered a very pessimistic conclusion. He noted that students did not use this site for educational purposes and their interactions were limited to offering negative comments on learning/lecture/seminar experiences, casual comments about events, sharing factual about teaching and assessment requirements, seeking moral support for assessment or learning, and even boasting oneself as being academically incompetent and/or disengaged (2009:157). The evidence from this study suggests that, FB in Higher Education must be approached with severe caution and lecturers need to use it in a considered, strategic, logical and objective manner (ibid).

It is likely that FB could clash with traditional pedagogical models. Nevertheless, it can provide channels for informal and unstructured learning. For instance, Bugeja (2006:1) suggested that, social networking offers the opportunity to ‘re-engage’ individuals with learning, and promote ‘critical thinking’, which is one of the traditional objectives of education (explained further in subsequent paragraphs). Siemens (2005) connectivist approach also recognises these impacts of technology on learning and ways of knowing. According to him, learning in the digital age is no longer dependent on individual obtaining/storing/retrieving knowledge, but instead relies on the connected learning that occurs through interaction with various sources of knowledge and participation in communities of common interest, including social networks, and group tasks (Brindley et al. 2009). The shift of focus to group and network as the epicentre of learning relies on a concept of learning based on ‘exploration, connection, creation and evaluation within networks that connect people, digital artefacts and content’ (Manca and Ranieri, 2013:488). This type of learning through socialisation can foster student interest in the subject material. Duffy (2011) proposed that FB could be used for teaching and learning, as it enables students to share knowledge and information with the ‘Group’ members’ and the associations between them. Duffy (2011) further argued that FB provides a range of educational benefits by: Allowing students to demonstrate critical thinking, take creative risks, and make sophisticated use of language and digital literacy skills, and in doing so, the students acquire creative, critical, communicative, and collaborative skills that are useful in both educational and professional contexts. (p. 288). This in turn will also help to achieve the Abertay Graduate Attributes ‘ and encourage development of students’ intellectual and social capacity, give them tools to find creative solutions to real world problems, and work within a complex and interdisciplinary contexts. It could trigger intellectual, communicative and collaborative confidence amongst students, train them to take creative risks and help them broaden their knowledge base.

What is particularly fascinating about FB is the fact that it encourages a creation of Personal Learning Environment (PLE) ‘ which is an emerging pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning, supporting self-regulated learning, and empowering students intellectually (these values are also outlined in the Abertay Strategic Plan). According to Attwell (2010):

PLEs are made-up of a collection of loosely coupled tools, including Web 2.0 technologies, used for working, learning, reflection and collaboration with others. PLEs can be seen as the spaces in which people interact and communicate and whose ultimate result is learning and the development of collective know-how. A PLE can use social software for informal learning which is learner driven, problem-based and motivated by interest ‘ not as a process triggered by a single learning provider, but as a continuing activity.

PLEs are spaces for the modern learner to create, explore and communicate, and they are characterised as an approach to learning rather than a set of computer assisted applications (Dalsgaard 2006:2). The use of PLEs can help to reinforce classroom learning by extending communication outside of the classroom hours (but at the same time not creating classroom outside of the classroom), and thinking about topics beyond the weekly seminar sessions both individually and in collaboration with classmates through posting materials (like files, website links, notes etc.) and leaving comments. This type of engagement can result in the development of (informal) communities of learning. Whereas, collaborative learning can lead to deeper level learning, critical thinking, and shared understanding (Kreijns, Kirschner and Jochems, 2003). A study conducted by Churchill (2009) highlighted that ‘online-blogs’ can foster a learning community, and it makes learners feel as an important part of the classroom. The best is achieved from such blogs when they are designed to facilitate student access of course material, posting reflections on learning tasks and commenting on peer contribution. Taking into account that FB is one of the most popular network and method of community building, through which students today are communicating ‘ it can prove an useful tool in collaborative student-led learning (in prove equal or more beneficial than blogs). Downes (2007) argues that FB is distinctive when compared to other forms of computer-mediated communications because it has stronger roots in the academic community. One of the reports by the UK government body for technology in learning lists several potential uses of FB in education, and for developing communities of practice, communication skills, e-portfolios, and literacy ‘ all of which are essential aspects of the Abertay Graduate Attributes.

FB can be used not only to gain knowledge and information, but also to share information, as and when needed. McLoughlin and Lee (2007;2010) have pointed out that ‘learning on demand’ is becoming a type of lifestyle in modern society, and learners are constantly seeking information to solve a problem or to satisfy their curiosity. Learners should therefore not be considered as passive information consumers, but as active co-producers of content. This also makes learning highly independent, self-driven, informal and integral part of University life (ibid). Formal learning is described as highly structured (one that happens in classrooms), whereas informal learning happens through observation, listening to stories, communicating with others, asking questions, reflecting and seeking assistance. Informal learning rests primarily in hands of the learner and use of FB could allow learners to create and maintain a learning space that facilitates self-learning activities and connections with classmates and other academic/educational networks (ibid). However, informal learning outside of the classroom must be considered as a continuum, rather than either/or dichotomy (Attwell, 2007). The informal learning can be used to supplement formal learning (not substitute) and PLE as a pedagogical tool should be viewed as intentioned merger of formal and informal learning spaces.

PLEs are increasingly becoming effective in addressing issues of learner control and personalization that are often absent in the University Learning Management Systems, such as, Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) or Blackboard ( Dabbagh and Kitsantas, 2011). VLEs do not accommodate social connectivity tools and personal profile spaces, and they tend to replicate traditional models of learning and teaching in online environments. They create a classroom outside of the classroom, which may explain as to why educators ‘can’t ‘ stop lecturing online’ (Sheely, 2006). Also, VLEs are largely considered as tutor dissemination tools (for lecture notes, readings and assessment related information), over student learning tools. The University faculty and administrators control VLEs, and learners cannot maintain learning space that facilitates their own learning activities, and connection with and fellow classmates (Dabbagh and Kitsantas, 2011:2). When FB is employed as a learning tool, it moves away from this very hierarchical form of learning and empowers students through designs that focus on collaboration, connections and social interactions. It is much more dynamic and evolved in this sense.

It has been long argued that VLEs have had only a relatively slight impact on pedagogy in higher education, despite their commercial success (Brown, 2010). However, FB has the potential not only to fundamentally change the nature of learning and teaching but, through the creation of learner-controlled devices, it may challenge the role of traditional institutions in a way that previous technologies could not. Brown (2010:8) imposes a crucial question regarding VLE (such as Blackboard), and that it is ‘reasonable to wonder how much longer the return on investment will stand up to scrutiny’ (Brown 2010:8).


FB is increasingly becoming a popular learning platform that has a true potential in HE. A FB ‘Group’ can facilitate learning, by increased interaction between students and staff. The research has so far (despite being plausible in nature) indicated FB can be used to enhance the literacy, critical thinking, and collaborative and communicative skills amongst students. Some researchers have argued that social networking sites, such as, FB could offer ‘the capacity to radically change the educational system’ to better motivate students as engaged learners rather than learners who are primarily passive observers of the educational process’ (Ziegler 2007, 69). However, this overly-optimistic view is strongly contested by others, who have raised grave concerns about heightened disengagement, alienation and disconnection of students from education and to the detrimental effect that FB may have on ‘traditional’ skills and literacies (Brabazon, 2007). Academics have feared that FB could lead to intellectual and scholarly ‘de-powering’ of students, incapable of independent critical thought. According to Ziegler (2007:69), sites such as FB could lead to ‘the mis-education of Generation M’ (cited in Selwyn, 2009), and despite of its popularity as innovative educational tool, studies have indicated that it may distract learners from their studies and purely become a tool for socialisation (ibid). The use of FB remains controversial and further research is needed in this area to establish its effectiveness in HE teaching and learning.

Causes of drug failure: essay help online

One of the most common causes of drug failure is drug-induced liver injuries (DILIs). The majority of these failures are idiosyncratic reactions, which occur in small patient populations (between 1 in 1.000-10.000) in an unpredictable manner.1 The underlying mechanism of this type of DILI is very complex and still not completely understood.2 However, recent data have suggested that the crosstalk between cytokine-mediated pro-apoptotic signalling and drug reactive metabolite-mediated intracellular stress responses is essential in the comprehension of DILI.3

Various xenobiotics (e.g. diclofenac) can induce liver damage via the tumor necrosis factor ?? (TNF??) pathway. Excretion of this major cytokine will initiate through liver macrophages (Kuppfer cells) after exposure to bacterial endotoxins (e.g. Lipopolysaccharide).4 After binding of TNF?? to its receptor (TNFR1), the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-??B) is activated.5 In general, NF-??B is detained in the cytoplasm by binding to an inhibitor of ??B (I??B) complex. The initiated NF-??B leads to activation of I??B kinase (IKK), which eventually leads to the ubiquitination and phosphorylation of the I??B complex.6 Subsequently, this complex is targeted for proteosomal degradation. Hereafter, NF-??B translocates to the nucleus in an oscillatory way and activates the transcription of several genes which primarily encode survival proteins, such as cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and negative regulators proteins (e.g. A20, I??B??).7 After protein synthesis, A20 and I??B?? will inhibit the function of NF-??B in a negative feedback manner (Figure 1). Modified TNF??-induced NF??B translocation by various compounds is believed to shift the balance between cell survival and cell death.

Furthermore, reactive compound metabolites are capable of altering cellular molecules, which could lead to intracellular disturbances and eventually to the induction of various stress response or toxicity pathways.8 These pathways, combined with a decreased response for cell damage recovery and protection, will enhance the susceptibility to cell death of various cells. Up to now, insufficient studies have been performed to investigate the contribution of various pathways to DILI. It still remains uncertain which drug-induced toxicity pathways modulate the pro-apoptotic activity of TNF?? signaling in DILI reactions. However, there are different stress responses which are most likely involved in the formation of DILI. The Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant response pathway and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated unfolded protein response (UPR) have been studied in drug-induced toxicity of hepatocytes [2]. The Keap1/Nrf2 pathway is essential in recognizing ROS and/or cellular oxidative stress [6]. Keap1 maintains Nrf2 in the cytoplasm and guides it toward proteasomal degradation under normal circumstances. Nrf2 signaling is important in the cytoprotective response against ROS, but its role in the TNF??/drug interaction in idiosyncratic DILI remains unclear.

Furthermore, the ER stress-mediated UPR is a stress response due to enhanced translation and/or disturbed protein folding. Should the modification fail, a pro-apoptotic system will be initiated to eliminate the injured cell. The exact mechanism and role of the ER stress signalling response in managing DILI in relation to TNF??-induced apoptosis still remains unclear.

In this research, we hypothesize that stress response mechanisms (e.g. ER stress responses, oxidative stress responses) are involved in the delay of NF-??B nuclear translocation upon exposure to various NF-??B nuclear translocation compounds.

In this project, a human HepG2 cell line will be used to study the interaction between five different compounds (amiodarone, carbamazepine, diclofenac, nefazodone, ximelagatran) and cytokine TNF alpha. To investigate the overall percentage of cell death, a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay will be performed. Furthermore, in order to quantify the amount of apoptotic cells, an Annexin V affinity assay will be executed. It is expected that the concentration-dependant toxicity of the compounds is enhanced with the presence of TNF??. Live cell imaging with HepG2 GFPp65 cells will be used to follow the NF-??B translocation after exposure to the five various compounds. Subsequently, an automated image quantification of the p65 signal intensity ratio of nucleus/cytoplasm is measured to show the exact onset of the second nuclear entry of NF-??B. It is estimated that the data of the NF-??B translocation will show a compound-induced delayed onset of NF-??B.

The activation of NF-??B target genes cIAP and c-FLIP will be measured using a Western Blot analysis. Moreover, the negative regulators of NF-??B, A20 and I??B??, will be studied to investigate the negative feedback loop of NF-??B. We anticipate that the data of the Western Blot analysis will show a decrease in production of the investigated target genes, because of the reduced TNF??-induced NF-??B transcriptional activity.

Ultimately, a data analysis will be applied on the results using t-test or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) in case of multiple comparisons.

Karma by Kushwant Singh

The text ‘Karma’ is written by Kushwant Singh in 1950 who is a English novelist.

The short story is 65 years old today but it is still relevant today, many of the issue that the text show.

The story deal with problems of the Indian cultures. Novel tells us the impact the empire have had on India, and shows us that the British norms have had influence on India.

It shows us that there is a big clash between women and men in India, and the way that men looks at women, but also the clash between rich and poor, is very big, in the story men and women does not sit in the same side of the train.

The text take place in a train.

And we have main character who names is Sir Mohan Lal, he is an Indian Man, and he think self he is very handsome and beautiful like the English men. He actually think of himself as an Englishman.

He think he is better than he Indians.

He despratly trys to fit in with the Englishmen.

Sir Mohan is very well iducated his job is a vizeier and barrister, he has been in England to stody, and maybe that is the reason that he thinks of himself as an Englishman. He think he is a good looking man, a time in the story he looks in the mirror ‘Distinguished, efficient – even handsome. That neatly trimmed moustache – the suit from Savile Row, the carnation in the buttonhole.’ It shows that he is proud of himself, and he knows which image he want to send to other people, but also that he only speaks to himself.

Sir Mohan Lal obsessed with how other people think of him. He will do anything to get to know an Englishman. In the train he meets many Englishmen and he always have an old copy of ‘The Times’ which shows how desperately he want to get in touch with an Englishman. And also that he think he as a well education, and also to show that he is a man of manners and English culture. He feels like he is an English man and not an India, he think that Indian people is poor, and not like him. He will not being seen with some of them, and also his wife would he not been seen with.

In the short story we also meet his wife, which is an Indian women, he doesn’t love her and think she is ugly, the only reason he is married to her is because he want to have children.

This shows us the problematic we have reading in the class, were many married has been arranged, and that the people there is married doesn’t love each other. Sir Mohan Lal makes her travel in the zenana(a section in the train only for women).

In the train Sir Mohan Lal meet two English soldiers, who he wants to travel and talk to them, that he tell the guard that they could sit in his coupe. Mohan should never had does that. The men were not looking for an Indian man to talk with, and they sees themselves as better than Sir Mohan Lal. Just like he had done before with the Indians people, then he could see how it feels, to not be an excepted person.

Karma is when something you have done comes back to you and it certainly does.

Human Resource Management and Employee Commitment: essay help

The concept of employment commitment lies at the heart of any analysis of Human Resource Management. Really, the rationale for introducing Human Resource Management policies is to increase levels of commitment so positive outcome can result. Such is the importance of this construct. Yet, despite many studies on commitment, very little is understand of what managers mean by the term ‘commitment’ when they evaluate someone’s performance and motivation. Development of organizational commitment is basically by major theoretical approaches emerge from previous research on commitment: Firstly, commitment is view as an attitude of attachment to the organization, which leads to particular job-related behaviors. The committed employee, for example, is less often absent, and is less likely to leave the organization voluntarily, than are less committed employees.

Secondly, one line of research in organizations focuses on the implications of certain types of behaviors on subsequent attitudes. A typical finding is that employees who freely choose to behave in a certain way, and who find their decision difficult to change, becomes committed to the chosen behavior and develop attitudes consistent with their choice. One approach emphasizes the influence of commitment attitudes on behaviors, whereas the other emphasizes the influence of committing behaviors on attitude. Although the ‘commitment attitude behavior’ and ‘committing behavior attitude’ approaches emerge from different theoretical orientations, and have generated separate research traditions, understanding the commitment process is facilitated by viewing these two approaches as, inherently, inter-related. Further by virtue of commitment the human recourse management department can fully utilized their talent, skill, and efficiency of the employee in productive way to fulfill the personal goals of the employees and organizational goals. More over commitment helps in fulfilling the purpose of training imparted to the employees because in spite of increasing the level of skill through training without commitment these cannot be maintained. After all existence of adequate commitment amongst employees create an work culture environment and there by all employees can be motivated and encourage towards the excellent performance of their duties.

3.5 Social Support ‘ its Concept, Purpose, Types, Relations with Social Network and social Integration

3.5.1 Concept of Social support

The concept of social support is strategic which defined as the belief that one is cared for and loved, esteemed and valued. It is a strategic concept in not only giving understanding to the maintenance of health and the development of (mental and somatic) health problems, but also their prevention. Types and sources of social support can vary. Four main categories of social support are (i) emotional, (ii) appraisal, (iii) informational and (iv) instrumental support. Social support is closely related to the concept of social network, the ties to family, friends, neighbors, colleagues, and others of significance to a person. Within this context, social support is the potential of the network to provide help.

It is important for organizations to collect information on social support in the employees, to enable both risk assessment and the planning of preventive interventions at different level such as:

a) Lack of social support increases the risk for Organizational Commitment:

Lack of social support is shown to increase the risk of both mental and somatic disorders, and seems to be especially important in stressful life situations. Poor social support is also associated with enhanced mortality. Social support may affect health through different pathways i.e. behavioral, psychological and physiological pathways.

b) Social support is determined by individual and environmental factors:

Social support is determined by factors at both the individual as well as the social level. Social support in adulthood may be to some extent genetically determined. Personality factors that might be associated with perceived social support are interpersonal trust and social fear. The position of a person within the social structure, which is determined by factors such as marital status, family size and age, will influence the probability of them receiving social support. The occurrence of social support depends on opportunities that an organization creates to commitment with employees.

c) Preventive interventions stimulate social support at different levels:

There are three types of preventive interventions aimed at stimulating social support: universal, selective or indicated interventions. The ultimate goal of universal interventions is to promote health. They are aim at providing social support at the group or community level. Selective preventions aim to strengthen social skills and coping abilities with, for example social skill training. Social support groups and self-help groups are other examples of selective prevention programs. Indicated prevention programmes aim to reduce the risk of people who already have symptoms of psychological stress, developing a mental disorder.

Social support is defining as help in difficult life situations. Social support is a concept that is generally understands in a spontaneous sense, as the help from other people in a difficult life situation. It is social support as ‘the individual belief that one is cared for and loved, esteemed and valued, and belongs to a network of communication and mutual obligations’. In spite of these widely accepted definitions of social support, there are very few consensuses in the literature about the definition and consequently the operation implementation of the concept. There is a need for further research, especially about what kind of support is most important for organizational commitment. Researcher tried to the applied social support score is the sum of the raw scores for each of the items. In the Guwahati Metro region, the sum-score of the Social Support Scale ranges. A score is classified as poor support, intermediate support and strong support.

3.5.2 Purpose of Social Support

Researcher thinks that in defining social support the qualities of support perceived (satisfaction) and provided social support for the managerial employees are significant here. Most of studies are constructed on the measurement of subjectively perceived support, whereas others aim at measuring social support in a more objective sense. One could also distinguish between the support received, and the expectations when in need, and between event specific support and general support. The definition in terms of a subjective feeling of support raises the question whether social support reflects a personality trait, rather than the actual social environment (Pierce et al., 1997). Most researchers will agree that the person as well as the situation affects perceived social support, and that the concept deals with the interaction between individual and social variables. In the present study researcher has tried to observe percentage of male and female managerial employees with poor support, intermediate support, and strong support in Public and private organizations of Guwahati Metro region.

3.5.3 Types of Social Support

Types and sources of social support may vary. Mainly four major categories of social support such as emotional, appraisal, informational and instrumental are in the use of research work. Researcher tried to observe it in her study.

a) Emotional support generally comes from family and close friends and is the most commonly recognized form of social support. It includes empathy, concern, caring, love and trust.

b) Appraisal support involves transmission of information in the form of affirmation, feedback and social comparison. This information is often evaluative and can come from family, friends, coworkers, or community sources.

c) Informational support includes advice, suggestions, or directives that assist the person respond to personal or situational demands.

d) Instrumental support is the most concrete direct form of social support, encompassing help in the form of money, time, in-kind assistance, and other explicit interventions on the person’s behalf.

3.5.4 Social Support & Concept of a Social Network

Social support is closely related to the concept of a social network, or the ties to family, friends, neighbors, colleagues, and others of significance to the person. However, when the social network is described in structural terms, like size, range, density, proximity and homogeneity, social support normally refers to the qualitative aspects of the social network within this context, social support is the potential of the network to provide help in situations when needed. However, the social network may also be the cause of psychological problems.

Halle and Wellman present the interplay between social support, the social network, and psychological health in a model: The social network as a mediating construct. This model shows that social support can be seen as resulting from certain characteristics of the social network, which are in turn caused by environmental and personal factors. The model suggests that it is important to distinguish between the structural and quantitative aspects of the social network on the one side, and social support on the other. In this study researcher has correlated stress and social support with organizational commitment taking in to consideration managerial employees of Public and private sector in Guwahati Metro region.

3.5.5 Social integration and Social Support

Whereas the concept of social support mainly refers to the individual and group level, the concept of social integration can refer to the community level. A well-integrated community refers to well developed supportive relationships between people in the community, with everybody feeling accepted and included. A related concept is social capital, which is often used as the sum of supportive relationships in the community. Social capital may, however, also be used in a somewhat different meaning, such as solidarity’. It is an important for the development of organizational commitment.

In the fields of Organizational Behavior and Industrial/Organizational Psychology is, in a general sense, the employee’s psychological attachment to the organization. It can be contrasted with other work-related attitudes, such as job satisfaction, defined as an employee’s feelings about their job, and organizational identification, defined as the degree to which an employee experiences a ‘sense of oneness’ with their organization. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen said that the sense of oneness in every individual should he ‘dynamic’ and not confined within the narrowness of a single identity. People have to judge contextually as to what oneness means in several aspects of our life. A person cannot have just one identity of oneness based on one’s nationality or religion.

Encompass the systematic study and careful application of knowledge about how people act within organizations. Organizational studies sometimes are considered a sister field for, or overarching designation that includes the disciplines like industrial and organizational psychology, organizational behavior, human resources, and management.

However, there is no universally accepted classification system for such subfields. Beyond this general sense, organizational scientists have developed many feelings especially in creative expression of organizational commitment; the present study is combination of the higher level employees stress and social support, which effects on organizational commitment. Researcher have selected Guwahati Metro region for their study. The study is design based on types of organizations i.e. Public and private organizations.

Climate Effect On Building facade: essay help

Abstract : Building facade is one of an important element of the architecture. It have a significant effect on energy conservation and the comfort of the building users. The facade is affected by the environmental conditions and it designs should take into consideration the climate of it regions this research will explain the facade treatment on different region, also the Basic methods for designing high-performance building facade it will explain two case studies that illustrate facade design methods for two different climate conditions.


1. Introduction ”””””””””””””….. 3

2. Literature Review””””””””””””’ 4

3. Research discussion and data analysis””””””””’ 5

3.1. Design criteria For Mixed Climate”””””””’.. 5

3.2. Design criteria For Hot Climates””””””””.8

4. Conclusion””””””””””’..”””11

5. References”””””””””””””’11

1. Introduction

Climate is always affect our daily life ether if it’s sunny ,cloudy ,rainy it have an Influences on our sense of comfortable when we go outside the building. When we are inside the building, the building separate use from the outer environment and. It have it own conditions depend on the technology inside the building such as , HVAC systems which allows us to change the temperature or humidity’etc . Building protects us from the Weather problems that are not favored to stay out in it. Building interior spaces conditions also depends on the exterior facade treatment For example the interior heat or lighting that comes through the glazed windows will affect the temperature of the interior.

This research will explain the influence of the climate on the building facade , what is the main factor that affect the facade of the architecture on the other hand ,the techniques of treatment the facade to provide a suitable interior environment for it users in cretin climate condition, also how can we design the facade in simple way to fit with the changing in the climate , and facade materials selection to help in adaptation the building to the climate conditions.

2. Literature Review

Across the history Human used the shelter to protect them from danger Such as wailed animals and Climatic conditions. Later on with the evolution of human the dwellings has developed after it was a cave in Mount it became a building in various forms and functions. Buildings provide the foundation for our daily activities, for example ,educational ,commercial , Health care ‘. Etc.

Climate is generally the weather conditions of a region, as temperature, air pressure, humidity, precipitation, sunshine, cloudiness, and winds, throughout the year, averaged over a series of years (n.d, The American Heritage?? New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy). Every region have it own climatic characteristics that can affect the architecture facade differently, for example In warm areas like middle east region, people avoid the glare and the heat of the sun, as demonstrated by the decreasing size of the windows. On the other hand in north Europe they use glass in Exaggeration way to allow the sun light to inter the building and heat the interior space because of the cold weather of their region (””””” 2010).

3. Research Discussion And Data Analysis

facade is generally one exterior side of a building, usually but not always, the front side of the building(n.d, 2011). The building facade acts as a skin that wraps around the building and affects the internal environment as it interacts with the external one. Building facades is not only about the aesthetic of the building, it’s also perform as the barriers that separate a building’s interior from the external environment. facades are one of the most Important contributors to the energy consumptions and the comfort norms of any building. facade designs and performance are one of the main factors for sustainable, energy-efficient, and high performance buildings. A facade should satisfy the design as well as the functional requirements .The Climate of the area plays a major role in designing the facade, different design strategies are required for different climatic zones. One of the traditional way to deal with the climate in the Middle East the use of small opining and Mashrabia or (Roshan) to cover the windows. this techniques that characterized the facade in this region were use to prevent the heat to enter the building and to Imprisonment the cool inside the building, also to filter the air from the dust associated with it (Mady, 2010).

3.1. Design Criteria For Mixed Climate

the Center for Urban Waters is a Public laboratory building, in Tacoma, Wash. A Tacoma is in a region with a mixed marine climate. Designed by Perkins+Will and got LEED Platinum award.

Figure 1 shows average daily temperatures and the solar radiation for each month.

This temperature of this climate zone allows cooling by natural ventilation, and the quite soft winters with low solar radiation .This climate conditions using a reasonable amount of glazing on the south and west orientations will not have a negative affect a building’s energy performance.

This view of the building is the west and south facade. It shows the differ??ent treatments for different building sides.

– The west facade consists of an aluminum cladded rain screen system, with integration of win??dows that some of it operable and non operable, and exterior blinds.

– The south facade consists of a curtain wall of fritted glass and external hori-zontal shading devices.

It is located in industrial waterfront on a long narrow site. The building program element located according it’s possible needs of air and natural ventilation. The waterside of the building provides a fresh cold air which is idle foe ventilation, so the designer placed offices on the waterway to provide a good ventilation. On the road and industrial side the opportunities of fresh airs is reduced so the designer placed the laboratories on this side because of it need of mechanical ventilation.

The shading strategies used based on the facade orientation. The western orientation of the building receives the greatest solar heat gain so it designed with a low window to wall ratio, vertical Shading devices used to moderate the solar heat gain and glare from low afternoon sun. the south facade consist of a curtain wall that provide clear views to the waterside, while horizontal shading devices obstruct the solar heat gain. The north facade mainly consists of solid elements and minimum amounts of glass. This design approach improves thermal resistance , limiting the heat transmit from exterior to interior environment. The rain screen on the east facade are made of horizontal corrugated metal panels faces the industrial side. It covered the upper half of the 2nd and 3rd level with small win??dows opining on the corrugated metal screens. These aluminum screens help to manage the early morning sun and reduce it poten-tial glare, on the other hand maintaining of the exterior views and maximizing natural day lighting of the interior spaces. It uses natural ventilation to decrease the building’s energy loads, also control the amount of natural ventilation through the Operable windows.

In summary the center for urban water designed consist of many sustainable elements not only in the facade but also in the roof system sewage and mechanical system , see building section on (Figure 3).These sustainable systems will rise the building performance and suitable the real-time energy use(Aksamija, 2014).

3.2. Design Criteria For Hot Climates

The University of Texas at Dallas. It’s a Student Services Building located Texas ,USA. It’s in a hot climate region. Designed by Perkins+Will and got LEED Platinum award.

Figure 4 shows annual average daily temperatures in rela??tion to thermal comfort zone and the available solar radiation.

In designing the facade of this building, the main con??cern was the hot climate conditions, because In this region the climate is usually hot and sunny at the summer session ,while the other sea??sons are relatively mild.

The longer sides of the rectangular form building is facing north and south orientations. All sides of the build??ing are covered by a curtain wall. Add to that the shading devices which supported by the curtain wall are wrapping the east, west, south, and small part of north facade. The shading system consists of horizontal terra-cotta louvers and vertical stainless steel rods (Figure5). The shading devices are distributed around the building creating an asymmetrical pat??tern over the building facades however, the terra-cotta shading element is important for reduc??ing solar heat gain in summer hot climate.

In the interior of the Building there are three internal atriums pro??vide daylight to interior spaces (Figure6).

The location of the lobby is on the east side of the building in one of the atriums, it provide natural day light and limit the gaining of the heat.

This design strategy is suitable for hot climates regions, especially when reducing solar heat gain while providing a natural daylight for the interior spaces. The arrangement of shad??ing devices along the facade and internal atriums is an ideal for providing a natural daylight. Almost all of the spaces in the Building have views to the outside. The building also contains other sustainable design strategies which improves the energy efficiency and the comforts interior spaces (Aksamija, 2014).

4. Conclusion

Design the facade is important because it’s the connection between building exterior and interior. Architect has to take in consideration the building’s location and climate to make a high performance facades and to provide a sustainable and com-fortable spaces for building occu??pants, also significantly reducing a building’s energy consumption. Strategies differentiate from each other depending on the geographical and climatic regions, so criteria that work best in hot climates are different from those in hot and humid or cold regions. Architect should know the characteristics of each climatic condition and location as well as the program and function requirements to create a sustainable facade fit to it environment.

Online Behavioral Advertising (OBA)

In order to understand where online privacy concerns of consumers origins from it first need to be noted what OBA is and what is the main mechanism behind it. It is of great importance to note that this main mechanism behind OBA are cookies. These cookies in accordance cause privacy concerns among consumers.

1.1 Online behavioral advertising

Online advertising is the provision of content and service for free, from the website publishers to the website visitors. In this case advertisements are aimed at everyone visiting their websites (, 2012). However, there is a type of online advertising specifically aimed at providing tailored advertisement content to a specific customer. This type of advertisement is known as Online Behavioral Advertising. Online behavioral advertising is the practice of gathering information regarding someone’s activities online. This data is used in order to determine which form and content to display to the web site visitor (McDonald & Cranor, 2009). This practice provides advertisements on the websites the individual visits and make them with the collection of their content relevant to their specific interests (Leon et al., 2012). When they consequently visit a website which correlates with their specific interests, suiting advertisement will be provided.

Consumers can control OBA by the application of tools, including those concerned with self-regulatory programs. If these tools are applied appropriately, the consumer could reach more control of self-disclosure. Tools to control OBA are for instance op-outs tools, built-in browser settings, blocking tools (Leon et al., 2011). Tools such as Do Not Track headers to websites show a message that the website visitor does not prefer to be tracked. Opt-out tools on other side, create the ability for the user to set opt-out cookies for multiple advertising networks. The issue that arises with the latter case is that if a consumer chooses to opt-out, the network of the establisher will discontinue to show customized advertising but on the other hand will keep tracking and profiling the website visitor (Leon et al., 2011). The continuation of tracking and profiling website visitors has caused considerate privacy concerns among consumers. This situation shows high correlation with the case of NPO. NPO didn’t make the consumer aware of an opt-out option even before using an opt-out option, which is expected to create even more privacy concerns (B. Comb??e, 2013).

1.2 Cookies

The most important feature of OBA is the utilization of cookies. Third-party HTTP cookies are the main mechanism used for online tracking. In comparison to first party cookies, which are located by the domain the website user is visiting. Third party cookies are visited by a different domain such as an advertising network. Other cookies such as flash cookies and HTML 5 (local storage) continue to stay on the user ‘s PC even if the website visitor deleted cookies or change browsers (B. Krishnamurthy and C. Wills, 2009;M. Ayenson et al., 2011 and M. Dahlen and S. Rosengren, 2005).

Cookies are directly linked to OBA because as earlier explained OBA uses third-party cookies to provide customized advertisements. A cookie is a small document of signs in the form of numbers and letters. For example: lghinbgiyt7695nb. The computer provides the cookie an unique code. These signs are downloaded on an individuals’ web browser when they access most websites (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011). Cookies enable websites to notice them whenever they return back to a website. Only the server that sent the cookie can read and therefore utilize that cookie. These cookies are vital in order to offer a more customized experience. (, 2015).

1.2.1 Types of Cookies

There are different types of cookies. The most important cookies relevant to this research are discussed. The selection of cookies are derived from the cookies used by NPO. There are 2 different categories of cookies. First party cookies are cookies which make sure the website functions optimally. The behavior of the website visitor is tracked within one website, the website the consumer visits. Third party cookies on the other hand, are placed by third parties, in order for the website to be analyzed by google analytics. This type of cookie makes sure the website visitor will receive customized advertisements (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011 ).

First party cookies (, 2015):

‘ Functional cookies: Cookies that make the website functioning as it should. These cookies keep track of the web site visitors’ preferences and memorize the individual previously visited the website.

Third party cookies (, 2015):

‘ Analytics: Cookies to measure utilization of website.

‘ Social media: Cookies to share the content of the NPO website through social media. The video’s and articles opened on the website can be shared through buttons. To make these buttons function, social media cookies are used by different social media parties. This in order for them to recognize the website visitor whenever it wants to share an article or video.

‘ Advertisement cookies: Cookies to show Star- adverts. These advertisements are placed by the website owner or third parties on the website of the website owner.

‘ Recommendations: Cookies to make more suitable recommendations. The NPO wants to make suggestions to website visitors on other program’s for consumers to watch online.

The main information these cookies store are:

‘ Keeping track of visitors on their webpages

‘ Keeping track of time it spends on its visit

‘ What are areas the website should take notice of in order to improve

‘ Keeping track of the order of visits of different webpages within the website

If this information is gathered, this data can be added to the existing profile information. In time third parties will be able to create a personal profile of the consumer, even though there is no name attached to it. Today third-party tracking is subject to privacy debates (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011 ). Consumers can feel invaded in their privacy if they suspect digital marketers from creating a personal profile, by gathered information from consumers visiting websites. Third party tracking and consumer privacy get a significant amount of attention from the government and consumer protection (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011 )

1.2.2 Cookie use by marketers

Since the law is updated continuously on privacy regulations and there is no uniform law concerning privacy of consumers marketers are recommended to weigh out the benefits of using practices that are not 100% conform privacy regulations against the financial and risks on their reputation that comes along with this consideration. (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2012; Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011)The organization must inform the website visitors properly the reasons and the procedure of data collection. The marketers’ website needs to provide its visitors with information on how they will make use of a website visitors’ data . Next to that, the consumer has to give consent for the utilization of consumer data. The figure below, indicates the issues that should get considerate attention when a data subject is informed by how his/her data will be utilized. These issues are described below the figure.

Figure 1. Information flows that need to be understood for compliance with data protection legislation.

Source: D. Chaffey and F. Ellis-Chadwick, Digital Marketing, 2012, p. 163

‘ Whether the consumer will receive future communications

‘ Whether the data will be passed on to third parties with consent explicitly required. Referring to section 2.1 on privacy and the recommendation section, on privacy issues regarding NPO, it can be obtained that the NPO didn’t comply with explicit ‘consent’ from the website visitor which caused their bad publicity.

‘ The length of data storage. Referring to the models in section 2.3 confidence, knowledge and control are major indicators on consumer behavior regarding OBA.

According to (2011) A business making use of OBA has to know whether it properly understands its application. It is important to adopt an ‘cookie audit’. A cookie audit is the principle of understanding the types of third-party tracking systems that are available and which are located on the browser of consumers when they visit the company’s website. This is important since third-party tracking can cause deceleration on a company’s website. Next to that, information obtained from customers can leak out to even unknown companies.

Furthermore, it is important to clearly give website visitors the option to opt out and to provide them with information on any form of tracking. First the website visitor needs to be aware where the website is about. Secondly the consumer need to be provided with information about the substance of the ads. Last the website visitor should get the ability to learn more about how to opt-out.

An opt out means a company will discontinue collecting and utilizing information from different web domains for the aim of providing personalized based advertising from data gathering using third party cookies in OBA. However it should be noted to the website visitor that opting out does not specifically mean they will cease receiving online advertising. The website visitor will continue to receive advertisements but not tailored to their specific preferences. (, 2012;, 2009). Some companies make use of flash cookies. These cookies make regular cookies come to life again after the website visitor has deleted the cookies. The new cookie will get the same code as the web site visitor has removed (Soltani, 2009).

In addition it is of great importance to give website visitors the control of their data. 67% of the website visitors entrust transparent brands more. This confidence makes the chance of purchase 36% more likely than if a brand is not transparent. Companies that do not obey regulations regarding privacy also showed decreases in turnover. (Brown, 2009). Furthermore it is important to take measures for website visitors to manage cookie tracking and privacy. The website visitor should very easily know what the purpose if of the data obtained from them. As earlier explained they should also have the quick option to opt-out. (, 2011)

1.2.3 Drawbacks cookie use

Netscape Navigator, the first successfully implemented web browser, introduced cookies. Version 1.0 of the web browser was introduced in 1994. In Netscape 1.0 cookies where introduced. (Turnbull, 2013). Even though the cookies are introduced almost 20 years ago, until recently two thirds of the samples used in research are not even able to explain what a cookie actually is. Even up to now customers believe more data is collected from them than is the case. Next to that consumers do not understand who are involved and how these companies are involved in OBA. Neither there is a understanding of technologies present (Ur et al 2012).

Next to that, the majority of web users don’t know about opt out cookies. Even nowadays the perception still exists it can be done through turning to their web browsers or delete cookies.(Ur et al., 2012). However if the website visitors are aware that if they have the ability to opt out and gain more knowledge on privacy matters, visitors feel more positive about the application of OBA by businesses (McDonald & Cranor , 2008) . If consumers do not understand their rights on privacy, they are pre-biased on this matter. This issue will be discussed further in chapter 2. If organizations easily and properly inform website visitors on their privacy rights they can possibly break through this pre-assumption. (McDonald& Cranor, 2008 and 2009)

In addition, the icon for opt-out options demonstrated in section 2.1, is subject to discussion whether the aim of this icon is reached. According to critics the meaning of this icon is not known by consumers, therefore opt-out possibilities are perceived as difficult. (‘Volg-me-niet register is wassen neus’, 2011).

Furthermore, according to (2011) consumers should be better informed about opt-out opportunities in order to take away uncertainty of privacy matters. The privacy issues that are involved as partly discussed above will be further analyzed in chapter 2 and with the assistance of models the effects of privacy matters on consumer behavior are analyzed.

Besides, consumers complain they find privacy important but ease of use as equally important. They are annoyed by the question they are asked continuously regarding accepting the use of cookies (B. Comb??e, 2013). Next to that consumers complain about websites which place a cookie wall which makes it only possible to enter the website if the use of cookies is agreed upon.

2. How do consumers react to current privacy concerns in OBA?

2.1 Privacy

Privacy is defined as a moral right of having the possibility to prevent intrusion into someone’s personal information. Nowadays, privacy is of high importance to consumers with increasing technology increasing possibilities to more enhanced practices in identity theft, such as hacking or just invasion of consumers’ online privacy practices. By gathering personal information of consumers with the use of earlier explained cookies, the degree of customization can highly increase. (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2012)

2.1.1 Root of privacy concerns online

In Europe the legal framework concerned with online behavioral tracking is regulated by the European Data Protection Directive. These regulations enclose gathering, processing, filing and transmission of personal information. Next to that the European e-Privacy Directive mainly regulates privacy of data and the use of cookies. This regulation made third parties placing cookies apply a regulation to give website visitors the ability to opt-out. This gave web site visitors the chance to reject cookies. Consequently, websites provided information on how to opt-out or reject cookies.

J. Zuiderveen (2011) did research on to what extent practice is complying with data protection directives on ‘permission’: a willingly, specific, based on information volition. Research has shown that the processing of personal data cannot be based on article 7.b data protection directives: there should be a positive agreement. There is no form of agreement if consumers are not aware of exchanging personal information in turn for a service. Next to that collection of personal information can neither be justified by article 7.f which states that the interests of third parties are important, unless the privacy of the concerned is invaded. Privacy interests also means that the right on privacy is a significantly important right. By following online behavior of web site visitors, Dutch companies cannot refer to these 2 articles. However in 2011 article 2.h came to attention which states that with unambiguous permission the website is not allowed to make to quick assumptions that the website user give permission to make use of personal information (European commission, 2003; 2006). This latter was specifically the case with NPO as described in the introduction. They explicitly did not asked for permission before collecting data.

Even though policies on cookies are changing continuously, it is important to describe how consumers are up dated on getting more insight into their privacy rights and consequently what effect the extent of privacy has on consumer behavior discussed with models in chapter 2.3.

Components consumer update on privacy (, 2015):

‘ Advertising option Icon : This icon will represent that the form of advertising is supported by a self-regulatory program. If the consumer clicks on this icon it will be provided with a disclosure statement concerning data gathering and where the information is used for and a simple opt-out system.

‘ Consumer choice mechanism: At consumers are provide with information on how to opt out.

‘ Accountability and enforcement: Since 2011, DMA (Direct marketing association) and CBBB employed technologies to provide website visitors with information on a company’s transparency and control purveyance.

‘ Educational programs: Businesses and consumers will be educated on opt-out options and thus self-regulatory systems.

For now self-regulatory systems are opt-outs with the future possibilities of opt-ins. These mentioned components above all provide consumers with more information on opt-out possibilities. According to privacy concerns this self-regulatory systems proofs that consumers should be educated about opt-out options. Privacy regarding personal information using cookies needs considerate attention. Previous research has shown that if consumers have the perception their privacy is invaded they consider it as invasive and obstructive. Therefore, it is important for companies to be transparent. (Goldfarb & Tucker 2011). Even though advertisement becomes more personalized web site visitors do feel uncomfortable with companies tracking their online affairs. (Beales, 2010; Goldfarb & Tucker 2011).

2.2 Statistics

With assistance of statistics it will be analyzed in which area the problems of consumers and their privacy occur. If this is obtained, with the application of multiple online behavior models in section 2.3 , the problem areas can be theoretically analyzed in order to come up with a decent recommendation on how consumers actually are behaving and how marketers can respond to this.

(TRUSTe, 2008) Areas of consumer concerns regarding to online privacy in OBA:

Advertising relevance:

‘ Of 87% respondents, 25% of the ads were actually personalized.

‘ 64% would only choose to see ads of online stores they are familiar with and trust.

‘ 72% find OBA intrusive if it’s not to their specific needs.

Awareness of OBA:

‘ 40% are familiar with OBA and a higher percentage knows of tracking. 71% knows their browsing data is gathered by third parties.

Attitudes toward OBA:

‘ 57% say they are not comfortable with collecting browsing history for customized advertising.

‘ 54% state they delete their cookies 2-3 times monthly.

‘ 55% are willing to get customized online ads in order by filing in an anonymous form. 19% did not. 37% would still fill out a form about products services and brands to buy even if they aren’t held anonymous.

‘ 40% of participants in our online study agree or strongly agree they would watch what they do

online more carefully if advertisers were collecting data. (McDonald & Cranor, 2010)

Intent to take measures:

‘ 96% want to take measures on protecting their privacy settings. However respondents don’t state they don’t want to be part of OBA at al. even 56% won’t click to reduce unwanted ads. And 58% would not register in the don’t-follow-me registration.

From these statistics it can be obtained that the majority of respondents of this study have negative attitudes towards privacy matters in OBA. However referring to the first heading advertising relevance and the last heading; intent to take measures, it could be stated that the majority of consumers do prefer some form of OBA. This implies cookies are needed. Therefore the problem area as earlier discussed lies more in that consumers do not know enough about opt-out and are not confident with privacy statements. Therefore knowledge and trust will be the major factors to be analyzed in order to see how companies can overcome this issue.

These factors which will be analyzed using models are of great importance. This because TRUSTe states that knowledge and trust are great factors influencing online behavior since there is an increased level of awareness that website visitors are being tracked, to be provided with customized advertisements. Even though they are aware that they are anonymous because their name is not obtained (, 2015; J. Zuiderveen 2011) they do not feel comfortable with them being followed and targeted. Therefore website visitors strongly prefer to limit and have more control on OBA practices. (TRUSTe, 2008).

2.3 Models concerned with consumer behavior

2.3.1 Knowledge: Consumer Privacy States Framework

In order to assess to what extent consumers consider their privacy as important and what are the factors that influence this degree, the use of a Consumer Privacy States Framework will be applied. This framework is derived from the Journal of Policy & Marketing and established by G. Milne and A. Rohm. According to G. Milne and A. Rohm, this framework focuses on 2 dimension. The dimensions of this framework are a reaction to consumers privacy concerns and their willingness to provide marketers with their personal information (Sheehan & Hoy 2000; Milne & Rohm 2000). These dimensions are awareness of data collection and knowledge of name removal mechanism.

According to this model privacy is only present in cell 1. In this stage consumers are aware that their personal information is being gathered. Next to that they know how to opt-out. In this stage consumers are more satisfied and react more positive towards direct marketing relationships (Milne & Rohm 2000). Research has shown that consumers are willing to exchange private information for benefits. Consumers will give more information to digital marketers if there are perceived long term benefits. Next to that, if consumers are able to control their privacy, consumers are more willing to give up their personal information. (Ariely, 2000).

Table 1: Consumer Privacy States Framework (G. Milne and A. Rohm, 2000)

Consumer is knowledgeable about name removal mechanisms Consumer is not knowledgeable about name removal mechanisms

Consumer is aware of data collection Cell 1: Privacy exists Cell 2: Privacy does not exist

Consumer is not aware of data collection Cell 2: Privacy does not exist Cell 4: Privacy does not exist

( Note: opt-out options in the study of 2008 is used as a similar concept as name removal mechanisms in the study of 2000)

Research has shown that 34% of the population is positioned in cell 1, 74% was aware of data collection and 45% knew how to handle name removal mechanisms. This research has shown that organizations need to educate consumers more intensively about name removal mechanisms (Culnan 1995; Milne 1997). Nowadays this issue is still the case. According to TRUST E (2008) 70% of consumers is aware of data collection and 40% knows about opt-out options.

On the other hand, Wood & Quinn (2003) evaluated the effects on attitudes of forewarnings. If consumers are pre-informed on what is the function of cookies, biased thinking can be encouraged which will generate negative attitudes to its function. However, if people are not provided with information on how to opt-out or opt-in possibilities they are more likely to share their personal information. The cookie-icon could be seen as a pre-warning. This makes consumers see a pre-warning as being warned for something which makes their behavior turn to resistance. This resistance occurs because individuals will feel invaded in their privacy. Next to that consumers do not feel comfortable with others knowing their preferences. Therefore, according to Jacks and Devine (2000), resistance occurs in the form of keeping personal freedom. If resistance occurs, resistance strategies could be applied.

According to Jacks and Cameron (2003) consumers could respond with resistance strategies. These strategies are built as described below. The individual could show resistance by not responding to the customized advertisement message or by leaving the situation as it is. This is called selective exposure. Either the receiving individual could immediately start making counter arguments. In this case counter arguing finds place. On the other side, attitude bolstering implies the individual strengthens its own original view without directly making up counter arguments. Source derogation implies insulting the source or reject the validity of the source. In case of social validation, individuals resist the customized message and bring to mind others who share the same viewpoint. In case of negative effect, individuals get angry because their personal information is utilized without the source indicating what it is used for.

Eventually resistance doesn’t have to appear when getting a pre-warming in the form of an icon. Instead of resistance strategies, individuals could choose to make adjustments to their cookie settings or choose to register to not be followed anymore by signing in an authorized non-registration register. As explained under the heading statistics it could be stated that indeed 40% would take measures if their personal information would be collected (TRUSTe, 2008), therefore resisting strategies play a significant role.

2.3.2 Rank order table: Trust

Next to this framework Earp & Baumer (2003) introduced a rank order of most influential factors affecting consumer behavior regarding their privacy. The table below states that consumers that have high confidence in privacy practices of a website are more willing to provide personal information.

Table 2: Rank ordering of stated influential factors in confidence of privacy practices of web site . Bron: J. Earp and D. Baumer, 2003

Rank of most influential factors Factor

1 Company name

2 Option ‘to opt out’

3 Presence of a privacy policy

4 Presence of a web seal

5 Design of the site

76% of respondents from this study showed that having the ability to opt-out as an important factor for having reliability in the privacy practices of the website. However according to research 87.5% of consumers expect detailed information about privacy policies when visiting websites, while only 54% of this amount is actually reading these privacy policies. 66% of this study showed a rise in reliability if a website provides comprehensive privacy policies.(Earp & Baumer, 2003). Next to that consumers believe websites having a comprehensive privacy policy, will make the website always live up to its policy (Ant??n et al. 2002). This again implies that most internet users prefer assurance of privacy policy but are less apprehensive about what the policy actually says (J. Earp and D. Baumer, 2003). Therefore trust and confidence plays a more important role on providing private information than what the policy actually says.

2.3.3 The consumer profile

The consumer profile is relevant to this particular situation in the sense that the effect of consumers’ perceptions of OBA can be measured. Risk and privacy invasion are major areas of concern among consumers and therefore it could be analyzed to what extent these perceptions will affect their online behavior. By making an analyses, companies could get more focused on what areas to improve in order to not deal with privacy issues in future.

The first factor in the consumer profile that should be analyzed is that security and privacy information should be considered. As described earlier, consumers need to be secured that accurate privacy information is provided to them, however in reality this doesn’t make them read it. Referring back to the rank order table, 66% of website visitors expect proper privacy disclosure but only 54% of the website visitors is actually reading it (Earp & Baumer, 2003). Therefore it could be stated that customers are not focused on explicitly security but only on the idea of security. Therefore the issue that evolves around privacy is more on the security of privacy information but not specifically the content of privacy information. Therefore websites with just being able to demonstrate proper regulations on privacy will have greater chance of creating customers having a more positive perception on online privacy practices. Next tot that according to C. Hoofnagle (2010) internet users rarely read privacy statements. However on the other side, if consumers are better informed on opt-out options there is a possibility this knowledge will create resistance as earlier described (Wood & Quinn, 2003) .

Secondly risk plays an important role in behavior on consumers online. The degree of online sales effectiveness can be raised substantially if the perception of risk is reduced. If customers would read the stipulations it would even be questionable whether they realize the consequences of gathering and analyzing their personal information by cookies (Barocas & Nissenbaum, 2009). Even if anonymized information can be linked to an individual, this individual might think there is a small chance of this happening (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011). Therefore again privacy regulations are supposed to just be there to gain security. Risk is sometimes not even considered in its essence but more the perception of risk. Because if web site visitors think there is a small chance of third party’s getting access to information perceived personal, evaluation of risk is seemingly poor.

Third, trust is highly correlated to risk. Increased trust is the consequence of a decrease in perceived risk. This will cause positive beliefs in the business’s online reputation. Fourth, Perceived usefulness. This incorporates the time and effort required for an individual to educate itself on how to opt-out (Perea et al., 2004). Website visitors only have limited knowledge on technology, information and communication technology. Consumers need to understand what is written in privacy statements and what they actually sign an agreement with (Perea et al., 2004). As earlier described, educating web site visitors more by forewarnings can create resistance, which will negatively impact their purchasing behavior (W. Wood & J. Quinn 2003) .

At last the ease of use also has significant impact on consumers their online behavior. Using a new technology need to be free of effort. If an internet user visits a website, he or she experiences this as very time consuming to completely analyze the statement. This makes the website visitor not read it and either state they do not care about their privacy. In statics this is about 3%. On the other side incorporating the law, it cannot be assumed that website visitors not reading the privacy statements willingly accepts the browser settings of cookies. Therefore according to article 2 subsection h Data protection directive which demand for permission a free, specific and on information founded volition will cause considerate problems. (Group privacy protection 29, 2008)

3 What strategies should marketers apply to respond to current privacy concerns regarding cookies in OBA?

3.1 Coercive vs. non- coercive strategies

Organizations that deal with online privacy concerns among consumers should realize whether they are adopting an coercive influence strategy or a non-coercive influence strategy. The coercive influence strategy involves web sites offering incentives to consequently make consumers increase self-disclosure (provide more personal information) (Acquisti & Varian, 2005). Incentives to provide personal information can be categorized into economic incentives such as promotions, discounts and coupons. Non-economic incentives are for instance translated into customization, personalization and access to exclusive content. Threats indicate a penalty or exclusion of benefits for noncompliance. Therefore if the request is not honored, the website visitor cannot make use of the content of the website. For example, NPO, like more websites demand from customers to provide their personal information to get the ability to register on the website and to access specific information on the website. This method of data gathering is aimed at punishing people who refuse to provide their personal information by not providing them with the website content they requested (Sheehan, 2005).

Non-coercive influence strategies. In this case NPO would still take the same actions but without making use of rewards or penalties. For example, a website could explicitly demand the web site visitor by using web forms for these visitors to provide their personal information without the use of non-economic incentives, in this case providing customized advertisement. Instead of providing incentives, NPO could start providing recommendations, such as making the consumer believe, if they provide personal information it can improve their experience on the website (customization) and therefore making the website still reach its original aim. In this case websites can make use of information provision, where they can provide web site visitors with privacy policies which states how and why information will be collected (Milne, Rohm and Bahl, 2004) . Next to that they will provide seals of trust to provide website visitors the guarantee of privacy protection. (Gabbish, 2011).

The main focus for websites such as NPO is identifying strategies for gathering information from website visitors that provide the opportunity to reduce privacy concerns and increase consumers’ trust. According to Payan & McFarland (2005) the application of non-coercive influence strategies have shown positive relational effects. On the other side, coercive strategies have shown the opposite effect. According to Hausman & Johnston (2009) non- coercive strategies have a positive influence on trust while coercive strategies show the opposite. Privacy literature also shows that privacy policies and seals make concerns on privacy decrease and trust to rise. Rewards and threats on the other side makes trust decrease and privacy concerns to increase (Gabbish, 2011).

3.2 Application of the structural model of privacy policy

For companies to reduce the chances of the adoption of resistance strategies from consumers, they could opt for making use of a structural model of privacy policy, privacy concern, trust and willingness to provide personal information. This model showed that if applied properly companies can increase consumer confidence and willingness to provide their personal information (Wu et al., 2012). The model consist of the parameters notice, choice, access, security and enforcement.

Source: Wu et al., 2012

Notice is the most important parameter, stating that consumers should be informed about the collection of personal data before personal data is gathered from these individuals (Wu et al., 2012). In the NPO case, personal data from consumers was collected from consumers without them being aware of it (Pijnenburg, 2014). Choice gives consumers the ability to control the personal data obtained from them. Access gives web site users the ability to have insight into their data. Next to that, website visitors can check whether the data collected from them is correct and complete. Security is concerned with checking whether information is secure and correct.

In order for data integrity to occur, web site owners and third-parties should take measures that provide consumers the ability to have insight into data, erase information and change it to anonymous characters. Enforcement is one of the most important parameters of privacy protection, since privacy can only be assured if there are measures that enforce privacy protection (Wu et al., 2012).

According to Wu et al. (2012) the study came to the conclusion that security ranks highest in concerns of consumers. If the web site owner is aimed at increasing trust among web site visitors, in order for them to provide more personal information, they increase their focus on the provision of security and security data along with creating privacy statements.

This study done by Wu et al. 2012 did research on the relationship of the content of privacy policy to trust and online privacy concern. There are moderating variables that can affect the relationships. These moderating variables tend to describe consumer behavior. Therefore these factors shouldn’t be left out of the original model. The moderating variables that have been researched are cross-cultural effects, age and gender. According to this study, culture has an important moderating effect on the behavior of website visitors to the content of Privacy Policy. Some cultures show a rise in trust in websites when they give consumers access to their data and when their personal data is secure. Differences in cultures have a significant function in the behavior of website users and have influence on their choices in activities online. Gender also influences privacy concerns and willingness to provide personal information. Woman show more openness and therefore more self-disclosure. However they have higher needs for privacy (Wu et., al 2012). Age on the other hand could also have significant impact on the relationship of content of privacy policy and privacy concern/trust. Research showed, the older people get, the more worried they are on their online privacy.

3.3 Web bugs

According to Goldfarb &Tucker (2010) web bugs can be described as 1×1-pixel parts of a code that give online advertisers the ability to follow consumers online. Web bugs are not similar to cookies since they are not visible to the website user and are not saved on the computer of the website visitor. A consumer is therefore not aware of being tracked, unless they analyze the html. code of the webpage. Web bugs track the consumer from website to website. Next to that, web bugs are able to track how far a visitor scrolls down a page. This will have a positive impact on the collection of the preferences of the website visitor (Goldfarb &Tucker, 2010). According to Murray &Cowart (2001) web bugs are used by approximately 95% of top brands. Since consumers are not aware of data collection, privacy concerns will not occur as much as with cookies. However if the law would make websites inform consumers about web bugs, privacy concerns could rise again (Goldfarb &Tucker, 2010). Therefore web bugs could be seen as an alternative for cookies. But if the Privacy Directive adjusts the law, web bugs would become similar to cookies, with the same privacy concerns as consequence.

4 Conclusion/ Recommendation

The reason why this paper focuses on NPO is because in July 2014 they received a penalty by the Dutch authority for consumers and markets known as ACM (, 2014). The NPO placed cookies which track the web site visitors without giving accurate information to its visitors. ACM claimed the NPO was not complying with article 11.7A of the Dutch telecommunication, neither complying with the Dutch data protection act. The NPO is only allowed to track consumers if consent of the web-site visitor is given willingly and unambiguously, according to the information that is disclosed (Fouad, 2014). Referring back to section chapter 2 it can be obtained that the NPO didn’t comply with laws referring to article 2.h. In 2011 article 2.h came to attention that with ‘unambiguous’ permission the website is not allowed to make to quick assumptions that the website user gives permission to make use of personal information (European commission, 2003; 2006).

From the models of factors influencing consumer behavior in section 2.3, it can be obtained that the Consumer Privacy States Framework states that according to consumers if the consumer is aware of data collection and the consumer is knowledgeable about opt-out practices, it could be stated that privacy exists, therefore NPO went wrong in not giving consumers the idea that privacy exists.

The rank order table in section 2.3.2 statistics showed that consumers do need assurance from websites that a website have a comprehensive privacy policy. However websites having privacy policies don’t make consumers actually read them (Earp & Baumer, 2003; Ant??n et al. 2002). Therefore consumers not feeling knowledgeable about their rights show resistance. This can be emphasized by figures showing that the cookie wall of NPO is perceived as a pressure. They actually state; if you don’t accept my cookies you can’t visit my website, with the consequence that they lose visitors. Other businesses use a softer approach with the risk of a loss of personal information. This cookie wall has resulted in a loss in turnover of 0-5% in short term. The NPO expects on the long term a rising trend in visitors on their website (Douma & Verspreek, 2014).

Referring back to the Customer profile model in 2.3.3, influencing factors in consumer behavior online show that if consumers feel more secure on how to control their privacy online they will show a more positive perception about OBA. However on the other side, more control would mean more resistance (Wood & Quinn 2003) . Next to that actual risk is not really experienced but the perception of risk.

Therefore NPO should in the future focus on having their privacy statements accurate and clear and create confidence among website visitors. In the end, the consumers are not specifically worried about their privacy and the detailed information in privacy statements but more on their degree of control, what all 3 models confirm.

In order for consumers not to choose to turn to resistance strategies, influence strategies could be applied. Some of these influence strategies could be considered as manipulative. However on the other side, other influence strategies could increase consumers’ perception of security (Kirmani & Campbell, 2004). The effect of influence strategies is not similar to all individual website visitors. Differences may appear in privacy concerns, consumers ‘trust and their willingness to provide personal information (Milne et al., 2009). Research has shown that non-coercive strategies, such as placing privacy policies on a website, decreases concerns on disclosure of personal information. However on the other side, coercive strategies offering a reward would increase privacy concern and decrease self-disclosure willingness (Andrade et al., 2002). Therefore it is recommended to NPO to adopt a non-coercive strategy to increase trust and willingness to provide personal information.

Referring back to the structural model of Wu et al. (2012) the study came to the conclusion that security ranks highest in concerns of consumers. If the web site owner is aimed at increasing trust among web site visitors, in order for them to provide more personal information they increase their focus on the provision of security and security data along with creating privacy statements or building the website. Therefore again, this strategy shows that NPO should increase attention to the parameter trust in order to increase willingness to provide personal information. This strategy highly correlates with the non-coercive strategy. In the coercive strategy NPO would put too much focus on trying to let customers know about the customization provided which would increase resistance and reduce trust. The non-coercive strategy and (the importance of trust in) the structural model both focus on providing security to increase trust and in turn reach a higher willingness to provide personal information.

The alternative of using cookies could be the application of web bugs. However the application of web bugs is only a short term solution until privacy regulations will change. When privacy regulations will change web bugs would become similar to cookies. Therefore it is recommended that NPO as an example organization should not turn to this strategy.

MPPT CONTROLLER UNDER PARTIAL: essay help online free

ABSTRACT: Maximum Power Point

Tracking (MPPT) is the most important part

of an energy conversion system using

photovoltaic arrays. Maximum power point

tracking (MPPT) techniques are used in

photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the

PV array output power by tracking

continuously the maximum power point

(MPP) which depends on panel temperature

and on irradiance conditions. The power

voltage characteristic of PV arrays

operating under partial shading conditions

exhibits multiple local maximum power

points (LMPPs). In this paper, a review of

various characteristics curves of MPPT

controller under partial shading conditions

has been presented to analyze the

performance of MPPT controller under

such conditions.

Keywords: Maximum Power Point

Tracking (MPPT), Global Maximum Power

Point (GMPP), Local Maximum Power

Point (LMPP), Multiple Maxima, Partial

Shading, Photovoltaic (PV).


A PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) cell is an

electrical device that converts the energy of

light directly into electricity through PV

effect. PV cells have a complex relationship

between solar irradiation, temperature, and

total resistance, and exhibit a nonlinear

output efficiency characteristic known as

the P’V curve. Therefore, maximum power

point tracking (MPPT) techniques should be

developed in PV systems in order to

maximize the output power of PV systems.

Nowadays, there have been many MPPT

methods reported in the literature, such as

hill climbing, perturb and observe

incremental conductance (INC) and ripple


However, when there is multiple local

power maxima, from partially shading or

from installation on a curved surface,

conventional MPPT techniques do not

perform well. Multiple maxima may occur

due to bypass diodes, which are used to

avoid hot spots from forming when some

cells in a module or some modules in a

string receive less irradiance than others.

Without the remediation of power

electronics, the lost energy due to partial

shading can be significant. Thus, it is

imperative to utilize MPPT techniques that

reliably track the unique global power

maximum present in shaded arrays.

Some researchers have proposed global

maximum power point tracking (GMPPT)

algorithms to address the partial shading

condition. It is observed that the peaks

follow a specific trend in which the power at

a peak point continues to increase until it

reaches the GMPP, and afterward, it

continuously decreases. The proposed

algorithm incorporates an online current

measurement and periodic interruptions to

address certain challenges associated with

rapidly changing insolation and partial

shading. This method can be an effective

solution to mitigate the effect of partial

shading. The simulation results, however,

obtained by measuring environmental

parameters and the actual case will be

drastically different, because the actual

characteristic of the solar panels depends on

many factors (e.g., light intensity,


Fig. 1 PV array under different partial

shading conditions.

ageing, dust, and partial shading). In

addition, the method increases the PV

system cost in practical commercial




Fig. 1 shows a PV array which has

four PV modules connected in series under

uniform insolation conditions. Fig. 2(a)

illustrates typical I’V and P’V curves for

the PV array under a uniform solar

irradiance of 1000 W/m2 on all the PV

modules. The traditional MPPT algorithm

can reach this peak and continue oscillating

around the MPP. The P&O method, e.g.,

perturbs the solar array voltage in one

direction in each sampling period and tests

the power change afterward. It is assumed

that initially PV array is operating at point

A, as shown in Fig. 2(a).

An operating voltage of the PV array

is perturbed in a given direction (from A to

B), and an increase in output power is

observed (PB > PA). This means that point B

is closer to the MPP than point A, and the

operating voltage must be further perturbed

in the same direction (from B to C). On the

other hand, if the output power of the PV

array decreases (from D to E), the operating

point has moved away from the MPP, and

therefore, the direction of the operating

voltage perturbation must be reversed (from

D to C). Through constant perturbation,

eventually the operating voltage will reach

and continue oscillating around the MPP


However, in some practical

conditions, the series strings of PV modules

are not under the same solar irradiance

condition. The partial shading condition is a

common situation due to the shadows of

buildings, trees, clouds, dirt, etc. Fig. 1

shows several different partial shading

situations. Under the partial shading

condition, if there is one module in a PV

string that is less illuminated, the shaded

module will dissipate some of the power

generated by the rest of the modules. It

means that the current available in a series

connected PV array is limited by the current

of the shaded module. This can be avoided

by using bypass diodes which can be placed

in parallel with the PV module.

The method of using bypass diodes

allows the array current to flow in the

correct direction even if one of the strings is

completely shadowed. Bypass diodes are

widely implemented in commercial solar

panels. Because of bypass diodes, multiple

maxima appear under the partial shading

condition. The P’V curve of PV array in

Fig. 1 possesses multiple maxima under the

partial shading condition, as shown in Fig. 2

(b). The unshaded modules in the sample

PV array are exposed to 1000 W/m2 of

solar insolation and the shaded module is

exposed to 400 W/m2 of solar insolation.

There are two observed peaks in the P’V

curve, because of the natural behavior of the

bypass diode and PV array connection

inside the module. Point A is the GMPP,

while point B the local maximum power

point (LMPP). When the area covered by

the shadow changes, the P’V curve and the

location of GMPP also changes, as shown in

Fig. 2(c) and (d). Under these conditions,

traditional algorithms can only track either

of the two MPPs, and cannot distinguish

between GMPP and LMPP.

Continuing with the P&O method as

an example, both points satisfy the

conditions to be the ‘MPP.’ If the operating

point obtained by the PV array algorithm is

LMPP, the output power is significantly

lower. Some researchers proposed a global

scan method to obtain the PV output curves.

Then a complex algorithm is required to

calculate the GMPP of the curves. This

method is able to obtain the GMPP, but it

cannot determine whether the PV cell is

operating under shading conditions, and

blindly and constantly scans for the MPP,

wasting the output energy. For these

reasons, a new improved MPPT method for

the PV system under the partial shading

condition is proposed in this paper.

Fig. 2 P’V and I’V characteristics curves

of a PV array under different partial

shading conditions





In order to avoid blind global scan,

methods to determine the presence of partial

shading are essential. It is noted that when a

series of PV array is under the identical

solar irradiance condition [Fig. 1], every PV

model works as a source, and all modules

are identical in their voltage, current, and

output power at any time. But this state

changes when there is shadow. Fig. 1 is an

example in the following analysis. The

models in the series array are exposed to

two different solar irradiances, and the solar

irradiation levels are 1000 and 400 W/m2,

respectively. The voltages of the modules

that are exposed to different irradiation

levels are completely different.

The two peaks on the P’V curve are

divided into two separate parts, as shown in

Fig. 2(c). Part A is the curve containing the

left peak (curved A’C), and part B is the

curve containing the right peak (curve C’B’

E). In part A, the current of the PV array IPV

is greater than the maximum current that the

PV module can

Fig. 3 Every module output voltage with

array output power.

(a) Unshaded module. (b) Shaded


produce under the shade (M3 and M4);

therefore, the current will flow through the

bypass diode of each module. At this stage,

only PV M1 and M2 are supplying power,

and PV M3 and M4 have been bypassed by

the diodes. The characteristic curves of the

PV module voltage with output power are

shown in Fig. 3(a) and (b). The voltages of

PV M3 and M4 are approximately negative

0.7V (the diode’s forward voltage drop) in

part A, as shown in Fig. 3(b).

Therefore, the module voltages

being equal to the negative of the diode’s

forward voltage can be used as one effective

way to estimate partial shading condition. In

part B, all PV modules are supplying power,

but the unshaded and shaded modules are in

different working conditions. Because the

PV modules receive different amounts of

solar radiation, the voltages of the PV

modules are different. In part B (curve C’

B’E), the voltage of the unshaded modules

is greater than that of the shaded modules,

as shown in Fig. 4. It is evident that this is

another indicator to efficiently identify

partial shading. Following the above

analysis, some of the observations are listed

as follows.

1) I’V curves under partial shading

conditions have multiple steps, while the

P-V curves are characterized by multiple


2) The number of peaks is equal to the

number of different insolation levels

irradiated on the PV array, and any peak

point may be the GMPP.

Fig 4 Array output power with unshaded

module output voltage and shaded

module output voltage.

3) The voltages of PV modules that receive

different solar radiations are different.

4) The voltage of the PV module that is

bypassed by a diode is equal to the negative

of the diode’s forward voltage drop.


In this paper, a review of concepts &

developments in the field of MPPT has been

shown. Also various partial shading

conditions have been briefly reviewed. The

comparison between this various conditions

of partial shading has been summarized with

the help of various characteristic curves.

Finally it is concluded that conventional

MPPT techniques have disadvantages like

energy loss, not able to determine partial

shading conditions, etc. Majority of these

problems can be eliminated by improved

MPPT controller method. Therefore

application of Improved MPPT controller

method now a day’s not limited up to

generation level but research work

suggested that it is having ability to replace

the conventional MPPT methods too in near



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Learning theories – behavioural, social & cultural, constructivism, cognitive

Learning is defined as the permanent change in individuals mind, voluntary or involuntary. It occurs through an experience that can bring about a relatively permanent change in an individual’s knowledge or behavior. Behaviorist defines learning as the changes in an individual’s mind resulting in a permanent change. It is learning that takes place intentional or unwillingly in individuals. Cognitive psychologist defines learning as the changes in knowledge that can be an internal mental activity that cannot be observed directly. Learning involves obtaining and modifying knowledge, skills, strategies, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors to understand old or new information. Individuals learn skills from experiences that tend to take the form of social interactions, linguistic or motor skills. Educational professionals define learning as an ‘enduring change in behavior or in the capacity to behave in a given fashion which results from practice or other forms of experience’.

One may ask how does learning happen? Learning happens every day to every individual, it doesn’t only happen in the classrooms, colleges or universities buildings but it can happen anywhere and every day. Learning can occur through interacting with others, observing or simply as just listening to a conversation. Learning happens through experiences good and bad, or ones that can provoke an emotional response or simply offer a moment of revelation. Behaviorist and cognitive theorist believed that learning can be affected by the environment an individual resides but behaviorist focused more on the role of the environment and how the stimuli is presented and arrange and the responses reinforced. Cognitive theorist on the other hand agrees with behaviorist but tend to focus more on the learners abilities, beliefs, values and attitudes. They believe that learning occurs by consolidation which is the forming and strengthening of neural connections which include the factors organization, rehearsal, elaboration and emotional. Learning occurs in many ways, psychologist believe that learning is the key concept of living whether it’s intentional or unintentional which is why they came up with the learning theories.

Learning theories are considered theoretical frameworks in describing how information is contain, refined and maintain during learning. Learning is an important activity in the lives of individuals; it is the core of our educational process, even though learning begins out of the classroom. For many years psychologist sought to understand what is learning, the nature of it, how is it transpired and how individuals influence learning in others through teaching and similar endeavors. Learning theories tend to be based on scientific evidence and more valid than personal opinions or experiences. There are five basic types of theories used in educational psychology which are: Behavioral, Cognitive, Social & Cultural, and Constructivism.

Behavioral Theory

The behavioral approach is the behavior view that generally assumes that the outcome of learning is the change in behavior and emphasizes the effects of internal events on an individual. In the behaviorist approach, they believed that individuals have no free will, and that the environment an individual is place in determines their behavior. They believe that individuals are born with a clean slate and that behaviors can be learned from the environment. The learning theories from the behaviorists Pavlov, Guthrie and Thorndike have historical importance on learning. Although they may differ each theory has its own process of forming associations between stimuli and responses. Thorndike believed that responses to stimuli are strengthening when it is followed by a satisfying consequence. Guthrie reasoned that the relation between stimulus and responses is established through pairing. Pavlov, who developed the classical conditioning, demonstrated how stimuli can be conditioned to obtain certain responses while being paired with another stimulus. The behavior theory is expressed in conditioning theories that explains learning in the terms of environmental events but is not the only conditioning theory.

B. F. Skinner developed the Operant conditioning; this form of conditioning is based on the assumptions that the features of the environment serves as cues for responding. He believed that we learn to behave in certain ways as we operate on the environment. In operant conditioning reinforcement strengthens the responses and increases the likelihood of the occurring when the stimuli are present. The operant conditioning is a three-term contingency that involves the antecedent (stimulus), the behavior (response) and the consequences. Operant conditioning involves consequences which can determine how individuals respond to environmental cues. Consequences can be either good or bad for individuals, it can reinforce behavior that increases it or a reinforcement that decreases behavior. There are other operant conditioners such as generalization, discrimination, primary and secondary reinforcements, reinforcement schedules and the premack principle.

Shaping is another form of operant conditioning, it is the process used to alter behavior in individuals. Shaping is the successive approximations which involves the reinforcing progress. It is the complex behaviors that are formed by the linking of simple behaviors in the three-term contingencies. This operant conditioning involves self-regulation which is the process of obtaining an individual stimulus and reinforcement control of themselves.

Cognitive Theory

The cognitive theory focuses on the inner activities of the mind. The cognitive theory states that knowledge is learned and the changes in knowledge make the changes in behavior possible. Both the behavioral and cognitive theory believe that reinforcement is important in learning but for different reasons. The behaviorist suggests that reinforcement strengthens responses but cognitive suggest that reinforcement is a source of feedback about what is likely to happen if behaviors are repeated or changed. The cognitive approach suggests an important element in the learning process is the knowledge an individual has towards a situation. Cognitive theorist believe that they information we already know determines what we will perceive, learn, remember and forget.

There are three main theorist of the cognitive development Gestalt, Kohler and Koffka. Gestalt learning theory approach proposes that learning consists of grasping of a structural whole and not just a mechanistic response to a stimulus. The main concept of his theory was that when we process sensory stimuli we are aware of the configuration or the overall pattern which is the whole. Kohler theory stated that learning can occur by a ‘sudden comprehension’ as to gradually understanding. This theory could happen without any reinforcement and there will be no need for review, training or investigations. Koffka theory suggested that he supported the fact that animals are can be participants in learning because they are similar to humans in many ways. He believed that there was no such thing as meaningless learning, and that the idea interdependent of facts was more important than knowing many individual facts.

Social & Cultural theory

The social and cultural theory is based on how individuals functioning are related to cultural, institutional and historical context. Vygotsky was a psychologist in Russia who identified the Social & Cultural theory also known as sociocultural theory. The Sociocultural theory is known as the combining theory in psychology because it discussed the important contributions society makes on an individual development and cognitive views of Piaget. The theory suggested that learning occurs between the interactions of people. Lev. Vygotsky believed that Parents, Caregivers, Peers and culture played an important in the development of a high order function. According to Vygotsky ‘Every function is the children cultural development that appears twice: firstly on the social level, secondly on an individual level. In the social cultural theory tends to focus not only on how adults or peers influence learning but how an individual culture can impact how learning takes place.

According to Vygotsky children are born with the basic constraints on their mind. He believed that each culture provides ‘tools of intellectual adaptation’ for each individual. Theses adaptation allows children to use their basic mental ability to adapt to their culture for example a culture may utilized tools to emphasize on memorization strategies. Vygotsky was a brilliant man, he worked along with Piaget in developing the cognitive theory their theories differ in certain ways. Firstly Piaget theory was basically based on how children interactions and explorations influenced development, Vygotsky placed greater emphasis on the social factors that influence development. Another difference is the Vygotsky suggested that cognitive development can be different between cultures while Piaget theory suggested the development in universal. There is one important concept in the sociocultural theory known as the zone of proximal. The Zone of proximal is considered to be the level of independent problem solving and a level of potential development, through problem solving under the guidance of an adult or with peers. It includes the skills that a person cannot understand or perform on their own yet, but is capable of learning with guidance.

Constructivism Theory

The constructivism learning theory is defined as how learners or individuals construct knowledge from pervious experiences. Constructivism is often associated with a pedagogic approach that often promote learning or learning by doing. Constructing is known as the meaning for learning because constructivism focuses on the individual thinking about learning. The constructivist theory argues that individuals can generate knowledge from interactions between experiences and ideas. Constructivism examined the interactions between individuals from infancy to adulthood to try to comprehend how learning is done from experiences and behavior patterns. The constructivist theory is attributed to Jean Piaget who articulated the mechanisms by stating that knowledge is internalized by learners. Piaget stated that through the processes of adaptation the accommodation and assimilation, individuals can construct new knowledge from past experiences.

According Piaget theory of constructivism accommodation is the process of an individual reframing one’s mental view of the world and tries to fit in new experiences. Accommodation can be understood when failure leads to learning, as humans if we have an idea that the world works only one way and that way fails us then we will fail. In accommodation we learn from our failure or the failures of others. The constructivism theory describes how learning happens whether the individuals learn from using their experiences to understand information or by just following instructions to construct something. In both cases constructivism suggest that learner construct knowledge from experiences. The constructivism theory tends to be associated with active learning because5 individuals learn from experiences, something that was already did. Several cognitive psychologists argued that constructivist theories are misleading or can contradict findings.

As an educator I can facilitate learning by encouraging my students, helping them to develop to their fullest potential. As an educator I am compelled to vie and asses learning styles so that I can meet every student needs within the classroom. As an educator I want to be able to allow students to learn gradually. I would want my students to thrive academically and socially in and out of the classroom. From my understanding the four learning theories discussed in the paper all contribute to my understanding of learning. Despite all the different theories each theory gave me a new insight on learning occurs in and out of a class, college or university. From Behaviorist perspective view of learning is the change in behavior and emphasis of external events on an individual. For example Pavlov experiment in classical conditioning, where he taught dogs to salivate when they hear the tuning of a fork. If we used both conditioning theories with the classrooms can train students to behave and operant in the way they would want them to.

The theory that can be used in Music is the Behaviorist theory, I say this because music is the incorporating of knowledge and feeling. Music sets the atmosphere for an environment for example if a relaxing song is being played at home, that song puts the individual in a relaxing mood , in the behaviorist theory the environment influences the response of an individual so the relaxing song will evoke a relaxed response as done in Pavlov experiment of classical conditioning with the dogs that provoke salivating when hearing the tuning of a fork. In music classical conditioning is where students can be conditioned to like or enjoy a piece of music. For example if a classical song is being played that the students don’t know or like the teacher can play it repeatedly so they can get an understanding of it and eventually the students will enjoy the music because of the repetition of the song being played. There response to the song might be in the way of moving their bodies, tapping their feet or nodding their head.

The Role Of An Independent Director

Corporates these days are expected to use their capacity, knowledge towards maximization of the stake holder’s value and also towards the well being of the society. They do this through transparency, truthful disclosure of all the state of affairs. According to SEBI , the expression ”independent director” refers to a non-executive director of a company who apart from receiving the director’s remuneration, does not have any material pecuniary relationships or transaction with the company, its promoters, directors, senior management, holding company or its subsidiaries and associates, which may impact his/her independence. An independent director is someone who has independency of judgment, absence of material relationship, pecuniary relationship with the company. The Companies Act,2013  imposes a specific obligation on listed companies to have at least one third of the total number of directors as independent directors and, also empowers Central Government to include other class/classes of companies within the scope of this requirement.

The part of an independent director is thought to be of an extraordinary essentialness. The rules, part and capacities and obligations and so forth are extensively set out in a code portrayed in Schedule IV of the Act, 2013. The code sets out certain basic capacities like defending the enthusiasm of all partners, especially the minority holders, blending the clashing enthusiasm of the partners, dissecting the execution of administration, intervening in circumstances like clash in the middle of administration and the shareholder’s advantage and so forth. The code likewise sets out certain essential obligations like staying with themselves upgraded about the and the outside environment in which it works, not unveiling vital and private data of the organization unless affirmed by the board or required by law, effectively taking an interest in panels of the board in which they are director or individuals, keeping themselves overhaul and undertaking proper affectation and reviving their insight, aptitudes and nature with the organization, frequently go to the general gatherings of the organization and so forth.

Having an independent director is essential for any company it helps to bring an outside viewpoint on system and control and also helps to include new aptitudes and learning that won’t be accessible inside of the firm. Independence also helps the director to be objective and also evaluate the company’s performance without any conflict of interest.

Lets take examples of Lehman brothers and World com to rightly explain the need and importance of independent directors and good corporate governance.

Lehman Brothers began in 1844 as a little basic need and dry merchandise store set up by Henry Lehman. After two decades they exchanged cotton, moved to New York and built up New York Cotton Exchange. After this occasions Lehman proceeded out and about of progress and turned into the fourth-biggest American venture bank. They survived the World wars and the Great Depression, be that as it may, the breakdown on the U.S. lodging business sector pushed Lehman Brothers to the edge of total collapse. Lehman Brothers Board of Directors was made out of ten individuals. The Chairman and CEO was Richard S. Fuld, Jr. also, included eight free chiefs as per NYSE. In any case, behind the majority of that there was a truth, that nine out of 10 executives were resigned. In addition, their average age were 68.4 years (four of them were more than 75 years), just two of them have direct involvement in monetary administration industry furthermore, stand out of them had current budgetary part learning. Moreover, one was U.S. Naval force officer, another showy maker. These independent directors hence didn’t ensure the proper working of the operations of the company and how things should have been. There wasn’t any strategic guidance for the company and its operations and hence there was no accountability of the board to the company. There wasn’t any disclosure of how the operations were, or how the company was holding up regarding the final situation, the performance and the ownership. The independent directors had a lack of experience on financial matters. The Lehman brothers had issues with the corporate governance arrangements and also failure to protect against excessive risk taking.

Worldcom, a telecommunication giant also failed because of the largest accountancy frauds in the American history, which led to its bankruptcy. WorldCom made genuine accounting misrepresents that disguised the verifiably perilous cash related condition of the association. The WorldCom case has become a kind of poster child and a genuine case study in the failure of corporate governance, in this new century-Dick Thornburgh, Former Attorney General of the United States and Court-Appointed Examiner in the WorldCom Bankruptcy Proceedings. There was a toxic culture of the senior management; their actions were not completely legal. They also set unrealistic financial targets for the company. There were 2 versions of accounts i.e. the actual version and one shown to investors. Not only this, the reserve accounts were manipulated to increase the actual figures. The vast majority of the deviations from legitimate corporate conduct of which we observed came about because of the disappointment of Board of Directors to perceive, and to bargain viably with, misuse reflecting what our reports distinguished as a “society of eagerness” inside of the organization’s top administration. Others came about because of an wretched disappointment of dependable persons inside of the organization to satisfy their guardian commitments to shareholders. A third contributing component was a absence of straightforwardness between senior administration and the Company’s top managerial staff. In the last examination, what we saw was a finished breakdown of the arrangement of corporate administration. The checks and equalizations intended to avoid wrongdoing and abnormalities essentially fizzled to work.

Hence we would conclude by pointing out the role and importance of independent directors. The essential errand of autonomous executives is to embrace an oversight part and to guarantee that the corporate resources are utilized just for the organization. This errand incorporates: gotten comfortable with the basics of the business in which the organization is locked in and keep on being educated about the exercises of the organization, checking on the records of the organization, calling for extra data where the records indicate not exactly the full picture, going about as a keep an eye on proposed corporate methodology remembering the financial matters of any potential exchange, consistent participation at executive gatherings to guarantee capacity to for the most part screen of corporate undertakings and approaches and taking an interest in the arrangement, appraisal and compensation of executives for the most part. The vicinity of Independent Directors on the Board of an organization would enhance corporate administration, especially for open organizations or organizations with a huge open hobby. Corporate specialists felt that autonomous chiefs would have the capacity to convey a component of objectivity to the Board process in the general enthusiasm of the organization and in this manner to the regale of minority hobbies and little shareholders. At long last it was felt by the corporate specialists that the incorporation of free chief frequently brings an alternate perspective, a more educated perspective, and a more expert perspective. In India, in the last 10 years or so, corporate governance and the institution of independent directors have evolved. Two factors have played a major role. Introduction of Clause 49 by SEBI in 2004 and the Satyam fraud in 2009 have resulted in improvements in corporate governance and the role of independent directors. The part of free executive, to a limited extent, is to go about as a guard dog on the promoters and the administration of the organization and secure minority shareholders’ hobbies.

Russian Federation Armed Forces (RFAF) getting in control of Crimea

Factor Deduction Conclusion

Russian Federation Armed Forces (RFAF) getting in control of Crimea (March 2014).

• Continuing access to the naval base of Sevastopol

• Warships and support vessels formerly part of the Ukrainian navy could enter into the Russian Fleet

• Securing the military benefits and regaining influence over Ukraine’s future direction.   • Avoid further degradation of the crisis in Ukraine

• Continue to implement assurance measures

• The possible “integration” of Ukraine to the West (EU/NATO) is much less attractive by the Russian presence in Crimea.

• The presence of the Russian Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol (Crimea)

• Modernisation of that fleet (advanced supersonic anti-ship cruise missiles, air defense systems and torpedoes; the coastal defence system armed with Yakhont anti-ship missiles. )

• Presence of Iskander mobile ballistic missile systems in Crimea The Black Sea Fleet (after its modernisation ), shall provide Russia with substantial operational capability in the region:

• to control the Black Sea basin

• to ensure the security of its southern borders

• to project power in and around the Black Sea

• to carry out Anti-Access/Area Denial (A2/AD) operations throughout the region. • Continue its intelligence collection efforts, its investments in and deployment of missile defence systems and submarine detection systems

• Undertake negotiations on non-proliferation

• Increase its presence in the Black Sea by ‘show the flag’ operations, also being deterrent at the same time

• Support Turkey’s surveillance of the Turkish Streets.

Crimea as an operating base for future military action against Ukraine :

• Naval means

• Advanced combat aircraft • Russia can threaten Ukraine on three fronts now (northeast, southeast and south)

• Potential naval blockade against Ukraine’s southern ports and potential amphibious operations at selected coastal targets

• Deep operations inside Ukraine to strike strategic targets or provide ground support for Russian forces and interdict Ukrainian troop movements • Avoid further degradation of the crisis in Ukraine.

• Start negotiations with the Russian Federation.

• In order to change the relationship of distrust to a normalised one, NATO should involve the Russian Federation instead of excluding them from their operations.

• Air defense capabilities upgraded

• Integrated air defense system (S-400 area defense platform installed) • Significantly enhancing Russia’s air defence capabilities on its southern flank.

• Deterrence • Increase its presence in the Black Sea by ‘show the flag’ operations

• Capabilities needed to counter deterrence

Relative geographic isolation of Crimea

Very difficult for enemy forces to retake it (easy to defend). Crimea: a lost “case” for Ukraine

=> The Alliance should start diplomatic negotiations with Russia (improve their relationship and solve the crisis).

Sevastopol serves as headquarters to the newly constituted Mediterranean Task Force (MTF). • Russia‘s reach extended and its prestige enhanced. (again a major power in the Black Sea)

• Sevastopol: potential SPOE (strategic projection) • NATO should show its presence in the region like they already do in the Baltic States

• Intelligence collection on the MTF

In Crimea, all the prerequisites to apply the new operational concept in an effective way were present. Russia’s strategy is to maintain a sphere of influence in former Soviet states and at the same time disrupt EU and NATO involvement in the area.

The Russian annexation of Crimea (March 2014) was the result of a combination of military tools and state tools to reach its policy goals:

• Covert use of Special Operations Forces with subterfuge (civilian self-defence forces)

• Combination of non-military, covert and subversive asymmetric means (hybrid warfare)

• Gradually transitioning from “little green men” and self-defence forces to clearly marked high readiness forces • Confronting Russian military power in the future will require an expanded toolkit for NATO Allies.  (confrontation with an asymmetrical approach – hybrid warfare)

• Intelligence collection to anticipate on Russian military actions

• Effective implementation of assurance measures

The EU and NATO are increasing their sphere of influence more towards the East and in this way they encounter Russia. Increased dominance of anti-Western sentiment in Russia and amongst ethnic Russian minorities in former Soviet States; the conviction that the West intends to bring about regime change in Russia • Strategic Communications to deny false accusations by Russia, inform the population in former Soviet States

• Enhance the relationship with Russia

• Involve Russia in their operations

Overall vast offshore oil and gas resources of Crimea in the Black Sea. Nationalisation of oil and gas companies by Gazprom.  (figure 1) • Increase its presence in the Black Sea by ‘show the flag’ operations

• Ensure freedom of movement in the Black Sea

The Black Sea is a huge economic thoroughfare from the Caucasus region and the Caspian Sea to central and Eastern Europe.  Traffic on the Black Sea accounts for 300 ships a day. Russia has started to re-shape its territorial sea and the 200-mile Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the northern Black Sea (figures 2 and 3), putting Ukraine in an even more vulnerable state economically, militarily and politically.

Ukraine is worried about losing very large shale gas fields as well as 45% of its national coal reserves in the eastern region due to the separatist conflict. Risk for Ukraine to lose more natural resources if there would be an expansion or degradation of the crisis in the eastern regions. • Increase its presence in the Black Sea by ‘show the flag’ operations and avoid further degradation of the crisis in Ukraine.

• Start negotiations with Russia

For its agricultural and industrial activities, Crimea remains dependent on water and electricity from Ukraine. • There are frequent blackouts and disruptions.

• The closure of the North Crimean Canal, the main irrigation source for Crimea’s interior dry steppe lands, has adversely affected agriculture, with numerous crops failing. • NATO should closely monitor the situation in both Ukraine and Crimea.

• Avoid further degradation of the crisis in Ukraine

• Comprehensive approach

• The total population of Crimea is 2.3 million with 58% ethnic Russians, 24% Ukrainians and 18% Tartars.

• Concerning the native language, this is the 2014 situation: 84% Russian, 7.9% Crimean-Tatar, 3.7% Tatar and 3.3% Ukrainian (figure 2). • The protection of ethnic Russians living in Crimea in a time of political changes in Ukraine should be seen as a symbolical act. President Putin sent troops to Crimea to protect the interests of the majority of ethnic Russians.

• Crimea can serve as a symbol to encourage pro-Russian factions in Ukraine to support Russia. • With strategic communications, NATO should counter the false accusations of wanting to destabilise the Russian Federation by the approach to former Soviet States.

• Effective intelligence collection should allow the Alliance to anticipate on military actions (annexation of Crimea, clandestine support to Ukrainian separatists in the East)

The ethnic Tatars (18% of Crimea’s population) always remained a reliable pro-Ukrainian and pro-Western bloc. They were seen as ‘the’ enemy to Russia. Since the annexation: persecution with their freedom and rights having been attacked repeatedly   Monitoring of the rights of the minorities in Crimea is needed, maybe by cooperation with the EU or the OSCE.

Crimean Tatars and other Muslims in Crimea have come under new jurisdiction; they also have a strong affinity with Chechens. • Islamic organisations with transnational connections designated or banned as terrorist organisations.

• Islamic literature closely monitored, publications banned as ‘extremist literature’ and ‘unregistered mosques’ closed.

By addressing the ethnic Russian-minority (through means like media), Russia emphasizes their Russian heritage based on language, history and unique Russian culture. These narratives enhance

• the minorities’ feelings of marginalization by their government

• a sense of self-worth belonging (honour) and pro-Russian popular sentiments

• a perception that ‘Mother Russia’ has more to offer than the native country (interest) • NATO needs to get in depth view (by intelligence collection) on the Russian minorities in possible target countries.

• NATO needs to tackle the causes that lead to the sentiment of reunification; by strategic communication it can try to influence the view of the ethnic minority.

• This should be part of a comprehensive approach as “military” means alone won’t be able to influence that view.

Emerging infectious diseases: essay help site:edu

Emerging infectious diseases are infectious diseases that have showed up within a population in recent years or those whose prevalence or geographic boundary is increasing exponentially or expected to rise within the next few years (1). Emerging infections can be divided into two main groups – newly emerging and re-emerging infections. Newly emerging infections can be defined as diseases that have never been identified in the human host before. Re-emerging diseases are diseases that have been known to infect humans, but persistently emerging in novel places or as drug-resistant strains, or re-emerging despite evident management or eradication (2). This essay aims to understand the dynamic relationships between microbes, human hosts, and the environment with respect to impact on emerging infections in humans. It is also important to remember that due to the complex nature of many emerging diseases, the differentiation between emerging and re-emerging diseases tend to be debatable, resulting in multiple professionals to group them into disparate categories.

The causes of disease emergence are dependent on a number of factors yet basically result from the microorganism itself interacting with a human. These exposures can be complicated and novel diseases are frequently developed from multiple determinants simultaneously or consecutively. One key example we would be focusing on would be the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014. The Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a lethal zoonotic disease caused by an infection with one of the five recognised ebolavirus species, with the Zaire ebolavirus species being responsible for this particular epidemic (3). As of 13 May 2016, a total of 28,616 cases 11,310 deaths was reported (4), making it the largest known outbreak of Ebola.

The collapse of public health campaigns and inadequacies in public health systems adds to the dissemination of emerging diseases. One of the main reasons for the emergence of Ebola in parts of Africa is the substandard active healthcare systems where the virus happened. The nations, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone are the hardest-hit and among the poorest in the world. After decades of dispute and civil conflict, their healthcare systems are essentially obliterated or significantly weakened and, in some regions, leaving behind a generation of uneducated young people. Restricted trained medical workforce, substandard facilities and equipment, incompetent administration and financing for the healthcare industry all leads to the accelerated spread (5). Healthcare professionals of Ebola patients are at utmost danger of contracting it as they are considerably more likely to be in near proximity with infected blood or body fluids. The elevated mortality rate of health practitioners in this outbreak has damaging repercussions that further delay infection control. It exhausts one of the most indispensable assets during any infection outbreak control. In the three worst-affected countries, WHO approximates that only one to two physicians are accessible to care for 100,000 people, and they tend to be heavily concentrated in bigger towns (6). Quarantine areas and hospital promptness for control measures are basically non-existent. Contact tracing of ill persons are being executed but not diligently quarantined for supervision. At the beginning of the Ebola epidemic, limited capacity to rapidly distinguish alleged cases, confirm diagnoses and implementing preventative measures led to pervasive spread (7). By the time outbreak control was attained, there were already extensive and devastating effects on Ebola patients and their families, as well as the countries’ health and financial systems (8) and population health (9).

Sociocultural actions that contradict disease outbreak regulations also play a role in emerging diseases. The predominant acceptance of particular long-established and spiritual rituals among West African populations had huge adverse impacts on the dissemination of Ebola. In Guinea, 60% of incidents have been associated with customary funerals. One of the most frequently carried out burial customs, which notably aided the dissemination of Ebola, is the rinsing and bathing of the corpse. Another stated funeral tradition is that of the family of the deceased touching the face of the corpse in what is understood as a ‘love touch’ that reinforces harmony between the living and their ancestors (10) and then proceeding to clean their hands in a shared washbasin. Given that the primary method of human-to-human transmission of the Ebola virus is through direct contact with infected body secretions as constantly described in the Ebola epidemic, the funeral and burial rituals mentioned before indirectly leads to dissemination of the disease (11). Fear causes individuals who have had contact with infected persons to evade supervision, families to conceal symptomatic relatives or bring them to indigenous doctors, and patients to escape from medical facilities. Fear and the aggression that can follow have jeopardised the safety of domestic and global medical emergency units. The fact that Ebola is often lethal and incurable further promotes alarm and continuation of these risky actions, highlighting the significance of needing medical anthropologists on the medical emergency units. This established that solely using scientific techniques without an all-inclusive regard for other circumstantial elements is not enough to regulate disease outbreak. Control measures must operate within the customs, not against it (12).

In an ever more integrated and connected world, the spreading of infectious diseases through global travel and trade is much simpler. West Africa is exemplified by a large scale of migration across extremely unregulated geographical boundaries (13), with new findings approximating that migration in these countries is seven times higher than other places globally. A huge proportion of the population in these nations do not have stable and waged jobs. Their pursuits to seek employment leads to ever-changing migration across these unchecked geographical boundaries. Migration produced two major obstacles. Firstly, cross-border contact tracing is challenging. People promptly migrate to other countries, but medical emergency units do not. Secondly, patients from bordering nations looking for vacant treatment beds are drawn to nations that are progressing in outbreak control, hence inciting transmission chains. The customary practice of returning, frequently over extensive distances, to a local village to lay to rest alongside ancestors is an alternative aspect of migration that involves an exceptionally huge dissemination threat. The epidemic in West Africa has caused fear and also infection miles away in the United States and Spain. Briefly, local threats now have global ramifications (14).

Climate change and global warming is progressively becoming a global issue as well as playing a part in the rise of infectious diseases. As Earth’s temperature rises and environments change, diseases can disseminate into novel geographical regions. A few research papers have stated the effect of global warming and climate change on the African Ebola epidemic (15) and the migratory patterns of fruit bats (16). Colonies of fruit bats migrate to regions where ecological settings are more advantageous for survival due to diminished rainfall, warmer climate and land degradation in their ecological niches in the tropical rainforest. During times of low fruit abundance in tropical rainforest, huge numbers of fruit bats travel extensive lengths to exploit fruit availability in other areas (17), with stop-overs offering a rare chance for natives to vastly hunt bats. Hunting these bats puts them at a bigger threat of zoonotic infections. Molecular examination has shown that the biological pathogen responsible for the West African epidemic diverged from the Central African ZEBOV strain about ten years ago (18). Likewise, antibodies against ZEBOV have been identified in migratory bats in faraway regions, such as Bangladesh (19) and Ghana (20), suggesting the possibility of Central African migratory fruit bats to spread the virus into other regions. Evidently, the impacts of global warming and climate change on fruit bats’ migratory patterns, from their ecological niches in the tropical rainforest of Central Africa to other faraway regions, may have potential international health outcomes. Certainly, it is a concerning world issue that vector-borne diseases, particularly mosquito-borne diseases, may produce an extensive span of emerging infectious diseases in time to come.

Numerous viruses demonstrated a high mutation rate and can quickly evolve to produce novel variants (21). Influenza viruses are useful examples of emerging and re-emerging infectious pathogens in their ability to quickly evolve following changes in host and environmental conditions via various genetic pathways. Influenza virus is recognised for its competency in altering its genetic material. There are two types of genetic mutations in Influenza A virus. Firstly, a genetic drift refers to a point mutation resulting in a slight alteration of surface antigens, producing a new variant of the same virus which leads to periodic influenza infections. Secondly, a genetic shift refers to genetic segments being translocated among Influenza A viruses from distinct species (e.g. human, birds and pigs), producing an entirely novel strain (22). Huge alterations of the influenza virus can lead to pandemics as the human immune system is not ready to identify and guard against the novel strain (23). Moreover, influenza viruses can evolve and persist for years via various genetic pathways in response to evading constant human immune pressures. Over the past decades, the 1918 influenza pandemic virus have constantly evolved via antigenic drift, reassortment between the same subtype and antigenic shift, with the latter yielding new strains in the 1957 Asian flu and 1968 Hongkong flu (24). Additionally, the 2009 flu pandemic involving the genetically complex H1N1 influenza virus is a descendant of the 1918 Spanish flu virus (24). By comparing Figure 1 and Figure 2, the emergence of multiple new variants of Influenza virus can be seen within a short time span of 4 years. The ever-changing genetic material of influenza viruses drives us to research and develop new influenza vaccines containing new antigens annually.

Whilst the world population grows and expands into new locations, the likelihood of people coming into close contact with animal species that are possible hosts of a transmittable pathogen increases. In combination with rises in population density and migration, it is evident that this presents a significant risk to population health. The 2009 Influenza A H1N1 strain was due to genetic reassortment from three distinct species: one genetic segment from human Influenza A H3N2, two segments from avian Influenza A H1N1 and five segments from swine H1N1 (25). The likelihoods of significant genetic mutations happening and then transmitted to humans are higher when humans live near to farmed animals such as chickens, ducks, and pigs. These animals are usual hosts of influenza virus, providing opportunities for the combination of different strains to produce new variants of influenza that have not emerged before. Avian H5N1 influenza, which appeared more than ten years ago, has been restricted to comparatively uncommon occurrences of the disease in humans who were in direct contact with infected birds. The H5N1 virus is extremely lethal with the majority of cases being fatal, although it has yet to develop transmissibility to humans. On the contrary, the 2009 H1N1 influenza, which was introduced into humans from pigs, was highly transmissible between humans. The H1N1 virus spread globally rapidly due to human mobility, especially air travel. Fortunately, the H1N1 virus was not as lethal as the H5N1 virus. The emergence of an influenza virus that is as lethal as the avian H5N1 virus and as contagious as the swine H1N1 virus would pose a substantial risk to global population health.

Even as eliminating particular infectious diseases and to considerably regulate many others become extremely achievable, it appears implausible that we will eradicate the majority of emerging infectious diseases in the near future. Disease-causing pathogens are capable of rapid genetic mutations, resulting in novel phenotypic characteristics that exploit the host and environment. Meanwhile, novel human diseases keep surfacing. Epidemics still draw international awareness and need considerable global cohesion to control and regulate, whether or not they become more prevalent. With uncompromising alertness, current focused investigation, and quick advancement and implementation of several measures to counteract the threat such as monitoring means, diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines, we can overcome pathogenic advantages. In this period of time, there are various significant emerging, re-emerging, and unchanging infectious diseases are becoming more in check. Nonetheless, the triumph of preventing the numerous novel emerging diseases that will definitely emerge is uncertain. Even though we have countless means to tackle diseases, including readiness strategies and hoards of medicines and vaccines, every novel disease brings a set of different challenges, pushing us to constantly change together with the ever-changing threats. The fight against emerging infectious diseases is always ongoing; success does not imply eradicating every single disease but instead being ready in advance of subsequent ones.

Key immune system boosters

As we head into shorter, colder, damper days, and the colds, coughs and flus start to do the rounds, it’s time to think about what we can do to help boost our immune systems. But what exactly is our immune system? It’s the system of the body responsible for protecting us from environmental and external threats, and relies on a system of cells, organs and tissues, many of which are part of other systems too.

For example, our first line of defence is actually our skin, which acts as a barrier, keeping foreign invaders out. We have membranes in our nose and mouth, and tonsils in our throats which are also a first line of defence against unwanted bugs! And our stomach contains acid which will kill some bacteria.  Whilst the skin, respiratory system and gut do a great job of protecting us, they unfortunately can’t stop everything getting through, so then our white blood cells kick into action, tracking down the invaders and trying to destroy them. In addition, they also remember them so that if you are infected again with the same pathogen, you have an army ready to pounce and destroy! Pretty clever huh?

However, our immune system can be weakened and compromised. A weak Immune System is an open invitation to sickness and disease. A strong Immune system can stop sickness and disease in its tracks

So how can we boost our immune system, to help it stay at the top of its game?

There are 5 key immune system boosters:

• Energy – we can boost our immune system by increasing our energy

• Exercise – we can boost our immune system by getting the right type and amount of exercise. I highlight these points because I see so many people doing too much of the wrong exercise, which actually weakens their immune system!

• Stress – or minimising it as much as possible (and this is physical stress as well as mental, so re-read my point above on exercise…)

• Anti-oxidants – ensuring we have enough anti-oxidants in our body to fight the free radicals we’re exposed to

• Alkalinity – ensuring an acid/alkaline balance which is critical to our health

• Nutrition – ensuring the right nutrition and the correct amount, for our bodies

Today I’m going to focus on foods, nutrients and antioxidants for their immune boosting properties, and how we can incorporate them into our diet.


A number of anti-oxidant nutrients play a really important role in immunity

Most invaders produce oxidising chemicals known as free radicals to fight off the troops of your immune system.  Antioxidant nutrients such as vitamins A, C and E, zinc and selenium disarm these free radicals, weakening the invader.

Vitamin A – Helps maintain integrity of digestive tract, lungs & cell membranes, meaning it helps prevent foreign agents entering

Vitamin E – Improves white cell function and increases production

Zinc – Is critical for immune cell production and functioning of B and T cells

Selenium – Inhibits viral replication – i.e. stops them multiplying

Best sources of these antioxidants?

Vitamin A – Carrots, dark leafy greens, sweet potato, liver, bell peppers

Vitamin E – foods that contain fat. E.g. avocado, seeds, nuts

Zinc – Seafood, beef/lamb, spinach, pumpkin seeds, nuts

Selenium – Brazil nuts, seafood, fish and seaweed


Vitamin C is known as the master immune boosting nutrient and more than a dozen roles have been identified for it in this capacity

• It helps immune cells to mature and increases production

• It improves the performance of antibodies and macrophage cells

• It is itself an anti-viral and anti-bacterial agent

• It can destroy toxins produced by bacteria

• In addition, it is a natural anti-histamine, calming down inflammation (e.g. hayfever)

• It stimulates another part of the immune-defence system to produce interferons (signalling proteins) that boost immunity by coating cell surfaces to prevent viruses entering them

• However, the dosage of vitamin C is crucial.  Only studies that used over 1 gram daily were effective, whilst the RDA is 60 mg / day. There is some controversy surrounding large doses of Vitamin C. Personally I take 1000mg a day and more when I’m coming down with something.

Best sources of Vitamin C?

Citrus, tart fruits (berries), green leafy veg e.g. spinach/kale, red peppers, sprouts, broccoli, pineapple, papaya and mango.


Probiotics are known as nature’s antibiotics or beneficial bacteria. You no doubt have heard of their benefits to your gut, but you might not be aware of their importance in aiding the immune system.

• They consume the nutrients that would otherwise feed the bad guys

• They block receptor sites that harmful bacteria have to latch onto to cause an infection.

• They also produce substances such as lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide which stop harmful bacteria from growing.

• They are important in the treatment of cancer, allergies, and infections caused by viruses, parasites and yeasts.

• They have lots of other benefits – such as improved digestive system, increased energy production (Vitamin B12), and helping weight loss

Best sources of probiotics?

Bio Live yoghurt, kefir (fermented milk drink), sauerkraut (fermented cabbage), miso soup, pickles, Tempeh (soy product from Indonesia), raw cheese (unpasteurised).

There are also prebiotics to consider, which are the foods that feed our good bacteria and include things like raw onions, garlic, leeks, artichokes, asparagus, and bananas.


There are many foods that can help to boost our immune systems. Turmeric, cayenne pepper, lemon oil and juice, fresh or ground ginger, garlic and cinnamon are all extremely helpful in supporting the immune system to do its vital job of protecting us.

I try to use most of these things in my daily routine, which looks something like this:

• A glass of water with a drop of lemon essential oil, or squeezed lemon, first thing in the morning before anything else – wonderful for cleansing the digestive system, boosting the immune system and supporting the liver

• A mug of turmeric latte mid-morning or before bed, with turmeric, ground ginger and cinnamon in.

• I always try to cook with garlic each day, whether it’s a curry, a stir fry or a soup.

There are so many things you can do to help to support your natural defence system; you don’t need to do everything I’ve suggested, but just incorporating a few of the suggestions above will help to boost your immune system and hopefully fight off the colds and flus this winter.

Scurvy and Asbestosis: essay help online

Scurvy- Nutritional


Scurvy is a Non-Infectious Nutritional Disease caused by severe and chronic vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency. It is most prominent commonly in people with mental disorders, abnormal eating habits and Alcoholism

Signs, Symptoms and Effects

Scurvy causes widespread symptoms. Signs of Scurvy begin after at least four weeks of severe, continual vitamin C deficiency. It usually takes three or more months for symptoms to develop and become of notice to the patient.


Signs are identified when the person acknowledges the presence or occurrence of Scurvy.

These include:

• Aching legs

• Irritability- easily irritated or annoyed; readily excited to impatience or anger.

• Low-grade fever

• Reduced Appetite

• Unexplained Exhaustion

• Weakness- the state or quality of being weak; lack of strength, firmness, vigor, or the like; feebleness.


Symptoms are identified when the person acknowledges Scurvy through the phenomenon and/or circumstances accompanying and/or serving as evidence for it.

These include:

• Anaemia- when the blood lacks enough red blood cells or haemoglobin

• Areas of red/blue/black bruising, on the legs and feet

• Blurred vision

• Bruising raised bumps at hair follicles, on the shins, with central hairs that appear twisted and can break easily.

• Diarrhoea

• Eye dryness, irritation, and haemorrhaging in the whites of the eyes (conjunctiva) or optic nerve.

• Gastrointestinal bleeding¬- is all forms of bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the rectum.

• Gingivitis, or red, soft, and tender gums that bleed easily

• Headache

• Light sensitivity

• Irritability and depression

• Nausea- unpleasant, diffuse sensation of unease and discomfort, often perceived as an urge to vomit

• Reduced wound healing and immune health

• Shortness of breath

• Small bleeding around hair follicles visible in the skin

• Tender, swollen joints

• Tooth decay


If these symptoms are left untreated for an extended amount of time complications can arise leading to:

• Coma

• Convulsions- where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body

• Death

• Delirium- is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function

• Hemolysis- a type of anaemia where red blood cells break down

• Internal haemorrhaging- is a loss of blood that occurs from the vascular system into a body cavity or space

• Neuropathy and/or numbness and pain usually in the lower limbs and hands

• Organ failure

• Severe jaundice- which is yellowing of the skin and eyes

• Tooth loss

Prevention Methods

After diagnosis through a physician, a physical exam is conducted which leads to lab tests to assess vitamin C levels within the blood. Scurvy can be prevented by simply consuming vitamin in the diet, and or supplement form.

The Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand by the Australian National Health and Medical

Research Council (NHMRC) and the New Zealand Ministry of Health (MoH) show the recommendations of Vitamin C intake by Life Stage and Gender on Pg. 5

Treatment and/or management

To treat and manage Scurvy, Vitamin C which can be administrated through supplements by mouth or injection. Vitamin C is widely available. Citrus fruits like oranges, limes, and lemons have traditionally been used to prevent and treat scurvy.

In severe, chronic, cases of scurvy, it is recommended high-doses of oral vitamin C supplements for several weeks to months. There’s no compromise on a specific dose for severe scurvy. For these cases it is recommended that high doses of oral vitamin C are used for several weeks or longer.

Patients usually see an improvement in some symptoms within a day or two of treatment such as decreased pain, exhaustion, confusion, headache and mood swings. More symptoms may take a few weeks to improve following treatment such as weakness, bleeding, bruising and jaundice. After 3 months, a complete recovery is possible except in the case of severe dental damage.

Epidemiological Study- Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates



Men Women Total Average


Non-Hispanic White 11.8% 8.2% 10%

Non-Hispanic Black 8.9% 5% 6.95%

Mexican 7.7% 4.2% 5.95%

Total Average

(Sex) 9.5% 5.8%

This table represents the NHANES 2004 study on the American Incidence rate for Scurvy. In Sex and Ethnicity comparison we can see that Non-Hispanic White Men have a slightly increased risk of obtaining Scurvy in comparison to Non-Hispanic White Women (3.6% difference). Non-Hispanic Black Men have an increased risk over Non-Hispanic Black Women (3.9% difference). Mexican Men also have an increased risk of Scurvy (3.7%).

This study shows Scurvy to be prevalent in Men than Women with a 3.7 % difference. Mexican Males and Females were least at risk. The common assumption for these results is the Mexican Diet is rich in chilies, tomatoes, and squashes, which are high in vitamin C.




14% 10% 12%

NHANES 2003-2004


8.2% 6% 7.1%

NHANES 2005-2006

(among men and women older than 6 years)



This table represents the overall Scurvy prevalence rate within the American Population.

Overall between 1994-2004 we can see the Male sex at highest Prevalence for Scurvy. In the 1994, we see that the average is 12%, and over 9-10 years we see a drop of 4.9%. In 2005-2006, the average drastically drops to 3.6%.


After continuous research through websites and reports such as the NHANES 2004, Scurvy seems to be a disease with no mortality rate recorded. Assuming that this is the case, death records could have not been published for privacy reasons. After establishing Signs, Symptoms and Effects, an inference under my common assumption would be that people would notice these Signs, Symptoms and Effects and take the necessary action to treat and/or prevent the effects of Scurvy.

Asbestosis- Environmental


Asbestosis is a chronic lung disease (form of pulmonary fibrosis) where scarring of the lungs occurs. It is caused and developed by being exposed to Asbestos fibres. Some of the airborne fibres can become wedged within the alveoli (the tiny sacs inside your lungs where oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide in your blood). The asbestos fibres scar lung tissue, causing the lungs to become rigid. This makes it difficult to breathe. As asbestosis progresses, more and more lung tissue becomes scarred. Then leading to the lung tissue becoming so rigid that it can’t contract and expand normally.

Signs, Symptoms and Effects

Signs and Symptoms

Signs are identified when the person acknowledges the presence or occurrence of Scurvy and Symptoms are identified when the person acknowledges Scurvy through the phenomenon and/or circumstances accompanying and serving as evidence for it.

These will be conjoined as they reflect each other.

Asbestosis is usually a progressive disease, so signs and symptoms don’t start to appear until approximately 10 to 40 years after exposure to asbestos.

These include:

• Appetite loss

• Chest pain and tightness in your chest

• Crackling sound when inhaling and exhaling

• Fatigue

• Finger and toe clubbing- enlarged fingertips

• Loss of weight

• Nail deformities

• Persistent dry cough

• Shortness of breath


If these symptoms are left untreated for an extended amount of time, complications can arise.

As noted before Asbestosis is usually a progressive disease. Patients who have and/or are suffering from Asbestosis have many increased risks of developing:

• Bronchitis- inflammation of the larger airways in your lungs, causing an ongoing cough

• Heart related issues- Enlargement of Heart, Abnormal heart rhythm and Heart failure

• Lung Cancer- is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells that start off in one or both lungs

• Pneumonia- lung inflammation in the air sacs which will fill with pus and may become solid.

Inhalation of asbestos fibres can also lead to four types of non-cancerous abnormalities in the lining of the chest cavity which include:

• Diffuse thickening and fibrosis of the pleura

• Fluid in the pleural space- pleural effusion

• Folded lung or rounded atelectasis- occurs when an area of pleural fibrosis rolls into the lung making an area of the lung airless

• Localized deposits of collagen- pleural plaques

Prevention Methods

Elimination of all exposure will eliminate any risk of developing asbestosis. Asbestos fibres are found dominantly in the work place, so the use of other materials and respiratory protection (i.e. Face mask) and overall body protective gear minimises exposure.

Effects can also be prevented by the cessation of smoking and Immunisation against pneumonia and influenza which will prevent future effects.

Treatment and/or management

Even though Asbestosis is irreversible, there is treatment to help patients live through their diagnosis. Treatment focuses on the patient’s ability to breathe without the discomfort that comes with asbestosis.

Doctors recommend medications which include:

• Bronchodilators (inhalers)- help relax airways which provide relief

• Medications to thin secretions

• Supplemental oxygen- Oxygen is transferred from a tank through a plastic tube that has two prongs that fit into your nostrils. This helps with breathing

• Pain medications- reducing pain and inflammation

In more severe cases surgery may be recommended and rarely will call upon a lung transplant.

Epidemiological Study- Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality  Rates


Quite like the outcome for mortality rates in Scurvy, Incidence studies for Abestosis were not available for use.


This graph is the compensated claims for asbestosis: number by sex, 2002 to 2011. It shows a form of prevalence for Abestosis within Australia. In this graph we see the male sex being dominant with Females number of claims stays neutral (under 50 claims). In 2002, the Male number of claims was 300+. We see a slight incline then a quite dramatic drop which stops in 2006 at 200 claims. A record low is record at 100 claims in 2011.


Annual deaths where death certificates mentioned asbestosis but not mesothelioma, and excluding the IIDB cases 1978-2017

This graph shows an increasing rate over the years 1978-2013. In comparison between these dates we see a 28.6% increased from an estimated 100 death rate to 500 (2013 onward).

From this study, HSE mentions that in recent years, around 2-3% of these deaths were among women.

Average annual male death rates based on death certificates mentioning asbestosis but not mentioning mesothelioma by age and time period, 1978-2016.

There are many distinct inconsistencies between the rates between the different age groups which will touched on later.

The table shows us the link between age and death rates in males. Death rates from ages 60-69 years have been falling since 1980

Between ages 45-90+ we see a dramatic comparison. Common assumptions and statistical observations may suggest that males of older age dealt with higher levels asbestos fibres due to the time period.

Climate change demands drastic change to save humanity: college application essay help

Deforestation, coastal destruction, extreme weather events are just some of the costly irreversible effects of climate change. This terrifying crisis that we are currently facing demands drastic change to save humanity and the degradation of the environment.

Human activity has resulted in the increase of atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide by more than thirty percent since pre-industrial times. This has resulted in many countries being vulnerable to wild fires, flooding and high pollution levels. In recent years, Greenland and The Arctic have experienced rapid glacier melting which has caused rising sea levels and costly damage to coastal towns. Certain organisations behaviour – such as factories and their role in pollution – has caused costs to society to those who not directly involved. An example of this is low lying coastal countries such as the Maldives, whose vulnerability is increasing due to the rising sea levels. The highest point in the Maldives is 8 feet above sea level and with sea level rising on average of 0.09m to 0.37m combined with increased erosion and storms, the Maldivian citizens are increasingly under threat of displacement resulting in a global crisis as there is not enough space for environmental refugees. Unfortunately, those who pay the highest price from the results of climate change are those who have been least responsible.

One solution currently instated is the tax imposed by the government on a good which harms the interest of the community. Despite some evidence of this tax being effective, these minor changes are insufficient in preventing the impending disaster for all living things. As the government imposes the tax many issues can arise. The monetary value of cost to society is difficult if not impossible to measure. The government can fail to get the tax right as they lack the information needed to accurately set the tax. The government can also act in ways not in public interest, instead in ways to boost election votes. As a result, the needs of the government may be inconsistent with the needs of society. Overall the taxes in place currently fail to reduce the human contribution towards climate change therefore radical change is required.

Climate change is resulting in destruction of habitats in events such as wildfires in Canada. As our consumer habits continue to become more luxurious, due to individuals becoming richer, our wasteful culture will get increasingly more problematic. In 2017 there were 71,000 wildfires compared to 66,000 in 2016. As more wildfires burn through our forest habitats our resources are wasted causing inefficiency. This is a wasteful, ineffective use of scarce resources which is unsustainable for future generations, prompting the need for change.

An alternative to a tax is a more market-based approach with the idea of bargaining to internalise the issue into the market. A traditionalist would argue this approach is more successful however I believe this solution is not enough to help our global struggle. Capitalism drives social and environmental injustice creating further issues. For bargaining to be successful and enable both parties to be better off the market needs to be developed. This is an issue for developing countries where markets and institutions are often underdeveloped so they lack the resources and information to bargain successfully. Further failure is caused as negotiations are difficult as both parties need to agree on an end result.

Those who believe in free markets would argue scarcity and pollution will encourage innovation and growth therefore discovering substitutes and developing technology. However, with the present level of red tape in markets, new technologies and production methods are unable to be developed. Entrepreneurs are limited in their product development so the state of the climatic condition will remain. Global cooperation is also needed to effectively reduce emissions and whilst influential countries such as America and China fail to cooperate in agreements like The Paris agreement the future environmental state is under threat.

As a planet we have the means to stop and tools available to save our environment for future generations however we need more action as minor solutions are insufficient. Fossil fuels need to remain in the ground replaced by cleaner renewable energy sources. For example, China is leading the way in the clean energy boom with big dams and solar panel farms. China produces two-thirds of the world’s solar panels with the Huanghe farm being the biggest in the world with four million solar panels on site. If governments act now we believe we can have a hundred percent renewable energy access for all by 2050.

Rich industrialised countries need to change whilst developing countries need to clean up how they industrialise resulting in reduced carbon dioxide emissions. The window for change is small so action needs to be taken now. Overconsumption is a big issue for society today and the levels of waste are increasingly rising. As a result, we need to radically change our consumption habits. Overconsumption of scarce resources such as natural resources, energy and water is unsustainable resulting in irreversible effects on the environment. We now consume too much of the earth’s resources such that we are near to overstepping the earth’s capacity. With our scarce resources and level of growth some say resources will be depleted by 2100. Therefore, conservation of our resources is needed. Our levels of waste are at exceptionally high levels such that in 2016 they reached a staggering 2.01 billion tonnes of solid waste. This releases pollution through landfills leading to more greenhouse emissions and enhancing the climate change impacts. In order to prevent further environmental degradation companies and households need to dramatically reduce waste levels by recycling and consuming less.

Direct action is needed – the current solutions in place are not enough. Now is the time for fundamental change – we can stop this together.

External factors affecting Nike footwear and apparel sector in the UK

1.0 Executive Summary

The objective of this report is to identify the external factors affecting the Nike footwear and apparel sector in the United Kingdom. The analysis for the external factors affecting Nike Inc in UK will be obtained by using the Porters Five Force. The five forces method will be applied by focusing on the female market, athleisure, wearable technology and emerging markets.

1.1 Porter 5 Forces

Porter (1980) states that the competition in any industry is dependent on 5 factors which are:

1. Buyer Power

2. Supplier Power

3. New Entrants

4. Threats of Substitutes

5. Degree of Rivalry

The details of each of the five factors are mentioned in the appendix below.

2.0 The UK Footwear Industry

According to Market Line (2017) the UK footwear industry grew by 1.9% in 2017 to reach a value of 11,196.5 million$ and is expected to reach a value of 12,645 million$ by 2022 which is an increase of 12.9% since 2017. Nike remains the leading player in the footwear market in the UK at 13 % value share.

2.1 Athleisure

According to a report carried out on Passport (Mar 2018) athleisure remains a part of consumer lifestyle. This is mainly due to the consumers interest in their appearance while exercising while their general fitness continues. This trend has a positive impact on sportswear in particular with sports inspired apparel and footwear. Athleisure is expected to continue to evolve over the next 5 years as consumers embrace sportswear as daily clothing and match it with fashionable items. Collaboration between sportswear and fashion brands is only going to boost this trend and keep growing in the future. Sportswear brands that focus on performance have the opportunity to make their products functional and also make a fashion statement which helps them diversify their product portfolio. (Euromonitor International 2018)

The red-hot athleisure trend has led many retailers and brands to unveil their own collection in recent years, and the term has been added to the dictionary. The “sport leisure” style has become the largest category in the US sneaker space beating “performance”- oriented footwear. (Forbes 2018)

While athletic wear was created for a specific use i.e. for sports or athletics athleisure clothing could theoretically be for any use and this versatility of athleisure clothing has attracted so many consumers to this category. It’s also generally more durable, with properties like wrinkle and odour resistance incorporated into its techy fibres. (Business Insider 2017)

2.2 Technology

According to Euromonitor International (2018) there is growing trend of wearable technology in today’s global market due to which sportswear and wearable tech is beginning to merge and is expected to continue over the years. In today market wearable technology is limited to heart rate tracking and movement. This is predominately due to less affordability. But as consumers become more tech savvy products will become more sophisticated. Personalisation is said to be the key to wearable technology. For example, Samsung showcased a belt at CES 2017 which record similar statistics of any fitness watch but also provides personalise weight management and healthcare plan. (Euromonitor International 2018)

Nike used to have their own branded Nike fuel band designed to compete with Fitbit and others. Nikes efforts ultimately failed, and the company shut down the entire project. Nike was a $32 billion a year revenue company in 2016 while Fitbit was on $2 billion. This shows the size of the company has very little to do with the success of wearables and some of the biggest players have difficulties. (Forbes 2016)

Nike’s plan in the wearable tech space was to focus on making apps instead of the higher-priced but lower-margin FuelBand hardware after growing a sizeable online community. The company’s decision is complicated by the longstanding partnership and board relation between Apple and Nike. (Financial Times 2014)

2.3 Female Market

Sneaker culture has long been the province of men. For years, the typical line-up of sneaker heads waiting for the latest drop was almost completely composed of teenage boys. However, to change this and as a part of its stated ambition to grow its $6.6 billion women’s business to $11 billion by 2020, the American sportswear giant unveiled Unlaced: a new retail concept during the Paris Fashion week that the company is calling “a fantasy sneaker destination for women” (Business of Fashion 2018)

For years, athletic products for women were simply designs for men in smaller sizers and more feminine colours. However, the ‘shrink it and pint it’ strategy no longer works. In 2016 apparel sales grew by 3 percent, reaching $218.7 billion according to data compiled by the NPD Group. Athleisure continued to be a top growing segment that year, with an 11 percent increase that made it a $45.9 billion market. Including women in the sportswear comes at a time when the account for a significant share of all buying decisions. A 2013 Nielsen report reveals that American women alone wield $5 trillion to the $15 trillion purchasing power annually. (Business of Fashion 2017)

2.4 Emerging Markets

The health and fitness industry in China are expanding a t a rapid pace and is expected to generate more than $5 billion in 2015, after an average yearly growth of 14% over the past five years. Nike is capturing this trend and the company registered a 27% growth in revenues from Greater China in the 6 months period ended in November 2015, compared to the same period in the previous year. Greater China was the fastest growing region for the company in this period, with growth figures for North America being 9%. Nike with more than 10 % share of the market is well poised to consolidate its position in the region which can be a key revenue driver for the company in the future. (Forbes 2016)


Business Insider UK. (2017, April 4). How athleisure overtook fashion to become the dominant way that Americans dress. Retrieved November 18, 2018, from Business Insider UK:

Business of Fashion. (2018, February 28). Nike Showcases Big Bet on Women’s Sneaker Market. Retrieved November 18, 2018, from Business of Fashion:

Business of Fashion. (2017, September 20). Global Sportswear Brands Making a Play for Women. Retrieved Nov (Placeholder1)ember 18, 2018, from Business of Fashion:

Financial Times. (2014, April 21) Nike’s FuelBand runs into trouble. Retrieved November 18,2018, from Financial Times:

Forbes. (2016, January 13). How China Could Be the Key Driver of Nike’s Future Revenues. Retrieved November 18, 2018, from Forbes:

Forbes. (2016, August 18). It’s a Jungle Out There in Wearable Technology. Retrieved November 18, 2018, from Forbes:

Forbes. (2018, February 9). The Athleisure Trend Isn’t Taking A Rest. Retrieved November 18, 2018, from Forbes:

MarketLine. (2017). United Kingdom – Footwear. London: MarketLine.

MarketLine. (2018). United Kingdom – Footwear. London: MarketLine.

Passport. (March 2018). Sportswear in United Kingdom. London: Euromonitor International

4.0 Appendix – Five Force Analysis

4.1 Buyer Power

According to Market Line (2018) buyers in this market footwear purchases are a necessity so overall sale volumes are high as there are plenty of buyers. This reduces the power of individual consumers. However, UK consumers are becoming more environmentally conscious when purchasing footwear, recognising the benefits of better quality of shoes with a longer lifecycle. Footwear can be expensive so in times of weak economic growth purchases are less frequent. The current demand is also becoming increasingly depended

or repair the footwear they currently own; but this is not a significant factor in the UK. The only real substitute is sports oriented footwear like football boots and indoor gym shoes but as these are on fashion trends which drives up the power of market players as a consumer cannot switch to a different product without losing some attractive features of the products, they currently own. (Market Line 2018)

4.2 Supplier Power

According to Market Line (2018) most of the footwear sold in the global market are sourced from low cost manufacturing location mainly from South-East Asia. So many western manufacturers are unable to compete with the mainstream footwear market. The high number of manufacturers in low cost manufacturing regions provided potential for switching and this coupled with the economic advantage held by western retailers and wholesalers, the power of suppliers is weakened. Due to this it is difficult for manufacturers to establish themselves in retail so there is hardly any forward integration except for the popular brand names. The rising price of raw materials also causes trouble in the footwear market which in turn affects footwear sales and product mix. (Market Line 2018)

4.3 New Entrants

As per Market Line (2018) the cost for retail operations are relatively low new entrants are fairly common. However, as this market has a large number of well-established retail groups that can leverage significant economies of scale through bulk purchasing and pooling of back office operations it is often difficult for new entrants to substantially expand their operations. (Market Line 2018)

4.4 Threats of Substitutes

According to Market Line (2018) footwear is a necessity the threat of substitutes in the footwear market is very limited. In less developed economies it is common for consumers to wear second-hand shoes only used for specific activities they don’t pose a real threat. Online footwear sales channel is a fast-growing threat, but majority of traditional footwear retailers are recognising this and are moving into multi-channel sales to stay competitive. Another potential threat for domestic suppliers is the value and volume of directly purchased footwear from overseas. (Market Line 2018)

4.5 Degree of Rivalry

According to Market Line (2018) even though footwear retailing is highly fragmented the market is dominated by large retail groups between whom there is a high degree of rivalry. Competition is also increasing as foreign retailers and footwear specialists are entering the domestic market introducing more styles and brands. Traditional footwear delivery which is based on two seasons is changing towards the fast fashion environment. Due to this more and more consumers are buying shoes on impulse. Hence the market expects to see a more rapid change of assortment with diversity. As this generates more sales, manufacturers are responding to this trend further intensifying the competition. (Market Line 2018)

Review of ‘New Evidence on the Tool-Assisted Hunting Exhibited by Chimpanzees’: college essay help

“New Evidence on the Tool-Assisted Hunting Exhibited by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in a Savannah Habitat at Fongoli, Sénégal”: Critical Review


The chimpanzee population of Fongoli, Sénégal are the only known non-human primate population to systematically (rather than opportunistically) use tool-assisted hunting techniques to capture vertebrate prey. This study examines the tool-assisted hunting patterns of these chimpanzees by both age and sex classes to test the hypothesis that the hunting patterns of Fongoli chimpanzees differ from other chimpanzee populations. Tool-assisted hunting allows for chimpanzees to obtain prey, who would otherwise be unlikely to do so. This study suggests that the frequency of females engaging in tool-assisted hunting at Fongoli can be explained by the social tolerance among the Fongoli chimpanzees, with prey theft being far less frequent than it is in other chimpanzee populations. The tool-assisted hunting patterns of the Fongoli chimpanzees give insight into the importance of the tool-assisted hunting of early hominins, suggesting that they would have had to enhance the tools that they used to hunt in order to overcome environmental pressures. This study is especially relevant to gaining insight into the hunting patterns of early hominins, as the savannah environment of Fongoli is ecologically similar to the environment they would have lived in.


Methodology, Research, and Discussion

The number of Chimpanzees in the Fongoli population ranged from 29-36 over the course of the study, averaging at about 31.7 chimpanzees annually. Some females were only semi-habituated when systematic behavioural observation commenced. Adult males were the focal subjects of the study and adult female hunting behaviour was only analysed in mixed-sex hunting groups. The age-classes studied were defined as: infants (less than 4 years), juveniles (4-7 years), adolescents (7-15 years males or females before giving birth) and adults (males 15+ years or females after giving birth). Hunting was classified as: capture (when a hunt was observed), capture out of sight (when a hunt was not observed but possession occurred after an observed chase or when tool-assisted hunting was heard), and possession (when no hunt was observed, but chimpanzee had a prey’s carcass in its possession). The tool-assisted hunting methods that chimpanzees use in order to capture vertebrate prey, such as Galago prey, is considered hunting, as the prey is mobile, hostile, and chimpanzees show an aversion to being attacked by them. In most analyses, infant and juvenile data was combined, as no successful hunt was ever recorded for this age group, and their skill level was deemed insufficient for hunting.

Over the course of the study, a total of 99 hunting cases were observed, including both tool-assisted and non-tool assisted hunting. There were 41 hunts classified as capture, 50 as possession, and 8 as captured immediately out of sight. Female chimpanzees accounted for 30% of the hunts and made up 40% of all successful hunters. Galago prey accounted for over half of all vertebrate species the chimpanzees hunted, and tool-assisted Galago capture made up 21% of all hunts. Adult males captured 52% of all Galago prey obtained, however Galago made up a larger proportion of the prey profile of female chimpanzees than males (75% compared to 47%). 308 tool-assisted captures were recorded, making an annual average of 30.8 hunts per year over the course of 10 years. About 95% of tool-assisted hunts occurred during the wet or transitional season. Although males accounted for 61% of the group composition on days when tool-assisted hunting was observed, only 39% of tool-assisted hunts were executed by males. Out of the 44 potential chimpanzee hunters, 35 were observed to hunt with tools over the course of the study. The median number of tool-assisted hunts per individual was 11, with females averaging at 10.6 hunts each, and males at 6.8. The overall tool-assisted hunting success rate at Fongoli was 7.5%, with the overall probability of successful tool-assisted hunting increasing with age. Adult male chimpanzees were the second least-likely of the age-sex class groups to partake in tool-assisted hunting, yet had higher rates of success in this area. This pattern is surprising, as males tend to be the primary hunters among other chimpanzee populations. Galago prey make up most of the prey caught by females, but less than half of the prey caught by males. The low tool-assisted hunting rates of Galago prey in male chimpanzees can be explained by the low effort return it yields, as Galago are relatively small in comparison to the other prey that can be caught by Fongoli chimpanzees. Male hunting of Galago prey can be seen as opportunistic rather than targeted, as they tend to prey on Galago that have already been drawn out of sleeping cavities through the use of tools by other chimpanzees. Fongoli chimpanzees exploit prey typically ignored by chimpanzees at other sites, as the preferred prey of chimpanzees, the red colobus monkey, is not found in the savannah environment. The social tolerance among the Fongoli chimpanzees is surprising, with prey theft occurring less than 5% of the time, compared to 25% of the time at other sites. Therefore, it is more advantageous for females at Fongoli to hunt than at other sites, as the probability of their prey being stolen by a more dominant individual is relatively low. Tool-assisted hunting at Fongoli enables chimpanzees who would otherwise be far less likely to obtain prey to hunt. The information obtained through this study supports the hypothesis that early hominins enhanced the tools they used to hunt in an effort to overcome environmental pressures. It is likely that early hominins engaged in tool-assisted hunting behaviour, as shown through the data obtained at Fongoli.

Discussion of Positive Aspects

I found this article to be extremely interesting. The research they presented was unique, and they showed this by stating that the chimpanzees at Fongoli are the only known non-human primate population to systematically engage in tool-assisted hunting to capture vertebrate prey. I thought that the specification of systematic tool use was especially important, as there are other chimpanzee populations that have been observed to hunt using tools, such as at the Mahale site, where two instances of tool-assisted hunting occurred (Nakamura and Itoh 2008, 3). The authors went beyond simply making this specification, and actually acknowledged the study at Mahale, where tool-assisted hunting was observed. They explained that the rarity of tool-assisted hunting at this site makes this behaviour opportunistic rather than systematic. I thought that the specification of vertebrate prey was also important, given that chimpanzees have been observed to deliberately fashion sophisticated brush-tipped termite fishing probes using herb stems in the Goualougo Triangle, in Congo (Sanz, Call, and Morgan 2009, 294-295). Termite fishing is incredibly similar to the tool-assisted hunting of Galago prey, as both require drawing out prey from cavities, using tools (Hunt 2015). However, the authors prove that the tool-assisted hunting of Galago prey is indeed hunting, by stating that the prey is mobile, can be aggressive, and chimpanzees express aversion to being bitten. Although a lot of the methodology was beyond my level of understanding, aside from the highly complex statistical methods used, I found it relatively easy to understand. I found it extremely helpful that they defined terms such as what is a “successful hunt”. This made it much easier to understand how they obtained their data. They clearly defined the age-sex classes they used to categorize chimpanzees, and the categories of observed hunting. In general, I found this article relatively easy to understand.

Discussion of Negative Aspects

The authors of this paper stated that the environment that the earliest hominins would have lived in is ecologically similar to that of the Fongoli chimpanzees. I thought this was incredibly interesting, however, they did not elaborate on this point whatsoever, making it a rather vague statement. The source they provided does not mention any similarities between the two environments at all, making it confusing where they drew these similarities from (White et al. 2009, 75-86). They provided no comparison of the two environments and did not list the ways that the environments are similar, making these ecological similarities they spoke of very difficult for the reader to see if they are not familiar with both the environments of early hominins, and the Fongoli chimpanzees. The authors described Fongoli as a savannah environment with a “mosaic of woodland, grassland, bamboo and gallery forest habitats” (pg 2). I found this description rather vague, and had a hard time comparing it with the environment described in the source they provided. The authors of this study noted that when systematic behaviour observation began, many female chimpanzees were not fully habituated, expressing distress and agitation around observers when male chimpanzees were not present. The hunting behaviour of adult female chimpanzees was only analyzed when they were in mixed-sex hunting groups, in an effort to prevent the poaching for their infants in the pet trade. Habituation is essential for accurate observations to be made. The behaviour of unhabituated primates differs greatly from habituated primates, as shown in a seven-month study from 2014-2015 of the behavioural changes in moor macaques (Macaca maura) during the habituation process. The macaques in this study went from ignoring the observers less than 20% of the time at the beginning of the habituation process, to ignoring the observers more than 80% of the time towards the end (Hanson and Riley 2017, 10). Given this drastic change in behaviour exhibited by the macaques, I find it highly unlikely that the female chimpanzees would not show any signs of nervousness around the observers when in mixed-sex groups. This would evidently influence their hunting data. Furthermore, it is possible that the hunting behaviour of female chimpanzees would differ in all-female hunting groups. The concerns of habituating the female chimpanzees are valid, however the researchers could have explored other alternatives to physically observing them, such as camera traps, which have been used for behavioural observation in other studies (Pebsworth and LaFleur 2014, 828-829). I felt that some of the conclusions drawn about early hominin behaviour were very unclear and did not have enough information to support them. The authors mentioned that their data supports the hypothesis that environmental pressures caused early hominins to enhance their tool-assisted hunting technology. Although they cited sources they used, I would have liked them to have been more direct, describing which environmental pressures early hominins would have experienced, and how that related to the tool-assisted hunting patterns at Fongoli. Overall, the lack of elaboration of vague points and the failure to completely habituate female chimpanzees makes it rather difficult for me to completely trust the results of this study. The authors must include more evidence on the environment of early hominins and the environmental pressures that they would have experienced and specifically state it in their article, making direct comparisons to the data that they collected in their research, rather than tacking a citation onto the end of a vague statement. In addition, further research on female hunting patterns in all-female groups at Fongoli is required, using either fully habituated chimpanzees, or alternative observation methods.


The purpose of the research presented in this article is to examine the systematic tool-assisted hunting patterns of the Fongoli chimpanzees that are used to catch vertebrate prey. It seeks to highlight environmental and social factors unique to the Fongoli population of chimpanzees that help to explain their systematic tool-assisted hunting patterns and the frequency at which females engage in tool-assisted hunting behaviours. This article links the data obtained at Fongoli with the importance of tools in early hominin hunting behaviour, suggesting that hominins enhanced the development of their hunting tools in response to environmental pressures.

Females accounted for approximately 30% of all hunts observed and made up 40% of all successful hunters. There was an average of 30.8 tool-assisted hunts annually, with 95% of them occurring in either the wet or transitional season. Males were responsible for only 39% of tool-assisted hunts, despite making up 61% of the group composition on days when tool-assisted hunting was observed. The median number of tool-assisted hunts was higher in females than males, with females averaging at 10.6 hunts and males at 6.8 hunts. The overall tool-assisted hunting success rate at Fongoli was 7.5%, and the probability of a successful tool-assisted hunt tended to increase with age. Adult male chimpanzees were less likely compared to other age-sex classes to engage in tool-assisted hunting, however had higher rates of success. Galago prey are hunted far more frequently by females than males, likely due to the low energy return that they yield compared to other prey. Males often capture Galago prey after they have already been drawn out of their sleeping cavities by others, making their hunting of this particular type of prey opportunistic rather than targeted. The hunting patterns unique to Fongoli can be explained by the absence of their preferred vertebrate prey, the red colobus monkey, leading them to take advantage of prey that other chimpanzee populations ignore. Prey theft at Fongoli occurs less than 5% of the time, compared to 25% of the time at other sites, making it more advantageous for less dominant chimpanzees (such as females) to hunt, as there is a low probability that their prey would be stolen by a more dominant chimpanzee. This data shows that early hominins likely enhanced the tools they used to hunt in an effort to overcome environmental pressures, and that tool-assisted hunting was very important to them.

The data obtained through this study shows that chimpanzee hunting is less male-biased than previously thought, and that females play a significant role in hunting, accounting for the majority of the tool-assisted hunting exhibited by the Fongoli chimpanzees. The research here supports the hypothesis that hominins may have used tool-assisted hunting to overcome environmental pressures, such as did the Fongoli chimpanzees, with the red colobus monkey being absent in their environment. It also suggests that females may have had a greater role in hunting than previously believed. The ability of the Fongoli chimpanzees to systematically use tools to hunt shows that even the earliest hominins were likely sophisticated enough to craft tools to aid their hunting. With further development of these ideas and more research, this article could give us a much deeper understanding of how our ancestors hunted.

Nigeria corruption and conflict

Nigeria is a democratic African country located on the Gulf of Guinea. Nigeria’s federal government is comprised of three distinct branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. The Nigerian President, Buhari, is currently the head of the Executive branch–he is up for reelection in February 2019. Nigerian citizens vote on their president every four years. In 2015 Nigeria had a rather peaceful election despite the uproar happening within the country, and the threat of attacks from Boko Haram. Political tensions will still be high for this upcoming election due to to the unrest coming from both the North and South ends of the country. Despite this the current president is urging all candidates “to go about their campaigns peacefully and decently”. The international community has chimed into this issue and have called for, “free, fair, transparent and peaceful elections” they further “ urge all involved – political and non-political actors – to refrain from using hate speech and take a firm stance against violence”. Nigeria currently has two major political parties; The All Progress Congress, this is the party of the current president; and the Peoples Democratic Party, this is the party Atiku Abubakar is a member of, Abubakar is running against Buhari in February 2019. The ideology behind the All Progress Congress is increase in security and a policies for anti corruption. The Peoples Democratic Party is currently focusing on transformation of Nigeria.

The president’s responsibilities include the duties of commander in chief, chief of state, and head of the government. The president holds the right to sign bills or veto them. The Legislative branch includes the house of representatives as well as the senate. The house of representatives is comprised of 360 members. These members are elected every four years based off simple majority. The senate has 109 members, for every 3 districts they have one senate member represent them. The Judiciary branch has 13 associate judges led by the Chief Justice. These judges are appointed by the president and approved by the senate.

The corruption in Nigeria is a threat to its democracy; some politicians are in office for the sole purpose of stealing from the government. The officials running Nigeria are selfish and care only about their personal agenda. In regards to the upcoming election the international community is particularly concerned with vote-buying and stress this is a huge threat to having a free and fair election. Due to the corruption within the country Nigerians fear being able to canvass for the candidate of their choice. Expressing this concern could cause them to be framed and jailed for a crime they didn’t commit. This could be viewed as a violation of freedom of speech as the intolerance increases for those that hold contradictory views. Nigerian citizens also are in fear of having peaceful protest, and often lack the right to publically dissent. The corruption within Nigeria is tearing its democracy apart and demolishing everything the country has worked hard to achieve.

Boko Haram, a terrorist group, is affecting the entire lake chad basin, Nigeria included. More than 2.3 million people within the Basin are displaced. Food insecurity and malnutrition have reached critical levels. Over 100 children have had explosives fastened to their bodies.This is in clear violation of the international war law and the international humanitarian law. The international community has stepped in. The United Nations Security Council resolution 2349 of 2017 states “the need for a holistic, comprehensive approach to degrade and defeat Boko Haram and ISIL that includes coordinated security operations, conducted in accordance with applicable international law” this resolution was unanimously passed. The international community recognizes the uproar Boko Haram is causing and agrees that this must be dealt with immediately. Boko Haram is an incredibly dangerous terrorist group with a record of attacking and kidnapping foreign victims including United Nation staff, French citizens, Britain’s, Germans, Lebanese, Italians, Chinese, Greeks, and Koreans. This is a regional issue that requires and international solution. The United Nations also recognizes that it can not infringe on the national sovereignty of this country, in resolution 2349 they write: “Affirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria”. Nigeria has been in communication with Boko Haram for quite some time. They have had many discussion regarding a ceasefire; however, critics of the government say this a sham and the government can not adequately handle the terrorists groups.

The Nigerian government also has to deal with the guerilla movement coming from the southern end of Nigeria. This movement is in regards to the conflict between Nigerians and the multinational oil industries. The Nigerians claim that the oil companies have neglected the Nigerian populations and caused irreversible environmental damage over the past decade. The Nigerians are maddened by this and have formed many gangs to get revenge on the oil companies. Non governmental organizations such as Amnesty International have chimed in on this issue and have stated that the Nigerian government says they have a handle on the situation; however, Amnesty International noticed no government intervention and does not think the “government has a grip on the situation”.

Nigeria has a very evenly split Muslim and Christian community. The Muslims are comprised of groups including the women’s organization, student organizations, emirate traditions, Boko Haram extremist,  as well as just ordinary Nigerians. The Christian population includes: Catholics, Protestants, Evangelicals, and Pentecostals. There is conflict between these two religious communities.

Marginalization Of British: African, Caribbean, And Asian Modern Art

How was the Marginalization of British: African, Caribbean, and Asian Modern Art Addressed by ‘The Other Story’ Exhibition (Hayward Gallery 1989)?

There is a void in art history surrounding modern ‘Black’ British artists. This has been the case since modernism was born; through its depiction as a white-Western movement, it fell victim to Eurocentricity. Due to a failure to document the true diversity of British modern art, our understanding of the multicultural and multiracial nature of British society has been jeopardized, thus our understanding of that history has become incorrect. Rasheed Araeen, and numerous other artists decided to address the absence of African, Asian, and Caribbean modern art in British history. They attempted to do so through ‘The Other Story’, an exhibition of ‘Black’ (African, Asian, and Caribbean) art, which took place at the Hayward gallery in 1989. This essay will explore how the exhibition as a body of work, and some of the participants’ art within it, demonstrated the marginalization and suppression of ‘Black’ art in Britain.

Of the 24 artists involved in ‘The Other Story’ Exhibition, many were members of the British Black Arts movement (BAM). The exhibition was a culminating moment for the movement, thus through looking at the aims of the BAM, one can draw an insight into the motivation behind the exhibit and how it addressed the marginalization of ‘Black’ art. Founded in 1982, the British Black Arts movement strived to change the portrayal and understanding of British culture. The movement looked at the politics of representation, alongside the problems of gender and race, as being pivotal to their artistic purpose. The philosophies of Stuart Hall were also central towards the inspiration for BAM. Hall’s analysis of the social alienation and black subjectivity are key to ‘The Other Story’ exhibition. The curators and the artists wanted to demonstrate the suppression of modern ‘Black’ art, drawing direct parallels to Hall’s exploration of institutional racism leading to the academic (and artistic) exclusion of talented ‘Black’ students. So, this brings us to the defining aim of the exhibition: to show what had been institutionally removed from mainstream modern British art history. But how does the exhibition address this aim and tackle the marginalization of British Afro-Asian art? ‘The Other Story’ was the first exhibition of British ’Black’ modernism, and took Rasheed Araeen (the curator and participant artist) ten years to persuade the Hayward gallery to host. This gives one a clear idea of what a monumental achievement the mere existence of such an exhibition was for modern African, Caribbean, and Asian artists as it gave them attention, something they has all previously been denied. As writer Gilane Tawadros put it: ‘The Other Story’ was “to be a prologue to a more detailed examination by our art institutions of the careers of… British artists who had been inexplicably neglected”. The exhibition was to be the first step towards integrating all artists into British art history, thereby attending to the marginalization of ‘Black’ art by forcing the art world to take notice.

‘The Other Story’ exhibition was split into two different sections, representing two different generations of Afro-Asian artists. Upon entering the exhibition, the viewers were faced with the art of the first generation, those who came to Britain to aid their modern artistic endeavors. Artists such as Uzu Egoun and Aubrey Williams attended top British art schools among their white counterparts and thus were properly literate in the complexities of modernism, yet nonetheless ignored by the art world. The art of this first generation of ‘Black’ artists were constantly viewed under a lens of primitivism, preventing those in the established art world to accept their art as being anything other than ‘primitive’. The concept of abstraction in modernism was not one of unfamiliarity to the artists who came to Britain; colonialism had brought modern ideas to these African, Caribbean, and Asian countries, thus the artists arrived to Britain already dedicated to modernity. Some of these artists were professionally successful, yet none of their work was documented, despite them being pivotal to the way British modernism developed. Rasheed Araeen devoted his efforts to documenting as much about these postcolonial artists as he could, and included all his findings in the exhibition and the exhibition catalogue. By displaying these artist’s work, ‘The Other Story’ exhibition began to write the older generations of ‘Black’ art into British history, when it could have just as easily focused on the emerging young artists of Afro-Asian descent. This is significant towards answering the essay question as it shows that the exhibition addressed marginalization from where it began –  migration; while it offered the research to correct and implement the aspects of British art history that had been institutionally ignored.

Of the elder generation of artists in the exhibition, Ronald Moody was the most prolific. Moody was born in Kingston, Jamaica, in 1900 and came to Britain to study dentistry in 1923. Inspired and moved by the Egyptian sculptures, Moody decided to explore sculpture and by the end of the 30s became a professionally successful artist. In this time, he was instrumental in the ‘League of Coloured Peoples’ which aimed to have equality for all people all over the world, a potent theme in Moody’s art. ‘Johanaan’ (sometimes known as ‘John the Baptist’) was a pivotal piece in ‘The Other Story’ alongside Moody’s own body of art, and incorporates this theme of equality. Rasheed Araeen explains how society enabled Moody’s desires and “the repressed desires of the colonized to be expressed as the universal human predicament”. ‘Johanaan’ is a prime example of this desire, as is a combination of several ethnic types, thus a depiction of universal humanity and a protest piece against marginalization. ‘The Other Story’ opens with Moody, thus forcing the viewers to consider the concept of universalism upon entering the exhibition. When on a plinth, the sculpture is taller than a person. Such an epic scale, combined with the undirected, large open eyes, causes one to feel as if ‘Johanaan’ is gazing within them, creating an overwhelming experience. The complexity of universalism and this Buddha-like expression illustrates Moody’s interest in time, space and identity; all of which are concepts associated with the philosophies of metaphysics. These modern themes and skilled craftsmanship made Moody’s art internationally recognized as examples of Jamaican modernism. There is no racialized imagery in Moody’s work, showing how modernism was the primary aspect of his art. There is no doubt that Moody is a modernist artist, and with the critical acclaim given to his works (‘Johanaan’ being a prime example) he should be more documented throughout British art history. This demonstrates the destructive power of marginalization, and by including it in the exhibition encourages the art world to make amends.

‘The Other Story’ exhibition acknowledged that women artists were also being written out of history, thus strived to include their art in the exhibit. Amongst the women artists in the exhibition, Lubaina Himid, born in 1954 in Zanzibar, was from the older generation who migrated to Britain. Himid describes herself as a “political strategist using visual language”, and incorporates the idea of reclaiming identities throughout her art work. ‘Freedom and change’ was one of her pieces that featured in the exhibition and is a fine example of activist art. Through it being a recreation of Picasso’s ‘Two Women Running on the Beach’ (1922), Himid is deconstructing the issue of primitivism. Modernist artwork often incorporated ‘primitive’ art within it, example of such can be found in Picasso’s appropriations of African masks. Himid takes a post-modern approach towards exposing and reversing the issues caused by cultural appropriation in the modern art world. By taking such a firm political and social standpoint towards sensitive issues such as representation, Himid opens possible discussions surrounding these subjects, hence its importance when looking at marginalization. Through recreating a Picasso painting, Himid is drawing similarities between herself and the famous modernist artist. This can be interpreted as a suggestion of her own importance, and that of black female artists in modern art history. Himid reworks the eroticization of the black female nude in ‘Freedom and Change’ through the black women being watched by the white men in the sand. The running women appear to be leaving the men behind, further suggesting a change in the notion of white male power. In the context of the exhibition, Himid’s depictions of ‘black’ people affronts the issue of marginalization by showing there is a change of their positions in modern society, leading us to question why this is not represented in modern art.

The second section of ‘the Other Story’ exhibition marked a shift in artistic purpose, separating the first from the second generation of ‘black’ artists in Britain. This new young generation of artists grew up surrounded by racism, thus they “replaced the visual imagery of the earlier modernist paintings with those of anger and protest” (Stuart Hall). It was upon realizing that they were being taught art with racist undertones, that caused young ‘black’ artists to group together and create their ‘black’ art. In the late 70s, and early 80s, art groups such as the ‘BLK’ and the British ‘Black arts movement’ were created out of these students to raise questions on the identity of black art and to empower artists of African, Asian and Caribbean decent. During this period, there was significant influence from what was happening in America and from the black arts movement that was present there. Besides the struggles in America, there was also a strong sense of racism in Britain, which was undoubtedly the pivotal source of inspiration and drive for this young generation of ‘black’ artists. The anger these artists felt from marginalization and the other forms of prejudice they had to endure is evident in their works, which have more political and activist undertones than those of the latter generations; thus, when questioning how ‘the Other Story’ exhibition addressed marginalization of Afro-Asian art, many of the individual artist’s work cannot go unmentioned. Additionally, as this generation of artists were all born in, and grew up living in Britain, there is no excuse for their work not being represented in modern British art history. By merely including their art in the exhibition is a display against marginalization and racism. In contrast to ‘The Other Story’ exhibition there was a major show of the Young British Artists in 1988 called ‘Freeze’ which gained much critical acclaim. The lack of diversity in the show, combined with its association with the ‘British’ artists only emphasized the exclusion of Afro-Asian art in Britain, thus creating more of a stigma around the 1989 exhibition resulting in people paying more attention to it.

Sonia Boyce was one of the female artists of the younger generation included in the exhibition. Her art is mainly autobiographical and explores the identity as a black person living in Britain. All of Boyce’s work in the exhibition revolved around the theme of domesticity. One piece of her work focused her theme of domesticity on domestic relationships and the power dynamics that exist within them. ‘Lay Back, Keep Quiet, and Think About What Made Britain so Great’ consists of four panels, all of which are linked with the same wallpaper design. The paper was designed to celebrate the 50th year of Queen Victoria’s reign; however, Boyce appropriates it through the addition of black roses. By covering the original red roses, England’s national flower, with the back ones, symbolic of ambivalence, Boyce is commenting on the controversial nature of Britain’s colonial past. Within the composition of the piece, there are crosses displaying the resistance of non-Europeans against colonialism. This is suggestive of how European modernity is a result of the knowledge and power that came from slavery. The mix of cultures that came from imperial exploitation was pivotal to modernism, hence why ‘lay Back, Keep Quiet, and Think About What Makes Britain so Great’ is such an important work to recognize when talking about an institutional removal of diversity in British modernism.

Irrefutably ‘The Other Story’ was, what seemed at the time, a very important exhibition for ‘black’ artists in Britain. However, the exhibition received much criticism, for the lack of vernacular cultures and the inclusion of the new genre called ‘black’ art, of the younger generation of artists. Having said this, the emphasis of the exhibit was on the post war generation’s art, not that of the British black art movement, something critics and historians often overlook. Very few of the artists involved were as successful as the YBAs, thus it is worth questioning the success of the exhibition at integrating the Afro-Asian art into the history books. ‘The Other Story’ was, however only intended as a first step in implementing change, yet many argue that not enough on the marginalization of minority groups art has been done since, there is still a resentment to any fundamental change in the system. Despite the exhibition not having the effect it aimed for, it did raise awareness on some of the individuals’ art and, large impact or not, did address marginalization in a variety of ways. Appropriation, symbolism and representation were some of the most effective ways the younger artists demonstrated racial issues in modern art world. The effort gone into understanding and displaying the first generation of British ‘black’ modernist artists was also significant in depicting the multiracial modernism that Britain accommodated.

Day of the dead: college application essay help

Day of the dead is a holiday closely related to Halloween and All Saint’s/Soul’s Day. This holiday is celebrated from October 31st to November 2nd in Mexico and in some places in the United States. Día de los Muertos is specifically celebrated in the states from Mexico City south. This includes Michoacan, Mexico City, Puebla, Oaxaca, Veracruz, Guerrero, Guanajuato, Chiapas and the Yucatan. Northern Mexico, is not as celebratory, at least not the way the South is. The people of the Northern part of Mexico can be seen going to mass and visiting grave sites, while the people of the South can be seen building ofrendas, throwing wild parties and leaving out offerings for their ancestors and family members who have passed on. Interestingly enough, Latin America and the Latino parts of Los Angeles, California also take part in the festivities of the Day of the Dead.

What is an Ofrenda you may ask? An ofrenda is a huge part of the Día de los Muertos celebration. Ofrenda means offering in Spanish, and they are also called altares or altars in English. The ofrendas are not to be worshipped though, most of the Mexicans celebrating this holiday are of Catholic faith.  The ofrendas are created to honor the memory of their dead relatives. Ofrendas are complex and time consuming to set up; however, the effect of a finished one is wonderful. Ofrendas can consist of many layers, there is usually a crucifix on the top level, then a lit candle is set out for each deceased relative.  Flowers, salt and water, incense (or copal), sugar skulls, and tons of food are also set out onto the ofrenda.

On November 2nd- when the adult spirits are said to come down to earth- people bring their celebrations to the cemeteries and grave sites. People clean tombs, leave flowers, play cards, listen to music, and remember their loved ones.  Some also drink tequila, and sing along to the mariachi bands.

Foods play a huge part in every culture, we Americans have our apple pie and hamburgers but what does Mexico do? For Dia de los Muertos, there are several specialty foods. According to , Pan de muerto is probably the most recognizable food in the celebration. “The most common culinary representation of the Day of the Dead is an eggy, brioche-like bread, often topped with sugar.” Some Pan de Muerto is often accented with skull and crossbones and other shapes. Mole is also a big food of the Dia de los Muertos celebrations. The mole is a huge undertaking as it has anywhere from 20 to 50 ingredients. Foods such as tamales, atole, and candied pumpkin can also be seen in the Day of the dead festivities.

Music is self expression, but you may be surprised to hear what music is played on the Day of the Dead, and you may be surprised to learn that music in different cultures isn’t all that different after all. For example, in 2015 one of the most played radio songs was the salsa version of Thriller as a tribute to Michael Jackson. Another, is La Llorona by Chavela Vargas. And according to, No es serio este cementerio by Mecano is a popular ‘80s Spanish pop song that can turn a graveyard visit into a dance party. Shakira’s “She Wolf” is a favorite in the US, Mexico, and other Hispanic countries.

Marigolds are a key element of Día de los Muertos. Marigolds have a long history in Mexico. They were brought over the Atlantic to Mexico hundreds of years ago. Aztecs used these hearty flowers for herbal medicine and decoration. Now, Marigolds are place all around ofrendas to guide the visiting spirits because of their bright colors and strong scent. Marigolds also represent how fragile life is. Marigolds are known as cempasúchiles or flowers of the dead, which is definitely appropriate for the Day of the Dead.

José Guadalupe Posada has heavily influenced today’s Day of the Dead artists. Posada was born in 1852 in the Mexican town of Aguascalientes and he started started studying art at the age of 18, skip a few years ahead and we find him doing print after print and painting after painting. In his lifetime he created over 20,000 images, however; he died as an impoverished man in 1913. His most famous works include Calvera: Guerra Mundial or Skeleton: World War in English, and Calvera Catrina or Dapper skeleton.

Day of the Dead and Halloween share many characteristics. Day of the Dead and Halloween are both celebrated in the US and in Mexico. Day of the dead is celebrated in Los Angeles and Halloween is celebrated pretty much everywhere in the US. Halloween has picked up popularity in Mexico in the past 40 years. They are also similar because of the lavish celebrations and decorations, they are also both of European origin. They are different because they have different mentalities and roles. Halloween is a Holiday for children to dress up, have fun, and get free candy. Adults dress up, go to parties, and hand out candy. Day of the Dead, as mentioned earlier, is to honor dead ancestors with ofrendas, food, and grave visits. Although they are similar in some ways they are also very different. Every culture has its own celebrations and it’s clear that Día de los Muertos is a very lavish and unique holiday that would be very cool to see in person.

Sigmund Freud – career, theories, legacy

Sigmund Freud was born in the Czech Republic in 1856. He is an Australian psychologist who is known for the development of techniques and theories of psychoanalysis. He developed psychoanalysis which is a method through which other analysts have been able to unpack conflicting unconscious basing them on fantasies, dreams and free associations of the patients (Freud 23). Some of the most influencing academic contributions that he has made include libido and the age, child sexuality among other topics that he developed in the 20th century.

Freud’s father, referred to as “Jakob” was a wool trader who had been married to another wife before he wed Freud’s mother (Jay1). The father who was 40 years when Freud was born can be described as being rare and authoritarian while the mother was emotionally present.

Although Freud had other brothers, he was not closely attached to them but was more attached to his nephew John, who provided the intimate friend and also hatred rival that reproduced in the later stages of Freud’s life (Jay 1). For example, the sensitivity to perianal authority within such that he later talked about in his theories and work was mainly stimulated by the decline in power that his father suffered in his generation. The father suffered this ion the liberal rationalists who lived in the Habsburg Empire. It is also believed that the interest that he had in the theme of the seduction of daughters was based in the complicated ways in the context of the attitude that Viennese had towards female sexuality.

When Fred was four years, his family relocated to Vienna where he lived and worked for the most part of his life. He started studying medicine at the University of Vienna, and he had a medical degree in 1881. After graduation, he worked as a doctor at the Vienna General Hospital.  He got engaged, and his marriage led to six children in which his last born Anna became a distinguished psychoanalyst.

In his career, Freud viewed himself as a scientist most and not a doctor. Many people thought that he was a doctor, but he took more of his time on science and research. He endeavored through this to make understanding of human knowledge and the experience that human went through his journey of development.  The movement of the family from Freiburg was mainly due to economic reasons. Despite the dislike that Freud had to the imperial city, he was forced to become part of it.  It is also from the city that most of his thoughts and the arguments on the theories that he developed at a later part of his life emerged.  They were mainly encouraged by the political and the social situation in the city.

His career and development of theories

Earlier in his career, he was mainly influenced by the discoveries and the works of his friend, Jose Breuer. Breuer had made a discovery that through the encouragement of a hysterical patient to talk about the earlier experienced and the symptoms that he had seen, these symptoms sometimes abated. This discovery encouraged Freud and he posited that the neurons of the patient in these situations had their origins in the traumatic events and experiences that the patient had gone through. As part of the treatment, he argued that the patient could be empowered to recall the experiences and bring them to his awareness.  In doing so, he could challenge it both emotionally and intellectually. He supposed that a patient in these situations could then release it and rid themselves of the neurotic indications. The findings and the theories that the two friends developed were first published in the book Studies in Hysteria in 1895.

The relationship between Breuer and Freud ended when Breuer felt that Freud had made much emphasis on the sexual origin on the patients’ neutrons and he was not willing to look at other factors that could have brought the change. He was not willing at the time to welcome other viewpoints and suggestions by Breuer. Freud in this aspect decided to focus on this point of arguments and he went ahead to refine his own arguments. Most of the contemporaries that he had were that the emphasis he had on sexuality was either overplayed or scandalous just as it had been seen by Breuer. He had an in vitiation in 1909 to give several lectures in the United States. After the visit, he made more analysis on his theories and wrote another book in 1916, ‘Five Lecturers on Psycho-Analysis’. His fame grew exponentially from the arguments that he made in this book.

In 1985, Freud went to Paris as a student where he studied neurology and it is at the school that he met neurologist Jean Charcot.  The 19 weeks that he had in the French capital greatly contributed to the development of his career and opened up ways through which he explained his theories.  It is this time that he spent with Charcot that gave him a lead to his works and some of his theories. He realized during this time that the psychological disorders that patients might be undergoing might have had an origin in the mind. He decided to get more on this. He was also inspired by the practices and the knowledge of the neurologist and when he returned to Vienna the previous year, he set up his private exercise. In his practice, he mainly focused and specialized on brain and nervous disorders.  In his practice, he developed a theory that humans have an insentient in which aggressive and sexual instincts are continuous conflict to gain reign with the defense against them. He began an analysis of himself in 1897 and did a major work in 1900, “The Interpretation of Drama” in which he examined dreams basing them on experiences and unconscious needs(Freud 41).

He was appointed the Professor of Neuropathology at the University of Vienna in 1902. He held this post until 1938. Although in his career and the discoveries that he made at this time and later, the medical establishments disagreed with many theories he developed. Students and followers began to gather and look keenly on some of the arguments that he made and compared them to the medical establishments that they knew or researched about. He worked with some of the students until there the establishments of International Psychoanalysis Association in 1910. The organization was founded by Carl Jung who was his close friend. Carl Jung broke with him to develop his own philosophies.

After the First World War, Freud did not spend much of his time in clinical observations and used most of time on the application on the theories that he had developed to history, literature, art and anthropology. In 1923, he did more research on the theories and published the book “The Ego and the Id” (Freud 78). In the book, the main idea was the suggestion on the new physical model of the mind. He divided the mind in to the “id” and the “superego’.

 Lasting legacy

Freud has remained an icon in the world of psychology and medicine. Many of the theories that Freud developed including those on ‘Psychic energy’ were in no doubt influenced by the discoveries that were made by other scientific discoveries at the time. One of the works that influenced his thinking and actions were those of Charles Darwin. Darwin developed an understanding of humankind as progressive elements of the animal kingdom that led and informed the investigation by Freud on human behavior. Additionally, the new principles that were formulated by Helmholtz which stated that the energy in any given system is constant were used by Freud in studying the human mind. At first, however, he was not uncertain about the exact status of the sexual element in the conception of the mind that he developed.  The work that Freud did have been criticized but there is still no person in history that has influenced the science of psychology as intensely as he did.

Although Freud has contributed extensively in understanding human psychology, there have been many controversies over some of his publications. For example, during his early years, the Nazis openly burned a number of his books in 1933. This invasion by the Nazis was the beginning of his end. In 1938, shortly after the Nazis occupied Austria, he left for London together with his daughter Ann and wife. He had been diagnosed with cancer of the jaw and went through thirty operations. He died of cancer in 1939.

Juliet Eilperin – Demon Fish: Travels Through the Hidden World of Sharks: college admission essay help

In the introduction, the book gives a description of the sharks and what their environment is like. The author, Juliet Eilperin, talks about how amazing the sharks are in the beginning of the book and states that they operate in a another world. Juliet Eilperin also talks about how sharks move and how they interact with other sharks. She compares and contrasts the wide variation of shark species and their interaction as well. Being in the water for the first time is scary enough let alone including sharks. Juliet Eilperin was in an environment filled with sharks 50 miles off the coast of Florida on an island called Bimini. Everybody was very scared for her and told her to be extra careful and aware of every little thing. Comparing this to a car going seventy five miles per hour, this situation was far more worse. All the adrenaline flowing through her blood came from the fear of possibly being eaten by a shark. Though, she is not alone in this risky situation. Juliet Eilperin is taking this journey as a journalist with other brave scientists. As the others took a chance and hopped into the danger, she thought about things that would make her less frightened. She convinced herself that since she was very slim, the sharks will not want to just eat bones and instead devour the others first so she has time to get away. When she physically went into the water, it was not as frightening as she thought it would have been. She got to spot a plethora of species that lived in the ocean. Juliet Eilperin mentions how sharks predate. Sharks were respected and known for their power and destruction; this caused them to be seen as gods. In the past, Sharks seemed to be a threat to the human population but in the present, we seem to be more of a threat to them. Because of the human race exploring roughly seventy five percent of the ocean, sharks have been forced to immigrate to other coasts. For example the coast of Hawaii and California. Technology in tracking devices has made it tremendously easy to track any living being. Scientists tag sharks with trackers and also with microphones and cameras. By doing this, we can receive the most accurate information about the shark species. Sharks are praised for their uniqueness because of their adaptive skills as well as their buoyancy. We have access to details down to their denticles. Their smooth speed come from denticles. One of the top three places to go too to see sharks is located in Tembin. Juliet Eilperin and an acquaintance learn about Tembin culture. They learn how much the shark impacts the culture and the meaning of the shark and how it is essential to survive and spiritually survive. In order to get to Tembin, the scientists attempt to cross by a swampy terrain because the bridge to Tembin was essentially destroyed. During their trip, the team encounters a shark caller named Karasimbe. He is a man with mad respect and is a leader who continues to pursue this hundreds of years old culture. Another shark caller who they call Kiput, lived to about 93 years old who died in 2003, was also greatly respected by the local people of Tembin and provided much guidance, purpose, and hope. Sharks have a great history and have great meaning in the villages who are brave enough to attempt to catch sharks with their bare hands. Although this culture seems dangerous, young men of Tembin villages sell these sharks they catch to other big companies and big cities to make more money. In Tembin today, they seem to care more about gaining a profit rather than just fishing. Elders have started to worry about this problem a lot more because they are not preserving their own culture. This has caused much conflict with making money and preserving culture. With that being said, Karasimbe is convinced that he will save Tembin and its precious culture because he has the potential ability to save everything.

Chapter Two Summary:

Chapter two starts off by informing me about the age of sharks. Everybody assume that dinosaurs have to be the oldest creature ever to live on this earth but little do they know that sharks are just about two hundred million years older. Montana is where you can discover shark fossils found. Aristotle, a greek roman conducted research on sharks a long time ago and aristotle discovered knowledge and names that we still use to this day. Sharks were originally called dogfish in the past by the ancient roman people. Islamic people were truly amazed when they found out the dangers on the Tigris river. The human race is very segregated from the species of sharks and fear the sharks a lot more than the elders did in the past. The ages that were toward the middle, sharks got a bad reputation that led to the ignorance of sharks. People do not care for them and hate on them because they are seen as evil or wicked animals. Sailors also were also scared of sharks because of how they could sink their sailing boat. Sharks reputation has changed tremendously throughout history and time. People used to see sharks as gods and praised them until the human race became selfish and took them for granted which caused sharks to act up and begin to harm us. Now we do not care about ocean creatures for we catch them for profit and for food.

Chapter Three Summary:

Chapter three hands me two main perspectives of the shark hunters or shark guiders and the environmentalists in the world. A man named Quariano who gets paid to guide tourists and visitors offshore and onto the ocean, protects his paying customers and takes them to parts of the ocean were many sharks prowl so that the visitors may have a chance to fish for some sharks. His market target is young men who are living life on the edge and who are willing to take risks like that. Being a professional, it causes Quariano to have very strong opinions and causes him to be very biased. He states that since there are a plethora of sharks in the ocean, killing sharks is not wrong and that it is a very efficient way to make money. The environmentalist perspective is of course the complete opposite. Environmentalists believe that people like Quariano is not good enough to find real jobs in the world. They are leading people on the wrong path by allowing them to harm natural habitats and their niches. By continuing this  hunting, sharks will go extinct and will become endangered because of human selfishness. Chapter Four Summary:

In chapter four, it talks about how in a lot of markets and cultures, the fins of sharks contain much value. They have auctions for shark fins where men offer a lot of money for the fins. In certain cultures, humans believe shark fins have magic or contain supernatural powers. An example of this is to cure aids or cancer. Some so sick that there is no cure. In some cultures, many people believe that owning a shark fin will benefit in ones health. The significance of a shark fin in these cultures is very great. It bears magic that can cure diseases that may not have a cure. Shark fins also can be food. In china and india, shark fins are very rare to receive. It is very expensive to buy and if you are lucky enough to have some as a meal, you would be considered very rich.

David Livingstone Smith’s Less Than Human

“Less Than Human” is chapter 1 in David Livingstone Smith’s Less Than Human, includes various stories of dehumanization throughout history to the present day and elaboration and further comments on those pieces of history. Some of these examples include stories from war and stories of dehumanization in the media. Smith uses these tales from history and his reflections on them to illustrate his purpose of writing this; in fact, from these stories we can easily come up with his argument and analyze it. In “Less Than Human,” Smith clearly provides his purpose, audience, how he decided to arrange this writing, evidence for his argument, implications, and his word choice.

Smith doesn’t get to telling his purpose of writing this selection until the end, but even then, the reader may have to infer what it may be. In the last paragraph, he says that “dehumanization is… widespread… it is found… through the full span of human history, and… the problem of dehumanization is everyone’s problem” (Smith 25).  From this, one can find Smith’s purpose of writing this; that being, to show that dehumanization continues today, that it’s not only a part of history, and that it affects everyone across many cultures. He makes this argument because dehumanization continues today and needs to be stopped before we reach another large war or have a major incident. One example Smith uses to illustrate this is Rush Limbaugh’s radio show on the “Abu Ghraib prison scandal [saying] “[The prisoners] are the ones who are sick” … They are the ones who subhuman” (Smith 22). Smith provides multiple other examples to show his purpose and why he made this his argument/purpose; at the same time, he also uses these to tell who the audience is intended to be by Smith.

The factor of who the audience is and who Smith is directing the argument at is a different story. He uses multiple stories of dehumanization; whether it’s the Israelis versus the Palestinians or the 1946 Nuremberg doctors’ trial, and at least one can relate to whoever is reading the book. Therefore, the audience that Smith intends to reach and reach with his argument is one that is universal; despite this, one can say that the secondary audience is an academic crowd. The reason one could say that his secondary audience is an academic crowd is because of his organization of the paper and his evidence to support his purpose of writing “Less Than Human.”

Smith arranges this chapter in three sections; stories of dehumanization in war, dehumanization in media, and a conclusion. He further divides the first two sections into a pattern that is basically; story, supporting info on the story and introduction to the next story, story, supporting info, so on and so forth until he concludes the section. For example, the excerpt begins with an example of dehumanization occurring between Israelis and Palestinians, it says “Degrading taunts rang out from behind the fence that divided the Palestinian side of the Khan Younis refugee camp from the Israeli side” (Smith 11); afterwards, Smith reflects and elaborates on the story by telling the reader that Khan Younis was a “stronghold of Hamas” and further elaborates on the story, he then introduces another example and repeats (Smith 12).

Smith demonstrates his purpose and caters to his audience through the use of evidence of dehumanization in war and dehumanization in media. This evidence ranges from the Holocaust to Rush Limbaugh’s view on the Abu Ghraib Prison Scandal. Smith illustrates his purpose by providing examples from various points in history like the “1946 Nuremberg doctors’ trial [that] was the first of twelve military tribunals held in Germany [in which] twenty doctors and three administrators … stood accused of wars crimes and crimes against humanity” (Smith 14). Using examples like this, Smith gets the reader’s attention and shows his purpose before actually saying it on the last page. Smith also uses this evidence to cater to whoever reads this excerpt by using examples in which a person could relate to at least one example or imagine an example in their lives like those in the paper. One such piece of evidence would be when “on September 4, 2007, the Columbus Dispatch published a cartoon portraying Iran as a sewer” (Smith 22); one person in the audience could imagine or relate to this by remembering something they read that made them feel uncomfortable, etc. Smith also uses such evidence to hint to or provide an implication or suggestion to the reader.

Smith provides a specific recommendation to the audience; however, part of it is stated and the other part is implied. He never deliberately states the whole suggestion, but Smith states a part of it in the last paragraph.  He states this part of his suggestion by saying that “We are all potential dehumanizers, just as we are all potential objects of dehumanization. The problem of dehumanization is everyone’s problem” (Smith 25). By saying this, Smith states that dehumanization is everyone’s problem and that we are affected by it. While this is deliberately stated, he eludes to the other parts of his purpose that it continues today, not just a part of history by; once again, his use of evidence from different points in time.

Smith does repeat specific words or phrases like dehumanization; but he also uses specific types of words or phrases. The most repeated word or words used is dehumanization and the other versions of that word, this is done since it is the topic of this excerpt. More interesting is the special type of word or phrase Smith uses, that being derogatory names or phrases that one side calls its enemy; specific examples of this would be what the Nazis called their victims, “Untermenschen – subhumans” and another being what the Japanese called the Chinese or “Chancorro [meaning] below human, like bugs or animals” (Smith 15- 18). He uses these to his purpose that dehumanization affects everyone across multiple cultures and that it is still a part of everyday life.

Throughout “Less Than Human” from Less Than Human, Smith uses tales of dehumanization in history to the modern day to present his argument. In using these the argument can be studied and interpreted by his audience. By doing this, Smith’s purpose, audience, arrangement of the excerpt, evidence, suggestions, and word choice is shown and can be recorded.

 The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao by Junot Diaz

In the novel,  The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao by Junot Diaz, the main character Oscar Wao struggles with obesity and finding love throughout his life. His misfortunes are blamed on a curse that haunts him and his family. Like Oscar and his family, real life people struggle with the same issues as they do. The author addresses real life issues while incorporating a cultural history and background. Although the readers of The Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao may not all relate to having a Dominican family, the author addresses issues readers can associate with such as struggling with love and family.

The Fuku curse is a historical curse that dates back hundreds of years back into Oscar’s family. Throughout the novel, the narrator spends a great deal of time trying to convince the readers that every bad detail that happens in Oscar’s family’s life is due to the Fuku curse. All through the novel, Oscar struggles with with finding love. As a child, he was a playboy and flirted with all the girls but as he grew up, he became a nerd and had trouble finding a girlfriend. Just like Oscar, many people struggle with finding love in their lives. His first love is named Ana Obregon and she leads him on and then returns to a relationship with her abusive ex-boyfriend. In college he falls for another girl, who yet again has rejected him. Oscar responds by trying to kill himself by jumping off a train, but he does not succeed. After college, he goes on a trip with his sister and mother to the Dominican Republic where he falls in love with a prostitute named Ybon. Unfortunately Ybon has a boyfriend who is the captain of the police force. Everyone warned Oscar not to see Ybon but Oscar had believed he finally found true love. Eventually Ybon’s boyfriend finds Oscar and badly beats him up resulting in Oscar’s mom sending him back to the States. But, Oscar can not seem to get Ybon out of his head and asks his best friend for money to fly back to the Dominican Republic to see her. Ybon’s boyfriend then finds him and kills him.

The misfortune with love does not only affect Oscar, but other people in his family too. His mother for example had trouble with men her whole life, starting in grade school. His mother, Beli, finally got the boy she liked and they were have constant sex in the broom closet at school. When they got caught, he blamed it on Beli even though he promised to marry her and she did nothing wrong. The boy was then shipped off to military school. Beli later on meets another man referred to as “The Gangster”. No man had ever appreciated her the way he did and she ended up falling in love with him and pregnant with his child. As it turned out, The Gangster was married and his wife sent people to go and beat her near to death and she ended up losing her baby.

Like all families, there is conflict and tension between the members of the Wao family. Beli, the mother of Oscar and Lola, had been diagnosed with breast cancer. Lola responds by becoming goth and shaving her head all while taking care of her sick mother. The cancer eventually goes away but at dinner one night, Beli announced it had come back and Lola just asks her to pass the salt in response which causes Beli to hit Lola. Lola sees this as a chance to be free from her controlling mother once and for all and runs away to live with her boyfriend. Things were not going well at her boyfriend’s house, so Lola call Oscar to meet her at coffee shop where she sees her mother and uncle waiting for her. Lola runs and her mother chases her and falls, Lola rushes to help her but it turned out her mother had faked the fall. The members of the Wao family all went through many unfortunate events in their lives but they do not share them with each other. No one likes to talk about their past with each other which can lead to tension in a family.

Even though the novel, The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao is relatable mostly to Dominican readers, there are still aspects of the book that non-Dominican readers can relate to such as the struggles with love and family.

Guns, Germs, and Steel – Jarod Diamond: college application essay help

When reading Guns, Germs, and Steel, one may assume that the author has an extensive background with history, mainly focusing on prehistoric times. This assumption would be incorrect. Jarod Diamond, the author of Guns, Germs, and Steel (as well as The Third Chimpanzee, Collapse, and The World Until Yesterday) began his studies in physiology, which then turned into him also studying biology, geography, and many other disciplines as stated by his website ( Although his main interests are about the sciences, he continues to write books about the history of the world. This is because he does something that many authors cannot do: he uses his biology background to make sense of the world and how we got here. For example, on page 53, Diamond is talking about environmental effects on the Moriori and Maori people. To show how the environmental effects could affect these people, he brings up an example of placing lab rats in different environments to see what happened. Most historians would not think of an example like that; only someone with a biology background (such as Diamond) would. By using two disciplines to explain a topic, this forces the reader to not only think about the historical side of something, but also the biological side, thus expanding the readers knowledge on the topic.

One of Diamond’s central questions asks why did history unfold differently on different continents. He is trying to see and explain why some areas developed the way that they did. In part one, he uses each chapter to explain how a culture grew. For example, Diamond focused on Moriori and Maori in chapter two, and Cajamarca in chapter three. This question and answer is intriguing because it challenges the common perception that everything happened at the same time. It also makes people realize that humans did not exist everywhere in the beginning of time. They evolved from the great apes of Africa, and migrated from there and created families everywhere they stopped (36). Some people may disagree with Diamond’s ideas and say that humans may have evolved differently or that they did not travel to certain places in a certain order. He addresses this by stating what other historians think, explaining why they think that way, acknowledging that either theory could be correct, and continues on with what he believes about the situation.

One of the ways Jarod Diamond answers his question is to look at the fossils that were left behind. From this, he can tell who or what was in this area, what they did to survive, what they ate, how advanced they were, as well as during what time period they were in a particular area. By piecing together different bones, he can determine what type of animals existed in a particular area. For example, if he found Homo erectus bones, then he would know that they existed there. This can also apply to fossils not found in an area. If there are no fossils present, then we cannot be sure if a species lived in that area. Arrowheads, writing utensils, and spears that are found can also tell us if they had the technology to build and use these things for a purpose. Diamond also determines when these species were living, however his method differs from other historians. He uses calibrated radiocarbon dates instead of the usual uncalibrated radiocarbon dates because it provides dates that are closer to calendar dates. This can confuse readers because if they do not know the difference between the two, they may think they are receiving false information when they are actually seeing two correct dates that are relative based on calibration. I find this useful because it gives the date a meaning that is relative to the calendar that we use today. It makes it easier to create and connect a sequence of events.

One thing that Diamond does well in Guns, Germs, and Steel is taking other historians viewpoints into consideration. He recognizes that his way and thoughts is not the only way to think, and that other historians can disagree with him and still be correct. Diamond explains this on page 37 when he is talking about the earliest “X”. Here, he states that when someone finds the earliest existence of something (X), it challenges all other beliefs of when X first existed. He also acknowledges that it can take an extensive amount of research to confirm when X actually happened. This allows the reader to stay open minded, and to not be completely set on a fact because it can change when new information is found.

A weakness of part one would be that it can get pretty dull. For someone who does not gravitate towards history, this book can become very boring very fast. This then leads the reader to start to only read the words on the pages, rather than to comprehend and analyze them. When this happens, the reader could miss a lot of information, which leads to them rereading the same passage over and over again, adding to their frustration. To fix this, I would remove the parts where Diamond seemed to drone on about the same thing, as well as try to engage the reader more by forcing them to think critically about the topics they are reading.

The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot


For the book club assignment, I chose to read The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot. The book was originally published in 2010 by Crown Publishers. However, the copy of the book I read was published in 2011 by Broadway Books, a partner of Crown Publishers. The book is about an African-American woman named Henrietta Lacks. She was diagnosed with cervical cancer and when she went to John Hopkins to be diagnosed and receive treatment, her tumor was biopsied and cultured. Her cells were grown and led to an immortal cell line. George Gey, the scientist who grew these cells, was the director of the lab at Hopkins and it was his work that helped to create this immortal cell line. The book explains how this ability to grow cells led to many medical breakthroughs including the testing of the polio vaccine and research about cancer cells. Although these breakthroughs have saved numerous lives and advanced modern medicine, the ethics of it is called into question. Henrietta did not know her cells were taken from her and used for research. Neither she nor her family were ever compensated for their contribution to advancing medicine. Finally, there was no informed consent and therefore, her cells, known as HeLa cells, have become a giant for profit business that is of no benefit to her children, husband, or other family members. I chose to read this book because I had heard of HeLa cells during my undergraduate coursework. I took a cell biology course and we discussed the benefits of the cells. However, as it talks about in the book, the medical advances were celebrated in my class but how the cells were grown was completely left out. I was curious to learn more about the famous HeLa and so I chose to read this book.

Summary of Contents

In part 1, titled Life, the first unethical situation arises. Henrietta had just been diagnosed with cervical cancer. She had discovered the tumor herself shortly after giving birth to her daughter Debora. The tumor had grown so fast that it was not in her medical charts. The doctor who diagnosed the cancer noted that after delivering the baby 6 weeks earlier, there was no note “made in the history at the time, or at the six weeks’ return visit” that would indicate cancer.1

As she traveled to John’s Hopkins, the nearest hospital that could treat her and treat other people of colors, she went to the doctor, told him where to look for the tumor and sure enough, a mass was found on her cervix. It is not known for sure in her case, but many black people were treated poorly by the doctors at this time.2 However, what she wasn’t told was that the doctor biopsied her cancerous tumor and was going to attempt to grow them outside the human bodied. She left the doctor with her diagnosis and her treatment of radium being inserted into the cervix and went home happily and peacefully.

Meanwhile, at the Gey labs at John’s Hopkins, Mr. Gey began to grow and cultivate the cells. It became an incredible breakthrough that would eventually lead to other immortal cell lines being grown. The new cells, called HeLa cells in this case, we’re going to become essential in discovering advances to treat diseases. However, the question remains: Did the doctor have any right to remove the tumor, experiment with the cells, all without telling the patient? It would appear that from a public health standpoint, the greater statistical number, or the population, was benefitted by the doctors taking the cells. However, on an individual level, it is a terrible precedent and very unethical that they would take the cells without asking her, without compensating the family. I believe this is a very crucial philosophical argument: What is the price to benefit the greater good? Part of the issue here is also that not only did they not inform her what they were planning on doing, they did not acknowledge her real name until an article appeared in 1973 that mentioned her name could be Henrietta Lacks and not Helen Lane.3

Another example of the unethical behaviors in the book come from one of the researchers who benefitted from the HeLa cells. Dr. Southam, a physician studying cancer, wanted to know if the cells could grow inside another person’s body. Using his terminal patients as guinea pigs, Dr. Southam injected the HeLa cells into the patients under the cover up that the injections were testing the immune systems of the patients. As a result of his experiment, he saw that cancer did grow in the patients. The cost however was that 4 patients could not have the cancer removed completely and one of the patients had the cancer metatisize through their body.4

He did not stop at these patients. Once proven they could grow in terminal patients, he wanted to see the cell effects on healthy patients. So, he found a population which could be coerced into doing things against their will, a prison population in Ohio. Instead of educating and promoting good health to this population, Dr. Southam decided to inject all the inmates with the cells and observe their reaction.4 He did learn a lot about resistance to cancer from these healthy inmates. However, as a public health official, he was not actively promoting good health. Rather, he was endangering the health of the population he was studying. The fact that this endangerment was occurring shows the lack of ethics used in this time period. Although good did come of it, one has to wonder if there could have been a better way for the research advances to be made.


In conclusion, The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks was a very difficult read. Not difficult as in hard to understand the words and meaning. Rather, difficult as in thought provoking and leaving a general feeling of uneasiness. The underlying issue of the ethics of medical research as well as how Henrietta Lacks was treated is put side by side with the advances in medicine that came because of the ability to culture her cells. This leaves an uneasy feeling in the stomach as one tries to wrestle with what is more important, the individual or the “greater good”. Understanding that statistics can be changed to justify one’s actions, I feel that the action taken has benefited society as a whole. However, as someone who aspires to become a full-time physician, the practice is completely unethical. In a perfect world, I would like to see the family of Henrietta be compensated today for the enormous breakthrough courtesy of her cells, especially considering the cell industry is now a multimillion dollar industry.5 It is terrible to read of her family and learn that after the death of their mother, her children were abused, molested, and suffered into adulthood because of these traumas. In my opinion, you can not put a price on a life. However, financial compensation is the least that could be done to support her family and possibly improve their socioeconomic status. Supposing that they could be compensated fairly, I would also like them to continue supporting research using the advances that have occurred so that more diseases and issues can potentially be solved. The cells have led to numerous breakthroughs and who knows how many more will come because of it. Yes, it is a cop out answer of staying right on the fence, yet I believe it is the correct answer.

This research has benefited the world. Public health is about population. The population is the patient and it is the job of public health professionals to do all they can to implement practices and policies that promote and sustain healhy populations. Because of the HeLa cells, population health was improved. While the book illustrates the clear unethical decisions made with regard to the HeLa cells, the Lacks family, and the other experiments mentioned, the advances made from studying her cells have led to medical breakthroughs. Vaccines, treatments, knowledge about infectious diseases, all have been influenced by the culture of immortal cell lines. Were it not for the cell line, perhaps these advances would not have occurred.6 Therefore, I believe that while unethical, Henrietta Lacks unknowingly advanced the field of public health and has contributed to making our society a healthier environment for all people.

American Democracy in Peril by William E. Hudson (the fifth challege): essay help free

Reading Response #2

The Fifth Challenge: Elections Without the People’s Voice

In the book “American Democracy in Peril,” the author William E. Hudson discusses eight challenges that America would face sometime in its history. In the fifth challenge, Hudson argues that, just like the Separation of Powers (discussed in the first chapter), elections are not an indicator of democracy but a tool that has become a major challenge to it. Hudson also argues that in order for elections to be democratic all citizens must have equal representation, elections must enforce deliberation about public policy issues and must control the government’s actions.

The equal representation in elections comes with the equal right to vote, where each individual has the same amount of power (one vote). However, what Hudson wants us to take out of this chapter is that equal representation seems to be violated in many ways. One of them being the way that the Senate is organized. Since the Senate is composed of two senators from each state, voters in the least populous states are more in control of the Senate than voters in larger states. As a result, twelve states containing less than 5 percent of the US population have control of a quarter of all the votes in the senate. Similarly, the House of Representatives also fails to represent a large number of people using the single-member plurality electoral system. This system gives “the victory in an election to the candidate who wins the plurality of votes in a district,” the result being that the individuals who didn’t vote for the winning candidate don’t get represented also violating equal representation. Hudson also accuses the Electoral College system of violating equal representation since it fails to represent all the voters, just like the Senate, and uses “the single-member plurality” electoral system’s tactics.

Still analyzing equal representation, or the lack of it, Hudson talks about money elections which I found very interesting. I was unaware that the candidates in political campaigns depended on funding to keep their campaigns alive. After reading the passage “The Money Election”, my opinion is that, in fact, campaign funding prevents equal representation and that all candidates’ political campaigns should be worth almost the same. This would allow all the candidates to have the same opportunities and, therefore, a fairer campaign not only for the candidates but also the voters who will have the chance to vote without a money election made first.

Similar to the equal representation, individuals in our society participate in public deliberations by voting. During the political campaigns, candidates will express their ideas and views so that the voters can vote. This vote is a way for the individuals to express what they expect their society to be and what changes they want to see, by voting in one candidate that has the same expectations and beliefs, and wants to achieve the same results. Also, the goal is for elections to enforce deliberation about public policy issues, however, it can get tricky when the sources that the voters use to get the information necessary for them to make a decision or deliberate are ineffective. According to Hudson, there are two main sources of information that the voters use for democratic deliberation–the news media and the campaigns–and they both have been failing to provide voters with useful content for democratic deliberation.

I completely agree with Hudson that the news media nowadays is not a reliable source of the candidates “serious proposals for addressing the country’s problems” (CITATION). I believe that this is mainly because the news industry main focus is not to deliver important and serious informative content, rather, its main focus is making news attractive and controversial to hold the attention of the viewers so that it could make more money. It cannot be forgotten that viewers are also guilty since they are the ones who feed this kind of news. As a result, when it comes to presidential elections, the news media has become a reliable source of drama between the candidates, political scandals, and all the less important issues that cannot be used for deliberating about public issues.

Campaigns are another source of information that the voters use for deliberation on public issues. However, these campaigns are being used a tool to transmit messages that will “stimulate a positive or negative reaction” on voters, where the ultimate aim is to win votes. Just like the news media, many campaigns don’t focus on promoting serious discussion on policy issues which makes it harder for individuals to deliberate over these same issues/policy issues and make a decision about who they are going to vote for.

After analyzing how elections are connected to equal representation and public deliberation, there’s still a need to understand how it controls the government’s actions. Hudson argues that since the elections are decided “on the basis of sound bites, debate gaffes,  and campaign image manipulation” they fail to really give us an idea of what the elected officials’ specific agenda is, and since they are already in power, these officials decide for themselves without the “democratic electorate’s control” (CITATION). Political parties tend to be the ones who/that try to enforce the voters’ control over the government’s actions by making policies that reflect their voters’ preferences. Also, these parties help the voters to hold someone responsible if they don’t agree with what happens after the elections. One thing that makes this possible is that now political parties have different sets of “principles, ideas, and policies” that allow voters to differentiate them, and also allows parties to compete in elections. In conclusion, Hudson believes that if the elections fail to control the government’s actions is/it’s not because the parties stopped being in favor of the voters, but because there was no equal representation or significant deliberation during the election.

The Great Depression – biggest causes: college application essay help

The Great Depression was one the worst time periods in American history. The Great Depression started in 1929 and ended in 1939. It started in America with the crash of the stock market and then later began to have a big impact globally. As shown in Document 1, the Great Depression was the worst economic downfall in American history. Millions of people were left unemployed and searching for nonexistent jobs. It was a common sight to see children begging on the roads. Furthermore, banks started to fail and people started to lose any savings that they had. Overall, the main causes of the Great Depression were the stock market crash of 1929, the reduction in purchasing, and the abuse of the major economic ideas.

The stock market crash of 1929 was the biggest cause of the Great Depression. The stock market crash impacted millions of American people. Before the stock market crash, many Americans were getting greedy. They were continuously buying more and more. As described in Document 10 after the Americans “bought all they can afford they go on buying, a little down and the rest in easy payments.” (Document 10). This method of buying with installments was bad for the economy. Elmer Davis foreshadows the Great Depression when he states, “the bill will be all the larger when it finally has to be faced.” (Document 10). Another reason that Americans got greedy was the speculative boom in the stock market. As described in Document 5 there was a “speculative boom that developed with increasing intensity in the years after 1927.” (Document 5). The speculative boom made Americans greedy as they were hoping to make quick profits from the speculative rise. However, as more Americans began to invest in stocks, the prices started to be forced upwards. These forced up prices were a result of “competitive bidding rather than by any fundamental improvement in American (business).” (Document 5).  As a result of the speculative boom, investors bought more stocks. However, when the stock market crashed, the investors with the most stock were trying to get rid of it as fast as possible. This lead to the stock prices being dropped drastically. This is shown in the newspaper title in Document 3 which is “Stock prices slump $14,000,000,000 in nation-wide stampede to unload” (Document 3). The drop in prices would have been a good way to jumpstart the economy, but Americans were no longer buying anything. Most Americans stopped buying stocks which was worse for the economy since it cannot grow without consumers. Overall, the stock market crash of 1929 was one of the greatest causes of the Great Depression because it completely dropped the prices of all stocks and put millions of Americans into poverty.

After the stock market crash of 1929, many Americans were reluctant to buy anything. Also, many Americans were too poor to be able to buy anything besides the absolute necessities. After the stock market crash, many Americans lost their jobs. As shown in the table in Document 4, unemployment rates were drastically rising after the stock market crash. Without jobs, Americans could not purchase anything and this made the country continue downwards. Maintaining a family became extremely hard since many adults were losing their jobs. The hardships of family life are further explained in Document 7 where the average mill worker describes her daily lifestyle. In her story, she explains that her income combined with her husbands is just barely enough to support her entire family. This means that the average family did not have much money leftover to spend on other items and luxuries. The table in Document 9 further supports this argument because it shows the average US family income distribution. After the stock market crash, nearly 60% of American family’s annual income was under the poverty line (Document 9). This showed that the families under the poverty line could not afford anything other than the absolute necessities which meant that they could not purchase other luxuries. Overall, the reduction in purchasing was one of the causes of the Great Depression and it was happening because of the unemployment which led to a lack of money.

The abuse of economic ideas was one of the smaller causes of the Great Depression. As described in the background essay, the 4 major economic ideas are the law of supply and demand, say’s law, the business cycle, and the stock market (Background essay, 437-439). Before the Great Depression started, American people were breaking some of these economic ideas. As described in Document 6, “consumers bought goods on installment at a rate faster than their income was expanding” (Document 6). By buying goods on installment, it meant that people would pay over time. This purchasing style was okay in the beginning but after a while, it had serious consequences since many people were gaining debt and their income wasn’t capable of paying the installments. Also, this type of purchasing broke the law of supply and demand since the supply and demand for goods remained the same, but people didn’t have money to buy goods and had to use installment. This meant that there would be a time where people would stop buying which would lead to a sap in the economy (Document 6). Furthermore, Document 10 describes that people continued buying even after they couldn’t afford it. This shows that people broke the business cycle because usually if people stopped buying after they couldn’t afford it, then production slowed and workmen were fired. However, in the years before the Great Depression, people used installments and continued buying which broke the business cycle. Additionally, the farming economy also started to abuse the law of supply and demand. Farmers started to overproduce items in hopes of being able to sell more. However, this overproduction backfired and as shown in Document 11 the prices of goods completely dropped. The farm industry fell as farmers were forced to sell their goods at a very low price. Overall, the abuse of economic ideas impacted the Great Depression since people started paying with installments and breaking the business cycle and the law of supply and demand.

In conclusion, the Great Depression was caused by many different factors. The greatest cause for the Great Depression was the stock market crash of 1929 which put millions of Americans into poverty and made many lose their jobs. Additionally, the Great Depression was also caused by the reduction in purchasing since many were unemployed and couldn’t afford to purchase anything besides the absolute necessities. The reduction in purchasing also kept the economy down since it can’t grow without consumers. Furthermore, the abuse of the major economic ideas also had an impact on the Great Depression. Overall, the stock market crash of 1929, the reduction in purchasing, and the abuse of the major economic ideas were the three major causes for the Great Depression.

An Abundance of Katherines by John Green


The novel I studied is “An Abundance of Katherines” that was written by John Green. This book was published on September 2016 by Dutton and Speak. The genre of this book is fiction. The main characters are Colin Singleton, who is anagram-loving seventeen-year-old boy who is depressed. Hassan Harbish who is Colin’s lazy, funny, and slightly overweight best, and only, friend. Lindsey Lee Wells who Colin and Hassan on their road trip in Gutshot, Tennessee. Hollis Wells, Lindsey’s mother. She is an extreme workaholic. The conflict of this story occurs between Colin and the other Colin when Colin Singleton finds the other Colin cheating on Lindsey. The other Colin threatened Colin if he told Lindsey and Colin was forced to decide to tell Lindsey or not. Though Colin made his decision to tell Lindsey what happened. This lead to her breaking up with the other Colin and a very brutal beating for Colin Singleton and his best friend Hassan.

Colin Singleton is a child prodigy who is fearing he will not grow to become an adult prodigy. After being dumped by his girlfriend, Katherine XIX, Colin is looking for his “missing piece” longing to feel whole, and longing to matter. He hopes to accomplish his goal of becoming a genius by having a “eureka” moment. Over the span of his life, Colin has dated nineteen girls named Katherine, all spelled in that manner. In these relationships, Colin remembers only the Katherine dumping him.

After graduating from high school, and before college, Colin’s best and only friend, Hassan Harbish, convinces him to go on a road trip with him to take his mind off the breakup. Colin goes along with the idea, hoping to find his “eureka” moment on the way. After driving all the way from Chicago to Tennessee, they come across the alleged resting place of the body of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. There, they meet Lindsey Lee Wells. After a short time, Colin and Hassan find themselves employed by Hollis, Lindsey’s mother who runs a local factory that is currently producing tampon strings. They live with their employer and her daughter in a rural town called Gutshot, Tennessee. The employment she sends them on is to interview all current adult residents of Gutshot and assemble an oral history of the town. As time passes, Colin finds himself becoming attracted to Lindsey, though matters are somewhat complicated by her on-again, off-again boyfriend Colin. He and Hassan call him TOC which means “the other Colin”. Our Colin, the prodigy, is still chasing his eureka moment, finally finding it in his theorem he created called the Theorem of Underlying Katherine Predictability. It is meant to determine the curve of any relationship based on several factors of the personalities of the two people in a relationship. It would predict the future of any two people. His theorem eventually works for all but one of his past relationships with a Katherine. It is later discovered by Colin that he had dumped this Katherine (Katherine III), rather than the other way around. The graphs all make perfect sense at this juncture. As Colin’s story is revealed to the reader, we find that K-19 was also the first of the Katherines, “Katherine the Great.” While the back stories of Colin’s life play out, Hassan gets a girlfriend, Katrina, a friend of Lindsey’s. The relationship is cut short when Colin and Hassan catch Katrina having sex with TOC while on a feral hog hunt with Lindsey, her friends and Colin’s father. A fight between TOC and all of the surrounding acquaintances begins when Lindsey finds out that he’s been cheating on her. While recovering from a knee whack to the groin, Colin anagrams the Archduke’s name while in the grave yard to dull the pain, and realizes that it is actually Lindsey’s great-grandfather, named Fred N. Dinzanfar, that is buried in the tomb.

Colin finds Lindsey at her secret hideout in a cave that she had shown him previously, where he tells her the story of every Katherine he has ever loved. Lindsey tells him that she feels so self-centered, claiming that she does not feel sad but instead slightly relieved by TOC’s affair. They discuss what it means to them to “matter” and eventually confess their love for each other. As their relationship continues, Colin decides to use his dating formula to determine whether or not he and Lindsey will last. The graph reveals that they will only last for four more days. Lindsey then slips a note under his door, four days later, stating that she cannot be his girlfriend because she is in love with Hassan. But she leaves a P.S. stating that she is joking. Colin realizes that his theorem cannot predict the future of a relationship; it can only shed light on why a relationship failed. Despite this, Colin is content with not “mattering”. Hassan also states that he is applying for two college classes, which Colin has been trying to convince him to do throughout the book. The story ends with the trio driving to a nearby Wendy’s. Lindsey states her desire to just “keep going and not stop.” Colin takes her advice, as a transcendental and ecstatic feeling of a “connection” with Lindsey, Hassan, and everyone not in the car surges through him. He has finally found peace and happiness via connection with other people, rather than from the pursuit of distinguishing himself from everyone, feeling “non-unique in the very best way possible.”

Tones, themes of the story and issues presented by the Author.

There are many tones in this novel such as happy, insecure, and hopeless. For the first one, happy. Mrs. Harbish shook her head and pursed her lips. “Don’t I tell you,” she said in accented English, “not to mess with girls? Hassan is a good boy, doesn’t do this ‘dating.’ And look how happy he is. You should learn from him.” (chapter 3, paragraph 15) In a lot of ways, Hassan’s mom is right, Colin would be much happier if he didn’t mess around with the Katherines. He couldn’t whine about them dumping him then. On the other hand, we’re not sure Hassan really qualifies as the best sample of happiness; he even admits later on that he’s lazy and should do something else with his life.

The next tone would be insecure. With all the nasty back-and-forth, Colin fought the urge to ask Katherine whether she still loved him, because the only thing she hated more than his saying she didn’t understand was his asking whether she still loved him. He fought the urge and fought it and fought it. For seven seconds. (chapter 5, paragraph 85) That’s a really long time to wait. Oh wait, it look longer than seven seconds to read that sentence. That’s the whole point: Colin is so impatient and needy when it comes to love. He can’t just leave Katherine alone for one minute without asking her if she loves him, which sounds both pretty insecure and pretty annoying. The last tone is hopeless. “Technically.” Colin answered, “I think I might have already wasted it.” Maybe it was because Colin had never once in his life disappointed his parents: he did not drink or do drugs or smoke cigarettes or wear black eyeliner or stay out late or get bad grades or pierce his tongue or have the words “KATHERINE LUVA 4 LIFE” tattooed across his back. Or maybe they felt guilty, like somehow they’d failed him and brought him to this place. (chapter 3, paragraph 7) After he tells his parents about the road trip, he lets them in on a secret: his potential is already wasted. We’re not so sure about that. You can still have hopes and dreams and be an all-star even if you don’t have a huge eureka moment. Too bad Colin doesn’t believe that.

Themes of the story is life, consciousness and existence. Not to go all parental on you, but it’s time to ask some heavy-hitting questions: what do you want to do with your life? What’s the purpose of life? If you’re in high school, chances are your parents are always bugging you about which college you want to go to, or what major you want to take. It’s the norm for us to think about these things when we get to those teenage years, and Colin and Hassan are plagued by these questions too in An Abundance of Katherines. And in true young adult novel form, they come up with different answers to these questions. Colin wants to study, study, study, while Hassan is happy watching TV and doing nothing. The thing is though, both of them start to reconsider their life’s goals and path towards the end of the story.

The first issue that has been presented by the author in “An Abundance Of Katherines” the boy who’s been dumped several times which is Colin Singleton. He feels a desperate need for people to remember and appreciate him. In the beginning of the story, once Katherine the 19th (is what he called her) dumped him because she felt that he was more into being the only smart person around and cared too much about being told how much she cared about him than the relationship itself. As soon as it happened, Colin had felt broken especially since she was his first “actual” love and had dated her for a year and eight months. Hassan who’s Colin’s loyal and dearest best friend, wanted to do anything to cheer him up so he took him on a road trip. Colin thought that no one really appreciated him as a person, and they didn’t care about him after Katherine dumped him. So Hassan wanted to prove a theory that if he went on this road trip with him, it would get his mind off of the break up with Katherine the 19th. Little did he know that he was about to have his whole perspective on himself changed for the better. Hassan and Colin drove to Gunshot, Tennessee and found a extremely attractive tour guide named Lindsey who he automatically grows a connection with. While the tourist started to give both Hassan and Colin the tour on Archeduke, he realizes Lindsey had only dated one person who’s named Colin. Except, her Colin as Hassan calls him “TOC” which means “The Other Colin” is the complete opposite of Colin Singleton. TOC was a jerk lets put it that way. As Colin and Hassan stay in Gunshot, they start to get to know Lindsey better. And Colin, let’s say he’s falling in love again, it’s going to be tough for him since he knows she has a boyfriend. TOC starts to show his true colors as the story progresses. Lindsey finds out that Colin had been cheating on her with the hottie with a body, Katrina. Lindsey is beyond upset as soon as she finds out. Once Colin found out, he relieved Lindsey from those negative feelings that she had. I mean, a break-up isn’t always an easy thing to get over, and Colin knew exactly how she felt. One quote that really stuck out to me through this main issue is when Lindsey tells Colin: “If people could see me the way I see myself – if they could live in my memories – would anyone love me?” That quote stuck out to me because it shows that it’s not just Colin who feels like no one appreciates him or cares about him, but Lindsey does too. And it’s good for Colin knowing that he has someone who also knows how it feels when it comes to someone loving him. That quote and both Colin and Lindsey both show that they lose themselves after a tough break-up. It took Colin a while to be himself again, and he’s willing to help Lindsey get over the break up and be herself again. The next issue is, the journey of getting know ourselves. Are you unique? What makes you, you? That’s one of the big questions An Abundance of Katherines asks us to think about. We’ve got a washed-up child prodigy who wants to matter, but he’s just not sure if he’s unique any more. Then we’ve got Lindsey who’s faked it so much that she’s one big phony most of the time. She wants to fit in, so she pretends to be nerdy, ditzy, southern just to do so. It’s easy to lose sight of who we really are deep down in our cores, and this book is all about questing to get in touch with our true selves. The last issue would be Person vs. Self because Colin is a child prodigy trying to be a genius. Colin wants to do something big with the way he lives his life. Like become a genius. He needs to discover himself and what he’s meant to be here for before he becomes a genius. He’s been dumped so many times throughout his life. He dates girls named Katherine, all spelled in that manner. The conflict is resolved because he comes up with an equation to calculate how long until or why he gets dumped.

Critical Analysis.

The novel I studied is “An Abundance of Katherines” that was written by John Green. This book was published on September 2016 by Dutton and Speak. The genre of this book is fiction. The main characters are Colin Singleton, who is anagram-loving seventeen-year-old boy who is depressed. Hassan Harbish who is Colin’s lazy, funny, and slightly overweight best, and only, friend. Lindsey Lee Wells who Colin and Hassan on their road trip in Gutshot, Tennessee. Hollis Wells, Lindsey’s mother. She is an extreme workaholic. The conflict of this story occurs between Colin and the other Colin when Colin Singleton finds the other Colin cheating on Lindsey. The other Colin threatened Colin if he told Lindsey and Colin was forced to decide to tell Lindsey or not. Though Colin made his decision to tell Lindsey what happened. This lead to her breaking up with the other Colin and a very brutal beating for Colin Singleton and his best friend Hassan.

The main idea of the work is the boy who’s been dumped several times which is Colin Singleton. An Abundance of Katherines follows with Colin Singleton, a prodigy with an obsession for anagramming. Colin has a very specific type when it comes to the opposite sex: he only dates girls called Katherine. And so far, he’s been dumped by 19 of them. We follow Colin as he ventures into the unknown on a road trip with his best friend, Hassan. He encounters all sorts of things on his travels, from feral satan hogs to scrabble. The structure of this novel jumps around and is not in chronological order, it goes to flash backs of Colin’s past and then goes to the future again and does this repeatedly throughout the novel. The novel is third person omniscient and a quote from the novel is “As Hassan screamed, Colin thought, oh right, should have flushed.” which this point of view is significant throughout the book because the reader is not stuck reading about the same person the whole time. Also there is no bias in this novel.

I loved the plot of this book. Normally, road trips just annoy me because it is far too cliche. But, in this book, it really works. A road trip is perfect for Colin, as the ever-changing, exciting and foreign atmosphere is just like him. As the scenery changes, Colin changes as a person. I couldn’t help but see a deeper meaning in this story. On the surface, it is the tale of a prodigy on a road trip, but there is so much more than that. The novel carries some very important messages about fitting in and about trying to see logic in everything. In the hands of some authors, this would become a cheesy parable. Luckily, Green is skilled enough to make it sincere. He understands teenagers, particularly those who are nerdy and socially awkward. This gives the book a friendlier tone, which is great. What I don’t really like about this book is how Colin needs to go through a few heartbreaks and it was all came all the way from those girls named Katherines. Those Katherines should have not left him at the first place for they should have appreciated Colin for loving them so much. But finally, he hurt himself. Nineteen times of heartbreaks for he had fallen for nineteen girls named Katherines.

Dating nineteen girls, all coincidentally named Katherine seems to be a ridiculous phenomenon to a teenager whose age is only 17. This might not happen in reality. Such phenomenon can be considered as something fancy. The author here employs magical realism as he is able to translate his experiences into something that seems to be fictional in his literary work. Through writing An Abundance of Katherines, he was able to inculcate fantastical elements that were drawn from reality. The possibility of dating nineteen Katherines in a span of 17 years is quite remote, but the author managed to turn it into something fictional and at the same time realistic. A major part of this book is The Theorem of Underlying Katherine Predictability. This is a complicated idea that Colin comes up with, and it’s basically a graph that can supposedly predict when and how two people will break up. Personally, I found the idea that love can be graphed really interesting, but it might bore some readers. Luckily, you don’t need to understand the maths to enjoy the plot. The theorem is really just a vehicle to show how Colin is a prodigy, and to help him reach his final conclusion that “The future is unpredictable.” and I do think that the formula is biased. It only represented and summarized only what happened in the past and is not a viable representation of what happens in the future. This can be applied to real life. Sometimes we stick into something objective that we fail to realize that there are missing pieces that we do not consider. We tend to be close-minded and miss opportunities in life. In life, we sometimes have to take risks and modify our own formulas. To conclude, An Abundance of Katherines is a fantastically nerdy coming-of-age road trip that I would recommend to John Green fans and self-proclaimed nerds everywhere, as well as anyone who needs some good life advice.


Based on the novel I studied, an issue that had been chosen for recommendations is the boy who’s been depressed for get dumped several times which is Colin Singleton. He feels a desperate need for people to remember and appreciate him. A recommendation on this issue is we as a human being we need to know on how to appreciate others most likely to be those people who is close to us such as family and friends by treating them right. Their existence matters. Not until to the point where they desperately need people to remember and appreciate them. We as the people who had known them well, close to them somehow need to understand them more because people who goes through depression needs support as well. Next, talk to them more often. Don’t ignore them because you will make them feel alone until the feel they were born to deserve no one is life. Depression people needs company. A good company. Talk to them about anything as long as they feel they have someone then that is okay. They might need someone to have a conversation with but were so afraid to talk to anyone since they know they will get ignored by the people. Last but not least, as a close friend to the people who goes through depression we need to always cheer them up by not letting them down the same thing Hassan Harbish did. He is the only best friend Colin has. So he took Colin out for a road trip so that Colin can calm himself a little bit.

Awareness and treatment of breast cancer: college application essay help

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “About 40,000 women and 400 men in the U.S. die each year from breast cancer,” (CDC, 2016). For ages now, breast cancer awareness has reached out to communities all over the country, yet most of us do not concern ourselves with this particular cause. We tend to not care about this sort of issues in the world unless it happens to be inflicted upon those closest to us, such as our friends, and family. We tend to ignore the fact that we are not totally immune to a certain disease just because it does not show up in our family’s history. Every woman and men has the risk of developing breast cancer, however, this issue can be properly taken care of only when you are fully aware of the disease.

To start off, it is still unclear to researchers as to why breast cancer unexpectedly appears, however, they have come up with some theories that may explain it all, genetic mutation being one of them. Within the article provided by the Mayo Clinic Health Letter it states that “Although only 5 to 10 percent of breast cancers are attributed to inherited genetic mutations, the presence of these mutations can significantly influence the likelihood of developing the disease” (“Mayo Clinic”, 2016). I believe that our genes play a huge role in the presence of all types of diseases and disorders. With an incredibly strong family history of cancer, it has been determined that certain inherited mutated genes, in our case are BRCA1 and BRCA2, will have an impact on increasing the risk of breast cancer. The BRCA genes are initially created to act as a suppressor gene, keeping our cells replicating at a steady pace, but can perform the exact opposite when altered. Our cells will rapidly develop in an abnormal speed, located in the lobules, ducts, or tissues, which will then form lumps in your breast. These abnormal cells are said to be malignant tumors that initially start in the breast, and can spread to the lymph nodes and such. Another cause could be due to our menstruation and age. Once we are exposed to the hormone estrogen, there is then an increase in risk for breast cancer.

Breast cancer is not just limited to the people in the U.S., but has been occurring worldwide for centuries. In Third World countries, they are less likely to develop breast cancer, however, it cannot be said the same for more economically developed countries. Because of the changes in our reproductive factors, our lifestyles, and a rise in life expectancy, the incidence rate for developing countries have greatly escalated. For example, North America is shown to have the highest breast cancer rate in the globe, while the lowest rate would be in East Asia. Therefore, white and African American women have a higher chance than Hispanic and Asian women. In the European Journal of Cancer, it states how “It is generally accepted that breast cancer risk factors, which have mainly been studied in Western populations are similar worldwide. However, the presence of gene–environment or gene–gene interactions may alter their importance as causal factors across populations” (“European”, 2013). This statement is completely accurate, because many countries obtain similar risk factors, such as late childbearing, obesity, old age, avoiding breastfeeding, alcohol, hormone level, diet, and so on. But at the same time, what we intake, our traditions, and even alcohol consumption, which is basically our environment makes a difference. On another note, on the year of 2015, it was presumed that a little more than two-hundred thousand women would be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, sixty-thousand with non-invasive breast cancer, and about forty-thousand deaths in just the United States alone.

Early detection of breast cancer is crucial in saving a life, so it is first important to know how the disease will present itself. Checking your body regularly is highly recommended for all women. Some symptoms of breast cancer include a lump in the breast, a discharge of the nimples, a breast that has swollen up, skin irritation, and any physical changes in the breast and nipples. Then there is the subject of diagnosing breast cancer, which is a whole other matter. Those with breast cancer would need to go through a breast ultrasound, a mammogram, and an MRI testing. These are all done by a radiological technician. A radiological technician’s job is to use certain machines to capture images of structures deep inside the breast. For a breast ultrasound, sound waves are produced to create sonograms to verify if the lump is either a solid mass or is a fluid-filled cyst. A mammogram is simply a breast screening. And for an MRI testing, the system operates on magnetic fields and radio waves to capture a model of the interior body. Patients can also receive a biopsy, in which they proceed to remove tissue or fluid in your breast, and brings the test to the lab for examination. A biopsy offers a conclusive result; it determines whether your cells are indeed cancerous, the types of cells that are involved, if the cell is aggressive, etc. Once the diagnosis is completed and the patient is positive for breast cancer, the patient next undergoes a process called staging. This helps determine if the cancer cells have spread, and also the stage that the patient is in. It allows your doctor to decide what kind of treatment would be recommended with consideration to your health.

Finally, there are various ways when trying to treat breast cancer. It depends on certain types of factors, such as, the stages that you are in, the type of breast cancer that you have, your general health, and even your preferences that can make a difference. Surgery is typically suggested only towards patients with small size tumors, and those medical procedures are called lumpectomy and mastectomy. These procedures are used as an attempt to surgically remove the entire tumor, however, there are also treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hormonal therapy that can be given after surgery in order to shrink the remainder cancer cells. Chemotherapy is used to end the cancer cells reproducing cycle by utilizing common drugs, for example, methotrexate, vinorelbine, etc. Hormonal therapy on the other hand stops the hormones from reaching to the cancer cells by use of the drug, tamoxifen. It is even stated in the Systemic therapy: Hormonal therapy for cancer article that “5 years of tamoxifen after surgery reduces the annual recurrence rate by 41% and annual mortality rate by 34%.” (Jacinta & John, 2016). It can be used for even more than five years for better results.

In conclusion, being aware of breast cancer will definitely help us become prepared for a surprise appearance. To understand the cause, detect it, and then treat it is something that every woman and men should be aware of. This is not a matter that can be taken lightly. With a great amount of lives already been lost, who is to say that it couldn’t have been prevented with the right amount of knowledge.

Hua-gu-deng Dance

Dance is a universal understanding accepted by all. The varieties of dance forms that exist within the world are infinite. Two interesting and comparable dance styles are Hua-gu-deng Dance, which is a typical Chinese dance form, and ballet, a classical style originating from Europe. Both genres of dance have distinct features that make them unique from each other and other branches of dance.

Ballet originated as a court dance, and then later transformed into a performing art. Ballet has its own terminology in the French language; the language of ballet can be used in any country and it will have the same definition. According to the Atlanta Ballet, A Brief History of Ballet, “The official terminology and vocabulary of ballet was gradually codified in French over the next 100 years, and during the reign of Louis XIV.” At the time, the King of France performed many of the beloved dances. Ballet became a staple art form in countries like Russia, Italy, and France who fostered the importance of ballet. In France, King Louis XIV generated the Académie Royale de Danse, and he established requirements and began certifying instructors. Ballet’s popularity began declining in France after 1830. Today, ballet is still very popular and can be found all around the world. Ballet has still held on to its traditional roots with very little changes to the style. The French language is still used to define movements and the historic technique types have remained the same. The only aspect that slightly differs from historic ballet is the methods used to practice it: for instance, Italy practices the Cecchetti method of ballet. Besides the different methods of ballet, there are sub-categories of ballet; these distinct dance styles all have slight variations, yet they stay true to their roots. One variation of ballet is Neo-classical ballet. Neo-classical ballet popularized in the 20th century by talented individuals such as George Balanchine. This style of ballet is fast-paced, has more energy, can be asymmetrical, does not tell a story, and focuses on aesthetic. On the other hand, classical ballet is graceful and fluid, balanced and symmetrical, it always is a narrative dance, and elaborate costumes and sets are preferred.  Another more modern style of ballet is contemporary ballet. Contemporary ballet is greatly influenced by modern dance. It includes floor work, more body movement and greater range of the bodyline, and it can be danced in pointe shoes or barefoot. During the 19th century, the Romantic Movement was occurring. Most ballets created during this era had endearing, loving themes and they often portrayed women as passive and fragile. In today’s world, ballet has moved away from the constraints of classical ballet and has begun including “plot-less” ballets with darker, deeper meanings.

Classical Chinese dance, more specifically Hua-gu-deng dance, has been around for thousands of years. Hua-gu-deng dance has played a major role in the cultural development of the Chinese; it originated from the Huai River in eastern China. Classical Chinese dance has been around for nearly 5,000 years. With every changing era and dynasty in China, the dance tradition has adapted and combined aesthetics with its distinct dynamic content, rhythms, and narrative. Classical Chinese dance goes back to the Qin Dynasty. Each dynasty that followed the Qin Dynasty created different and specific dance elements. Classical Chinese dance has three main factors that are focused on during training: technical skill, form, and bearing. Technical skill encompasses any acrobatic movements such as flips, jumps, leaps, turns, aerial tricks etc. Form, the second aspect of classical Chinese dance, is referring to the way in which the dancers move their bodies from one movement to another. The movement is usually very circular and full, similar to modern dance: modern dance tends to have round and flowing movements that are loose and asymmetrical. Every movement in the form of classical Chinese dance is choreographed. Breathing is also very crucial to Chinese dance. Dancers are taught how and when to breathe. All movements in this dance form must be round and full. In classical Chinese dance, a vital element named “bearing” is the inner spirit of the dancer. By emphasizing “bearing”, the dancer is able to extenuate the deeper meanings of dance and create a further understanding of the narrative. It is in this “bearing” that classical Chinese dance carries the ancient characteristics of its culture.

How did the Nazi party garner support? – Conformity and obedience

In 1933, Adolf Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany. His Nazi party had grown in size from a small party to becoming the rulers of Germany. The Nazis were fascist and they used their racist ideas as an excuse to commit atrocious crimes. Despite all the crimes they committed, the Nazis were very popular. Hitler got to power despite having ideas that people would not tolerate or support. Indeed we know that the Nazi ideals were racists and bigots, so how did they receive such support from a society of people who were so democratic?

Conformity and obedience plays a big role in this ordeal.

Conformity can be a behavior to follow certain standards that a group may expect.

Conformity can be both good and bad. Every culture has its own practices that other cultures might find a bit “awkward”. Although awkward to one culture, some practices are completely normal in other cultures. Slavery is an example of this. Even at the height of slavery, some cultures detested the idea of keeping a human being in bondage and withhold their freedom from them. These cultures took great strides to outlaw slavery in their land. Indeed different cultures value different beliefs, however, even in the same culture, some people might have different views. During the height of slavery in America, there were those who believed that slavery was wrong, but they themselves owned slaves. This included Thomas Jefferson, who was known to have as much as 175 slaves despite referring to slavery as an “assemblage of horrors”. Despite being fully aware that slavery was wrong, many people participated in slavery because that was the way of life for the culture. The same could be said of the Nazi party. Many Germans believed that the treatment of Jews by the Nazi party was unfair and wrong, however, not many people questioned it. In that period of time and in that society, it was normal for people to think that anyone that wasn’t Aryan was subhuman. Anyone who had different views was thought to be odd. No one dared to question this belief because they did not want to be considered a Jewish sympathiser. Anyone who tried to help the Jews during their persecution was subject to severe repercussions.

The Nazi party that took control of Germany blamed the Jews for the depression that Germany faced and for losing the war. They started implementing laws that limited the rights of the Jews even though Jews were German citizens. Properties that belonged to Jewish households were confiscated and Jews were ordered to concentration camps where six million would go on to lose their lives. How did a country which was known for its democratic idealism succumb to such fascist state? Obedience. Germans believed that Hitler would be the one to bring Germany from their economic depression. Germans were outraged because they felt their leaders betrayed them after the first world war. Hitler promised to bring to Germany political and economic stability, which he did. He was very popular among the German people and so not many people questioned him when he became the Fuhrer of Germany. As Fuhrer, he ordered the Jews to be isolated and sent to prison camps, many not only failed to question his decisions, they supported it. They also supported his decision to invade Poland and eventually France, sparking the second world war. After the war, German soldiers were tried in court and they justified their actions because they said they were just following orders. How could people commit such horrid crimes fully knowing that what they were doing was wrong? Sometimes these may be symptoms of obedience.

The German Jews were a minority group, so it was easy for other German groups to isolate them from the rest German society. Because they were the minority group, Hitler was able to capitalize on that and create an “us vs them” mentality against them. The German Jews were easy to isolate because they had a different religion and culture from average Germans.

Aryan Germans were able to distance themselves from this group which had different. This gave Germans an excuse to place them in a class that was viewed as subhuman. This was the same tactic used by the Europeans to colonize and conquer the rest of the world. They believed that the humans residing in the places they conquered had little to no right to govern themselves because they were subhuman, so they could not possibly be trusted to govern themselves.

Another reason Germans allowed the Nazi party to commit crimes to humanity was because they felt they just following orders from their Fuhrer. Hitler was a man who according to the German people kept his promises. He promised to bring Germany back from the recession and he did; something the German government had struggled with until then. He also promised to restore Germany to the once great nation it had been and to unite all the Germans in the world under one flag. The Germans placed such high hopes in Hitler that they gave him the highest authority in the country. After Hitler was declared the Fuhrer, he was known as the most powerful man in Germany and he was very popular with his countrymen. To defy the orders of the hero of Germany would have been seen as an act of treason. They believed that if they did not obey Hitler, they must not have the best interest to Germany. To defy Hitler was to defy Germany as well. No patriot would want to go against the best interest of his country. Even if they knew their actions were evil, they did it regardless because Hitler ordered it; Germany ordered it. Even if it meant killing innocent people, Germans were willing to follow the orders of their Fuhrer because he represented the collective mind of the whole country. A country is nothing if the citizens can not follow the orders of its leaders.

The Nazi party was a great example of how conformity and obedience could lead us to do things that we may feel is wrong. It was easier for them to commit these crimes because they convinced the majority to think it was ok to do these things. They also used the trust of the people in their government to their advantage. People are more willing to listen to commands if there is a higher authority directing them. Hitler utilized obedience and conformity to rule a country of intellectuals and to lead the country into a war that took so many lives. It is easy to say that we won’t do bad things even if someone forces us, but history says otherwise.

Sometimes we don’t even have to be forced, we just have to believe in authority and isolate groups of people.

Works Cited

Andrews, Evan. “How Many U.S. Presidents Owned Slaves?”, A&E Television Networks, 19 July 2017,
crashcourse. “Social Influence: Crash Course Psychology #38.” YouTube, YouTube, 11 Nov. 2014,

Influence of the Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde on popular culture: college essay help near me

The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, a title you may not have heard of before but is a story you definitely know. In order for you to understand the topics discussed in this article, you need to understand the plot of the novel, so here is a quick summary.

Basically, there is a well-known doctor named Henry Jekyll who has a lawyer/friend named Mr. Utterson. Mr. Utterson admires his friend very much , but is concerned when Dr. Jekyll has him write up a very strange will naming his entire estate to a man named Edward Hyde, whom Utterson has never heard of before. The will is odd because it states that

“in case of the decrease of Henry Jekyll, M.D., D.C.L., L.L.D., F.R.S., etc, all his possessions were to pass into the hands of his “friend and benefactor Edward Hyde,” but that in case of Dr. Jekyll’s “disappearance or unexplained absence for any period of time exceeding three calendar months,” the said Edward Hyde should step into the said Henry Jekyll’s shoes without further delay and free from any burthen or obligation, beyond the payment of a few small sums to the members of the doctor’s household (Stevenson, 39).”

Utterson begins to investigate Mr. Hyde and is told a story about a brute of a man who knocked down a little girl in the street near where Dr. Jekyll lives, everyone on the street yelled at the rude man, and the man offered to pay a large sum of money to the family of the girl. He then disappeared  through the door of Dr. Jekyll’s home and office, only to return with a large check drawn from Dr. Jekyll’s bank account. Utterson is appalled by this story and goes to talk to Mr. Hyde himself. He hunts down Mr. Hyde and describes him as a man with evil oozing out of his pores. He then asks Dr. Jekyll about these odd arrangements. Dr. Jekyll refuses to comment, and nothing happens for about a year… Skip ahead to one year later where the brutal murder of a popular public politician occurs and Mr. Hyde is the one and only suspect. Everyone tries to hunt down this evil man, but no one succeeds and it is forgotten. But during this whole situation with Mr. Hyde, Dr. Jekyll is in excellent health and is throwing dinner parties for his friends, including a certain Dr. Lanyon. Once again, skip to 2 months later, where Dr. Lanyon and Dr. Jekyll fall terribly ill after admittedly fighting with one another and Dr. Lanyon dies, leaving mysterious documents with Mr. Utterson’s, to ONLY be opened if Dr. Jekyll dies or disappears. Dr. Jekyll remains in seclusion, even though Mr. Utterson visits him often. Finally, one evening, Dr. Jekyll’s butler visits Mr. Utterson at home and tells Utterson he is worried about his employer’s mental state and health and is convinced there was some sort of foul play. The butler persuades Mr. Utterson to return to Dr. Jekyll’s house, where they break into Dr. Jekyll’s laboratory. There they find Edward Hyde dead on the floor and Jekyll nowhere to be found. Utterson finds several documents written to him in the labratory, and goes back home to read what he later finds out is Mr. Lanyon’s narrative and Dr. Jekyll’s narrative, which turns out, is two parts of the same story about Mr. Hyde. These documents tell us that Dr. Jekyll was able to transform into Mr. Hyde by means of a potion that he created and as Mr. Hyde, he discovered a world of pleasure and crime. In his story, Dr. Jekyll writes that Mr. Hyde became very  powerful and very harder to control, in the end the dominant personality beat out the weaker one.

“I guess we’re all two people. One daylight, and the one we keep in shadow.”

— Bruce Wayne/Batman, Batman Forever

That is a very basic summary of all the important plot points in the story but it is the two people inside one body that you most likely recognize. In today’s popular culture, this story makes itself known very frequently and all exmaples stem from this original “split personality story”, The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll And Mr Hyde! A few current examples of this story in today’s popular culture are:

The Hulk, also referred to as The Incredible Hulk is a character from the Marvel Comic Universe created in comic book form in 1962. The nuclear Physicist Dr. Robert Bruce Banner is caught in the a blast of a gamma bomb that he created. This nuclear blast creates a alternate personality/physical distortion within himself named Hulk; a giant, green angry monster. The character, both as Banner and the Hulk, is often pursued by police or armed forces, usually because of the destruction Hulk causes. The powerful and monsterous emotional alter ego of an emotionally repressed scientist who comes forward whenever Banner experiences emotional stress, is an example of the Jekyll and Hyde motif. While the Hulk usually saves the day, seeking usually to protect, his terrifying nature drives Bruce Banner into isolation, much like Jekyll, fearing discovery. Stevenson’s book was also the inspiration behind Two-Face, a villain created in 1941 for the Batman comic book series. Harvey Dent, an upstanding citizen and DA, was horribly scarred on one side of his body and traumatized in a warehouse fire set by The Joker. This caused his formerly repressed “Hyde” personality to emerge. The two personalities come into direct conflict often and make decisions they are split on using the outside moderator of a flipped coin. Bane is another character from the DC Comics universe and another villain from the Batman comic series. Shrouded in mystery, Bane appeared in Gotham City with the one goal to eliminate Batman once and for all. Besides being a man of great physical size and power, Bane’s strength is augmented by “Venom,” a Super Steroid that increases his strength, physical size and durability for limited periods of time. Much like Dr.Jekyll turns himself into Hyde using a potion, the Venom potion, injected into his body is also his weakness — when the supply of the chemical is cut he goes back to normal and loses his powers. I also see a huge parallel between Jekyll and Hyde and the most iconic movie villain of all time, Darth Vader. Just like Dr. Jekyll, Anakin Skywalker has his alter-ego. In EPISODE V, Yoda tells Luke Skywalker “Anger, fear, aggression; the dark side of the Force are they. Easily they flow, quick to join you in a fight. If once you start down the dark path, forever will it dominate your destiny, consume you it will” — just like when Jekyll first transformed into Hyde and then he felt the urge to do it again and again until finally he lost control over the transformation and ends up as Hyde permanently. Similarly, Anakin Skywalker first tastes the power of the dark side when he kills an entire camp of Sand-people to protect his mother and this starts his fall to the dark side and his eventually transformation into Darth Vadar. Another Marvel Comics supervillain was named after and based on Mr Hyde. Calvin Zabo was born in Trenton, New Jersey. He was a morally abject yet brilliant medical researcher who was interested by the effect of hormones on human physiology. One of his favorite books was The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. He was convinced that the experiment in the book could actually be performed and became obsessed with the idea of letting loose his full beast-like nature in a superhuman form. He was eventually successful in creating the formula, and turned into a huge, Hulk-like creature he named “Mister Hyde”. The character of Jekyll and Hyde can be seen in Alan Moore’s comic book, The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen. In the comic, interesting team of crimefighters, made up of famous characters from classic literature, fight crime in Victorian London. In the issues Hyde is very strong and has a Jekyll persona, whereas in the novel, Jekyll has a Hyde persona. Sometimes in film, television, literature, or theater, a character and his evil twin, evil counterpart, or shadow archetype (all different titles for the same type of character) are really the same guy in the end or sometimes, a completely different character is sharing body space with another. The point is, the villain sometimes lives inside the hero’s body, therefore hiding in plain sight. For the entire story, the hero is trying to catch himself; which has created many of the detective stories you read today. You can also see this idea in many different pop culture examples. If the two personalities are aware of each other, it becomes a case of Gollum Made Me Do It.

A character has another personality to keep him company, the other personality isn’t exactly a model citizen. However, he is… persuasive. He often finds himself being bullied or forced into following his darker side’s advice, even if it’s advice he wouldn’t have followed normally.

The Hyde personality’s crimes are outside of Jekyll’s control and, often, the character is unable to stop themselves from becoming “evil”, this is often a case of being Driven to Villiany.

Sometimes, your villain’s just a normal guy who’s brought into villainy against their own will. Don’t get confused with mind control or possession, it’s because they’ve been warped by events happening around them, and forced into villainy by forces outside their control. A broken shell of a human being, the only thing left is insanity.

Sometimes they’re not really evil but, occasionally this can be resolved with a Split-Personality Merge that reconciles both sides into a healthy whole.

There are many possible reasons for the existence of these split personalities, but this co-habitation is rarely peaceful or long lasting. It usually results in a battle of the central mind to try and find out which personality will take over. Sometimes, the winning personality does not reduce the loser to a small, powerless voice but, instead offers to become one again; they merge into a single, whole person that is greater than the sum of its minds.

Also, the Jekyll side isn’t necessarily “good” either. Comes, of course, from The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, by Robert Louis Stevenson. It used to be a twist ending, but it no longer suprises anyone. Most adaptations of the work focus on said twist. The real life example of Deacon Brodie is said to have inspired Stevenson. William Brodie or Deacon Brodie was a Scottish cabinet- maker, deacon of a trades guild, and Edinburgh city councillor, who maintained a secret life as a burglar. As did the story of Horace Wells, a pioneer of medical anaesthetics. While researching the chemical formula, chloroform, Wells tested many of the various dosages on himself. Because of this, Wells unknowingly built up a dangerous level of the drug in his system, and ended up attacking two prostitutes during a sulfuric acid drug related episode. Once he sobered up and learned of what he had done, he committed suicide.

Doctor Horace Wells born January 21, 1815.Along with many comic book characters, there are examples of Jekyll and Hyde’s story in one of the most popular shows of the past few years, American Horror Story. American Horror Story (AHS) is a show that uses so many of the important details that make up the story The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde in the show’s many series. In season one titled, Murder House, there is a character named Dr. Charles Montgomery who is a “surgeon for the stars” and the original builder of the “murder house”. In the series, his character is technically a ghost but we do get flashbacks to when he was alive. The Jekyll and Hyde connection is that the Doctor becomes addicted to the drug Ether and starts to lose his mind and kill is patients without realizing it. He is later on shot and killed by his wife after he tries to stitch their dead and dismembered son back together Frankenstein-style.

In season five of American Horror Story titled Hotel, there is another Jekyll and Hyde like character/storyline named the Ten Commandments Killer. Season five basically revolves around a LAPD Detective named John Lowe, played by actor Wes Bently, trying to hunt down the Ten Commandments Killer.

Now before I continue with the storyline and connection to Stevenson’s novel, let me explain the story of the Ten Commandments Killer’s and his MO.   The original Ten Commandments Killer was a man named James March, designer and owner of the Hotel Cortez (the main setting for the entire season), which opened on August 23, 1926. James Patrick March was born in 1895 and started killing people in 1920. He was described as a man of new money and he decided to build and open a grand hotel to make it easier to kill people without getting caught. He built many secret rooms and hallways into the hotel to allow for more killing and he used the hotel’s infrastructure to hide all the evidence of the crimes. His wife Elizabeth knew all about his murdering and actually enjoyed the sounds of his victims screams, so she encouraged his dark habit. There are many gruesome details to the murders he committed but most of his early murders in the hotel involved playful, thespian-esque ways. The actual Ten Commandments killing started with March when he explained to one of his victimes that he despised religion and that it was the worst thing in the world. March said he was going to have to kill God, because as long as there was a God, men like himself would never find peace. His hate of religion is what gave him the motivation to collect all the bibles from the hotel bed stands and arrange them with a pile of his victims to leave behind for the police; this is where the Ten Commandments murders started. But on February 25, 1930 an anonymous phone called tipped off the police and they came to the Hotel Cortez to arrest March. Before the police could arrest March however, he killed his servant and slit his own throat leaving the Ten Commandment murders unfinished. March, along with all of his victims and numerous other victims of the hotel are trapped in the hotel as ghost that appear to guests and interact as characters in the show.

This is where the character John Lowe comes into play in the show. As previously stated, John is a LAPD officer trying to solve the case of the Ten Commandments Killer, but in 2010, John visited the Hotel Cortez on a drunken night and the ghost of James March sees potential in him to finish his work as the Ten Commandments Killer. It wasn’t until 2015 when John finally agrees to complete the murders and this is where the season begins. Each murder symbolizes one of the ten commandments, for example the first murder is Thou Shalt Not Steal and the victim is a infamous thief whom is killed, and for each murder something is taken from each victim and places it in a glass jar in Room 64 of the Hotel Cortez, so for the first murder the thief’s hand is cut off. James March was able to complete two of the ten murders in 1926 but then John Lowe finished off the other eight in 2015. The connection I see to Jekyll and Hyde in this whole story is the fact that John has no recollection of committing any of these murders or even his first time at the Hotel Cortez in 2010. It isn’t until the second to last episode where John finally remembers that he has been doing all this and has a psychotic break and is eventually killed by the SWAT team in the last episode. When watching the season, you can actually see a physical change in John throughout the season as more and more of the ten commandment murders happen. His eyes sink in, be becomes pale and loses weight, his clothes are wrinkled and he just looks physically exhausted more and more as each episode happens. It isn’t until that final episode that his appearance is like this because his good personality is losing strength as his evil, murderous personality is slowly taking over and killing more people.

The scene where Detective John Lowe suddenly remembers all the murders he has committed as the “Ten Commandments Killer” that he has been so desperately searching for at his day job in the police force. Along with the story of Jekyll and Hyde inspiring so many different movie and television characters and plot schemes, the 1931 film version of The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde made movie history with it’s incredible never before seen or done on screen transformation (see the video below). Fredric March, the actor who played Jekyll and Hyde in the movie, actually won an Academy Award for his performance in the film. Film directors and makeup artists everywhere wanted to know the secret behind the scene but it wasn’t until 1970 when director Rouben Mamoulian described how it was done: it was done with colored make-up and matching colored filters, which were removed or added to the scene to change March’s appearance. Since the film was in black-and-white, the color changes didn’t show.

The 1931 transformation scene that rocked the film industry and won actor Fredric March an Academy Award. All in all, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson has had a HUGE influence in popular culture since it’s first publication in 1886. You can see it’s influence in television, movies, horror makeup, comic books, theater, and so much more. This storyline is here to stay and will probably be influencing popular culture for generations to come.

Franklin D. Roosevelt heroism

Villainification is the process of creating original actors as the faces of systemic harm, with those hyper-individualized villains losing their shared characteristics. Like heroification, there is a simplified portrayal of historical actors, but villainification has particularly harmful consequences. We suggest that villainification obscures the way in which evil operates through everyday actions and unquestioned structures because of the focus on the whim of one person. Although it is unfortunate that we do not often see how we can inadvertently help others and make systemic change, it is disconcerting when we fail to look at our part in the suffering of others. In this paper, I will try to unravel Franklin D. Roosevelt heroism which was the President of the United States where he served through the Great Depression and the Second World War and received the “hero” treatment.

Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected during the height of the Great Depression in 1932 and remained President until his death in 1945. During this period of the presidency, he oversaw an expansion of the Federal Government and helped America lose its isolationist stance as it joined World War Two and helped formulate the United Nations. He was an influential figure in both American and world politics.

Roosevelt came from a privileged background but was influenced by his headmaster at Groton School in Massachusetts, who taught the importance of Christian duty in helping less fortunate people.

Franklin married a distant cousin Eleanor in 1905. They had six children in quick succession, two of them who went on to be elected to the House of Representatives. FDR has several affairs outside of his marriage including Lucy Mercer, his social secretary.  His wife Eleanor offered a divorce at one point, but for a variety of reasons, it was not taken up. She later became a dedicated wife/nurse during Franklin’s moderate disability brought on by polio.

When FDR was elected president in 1930, America was facing an unprecedented economic crisis; unemployment was reaching 25%  – Furthermore, government unemployment relief was insufficient at the time. There was real financial desperation, and many classical economists were at a loss as to how to respond.

To some extent, FDR pursued an expansionary fiscal policy as advocated by John M Keynes. The government borrowed, levied a national income tax and spent money on public works (known as the New Deal). This period also marked a shift in power from local governments who could not cope to the national government. Roosevelt also helped introduce legislation protecting worker’s rights. The new deal in no way solved the economic crisis, but it did mitigate some of the worst effects, creating employment and eventually kick-starting the economy. By the end of the 1930s, some sectors of the economy such as construction were booming.

FDR was keen for America to become a good citizen of the world and fight for individual freedoms. However, in the early 1940s, America still retained a powerful isolationist approach, and he campaigned for re-election promising to stay out of World War Two – despite his dislike of Nazi Germany. The bombing of Pearl Harbour in December 1941, completely changed the outlook of America. F.D.R wasted no time in declaring war on Japan and then Germany as well.

“In these days of difficulty, we Americans everywhere must and shall choose the path of social justice…, the path of faith, the path of hope, and the path of love toward our fellow man.” ~ Franklin D. Roosevelt

Once America had entered the war, they entered whole-heartedly into both arenas – the Pacific and Europe. In the D Day landings of 1941, America supplied roughly 2/3 of the troops. Roosevelt was an astute Commander in Chief. In particular, he was able to identify generals with genuine talent and promoted them to key roles. As Roosevelt said himself:

“I’m not the smartest fellow in the world, but I can sure pick smart colleagues.”

In particular, FDR promoted Dwight Eisenhower and George Marshall – both to play critical roles during the Second World War.

Roosevelt’s real political skill lay in his powers of communication and identification with ordinary people. His radio fireside chats were instrumental in building confidence with the American people, both during the Great Depression and during the Second World War.

“This great Nation will endure as it has endured, will revive and will prosper. So, first of all, let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself — nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance.” – 1933

Roosevelt had a close relationship with Winston Churchill. There was a high mutual admiration. At one point Roosevelt said ‘It is fun being in the same decade as you.’

Together with Churchill and Stalin, the Big Three helped lay the foundations for the post-war period, which included the setting up of the United Nations – a successor to the League of Nations.

Roosevelt died unexpectedly from a massive brain haemorrhage in April 1945, just before the first meeting of the United Nations. His death stunned the world, and he was remembered as a champion of freedom and a man of humanity and optimism.

I’ve never understood the reverence for Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He gets points for picking great Generals and led this country to victory in WWII. But he totally mismanaged the economy, during the recession of 1937 unemployment reached 19% (the excellent depression high was 25%), his freedom-sapping policies never did get this country out of the Great Depression, and don’t forget that he tried to circumvent constitutional separation of powers (now who does that remind me of?). And then there is the issue never discussed, he was a bigot, his hatred of Jews caused thousands to be added to the ranks of Hitler’s victims, and his hatred of Asians convinced him to put Japanese Americans into internment camps.

Some point to the fact he didn’t he bomb and destroy the train tracks that were shipping Jews to the concentration camps? But my opinion sides with the people who say that wouldn’t have worked. The real question to be explored was why didn’t allow more Jews into the country and why didn’t he pressure Britain to enable Jews to move from Nazi-controlled areas into what was then called Palestine?

In the book “FDR and the Holocaust: A Breach of Faith,” historian Rafael Medoff suggests that Roosevelt failed to take relatively simple measures that would have saved significant numbers of Jews during the Holocaust because his vision for America was one that had a small amount of Jews. In other words, FDR doomed many Jew to suffer not because he wanted them to die, but because he didn’t want a lot of them living in his neighborhood.

Loewen argues that this heroification is something that enables readers and teachers to overlook the conflicts that will allow a full reading of historical narratives and bring in other points of view. The heroification process is done to make textbooks more appealing to school districts and also to present an artificial exceptionalism view of American History. At the same time, heroification enables students to assume a role of passivity in constructing the next wave of American social and historical dynamics. If all that is read are about heroes, it creates the mentality that there is nothing left to do and this enables those in the position of power to continue doing what they do without any questioning or in-depth analysis.

Joseph Paul Franklin: college essay help online

White supremacy is a form of vile racism where white people are perceived as superior to all other races in every physical, mental, social, economic, and political aspect. This repugnant mindset dates back in United States’ History to centuries ago, but unfortunately still exists in the minds of people today. White supremacy is clearly very wrong, however it is important to be aware that it can be very dangerous when it is implemented by the mentally ill. John Paul Franklin used white supremacy as a stimulus for unethical, malicious and remorseless actions that lead to the death of at least 15 people in 11 different states. (FBI, 2014) Franklin’s three-year killing rampage was motivated by his “pathological hatred of African Americans and Jews”. (Montaldo, n.d.) Joseph Paul Franklin was a perfect example of how abusive households can lead to serious psychological issues such as mental illness, which in turn can lead to extreme violence.

James Clayton Vaughan was his birth name. Born into a poor family in Alabama, Franklin was physically abused by both of his parents throughout his entire childhood. He once told investigators, “My momma didn’t care about us” and stated that he and his three siblings were not fed properly or “allowed to play with other children”. (Nye, 2013) While in high school in the 1960’s, Franklin became interested in southern white supremacist groups and went on to becoming an active member of The Ku Klux Klan (KKK), The American Nazi Party, The National States Rights Party, and The National Socialists White People’s Party. His interest in these groups started when his obsession with evangelical Christianity and Nazism took off in his early high school years. Franklin changed his name in 1976 when he wanted to join the Rhodesian Army but couldn’t due to his criminal record. Franklin proceeded to choose “Joseph Paul” in honor of Joseph Paul Goebbels, Adolf Hitler’s minister of propaganda. He then chose “Franklin” in honor of the US founding father, Benjamin Franklin. He never ended up joining the army, and instead started a battle between him and every minority that he could get his hands on. (Montaldo, n.d.)

Franklin became more and more aggressive towards minorities as he got older, to the point where he “rejected the most radical hate groups because he didn’t think they took their hatred far enough”. (FBI, 2014) He felt that sitting around and complaining about the supposed “inferior” races wouldn’t do any good- he thought it was more effective to actually go out and kill them. He was constantly looking for opportunities to “cleanse the world” of races that he felt were inferior. Blacks and Jews were the primary races that Franklin went after, and he considered interracial couples to be even worse. (FBI, 2014)

Franklin was born on April 13, 1950. He was a high school dropout, and had a daughter after getting married in 1969 at the age of 19. (FamPeople, 2012) He became an abusive husband and got a divorce not long after. (FBI, 2014) The abuse he had towards his family is a direct result of the physical abuse he faced as a child. Child abuse has a direct relationship with mental health, and can be the cause of any kind of mental illness. (Szalavitz, 2012) Franklin’s actions were inexcusable but can definitely be linked to the abuse he endured as a child. Franklin was treated as inferior throughout his entire upbringing, and he transferred this energy from pain into hate. He used white supremacy as an outlet for his hatred. His obsession with hate allowed him to feel superior to other races, however this was probably the one thing that ever allowed Franklin to feel superior to other people.

Since Franklin was a high school dropout, he couldn’t carry a stable job. To keep himself afloat, Franklin robbed multiple banks up and down the East Coast. In between robberies, Franklin sold his blood and sold/traded guns. (FamPeople, 2012) He spent most of his time plotting to kill minorities as well as interracial couples. His killing rampage began in 1977 at the age of 27, and ended in 1980 when he was arrested at the age of 30. (FBI, 2014) He has been linked to or associated with many murders, some of which he was not arrested for or convicted of. He confessed to the murders of 20 people, some of which are believed to be untrue. (Montaldo, n.d.) This is one of the many reasons that defense lawyers claimed Franklin to be a “paranoid schizophrenic” that was not fit to stand on trial. (BBC News, 2013)

Franklin was officially convicted of nine murders, however was a suspect in another twelve. Eight of these convictions resulted in a life sentence. However, Franklin was sentenced to death by lethal injection by the state of Missouri for the murder of Gerald Gordon in 1997.

(Vitello, 2013) Gordon’s murder was just one of Franklin’s attacks on a synagogue. He chose Synagogues as his primary target for the single purpose of killing Jews. Gordon’s death occurred on October 8th, 1977 in Potosi, Missouri. Franklin took five shots at both Gerald Gordon as well as a man named William Ash while they were walking through the synagogue parking lot. He killed Gordon and injured Ash using a Remington 700 Hunting Rifle. He was then sentenced to death the following February. (Montaldo, n.d.) Franklin told investigators that he selected this synagogue at random. (Vitello, 2013) He also said that his primary goal in the event was to “find a Jew and kill him” (Nye, 2013) Franklin bombed another synagogue in July 1977 that was located in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Unlike the Missouri attack, nobody was injured that day. (BBC News, 2013)

Franklin did not confess to Gordon’s murder until 17 years after the incident while in a prison cell talking to an investigator. (Vitello, 2013) This is just one of many instances where Franklin’s story has changed, and that is the primary reason why the court has been unable to convict him of some of the other crimes he has supposedly committed. Some of the 22 murders that he has confessed to haven’t even been brought to court because of lack of evidence. (Montaldo,1) Franklin has also robbed about 16 banks in order to “fund his activities” (BBC, 2013)

Franklin was a drifter and often “floated up and down the east coast” planning his next attack. He carried a sniper rifle and his main target was “MRC’s”, or mix-raced couples.

(FamPeople, 2012) His most well-known crime involving interracial couples was the attempted Murder of Larry Flynt, a publisher for the Hustler magazine. (Vitello, 2013) Franklin went after Flynt because of the cover of the December 1975 issue of Hustler showing an interracial couple having sex. Franklin stated to CNN, “I saw that interracial couple he had, photographed there, having sex”. He then proceeded to say, “It just made me sick. I think whites marry with whites, blacks with blacks, Indians with Indians. Orientals with Orientals. I threw the magazine down and thought, ‘I’m going to kill that guy’”. (Nye, 2013) This quote shows Franklin’s extreme, obsessive hate towards interracial couples and how it correlates with his mental instability. Anyone that feels the need to murder someone because of their skin color, or because of the skin color of their significant other, clearly isn’t mentally stable enough, or safe enough, to be roaming the world by his or herself. Franklin’s freedom was a threat to lives of every nonwhite person in the country.

Franklin’s psychiatrist, Dorothy Otnow Lewis, was one of a few people who testified that he was unfit to stand on trial. Lewis stated that he was a delusional thinker due to the abusive childhood that he endured. One example of this irrational thinking was when he claimed that God wanted him to “start a race war”. (FamPeople, 2012) However, the court still convicted him for his crimes and sentenced him to death. Franklin was held on death row in Missouri. Clearly Franklin was thinking straight enough to plan his attacks as well as his escapes ahead of time, and he was able to avoid law enforcement for years. Many of Frankin’s escape methods included dying his hair, changing clothes, and changing vehicles. He would plan his escape paths ahead of time and make sure that he left no evidence. (FamPeople, 2012) However, the FBI was becoming closer and closer to catching Franklin by 1980. In September of that year, a Kentucky police officer noticed a car in the back of Franklin’s car. An outstanding warrant appeared during a records check, and he was then brought in for questioning and detained. He was able to escape detainment but was recaptured again not long after. Franklin was finally caught for good in 1980 when a nurse, who was drawing his blood, recognized an eagle tattoo on his arm and called the Police. (FamPeople, 2012)

Another one of Franklin’s attacks on an interracial couple occurred in Madison, Wisconsin. Alphonse Manning and Toni Schwenn were pulling out of a parking lot of a shopping mall. Franklin crashed into their car from behind, got out, and shot both 23 year olds to death. (Montaldo, n.d.) Another instance occurred in Cincinnati, Ohio on June 6th, 1980. Franklin was standing on an overpass waiting for an interracial couple to pass by. Franklin had planned this attack, so he knew that the couple should eventually be there. While he was waiting, Franklin became impatient and shot his cousins Darren Lane, age 14, and Dante Brown, age 13, while they were walking into a convenience store. Both children died and Franklin was charged with two life sentences. (Montaldo, n.d.) This instance shows Franklin’s short temper and yearning for violence. Franklin shot two innocent children of his own blood because he was getting impatient. That alone shows true mental illness, because anyone in their right mind wouldn’t be waiting on an overpass to commit those murders to begin with. His lack of patience and reliance on violence shows mental instability by itself, and his extreme racism and obsession with white supremacy infinitely multiplies the level of danger that he creates for those around him.

Larry Flynt was paralyzed from the hips down after Franklin attacked him. However, Flynt didn’t believe in the death penalty and actually fought against Franklin being put to death. Flynt stated, “The government has no business at all being in the business of killing people” he then told investigators that he believes, “It’s much more punishment to put somebody in prison for the rest of their lives than it is to snip their life out in a few seconds with a lethal injection”.  (Nye, 2013) Oblivious to the fact that Flynt was not trying to help him, Franklin referred to Flynt as “old pal” in regards to his opposition to his death sentence. Franklin’s mental instability is evident in this instance; Franklin seems to have thought that Flynt’s opposition to the death sentence was not because of Flynt’s conservative political views, but because somehow, Flynt was now on his side.

On May 29th 1980, Franklin was charged with the attempted murder of African American civil rights leader, Vernon Jordan. (BBC News, 2013) He committed this crime after seeing Jordan, who was black, with a white woman in Fort Wayne, Indiana. (FamPeople, 2012) He previously had threatened to kill President Jimmy Carter for his pro-civil rights views, along with Jesse Jackson. He realized that the security that protected these two men was too tight, and so he went on to murder Vernon Jordan instead. (FamPeople, 2012) Franklin was clearly an impatient, impulsive character that acted strictly on random, unethical reasoning. Franklin’s sister informed investigators that he was the target of the majority of the abuse in their dysfunctional household. She also added that Franklin used to read fairytales in order to escape the domestic abuse that he endured on a daily basis. (Montaldo, n.d.) This was definitely one of the main reasons for Franklin’s evident mental illness; Franklin used white supremacy as an outlet for his prolonged childhood anger and frustration.

On July 29th, 1978, Franklin shot Bryant Tatum and his girlfriend, Nancy Hilton with a 12-gauge shotgun simply because they were an interracial couple. The attack happened at a Pizza Hut in Chattanooga, Tennessee and unfortunately resulted in the death of Tatum. Hilton was able to survive but was injured, and Franklin was given a life sentence. (FamPeople, 2012) On July 12th, 1979, Franklin shot Harold McIver through a window. McIver was a 27 year old black man that unfortunately was killed in the incident. McIver was a manager at Taco Bell in Doraville, Georgia and according to Franklin, McIver came in close contact with white women. Franklin, as a result, felt it was his responsibility to murder the innocent man. (FamPeople, 2012)

One of the most outrageous parts of Franklin’s criminal history is that he was committing these horrible crimes because he thought he was doing his job. He once told CNN Investigators, “I consider it my mission, my three-year mission. Same length of time Jesus was on his mission, from the time he was 30 to 33.” (Lah, 2013) When CNN investigators asked him to clarify what his mission was exactly, he replied, “To get a race war started”. (Lah, 2013) Franklin thought it was his responsibility to brutally murder every person that was black, Jewish, or in an interracial relationship. On June 25th 1980, Franklin killed Nancy Santomero, age 19, and Vicki Durian, age 26 using a .44 Ruger Pistol. Both women were hitchhikers in Pocahontas County, West Virginia at the time. Franklin confessed to the crime in 1997 but felt that he did what was necessary. (FamPeople, 2012) Both girls were white, however he decided to murder them both once he heard one of the girls say that she had a black boyfriend. Jacob Beard, a Florida resident, had been incorrectly convicted and imprisoned for these murders. In the year 1999, Jacob Beard was freed and a new trial was to be created on Franklin’s behalf. Franklin was then correctly convicted of the crime, and was given a life sentence as a result. (FamPeople, 2012)

Franklin confessed to almost all of the murders that he committed because he felt he was doing right by his people. After he abandoned the most extreme white supremacist groups because he felt that they were not radical enough, he went on to commit these crimes because he thought that other white supremacists would follow him. He stated to reporters, “I figured once I started doing it and showed them how, other white supremacists would do the same thing”. (Nye, 2013) He claimed that after his attacks, he now has members that love him. He said to investigators, “When you commit a crime against a certain group of people, a bonding takes place. It seems like you belong to them.” (Nye, 2013) This sick feeling of family that Franklin received from his white supremacist groups was probably more of a closely-knit environment than the blood-related family that he had at home. This is most likely what drew Franklin so far deep into the racist cult.

Franklin shot and killed 15-year old prostitute Mercedes Lynn Masters on December 5th, 1979. He had been living with her in Dekalb County, Georgia, but decided to hill her when she told him that she previously had black customers. Two more murders were committed by Franklin on August 20th, 1980. Franklin killed two black men in Salt Lake City, Utah. He was near Liberty Park when he took the lives of Ted Fields and David Martin. He was charged with first-degree murder, convicted, and was given two life sentences. He was also tried on federal civil rights charges. These instances, along with multiple others, are just examples of the sick, twisted things that went on in Franklin’s head. Mental illness was evident, and his merciless actions are what made him so dangerous.

It was also evident that Franklin was completely self-centered and delusional. His reference to Flynt being an “old pal” and his comparison between Jesus and himself are just two examples of how deranged and neurotic that the high school dropout was. Franklin even said that he hoped his killings would act as an example. (Nye, 2013) The three-year mission that Franklin referred to took place when he was age 27 up until he was arrested at age 30. He told authorities that he has no regrets, and that the only regret he has is that killing Jews isn’t legal. He later told investigators that the only regret he has is that some of his victims managed to survive. (Montaldo, n.d.) Franklin had been in prison for over 30 years before he was finally executed. Not long before his execution, Franklin claimed that he was no longer a white supremacist and had “renounced his racist views”. (BBC News, 2013) Franklin claimed he had “interacted with black people in prison” and stated, “I saw they were people just like us”. He also added that he knew his actions were illogical and were a result of “an abusive upbringing”. (BBC News, 2013) Joseph Paul Franklin was sentenced to death on February 27th, 1997. He was on Missouri Death Row until August 20th, 2013, when the State of Missouri set the date for his execution. Franklin was executed by lethal injection on November 20th, 2013 at 6:08 AM. (Missouri Death Row, 2008) It took 10 minutes for Franklin to be officially pronounced dead. (BBC News, 2013) According to the jury, Franklin’s actions were a result of “depravity of mind”, better known as mental illness. (Missouri Death Row, 2008) Mental illness can be a direct result of child abuse. The life, the actions, and the attitude of Joseph Paul Franklin are a perfect example of that.

Works Cited

BBC News. (2013, November 20). BBC News US & Canada. Joseph Franklin, white supremacist serial killer, executed: Retrieved from
FamPeople. (2012). Joseph Paul Franklin: Biography. Retrieved from FamPeople:
FBI. (2014, January 14). Serial Killers Part 4: White Supremacist Joseph Franklin. Retrieved from
Lah, K. (2013, November 19). Serial Killer Joseph Paul Franklin Prepares to Die. Retrieved from CNN News:
Missouri Death Row. (2008, December 9). State of Missouri vs. Joseph P. Franklin. Retrieved from Missouri Death Row:
Montaldo, C. (n.d.). Profile of Serial Killer Joseph Paul Franklin. Retrieved from About News:
Nye, J. (2013, November 19). Racist Serial Killer Shows No Remorse In Final Interview On Eve Of His Execution- Even Joking Larry Flynt, Who He Paralyzed, is “‘Old Pal” For Campaign Against Death Penalty. Retrieved from Daily Mail:
Szalavitz, M. (2012, February 15). How Child Abuse Primes The Brain For Future Mental Illness. Retrieved from Time:
Vitello, P. (2013, November 13). White Supremacist Convicted of Several Murders Is Put To Death In Missouri. Retrieved from New York Times:

Why did Hitler target Jews?: writing essay help

One man in control of 65 million people at once during the 1930s is pretty incredible. But how incredible is it really, if this power is used for, what many people today consider is, evil. Adolf Hitler was a dictator in Germany that would eventually become known for how intense he believed in creating a perfect race.

Hitler was born in Austria and would eventually go to Germany, for many reasons, to take over the office and begin his extermination in search for the perfect race.  During all of World War II and a few years before that starting in 1933, Hitler was able to successfully capture and kill millions of people. The group of people Hitler mainly killed off were Jews because he didn’t consider them of the superior race, in his opinion the superior race was the Aryan race. Not only were Jews part of a massive genocide, but anyone who was disabled, homosexual, or gypsy were in danger of being captured and taken to concentration camps.

The night of the broken glass is a day that can be seen as the day that truly began the genocide in Germany because people were being taken away from their homes in mass amounts. In November 1938, Ernst Eduard vom Rath, was murdered by a Jewish teenager causing for police in Germany to begin entering houses and looking for any Jew who had weapons in their possession.  Hitler saw the killing of this German Diplomat as a threat against the Nazis by the Jews, and so began the Holocaust.

For over 10 years millions of people were taken away into concentration camps all over Europe, but there really can’t be an exact number as to how many were captured and killed because who knows if others were killed outside of concentration camps or used for experimentation, for now the number that is used as an estimate is 11 million people killed over a period of 12 years, 6 million were only Jews.

The goal of this research is not to focus on Hitler and how he governed Germany and what his political views were in the world, but rather look at how he grew up and how he was able to capture millions of people to kill them off, just to have his perfect race, and why? The main question is, why did he mainly target Jews? For one person to have control of about 65 million people and how they should be living their day to day life is pretty incredible.  But the way Hitler went about making these people live did not seem like a very good idea, considering that Hitler was a very intelligent person.

Anti-Semitic views have been around since the time of Ancient Rome, which is interesting when we look back at because all these years have passed and there still seems to be a prejudice against Jewish people.  While Jewish people are not the only group that face prejudice or discrimination, this group has had a tremendous impact on the history of the world because of the way they were treated during the Holocaust by Hitler, while it is not comparable to the slave trade during the sixteenth and nineteenth century, it is something that still amazes people because of the way it was executed.

Adolf Hitler was the leader of the Nazi Party in Germany during the 1930s and 1940s. During his time as leader, he rose to a high enough power that he began to order for the extermination of the Jews.  Hitler is one of the most famous cases of genocides that is known in history today because of the amount he was able to successfully murder from 1933-1945. In history class, students are taught about WWII and how Germany’s defeat caused the end of the Holocaust. What many never wonder is why he did it; the amount of people that were murdered by Hitler and his Nazi group is still not exact because not only were Jewish people murdered, but anyone of inferiority to Hitler or his Aryan race.  Like mentioned before, anyone with physical or mental disability were also taken to concentration camps because they were people who could destroy the perfect race.

Starting from when Hitler was first a child, he went through physical abuse at home. Hitler’s father would beat him because Adolf would find ways to taunt his own father and make him mad at Hitler. While this all happened, Hitler’s mother, would make him feel better and make sure he was okay because like most mothers, their instinct is to make sure their children are never hurt.  While this might not be a contributing factor as to why Hitler’s main goal was to exterminate all Jews, this can be part of a reason many thought his views were insane; this instability at home definitely seemed to cause instability within himself and possible feelings and affection he could feel towards other human beings.

As Hitler grew up, it was evident that Hitler never cared for school work and would much rather learn about art and music as much as he could. According to Hitler’s sister, he was a student that would bring home bad grades and didn’t really care for the consequences he would face with his parents, and especially his dad.  Eventually in 1905, when Hitler’s mother was very sick, he moved to Vienna in pursue of his dreams. While his mother being sick due to breast cancer caused great devastation to him, this seemed like a great opportunity to follow his dreams and pursue a career in the arts.

Hitler’s goal was to get into Vienna Academy of Fine Arts and become successful in the city of Vienna, where many artists got their name, but when he was told that his work was not good enough for the school, this caused anger within him. Hitler has always been very confident in the things he did and not being able to get into his dream school really shocked him.  According to many sources, when he went back to get an explanation as to why he has not been accepted, he was told that his art lacked “human form” and that his artwork would be successful in an architecture school. While this doesn’t seem like a bad idea to people, to him it was horrendous because he had not finished high school and to get into the architecture schools, he would need a high school diploma.

While in Vienna, Hitler applied twice to the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts and got rejected twice. During his time there, many people believe that Hitler began to grow a hate towards Jews because Vienna, at the time, was populated with many Jews.  His anti-Semitic views might have stemmed from there, but there is no exact reason as to why. According to a source, one of Hitler’s childhood friends stated that even before Hitler left Austria to pursue his dreams, he was ant-Semitic, but like many other sources that explain when Hitler became this way, they fail to mention why.

While there might still be no exact reason as to how Hitler grew into his views, sources can introduce new ideas and theories as to how he thought. During the 1930s, Hitler was perceived as a very important figure for the Germans because he helped them bring the economy to a stable point since Germany lost World War I. According to charts, Germany’s unemployment rate in 1933 totaled 6 million people, but as Hitler took power in Germany, he was able to lower it to about 300 thousand people in 1939.

Hitler was a very smart man, like mentioned before, he was even put on Time Magazine as Man of the Year in 1938.  But when Hitler went into power in Germany, he already had anti-Semitic views in play because according to a book published in Germany, November 9: How World War One Led to the Holocaust by Joachim Riecker, it talks about Hitler believing that Jews did not care enough for Germany to win World War I at the time. Mr. Riecker goes on to describe how Hitler believed that the Jewish people in Germany ruined the government and its economy overtime, World War I was just a push towards finishing off the country. While this theory seems like a bit of stretch, it doesn’t seem entirely wrong as a reason to hate Jewish people, but Hitler was incorrect in saying that the Jews were the group of people that mainly were involved during the First World War.

According to a German census, the majority that lived in Germany around 1910, which were a few years before World War I, were either Catholics or Protestants. Most of Europe was mainly made up of these two religious groups, so to target Jews as the main participants of the First World War is incorrect. While there might have been Jews that participated in the war, not all of the Jews were to blame for, so this goes to show that this reason is not exactly a valid reason for Hitler to have anti-Semitic views.

Analyzing sources thus far, many of them mention many instances where Hitler has found an excuse to say he does not appreciate a Jew.

How Significant A Role Did Britain Play In The War Against Germany?

World War Two was the most devastating war in history. It was a battle of ideologies. Germany fought for control of Europe; The allies, Britain, America and Russia fought for freedom. The only way to crush an Ideology was total war, a devastating method of warfare killing an estimated 55 million civilians. The war ended the lives of 3% of the world population at the time. While all the allies suffered casualties, the Russians lost 29 million civilians on the eastern front. While Britain and America lost 870000 people combined, only 3% of the Russian deaths. With Russia taking Berlin, and Russia absorbing most of the deaths on the Eastern Front, was Britain significant in the defeat of Nazi Germany?

When war broke out, Germany swept through Europe during the Blitzkrieg, gaining military control of countries rapidly. The capture of France on June 14th, 1940 left Britain a sole island nation fighting against Nazi Germany. As an island, Britain relied on the sea for defence. German operation Sealion planned to land German forces to capture Britain; in order to safely transport troops, Germany needed to control the sea. At the same time, Britain was importing supplies across the Atlantic from America, which kept them alive through the war. The need for control on the sea was underpinned by looming threat from the Germans, and the necessity of trade between the Allies. Britain needed to import weapons and supplies from America, as the Germans attacked these trade routes the Battle of the Atlantic begun. The battle of the Atlantic was fought between 1939 until the end of the war in 1945. It was the longest battle in WW2, and victory would ensure the survival of Britain. Germany attempted to cripple the British navy through the use of undetectable U-boats, which sank thousands of Military and trade ships in an attempt to weaken the British navy and starve them to surrender. But for the British, the sea was too important to lose. At the beginning of the war, there were no reliable methods for avoiding U-Boats, so allied ships were at the mercy of luck, so much so that Winston Churchill said: “the only thing that really frightened me was the U-Boat peril”. But by 1941 the enigma was cracked, Britain now knew where U-Boats were headed and could steer convoys away from danger, saving 105 out of 174 convoys between may 1942 and may 1943. Furthermore, technological advancements led to the creation of depth charges which helped the British to combat the U-boats. As well as the production of the Hedgehog anti-submarine weapons destroyed many German naval resources. This kept trade between Britain and America going, ensure vital goods like food and munitions reached Britain keeping them alive. Britain’s contribution to the war at sea had considerable importance as it led to naval dominance in the Atlantic. If Germany had have controlled the Atlantic, the D-day invasion would have been nearly impossible to bring to fruition. Defeat in the Atlantic meant almost certain defeat for Britain and their resistance. And would have damaged Russia’s defence in the east, due the destruction of German U-Boats forced Hitler to draw more resources from the Eastern Front where Hitler desperately needed them.

Britain not only had to fight the German Navy, they had to compete with the German Air Force. With the invention of modern aircrafts, factories and towns could be destroyed by bombers. Germany planned to cripple the British air force, allowing them to destroy the ports in order to launch a full-scale invasion. To stop the Germans Britain had to control the air. The war began poorly for Britain. They were marred by the defeat at Dunkirk, the evacuation of 343,000 soldiers from the beaches of France. It was a complete military failure; the British lost 1954 of its artillery and 615 tanks, leaving them to be captured or destroyed by the Germans. Yet it was a Symbolic success for Britain, the boats of the British saved the soldiers and led to the British resilience that came to be known as ‘Dunkirk spirit’. This was integral in allowing the British to persevere through the Battle of Britain. The Battle of Britain signified the end of the phoney war, the period in which the British were at war with the Germans but did not fight. The Germans planned to invade Britain, and Hitler’s generals were worried about the damage that the Royal Air Force could inflict on the German Army during the invasion. Because of this Hitler agreed that the invasion should be postponed until the British Air Force had been destroyed. The German campaign objective became gaining air superiority over the RAF, especially Fighter Command. They began with the bombing of aircraft bases across Britain. This was less effective than the Germans had hoped; Britain had built up its air defences since 1936 under air chief marshal Sir Hugh Dowding. The widespread use of radar alerted the RAF of incoming Luftwaffe and allowed for a quick defence. Britain was outshooting and outproducing the Germans. Germany couldn’t destroy all the air force bases and In September 1940 Germany shifted their targets to bomb cities. This was terrifying for civilians, claiming over 32,000 lives and injuring over 80,000 more, But it gave the RAF the ability to rebuild their planes. They were able to put an end to the German air raids, and the Battle of Britain signified the first loss of the German army. The defence against the German Luftwaffe was integral to the survival of Britain, which in turn became a base of future attacks on Germany. Had Britain lost to the Germans, Britain would have fallen, and the base of D-day operations would be under Nazi control. The victory ensured that Germany have would fight a war on two fronts.

The success at the Battle of Britain also allowed Britain to launch aerial attacks, with the USA, against Germany. These attacks continued throughout the war. It was a controversial tactic. While British aerial attacks were not very effective, only 1 in 100 bombs landed five miles within its target, and the prediction that bombing cities would break the German morale was false. carpet bombing was extremely effective in large cities such as Hamburg, where thousands of deaths and the destruction of over 4000 factories occurred. The damage caused by these attacks crippled the German industrial might and forced resources and troops away from the Eastern Front, 2/3 German planes had to protect German cities. The bombings also destroyed German coastal defences and allowed for D-day plans to be made, opening a second front for the already stretched Germans. However, Britain was not alone. America produced the most machinery during the war, they produced 300,000 planes and supplied both Britain and Russia with planes to cover their losses in combat. As well as supply Britain money to build their own planes through lend-lease. They also took the brunt of the losses in the bombing campaign because they bombed during the day to ensure they struck their target. While this caused a better success rate of missions, it led to far more American deaths. The bombing campaign did not win the war, but it aided in the invasion of Germany.

If Germany had not been invaded, the war would have continued. To destroy the Nazi forces, Berlin would have to be captured. All three of the Allies would open fronts against the Germans in the East and West. With Russia suffering the most casualties at 29 million. On land, Britain made two major contributions in the war. The first British contribution on land was in the North African campaign against the Afrika Korps led by Rommel. Britain had lost much of its territory due to Rommel’s advance across North Africa in late 1942. But the British victory of the Battle of El Alamein in November 1942 was an important victory for the British campaign in Africa. It blocked Hitler’s access to the oil fields. The North Africa campaign was seen as insignificant to the Germans, but it led to the invasion of Southern Italy, and the fall of Italy as an axis power. It was a large blow to Germany, they stood against the combined forces of the Allied powers. However, Germany put little resources into the Africa campaign, with only four divisions under the control of Rommel.

The second contribution from Britain was D-day. Britain helped retake France from the German army. On 6 June 1944, Britain landed on the Beaches of Normandy, for the biggest land campaign of the western front. Britain was instrumental in the planning of D-day; they disrupted the German intelligence, making Hitler believe the invasion would begin at France’s Pas de Calais region 150 miles northeast of Normandy. Britain was the launch point of the invasion, and if Britain had fallen in the war D-day would be impossible. However, Britain was not alone. For the initial invasion, they only attacked two out of the five beaches and sent 14 divisions, compared to the USA’s 23 divisions.  And by the end of the war, the number of British soldiers decreased on the Western Front, whilst America’s grew to 60 divisions.

But the aim of D-Day was to create a second front to draw German troops away from the Eastern Front, the single largest battle in the war. It claimed the lives of 29 million Russians, both soldiers and civilians. Total War was never more evident in the East when invading Russia, Germany would kill soldiers who tried to surrender. Captured Russians were executed; German POW camps had policies for the deliberate mistreatment of Russians which led to 3.5 million deaths. This brutality caused the most devastating battles: the battle of Stalingrad, 400,000 people Russians died (more than the number of British casualties in the whole war); the battle of Kursk had 860,000 casualties; the Siege of Leningrad lasted 872 days, and resulted in the deaths of 1.5 million people. The number of deaths suffered by the Russian people shows the resilience they had during the war, and the determination of the Red Army to win at all costs. But after Russian victory at the Battle of Stalingrad, Russia began a counteroffensive. They began to push the Germans out of Russia. Once the Eastern Front had been moved past the Soviet border, the new goal was to reclaim the Baltics and communism in Eastern Europe. The Red Army pushed the Germans back. Slowly they weakened the German army, cut off its supply lines and drove it back to Berlin. The Russian counter-offensive was responsible for the death of 80% of the German army. It was agreed upon by the Allies that Russia would take Berlin, and obtain Germany’s surrender. Russia had won the war, while the British and Americans aided.

The War was a combined effort from the three allied powers. At the beginning of the war, Britain acted alone, with the fate of Europe resting on their survival. But they were only kept fighting by the funding of their war effort from America, $5.8 billion of goods were lent to Britain. The threat of defeat and a unified Nazi Europe was only quashed when Hitler turned his attention to Russia. That is where the war was decided. The majority of the casualties of the war took place on the eastern front, with the Russians losing more people in Stalingrad than the Americans and British lost in the whole war, the Red Army killed the most German soldiers and stormed Berlin. Without the manpower of the Russians, the war could not have been won.

Fate vs. free will in Frankenstein by Mary Shelley: writing essay help

Fate is the development of events beyond a person’s control, regarded as determined by a supernatural power, while Free Will is the power of acting without the constraint of necessity or fate; the ability to act at one’s own discretion. Throughout the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, the question of fate vs. free will is brought to the reader’s attention. Victor Frankenstein and the Monster make many decisions throughout the novel. Each decision has an effect on different characters in the novel. The decisions that Victor and the Monster make in the novel cause the reader to think about whether these are of fate or free will.—tighten up

Throughout the novel, Victor Frankenstein speaks of fate and similar topics often. One of the first times we hear Victor speaking of fate is in Robert Walton’s fourth letter to his sister Mrs. Saville.”I thank you…for your sympathy, but it is useless; my fate is nearly fulfilled. I wait but for one event, and then I shall repose in peace. I understand your feeling…but you are mistaken, my friend, if thus you will allow me to name you; nothing can alter my destiny: listen to my history, and you will perceive how irrevocably it is determined.” In this quote, Victor is speaking to Captain Walton and is implying a future confrontation with the monster. Some readers think this implies the possibility of Victor killing his own creation, however towards the end of the novel, Victor dies on board the ship and moments later the monster is standing over his body. The monster then swears to burn himself committing suicide. By committing suicide, the monster suffers the same fate as Victor.

Although Victor and the Monster are different beings and do not share the same blood, they do share similar personalities and paths. They both like to gain knowledge of how the world works, for example when Frankenstein was interested in the mysteries of the natural world and the monster wanted to and did learn how to speak and read by learning from De Lacey, Felix, and Agatha teaching Safie. He also then starts to read and gain knowledge from the books he reads which include, Paradise Lost, Plutarch’s Lives, and the journals that he stole from Victor in his clothes. They also become more aware of their surrounds and adapt to them as they gain more knowledge. An example of this is Victor learning of electricity by watching a lightning storm, which he then later uses to bring the monster to life. An example of the monster learning and adapting is when he learns of fire. “One day, when I was oppressed by cold, I found a fire which had been left by some wandering beggars, and was overcome with delight at the warmth I experienced from it. In my joy I thrust my hand into the live embers, but quickly drew it out again with a cry of pain.” This quote is proof of the monster’s quick learning and adaptation. They are also both outcasted by society and although they don’t like it, they prefer to live away from society. Another similarity between the two is their hate for each other. Their mutual hatred started off when Victor saw the monster as ugly and worthless. Had he been a real father to the monster, he would have cared for him anyway. However due to the disapproval and abandoning of the monster by Victor, the monster grew a special hatred for his creator and father, Victor. All of these similarities are a way to show how although they take different versions, they are paths. They continually both suffer the same fates.

In the time period that the novel takes place, many people had major belief in religion and that God had chosen a path and fate for them. By creating the monster, it is almost as if Victor Frankenstein passes his fate and personality to the monster. They both continuously lose and kill loved ones throughout the novel. For example, the monster kills Victor’s nephew, William and therefore indirectly kills Justine by planting the photo on her. Later in the novel when Victor is working on his second creation and then foresees a future of the monsters reproducing and creating offsprings that are also monsters. Due to this “vision” he decides to destroy his second creation and what was supposed to be the monster’s companion. It just so happens that the monster was watching as through the window as he did this and swore to be with Victor on his wedding night. As promised there he was and he kills Victor’s new wife Elizabeth Lavenza. They both now are suffering the pain of losing their companions.

“I gazed on my victim, and my heart swelled with exultation and hellish triumph: clapping my hands, I exclaimed, ‘I, too, can create desolation; my enemy is not impregnable; this death will carry despair to him, and a thousand other miseries shall torment and destroy him.”

The monster is speaking of how he is not a victim of fate but rather a commander of fate. He is able to create desolation as that is what he feels. Due to the neglect by society and the lack of friendship or companionship, the monster feels as if his life is empty.

The whole novel can be seen as events that are supposed to happen because it was fate. After the many mentions of fate by Victor it is hard see the events and decisions as anything but those of fate and destiny. Due to the time that the novel was written in and the religious attitude in that era, it is very easy to see everything as destiny and fate. Many people believed in the theory of predestination. Predestination is the doctrine that God in consequence of his foreknowledge of all events infallibly guides those who are destined for salvation.

Lives in Germany – early-mid 1930s

In what ways do these primary sources contribute to your understanding of how economic conditions and the rise of the Nazis shaped people’s lives in Germany in the early-mid 1930s?

When Adolf Hitler was elected German Chancellor in January 1933, the economy was in turmoil. The Third Reich at this time underwent significant economic development after, like many other European countries, suffering after the Great Depression. However, by the outbreak of World War Two, the unemployment rate in Germany had tumbled: trade unions had been tamed, the work force had seemingly developed a positive work ethic and job prospects did improve. These primary sources contribute highly to any understanding of economic conditions in Germany and how the rise of the Nazis altered people’s lives in Germany at this time.

The first source is a photograph called ‘Unemployed Men Standing in Front of the Berlin Employment Office’ and was produced in June 1933, six months after Hitler became German Chancellor. It is by Hans Schaller, a popular German photographer. It was produced in order to convey the discontent and frustration experienced by unemployed people.

This source states, ‘In 1932, when the crisis reached its peak, about 6 million people were registered as unemployed in Germany’, conveying that with the turn of the rise of the Nazis before Hitler came to power, there was a significant unemployment epidemic. This number would have been higher as women were also unemployed, however, as their traditional roles in society were to be homemakers, they were not included in this statistic.

This can be corroborated by the Sopade Report by Otto Wels, the chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany from 1919 and a member of parliament from 1920 to 1933, therefore he would have been well-informed and experienced in the inner mechanics of the economy. The source articulates that ‘Hitler understood that a general economic upswing – and the drop in unemployment that would follow – was the best means for securing the loyalty of the German people’, highlighting Hitler’s understanding of the pressing issue of unemployment after becoming Chancellor and his willingness to tackle this for the German people.

‘Work and Bread’ was the name of a speech made by Gregor Strasser, a prominent German Nazi official and politician. It was produced few months prior to the July 1932 election, therefore, aiming to persuade the German electorate towards the mindset of the Nazi Party. The general message of this source highlighted the current state of the government was not successful, and national socialism was the most suitable route towards political stability. He asserts, ‘Article 163 will have to one day be altered to the effect that every German must have the right to work and people will have to be aware of the full significance of this alteration.’ Article 163 of the Weimar Constitution stated that ‘Every German should be given the possibility of earning his living through work’, therefore, emphasising to the German people that having stable employment is key to success and happiness.

This can be furthered by the explanation of the photograph by Hans Schaller which articulates that ‘The persistent worldwide depression and the mass unemployment associated with it were among the main catalysts for the general radicalisation of the political climate in Germany’. The impact of unemployment levels nationwide resulted in the public wishing for a new and distinct political sphere, which arguably led to the rise of the political extremism of the Nazi Party, thus, significantly shaping the lives of the German people at this time.

Furthermore, employment conditions for workers in Germany were arguably poor. An interview with Sally Tuchklaper, who was Polish and working in German factories throughout the war, thus being a first-hand oral account of events in employment in Germany. It was conducted by Anita Schwartz, for the purposes of fellow survivors and the academic circle, however, gradually generated a wider audience.

She said the working conditions, ‘weren’t bad but we were still under pressure. We couldn’t do nothing; we had to go on their rules which – them and we came in the morning at nine o’clock and we worked the whole day’, which affirms the nature of the heavy workload that young girls had to face at this time.

Oral history can be defined as the recording, preservation and interpretation of historical knowledge, based on the personal encounters and opinions of the speaker. This is a very subjective and personal form of evidence and can give a voice to groups who are sometimes marginalized in ‘conventional’ stereotypes, such as the working classes and women. It can provide new information, alternative explanations and varied insights which are highly valuable. The spoken word can convey emotions with immediacy and an impact that the written documents cannot match and allows the historian to ask questions of his or her informant – to be present at the creation of a historical source, rather than relying on those created by others.

On the other hand, oral history can be classed as inaccurate in other areas. It can be contended that someone’s memory may be selective or distorted over time, and so, the quality of these sources may be questioned. Additionally, the interviewer’s questions may intentionally or unintentionally influence the informant’s response.

Abstract Space – The Void In Vertigo’s Paintings

There can be no discussion of Hitchcock’s distinctive filmic language and meticulous mise-en-scene without a discussion of his paintings. It is through the image of Vertigo’s Carlotta Valdes that Hitchcock identifies, projects, and explores our deepest anxieties about scopophilia, voyeurism, exploitation, and reality, and in the process, exposes the dark aspects of our characters that are often repressed. That concept of multiple identities is the essence of Hitchcock’s cinema and the essence of the film. Paintings in Vertigo make sense of and illuminate the moth-to-flame relationships Scottie has with the multiple, yet singular identities of Madeleine, Judy, and Carlotta, and in the process, erode the line between certainty and doubt. Hitchcock’s paintings explore the often obsessive and exploitative nature of its characters, and explain how the paintings themselves occupy, and force the characters to occupy, the void between reality and illusion.

As in Rebecca, the painting of Carlotta perpetually hovers over Vertigo’s narrative, and is given the potential to create a void within and to fracture a traditional narrative. The dead Carlotta, in the questionably stable mind of Scottie and Elster, shows a strong visual resemblance to the living Madeline, as if she was a reincarnation of the dead woman. In a narrative focalized through a heavily masculine lens, the painting represents an unattainable object of desire, a coming alive of a false fantasy, and a cause of deep anxiety for the men of the film (Mulvey, 841). The spectator’s understanding that the painting is simply material is continuously threatened as the role that the painting plays appears tangible; Carlotta’s illusionary power is exploited to threaten the living woman’s and the men’s subjectivity, but also to terrify them, entice them, and to hurt them, in a way, that only a true character could. On one hand the painting that summons the dead, that represents the presence of the past in the present has no living referent and does not actually exist. But it also does exist within the realm of the living and the dead, rupturing a general reality and created a vertiginous rift into nothingness. On a narrative scale, the painting doesn’t answer a mystery or give hints about the direction of the narrative, but in its use of a repertoire of cinematic concepts (double/uncanny, the living to double the dead etc.) confuses spectators and postpones the solving of the mystery.

Scottie’s love for the image of Madeline is a fiction situated in reality and a duplicitous sign of a world that does not exist. Elster stages the introduction of Madeline, or a live double, within the painterly setting of a restaurant: a tableau vivant (Gunning, 32) In the blood red restaurant, Madeleine walks through a doorway (or metaphorical picture frame) and freezes in profile, with a stunning likeness to a painting. In that moment, Scottie begins to fall in love with a fetishized image of Madeleine as a painting, which makes it easier for him to associate a visual connection between Madeline and a painting of a dead woman. The images of the film purport this by emphasizing the similarities between Carlotta and Madeleine, strengthening the mystification or intrigue in her objectification. And when Scottie rediscovers Madeline as Judy, he sees Carlotta in the image of yet another woman. Judy’s individuality, at this point, is so far removed from the source material (Carlotta) that Scottie has no qualms about manipulating her back into Madeline and Carlotta’s visage, transforming her into a picture. His idealized memory, but not love, becomes the fulcrum of ignorance and illusion, and comes to represent the multiple fiction and lies of Scottie’s reality.

Similarly, Hitchcock’s cinematic representation of Madeline’s eroticism and objectification echo the film’s exploration of reality versus illusion. Hitchcock presents Madeleine as both an erotic, physical presence and as an objectified two-dimensional figure, an enigmatically composed painting. As mentioned earlier, the first time Scottie truly sees Madeleine is when he notes the two dimensionality of her silhouette ‘ the result of her posing statuesquely against the deep red of the restaurant background with an illuminating backlight and multiple inner framing. And in all of Madeleine’s visits to the museum, Hitchcock confronts her with Carlotta’s painting, having her look at it as if she were looking in a mirror, then proceeds to frame her with the pillars of the doorway, from which Scottie admires her, ultimately presenting Madeleine as if she were sitting within a picture frame. To further conflate Novak’s image with a lifeless piece of art, the camera zooms in on Madeleine’s bouquet of flowers, then subsequently on the bouquet that Carlotta holds in the painting, then on Madeline’s vortex of a hairstyle followed by Carlotta’s, until the women slowly start to merge into one figure. Through cinematographic objectification, the living woman becomes a becomes a painting, something that’s pleasant to look at, and therefore, ultimately resists humanization.

As with the female protagonists, paintings act as a representation of Scottie’s fragmented reality. Scottie, looking on Madeleine fondly, stands between two paintings which frame him: one of a dignified man in a white wig, the other of a child. The implication that he too is split into multiple identities is clear. One could argue that in following Madeleine, Scottie works solely as a detective, as an adult given a task to be carried out with a certain professional distance, but once he actively begins to equate Madeline with Carlotta, he becomes a child, at the mercy of his impulses and instincts which drive his curiosity and attraction. There’s also the slightly misogynistic suggestion that Madeleine is the cause of his instability, and that the cryptic appearances of the female protagonist will cause an even more troubling deconstruction of the identity of the male, another break from reality.

Midge, Scottie’s confidant, represents in the narrative and philosophical sense ‘reality’ for Scottie, but in presenting herself as Carlotta’s painting, she effectively threatens both her and his sense of reality. Midge acts as a point of psychological for Scottie within the narrative. She criticizes him when he tells her about Madeleine as Carlotta’s reincarnate, and earlier assists Scottie in his plan for gradually alleviating his acrophobia, catching him when he collapses with an attack of vertigo. With her modest clothing, awareness of truth, and continued support, Midge equilibrates Scottie and is therefore coded as normal and real, while everything which falls outside of their small, shared sphere is labeled absurd. The idea of reality vs. appearance is further explored in Richard Gilmore’s Hitchcock and Philosophy. Reality, as truth, is devoid of artificiality. It is a higher plane of consciousness with no obvious similarities to the world we live in, while appearance is plagued with familiar affectations (Gilmore, 493). The male gaze is appearance, in that it is both familiar and illusionary in its pervasiveness. Laura Mulvey notes in her article Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema that the gaze not only ‘projects its phantasy onto the female figure’ but is made possible by the ‘structuring of the film around a main [male] figure with whom the spectator can identify (Mulvey, 841-842).’ It acts in opposition to a hidden, barren reality which divests us of superficiality, and is responsible for the sexual objectification of Madeline and Judy and the manipulation of spectator understanding, as everything is understood in relation to the male character. Conversely, Midge can be read as philosophical reality, as she is not and cannot be subjected to the male gaze; she exists, albeit uncomfortably, outside of its sphere of influence. Midge does not posses the mystery and veiled sexuality to seduce Scottie, though she would very much like to, because she’s not manipulated by his consistently hyper-sexual lens; Scottie’s point-of-view shots of Midge are pointedly asexual. Devoid of illusionary mystique, Midge assumes the barren and sere nature of reality, which enables her to be effectively avoided, ignored, but still needed by Scottie as he sinks deeper into his obsession with Madeleine. So when Midge paints herself in Carlotta Valdez’ idealized visage, she effectively severs Scottie’s ties to narrative and philosophical reality. She who has typically been his moral and psychological anchor and the voice of reasonable consciousness is now physically forcing herself into the painting that exists as a representation of his illusion, desire, and irrationality. That conflict between established reality and illusion repels him and opens the way for Scottie to invest fully and emotionally in Madeleine’s illusion.

Following Scottie’s rejection of Midge and Madeleine’s ‘suicide,’ his hallucinatory dream, a fusion of cinema, graphic, and painterly animation, raises a deeply disturbing idea that runs as an undercurrent throughout the whole film: that even in death, Carlotta, and by extension Madeleine, is still deeply alluring. Carlotta is positioned, as she has been, in scenes of reality within Scottie’s dreamscape; she’s present in the reimagined scene of communication between Scottie and Elster following Madeleine’s suicide and trial. The way Carlotta looks at Scottie, even as she’s being gripped by Elster, is not malicious; on the contrary, as the flashing red, used throughout the film as a way to designate Scottie’s fantasies, implies, there’s an unsubtle longing present. The undertones of cinematic necrophilia in Carlotta and Madeleine’s artistic objectification illustrates a potentially sexual fascination that Scottie, and us as spectators who identify with him, have with phantom images. It questions to what extent Scottie’s longing for Madeline can be considered a mediation of the poles of reality and illusion, existence and death, and as an attempt to revive long lost and therefore unattainable persons.

Vertigo’s paintings, and its images that border on paintings, disjoint both the characters and the narrative from reality and pull them into abstract space. They are actors within the film, expressing anxiety and creating tension; they are mediators between Vertigo’s realms of reality and illusion; and as images of pure visuality, they create a mystique, representative of Hitchcock’s films, that is both compelling and lasting.

Bureaucratic Approach (Management Theory)

This theory was proposed by Max Weber, a German Sociologist. It focused on a stratified structure, which outlined apparent assignment of authority providing managers with a constitutional control over their workers. Weber saw each firm as an administration with aims to be accomplished at the cost of individual contribution. He stated that managers would be obeyed just because of their position as managers (O’ Connor, T., 2013).

His theories had two dominant characteristics which are the stratification of authority and the system of rules. Through his analysis of firms he stated three basic types of authorities are legal and these are;

‘ Traditional Authority: the approval of people in authority had its roots in tradition and custom.

‘ Charismatic Authority: In this case, the approval came from solidarity to, and trust in, the individual abilities of the leader.

‘ Rational-legal Authority: The approval came from the office, or level of the individual in authority as restricted by the guidelines and procedures of the firm. This rational-legal authority is what constitutes the form of authority in firms today and Weber’s bureaucracy theory is attributed to this form of authority (Caughey, et al, 2009).

Features of Bureaucracy

‘ Funct??ons ??n a f??rm are defined by rules.

‘ Workers operate within the boundaries of the specialization of the task, the level of authority attributed and the guidelines running the use of authority.

‘ A stratified framework of offices.

‘ Employment is made based on technical capability only.

‘ The ownership of the firms is distinct from officials.

‘ The authority is imputed on the legitimate positions and not on the individuals holding these positions (Debra Mesch et al, 1995).

Advantages of Bureaucracy

‘ Employment, promotion and authority depend only on technical capability and is put in place by written down guidelines and procedures of elevating those capable of managing rather those who are favored to manage as in nepotism and corruption.

‘ The implementation of bureaucracy management theory enables firms to develop into large and elaborate firms with the vision of formalizing clear goals.

‘ Weber’s theory can be used as a basis on which to compare and propagate new modern theories (Jessica Snow, 2014).

Disadvantages of Bureaucracy

‘ There is a likelihood of firms becoming more procedure-oriented than goal-oriented.

‘ There is a tendency of greatly formalized firm objectives to superintend creativity and resilience of workers.

‘ Strict attitude of senior managers may cause regulated services that do not meet the customer needs.

‘ Strict procedures and guidelines do not motivate the employees in a firm.

‘ Implementation of authority based on knowledge has caused the development of ‘experts’ whose ideas and behavior may frequently go against those of other general managers and coordinators (Rubin C. et al, 2012) Human Relations Movement Theories (Behavioral Management Theories)

It is called the human relations movement because it focuses on the human aspect of work. Human relations theorists’ belief that a good understanding of the behavior of people at their work places such as the drive, prospects, rivalry, group gestures will improve productivity. They saw the employees as individuals, resources and not liabilities that are to be improved upon and worked with. Hence the foci of human relations theory are motivation of different factions of a firm and leadership (Joseph Kennedy, 2007).

The different human relations theorists, there experiments, the criticisms and strengths of their works are discussed below: Elton Mayo

In the 1920s, Elton Mayo, a Harvard Professor, after his observation of the importance of both human interaction and individual relationships in the work place, performed experiments to comprehend the influence of different working conditions on worker’s productivity. His experiments proved that when the social needs of employees are met, it improves the working conditions and hence has positive effects on productivity (Houghton Mifflin, 2014).

As an improvement on the scientific management theory of seeing managers as task masters; his new human relations approach was concerned with the essence of group dynamics, collective team work and positive effects of social interaction. Managers under this theory now have care and affection for the employee’s needs and health as part of their roles (Slayor Foundation, 2015)

Also, human relations and the social requirements of workers are necessary aspects of managing an organization (Houghton Harwert, 2015).


‘ Mayo’s experiment was the premier attempt to carry out leg??t??mate social experiments in an industrial environment.

‘ It proved that people cannot be worked with in isolation, but work with other group members.

‘ He proved that personal motivation did not rest solely in monetary or physical incentives, but in their necessities and their roles in a group.

‘ It stated the need for managers to be shown concern and cater for the social desires of employee’s in a group (Richard Trahair, 2012).


‘ Doubts started to rise between the 1930s and 1950s on the increased usefulness of these theories in day to day working life (Korajczyk, 1961).

Power quality of AC system: essay help online free

With the outburst in number of electronic equipment’s, power electronics & High voltage power systems including induction motors and inductive loads , the power quality of AC system has become a matter of concern. Heavy Penalty is laid on people who do not follow the limited value of PF (Power Factor) allocated by Electric Power Companies. All this is done so as to prevent excessive drawing of power and increased number of connected load which lead to harmonic contamination in power lines and degradation in transmission efficiency. Because of all these reasons PF correction has become a hot topic in today’s world. There are many methods proposed for PF correction.

In this project we have tried studying about nature of industrial load, designing of a PF corrector for the same and Development of a single phase PF corrector using PIC microcontroller chip. Using PIC microcontroller and sensors it measures and senses the PF of the load. With the help of programming done right it will determine and switch appropriate number of capacitors to compensate the reactive components of the electrical load. Thus, driving a Power Factor value to unity results in higher efficiency and reducing the maximum demand.

Exposure to construction of manual and automatic Power Factor Correction apparatus is also imparted at DDK (DoorDarshan Kendra) and BSNL (Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd.) Sub Stations.

In earlier times the loads have been fairly benign, having either resistive characteristics (light bulbs) or input currents that are sinusoidal but phase shifted (AC Motors). Most electronics systems now use one or more switch mode power converters that will tend to draw currents from the power line in a non-sinusoidal fashion. This input current characteristics results in current & possibly voltage distortions that can create problems with other equipment connected to the power lines & degrade the capability of the mains. In electrical plants the loads draw network electrical power as power supply source or convert it to other form of energy or into mechanical output. To get this, it is often necessary that the load exchanges with the network, the reactive energy, mainly of inductive type. This energy if not immediately converted into other forms, contributes to increase the total power flowing through the electrical network, from the generator along the conductors, to the users. To smooth such a negative effect, the power factor correction obtained by using capacitor banks to generate locally the reactive energy necessary for the transfer of useful electrical power, allows a better & rational technical- economical management of plants.

In our work we aim to improve the overall power factor of an installation. Improving power factor means taking necessary steps to increase the power factor in a defined section of the installation by locally delivering necessary reactive power so that the value of current & consequently of the power flowing through the upstream network can be reduced, at the required output power. Our work provides a solution which allows technical & economic advantages.

A modern technological development in our society

It’s agreeable that, Technological progress has merely provided us with more efficient means for going whether forwards or backwards as well. Technology has enable Us to increase our comfort and to achieve efficiency in all sectors of life .without technology ,we can’t achieve any progress or development . thanks to technology ,we can modernize our industry so life becomes easier for us and next generations .despite advantages mentioned above, there are drawbacks of technology . so we can consider technology is a servant but a bad master.

There are some modern technological developments that play a major role in making our daily life more effective . television is ,no doubt, a good servant .it’s the cheapest source of information and entertainment nowadays .TV has a big influence in our life . It can be an educational tool. there is a considerable variety of TV programmes which give us instruction as well as education . there are , for examples , some programmes for educating adult illiterates and others for teaching foreign languages . besides ,a lot of films, plays and series are presented time at home . Television also provides outlet for creative talents . many playwrights ,actors emerged from television . color TV has given greater opportunities for such talents.

However ,television is a bad master . it has a negative effect on our behavior It encourages us to accept violence and to be inactive and unimaginative. it occupies most of our time . thus , we have no time left to pursue our hobbies , listen to music or read books . it also regulates our free time . we rush home ,gulp food and then sit in complete silence before the TV screen . Many television channels broadcast violent films and programs. The more our children see violence on television , the less sensitive they become to it . So , violence doesn’t seem wrong . We can also notice that violence on television doesn’t seem to have consequence s . An actor who is killed in a film an hour ago ,can be seen laughing in another program . This may confuse with reality and we forget killing must be permanent

Television also encourages passive enjoyment it is a tool to cut us off from the real world .We become less active . We do nothing except turning it on and changing the channels . We can’t even move around to practice sports . we get little so lazy and of course we will suffer from physical diseases . we choose to spend a fine day in semi ‘darkness ,glued to our sets , rather than go out into the world itself. Besides , its bad effect concerning social relationship, we notice that TV cuts the soul of gathering people in one trend . In addition, we notice the bad morals that spread in society among people . Crimes spread as a result of bad films and forcing scenes . social illnesses prevail over the countries Addiction to watching TV acts as a hindrance to our imagination . Stories are told for us . We don’t even have to imagine what the place of stories look like

On my opinion . television can tight relations . News and other information , we see on television gives us topics to discuss with our friends and family . Television also helps us to understand each other better as we all have access to its programmes . TV can help us share our interests with other people . Television programmes give us topics to think about . Now we can know about news in a few minutes after they happen all over the world . For example , now we know about those who die of birds flu minutes after the event . We all like to discuss these matters with other people . So , Television news and information programmes help us to discuss our ideas with others . No matter where you live ,you have access to many television channels . You can watch television programmes and movies of many other foreign countries . through them you can get information about many different cultures . When you go to a new city to work , study or take a vacation , you will already have something in common with the people there . Where you meet new people ,you will probably be familiar with at least some of the television programs they watch . The gives you something to talk about and a way to begin new friendships

Most people use television as a way to pursue their interest . People who play sports usually like to watch sports on television . Those who like to cook prefer to watch cooking programs . Television encourage s communication among people . Television is a tool that gives access to information and entertainment as well as education . You can share others’ interests effectively

Technology is also needed to raise our standard of living . our homes are more comfortable and use fewer energy recourses thanks to improvements in home construction techniques as well as computer technology . without technology we couldn’t have treatments for heart diseases thanks to progress in medicine

From the above ‘ mentioned lines we come to a conclusion that says “technology is good ” Without it there would be no change ,no improvement s in our economy ,our standard of living , or our health . Hence , We can’t deny the necessity of technology.

Holography: essay help online

Hologram is defined as ‘a three-dimensional image reproduced from an interference pattern produced by a split coherent beam of radiation (as a laser)’ [1]. Holograms can achieve a three-dimensional image, but it can be easily minded of a hologram as a photograph which can be refocused at any depth [2]. Therefore, as a photograph taken of two people standing far apart would have one in focus and one blurry, a hologram taken of the same scene can be reconstructed to bring either person into focus [2].

This chapter will concern on the definition of holography and its advantages over the conventional imaging techniques. Also it will investigate the holographic technology development and its application including microscopy.

In conventional imaging techniques, such as photography, what is recorded is merely the intensity distribution in the original scene resulting that all information about the optical paths to different parts of the scene is lost [2].The unique characteristic of holography is the concept of recording both the phase and the amplitude of the light waves from an object [2].

When a hologram is illuminated by a proper light source, the exact amplitude and phase is reconstructed and the original light field recreated, Since the observer has the whole light field available, the genuine three dimensional sensation is achieved, therefore, Holography is about capturing and reproducing light field, and each point in this field is determined by an amplitude and phase [3].

Holography has advanced to the digital area since 90s, after the advent of CCD and CMOS digital cameras [4]. In digital holography there is no need of wet processing to record the holograms and it is convenient to evaluate the properties of the specimen structures quantitatively [4]. Three major areas of holography which usually addressed in a context of digital holography can be considered, They are the capturing, the reproduction and hologram fringes synthesis, in addition, digital holography introduces one specific issue that don’t have parallel in optical holography, the area is numerical reconstruction[3].Since the mid 90’s, digital holography had attract many applications such as in optical metrology, encryption of information and microscopy[4],which is the goal of this thesis.

Digital holographic microscopy is proposed to yield a microscope that can image optical thickness as well as phase object [4].

Fig.(1.1) Digital holographic microscopy of SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells (60 ?? 60 ??m^2,404??404 pixels): (a) hologram, (b) amplitude image,(c)phase image, (d) unwrapped phase image, and ( e) phase image in pseudo-color pseudo-3D view [5].

An example of DHM imaging of a SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells is shown in Fig. (1.1), where Fig. (1.1) a) is the hologram and Fig. (1.1) b) is the reconstructed amplitude image, similar to what one would see through a conventional microscope, the phase image in Fig. (1.1) c) indicates that the cells appear having thickness of several microns, therefore the phase profile varies by several cycles of 2?? radians. A public domain phase unwrapping algorithm is used to remove the 2 ?? discontinuities in Fig. (1.1) d), and it is rendered in pseudo-color pseudo-3D perspective in Fig. (1.1) e). The apparent height profile is the profile of optical thickness that includes both physical thickness and index variation [5].

Stage plays in Ancient Greece and the film Selma: essay help online free

It was the tradition of the Ancient Greek civilization to have their Tragedies and poetry performed in a stage play; more confident writers would enter their work in competitions and have it compete with the works of other fellow writers. These traditions were carried on and adapted into more modern channels of expression, progressing alongside with the changing times. The Tragedies and poetry that were once performed by actors on a stage for a present audience, are now performed by actors projected onto a screen upon the discretion of the viewer ; more commonly known as film. The tradition of having one’s work compete with others was also carried on and a modern day counterpart being the Cannes International Film Festival. The modernization of the channels of expression significantly affect the process of creation and overall outcome of the work. However the underlying principles of what makes Tragedy efficient and proper, as introduced by Aristotle, and the poet as inspired by the divine, as proposed by Socrates, maintains its place at the very core of it all; an example is the film Dancer in the Dark. In summary the film is centralized upon Selma, a Czech immigrant with a hereditary eye condition and passion for American musicals. After accidentally killing her neighbor, in an attempt to retrieve her savings for her son’s eye operation, she is wrongfully convicted of murder and is sentenced to the death row.The film, which garnered the Golden Palm at the Cannes film festival, exhibited the elements of proper and efficient Tragedy and poetry as divine inspiration.

To illustrate, it should be noted that at certain parts of the film Selma made use of the surrounding noise to initiate a musical number; with the exception of the last song, where in the number was unaccompanied by any noise or instrument and Selma was unable to finish her song. These musical numbers were packaged as a daydream as well as a coping mechanism. It depicts how Selma would breakaway from reality during distressing situations, such as upon the realization of the gravity of her crime and the moments leading up to her execution. The performance of the ballads is analogous to the performance of poetry by the Rhapsodes of Ancient Greece. While the disassociation with reality prior to the performance is also analogous to Socrates’ concept of Divine Inspiration as the primary source of the Rhapsode’s driving force. However to concede to the notion of Divine Inspiration would also concede to the idea that the Rhapsode, Selma (and to some extent the actress, Bj??rk Gu??mundsd??ttir, herself), is without talent and incapable of achieving such feats in art without the aid of the divine. Yet, it can be argued that talent and inspiration are forces that complement rather than negate. Inspiration may function as a stimulant for an inherent talent, and the execution of said talent will in turn give justice to the inspiration.

Likewise, the film also conformed to the standards of Aristotelian tragedy. Since Tragedy, according to Aristotle, is an imitation of action, rather than man; in the hierarchy of elements Plot is superior superior to all. According to Aristotle Plot must be whole, complex, must posses magnitude, a single issue and the elements of emotional interest. The film exhibits all of these elements; it his whole as it has a beginning, middle and end. In terms of complexity, the innocence of Selma but wrongful conviction excites pity; while her execution arouses fear. Although the film’s magnitude was twice as long as a regular film, still it is considered to be the proper length because it was able to narrate the plot without being too vast for easy consumption. The single issue in the film is the mistrial that led to Selma’s demise. Finally, the element of emotional interest namely: Reversal of situation, Recognition, and Scene of suffering. The Scene of suffering can be found at the very end, it was the moments of psychological turmoil leading up to the execution and finally as Selma was hung from the gallows. The Reversal of situation is when Selma’s savings became Bill’s,her neighbor, inheritance money. Although the reversal did not occur on screen, it is still an event that is probable within the given parameters of the film; thus it is valid. Lastly, Recognition was achieved during the scene where Selma was going to put away her final salary only to realize that the tin box was empty and Selma realizes that the person with the motive and capability to commit the act was Bill.

Following Plot is Character and Thought, respectively. The Character performs the action, thus reigns over Thought. Aristotle states that a character of Tragedy must be good, true to life, consistent, aim at propriety and must transition from prosperity to despair. The character of Selma conforms to these standards. As a mother Selma wants to provide the best life for her child, Gene, thus she saves her salary and work overtime to ensure that he does not suffer the same eye condition. As a person with a passion for musicals, Selma joins a local theater play and finds music in everyday noise. As a friend, she refused to divulge Bill’s motives for theft, stating that she had promised to keep it a secret, which destroys her only chance in winning the case. As a victim of circumstance, Selma expresses her trust that all of her savings are still intact as she retrieves it from Bill; as well as the grave remorse she experiences as she desperately takes the money by force. Thought, on the other hand, is portrayed through Selma’s song rather than proverbs or maxims. The song, “I’ve Seen It All”, displays how Selma no longer fears being blind and how grand objects have a more simplified version. In the lyrics Selma sing how Niagara Falls, considered to be one of the great waterfalls in the world, is nothing more than water. Another example is the song “107”, which narrates the supposed one hundred and seven steps of the convict to the death row. It portrays how Selma copes with reality using her songs.

Below the level of Thought is Song followed by Diction, both of which are mediums of imitation.The songs are reflective of Selma’s situation and character. An example of a Song is her final one entitled, “Next to the Last Song” that delivered the final blow in arousing the audience’s pity and fear. This was achieved by executing Selma, thus preventing from finishing the song but revealing to the audience the final stanza: “They say it’s the last song/ They don’t know us you see/ It’s only the last song/ If you let it be.” In terms of Diction, the generally short dialogue allowed the tension to gradually build. This was best exhibited in the scene where her neighbor asks for a loan, but Selma refuses for the second time. The conversation did not progress any further but it heightened the sense of foreboding.

Finally, the remaining element is Spectacle. In the hierarchy of the elements of Tragedy, Aristotle places Spectacle as the least relevant element; claiming that a Tragedy need not be an extravagant stage play to achieve its purpose. The “Spectacle” being referred to equates to the special effects, setting, editing, and other components that deal with the visual aspect of the film. With regard to Spectacle the film had minor continuity errors in most of the scenes, it was shot using cheap digital cameras, and settings were very commonplace (a factory, the railroad, a trailer home, etc.). Compared to the usual Hollywood movies that makes use of professional cinema-cameras, flamboyant musical numbers, and high end special effects, the film’s Spectacle is inferior but it did not hinder the arousal pity and fear.

The great interval between the creation of the works of Aristotle and Plato to the production films of the modern day, did not alienate these works from each other. Although some concepts are debatable while others provide an exemplary standard for art. It can be said that the elements of the classics still reign true and are applied to its contemporary counterparts.

The history of newspapers in the US

The United States political structure transformed from loosely organized states to a strong central government with a strong constitution. In America’s early years of independence, the two dominant political parties that contested for power were Federalism and Republicanism. Federalists advocated a strong central government while Republicans favored less centralization and more power for states. Federalist and the country’s second President, John Adams, pushed for the Alien and Sedition Acts to silence newspapers that opposed the Federalist Administration. It embodies the notion of ‘patriotism to write in favor of our government; it is sedition to write against it’ (Copeland, 151). Newspapers could help or hurt people in an office since it had a great influence on the public. Literacy rates surpassed ninety percent in some regions of the United States by 1800. The popularity of newspapers and other forms of print reflected the attractiveness of public debate. However, writers faced certain risks when publishing their work because it may land them in trouble with certain groups. As a result, writers resorted to anonymity, which protected writers from defamation charges and reflected a pledge to a cause, rather than an appeal to a personal agenda (Copeland, 141). Interestingly, the author points out that certain news were published to avoid controversy in the colonies (Copeland, 142). I agree with the claim to a degree because the extensive circulation of the newspaper gave way to debate and discussion, people would discuss what was on the news. However, if the state or whoever controls the press, they can choose what contents can be printed to control the debates in public spheres. The 1750s was engulfed by the French and Indian War, and it lead newspapers to increase coverage of local, trans-colonial and international events that had an effect on America. Also, the debate concerning the enactment of the Constitution and Bill of Rights between 1787 and 1791 drove the growth of newspapers farther. To obtain news people in the colonies would attend taverns to borrow newspapers that recently arrived in a town or listen to someone read the paper out loud (Copeland, 143). Congress authorized the Secretary of the Sate to select newspapers to publish the latest resolutions it passed. By 1799, it ordered that at least one newspaper in each state. Newspapers allowed individuals at all levels of society to become part of the public sphere and ‘join in debate of issues bearing on state authority’ (Copeland, 144). People wrote letters to publishers regarding an article or any topic of discussion and sometimes their letters were published in the newspaper. Copeland also mentions that in colonial America the phrase ‘Printed by Authority’ appeared in the paper’s nameplate indicated that newspapers needed a license from the colonial government to publish news. However, this licensing never stopped those without permits from printing. By 1760, increases in sales meant that printers did not need a government contract to produce a profitable newspaper. The daily newspaper made its debut in the colonies in 1783. Before that, most papers were published on a weekly basis. As America’s population grew, and the economy strengthened, political issues became the central focus of opinion in newspapers (Copeland, 145). The press sought to influence the country’s managing of its international affairs by supporting causes and urging adoption of political action. It was then considered as an architect of political culture and an agenda-setter for public debate (Copeland, 146). As the number of newspapers thrived during the early nineteenth century, so did their level of political affiliation. For example, in 1808, out of 329 newspapers in the United States, only fifty-six were not aligned with a political party (Copeland, 149). Affiliation to a political party in power meant that newspapers could incentives from the party in power. Some of those incentives include government printing contracts and political office. Patronage was a hefty source of income for newspapers.

Furthermore, the establishment of institutions of learning and a printing press were objectives of the settlers (Thomas, 4). Presses and printers in the colonies were sent over from England but for religious purposes, which was spreading the gospel among the Native American in the colonies (Thomas, 5). Similar to Copeland’s discussion of licensing to print newspapers. Thomas takes a more in-depth analysis, where he gives the reader a specific state (Massachusetts). According to the author, in 1664, Massachusetts passed a law concerning the publication of contents. “No printing should be allowed in any towns within the jurisdiction, expect in Cambridge; nor should anything be printed but what the government permitted’ (Thomas, 6). The author also mentions that offenders against the 1664 law were to forfeit their presses to the country and to be stripped of the privilege of printing. What is eye-opening in Thomas’s work is how colonial authorities chose to keep people in ignorance. For example, in the colony of Virginia decided it was best not to allow public schools, nor to allow the use of the press. In doing so, they kept the people unaware, so they can be more obedient to the laws, to prevent them from causing political unrest, and prevent heresy (Thomas, 7).

Indeed Uribe’s The Birth of a Public Sphere claims that the development of a legitimate public sphere in New Spain was obstructed by the absence of printed news and the lack of a literate population (Uribe, 425). From 1760 to 1800 a new feeling of equity emerged, and the rejection of public powers based on privilege, status, or tradition became the dominant paradigm. ‘Capitalists’ and ‘scholars’ were groups that developed new institutions of sociability which made it possible for individuals to gather, critique, and ultimately mold ‘public opinion’ to influence State policies. Members of such societies were more knowledgeable about American and French revolutionary events, intellectual debates, enlightened ideas, and modern scientific doctrines. In addition, some men launched scientific expeditions, academic and literary groups, and newspapers in the colonies (Uribe, 437). Interestingly, Venezuelan Francisco Miranda organized a secret society of Spanish Americans in London to promote the independence of the Spanish colonies. Individuals later active in the liberation movements in the Americas were initiated in Masonic groups during their time in the European continent. For example, General Simon Bolivar joined the French Masons in 1804. With that, the public sphere was created and expanded New Spain. Colonial regimes in Spanish and Portuguese America tried hinder any open discussion of or participation in politics and policymaking. Such efforts made possible by eliminating printing presses and political organizations (Uribe, 427). As with Freemasonry, tertulias were accused of heresy where they questioned the divine right of monarchs and charged with advocating popular sovereignty and the need to free the colony from Spanish tyranny (Uribe, 430).

Therefore, in Guerra’s work, An Alternative to Modernity, societies are presented as a place to think and share ideas; to arrive at a collective opinion (Guerra, 6). Most importantly, the author discusses tertulias. They were the first form of modern sociability similar to the ‘salon’ in France. Nobles, officials or the bourgeoisie assembled at such places to discuss an array of topics such as literature, science, or religious issue (Guerra, 9). Additionally, Guerra does talk about other societies that are somewhat similar to the tertulias. The numbers of such societies were about one hundred in Spain and a dozen in the Americas. Interestingly, several of the peninsular economic societies were connected to the Spanish Crown. Spain promoted some of the societies to exemplify enlightened despotism and show that such societies can coincide with the Crown and not result in an all-out overthrow of rule like in France. In a way, the authorities wanted to show that such societies did not pose a threat to the state. However, Guerra mentions that in America, the role of the State as a supportive motor was missing (Guerra, 21). The absence of support was interpreted by many people in New Spain as a sign that the crown was uninterested in them (Guerra, 22). Guerra points out that in Mexico, the extent of literacy due to an abundant circulation of printed sources facilitated for progressive ideas of the elite to travel faster to the masses and provoke very strong reactions of rejection. However, from my understanding, Mexico did not have numerous newspapers or high literacy. In Copeland’s America 1750, he mentions that America experienced an expansion of newspaper circulation and publishing along with high literacy rates. With that, the spread of progressive ideas is much easier and faster than in a place that lacked such qualities. Guerra explains that the spread of liberal ideas in Mexico is demonstrated by the Independence of Mexico and Father Hidalgo, who he was able to mobilize indigenous communities (Guerra, 27). According to Guerra, public space was formed not just by the press, but also by the abundance of books, and enlightened practices.

Drosophila melanogaster: essay help

Drosophila melanogaster is a model organism used in genetics and various research in cellular and molecular biology for many years. This organism is known for its short life cycle, small size, genetic variability, and its in-expensive trait to be studied in the laboratories. Thomas Morgan, an American geneticist is heavily credited for his work in discovering eye pigment mutation in the flies. He discovered mutation of white eyed Drosophila and concluded they were sex-linked. For many years, 75% specific genes in Drosophila have equivalency with humans in relation to certain diseases. Disease include cancer, renal disorders, Parkinson’s disease, and Azhelmer’s. (Russel and Tikko 2002).

The recessive allele rugose (rg) is one of many genes studied for eye color pigmentation in D. melanogaster. rugose was first seen as a rough eye phenotype due to abnormal retina and cone development. This abnormality resulted in loss of cone cells. Furthermore, this gene encodes for a kinase protein A and is mandatory for retinal formation and cell differentiation. The gene rugose (rg) is an aging gene, that plays a role in physiological age and senescence. Fecundity changes are also incorporated into this, and assimilate dramatically with age. SNPs, otherwise known as single-nucleotide polymorphisms, affect fecundity and life span as well. With this said, increase in SNP levels, result when comparing fecundity with age. This relation provides adequate support and provides theory of aging (Durham, 2014).

At the biological level rugose participates in imaging circadian pacemakers in order to detect brain study and intact cAMP levels by a neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor also known as PDF. In some flies, pacemakers were elevated by, activating ortholog of mammalian adenylate cyclase 3 (AC3), however it seemed to have no effect. Although, a different isoform was utilized known as AC78C by RNAi which reduced, but did not completely take usage of PDF (Duvall, 2013).

Phenotypic characteristics in the mutation of the gene

The sex-linked recessive rugose (rg) gene is located on chromosome 1 is observed to have small rough eye phenotype showing an abnormality in the ocelli. Many are seen with two or three cone cells in their ommatidia when normal complements are observed to have four. In comparison to wild type the ommatidia are not hexagonal in shape. rugose (rg) bristles are positioned irregularly and excess bristles tend to form at the corner of the ommatidia. Photo receptors are also lacking in the ommatidia and position of them tend to be disoriented resulting in disformity in the retina. Wings are curled upward, thin and frayed toward the margins with body being pale in color (lindsley,1992). These phenotypic classes cause a mutation in both dominant and recessive alleles and contribute in being lethal. Two alleles in particular address this chromosomal effect; rugose (rg1) and rugose (rg7) to signify differences as rugose (rg) in the phenotype.

The (rg1) allele is the only non extinct allele associated with rugose (rg). This allele is hypomorphic with a slight rough appearance at 17??, but moderately rough at 25??. Depending on the severity of the roughness, the eye is classified into mild, moderate, and severe classes. The (rg1) allele deals with loss in memory similar to rugose (rg), in addition to learning disability. On the other hand, (rg7) has the same phenotypes seen as rugose (rg), but differentiates by having a mutation of eclosion delay.

Molecular characteristics of the gene and gene product

rugose (rg) is responsible for the regulation protein kinase A and targeting the membrane. Pathways predicted to direct memory formation are anesthesia-resistant memory and protein synthesis-dependent. With the membrane it may or may not include surrounding organelles associated proteins. Its identity of being required for retinal pattern as well as, interactions with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathways links to learning, short-term memory loss, neuromuscular junction, and their body. Short-term memory impairment is one of the main discrepancies caused in this gene by the absence of cold shock. This deficiency is seen at three hours after one cycle training. After every three hours more deduction in memory is seen to occur (Qin, 2013). At the molecular level, it is said, in the pathway of memory formation theirs a direct link which connects dysfunction in short-term memory into long-term memory (Zhao, 2013). Pathways predicted to direct memory formation are anesthesia-resistant memory and protein synthesis-dependent (Zhao, 2013).).

The mutation of rugose (rg) primarily causes abnormal or complete loss of cone cells. This can be retrieved by proapoptotic signals. However, a complete rescue can only be completed by Notch signaling. Cone cell loss is also seen by N-terminal kinase activity and reduction of EGFR signaling pathway. Together, both these aspects accumulate in integrating various signals for accurate regulation of cone cell development.


The biological and molecular perspective of Drosophila melanogaster leads up to gaining insight on different genes and their specificity on how they function and various mutations they cause to help scientists understand what they are experimenting with. In such a case, rugose a protein A kinase induced allele has been evident to be seen in 58 other alleles that are crucial in learning, mushroom body development, and neuromuscular junction development. Studying gene rugose (rg) further, can help gain knowledge on cone cell abnormality in the Drosophila as well as memory loss and learning impairment. Even though, there is no research that rugose (rg) has yet a significance in human diseases currently, Drosophila argose (aos) share similar phenotypes that are visualized in Drosophila rugose (rg). argos also, a protein coding gene located on chromosome 3 functions In enlargement of cell size as well as the development of the optic lobe located in the midbrain of the Drosophila melanogaster. While this gene affects cell size and the midbrain it is also important in photoreceptors of the eye and is hypomorphic as rugose (rg1) (Shamloula, 2002).

With ongoing research, the various functions and perspectives that play a part in the abnormality of cone cells in the retina, and memory loss disability have gave scientists the access and knowledge of rugose mutations that can be observed in other Drosophila flies. Research supports the idea that short-term memory is always associated with long-term memory and factors into olfactory attributes as well. Furthermore, this condition of memory impairment is still inconclusive due to rising alleles which develop and are complemented with others for further research.

Australia and obesity

Australia is the fattest nation in the world, and due to this there is an increasing obesity epidemic. The Brisbane Bariatric Centre (n.d) stated that obesity is an excess total of fat, which results from kilojoule intake that exceeds the energy usage, measured by the Body Mass Index (BMI). Whether it is lifestyle choices, genetics, parental, peer or social influence, these many causes are largely affecting the health of the nation. This research assignment will cover why with all the media coverage of obesity in society the numbers are increasing, and it will argue that individuals, families and society must change to be responsible for guaranteeing a decline in obesity epidemic numbers, starting now.

The Gympie State High School year 11 Home Economics class of 2015, have the surveyed the school community including teachers, parents and students in order to gain information about lifestyle choices (Appendix 1). The most significant figures out of each question was taken and put into percentages and the data is as follows (Appendix 2). Out of those surveyed, 55% saw themselves as overweight, 45% saw themselves as having a healthy weight while only 5 % saw themselves as obese. Out of these figures, 20% have take-away once a week, 45% have once a month and a small sum of only 5% have it once year, with the most predominant meal being take-away pizza. In addition, 95% of the participants stated that they were responsible for their own health, and in leisure time 50% watch TV and 20% spend it on their phone/ iPod. The statistics furthermore validate the undeniable fact that the nation is detrimental to its own health, through not eating healthy foods and spending large amounts of time watching TV/social media and not exercising.

The media has many outlets; television, print and social media sites, for example, Facebook or twitter. Due to this there are many ways for fast food companies to promote their products. The numerous advertisements showing delicious, appetising meals at an inexpensive price, is ultimately creating the desire in viewers to consume these products. Also, the simplicity and ease of driving and not having to put any time or effort into making meals makes it so much easier when in a hurry to purchase fast food and this relates directly to many Australians, especially mothers who work full time and are time poor. However, what many do not realise is no matter how tasty, quick and easy the food is to get, it is extremely unhealthy due to high levels of saturated fats, sugars and salts. These fats increase low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels which are linked to cardiovascular diseases (Better Health Channel, 2015) such as coronary heart disease and possibly causing heart attacks and/or strokes. Overall, these foods are contributing to the numbers of obese individuals, therefore making health problems more prevalent.

Obesity has many consequences in terms of health and the damage can be seen both physically and psychologically through many conditions. Depression, poor body image, low self-concept/esteem, behavioural and learning problems (Obesity Society, 2014) are just a few of the possible psychological conditions associated with obesity. Type 2 diabetes, asthma, hypertension (high blood pressure), High LDL cholesterol levels, low HDL cholesterol levels, sleep apnea, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, coronary heart disease, fatty liver disease, osteoarthritis, gallbladder disease and some forms of cancer including endometrial, breast and colon/colorectal (Obesity society, 2014), (, 2015) are the physical conditions. These illnesses are directly linked to obesity, and as a result doctor and hospital visits ultimately end up costing the economy millions each year.

The enormity of these visits in relation to the illnesses caused by obesity, the cost to the economy is into the millions. Data from (The growing cost of obesity 2008: three years on, 2008) clearly corroborates this and includes specific information with regard these associated diseases and health conditions. The many financial costs to the Australian health system can include the costs of running hospitals and nursing homes, GP and specialist services, the cost of pharmaceuticals, allied health services, research, productivity losses, carer costs, deadweight loss (DWL) from transfers, aids, equipment and modifications, transport and accommodation costs along with respite and other government programs. As well as the financial costs there are also the non-financial costs. These can include, disability, loss of wellbeing, premature death caused by the disease obesity and its affects which is measured in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), also known as Burden of Disease (BoD). (The growing cost of obesity 2008: three years on, 2008) also gives specific financial information from both 2005 and 2008 on obesity related diseases and the data is as follows. (Table 4-1: Cost Summary, Obesity ($M), 2005): In 2005 alone, the total of the diseases including BoD was at a whopping 21’013 million dollars with the individual diseases including: Type 2 diabetes at $2’289 million, CVD at $12’653, osteoarthritis at $2’027 and cancer at $3’954. This rapidly increases over the three year gap with Type 2 diabetes increasing 57.3% to $8’251 million, CVD increasing 71.4% to $34’565 million, osteoarthritis increasing 63.6% to $5’662 million and cancer increasing 72.4% to $9’701 million with a total of 58’179 million dollars. This data furthermore validates the fact that obesity is not only affecting the lives of Australians but also the Australian economy and due to this an immediate change is needed, and eating healthy and exercising each week can make the positive impact Australia so desperately needs.

Bridge to Terabithia characters by Katherine Paterson

Author: Katherine Paterson

Illustrator: Donna Diamond

Genre: Friendship

Publisher: HarperTrophy

Publication date: January 1, 1977

Number of pages: 176

Jesse Aarons is a eleven-year boy who lives in England, he loves running. his dream is to be the fasted boy from year five out of his class. When school starts in the fall, feeling that this is his change to be in the spotlights amomg his five sisters, he might aswell will get more attention of his preocupied dad. Jess is realy insecure about his identety. He likes painting and drawing, but he dosn’t realise that other people bully him for likeing those things. including his dad. In addition, his family is stretched so tight by poverty that he has little chance to really explore his own identity during this crucial period of adolescence. He has therefore built up the importance of winning in his mind, feeling that here, at least, is something that he is good at which won’t win him an undesired label of “sissy” in the eyes of his father or schoolmates, and which will allow him to shine in his own right. He practices each morning, always dreaming of his upcoming victory. However, when the races come around at recess, a new girl, Leslie Burke, who just moved next door to Jess, boldly crosses to the boys’ side of the playground and beats everyone.

A rather unpromising start, but Jess en Leslie became friends realy quikly. They builded a secrect fantasy place accros the creek in the woods, named Terabithia, where they play everytime. This place makes them forget that the rest of the world exist. Like the kids at school or Jess’s family. The time they spend in Terabithia, in fact, seems to strengthen them for these trials of everyday life: it is there that they map out a plan of revenge on the school bully when she steals May Belle’s Twinkies, and it is there that they discuss Jess’s feelings of insecurity when Leslie begins to draw closer to her father. Leslie also introduces Jess to the world of imagenation and creativity. Telling him the stories of such classics of literature as Moby Dick and Hamlet. All of this made Jess’s artestic talent stronger, Leslie Supports his ambition and, through the stories she tells, provides him with great subject matter. But much of the time they play wonderful games of their own invention-defeating intruders on Terabithian territory, praying to the Spirits of the Grove to end a long spell of rain, and numerous other fantasies.

However, Jess and Leslie’s friendship, although centered in Terabithia, is not limited to Terabithia.They see each other at school, where they have a ribbing of fun for their diffrents in gender, but now Leslie dosn’t have the feeling to tease Jess now, and Leslie is never particularly bothered by what others think. At home, they celebrated together on holiday, such as Christmas, when Jess gives Leslie a puppy and she gives him an expensive art set to his artistic talent to develop. At Easter, when Jess goes to the Church he takes Leslie with her. Leslie is impressed by the beauty of the story of Christ.

One day there music teacher at school, Miss Edmunds, who Jess realy likes, invites him to go with her to the art galleries in washington. This trip does a lot for his spirit to expand and make him feel as if he is special, a feeling that he only had when he was whit Leslie. Jess has a perfect day, but when he comes home, he’s told that Leslie drowned in the Creek that morning trying to sway in Terabithia on the rope that they used to get to Terabithia. Jess is completely devastated and goes through the stages of denial, anger, fear and tears incredibly painful to suffer and, indeed, to read about. Initially he does not see how he is in the first place. Leslie has him raised to new heights as the King of Terabithia, and now he feels that without her, he has no choice but to return to the old Jess, plagued by fear and uncertainty. But in the end he realizes that he just Leslie’s memory, and his own newly discovered sense of self, live by the continuation of the fantasy of Terabithia. He brings his little sister May Belle there and makes her the new Queen, make sure that a part of Leslie will live as well.

Jesse Oliver: The main character. Jess is a guy from year five at his school. He is lonely because he likes art, people at his school call him sassy. Then a girl arrives at his school named Leslie Burke. She became the fasted runner at their school, something that Jesse always dreamed of. Jess en Leslie become best friends. Jess is very talented in art.

Leslie Burke: Jesse’s new neighbour and best friend she is a realy intelligent girl. She came with the idea to create there own fantasyland named Terabithia. Leslie’s family is well educated in diffrent then the rest of the neighbours, esecially Jess’s neigbours.

For me the theme of the book is friendship, because its all about the friendly relationship between Jess and Leslie. They both have the same hobbies, for example they both like running.

My opinion of this book is that its a good book, i realy enjoyed reading it. Especially the bond between Jess and Leslie, They proof that a boy and a girl can be friends.


A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research

OBJECTIVE: To attain the insights in the importance of quality in service industry through an extensive exploratory research.

SUMMARY: For a tangible good, the products quality has always been measurable by various marketers and it has been one of the important roles of the organizations to maintain their quality standards throughout their run. But, for the service sector, a lot of researchers have not been able to find the quality of the service and are yet to focus on it. In this article, the authors have focussed and tried to rectify this situation by using numerous methods some of which are:

‘ Recording the perceptions obtained in an extensive exploratory investigation of quality in four service businesses

‘ Developing a separate model for determining the service quality.

‘ To create new propositions to help future research in this field.

The main problem for the authors here is the INTANGIBILITY of service sector, which prevents many from having an access to its insights. Most services cannot be calculated, measured, inventoried, confirmed, and verified in progress of sale to promise quality. This intangibility makes it difficult for the firm to understand how consumers perceive the services and its quality. Secondly, services are heterogeneous i.e, they differ from maker to maker, customer to customer and time to time.

The authors used exploratory investigation in this article which included,

1) Executive interviews- This included a nationally recognized company from each of the four service businesses participated in the study. The respondents held titles such as president of the company, senior vice president of the company, director of customer relations and manager of consumer market research.

2) Focus Group Interviews- This was done in 12 groups for, 3 for each selected service industry. 6 groups consisted only male and 6 consisted only female. The groups were formed on the basis of age and sex to maintain the homogeneity.


Two types of service quality exist: Technical and functional. The technical quality involves what the customer gets from the service and functional quality is the manner in which the service is delivered. The service quality can actually be attained by the interaction between the customers with the elements of the service organization. They have actually used three quality dimensions which are

Physical quality: This includes the physical aspects of the service (e.g., equipment or building)

Corporate quality: This involves the company’s image or profile

Interactive quality: This actually derives from the interaction between contact personnel and customers as well as between some customers and other customers.

After conducting the interviews and the focus group a discussion, a table was formed which mentioned the determinants of service quality. The following were found out to be the determinants:

1. Reliability: Consistence of performance and reliability.

2. Responsiveness: Readiness of employees to provide service.

3. Competence: Having the required skills/knowledge to provide the service.

4. Access: Ease of contact.

5. Courtesy: politeness of contact personnel.

6. Communication: Making the customers understand in a language they know.

7. Credibility: Honesty and reliability

8. Security: Freedom from risk or danger.

9. Understanding the customer: Understanding what the customer needs.

10. Tangibles: Physical evidence of the service.


The quality of service given to the customers plays a pivotal role in the growth of any service industry. The importance of quality has been mentioned clearly in the article which leads them to find out on how to measure the same. The research methodologies used by the authors have provided us with various insights and propositions, concerning consumer’s perception of service quality. The authors also mentioned 10 various dimensions through which the customers actually perceive the service quality given to them. The article can be used a base for further investigation and research in the findings of the quality of service provided by industries

OBJECTIVE: combine implementation of service marketing and strategic bonds in health care sector.


Fundamentals of service marketing must be practiced by hospitals in spite of the policies followed by healthcare industry which benefits them and sustain its competition, compromised of physicians, consumers, pharmaceutical firms, etc. A service lead culture plays in important role in the positioning of hospitals. Hospitals will need to differentiate themselves by making effective strategic alliances to position themselves as members of an integrated healthcare organization. It is known that various existing strategies will continue to dominate this industry for the next several years, hospitals need to redefine the concept of marketing, sales and service to include establishing comprehensive customer service centers and information centers.


1. SERVICE MARKETING IS HERE TO STAY: in order to sustain the competition from the players in same industry and meet customer requirements, service marketing principles are to be followed. Positioning hospitals’ potential role as the most important activity of health care industry will help a hospital to remain it s position in market. Since a decade service marketing has been in practice in hospital industry.

2. NEED FOR STRATEGIC ALLIANCES AND SERVICE MARKETING: Hospitals that are standing out from others with service market programs are those which are effective in making strategies. As the network of healthcare market has increased, the conversion of health care delivery programs into managed care is implemented by Group Health Assoc.

3. A PARADIGM SHIFT FOR HEALTH CARE MARKETING: In the forthcoming decade, it is clear that health care industry will be dominated by different capitation strategies. These strategies will not affect the requirements that are necessary for a hospital to be ‘market- oriented’ but affects the style of marketing of a hospital and its business activities.

4. MARKETING, SALES AND SERVICE- REDEFINED: Hospitals should have the positioning strategy in order to act as reliable source of information for customer to access various services. Embracing this responsibility can position hospitals successfully in a market that will continue to separate winners from losers. To abandon this responsibility places them at risk, as they will lose the ability to favorably influence activities within their market.

5. APPLYING MARKETING TECHNOLOGY TO THE NEW PARADIGM: Information systems technology is readily available to support a broad range of strategic marketing activity. Consumer information extends beyond basic demographics to include past and predicted use of health care services. Consumers with predefined health profiles should be targeted in order to detect in early stages regarding health situation. It is important to monitor the consumers who have accessed to the services in the past, since it is as important as various reform models implementation.

6. PUSHING THE EDGE OF THE ENVELOPE THROUGH STRATEGIC ALLIANCES: The programs which use the health information for the hospitals are important as they manage risk under certain captivated contracts. The service centers of a hospital acts as a tangible asset for the other providers who seeks this information in order to have some extent of security.


The conclusion is that these service marketing and selective alliances will prepare the changes which are hidden so that it simplifies the important strategies for the hospitals. The hospitals can concentrate on the activities which create value addition and attract the business partners while the hospitals’ health care proposals remain controversial. Rather than going for a particular strategy which is uncertain about predicting of success, fundamentals of service marketing and strategic alliances will help the organization in positioning for success under any policy.

Richard Ford – The Sportswriter (1986)

Richard Ford is one of the most gifted novelists in the contemporary America. He was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for his novel Independence Day. This novel is the first one in history to win together the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction and PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction in 1995. His works are being associated by the literary critics to the movement of ‘foul realism’. Ford is widely respected for the work with the language he applies in his texts. He was born in 1944. Ford has written eight novels and a collection of short stories in American literature. Ford’s The Sports Writer is a highly acclaimed pattern of contemporary realistic fiction. It revolves around the thoughts and observations of one central character, the protagonist Frank Bascome. This paper encapsulates the protagonist, life, affairs, happiness, love, feelings and pain, as well as the dramatic change in his style. Of course the soundless plight of men in contemporary society was skilfully depicted by American author Richard Ford in his award winning novel The Sportswriter (1986).

Ford’s Frank novels efficiently dramatize the poverty of human relationships in contemporary culture. Frank, the protagonist, and the men with whom he interacts suffer from problems that are quite conman to many North American men. Thirty year-old Frank faces the tragedies and disappointments in his life without self ‘ pity. He faces difficulties similar to those the earlier athlete faces. Frank is no longer a husband and barely a father. He is a writer for an American sports magazine who is struggling to understand himself and the world around him. The opening paragraph, “My name is Frank Bascombe. I am a sportswriter” (3).provides us with a complete list of al1 the things which are clear to Frank as the novel begins. The paragraphs which follow reveal his confusion over the disappointments and failures of his life; he has made money but is neither happy nor stable, as he thought he would be. Mid-life crisis has cast the protagonist into a state of dreaminess and depression. He remains, yet, a unfailing narrator as he assures us early on: ‘I have a voice that is really mine, a frank argues in rural voice more or less like a used car salesman: a no-frills voice that hopes to uncover simple truth by a straight-on application of the facts”(11). The Sportswriter chronicles a weekend of Frank’s life and the lives of three men he encounters, and reveals the problems the male mystique causes them. Frank responds to his feelings of alienation by joining The Divorced Men’s Club, a group of five single men who meet occasionally to relax and engage in traditionally masculine activities such as watching baseball games and fishing. These activities are alluring to Frank and other men because they appear to promote social interaction; unfortunately, the activities also distance the men from interaction with women and true progress in their lives The men are unable or unwilling to express their feelings about their individual lives, and the club exists simply as an excuse for the men to drink and display bravado, rather than engage in any manner of therapeutic conversation.’ This unfortunate arrangement is attributable to the masculine mystique and the manner in which it encourages men to conceal their emotional problems so that they do not appear weak or feminine. While Frank does not address his problems another club member, Walter Luckett, does and is, in fact, the only man to do so in the novel.,

In the novel’s starting page, Frank and his ex-wife (Anne Dykstra, but referred to in this novel only as X) are standing in a cemetery sharing a moment of reflection on the anniversary of their first son’s death. Even as in the cemetery, Frank makes mention to three poems: “The Hollow Men” by T. S. Eliot, “To An Athlete Dying Young” by A.E. Housman, and “First Meditation” by Theodore Roethke–each of which is thematically relevant to The Sportswriter. Like the men described in the poem, lead empty, meaningless, life-in-death existences in a dying and meaningless world. The American men lead empty lives, dedicated to accumulating wealth and power instead of friendships and happiness. These poems indicate that there is something wrong.

With the social codes that govern men’s lives; the codes create an absurd world and ruin the lives of its inhabitants. Frank and X exemplify Ford’s disregard for gender conventions; while each retains feelings for the other, they each transmit those feelings in unconventional ways. Frank still cares deeply for his wife and openly displays his emotions when they are together. X still cares about Frank but she erects a transparent facade of stoicism. Frank is often depicted as fragile, dreamy, and sympathetic. He notes that “I have always liked hearing women talk more than men” (11). And believes that ‘men feel things women don t”(329). The death of his first son has dispelled the notion of continuity for Frank, as has his divorce. Trapped in what he refers to as the Existence Period, Frank inhabits a world that is seemingly unknowable and retreats within himself to escape. Frank, like many men, lacks the vocabulary to describe the psychological turmoil from which he suffers, so Existence Period is his label for this turmoil. The turmoil includes his divorce, the death of one son, and his inability to fa11 in love again, and regrets from his past. The Sports Writing is unambiguous and Frank depends on the simplicity of his profession to keep himself sane, but the therapeutic qualities of his vocation are a lie. Frank

Claims to love Sports writing superficiality, but the truth is that the job is perp&uating Frank’s dreaminess. Rather than confronting his mid-life problems, Frank is allowing himself to slip in and out of a dream-like state (10).

His dreaminess provides temporary escape, but it provides no true solace because, in his dreamy state, he sees that he is himself, as complex, chaotic, and mysterious as the world around him. Frank does not fit into the world because the world insists on obedience to the doctrines of the masculine mystique-doctrines against which Frank is unconsciously rebelling as he suffers his mid-life crisis. Frank’s divorce, for example, tags him as socially dysfunctional. As he notes, it is not, I have come to understand, easy to have

a divorced man as your neighbour. Chaos lurks in

him–the viable social contract called into

question by the smoky aspect of sex. Most people

feel they have to make a choice and it is always

easier to choose the wife, which is what my

neighbours and friends have mostly done(5).

Frank responds to his feelings of alienation by joining The Divorced Men’s Club, a group of five single men who meet infrequently to relax and engage in traditionally male activities such as watching baseball games and fishing. These manners are alluring to Frank and other men because they appear to promote social contact; unfortunately, the activities also distance the men from interface among women and true progress in their lives. The men are unable or unwilling to express their feelings about their individual lives, and the club exists simply as an excuse for the men to drink and display bravado, rather than engage in any manner of therapeutic conversation. While Frank does not address his problems, another club member, Walter Luckett, does and is, in fact, the only man to do so in the novel. Even though, Frank listens with discomfort and annoyance, Walter explains that his life is in shambles. He is undergoing a crisis, a mid-life crisis, which he does not fully understand and which recently has led him to have sexual intercourse with a man he met in a bar. After his shocking revelation, Walter reflects on his inability to bond with Frank during his confession. Even though his future is uncertain, he is able to take consolation in the knowledge that his own problems with the men mystique and the male mid- life crisis are shared by others: ‘We have all felt that way, I am confident; since there’s no way that I could feel what hundreds of millions of other citizens have not (375). What separates Frank from the crowd is that he redeems himself from his life long participation in the men mystique, which tens of millions of other American men are unable to do. Because Frank plays the role of “the saved” in The Sportswriter, it is not he who is most illustrative of the negative effects of the masculine mystique because he manages to survive his mid-life crisis

and re-focus his life. While Frank’s fate preserves optimism and saves the novel from a morbid conclusion, it is the men who interact with Frank, “the damned,” who are more interesting subjects of study. Unlike Frank Bascombe, Walter Luckett, Herb Wallagher, and Wade Arcenault do not contend well with the masculine mystique and the male midlife crisis.

At the end of the novel Frank is dumped by Vicki because of his argument at the supper table. It is an interesting separation because it marks a physical separation form those from whom he is ideologically distancing himself–those who, like the Arcenaults, are-content to live under the thumb of the masculine mystique. The separation is a violent one–Vicki punches him in the face, making his mouth bleed when he protests–which marks the abrupt termination of his association with mental and. ideological apathy and the birth of a new Frank, who is more clearly able to understand his own life and the world around him.

The Berlin Wall: custom essay help


After Germany lost World War II the country was split into four zones, each occupied by one of the four Allied powers that defeated the Nazis. (je kan misschien een foto hiervan plakken in je verslag; je kan het opnemen als bijlage I) The zones controlled by France, Great Britain and America became West Germany, or Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Federal Republic of Germany = FRG). The Soviet-controlled zone became East Germany, or Deutsche Demokratische Republik (Germany Democratic Republic = GDR). Germany’s capital, Berlin, was situated in Soviet-controlled East Germany , but as this city was the administrative area for the Allied forces, it too was split into four. This meant that France, Great Britain and America controlled West Berlin, whereas the Soviet Union controlled the East. Relations between America and the Soviet Union soured considerably during much of the second half of the Twentieth Century. The Berlin Wall was a symbol of this hostility, a physical representation of what was called the Iron Curtain.

Iron Curtain

The Iron Curtain symbolized the ideological conflict and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. The term symbolized efforts by the Soviet Union to block itself and its satellite states from open contact with the west and non-Soviet-controlled areas. On the east side of the Iron Curtain were the countries that were connected to or influenced by the Soviet Union. On either side of the Iron Curtain, states developed their own international economic and military alliances.

Economic situation in West and East Berlin

West Berlin received financial help from the Allied powers (especially Marshall Fund of the United States) , but East Berlin didn’t get any help from Soviet Union. Unlike East Berlin West Berlin could build a good economy. In East Berlin, there was food shortage and there was unemployment, while they had enough food and luxury in West Berlin. The result was that many people who lived in East Berlin fled to West Berlin. There were so many people that the GDR fell from 18.4 million in 1950 to 17.2 million in 1960. Especially highly skilled workers moved to West Berlin, to find a better job there. Only low-skilled workers remained in East Berlin.

The rise of the Wall

On August 13,1961 Premier Khrushchev of the Soviet Union gave the East German Government permission to stop the flow of emigrants by closing its border for good. In just two weeks, the East German army, police force and volunteer construction workers had completed a makeshift barbed wire and concrete block wall’the Berlin Wall (45 kilometers long)’that divided one side of the city from the other.

Before the wall was built, Berliners on both sides of the city could move around fairly freely: They crossed the East-West border to work, to shop, to go to the theater and the movies. Trains and subway lines carried passengers back and forth. After the wall was built, it became impossible to get from East to West Berlin except through one of three checkpoints: at Helmstedt, at Dreilinden and in the center of Berlin at Friedrichstrasse. (Eventually, the GDR built 12 checkpoints along the wall.) At each of the checkpoints, East German soldiers screened diplomats and other officials before they were allowed to enter or leave. Except under special circumstances, travelers from East and West Berlin were rarely allowed across the border.


After World War II Germany was divided into West Germany and East Germany (as stated above). In East Germany the Communism arose and in West Germany the capitalism.

In the west, it was actually quite good. There was free economy, so it went well with the prosperity. This was done with the help of the United States. There were free elections and a parliamentary democracy.

In East Germany the communists took control and the SED (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) became the official state party. There was a people’s democracy under the leadership of the communists. There were no free elections. There was a dictatorship because the political party was the only party that did exist. The residents of the East were very suppressed. There was no freedom of speech. Only positive things about the SED appeared in the newspaper and the negative things were omitted (propaganda). East Berliners wanted to live in freedom like the West Berliners.

Social and economical consequences of Berlin Wall

Most people lost their jobs because 60,000 East Berliners were working in West Berlin and 13,000 West Berliners in East Berlin. Before the wall West Berliners could buy their products for lower prices in East Berlin. People were separated from relatives, because they were living on the other side of the wall.

At the beginning the West Germans felt imprisoned by the Berlin Wall, but it soon became apparent that the East Germans were locked. Unlike the East Germans the West Germans lived in luxury. The West Germans could just eat, drink and wear anything what they wanted. In fact, the West Germans were not much affected by the wall beyond the fact that they were separated from relatives in the East (as stated above). Until 1972 it was not allowed to travel to the other side of the city. The East Germans tried to smuggle all kinds of articles like food and clothes from the West.

Animal testing: essay help

Every year thousands of animals are tested on for human safety and die of agonisingly long and painful deaths. Animal testing is a valuable asset in scientific research, drug development, health and medical research and cosmetic manufacturing. Animals are frequently used as a test subject since their body are very similar to the humans and will react in a similar way to different substances. Do you want innocent animals suffer painful deaths just for your beauty?

Not surprisingly, many types of animals tested on are mice, rats, rabbits, monkeys, dogs, cats, guinea pigs, hamsters, birds and mini pigs. Mice are the most popular animal to be tested on due to their size, ease of handling, fast reproduction rate, availability and low cost. 7342 mice are used in worldwide labs everyday- one every 12 seconds! They are widely considered to be the prime model of inherited human disease and share 99% of their genes with humans. In 2012, 3,045,690 mice, 262,641 rats and 28,677 other rodents were used in the UK alone (83.1% of total animals used that year). In 2011, the statistics show animal use totalled to 3,792,857 animals. This equates to 10,391 per day, or one every 8.3 seconds.

Even though many people oppose to the idea of animal testing, it has saved so many human lives and helped with our knowledge of different drugs, cosmetics(etc.). For example, we now have the technology for organ transplants. Organ transplants have improved the quality- and length- of life for millions of people across the world. For example, the first human cornea transplant took place over 100 years ago, following research using rabbits. In 2007, 2,403 people had their sight restored by cornea transplants. In addition, of the 5,000 people to develop kidney failure every year in the UK, 1 in 3 would die without a transplant. The surgery behind transplantation itself but also method of tissue-typing and anti-rejection drugs were developed using dogs, rabbits and mice from 1950 onwards. In 167, the first human to human heart transplant finally took place. Few people knew it took 60 years to prepare for this using animal research. Professor Christian Barnard carried out nearly 50 animal heart transplants over 4 years. Heart-lung transplants were later developed using monkeys.

The animals tested on can either survive; they won’t react to the product or the animal will suffer in great pain a die from a reaction from the product. They can be infected with a disease, poisoning, burning skin, brain damage, implanting electrodes into the brain, and blinding. They are abused and tortured. Over 100 million animals are burned, crippled, poisoned and abused in US labs every year. When used in cosmetic tests, mice, rats, rabbits and guinea pigs are often subjected to skin and eye irritation tests were chemicals are rubbed onto shaved skin or dripped into the eye without any pain relief given. Some tests can involve a killing of a pregnant animals and testing on their fetus. This is inhumane.

Animals in labs live stressful, monotonous, and unnatural lives of daily confinement and deprivation. The only changes in their lives may come from being called into a research or testing protocol- which may include an invasive experiment, or a procedure whose endpoint id death. Imagine spending your whole entire life as a hospital patient or a prisoner.

Would you pay a high amount of money for designer make-up when an animal has suffered in great pain and lost their life for something that isn’t necessary in life?

Use of fossil fuels and global warming

Due to global warming and other ill-effects of conventional energy sources, there is a need to produce energy by clean and environmental friendly ways. Fuel cell is one of the effective solution to produce energy without polluting the environment. There are various types of fuel cells viz. solid oxide, proton exchange membrane, alkaline fuel cells, etc. We are going to discuss more about solid oxide fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a device which generates electricity by using chemical energy stored in the fuel viz. hydrogen or hydrocarbons. SOFC consists of three parts ‘ electrolyte, anode and cathode. SOFCs have fuel flexibility, are low cost and have long-term stability. Operating temperature is the main disadvantage of the SOFC. To overcome this disadvantage, nanomaterials are used for electrolytes, anodes and cathodes of SOFC in order to improve their performance. Various fabrication and preparation methods are used to integrate different nanomaterials in the different parts of SOFCs. In this research, different fabrication methods along with their applications are discussed. [1, 2]

‘ Problem statement or gap:

The high use of fossil fuels like coal, gas and oil in last 100 years has increased the carbon dioxide and other poisonous gases emissions from power generation devices. This is considered to be an important factor for some of the environmental problems like global warming. The energy demand is always increasing and fossil fuels are depleting at faster rate. The power generation by using fossil fuels would not be sustainable. Thus, there is a need to find alternative or renewable energy sources that can meet this demand. The fuel cell is considered to be the one of the efficient and clean power generating device. Now, as we are considering fuel cells as replacement for the current power generating devices, the efficiency and durability of the fuel cells should be ideally equal or higher than those devices. To increase the efficiency and durability, different nanomaterials can be used in three different parts i.e. electrolyte, cathode and anode of fuel cells. Thus, in summary, there is need for better understanding of how these nanomaterials can be integrated on these parts in an efficient, fast and low cost ways. [1, 2, 4]

The research questions that the paper is going to address are:

1. What are some of the efficient methods to integrate the nanoparticles?

2. What are some of the applications of above methods along with the results to show the power output and durability of the fuel cells? [2, 3, 4, 5]

3. What future work needs to be done in order to improve the long term performance of the fuel cells? [6]

‘ Objectives of your research:

The objective of the current study is to provide a comprehensive review of literatures related to the application and advantages of each fabrication method of SOFCs. The fabrication methods discussed in the current study are photolithography process, sintering process and infiltration process. These processes are used for fabrication of nanomaterials on electrolyte, anode and cathode respectively. In this research, the methods are discussed using one nanomaterial for each fabrication method. The nanomaterial used for photolithography is YSZ (yttrium stabilized zirconia) [1, 2], for sintering is NiO/YSZ [3, 5] and for infiltration is metal salt nitrate [4]. These materials would increase the power output and performance of SOFCs. Different nanomaterials can also be used other than the mentioned, for improving the performance. The long term goal of the research is to help the researchers to understand the impact of use of nanomaterials in SOFCs.

‘ Expected solution or anticipated results of your research:

The results of this research will be shared in a form of paper, power point and poster presentation. The results would primarily include the schematic diagrams of the fabrication methods. They would also include the preparation methods for a particular nanomaterial used in the fabrication. The results for nanomaterial in electrolyte would include tables and graphs related to performance of SOFCs with respect to crystalline sizes, temperature, durability and cell voltage. For anode, the results would include performance of fuel cells with respect to temperature and cell voltage. The results for cathode would include performance with respect to temperature. In summary, the performance and durability of SOFCs are expected to increase with addition of nanomaterials.

‘ Timetable for completion:

February 28, 2015 ‘ Literature review and start research from the reference papers.

March 13, 2015 ‘ Proposal for Final Project.

March 27, 2015 ‘ Progress Report for Final Project.

April 17, 2015 ‘ Present Results in Poster Presentation.

April 24, 2015 ‘ Submit Final Paper.

‘ Your qualifications:

I am pursuing Master of Science in Electrical and Computer Engineering. I am writing this research paper as a part of curriculum for TCM 460.

‘ Limitations, discussion, conclusion:

In this research paper, we will see how nanomaterials can be used by using fabrication methods for electrolyte, anode and cathode of SOFCs. Introducing these nanomaterials will increase performance and durability of SOFCs. But, there are some limitations of this research. We are going to see only limited number of fabrication methods for integration of nanomaterials in fuel cells and only one application of the nanomaterial used for electrolyte, anode and cathode. There might be several other fabrication methods and nanomaterials which are not covered in this research paper. Degradation of performance after a certain number of working hours of SOFCs should also be considered while doing future work. [6]

Situated learning: essay help online free

Situated learning is a type of learning that allows individual learners to learn through socializing with other people, or with knowledgeable people or through observing and imitating real activities in real life situations. The above mentioned practice builds on participation and observation in activity.

Situated learning is based on practical activities whereby learners gain beneficial knowledge that they ought to get from schools. In the past years, learners were taught things that were not really useful to them in their everyday life. Learners need to learn or acquire skills or knowledge that are relevant to their lives, and that might be related to the career that they are going to choose in the near future.

Situated learning declared that thinking, learning and doings cannot be separated from the practical and social situations in which they occur. They work in harmony

When the teacher allows learners to have an opportunity to participate, demonstrate and interact their own thoughts, this will build their cognition abilities. Learners will acquire specific skills by observing, visualize, hear and listen by having someone to imitate or follow.

In situated learning, learner’s works through participating in a particular activity of a certain community. Participation involves joining in with the community or group of people who are performing that activity. For example, if a learner wants to know to design clothes or wants to become a fashion designer, he will probably join a group of people who design different types of clothes. In this way a learner will gain his designing experience through doing and from there, he will be able to become productive in his life after mastering the designing skills.

Teaching method -Demonstration

The teaching method that I will use in situated learning perspective is demonstration. It is the process of teaching through giving or showing examples, or acting out situations or carries out experiments. Demonstration can be used as a proof or evidence about whatever theory or situation explained to the learners, through a combination of visual evidence (of things that you can really see with your eyes) and associated reasoning.

Demonstration gives learners an opportunity to relate to the presented information individually and reinforce memory storage, because they provide the link between facts and real world implementation of those facts.

Heather (2009) on his education reference article when he explained the demonstration method of teaching stated that: ‘when using the demonstration model in the classroom, the teacher or some other expert on the topic being taught, perform the tasks step-by-step so that the learner will be able to complete the same task independently. After performing the demonstration, the teacher’s role becomes supporting students in their attempts, providing guidance and feedback and offering suggestions for alternative approaches.

Implementing the practice in my teaching, using demonstration method to improve learning

According to the situated learning perspective, people learn through participation and we participate by joining the group of people who are experts or experienced in carrying out a particular activity. To implement the practice of working to bring authentic practice into the classroom, a learner need to be able to do things or carry out tasks appropriately in real life situations . And the teacher or an expert from a certain community of practice will act as a scaffold in this situation, by carrying out demonstrations.

In English language teaching under the speaking domain, I will implement this practice in teaching my learners about how to give (deliver) a speech in public. Firstly I will teach my learners about what is a speech, how people present speeches and what is the layout of a speech, in presenting it as well as in writing, and also about the main components of a speech such as: The speech should be logically written (should have an introduction, body and conclusion) speaker should be relaxed and try to be calm even when he knows that he is nervous, speech should be interesting, the speaker should use the body language correctly. I will also demonstrate to learners by giving them a short speech as an example.

Secondly I will invite an expert from the community of practice, a person who deliver speeches at different occasions to my class. This person will demonstrate to my learners about how people present speeches, so that they can improve their skills. After the expert’s presentation, learners will be given an opportunity to ask questions, I will also ask them questions to check what they have captured from the presentation. Then I will ask them to work in collaboration with each other in groups, to come up with a speech following the layout that I taught them, and then they should choose a presenter from their groups to present the speech to class. After the group’s presentations, they will be given a chance to comment or make suggestions about others presentations.

As the learners become able to perform the task on their own effectively, more tasks are given, until they master the tasks of speeches presentations. Learners will then be given a task to prepare their own speeches, individually. Before presentations, they will be given opportunities to rehearse. Firstly, they will submit their speeches that they wrote down (draft). I will give those comments and suggestions. In the second rehearsal they will present their speeches in class, this will be done with the purpose to increase their fluency in reading, and to remind them of speech presentation strategies such as: use of voice, facial expressions, and use of body language. Then I will ask them to make changes in their speeches where necessary. Finally they will present their speeches again with an expert observing them. The expert would give comments after the presentations. If possible the presentations should be recorded or videotaped.

From the situated learning perspective, learning is a process that does not take place in an individual mind, but it takes place in a situated learning. In the case of situated practice of speech presentation rehearsal, the teacher as an instructor and the learners constructed the changes in participation that were observed as the learners developed skills from peripheral to fuller participation. In these process learners participation was transformed through demonstration and the teacher’s participation complemented the learner’s learning.

Diabetic ketoacidosis


Diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA, is one of the most serious metabolic disorders seen in both human and veterinary medicine. A severe complication of diabetes mellitus, DKA is characterized by a more concentration of blood sugar, the presence of substances called ketones in the urine, and decreased concentrations of bicarbonate in the blood. Some dogs with DKA will be less affected but the majority will be seriously ill and may have severe complications such as neurological problems due to brain swelling, acute kidney failure, pancreatitis, and anemia. DKA will lead to death in many cases, but aggressive diagnostics and treatment can be life saving.

DKA often develops in diabetes that had previously been unrecognized or untreated. Thus, it is essential to identify diabetes mellitus or the development of additional symptoms in a dog that is known to be diabetic to prevent DKA from occurring.

Clinical Signs:

Clinical signs include weight loss, lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. Complications may include anemia, electrolyte abnormalities, neurological disorders, and acute renal failure.


Some of the symptoms related to this disease are as follows;

‘ Increased thirst

‘ Loss of appetite

‘ Frequent urination

‘ Weight loss

‘ Tiredness

‘ Vomiting


In addition to diabetes mellitus, another most serious condition that may develop. Ketones, also called ketone bodies, are used for energy production in most body tissues. They are normally formed when fatty acids are released from fatty tissue and are transported to the liver. The liver then makes ketones from the fatty acids. Excessive production of ketones can occur in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, and as they accumulate, ketosis, and eventually acidosis, develop. The four major factors that contribute to ketone formation in DKA are

1. insulin deficiency

2. fasting

3. dehydration, and

4. increased levels of “stress” hormones such as epinephrine, cortisol, glucagon, and growth hormone.

DKA is more common in animals with previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, but it can also be seen in dogs with established diabetes that are not receiving enough insulin. In these dogs, there may be an associated inflammatory or infectious disease. Other canines may develop conditions associated with insulin resistance such as hypothyroidism or Cushing’s disease. Dogs may be only mildly affected by DKA, or they may be close to death at the time of diagnosis. DKA develops at an unpredictable rate, and some diabetic dogs may be able to live fairly normal lives for several months with no treatment at all. However, once DKA develops, most dogs become seriously ill within one week.

The aggressiveness of treatment depends on how sick the dog is. While dogs with mild DKA may be successfully treated with intravenous fluids and insulin, dogs with severe manifestations of disease will need more significant intervention. Fluid therapy, potassium, bicarbonate, and phosphorus supplementation can be vitally important. Any accompanying disorders must be identified and treated specifically where possible to enhance resolution of DKA.

Complications during DKA treatment are common, and can include the development of hypoglycemia, neurological signs due to brain cell swelling, and severe electrolyte abnormalities. Anemia due to red blood cell breakdown can occur if the serum phosphorus concentration drops too low. Acute kidney failure also is possible.

DKA is one of the most serious metabolic disorders seen in both human and veterinary medicine. Many patients will die from it. However, the majority of patients can pull through a crisis successfully with aggressive diagnostics and treatment.


The diagnosis of DKA is based on the clinical signs and the presence of elevated serum glucose concentrations and ketones in the urine, and reduced serum bicarbonate concentrations within the blood stream. Mild DKA is present when dogs with high serum glucose concentrations and ketones in the urine appear healthy, or have only mild clinical signs, or have mild decreases in serum bicarbonate concentration. These dogs do not require extremely aggressive treatment, and should be distinguished from dogs with severe DKA. Dogs with severe DKA have high serum glucose concentrations, ketones in the urine, extreme reductions in serum bicarbonate concentration, and often show severe signs of illness.

In addition to the serum glucose concentrations and urinalysis results, other key diagnostic procedures include measurement of venous total carbon dioxide, blood gas evaluation, and analysis of electrolytes and serum kidney values. In addition to a routine urinalysis, a urine culture should be performed on any dog with DKA, as urinary tract infections are very common complicating factors for this condition. A complete blood count, serum liver and pancreatic enzyme measurements, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels should also be obtained. X-rays of the chest and abdomen, and ideally an abdominal ultrasound, should also be used to investigate underlying or associated factors, as well as other abnormalities that might require specific treatment.


The prognosis for DKA is guarded. As many as five to 10 percent of humans with DKA die from this condition. Death rates for dogs may be as high as 30 to 40 percent in some environments.


DKA usually occurs in either dogs with diabetes that has been present but unrecognized and untreated for a long time, or in previously diagnosed diabetic dogs that have become ill with another problem or that are taking inadequate amounts of insulin


Relatively healthy dogs with DKA can be treated with potent but regular short-acting crystalline insulin injections to help get the serum glucose levels back under control. It may take a few days for serum glucose and urine ketone levels to fall, but aggressive treatment may not be needed as long as the dog’s condition is basically stable.

Treatment of sick diabetic dogs needs to be more aggressive. Paramount to the treatment of DKA is the gradual replacement of fluid deficits, as well as the maintenance of normal fluid balance. Many dogs will seem substantially better after being treated by intravenous fluids alone. Phosphate supplementation may also be needed, since serum phosphorus concentrations can drop to dangerously low levels during the treatment of DKA leading to serious complications such as a red blood cell breakdown that results in anemia. Bicarbonate is given to help correct acid-base disturbances. Insulin also is vital in the treatment of DKA. In some situations, fluids need to be replaced quickly, while the glucose levels will need gradual adjustment.

Until safer serum glucose concentrations are obtained, most dogs with DKA are treated first with regular crystalline insulin, the most potent and shortest acting form of insulin, which may be given intravenously or on an hourly basis in the muscle. If the dog is not eating on its own, dextrose may be added to the fluids to keep the serum glucose level from dropping too low after insulin is started.

Concurrent illnesses must be identified and treated specifically where possible. Pancreatitis is extremely common in DKA, but there is no specific treatment for this disorder. Bacterial infections need to be identified and treated in a timely manner. Antibiotics usually are given even if a bacterial infection has not been confirmed, due to the problems that infections cause in DKA. Acute kidney failure may also accompany DKA, and needs to be treated aggressively with fluids. Drugs may be needed to stimulate urine production if it appears inadequate.

Complications during treatment of DKA that occur most frequently include the development of hypoglycemia, central nervous system signs, electrolyte abnormalities, and anemia. The best way to prevent these side effects is to aim for gradual correction of the multiple abnormalities associated with DKA. Excessively rapid correction of glucose concentrations and electrolyte abnormalities often leads to brain cell swelling and neurological signs. Electrolyte concentrations need to be monitored very carefully during the treatment of DKA, as frequent adjustments of fluid type and rate, and the amount of potassium supplementation, are often needed. Also, close attention must be paid to the serum phosphorus concentration, as supplementation with phosphorus is often needed to prevent the development of severely low serum phosphorus concentrations and the anemia that can result from this.

Once the dog is stabilized and eating and drinking on its own, longer-acting insulin types can be initiated. In addition, the supportive measures, such as fluid therapy and medications, can be tapered, as long as no other complicating issues surface and improvement continues. Eventually, the animal should be able to go home with an insulin regime designed for at home use, as well as any other treatments necessary to address additional disorders that might be present.

Preventive measures:

There is no specific method for preventing DKA, but careful treatment and monitoring of diabetic dogs is essential. Recognition of the common signs of diabetes mellitus in a dog–increased thirst and urination, increased appetite, and weight loss–also is important so the diagnosis of uncomplicated diabetes mellitus can b

Rhetorical Analysis of Jonathan Swift's 'A Modest Proposal'

A Modest Proposal is a satirical pamphlet that examines the attitude of the rich towards the poor starving children in their society. Jonathan Swift uses a number of rhetorical devices effectively as he highlights his proposal. He uses logical fallacies, metaphors, repetition and parallelism as well as humor, sarcasm and satire tone to highlight these negative attitudes.

Jonathan swift begins by mocking and blaming the mothers of the children by telling them that they should engage or find themselves in working to earn an honest living instead of strolling to beg for alms. He also predicts tough future for these children that when they grow up they will turn to be thieves. This is simply because the parents did not train their children the modest way of life.

Swift uses logical fallacies to make his argument in ‘A Modest Proposal’. His way of argument and thinking is incorrect and lack validity in what is proposing. This is evident in this pamphlet on line 69 to 73, ‘that a young healthy Child well Nursed is at a year Old, a most 71 delicious, nourishing, and wholesome Food, whether Stewed, Roasted, 72 Baked, or Boyled, and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a Fricasie’. He notes down that a young healthy child is a delicious food to be roasted, stewed and boiled to be served and eaten. Secondly, he has computed twenty thousand children to be reserved for breeding. This dehumanizes the children to be like animals.

Jonathan swift uses emotional appeal in his argument by proposing slaughter houses to be erected or built in suitable places and butchers to be employed to do the work of slaughtering the children. He further exaggerates by saying that the children will be roasted like pigs. Jonathan knows clearly that this proposal will affect many because no person would want his or her child to be butchered. Beyond that, Swift captures the reader’s emotion on line 34 and 35 ‘prevent those voluntary Abortions, and that horrid practice of Women 35 murdering their Bastard Children’. This is a horrific behavior that is being opposed everywhere in this world.

Another rhetorical device that Jonathan Swift use in his work is irony. He says ‘I calculate there may be about two hundred thousand couple whose wives are breeders’ and ‘how this number shall be reared and provided for’. This suggestion is ironic because he compares women to animals. Also, this creates a good argument because human beings do not breed and cannot be reared. He therefore dehumanizes human beings and creates satire in this statement.

Jonathan swift in his scheme of supporting his argument, he is sarcastic that certain body parts of a child are good to eat. He further clarifies that in certain occasion, the body parts will be on demand. He further suggests that good and healthy children will be skinned and the skin will be used to make admirable gloves for ladies and summer boots for gentlemen. This idea is ridiculous to an extent that children will not only be a delicacy, but their body parts will be used to make ornaments. Secondly, he sarcastically suggests option to Ireland to counter its economic problems. Jonathan proposes that if the poor children can be food, this will create a good revenue to the country through exporting the surplus child’s flesh to the rich outside Ireland. Thirdly, Swift computes the selling price of one child to be ten shillings. This is recorded on line 103-105 ‘I believe no gentleman would repine to give Ten Shillings for the Carcass of a good fat child, which, as I have said will make four Dishes of excellent Nutritive Meat’. He proceeds and make fun of the mothers that they will get eight shillings profit to use until they will able produce another child.

Swift applies a sympathetic tone in his proposals, especially at the beginning. In paragraph two, he is requesting for amicable and a permanent solution to help these children from deplorable state they are living. He goes ahead to award anyone who will find cheap and easy method of making these children useful by building a statue in his or her memory. Jonathan’s tone is not constant in his recording of his proposals. He later changes to scary tone as he progresses to give his personal opinions about these children. For instance, he talks of butchering these children to be made delicious food and skinning of the children to make admirable gloves for ladies and summer boots for gentlemen. This tone shocks and creates fear for the reader.

To what extent the psychiatric services can be improved in the special observation ward in a general hospital under Hospital Authority by nurse leader?: college application essay help

What is leadership about?

There are many different people defined leadership in different ways (Heacock, 2013). According to Hickman (1998), leadership aimed to induce the followers to follow and take action in order to complete the specified goals, and it can helped to show the values of the leaders and the followers and also their motivations can be showed. According to Jooste (2004), leadership is more complicated and not simply acted as a role by how to control the followers, and leaders always tried to help and teach the followers to complete the task by step by step such as planning, leading, controlling and organizing. According to Northouse (2009), leaders can have the ability to affect the followers to complete a specified goal. Rogers (2003) stated that leaders can help the followers to become more aware of the uncertainty and possible outcome about the possible changes. The above information showed that a leader must have good leadership skills in order to affect the followers about what is happening and the values to change the current conditions. It can helped the followers to have a more and better understanding of the specified goal, as a result, the followers are more willing to follow and complete the tasks smoothly.

Importance of Leadership

According to the Strategic Service Plan of the Hospital Authority (2009-2012), health care workers and the frontline staff need to increase and enhance their related skills for the raising patient’s service’s needs, the number of patients, the complexity of medical devices and more complicated medical cases. In order to solve the above problems and needs, Hospital Authority has focused on three main different aspects such as including management skills, leadership skills and clinical competence. Hospital Authority emphasis the importance of leadership and put sufficient resources such as overseas training and classroom courses in order to enhance the leadership skills to current ward mangers, nursing officer, advanced practice nurse and future leaders. According to the Hospital Authority Annual Plan (2011-2012), one of the key objectives was ‘Build People First Culture’ and the one of the priority services for 2011-2012 was to ‘Enhance professional competencies and build up effective management and leadership’.

Overview of psychiatric services in Hong Kong

According to the Hospital Authority Mental Health Service Plan for Adults (2010-2015), there was estimated 1 million to 1.7million people were having psychiatric problem in Hong Kong and about 70,000 to 200,000 people were suffering from severe psychiatric problems. And around 40,000 of them with diagnosed schizophrenia and nearly half of them were treated at out-patient setting.

According to Chui, Mui and Cheng et al. (2012), the aim for public psychiatric hospital was to minimize the psychiatric admission rates and wanted to focus on psychiatric community services such as psychiatric out-patient clinic, psychiatric community out-reach team services and the Consultation Liaison team (CLT) in public general hospital for patients who needed to have psychiatric services. Hospital Authority tried to minimize the psychiatric admission rate by implementing some services since the year 2009.

Why I chose the topic to discuss and how it is important to me and others

I chose this topic because I am working in a ward call special observation ward which strongly supported by the Consultation Liaison team (CLT) services in public general hospital for patients who needed to have psychiatric services. Some of the patients are not physically fit for transfer to psychiatric unit, some of them are patients who are transferred back from psychiatric unit for medical problem, some of them are elderly with newly diagnosed dementia with relatives cannot accept the reality even with poor social support. However, many problems such as placement problems, complaint cases, safety problem and long waiting lists for patients who needed to admit to my ward existed.

This paper will start with the introduction and my selected real case scenario in my ward (special observation ward). I will compare different leadership models such as laissez-faire leadership, transactional leadership and transformational leadership. I will discuss the leadership style of my leader in my case scenario. For the discussion part, force field analysis will be used for analysis the data and I will summarize the findings, and also, I will discuss how the situation can be more effectively with how to improve the situation. Reflective summary will be the last part of this paper with my comment.


Case scenario:

I am working in a special observation ward in one of the general hospital under Hospital Authority and this ward aimed to receive patient with unstable emotion or some psychiatric problem, but they are not physically fit for transfer to psychiatric hospital or need some close observation in general hospital. There are only 24 beds available with long waiting list that patients needed a bit long time to be admitted to my ward. There are only 3 APNs, 13 RNs and 5 ward assistants to support the ward within 3 shifts with heavy workload and stress.

My ward manger wanted to improve the quality of service and reduce the long waiting time for admission. She carried out a lot of guidelines and policies for staff to follow. Some of the policies are: 1) Discuss with relatives whom patients got dementia to find a placement to reduce the length of hospital stay, 2) Team in-charge should screen out cases who can be early discharged or transfer to psychiatric hospital. 3) Writing detailed report in each patient’s record to reduce the chance of getting challenge when patient’s service department receives complaints.

One month later, 1) some relatives complained that nurses forcing them to find old age home within a short period of time and forcing patients to discharge even they were not yet prepared well. 2) Doctors felt unpleasant and complained that nurses overriding their decisions about the discharge plan as some newly upgraded nurses does not have sufficient knowledge to screen suitable cases which causing low morale and conflicts. 3) Nurses needed to spend a lot of time in writing patient’s record causing low morale because nurses always need to spend their own time after duty turnover to finished writing detailed patient’s record (usually more than one hour). Also, many junior nurses do not have sufficient knowledge about detailed and special required documentation skills which put the nurse in-charge in a very difficult position.


I will compare different leadership styles and analyze the leadership style in this scenario. According to Hickman (1998), transactional leaders will only correct the problems or mistakes once it happened in which will threatens the leader’s management plan and no changes will be made if nothing happened. Hickman (1998) also stated that transactional leaders also avoid development and improvement as they do not have motivation to have any changes. According to Bass (1990), transactional leadership will use rewards or punishments to the followers in order to achieve the goals.

For the transformational leadership, Hickman (1998) stated that transformational leadership will try to motivate the followers to achieve the goals and needs to changes, and the morality of the followers could be higher. Transformational leader need not to use the authority or power to control the followers. According to Bass (1990), transformational leaders will acted himself/herself as role model to the followers in order to obtain trustfulness and loyalty of his followers. Besides, through mentoring and empowering, Transformational leaders also use the mentoring and empowering skills to let the followers to enhance and develop the potential power in order to complete the specified goals.

According to Gill (2011), there are no guidelines and protocols for the followers to follow for the laissez-faire leadership style. The morale of the followers may be high or low as the followers can do whatever they wanted. However, the followers will have their own style of work and therefore more easily to reach the specified goal.

However, both transactional leadership and transformational leadership will set a clear objectives and goals for their followers with clear guideline. As a result, the followers can have a better understanding of what they should do in order to achieve the goals.

The leadership style of my case scenario:

Firstly, in this scenario, the leadership style of my ward manager was autocratic leader style and she was as a transactional leader. She has the greatest powers and the highest position in order to influence all the staff including nurses, doctors and patients with their relatives. According to Bass (1990), transactional leader got the power to make the plan and ask the followers to perform that in order to achieve the specified goals with the authority power.

In this scenario, she used her power to set some guidelines and policies for the staff to follow in order to improve the quality of service and reduce the long waiting time for admission. The advantages were 1) Admission rates to special observation ward were increased from average 10 patients per days after one month time as evidenced by the admission book. 2) Patient’s Services Department sent an e-mail to department head to appreciate the detailed documentation written in patient’s record in order to minimize the investigation time to answer the complaint cases. 3) Discharge rates were increased as many elderly with placement or caring problem were directly discharged to aged home other than home. And also, the cases which were medically fit for transfer to psychiatric unit were screened out earlier. That evidences were showed in the discharge record. Although her goals were achieved, there were disadvantages such as 1) Low morale of the nurses as they have to spend a lot of time in writing documentation by using their own time. 2) Heavy workload for staff for writing detailed documentations together with the routine work. Junior staff may have difficulties in proper and special documentations and senior staff also felt fatigues by doing their own work together with teaching and supervising the junior staff. 3) Poor relationship between nurses and doctors together with the relatives. As they always said that nurses forcing early discharge of patients which leading to increase in complaints.


Changes and Force Field Analysis

According to Carney (2000), the basic and essential skills for all nurse leaders are manage, implement and support the changing process in order to ensure the followers to adopt about the changes. If the leaders lack of the quality of leadership skills, the changing process may be not successful. Force Field Analysis (Lewin, 1951) stated that it can help to how and what were the difficulties about the followers encountered. In the year 1951, Force Field Analysis was done in order to assess the followers for how to the implement the Family-Centered Care Program from the original situation. There were some advises given to improve the leadership skills according to the analysis result of the Force Field Analysis.

Force field analysis is a model designed by Lewin on the year 1951. It is useful to determine the effectiveness of the variables included and also helped to develop some strategies to change or by intervene some of the variables. Lewin assumed that both driving and restraining forces will be occurred when there were any changes existed. Driving forces are equal to the forces in which it keeps the changes are going on continuously. And the restraining forces are equal to the forces that occurred to resist the driving forces. According to Baulcomb (2003), equilibrium can be occurred once the leader can be able to decrease the restraining forces and allow reaching to the desired status by increasing the driving forces.

From the analysis, restraining forces were 1) Poor documentation skills of new staff, 2) Poor communication skills between staff and relatives, 3) Heavy workload due to extra jobs such as teaching new staff and extra time for detailed documentations, 4) High stress from staff to choose potential early discharge patient would due to conflicts with doctors and relatives and 5) Increase in the number of complaint cases. And the pushing forces were 1) Reducing waiting time for admission, 2) increase discharge rate, 3) improve documentation skills of staff and 4) increase the quality of services.

What has been successfully done listed in the Force Field Analysis in this scenario?

1) Reduce the waiting time for admission to special observation ward.

2) Increase the discharge rates in special observation ward.

3) Increase documentation skills for some of the nurses in special observation ward. (but not all).

What has been addressed but failed to success at the beginning without changes?

1) Increase documentation skills for some of the nurses in special observation ward.

2) Reduce the rate of complaints (as increasing rate of conflicts about placement issues)

3) Improve the quality of care as the morale of nurses is low and they feel stressful with heavy workload.

After identify the restraining and pushing forces, some changes or solutions can be established in order to eliminate and minimize the negative factors to make improvement. For the stress issues, as many junior nurses needed a lot of time to handle the routine work because lack of experiences, so they needed to stay after duty off to finish the all the tasks including the detailed documentations. Senior nurses also have the responsibilities to supervise the junior nurses in which they also have to leave lately after off duty. Documentation class training can be implemented by some experienced staff to junior staff and some samples of special documentations can be shared for reference. For the discharge issues, there are communication problems and many doctors and relatives would not listen to nurse’s advice and leading to conflicts and complaints. This can helped by holding a meeting with doctors with agreement made before starting the program. And nurses can invite medical social worker and pre-discharge team if difficult to handle to placement problem in order to avoid conflicts and complaints from relatives. As a result, stress and workload can be reduced with the specified goals can also be achieved.

According to Cain and Mittman (2002), there should be promoting and supporting in changes within the health care setting, but should not greatly influence the existing situations. Conner and Patterson (1982) stated that the reason for the failed to changes were due to the lack of commitment for the followers to changes and it was important for the followers to accept and support the changes in order to success any changes.

In this scenario, although changes were necessary for improving the quality of services, but the leader did not provide adequate support, time and training before implemented the policies and protocol. As a result, the followers showed lack of energy and even felt stressful to support the changes.


Different leadership style such as laissez-faire leadership, transactional leadership and transformational leadership were introduced with a case scenario was shared. Force Field Analysis was used to point out the pushing and restraining forces which can help to improve the situation. There is also a discussion part to discuss the case scenario for improvement. A good leader should show the advantages to changes and to minimize the weaknesses. Regular review and support are essential and a good leader should be ready to accept feedback and suggestions.


Reflective Summary

I am a Registered Nurse who is working in Medical Department for nearly nine years and rotated to the special observation ward under medical department for about seven years. I am the second highest appointment Registered Nurse working in this ward and always needed to perform the job as ward in-charge and mentors for new comers and student nurses. As my ward manager decided to implement the guidelines and protocols as stated in Part 1, the workload was increased and I felt very stress as I needed to choose some potential early discharge cases and presented to my ward manager and doctor-in-charge. Also, I needed to spend a lot of time to explain the importance of placement issues to the relative with caring problem during visiting hour with half of my colleagues went out for dinner time and some of them will scolded nurses for forcing patients to aged home. For the potential complaint cases, nurses involved needed to write detailed documentations in patient’s record in which sometimes involves three pages of papers to write. All of the nurses feel fatigue and stress about the new guidelines.

If I am my ward manager, I will choose to be a transformational leader. It is because transactional leadership only focuses on the goals achievement with punishment and rewards were made for the followers. Although Outhwaite (2003) stated that the transactional leaders must have their own abilities to achieve a common goal and the routine job should be done sufficiently. The followers have sufficient instructions from the transactional leader to ensure the work having done successfully and effectively. However, the moralities of the staff under transactional leadership were low as they will always tried to avoid punishment by following the standard guidelines to achieve the specified goals.

I think that transformational leadership is more suitable in nursing field because the followers can have more opportunities and freedom to involve in the decision making process. The transformational leader can allow the followers to implement some tasks with their specified abilities. It provides opportunities for the followers to learn the leadership skills and knowledge. The relationship between the leader and the followers will be better for transformational leadership.

Transformational leader always try to emphasis changes and encourage having commitments. Moreover, I believed that transformational leaders will spend more time to teach and provide coaching to the followers, as a result, the followers should be more satisfied and happier. Transformational leader will also provide the followers some training and for further development of the specified areas and helps to develop the strengths of the followers.

As all of the public hospitals are facing the problem of manpower insufficient already and the turnover rates are high due to heavy workload and poor working environment. It is not practical to implement some new guidelines without sufficient support to increase the workload of staff. If I am the leader, I will have sufficient information and suggestions before implement a new guideline or policy and I will provide adequate professional training and support to the staff in order to allow them to develop their strengths. I will also listen and allow staff to provide suggestions or advises for improvement and changes because the morality will be higher if the staff having the chance for involvement.

To improve my leadership skill, I will use a reflective diary to written down some special events which are happened in my ward together with the advantages and the disadvantages of the leadership style of my ward manager in order to have further improvement or what is good for learning. It can help me to summarize all the events and make an evaluation to be a role model before I can promote to Advanced Practice Nurse. Also, I can seek the approval of my ward manager to set some projects such as the topic ‘Documentation’ by using transformational leadership style to test the effect of performing projects and it can helped to observe the response of the followers for me for further development.

I will set a three to twelve months leadership developmental plan in special observation ward -by SMART. The SMART Objectives of the project as set below:

1) To implement a documentation training course for all of the nurses working in the special observation ward to enhance the documentation skills and special documentation style especially for the patients in special observation ward. For 100% of nurses working in special observation ward have the chance to join the training course within six months time.

2) To implement a communication skills training course for all of the nurses working in the special observation ward to enhance the communication skills especially for the patients and their relatives in special observation ward. For 100% of nurses working in special observation ward have the chance to join the training course within twelve months time.

3) To increase the morale of the colleagues in my ward by receiving feedback of the new guideline to allow their involvement to improve the services within three months time.

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Decentralisation: college essay help online

Over the past two decades a wave of decentralization to the local political bodies has been noticed all over the world. (Martinez-Vazquez, May 2007, p. 1) These worldwide trend towards decentralization is welcomed by the academicians and experts as a positive sign for democratic transformation and the process can be perceived in two fundamental observations,:’First, decentralization is most often associated with an increase in local autonomy. Second, the connotations and values attached to decentralization and local autonomy are almost exclusively positive.’ (Beer-T??th, 2009, p. 29)However, it is observed in most of the cases that political or administrative transfers of power were not followed by proper empowerment in fiscal affairs. Low fiscal autonomy has been a major policy problem in the decentralization process at local level both in developed and developing nations. Central control and supervision of local affairs also found to be a major obstacle in the trends of governing local governments around the world. Lack of fiscal autonomy is closely related to ensuring accountability and transparency for the local government bodies. For better governance at local level, it is urged that more emphasis should be given to local level fiscal decentralization so that local governments can have a certain level of financial resources to organize their internal affairs and ensure peoples empowerment at local level .This paper is designed to examine the major issues and concerns related to fiscal autonomy, accountability mechanism and decentralization at local level around the world and connect those issues to broder governance paradigm and find out the major challenges to advance democratic practices at local level. The paper will try to give an overall view of the trends of local level governance practices in both developed and developing world and will try to bring under a comparative lens of all the concurrent issues and challenges related to local level governances financing.

A) Financing by Central Government: central control and the question of autonomy

Dependence on central government in fiscal affairs is a worldwide trend in local government financing. Intergovernmental transfers are the important sources of local government financing around the world. It is thought that these government transfers have political dimensions as most of such kinds of transfers are designed from center with political motives. Therefore, it is important to assess the role of center government in financing local bodies around the world. In this part, the global trends of intergovernmental transfers, imbalance between center and local and its political dimensions around the world will be discussed and analyzed with the purpose to comprehend the magnitude of central government transfers to local government around the world.

1. Intergovernmental transfers for financing local governments

Intergovernmental transfers are the main source of local governmental finance around the world.

The transfers are especially important for developing nations because local government taxing powers are very limited in most of the developing world. In fact, many different types of transfers are in use around the world and it is difficult to settle on a best practice (Roy, 2008, p. 30). It is urged to reduce the flow of government grants to local governments and increase the scope of local taxation and resource mobilization. In fact, the share of government grants in local government budgeting is recognized as an indicator for financial autonomy at local level (Daniel Bergvall & Merk, 2006, p. 4) and bridging the gap between revenues and expenditures remain the main challenge for the effective execution of decentralization and democratic transformation. However, there is yet any consensus whether those transfers promote efficiency or misallocate resources at local level. In one view, lack of adequate resource transfers to local governments creates difficulties to finance their expenditure responsibilities, while in other view; overdependence of central grants can undermine local accountability. According to one analyst over-dependence can created perverse incentives at the local level to misallocate public resources in federal system. (Khemani, July 24,2001, pp. 5-6)

2. Political dimension of financial decentralization

Local autonomy is a fundamental base for making democracy work, and is often referred to as a ‘school in democracy.’ (Shimizutani, 2010, p. 99) People’s participation should come from the roots and decentralized and autonomous local body can equip the people at local level to promote democratic procedures .Nevertheless, it can backfire from its own strength. Decentralization which is believed to break down the asymmetric relationship of clientelism at local level can create a new type of clientical political practices in real world (Garc??a-Guadilla & P??rez, 2002, p. 104). Indeed, in many cases, decentralization simply empowers local elites to capture a larger share of public resources, often at the expense of the poor (Johnson, Deshingkar, & Start, 2005, p. 937). Recentralization process also can be noticed for political reasons. Nicholas Awortwi examines the administrative reform policy of Ghana and Uganda; and showed that recentralization and further weakening of LGs are likely to continue in both countries because the initial path that was created benefited politicians and bureaucrats and they are committed to staying on that course. (Awortwi, 2011) Political calculation is always a major factor in any policy setting. Even, in Developed world, like UK, political trend of targeting local government fund can be identified. (John & Ward, 2001).Central-periphery financial relations in different countries always evolved differently in different political perspective. Moreover, developing countries often reach their decision about intergovernmental transfers for political reasons as well. (Roy, 2008, p. 33) Bahl Roy explained the politics behind the intergovernmental transfers in three categories:

i. The Central authority likes to provide local governments with intergovernmental transfers that carry stringent conditions to bypass the decentralization demand.

ii. A reason for advocating intergovernmental transfers by central government is the goal of enforcing uniformity in the provision of public services.

iii. A transfer system may be put in place as part of a political strategy to hold open the option of offloading the budget deficit on to subnational governments (for example, underfunding a grant program). (Roy, 2008, pp. 33-34)

Thought, it is thought that there are political calculations behind the sanctions of government grants, it is the dominating trends in both developed and developing world and the trend of Intergovernmental transfers is likely to continue.

3) Financial Gap between local and central governance

Countries, both developed and developing, transfer funds to equip the local governments for providing services and generate development at local level .However; Developing and transition countries are characterized by wide disparities among regions in economic well-being. (Roy, 2008, p. 31) Nevertheless, vertical imbalance existed between centre and periphery is a common symptom of fiscal imbalance of developing nations which is believed to treat with taking policies of financial empowerment. An analyst emphasized the solution to adopt equalization measures of inter-regional differences in financial capacities and it can be accomplished by providing intergovernmental transfers. (Roy, 2008, p. 31) In a study of 9 major developed and developing countries , it is suggested to adopt more equalization formula to face the disparity problem. (Ma, 1997)Roy Bahl identified a reason behind transfers (subnational) is to offset externalities so that local governments can make their own decision and may underspend on services where there are substantial external benefits (Roy., 2000, p. 3). It is also argued by Roy that reducing administrative cost of taxing may be another cause to collect tax by central authority and then the central government transfers grants to local level. (Roy., 2000, p. 4)

In OECD countries 34.4 percents of revenues come from transfers. (Shah & Shah, 2006, p. 37). In a study of OECD countries , a growing trend of widening gap between sub-national tax and expenditure shares in the last twenty years is identified (Daniel Bergvall & Merk, 2006, p. 5)which caused a higher dependence of sub-national governments on grants. So fiscal decentralization in OECD countries, in fact, shrink the scope of fiscal autonomy as sub-national governments have become more dependent on central governments for their resources. Intergovernmental transfer from centre to state governments in USA constitutes a larger part of state budgeting. These transfers accounted for about 38% of all local government revenues, ranging from a low of 19.2% in Hawaii to a high of 70.2% in Vermont (Wildasin, 2009, p. 7).In developing countries, the dependence of fiscal transfers is more instrumental. Intergovernmental fiscal transfers finance about 60 percent of subnational expenditures in developing and transition economies. (Shah. A. , 2007, p. 1) In a study of World Bank on some selected countries, it is found that the average funding of local governments by government transfer is 50.9 percent. (Shah & Shah, 2006, p. 37)It is found that the fiscal transfers are much larger than average in Uganda (85.4 percent), Poland (76.0 percent), China (67.0 percent), Brazil (65.4 percent), and Indonesia (62.0 percent). (Shah & Shah, 2006, p. 37) It is also noticed in AND report that significant vertical fiscal imbalances prevails in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan, and at the local level in the Philippines, the PRC, and Viet Nam. (Martinez-Vasquez, 2011, p. 5)In case of revenue autonomy, lower autonomy can be found as a common practice in many countries. Revenue autonomy is found low outside Japan and the Republic of Korea, and much less in Indonesia and the Philippines. However, autonomy at provincial level can be traced in India, Pakistan, and the PRC. (Martinez-Vasquez, 2011, p. 5)

4) Fiscal autonomy and the question of public service delivery of Local Government

Decentralization is recognized as a way to bring people closer to government services and also as a feedback mechanism to response the local people needs. This move reflects public preferences for more democratic and participatory forms of government in order to improve the level of public services to respond to the needs of users of those services. (Sayuri, 2005) Though the notion of fiscal autonomy is central in fiscal decentralization literature; the idea of fiscal autonomy did not get proper academic investigation at the beginning. The local autonomy concept can be traced from Tibeout model of 1956 as an arrangement for local competition. Probably the earliest attempt was from Clark who described autonomy as a relative concept with two specific powers: power of initiations and power of immunity. (Beer-T??th, 2009, p. 31) Early theorization was mostly involved to deal with the question of the capacity of local government following Clark and then later literatures incorporate other issues including local government autonomy. The European Charter of Local Self-Government taken by the Council of Europe in 1985 described local self-government (i.e. local autonomy) along the double characteristics of right and ability to manage local public affairs. (Beer-T??th, 2009, p. 36) Therefore, it is obvious that fiscal empowerment is an important part of decentralization and without it, the goal of effectively providing services from local level cannot be achieved.

Though a wave of decentralization is recorded around the globe in the last two decades, the decentralization of local bodies did not supported by proper autonomy in fiscal affairs. Low expenditure autonomy due to the central supervision lacks the local government to introduce or keep services by their own. A study on the local government finance of some OECD countries found that the most common way of transferring resources from central to subnational government is through earmark grants and these grants are used for the purpose of financing and subdivision of services and for equalization of tax or service capacity (Daniel Bergvall & Merk, 2006) The study affirmed that non-earmark grant can be more effective instrument for financial purposes. On the other hand, a study on fiscal decentralization of Asian countries found that many Asian countries exhibits the highest level of decentralization in the world in term of the share of subnational government in total expenditures. (Martinez-Vasquez, 2011, p. 3) It is showed in the report that 70% of total expenditure is allocated at subnational level in PRC, 66% in India, 60% in japan,45% both in republic of Korea and Vietnam. However, this data in many cases failed to interpret the actual level of autonomy at local level. Throughout the entire region, heavy reliance and dependence on transfers and revenue sharing can be found. Lower tier governments in most Indian states have a very little expenditure autonomy from their state governments. (Martinez-Vasquez, 2011, p. 3) It is also noticed that central government in many countries involved in local functions as well. Expenditure autonomy (percentage of own expenditure under effective control of sub-national governments), is on average higher (74% for all but 96% in Croatia, and 7% in Albania) in transition economies than developing countries (58% for all but 95% for Dominican Republic and 23% for South Africa. (Shah. A. , 2004, p. 17)

B) Financing by own: three major sources for local financing

There are different means of financing local needs by own resources of local governments. Three sources from which local level bodies mostly rely on are local level taxation, local government Borrowing and Public private partnership which have significant importance to enforce local financing.

1. Local level Taxation: empowered by own sources

Taxes are the most important sources of the local government revenues. Financial decentralization process provides the Local governments institutions with the necessary authority to change tax rate, initiate new tax and enhance the scope of the tax. It is thought that fiscal decentralization will increase taxation net and a greater share of GDP will be reached by tax system. Indeed, it is believed that increased subnational revenue mobilization will reduce the need for intergovernmental transfers from central revenues (Bird & Bahl, 2008, p. 4).

Significant tax assignment to subnational governments has become prevalent in developed countries (Bird R. , November 2010, p. 1). Bird & Bahl examines different country cases and identified the trend of developed world. (Bird & Bahl, 2008, p. 6)US State governments and Canadian provinces have almost complete autonomy in choosing any tax base, so long as there is no interference with interstate commerce. In Denmark and Sweden, local taxes account for nearly one-half of local government spending. Revenues from subnational government taxes in Switzerland are greater in amount than revenues received from grants. Though, Japan had a conservative tax policy which allow little to local government in term of taxing capabilities but the country is planning to introduce new intergovernmental reform to shift taxing power significantly to local governments (Bird & Bahl, 2008, p. 6) However, it is noticed that in most developing countries, central governments have been reluctant to reform the taxing system for subnational governments. (Bird & Bahl, 2008, p. 7) The subnational tax share in total taxes in developing countries is only about 10 percent while it is 20 percent in industrialized countries. These figures have changed little in the last 30 years. (Bird & Bahl, 2008, p. 7) Local governments in countries like Cambodia, China and Vietnam get less than 5 percent of their total revenues from their own sources (Talierciao, 2005, pp. 107-128) On the other hand, in a few developing countries, like the Philippines, Brazil, and Colombia, a third or more of subnational government expenditure is met up by own sources (Bird & Bahl, 2008, p. 7)

It is thought that increased fiscal autonomy would improve the efficiency and responsiveness of the public sector governance. (Fjeldstad & Semboja, 2000, p. 28) However, strengthening autonomy by providing more taxation power to local government can cause greater mismanagement and corruption in local authorities. In developing country like Tanzania where Local taxes represent less than 6 per cent of total national tax revenues (Fjeldstad & Semboja, 2000, p. 7), it is strongly recommended to restructure the revenue system combined with capacity building and improved integrity mechanism. In case of India, it is noticed that decentralization of fiscal power to local Panchayat Body eventually decreases the volume of taxes and also shrink the tax base. The chiefs of the Panchayats always count the elections factors which is one of the cause of declining taxes. So it is recommended to undertake more accountability measures and provide intensives in tax collection of the Panchayat. (Jha, Kang, & Nagarajan, 2011) Therefore, in case of tax autonomy, it can be assumed that capacity building and ensuring accountability and transparency are crucial while transferring power to local authority.

A major part of local revenues is collected from property taxes around the world. OECD countries raise 54 percent of local revenues from property taxes, 23 percent from personal income taxes, 14 percent from corporate taxes, and 9 percent from other taxes. (Shah & Shah, 2006, pp. 37-39) Therefore, it is apparent that local governments in OECD countries depend more on property and income taxes than other sources. But developing word lacks proper tax autonomy because of the unwilling political elites and capacity problems. For all developing countries, revenues from property taxes constitute only 0.5percent of GDP which is about 2 percent (1 to 3 percent) of GDP in industrial countries. (Shah & Shah, 2006, p. 39) Therefore, property taxes may represent significant untapped potential for funding local affairs in developing countries.

2. Local government borrowing: Challenges and promises

Unavailability of government grants and Lack of local funding sometimes compelled local governments to take loans from public and private sectors. Local government bodies usually collects loans from banking sector ( both national and international development program loans) or issued bonds. (Bucic & others, 2011, p. 2) Developments projects are designed with such type of borrowing options for emergency situation. Large infrastructure deficiencies in developing countries call for significant access to borrowing by local governments. (Shah & Shah, 2006, p. 40) Local access to credit requires well-functioning financial markets and creditworthy local governments; however, in most of the local governments in developing countries lacks both. (Shah & Shah, 2006, p. 40) Heavy reliance on borrowing also can jeopardize macroeconomic stabilization. For example, perversely structured intergovernmental systems destabilized the economy of Argentina in the late 1990s. (Yilmaz, Beris, & Serrano-Berthet, 2008, p. 281) After the 90es Japan took some initiatives to empower local governments by issuing bonds with guarantees, uniform issuing conditions, and secured finance from public funds to meet up the gap between revenues and expenditure. But it was proven ineffective and unproductive in most of the cases and it is suggested to adopt accrual-based accounting system instead of cash-based accounting system. (Sayuri, 2005)Most countries follow the policy to limit, control, or even prohibit the issuance of debt by local governments. A World Bank study report found none of the local governments of ten country’s health and education sectors that are surveyed in the study was given full discretion to borrow. However, it is noticed in the study that local governments in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Kerala, Philippines, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda, have partial authority over borrowing. (Bank, 2009, p. 55)

3. Public Private Partnership (PPP): A New Window of local Financing

Public-Private Partnerships (PPP’s) have been hailed as the latest institutional form of co-operation between the public sector and the private sector. (Greve & Ejersbo, 2002, p. 1) If local government enjoys necessary autonomy from central government, PPP can be used as effective instrument to respond to the local demand without looking funding from central government. For example, Mandaluyung city of the Philippines build a new Market place using the PPP formula which had lacking of fund at that time. But PPP has some instrumental risks concerning the possibilities of misuse of power, corruption and transparency. The Danish local government of Farum in Denmark was considered as one of the success story of PPP at local level governance in 90s.But later, a huge scandal of corruption and irregularities were erupted in the organization in 2002. Clash between central government and lack of democratic accountability mechanism were thought to be responsible for the failure of the local governance. (Greve & Ejersbo, 2002) In an article on the PPP taken by Morogoro municipality in Tanzania, Lameck analyzed various PPP project by the city and urged that there should be a framework of rule and regulation to undertake such practice; otherwise Government will lose control over the whole procedure. (Lameck, 2009).As private organizations are more profit oriented, the local governments should be more careful about the accountability and responsiveness of the project. John Hood and N Mcgarvey showed that the local Government PPP initiatives taken by Labour Government in Scotland lack proper risk management procedures which might jeopardize the whole arrangement. (Hood & Mcgarvey, 2002)

C) Corruption, accountability and Fiscal decentralization

Decentralization of fiscal affairs is thought to be a panacea for corruption and to promote accountability and transparency at local level. However, it has some significant policy risks as it can open up new windows of nepotism, corruption and mismanagement.

1. Does fiscal decentralization combat corruptions?

It is assumed that fiscal devolution to local governments creates space to bring the services to the people and installs a way of trustworthiness which can decrease the culture of corruption practice. A flow of increasing intergovernmental and political competition installed by decentralization can reduce rent seeking and monopolistic behavior and improve service deliveries. (Fisman & Gatti, 2002) But there is huge debate on the effectiveness of fiscal reforms to bring accountability and transparency by installing decentralized structure. Some researchers have an optimistic assessment on the effect of decentralization of fiscal affairs on corruption while some other explained decentralization as a way of corruption. Treisman argued that decentralized government creates many levels of governments and a more complex system of governance reduce accountability and increase corruption. (Treisman, 2000) Prud’homme stated that there is more opportunity for corruption at local level as local bureaucrats have more powers to execute and they are influenced by the local interest groups. (Prud’homme, 1995) Goldsmith argued that it is easy to hide corruption in local level than center level. (Goldsmith, 1999) But most other studies found a negative relationship between the two variables. An exclusive study on 24 countries in the time frame of 1995-2007 found that fiscal decentralization has a positive impact in reducing corruption. (Padovano, Fiorino, & Galli, 2011) In another rigorous study of 182 countries, it is founded that decentralization and corruption has a negative relationship. (Ivanyna & Shah, 2010)

In Malawi, a move to decentralize the local government body in 2000 following the act of 1998 opened up a huge window of corruption in the country. (Tambulasi & Kayuni, 2007) After the fiscal reform and devolution of fiscal power to local bodies, the new-patrimonial leadership became reinforced exploiting the opportunities which eventually broke down the accountability system. (Tambulasi & Kayuni, 2007) Tambulasi in another article expressed the view that adaptation of new public management strategy is the policy problem of the whole process and suggested to take public governance reform model with more participation and transparency. (Tambulasi R. I., 2009) Some argues that using bribery as an indicator of corruption is problematic and other social and economic indicators should be examined. (Bardhan & Mookherjee, 2005) He summarized that the relation between corruption and decentralization is very complex as a lot of variable is involved in the process and single one approach is not enough to unveil the underlying relationship. He also mentioned that the problem of capture and lack of accountabilities are the major obstacles in developing countries. Robert Klitgaard (1988) explained the principle’agent theory and argued that monopoly and discretion can exacerbate corruption while accountability has a reducing effect. (Witz, 2011, p. 5)A report on the corruption of Local governments in Latin American countries also suggested taking legal and institutional reforms to combat the problem. (Bliss & Deshazo, 2009) The Report emphasizes on the availabilities of information and urged for performance management efforts to be undertaken. (Bliss & Deshazo, 2009, pp. 14-15) Nina Witz in a paper showed that accountability in local level water governments is relatively higher than central government in Sweden and described decentralization as an antidote of corruption. (Witz, 2011)Arikan also found evidence that decentralization can lower the level of corruption. (Arikan, 2004) .Furthermore, fiscal decentralization believed to have positive impact on the citizen behaviors regarding the corruption issues and can boost social capital by increasing trust among the citizens to the government officials and bring the government closer to the people. Oguzhan Dincer found a positive correlation between fiscal decentralization and trust using data from US states. (Dincer, 2010) Following the seminal work of Putnam, a good number of empirical studies found a positive impact of social capital on the economic growth of a country and it is suggested to follow fiscal decentralization as a policy to increase social capital and trust in both developing and developed countries. (Dincer, 2010, p. 189). In case of Zambezia of Mozambique, Akiko Abe found that Social trust (one dimension of social capital) was formed in a shorter period of time than Putnam has outlined. (Abe, 2009, p. 77)

2. Risks of Local fiscal Autonomy and accountability mechanism

Financial devolution of power is thought to empower the local leadership and provides accountability and transparency to the whole settings. However, providing financial autonomy at local level has some potential risks. Fiscal decentralization depends on the ability of local governments to manage revenues and expenditures effectively and requires strong institutions for financial accountability. (Yilmaz, Beris, & Serrano-Berthet, 2008, p. 23) Financial accountability seeks transparency in the management of public funds. It also requires that governments manage finances prudently and ensure integrity in their financial reporting, control, budgeting and performance systems. (Sahgal & Chakrapani., 2000., p. 3) In an article, Serdar Yilmaz, Yakup Beris and Rodrigo Serrano-Berthet explained two methods of downward accountability (Public accountability approaches and Social accountability approaches) of local financial organization along with other methods .They examined different experiences of financial autonomy and accountability from different countries and identified different issues arising from the lack of internal controls. (Yilmaz, Beris, & Serrano-Berthet, 2008) They showed that many nations impose central control over local governments as a policy to restructure subnational relations observing the capacity problem of local governments around the world. They suggest not taking only upward accountability mechanism which may limit local government autonomy in decision-making and service delivery negating the intended empowering of local governments. (Yilmaz, Beris, & Serrano-Berthet, 2008, p. 26) Yilmaz and Felicio examined the decentralization and low accountability problems of Angola and urged for a checked and balanced policy to cope with the tendency of abusing of discretion power. (Yilmaz & Felicio, 2009) Though citizen participation is ensured at local level there, Provincial and Municipal administrators did not genuinely embrace the spirit of the citizen councils. It is suggested to incorporate appropriate advocacy efforts to ensure quality participation processes at the municipal and provincial levels and emphasis on strengthening civil society’s skills that will incrementally increase accountabilities in public expenditure management activities and will ensure proper oversight. (Yilmaz & Felicio, 2009, p. 21)In Ethiopia, it is noticed that progressive features of fiscal decentralization were not followed by political management. A strong upward accountability structure without the accompanying discretion and downward accountability mechanism was the main feature of the system which failed to ensure the accountable nature of organization. (Yilmaz & Venugopal, 2008, pp. 23-24) It is evident from different experiences that a combination of upward and downward accountability arrangement and a participatory nature of governance only can ensure democracy, better management and transparency at local level. Anwar Shah, in an article, urged for judicial accountability measures in developing countries where laws on property rights, corporate legal ownership and control, bankruptcy, and financial accounting and control are not fully developed. (Shah. A. , 2004, p. 34) He also emphasis on traditional channels of accountability such as audit, inspection and control functions should be strengthened, since they tend to be quite weak in transition and developing economies. (Shah. A. , 2004, p. 34)

3. Participatory local budgeting for more accountability and transparency

Budgeting at local level is a significant instrument for the fiscal health of a local body. Traditional municipal budgets which is in fact, focused with incremental line-item budgeting practice, have historically been constructed on giving emphasis on accounting staffs to face the audit requirements and it said by one analyst mentioned that it is aimed to the audited financial statements required to be submitted by municipal authorities after the fiscal year. (Schaeffer & SerdarYilmaz, 2007, p. 8)Over the last two decade, it is observed that different reform measures have been taken incorporated with the traditional budgeting to ensure more transparency and accountabilities. Program budgeting at local level brought different planning and accountability measures differing from the traditional line-item approach in preparing, reviewing, and presenting the budget. In recent changed global world, participatory local budgeting becomes a powerful good governance tool to integrate citizens in government’s matters. Participatory budgeting is considered as a direct-democracy approach to budgeting and by enhancing transparency and accountability participatory budgeting can help reduce government inefficiency and curb clientelism, patronage, and corruption. (Shah, Overview, 2007, p. 1) However, Participatory budgeting has some significant risks. Participatory processes can be captured by interest groups. Such processes can mask the undemocratic, exclusive, or elite nature of public decision making, giving the appearance of broader participation and inclusive governance while using public funds to advance the interests of powerful elites. (Shah, Overview, 2007, pp. 1-2)

4. E-Governance for strengthening decentralization

The potential of e-government in advancing good governance is increasingly being recognized. (Bank., 2004) E-governance is identified as an efficient tool to generate transparency and ensure accountability in government procedures. Moreover, one of the strength of e-governance is that it is cost effective. E-procurement creates a highly competence and transparent environment of procurement and a faster method of getting quotes which can narrow the scope of corruption and also reduce the cost as well. E-procurement can even cut 50 % municipalities public procurement cost. In this backdrop, it is highly recommended to induce electronic methods in government procurement and other administrative procedures for transparency and ensure easy access of the citizens.

World Bank funded some pilot cases in developing world (some state in India) and found a positive result in widely used services, such as issuance of licenses and certificates and collection of payments and taxes (Bank., 2004). One of the strength of e-governance is that it provides transparency which acts as a viable tool against corruption. For example, Karnataka State of India digitalized the transfer system of teachers and it eventually reduced the scope of corruption in the transfer process. (Bank., 2004) In Andra Pradesh of India, the e-governance strive faced lot of difficulties due to manage huge information of complex administration which is related to a vast population. Reengineering and changing work processes across 70 departments in the secretariat have been a challenge even for the country’s largest information technology company, which is implementing the project. (Bank., 2004) Most e-governance project requires huge funding to automation the whole system and also huge population in developing countries are outside the internet facilities. In a report on African prospect to introduce e-governance, it is identified that adequate funding and low rate of literacy and PC penetration rate are the challenges to update the whole system under e-governance. (Kitaw, 2006, p. 8) Another study of six African southern countries (Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland) examined e-Readiness conditions and suggested to initiate more capacity building measures to strengthen the procedures. (Meyaki, 2010)Digital divide is a big challenge to integrate all the people in a more citizen centric structure of e-governance. Growing mobile networks around the world and also in developing countries can be easily recognized and m-Governance (providing services though mobile phones) can be an option to fight the digital divide. Integrating fiscal measures in local affairs can ensure accountability and transparency at local level as well. Kerala state of India initiated m-governance by launching varies services focusing on the utilization of mobile technologies to deliver citizen services which includes electricity and water services billing, road tax and vehicle registration. (Young, 2009)


Strengthening Local governments by providing more autonomous power in fiscal affairs and ensuring citizen involvement is believed to empower people at local level and can bring changes from root level as local governments only know the needs from grassroots. In this paper a wide range of literatures is examined to recognize the trends and issues concerning fiscal autonomy and financial accountability mechanism at local governments around the world. Most of the local government experiences indicate positive relations between financial decentralization and better governance. In this age of globalization and Information technology revolution, a more global world with localization of governments is emerging. This trend must be supported by financial empowerment of local bodies and accountability mechanism at local level. Access to untapped revenue sources and digitalization of organization procedures has become an important tool to cope with the challenge of globalization and Information technology revolution nowadays. Bangladesh, a developing nation which has a huge population living under local government bodies and the weakness of her local government is depicted as the root cause of her dysfunctioning democracy, can be benefited from the lessons of decentralization around the world and can reevaluate her policy regarding local government and decentralization.

The emerging role of distance bounding protocol in aerospace systems: college essay help near me

Abstract: RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) systems are vulnerable to replay attacks like mafia fraud, distance fraud and terrorist fraud. The distance bounding protocol is designed as a countermeasure against these attacks. These protocols ensure that the tags are in a distant area by measuring the round-trip delays during the rapid challenge response exchange. Distance Bounding protocols are cryptographic protocols which enable verifier to establish the upper bound on the physical distance to the prover. They are based on timing the delay between the sending out a challenge bit and receiving back the corresponding response bits. A timing based response followed by consecutive timing measurement provides more optimistic approach in authenticating the prover.

Index Terms: RFID, Mafia fraud, Distance fraud, Terrorist fraud, Distance Bounding protocol.


A famous story of the little girl who played against two Chess Grandmasters’ How was it possible to win one of the games? Annie-Louise played Black against Spassky. White against Fisher. Spassky moved first, and Ann-Louise just copied his move as the first move of her game against Fisher, then copied Fisher’s replay as her own reply to Spassky’s first move, and so on.

This problem exploited by Anne-Louise is known in the cryptographic community as mafia-fraud. Mafia fraud is a man in the middle attack against an authentication protocol where the adversary relays the exchanges between the verifier and prover, making them believe they directly communicate together. The mafia fraud is particularly powerful against the contactless technologies. The most threatening systems are Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Near Field Communication (NFC) because the devices answer to any solicitation without explicit agreement of their holder. The vulnerability of these technologies has already been illustrated by several practical attacks [10]. The two attacks related to mafia fraud are distance fraud and terrorist fraud. The distance fraud only involves a malicious prover, who cheats on his distance to the verifier. The terrorist fraud is an exotic variant of the mafia fraud where the prover is malicious and actively helps the adversary to succeed the attack.

Measuring the physical distance between communicating parties is important for communication security. For example, we can imagine a building security system that allows a visitor to open the door to the building only when the visitor has an authorized radio frequency Identification (RFID) tag for entering the building. When authenticating the tag, the security system should also verify the upper-bound distance between the door and the tag to thwart the remote attackers who may desire to open the door from a distance between communicating parties [4].

To solve the above problem, Brands and Chaum have proposed a distance-bounding protocol. In this protocol, a verifier V seeks to authenticate a prover P while measuring the distance d between V and P. For authentication, most of these protocols rely on multi-rounds of single-bit challenge and response, also known as a fast bit exchange phase. They are also lightweight in the sense that they do not require an additional (time and resources consuming) slow phase to terminate the protocol. A timing based response followed by the consecutive timing measurement provides more optimistic approach in authenticating the prover.


By using distance bounding protocols, a device (the verifier) can securely obtain an upper bound on its distance to another device (the prover). The security of distance-bounding protocols was so far mainly evaluated by analyzing their resilience to three types of attacks. For historical reasons, these are known as Distance Fraud, Mafia Fraud and Terrorist Fraud. In Distance Fraud attacks, a sole dishonest prover convinces the verifier that he is at a different distance than he really is. In Mafia Fraud attacks, the prover is honest, but an attacker tries to modify the distance that the verifier establishes by interfering with their communication. In Terrorist Fraud attacks, the dishonest prover colludes with another attacker that is closer to the verifier, to convince the verifier of a wrong distance to the prover. So far, it was assumed that distance bounding protocols that are resilient against these three attack types can be considered secure. In case of hostile attackers, the dishonest prover can pretend to be closer to or further away from the verifier than it actually is by either jumping the gun or sending a response before the request, or pretend to be further away than it is by delaying its response. Hostile attacker could attach its own identity to the prover’s response, and pass off honest verifier’s location as its own [1], [13].

Finally, dishonest provers can conspire to mislead the verifier, one prover lending the other prover its identity so that the second prover can make the first prover look closer than it is. The idea is that the prover first commits to a nonce using a one-way function, the verifier sends a challenge consisting of another nonce, the prover responds with the exclusive-or of its and the verifier’s nonce’s, and then follows up with the authentication information.

Fig 1: System Architecture

METAR is constructed to analyze the Weather report and cloud base height of an airplane. These details or information is passed between the verifier and prover. METAR is Meteorological elements observed at an Airport at a specific time. The verifier uses the time elapsed between sending its nonce and receiving the prover’s rapid response to compute its distance from the prover, and then verifies the authenticated response when it receives it. Through the wireless, verifier raises an authentication query to the prover side. If the prover gives an exact answer to the question means he/she is able to receive the extracted information at the end.


RFID frequency identification (RFID) technology consists of small inexpensive computational device with wireless communication capabilities. Currently, the main application of RFID technology is in inventory control and supply chain management fields. In these areas, RFID tags are used to tag and track the physical goods. Within this context, RFID can be considered a replacement for barcodes. RFID technology is superior to barcodes in two aspects. First, RFID tags can store information than barcodes [3]. Unlike a barcode, the RFID tag, being a computational device, can be designed to process rather than just store data. Second, barcodes communicate through an optical channel, which require the careful positioning of the reading device with no obstacles in-between [12]. RFID uses a wireless channel for communication, and can be read without line-of-sight, increasing the read efficiency.

The pervasiveness of RFID technology in our everyday lives has led to concerns over these RFID tags pose any security risk. The future applications of RFID make the security of RFID networks and communications even more important than before. The ubiquity of RFID technology has made it an important component in the Internet-of-Things (IoT), a future generation Internet that seeks to mesh the physical world together with the cyber world. RFID is used within the IoT as a means of identifying physical objects [11]. For example, by attaching an RFID tag to medication bottles, we can design an RFID network to monitor whether patients have taken their medications.


Verifying the physical location of a device using an authentication protocol is an important security mechanism. Distance Bounding protocol aim to prove the proximity of two devices relative to each other. Distance bounding protocol determines an upper bound for the physical distance between two communicating parties based on the Round-Trip-Time (RTT) of cryptographic challenge response pairs. Brands and Chaum proposed a distance bounding protocol that could be used to verify a device’s proximity cryptographically. This design based on a channel where the prover can reply instantaneously to each single binary digit received from the verifier [1]. The number of challenge ‘response interactions is being determined by a chosen security parameter, Distance bounding protocol not only in the one-to-one proximity identification context but also as building blocks for secure location systems. After correct execution of the distance bounding protocol, the verifier knows that an entity having data is in the trusted network. Distance bounding protocol can be dividing in three phase: the Commitment Phase, the Fast Bit phase and signing phase.

The first DB protocol suitable for resource-constrained devices example: RFID tags. This protocol is considered lightweight in the sense that a single computation of a hash function and a call to a Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) are the most costly operations required for its execution. The simplicity and efficiency of this protocol yield to similar designs for other DB protocols which modify how answers are calculated in order to improve the security performance. The protocol first contains a slow phase in which nonce are generated and exchanged [4], [7]. From this nonce and a secret value x, the possible response used in the first phase are computed via a function f. Then the fast phase consists of n consecutive rounds. In each of these rounds, the verifier picks a challenge ci, starts a timer and sends ci to the prover. When the prover receives the challenge he computes the answer ri and sends it back to the verifier as soon as possible. Upon reception of the answer, the verifier stores as well as the round trip time. Once the n rounds are elapsed, the verifier checks the validity of the answers, i.e., the n rounds, the protocol succeeds. Initialization, execution and decision steps are presented below and a general view is provided in Fig. 2.

Fig 2: Distance Bounding Protocol

Initialization. The prover (P) and the verifier (V ) agree on (a) a security parameter n, (b) a timing bound ‘tmax, (c) a pseudo random function P RF that outputs 3n bits, (d) a secret key x.

Execution. The protocol consists of a slow phase and a fast phase.

Slow Phase. P (respectively V ) randomly picks a nonce NP (respectively NV ) and sends it to V respectively P). Afterwards, P and V compute P RF (x, NP , NV ) and divide the result into three n-bit registers Q, R0 , and R1 . Both P and V create the function fQ : S ‘ {0, 1} where S is the set of all the bit-sequences of size at most n including the empty sequence. The function fQ is parameterized with the bit-sequence Q = q1 . . . qn, and it outputs 0 when the input is the empty sequence. For every non-empty bit-sequence Ci = c1 . . . ci where 1 ‘ i ‘ n, the function is defined as fQ(Ci) = Lij=1(cj ‘ qj ).

Fast Phase. In each of the n rounds, V picks a random challenge ci ‘R {0, 1}, starts a timer, and sends ci to P. Upon reception of ci , P replies with ri =Rcii ‘ fQ(Ci) where Ci = c1…ci. Once V receives ri , he stops the timer and computes the round-trip-time ‘ti .

Decis.ion. If ‘ti < ‘tmax and ri = Ri ci’ fQ(Ci) ‘ i ‘ {1, 2, …, n} then the protocol succeeds.


Being resistant to both mafia and distance fraud is the primary goal of a distance bounding protocol. An important lower-bound for both frauds is (1/2) n [6], which is the probability of an adversary who answers randomly to the n verifier’s challenges during the fast phase. However, this resistance is hard to attain for lightweight DB protocols. Therefore, our aim is to design a protocol that is close to this bound for both mafia and distance frauds, without requiring costly operations and an extra final slow phase[5],[2].

A. Mafia Fraud:

A mafia fraud is an attack where an adversary defeats a distance bounding protocol using a man-in-the-middle (MITM) between the verifier and honest tag located outside the prover.

Fig 2(a): Mafia fraud

Among the DB protocols without final slow phase, those achieving the best mafia fraud resistance are round dependent. The idea is that the correct answer at the ith round should depend on the ith challenge and also on the (i-1) previous challenges.

B. Distance Fraud:

A distance fraud is an attack where a dishonest and lonely prover supports to be in the neighborhood of the verifier.

Fig 2(b): Distance Fraud

In mafia fraud, the best protocols in terms of the distance fraud are round dependent. However, round dependency by means of predefined challenges fails to properly resist to distance fraud. Intuitively [9], [7], the higher control over the challenges the prover has, the lower the resistance to distance fraud is. For this reason, our proposal allows the verifier to have full and exclusive control over the challenges.

C. Terrorist Fraud

A terrorist fraud is an attack where an adversary defeats a distance bounding protocol using a man-in-the-middle (MITM) between the reader and a dishonest tag located outside the neighborhood.

Such that the latter actively helps the adversary to maximize her attack success probability, without giving to her any advantage for future attacks. Terrorist fraud attack is not considered in our proposed system.

Fig 2(c): Terrorist Fraud


Different methods are used for prevention of these attacks. In the distance fraud the location will not be sufficient because the verifier does not trust the prover [5]. He wants to prevent a fraud prover claiming to be closer. Different type’s location mechanism that prevent these attacks are:

A. Measure the signal strength

Node can calculate distance from other node by sending it a message and see how long it takes to return. If response authenticated, fraud node can lie about being further away than it is, but not closer. Sender includes strength of transmitted message in message; Receiver compares received strength to compute distance.

B. Measure the Round Trip Time

Another solutions measure the round trip time. The round trip time is the time required for exchange a packet from a specific destination and back again. In this protocol the verifier sends out a challenge and starts a timer. After receiving the challenge, the prover does some elementary computations to construct the response. The response is sent back to the verifier and the timer is stopped. Multiplying this time with the propagation speed of the signal gives the distance.

C. Measure the Consecutive Time

Timing based input information followed by consecutive timing measurement provides more optimistic approach in authenticating the user. The verifier uses the time elapsed between sending its nonce and receiving the prover’s rapid response to compute its distance from the prover, and then verifies the authenticated response when it receives it. Our proposed system provides a proof breaks down concept if the prover is dishonest.

D. Validation and Identification

i. Validate the authentication information provided by the user

ii. Extract the MAC address to validate the request origin location

iii. Consecutive Execution time duration on the request processing.


Cipher Block Rivest Algorithm is used in our proposed system for encryption process. Fast symmetric block cipher. Same key used for encryption and decryption algorithm. Plaintext and cipher text are fixed-length bit sequences.

In cryptography, RC% is a symmetric-key block cipher notable for its simplicity. Designed by Ronald Rivest in 1994. RC stands for ‘Rivest Cipher’, or alternatively ‘Ron’s Code’ (compare RC2 and RC4). A key feature of RC5 is the use of data-dependent rotations; one of the goals of RC5 was to prompt the study and evaluation of such operations as a cryptographic primitive. RC5 also consists of a number of modular additions and exclusive OR (XOR). The general structure of the algorithm is a Fiestel-like network. The encryption and decryption routines can be specified in a few lines of code. The key schedule, however, is more complex, expanding the key using an essentially one-way function with the binary expansions of both e and the golden sources of nothing up my sleeve numbers.

The RC5 is basically denoted as RC5-w/r/b where

w = word size in bits,

r=number of rounds,

b= number of 8-bit in the key.

Cryptanalysis 12-round RC5 (with 64-bit blocks) is susceptible to a differential attack using 244 chosen plaintexts. 18-20 rounds are suggested as sufficient protection. Block Ciphers plaintext is divided into blocks of fixed length and every block is encrypted one at a time. The number of rounds can range from 0 to 255, while the key can range from 0 to 2040 bits in size [7]. Cipher text involves

C = E (PUB, E (PUA, M)

Cipher text can be generated by the encryption of public key with the private key associated in the source place. De-cipher text involves

M = D (PUA, D (PRB, C))

Actual message can be generated by public and private key followed by the consecutive timings.


Defined as a cryptosystem with large plaintext space


Typically n’64 bits

Round structure

Apply same function on the intermediate cipher text repeatedly Nr time.

Use different key Ki defined from K on ith round.

Pseudo code 1

1. INPUT: plaintext x, key K

2. OUTPUT: cipher text y=ek(x)

3. ASSUME: round function g, last function h, key scheduling procedure Ki


For i = 0 to Nr-1

wi = g (wi-1,Ki)

y = g (wNr-1, K Nr-1)


A. Error free environment

The first lightweight DB protocol was proposed by Hancke and Kuhn’s [11] in 2005. Its simplicity and suitability for resource-constrained devices have promoted the design of other DB protocols based on it [2], [13]. All these protocols share the same design: (a) there is a slow phase4 where both prover and verifier generate and exchange nonces, (b) the nonces and a keyed cryptographic hash function are used to compute the answers to be sent (resp. checked) by the prover (resp. verifier). Below, we provide the main characteristics of each of these protocols, especially the technique they use to compute the answers.

a) Mafia Fraud

Mafia Fraud

a) Tradeoff with memory constraint

Hancke and Kuhn’s protocol [11]. The answers are extracted from two n-bit registers such that any of the n 1-bit challenges determines which register should be used to answer.

Avoine and Tchamkerten’s protocol [2]. Binary trees are used to compute the prover answers: the verifier challenges define the unique path in the tree, and the prover answers are the vertex value on this path. There are several parameters impacting the memory consumption: l the number of trees and d the depth of these trees. It holds d ‘ l = n, where n is the number of rounds in the fast phase.

Trujillo-Rasua, Martin and Avoine’s protocol [12]. This protocol is similar to the previous one, except that it uses particular graphs instead of trees to compute the prover answers.

b) Distance Fraud

Mafia Fraud

b)Tradeoff without memory constraint

Kim and Avoine’s protocol [13]. This protocol, closer to the Hancke and Kuhn’s protocol [11] than [12], uses two registers to define the prover answers. An important additional feature is that the prover is able to detect a mafia fraud thanks to predefined challenges, that is, challenges known by both prover and verifier. The number of predefined challenges impacts the frauds resistance: the larger, the better the mafia fraud resistance, but the lower the resistance to distance fraud.

Mafia and distance fraud analysis in a noise free environment can be found in [12]. Fig. 3(a) and Fig. 3(b) show that the resistance to mafia fraud and distance frauds respectively for the five considered protocols in a single chart. For each of them, the configuration that maximizes its security has been chosen: this is particularly important for AT and KA2 because different configurations can be used.

In case of draw between two protocols, the one that is the less memory consuming is considered as the best protocol. Trade-off chart represents for every pair (x, y) the best protocol among the five considered ones. Fig. 4(a) shows that our protocol offers a good trade-off between resistance to mafia fraud and resistance to distance fraud, especially when high security level against distance fraud is expected. In other words, our protocol is better than the other considered protocols, except when the expected security levels for mafia fraud and distance frauds are unbalanced, which is meaningless in common scenarios.

Another interesting comparison takes into consideration the memory consumption of the protocols. Indeed, for n rounds of the fast phase, AT requires 2n+1 -1 bits of memory, which is prohibitive for most pervasive devices.

We can therefore compare protocols that require a linear memory with respect to the number of rounds n. For that, we consider a variant of AT [10], denoted n/3 trees of depth 3 instead of just one tree of depth n. The resulting trade-off chart shows that constraining the memory consumption considerably reduces the area where AT is the best protocol, but it also shows that our protocol provides the best trade-off in this scenario as well.


The time stamp based distance bounding protocol has been introduced in this paper which provides the optimistic approach to identify the relay attack. This protocol deals with both mafia and distance frauds with less computer memory and additional computation. The analytical expressions and experimental results show that the new protocol provides best trade-off between mafia and distance fraud resistance. Such a performance is achieved based on the round dependent design where the prover is unable to guess any challenge with a probability higher than the 1/2.

For computer-intensive systems, our consecutive timed response provides significantly better throughput for a broad variety of scenarios, including the mafia fraud, distance fraud and terrorist fraud attack. The encryption and decryption can use more than one different algorithm on each round of the resistance, which provides more confidential services in the system.


[1] Ronalndo Trujillo-Rasua, Benjamin Martin, and Gildas Avoine,’Disrance-bounding facing both mafia and distance frauds,’IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications,vol 9, May 2014.

[2] Sangho Lee, Jin Seok Kim,Sung Je Hong, and Jong Kim, ‘Distance Bounding with Delayed Responses,’ IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 16, september 2012.

[3] Kapil Singh,’Security in RFID Networks and Protocols,’ International Journal of Information and Computation Technology, vol.3, pp.425-432, 2013.

[4] Ammar Alkassar,Christian Stuble,’Towards Secure IFF:Preventing Mafia Fraud Attacks,’Sirrix AG security technologies, Germany Saarland University,D-66123 Saarbrucken,Germany.

[5] Srikanth S P,Sunitha Tiwari,’A Survey on Distance Bounding Protocol for attacks and frauds in RTLS system,’International journal of Engineering and Innovative technology(IJEIT),vol.3,April 2014.

[6] J.H.Conway,’on numbers and games,’AK Peters,Ltd., 2000.

[7] Claus P.Schnorr,’Efficient signature generation by smart cards,’Journal of Cryptology, vol.4, no.3, pp. 161-174, 1991.

[8] Capkun, Srdjan and EI Defrawy,Karim and Tsudik, Gene. GDB: Group Distance Bounding Protocols,, 2010.

[9] S.Brands and D.Chaum, ‘Distance-bounding protocols,’in 1993 EUROCRYPT.

[10] G.Avoine, C.Lauradoux,B.Martin,How secret-sharing can defeat terrorist fraud, The 4th ACM Conference on Wireless Network Security,WiSec’11,pp.145-156.

[11] G.Avoine ‘RFID, Distance Bounding Multiple Enhancement’, progress in cryptography, pp.290- 307.

[12] J. Munilla, A.Painado, ‘Distance Bounding Ptotocol for RFID enhanced by using void challenges and analysis in noise channels’, compute 8(2008) 1227- 1232.

[13] J. Kelsey, B. Schneier, and D. Wagner. Protocol interactions and the chosen protocol attack. In Proc. 5th International Workshop on Security Protocols, volume 1361 of LNCS, pages 91{104. Springer, 1997.

Center Parcs


A company has to stand for something in order to have success. You need to know where it is at this certain point and where you want the company to be in the future. To reach those goals in the future you have to have a strategy and so does Center Parcs.

The mission of Center Parcs is to let the guests experience a moment of happiness in a save and stimulating place. This is being created with the help of caring employees.

Their vision is that people need a place to connect with their friends and family. Therefore Center Parcs tries to offer a place where they can enjoy the simpel but yet special things in life and give the oppurtunity to just be yourself.

In the near future Center Parcs will be building new parcs. In 2015 they hope to open Center Parcs Vienne and in 2016 Village Nature (nearby Disneyland Paris). Center Parcs is innovative in the designs of their cottages. Some new cottages for example are tree houses, eden cottages and boats.

In the longer term they want to further develop their innovative desings and renovate the already existing parcs. In this way they want to distinguish themselves from the competition, offering short holidays which can not be found anywhere else. With this they want to be an inspiration towards their guests and be an recognizable ‘brand’.

Center Parcs’ most important visitors are families with children 0-11, this group accounts for 49% of the visitors, followed by families with children 12-18 and adults 18-54 with both 21%. Given the 49% of the families with children 0-11 it is presumable that this is the target group of Center Parcs. Center Parc is with 3.1 million visitors per year the European market leader. 1.3 million visitor have a Dutch nationality, this makes them the best represented nationality. Followed by the German with 806.000 visitors. The French account for 589.000 visitor and 372.000 are Belgian. the last 12.400 visitors have other nationalities.

The three biggest competitors of Center Parcs are Landal Greenparks, Dinseyland Paris and Roompot.

Landal Greenparks advertises the nature in their parks as well as Center Parcs. Landal Greenparks also focuses on young families and they offer many activities, outdoor and indoor. The parks are located in the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium and therefore they aim for the same group geographically speaking.

Disneyland Paris has several hotels in and surrounding the attractionpark. Each hotel has his own theme and atmosphere. They offer a attractionpark with mutiple activities and focusses on extended families, with this families with smaller childern.

Roompot also has parks in the Netherlands, Germany, Belgium and France. They also offer facilities for business people. Roompot’s parks are also located in nature enviroments and they advertise with the possibilty to cycling and hiking.

They are competitors of Center Parcs because they share the same target group. They focus on young families and are geographically all located in the same locations. They offer the same facilities and Landal and Roompot are cheaper than Center Parcs. This makes them competitors of Center Parcs.

3. Structure

Every organisation needs some sort of organisational structure in order to function. An orginasational chart shows how tasks are divided between departments and individuals. At Center Parcs they work according to the line and staff organsation. The most traditional organisational structure is a line organisation. Authority and accountibilty travel downwards from the top to the bottom. There is a strong hierarchy between the department managers and the department employees. One of the function at the top of the charts is the function of General Manager, the departments at Center Parcs all have to report back to the General Manager. Center Parcs has the following departments: Safety & Pool department, Leisure department, Technical department and the Houskeeping department.

In a line-and-staff organisation there are staff departments which support the line departments. In the staff departments there are experts in specific areas who advice and inform the line management in that specific area. The overall responsibilty belongs to the line manager and the staff departments are responsible for qaulitative advice. Center Parcs has two staff departments: Human Resource department and Finance department.

As you can see in de organogram up top the top manager is the General Manager, after that follows the manager of the department, after that the floor manager of the department and at the end of the chain comes de rest of the staff in that department.

If an employee of the Kids Club faces a problem he goes to the the Floor manager of the Kids Club. If the Floor manager cannot solve this problem alone he turns to the manager of the Leisure department. The Leisure manager reports the problem to the General Manager. If the Leisure mananger needs financial advice, he can contact the Finance department. If he has a question for the Human Resource department, he can also contact them.

As a Finance Manager you fulfil a management position as well as a executive position and carrie the responsibility for business analysis and reports of the park. He manages the budget of the park and pro-actively assist the other staff of the Management Team to meet set targets and budgets. Besides the responsibilty for an appropiate administrative organisation and internal control, the Finance Manager is also the financial oracle for the entire park organisation. Moreover the Finance Manager is partly responsible for the business implementation of the park, excluding the Horece & Retail Food activities.

5. Staff

Center Parcs has 11.600 employees of which 7.000 full-time and 4.600 are in part-time or other employement. Of all those employees, 66% is female and 34% is male.

19 % of the employees is under the age of 25. Most of the employees are between the ages of 25 and 45, in fact a large 51% is. Followed by the second biggest group of people over 45 with a 21%. Which leaves 9% left for the employees over 55.

The nationality that is most represented at Center Parcs are the French with 4960 employees. Followed by the Dutch with 2965 employees. Belgium accounts for 2511 employees, Germany for 926 employees and Spain accounts for another 238 employees.

The management functions are almost equally divided with 55% male managers and 45% female manangers. The techinal part is mostly in hand of the male employees and female employees overrule the housekeeping and reception departments.

Most of the employees of Center Parcs are native speakers. Especially in the higher positions, as for example the management positions. In those positions it is also expected that you speak more different languages, such as English, German, French or Dutch. All the positions in which you have contact with the customers it is important that you are a native speaker and in some cases it might even be necessary that you speak a little of the other lanuages. In the jobs such as housekeeping and maintenance it is not necessary to be a native speaker. Those jobs can also be performed by expats, since contact with the customer is exceptional.

7. Skills

A good hospitality performance will make your guests feel welcomed in your company, in this case in the park. As a company you should do everything within your power to let your guests have the most comfortable experience. This is important in all sorts of companies but even more so for companies within the hospitality industry such as Center Parcs. They can dustinguish themselve from the other competitors by offering quality service. Guests come to enjoy their holiday and with this comes a good experience of the park. For a stay at a bungalow park a big part of this experience is created by the behavior of the staff. Therefore ‘customer service’ skills is a requirement for the staff.

A good way to accomplish this is by offering good working conditions and rewarding them to the employees to keep them motivated. The employees will emit this positivity to the customers, which hopefully results in happier customers. Another way is by offer employees a training to learn about ‘customer service’ skills and how to put them into practice.

Another important point is that if problems occur the staff needs to respond professionally, the problems needs to be solved according the situation and immediately.

Waiting times are need to be kept as short as possible and the staff needs to be on time for an appointment or meeting.

Enviromentally speaking there should always be enough and nearby parking space. The guests have to easily find their way around the property. In smaller businesses like a restaurant or caf?? this is not essential, but at Center Parcs the guests have to be able to find their way around the park, to the reception, their bungalow, the pool etc.

The company has to have a corperate identity. The guests have to recognise the staff by the cloting and so on. The uniforms need to be appropiate and clean. The hospitality performance can also be improved by greeting the guests at the welcome and the receptionist or spokesperson for the park needs to be a native speaker and preferably be fluent in English, even better would be if they speak several languages.

And at last the facilities should be in working order and clean.

Center Parcs askes you to respond immediately in case of a complain, you can file a complain in the park so the management gets the chanche to solve it right away. If you feel like your complain is not handled accordingly you can send an e-mail to ‘[email protected]’ or send a letter by mail, this can be done untill a month after leaving the park. Still not sattisfied? Then you can file a complain to the ‘Geschillencommissie Recreatie’ and they will look at it, this can be done untill three months after leaving the park.

This shows that Center Parcs always tries to solves problems immediately and if that cannot be done, the guests are given mutiple oppurtunities to complain. That they try to solve it immediately and the chanches the guests get to file a complain are according to the hospitality performance.

This picture shows that Center Parcs has clear indication signs to lead the guests around the park. the numbers of the cottages are reffered to as well as all the other facilities in the park.

Center Parcs got elected top employer 2014. They have be scored on 5 different critertia: primary conditions, secundary conditions, training & development, career perspectives and cultural management. The fact that they received this quality mark shows that employees have good working conditions. Happy employees results, most of the time, in happy customers.

This picture show the corporate identity. Most of the employees wear a blue shirt with a Center Parcs logo on the sleeve, this is very recognizable for the guests and in this way they will know who to approach. The logo can be found around the park, on the internetsite etc. which also cnotributes to the corporate identity.

If you would like to become a receptionist at Center Parcs in the Netherlands, there are a few job requirements you need to meet. One of them is that you have sufficient oral and written knowledge of the English and German language. This is to make sure you can help guests from different nationalities and that contributes to the hospitality performance.

Health and safety – Capstan construction site in Kutno, Poland: online essay help

This report is written on 07/02/2015 following Health and Safety inspection of Capstan construction site in Kutno, Poland. Capstan project involves approximately three hundred people working on ap. 20 000 square meters, the aim is to build a snack factory. The factory will include main production building, utilities building, waste water treatment plant and other facilities.

The factory main building is already erected, wrapped with sandwich panels. The project has already reached its milestone but there is still a lot of works performed on site. Most of them, inside of the building. Civils, mechanical works, pipe installation (hot works) and Manufacturing machinery installation are main activities at the moment. There are also pressure and other tests carried on. The works are being performed by 8 contractors and their subcontractors. Each has at least one works supervisor and one first aider with certification. Construction Management company with 25 engineers staff is managing the project on the spot and supervising all the works.

Executive Summary

Inadequate access and egress routes inside of the main building make it a high-traffic area with too many pedestrians and mobile elevating work platforms or forklifts passing by every hour. Outside is not bad, pedestrian paths and a road for vehicles are both separated and kept clean. There are signs informing about speed limit and a ‘zebra’ straps marked for crossing the road.

Every task must be first planned and introduced in a method statement including time and equipment used (Occupational Health and Safety Regulations 2007),

Despite a large amount of time spent on trainings, working at height is an issue to be solved. Some of workers were wearing their safety harnesses incorrectly, or did not anchor themselves while working. Mobile Elevating Work Platforms should be operated only by certified operators. There was equipment out of date for inspection found on site. Working at heights is one of the biggest killers in construction, therefore there must be an extra care and awareness along all the people involved.

Hot works is a big issue on this contruction site. Cutting, grinding and welding are only allowed when Permit-to-work has been issued. Permits are clear instructions and a source of information for both workers and supervisors, yet lack of firefighting accessories, lack of fire watch after works are completed and poor housekeeping are everyday threat.

Cabling and electrical works should also be improved. Many cables were found lying without protection on the floors easy to be damaged by MEWP, they are a trip hazard for people and, if destroyed, may cause an electric shock.

Main findings of the inspection

Working at height

There are MEWP (mobile elevation work platforms), scaffolds and ladders used every day on site. Despite of a monthly inspection, some of the above equipment was found damaged and missing manufacture manual instructions. Before using MEWP, all the documentation of each machine must be checked (Ustawa z dnia 21 grudnia 200r o dozorze technicznym Dz.U.z 2013, poz. 963) according to Polish law. Also, this documentation should be on the workplace for all times attached to the machine. All the works at heights, including MEWP are marked as a dangerous zone. Workers must use a safety tape to barrier they area and protect people from falling objects.

All works at height must be performed with fall protection system. International (Amendment of the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulation 1998/2005) and Polish (Rozporzadzenie Ministra Pracy I Polityki Socjalnej, 26/09/1997 no. 169, 1650) laws are clear about this matter. To prevent falling and death risk, no worker is allowed to work at heights without ‘harness training’. Workers are using safety harness when working above 1 meter height. This PPE must be not only visually inspected each time before and after use but also annually checked by a proper company / third party organization. This inspection should result with a mark or certificate as ‘good to use’. Without such proof, no harness should be used.

Mobile scaffolds must be erected, used and maintained according to its design and manufacturer instruction to prevent displacement and collapse ( ILO R175, art.17) Only after an inspection made by a certified engineer, works on scaffold are allowed. Workers should always check by themselves if the scaffold is levelled, wheels are blocked and authorised to use by an inspector.

Lack of anchoring, safety harness worn too loose or damaged, missing parts of scaffolds are one of the most common problems found during inspection. The management must take care of these matters every day putting pressure on daily inspections of the equipment, placing barriers where applicable and wearing safety harness according to manufacturer instructions. The indirect costs of WAT accident may be crucial for an organisation, moreover, potencial loss of a human life and living with responsibility of somebody’s death are higher cost than any money.


Fire is one of the main dangers on construction site. Along with WAT, it can cost life, time ‘ dalay, loss of property, materials, equipment. It is much cheaper and easier to prevent fire than maintain the workplace after fire occure.

When hot works performed, there must be Permit- to- work system introduced. Also, ongoing supervision is a must in order to execute all the actions/ preventive measurements included in a hot work, method statement, risk assessment, safety plan and a legislation of a country we work in.

Before working, all the flammable materials must be removed, area should be barried and marked as a Hot Works Zone/Workshop. Fire blankets and extinguishers must be always on the work place and gas cylinders kept properly: stored vertically, minimum 10 meters from the flame, secured in order not to fall. Works can be performed after supervisor check the workplace comparing to measures and information from a Hot Work Permit.


Every activity with using electricity must be supervised. Labels, LOTO procedures, Work Permit, are one of the ways to avoid shock, death and burns. Only certified electricians and engineers should have access to life electricity. All the cables and electrical tools must be checked by an authorised inspector once a month, and labelled according to a ‘sticker system’. Each month has its own colour and all the equipment missing current label is being removed from a work place immediately. In order to avoid damage and tripping, all the cables lying on the floor must be protected.


The temperature inside of the building was less than 10C. Hand function drops very fast in the cold. Workers are forced to perform activities with safety gloves which are not warm enough for them, and tend to restrict hand movement. Workers are also at risk of cold stress injuries. According to International Labour Organisation (Ambient Factors in the Workplace, paragraph 8.4.) the employer has a responsibility to lower the risks connected with cold workplace. The temperature held in the work area is unacceptable.Workers must be provided with more heating.

Moreover, the lighting went on and off during the inspection making it very difficult for people to work, and creating a very