TESCO: Leadership And Teamwork College Essay Help Nyc


TESCO plc, which has been in operation for almost 90 years and is headquartered in Cheshunt, is the nation's largest grocery and general merchandise retailer. From its humble origins as an East End market booth in 1929, the company built its first storefront and never looked back. In the decades that followed, that initial store in Burnt Oak, Middlesex expanded into an international network with 4,331 outlets and 470,000 employees as of the 2008-2009 fiscal year. Both organic expansion and acquisitions, such as 70 Williamsons sites, 200 Harrow Stores, 212 Irwins stores, the 97-store Charles Phillips network, and the Victor Value chain, catapulted the chain to the top of its industry in the United Kingdom (TESCO plc, 2009a). As of the most recent TNS Worldpanel retail audit, the chain held a 31% share of the UK market, roughly double that of second-placed Asda (16.8%) and Sainsbury's (16%). (Taylor Nelson Sofres, 2008).

Internationally, TESCO presently ranks third in the globe, behind Wal-Mart (the largest privately-held corporation by revenue and personnel size) and Carrefour of France. Beginning in 1977 with an odd foray into Indonesia (with which the United Kingdom shares no colonial, religious, linguistic, or ethnic ties), TESCO waited 15 years before resuming its globalization efforts with a token outlet in Carrefour's home market, dozens in Ireland, the rest of Europe, and (via the joint venture route) South Korea and Thailand. After the turn of the century, TESCO increased its presence in Asia (China, Japan, Malaysia), aggressively invaded Turkey, and will begin testing its presence in Croatia this year. By the end of 2007, 115 brick-and-mortar stores had been opened by a 2001 California company that capitalized on the rising American preference for internet shopping (wine, in this instance) (Tesco plc, 2009b).

Despite the fact that more than half (53%) of all TESCO stores are located outside of the United Kingdom, the 2,400 or so stores in the country still account for nearly three-quarters of total staff (260,000 versus 106,000 abroad) due to the variety of store types bearing the TESCO name in-country, an ever-expanding product line, and the many ancillary businesses the chain has entered. Almost half (46%) are unionized, significantly higher than the average of 29% for the entire UK labor force. The majority of union members are associated with the USDAW shop workers federation, while the Transport and General Workers Union represents a relatively small number of workers in distribution and storage (Eurofound, 2009).

Relevant Operational Parameters

At least four aspects of TESCO's operations have an impact on any analysis of management styles and organizational behavior. These are the shopper service priorities of any retail organization, with the current corporate strategy, multicultural staff, and half-hearted corporate social responsibility initiatives contrasted with TESCO's defensive reputation management.

TESCO has pursued a five-pronged corporate strategy of consistent revenue/turnover growth since approximately 1997: a) seeking organic growth for the core food and mass merchandise business; b) emphasizing food and non-food business equally; c) expanding into high-opportunity business lines as consumer buying trends dictate; and d) penetrating new foreign markets. Along the way, the corporation embraces the new corporate social responsibility ethic: community service and environmentally friendly operations; yet, it is by no means a trendsetter in this regard.

The retail mix in the United Kingdom best exemplifies the organic growth and equal emphasis on food and non-food industries strategy. Throughout the majority of the first half of the twentieth century, TESCO sold only food and beverages. In the years following World War II, the product selection gradually expanded to include the now-familiar non-food categories: home care and furnishings, clothing, electrical appliances, consumer electronics, personal care and cosmetics, and health care.

Tesco Superstores and Tesco Extra are two of the huge store formats that are primarily located in the suburbs and definitely outside of the city. The former sell primarily groceries and a small number of non-food items, whereas Tesco Extra devotes almost equal space to groceries and the remainder of the chain's product line, including clothing, gadgets, and entertainment.

Nevertheless, it is clear that the firm intends to have a national presence that is widespread. The two most common shop styles, TESCO Express convenience stores selling food, beverages, and daily necessities, and the even smaller One Stop, account for more than half of TESCO's 2,800 locations in the United Kingdom. These smaller formats sacrifice higher margins for locational convenience because their per-square-foot turnover is lower than that of larger superstores.

Tesco Metro stores are located around halfway between superstores and Express outlets in terms of floor size. Size is influenced in part by the property sizes available in central or inner-city regions and on small-town main streets. In addition, there is a natural dread of competition with superstores on the fringes of metropolitan centers.

Tesco has effectively expanded its product offering to include non-grocery items in order to increase "share of wallet" within its dominating customer base. Thus, many hypermarkets and even Metro stores in the city center now offer medical and dental insurance, gasoline from forecourt pumping stations, technical help and warranty consultation for home appliances and consumer electronics. In addition, the company has already diversified into garden centres after acquiring Dobbies Garden Centres and continuing to operate the chain under that name; retail banking (a joint venture with the Royal Bank of Scotland that provides consumer banking: savings accounts, credit cards, loans, mortgages, and 'bancassurance' or insurance sold in bank branches); and Internet service provider, mobile phone service, and voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP) calling services.

Tesco has not been hesitant to capture synergies in light of its expansive service offering. The collaborations with cellular service providers encourage sales associates in the larger store formats' consumer electronics areas to push unit and subscription bundles. The store's website supports in-store sales of music CDs with economically priced downloads of single titles or tracks, without the need to pay for bandwidth. For customers who are hesitant to purchase game or movie DVDs in-store since they may only watch them once, the retailer offers unlimited DVD rentals transacted online and sent by mail for a monthly membership cost of no more than £17.97. (TESCO Entertainment, 2009).

This admittedly brief examination of essential operational characteristics has not addressed price as a strategic or competitive component. Logic dictates that people should be interested in chains with a reputation for low prices. This is a reflection of the fact that supermarkets aggressively price some items, known as "loss leaders," which are typically featured in "food day" or sale advertisements. However, such pricing offerings mask others that are either parity-priced or premium-priced; these are the origins of the company's uninterrupted net profit development. Without generally high margins, it would be impossible to continue investing in new local locations or international joint ventures.

Consider the following: In response to a claim by industry publication The Grocer that a 33-item shopping list revealed that ASDA was cheaper than Tesco (Trinity Mirror, 2006), the chain released the results of a business intelligence tracking tool indicating that they were priced comparably on 60 percent of items and cheaper on 26 percent. Constant price monitoring is performed, with the way of presenting adjusting only to the prices of comparable market baskets. In the most recent poll, conducted on January 30, 2010, Tesco asserts that its prices are lower for 1,150,000 typical baskets across the United Kingdom than those of Asda (950,000). (TESCO, 2010a).

Recommendations for Improving Leadership and Teamwork

The primary value proposition

Given the nature of the retail industry, which consists primarily of acquiring identical products from established manufacturers and displaying them to advantage in strategically-located stores, the quality of leadership at the director level in Tesco depends on a keen sense for maintaining a diverse product selection, identifying high-traffic store locations, and maintaining price competitiveness.

Leaders of Tesco must have an in-depth understanding of the market in order to continue extending the company's product offerings in response to new consumer demands while preserving the company's key competencies. Diversification into plants and gardening supplies, gasoline, mobile phones, subscription plans, prepaid mobile credits, and credit cards has made sense thus far because they are high-volume, low-cost sales of the type for which the chain's systems are already optimized. In addition, it made logical for the Extra and Superstore models to give one-stop shopping to customers.

Keeping store managers and chain directors abreast of evolving consumer tastes is essential for equipping them with the ability to identify new product prospects. There are a variety of sources for information, including trade and consumer journals, trade shows, competitive store checks, formal survey research, and academic consultants. The Organisational Development (OD) nerve hub of Tesco cannot afford to let individual directors develop and thrive on their own due to the company's size and geographic dispersion. In addition, market developments and competitive counterattacks occur too swiftly to offer directors the luxury of annual "executive retreats" and strategic planning conferences. Rather, OD must assume responsibility for executive information systems, restructure these to permit daily updates by those at the forefront of business intelligence and store operations, and ensure that these are appropriately categorized before being disseminated across the entire organization on the same day.

Second, directors must always be on the lookout for possibilities to open new stores in reaction to demographic and socioeconomic developments. As the population moves away from London and other cities with significant unemployment, it is more important than ever to identify places where a new Extra or Superstore may be self-sufficient. Thankfully, internet mapping tools, pedestrian traffic counts, and quarterly updates from the Census Bureau aid in the development of this essential ability. In the International Division, the selection of new countries to penetrate appears to be characterized by reluctance to take on entrenched competition despite favorable attitudes towards things British (e.g., Australia, Singapore, the Philippines, and the former Caribbean colonies) and by a failure to penetrate the majority of the European Union despite the obvious currency-conversion and logistical efficiencies afforded by geography and customs integration. While it is reasonable for Tesco to state that they would prefer to open more stores in markets where they already have "strong market positions," avoiding economic powerhouses such as Germany, France, Italy, and Spain seems particularly foolish. Clearly, at the strategic level, Tesco's directors require an entirely new strategy for evaluating foreign expansion priority areas (see e.g. Brewer, 2001).

Price checks and all other aspects of competitor/business information are only one of the managerial goals of retail chain directors. Maintaining customer loyalty requires competitive pricing, but sending hundreds of mystery shoppers each week is an expensive endeavor. Given that there is a point at which the cost of generating business intelligence information exceeds the benefit for managerial decision-making, it seems prudent to re-orient directors toward: a) the statistical efficiency of collecting smaller sample sizes; or b) switching to monitoring each other's online prices on the assumption that these are valid indicators of in-store selling price.

Given the perilous times and unending recession, the merchandise directors should be encouraged to use inventive price positioning across the product spectrum, as there will always be thrifty customers in the stores. House brands (also referred to as 'no name' or 'private label brands') have been around for decades (Stohs, 1999; Liang, 2009), but other chains have already segmented their offerings into bargain-basement, mid- and premium-price offerings via suitable branding and labeling (as their suppliers, the manufacturers of fast-moving consumer goods, have traditionally done) and adroit placement on store shelves. The creative challenge for managerial planning and brainstorming is to extend this accomplishment to all categories: produce, canned food, beverages, consumer electronics, insurance, warranty plans, deposit accounts, loyalty programs, apparel, detergents, and so on. Wherever customer engagement with a product category is low enough to make bargain seeking a sensible trade-off, segmented house brands should be appealing.

Adopting the nimble logistics for which Wal-Mart is renowned can also serve to keep prices down. For instance, the world's largest retail chain reduces its warehousing expenses by requiring suppliers to attach UCC/bar code or radio frequency identification (RFID) tags to their products before they leave the manufacturer's facility. When goods arrive at the various Wal-Mart distribution centers in the United States, barcode or RFID readers in the loading bay itself connect to the supply chain and distribution servers, and the goods are immediately cross-loaded onto the trucks that will transport them to their final store-destinations (Casestudyinc.com, 2010).

Collaboration in the Service Industries

There are three primary degrees of teamwork formation in the retail industry. The first is enhancing the skills and self-awareness of team leaders so they may better manage their workforce units (Trainer Active, n.d.).

Customer service must be the primary emphasis of teamwork, especially on the sales floor and during planning sessions. Because they do not manufacture the products they sell and are not necessarily responsible for their quality, service is the driving force behind all retail enterprises. A store provides shoppers with ease, value pricing, comfort, and an overall very enjoyable purchasing experience.

There are numerous team building exercises and experiential strategies. Given the aforementioned primary objective of encouraging innovation and collaboration to provide superior customer service, the following training objectives should be prioritized: customer orientation, transactional skills, self-awareness, growth through reflection, and identification with the chain's objective for retaining customer loyalty.

Excellent Corporate Citizenship

Practicing sustainable competition may require the biggest cultural, leadership, and appeal to the rank-and-file shifts necessary for teamwork. Tesco's vision statement includes a tiny nod to corporate citizenship: "…put community at the center of everything we do" (TESCO plc, 2009c). The Secretary-General of the United Nations has urged businesses to follow the triple bottom line of "People, Planet, Profits" in that order of importance. This implies Tesco must do far more (and be seen to do so) to care for its employees, give back to the communities in which it operates, and move aggressively toward ecologically friendly operations. Tesco has confined its charitable contributions to a nationwide youth football competition, an educational assistance program that distributes computers to schools, and relatively small (relative to competitors) payments from pre-tax revenues to charities and community organizations.

Cross-cultural Management

Since Tesco is now a multinational corporation, learning to deal with multicultural teams in Europe, Asia, and the Americas necessitates comprehensive management training at home prior to traveling to overseas posts. The increasing diversity of the British workforce is in no way reflective of the cultural hurdles that must be overcome elsewhere. To drive overseas affiliates towards Tesco's strategic goals and to operate successfully with foreign workers used to their own customs requires an in-depth understanding of the culture of each country. What is deemed impolite in the United Kingdom may be considered normal in the United States. Thomas (2008) warns that in many European and Asian economies, there are cultural tendencies toward a comfortable work-life balance.


International market selection: constructing a model from Australian case studies. Brewer, P. (2001). Journal of International Business.

Casestudyinc.com (2010), Walmart's supply chain management techniques. Web.

Eurofound (2009) Tesco, United Kingdom: Make employment profitable and appealing. Web.

Liang, N. (2009). House brands are here to stay in supermarket chains. Web.

Stohs, N. (1999) A stroll through the aisles of the supermarket's past. Milwaukee Newspaper.

Taylor Nathaniel Sofres (2008) An overview of the British grocery market. Web.

TESCO Entertainment (2009) rented DVDs and video games. Web.

Annual report and review for TESCO plc in 2009a. Web.

Additional information on TESCO plc's preliminary performance for 2008/09 Web.

TESCO plc (2009c) Our values. Web.

TESCO plc (2010a) Web site for TESCO baskets.

Thomas, D. C. (2008) Cross-cultural management. London, Sage.

Team building training exercises, Trainer Active, 2010 Web.

(Trinity) Mirror, The (2006) TESCO until "slowest." Internet.

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Employee Development Plan According To The US Labor Statistics College Essay Help Nyc

Employee development is the application of rules and practices that improve the conduct and performance of employees. To attain one's intended career goals, he or she must maintain his or her relevance in the job market through constant career growth. Employee development enables employees to be more effective at work while also assisting and enabling them to upgrade their abilities to reflect the dynamism of their professions. However, for an employee to improve his or her abilities effectively, he or she must first comprehend his or her career objectives and then endeavor to attain them.

According to the United States labor statistics, economic news release, the level of employment in the United States has decreased in comparison to two years earlier. Last year, hundreds of thousands of Americans lost their jobs and became unemployed. This necessitates greater prudence on the part of employees when deciding on a career path, as well as when selecting activities that will enhance their personal growth and workplace effectiveness. It also necessitates good career choices, as a person's choice of profession will affect their entire life (Nadler 1984). Career selection and development refers to the methodical evaluation and selection of an employment path from a pool of career possibilities by individuals. It is based on the requirements of the person for self-development and service to society. An individual must make a critical decision about employee growth. This often begins at a very young age, when a person may lack essential information about employment prospects and his or her talents and shortcomings, which influence professional decisions. A person's lifestyle, level of income, and overall job happiness in the future are determined by their chosen profession.

Individuals must engage in continual self-improvement programs as a result of the growing specialization of the labor market. These folks must choose occupations that provide a balance of economic, social, and job satisfaction rewards. This can only be accomplished by conducting thorough research on an individual's aptitude, the advantages and disadvantages of a given professional route. Before concentrating in a vocation, a person should evaluate his abilities, interests, and personal values. The career he chooses should provide a balanced combination of the aforementioned factors.

Both hands-on and professional training serve as the foundation for an individual's development. Training mostly refers to the use of purposeful efforts and support to facilitate employees' learning in order for them to perform their responsibilities efficiently. For someone to learn, an effort must be made to meet a certain requirement in terms of behavior or functioning. This can be accomplished through high leverage training, which highlights the program's effectiveness in achieving goals.

Individuals benefit from personal development plans

The primary objective of training is to provide employees and individuals with knowledge of functional skills or desired behavior that can promote enhanced performance (Storey 2007). In the current dynamic business world, firms are interested in hiring workers who can efficiently carry out their core responsibilities inside the organization while being adaptive to a rapidly evolving organizational context. This can be accomplished through training.

The second objective is the development of superior human capital that provides a competitive advantage. This suggests that, in the current dynamic environment, training should not only be designed to develop fundamental abilities, but also talents that distinguish individuals from their peers on the job market and in the workplace. Currently, worldwide unemployment rates are increasing. This means that a worker must have more than a fundamental understanding of function performance. Personal development ensures that an individual acquires the skills necessary to compete successfully in the work market (Nelarine 2001)

In the workplace, career development enables the attainment of performance criteria that encourage teamwork. Teamwork is a requirement for individuals who aspire to climb the corporate ladder in today's workplace. This is founded on the notion that employees are able to derive synergy from teamwork when they collaborate effectively. This suggests that they are capable of successfully orchestrating organization operations while also managing workplace diversity. Individuals with a high level of social competency are fostered by personal development, which facilitates active team participation.

When choosing a career, a person should take into account his own skills and abilities. They should choose a job path that is within the scope of their current skills and abilities. They can also pursue a vocation whose obligations they may not be able to accomplish at the moment, but which they are capable of learning and performing efficiently. Prior to choosing a career growth path, individuals should also take their personal values into account. By participating in an employee improvement program, one can enhance his or her career prospects in a field aligned with his or her own values. This boosts their productivity in that profession, as individuals are more likely to work well in an environment where they believe their rights and values are respected than in an environment where they feel their rights and values are devalued (Nelarine 2001)

Long-term career opportunities and viability are other crucial factors that a person should consider while choosing a profession. Employee career development promotes early investment in one's career, thereby establishing a solid foundation for future career chances. By participating in the appropriate improvement program at the appropriate time, employees may maintain their skills current with market demands.

Despite the present dynamic work environment, individuals can remain relevant through continuous learning. Individual employees can align and adapt their abilities to the first changing work environment by continual learning and self-development. This stimulates creativity and innovation in the workplace, so guaranteeing that individuals remain relevant to the firm over the long term by servicing its requirements and pursuing their own professional goals.

Every individual has a desired way of life. There are individuals that pursue employment in tourism due to their outspoken personality. Similarly, job advancement in a subject that provides an individual with the lifestyle he requires enables that individual to realize his or her full potential. In certain instances, people choose professional choices at a young age when they have limited knowledge of the potential available in such fields. They perform this action with minimal knowledge of individual capacities. On the basis of this concept, individuals are likely to be more fulfilled if they pursue personal development in their areas of interest (Pennington & Macklin 2007)

The relevance of a career in the current labor market is another issue that should be considered while choosing a career. Individuals should pursue occupations that will remain relevant for the duration of their lives, with the ability to adapt to any required societal changes. This enhances the likelihood of selecting the ideal position. In contrast to previous decades, when a university degree was sufficient to ensure graduates profitable employment, there has been a new emphasis on pursuing professional courses. With this emphasis on professional courses, completing career development professional courses improves an individual's employment prospects and enables them to actively compete with their peers in the same field.

As globalization and international trade continue to expand, it is becoming increasingly vital for individuals to engage in self-development programs in order to accommodate the diversity that comes with globalization (McLean 2006). Research reveals that individuals with foreign experience or expertise are better able to adapt in multinational work contexts. Development programs help individuals to not only speak more effectively in such settings, but also acquire a high degree of social competence that can accommodate the social and cultural diversity brought about by globalization. Due to the increasing liberalization and globalization of enterprises, it is crucial to acquire career skills that are relevant across regional borders.

The decision of a profession is heavily influenced by one's characteristics. People with introverted dispositions may select occupations that entail primarily administrative duties but also require strong personal judgment and decision-making abilities. On the other side, persons who are extroverted may choose occupations that need frequent interpersonal encounters. They typically get their ability to progress from their environment and the individuals with whom they engage. Taking courses in continuous learning, performance enhancement, and personal development enables individuals to choose occupations that align with their passions and personalities, so allowing them to carry out their responsibilities with great ease and competence (Pennington & Macklin 2007)

The impact of a person's work on his or her family life and commitments is an additional issue that is sometimes disregarded by many individuals during the career decision process (Goldman, 56). This is due to the fact that many people pick their careers at a young age, before starting their own families. A decent career should allow sufficient time for a person to spend with his or her family. This is based on Maslow's theory of needs, which states that, in addition to material demands, people have psychological wants such as the need for love that improve their urge to continue living.

Another issue that should be addressed in career choices is job happiness. A person should evaluate the level of stress connected with a specific vocation and its working conditions. An individual cannot experience the benefits of personal growth if he or she pursues a self-improvement program that leads to an unsatisfying profession.

One cannot disregard the significance of a good pay or profit from a career. No one wants to accept a very respected position that pays nothing. This can be justified using Maslow's hierarchy of requirements. It may be difficult for an employee to experience job satisfaction if his or her efforts are not adequately rewarded and he or she cannot meet his or her own demands. Career advancement enables the acquisition of market-relevant skills and other competencies. This enables them to negotiate greater salaries and obtain quality employment.

Training as a means of fostering personal growth

Employee development is possible via a methodical training design procedure (Nelarine 2001). The initial element of this procedure is a needs assessment. At this point, the needs and objectives of the organization are identified, followed by the needs of the individual and an analysis of the task that the individual is expected to perform in order to find a match between the individual's goals and those of the organization, while ensuring effective task execution. Depending on the results of training assessment, training is evaluated to determine whether it is necessary or whether it should be modified. Managers, trainers, and employees are involved in need identification, whereas in the past only experts were responsible for training (Nadler 1984). Analyzing one's psychological readiness for the training is the second phase. Trainers devise strategies for influencing learners' attitudes about the training. Without a good attitude towards a specific training program, it may not be able to accomplish anything.

Before enrolling in any self-improvement course, it is generally advisable to conduct a self-support evaluation. This involves planning how to manage the newly acquired talents after training has been completed. For instance, personnel who have received training may now be able to use technology, and it should be determined whether such equipment is available (McLean 2006). This necessitates the implementation of facilities, methods, or procedures that facilitate the proper execution of duties using the training-acquired abilities. The training is then evaluated to determine which skill it is intended to improve. After an employee completes the training, the program is subsequently evaluated. Typically, evaluation is performed to determine whether the aim has been met by comparing the expected outcome to the actual outcome. During and after the training, sufficient time should be allowed for a question and answer session. This enables an employee to remain interactive, so providing him with an opportunity to learn more. This can be achieved by having participants fill out questionnaires in which they rate and comment on various parts of the training. This is a crucial step in training since it permits feedback collecting (Pennington & Macklin 2007)

It is important to note that training should occur within a specific time limit. The duration may vary based on the type of training being conducted. The training length should be sufficient for trainees to comprehend training topics. During training, the trainer should have a very clear timetable that explains what will be done, when, and where, as well as any resources that will be required.

The emphasis in the contemporary work environment appears to be shifting from technical abilities to soft talents (Guides for specific careers 2010). They consist of interpersonal skills including leadership, teamwork, and communication. In terms of course relevance, many businesses now give preference to certain universities over others. To boost their chances of successfully promoting their abilities outside of the firm, individuals should enroll in courses offered by renowned schools.

Employee development plan

Competence Activity Controls

Systematic plan for personal development Identify career objectives

Choose a course that contributes to achieving these objectives.

Before partaking in any sort of training, one must be psychologically ready.

Regarding your career, conduct a SWOT analysis. Every instruction must

contribute to a specific career aim

Training must expand employment opportunities

Professional education The initial step in personal growth is to acquire fundamental professional training in the relevant subject. The professional course must cover all of the essential features of that level's profession.

Teamwork Team development Training must be engaging in order to increase team play.

Training method

Traditional techniques:

Practical training Engage employees in the application of training concepts in the workplace The workforce must actively engage in the implementation of concepts.

Case studies Expose employees to similar training-related scenarios to boost their comprehension. The employee must discuss pertinent case studies.

Modeling conduct Mentor employees so that they have a behavior standard to strive to. Optimal conduct in this profession must be observed.

Training analyses To grow, an employee must evaluate whether the training is improving her skills. Compare study program to career objectives

Self and peer assistance for management Evaluate the availability of resources or employment prospects that you can now manage with the acquired skills. Provide essential means

Evaluate the accomplishment of training objectives and results Evaluate whether you can handle issues as planned following training. Conduct a test

Time frame Every sort of training must be completed within a predetermined time range. Set a deadline for personal development initiatives.

Satisfaction Pursue expansion in your areas of interest where you gain the most pleasure. Conduct SWOT analysis on your skills.

Continuous education One must engage in continual training due to the dynamic nature of the workplace. Maintain contact with changes in your profession and outside.

In conclusion, it is evident that the aforementioned training methods may not meet the demands of all trainees. In some instances, it is necessary to invest in much longer-term formal training, such as professional college courses or a second degree. Due to the aspect of change in life, it is essential for a person to engage in continual learning throughout his or her career, regardless of whether he or she has received any of the aforementioned types of training (Decenzo & Robbins 2002). The current dynamic corporate environment, typified by the rising use of technology in company processes, requires employees to continually improve their abilities in order to remain competitive in the employment market. There is always something to learn in life, regardless of how skilled a person is (Decenzo & Robbins 2002)


Human resource management: John Wiley and Sons Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2002. Decenzo, D.A., and S.P. Robbins.

Guides for specific vocations (2010) Jobstar Central.

McLean, G. N. (2006). National Human Resource Development: A Focused Study in Transitioning Societies in the Developing World.

The Handbook of Human Resources Development, edited by L. Nadler, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984.

Human resource management: A managerial approach, by C. Nelarine, 2001. Florence, Kentucky, Cengage Learning.

Pinnington, A. & Macklin, T.C. (2007) Human resource management: Ethics and employment, Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon.

Storey, J. (2007) Human resource management: A critical text, Thomson learning, London.

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Strategic Management Research Project For Caterpillar Inc. College Essay Help Nyc

Contents Listing
Introduction Factors Humane Communication Organization Culture Discussion and Conclude References


This paper reviews six publications by Ezzamel, Willmott, and Worthington (2001), Fleming and Spicer (2003), Orton (2000), Morrison and Milliken (2000), Piderit (2000), and Vince and Broussine (2000). (1996). The researchers examined organizational transformation concerns by analyzing the elements that inhibit (or promote) the process. This paper assesses their arguments and assumptions using a three-pronged framework that describes their findings as organizational culture concerns, communication concerns, and human considerations (which affect organizational change). This research identifies fresh insights for change management by bridging the gap between theory and practice.

Factors Humane

According to Vince and Broussine (1996), the organizational emphasis in change management should shift from problem-solving and planning-based approaches to human emotions and interpersonal ties. Specifically, they emphasize the necessity to comprehend how human uncertainty and defensiveness influence organizational transformation. According to Vince and Broussine (1996), human factors impact change management through influencing the acceptance of the change process among individuals.

This examination must take into account numerous factors. For instance, change resistance is an attitude problem that the majority of firms might tackle by appealing to human needs. Those who do so have a good likelihood of experiencing employee support in change management. For instance, Faucheux (2013) tells the story of an American church (Jeff's Church) that intended to construct a new sanctuary for its congregants, but received complaints from some of its members for excluding them from the project.

The church resolved this issue by creating a steering committee that solicited the opinions and participation of every church member. Eventually, the majority of members supported the project because they felt included in the process of transformation (Faucheux, 2013). This analysis demonstrates that focusing on people's emotions and interpersonal relationships, as Vince and Broussine (1996) emphasize, is the driving force behind the success of organizational change.

Piderit (2000) supports the focus on human attitudes as a necessary for successful organizational change by arguing for a new approach to employee resistance. According to him, individuals' attitudes influence their resistance to change (or support for it). In this context, Piderit (2000) asserts that achieving a balance between organizational goals and individual needs will promote ambiguous attitudes toward change. To do this, he said that it is essential to comprehend the evolution of employee resistance to change. Likewise, he underlined the need to comprehend how personnel react to change ideas (using a bottom-up approach). He utilized this argument to explain the process of egalitarian change (Piderit, 2000).


According to Morrison and Milliken (2000), the primary impediment to organizational transformation is the failure of companies to articulate the issues affecting corporate and employee performance. According to them, it would be "unwise" for such firms to allow stakeholders to express organizational issues. They refer to this as "organizational silence" (Morrison & Milliken, 2000).

To encourage organizational change, the researchers researched the contextual elements that contribute to organizational change and proposed that removing these variables would promote change. This viewpoint is consistent with the assertions made by Faucheux (2013), who emphasized the need for managers to convey organizational change challenges to all stakeholders. Additionally, he stated that the executive team must convince all stakeholders to support the change management process (Faucheux, 2013; Morrison & Milliken, 2000). In this manner, employees would comprehend the necessity of change acceptance. This tactic has had favorable results.

For instance, in 1981 British Airways hired a new management who wished to reform the business because he recognized that it was wasting resources (Faucheux, 2013). The airline's personnel was reduced as a result of the restructuring operations he initiated. However, before he did so, he informed all of the organization's stakeholders of the necessity to restructure. This procedure prepared the workforce for the transition. His efforts eventually bore fruit, preventing the near bankruptcy of the London-based airline (Faucheux, 2013).

Organization Culture

According to Fleming and Spicer (2003), subjectivity and power relations are crucial components in organizational change. These elements are mostly a part of organizational culture. In this regard, Fleming and Spicer (2003) assert that the majority of employees who comprehend an organization's culture are likely to support organizational change, whilst those who do not comprehend it are likely to impede the process. The latter group behaves in this manner because they feel alone.

Furthermore, cynicism becomes a prevalent trait of their professional performance. In order to understand this occurrence, Fleming and Spicer (2003) state, "We call this the ideology interpretation because, in dis-identifying with power, it is reproduced inadvertently" (p. 157). Overall, Fleming and Spicer (2003) feel that cultural power has a substantial effect on an organization's capacity to embrace change. Similarly, they assert that subjectivity impacts an organization's capacity for change (subjectivity might not necessarily come from within the organization). This finding also demonstrates that what many individuals may perceive as frustrations associated with change are not always accurate.

Orton (2000) utilized the preceding philosophy to explain how internal communications influence organizational design processes in the US intelligence community. Using Weick's theory of organization development as a foundation, he investigated the effects of three design assumptions on the design process of an organization. In his research, he discovered that the organizational design process was constrained by dominant factors, causal laws, and executive directives (the three organization design assumptions) (Orton, 2000). Overall, Orton (2000) emphasized the necessity for businesses to shift from basic designs to trustworthy designs.

Ezzamel et al. (2001) have questioned the validity for utilizing new waves of management (as mentioned previously) as the sole conditions for re-engineering organizational processes. After analyzing the experiences of dissatisfied managers who attempted to re-engineer organizational processes, the researchers discovered that the vast majority of employees could easily deploy personal and collective forms of resistance to promote (or thwart) organizational change (Ezzamel et al., 2001). Although the authors accept the significance that external organizational factors, such as market shifts, have in organizational transformation, they assert that associating with historical working methods has a stronger impact. Consequently, the authors recognize the importance of focusing on the influence of employee work experiences on organizational development.

Discussion and Summary

After reviewing the six articles featured in this paper, it is clear that organizational transformation is a dynamic and multidimensional topic. Human factors, communication, and organizational transformation emerge as the primary variables influencing the process. As Ezzamel et al. (2001) note, while many types of literature acknowledge the need for adopting modern change management paradigms, such as lean management, it is equally important to recognize the role that an employee's experience plays in determining his resistance (or support) to the change management process.

Therefore, change management should concentrate on getting the "human aspect" right before addressing other crucial concerns, such as communication and organizational culture. This study emphasizes the importance of adopting a multidimensional approach to change management. In addition, it emphasizes the importance of integrating past and present organizational requirements while designing future organizational processes.


The authors are Ezzamel, Willmott, and Worthington (2001). In The Factory That Time Forgot, there is power, control, and resistance. 38(8), 1053-1079, Journal of Management Studies

Faucheux, M. (2013). Plans for Change Management That Worked as Illustrations Web.

P. Fleming and A. Spicer (2003). Implications for Power, Subjectivity, and Resistance while Working at a Cynical Distance 10(1), 157-179. Organization.

Morrison, E. W., & Milliken, F. J. (2000). A barrier to change and development in a pluralistic world is organizational silence. The Academy of Management Review, 25(4), pages 706-725.

Orton, J. D. (2000). Enactment, Sensemaking, and Decision Making: Redesign Processes in the Reorganization of US Intelligence in 1976 37(2), pages 213-234, in Journal of Management Studies.

Piderit, S. K. (2000). (2000). A Multidimensional Perspective on Organizational Change Attitudes: Reconsidering Resistance and Recognizing Ambivalence The Academy of Management Review, twenty-five (4), 783-794.

R. Vince and M. Broussine (1996). Paradox, Defense, and Attachment: Accessing and Managing the Emotions and Relationships Underlying Organizational Change Organization Studies, seventeen (1), 1-21.

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Communication, Knowledge And Information Management College Essay Help Nyc

Management of Communication in UAE Airline Companies

Airline firms in the UAE are governed by key conventions and regulations. As with any other enterprise, an Emirati airline must address a number of difficulties. It has been established that communication plays a crucial role in the effective performance of an organization. Organizations in the Emirati region seek for improved performance and more effective communication techniques. There are three key flaws in the contemporary Emirati organization that may be identified.

Lack of comprehension of the organization's primary objectives is one of the most important problems that must be resolved. Therefore, employees are not sufficiently devoted to the company's primary strategy and objectives. This frequently leads to poor employee performance and bad organizational performance. Successful firms, according to Sull, Ghoshal, and Monteiro, are able to implement tactics that make employees aware of and dedicated to the company's strategic objectives (36). Companies err when they do not pay sufficient attention to adequately defining their aims. The vast majority of businesses merely list their objectives on their websites. Employees read about the company's objectives without considering their involvement.

Nevertheless, this behavior must be discontinued. The specialists in human resources should ensure that each employee comprehends the company's primary objectives and the techniques employed to attain those objectives. HR experts should arrange training sessions to familiarize staff with the established objectives. During each session, staff can explore specific methods for achieving the established objectives. It can be useful to let employees to design their own methods for contributing to the organization's growth. Initiating general meetings where top management explains the objectives and employees raise questions is also useful.

As far as a personal improvement strategy is concerned, the following steps can be identified. As an employee of an airline, I will learn more about the company's objectives and strategy. Understanding the primary objectives will assist me in formulating my plan. I will attempt to develop the key strategies that will contribute to the growth of the organization. I shall endeavor to assist the organization in achieving its objectives. I will discuss my strategy with my boss because I want to ensure that I have a proper understanding of everything and am on the right path. I will also speak with my boss and HR professionals to implement training pertinent to the organization's objectives.

Another significant issue that must be addressed is cultural diversity. Emirati airlines are distinguished for their unique workplaces. People from other nations are invited to contribute to the success of the company. In many instances, employees are unprepared to work with individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds. There is a great deal of misunderstanding, which typically results in subpar performance (Sull, Ghoshal & Monteiro 37). It is improper, and the matter must be addressed.

One of the solutions to this problem is to initiate the required cultural training. Employees should understand the nuances of foreign cultures. It is essential to discuss the characteristics of the cultures "represented" in the organization. HR professionals can access information on cultural diversity and communicate with firm representatives of various cultures. A variety of seminars, talks, role-playing games, etc. can be used to initiate a training program. Each employee must participate in the training.

Regarding personal development, I shall seek online for the relevant information. There are several data regarding cultural diversity. First, I shall concentrate on the cultural nuances of the individuals with whom I must cooperate. I will also strive to be more considerate and attentive when speaking with and cooperating with other staff. I am a person with an open mind, therefore I will have no trouble comprehending other cultures and traditions.

The third factor to evaluate is the absence of two-way communication. Consequently, communication in firms is frequently unidirectional, i.e., top management articulates key messages, whilst employees are passive recipients. One of the fundamental faults of Emirati enterprises is that the top management appears uninterested in receiving criticism. Staff is the engine that propels the firm forward. When it comes to airline companies, personnel are closer to clients, and they frequently have various suggestions for enhancing the quality of services.

Businesses should establish channels for bidirectional communication. Every employee should be encouraged to contribute performance-enhancing suggestions (department, company). Department heads should carefully analyze all incentives and implement the most successful ones. Successful concepts should be rewarded. The incentive may be monetary or a promotion. Additionally, it can be beneficial to create working groups lead by the individual who originated the concept.

Creating excellent ideas is one of the most successful strategies for improvement in this field. Notably, I already own various ideas that can significantly influence the growth of any business. I am able to create a specific plan to bring some of my ideas to life. I will communicate with my supervisor and ensure I receive feedback. I do not expect all of my ideas to be accepted instantly, and I am also willing to modify them if necessary. Nonetheless, I feel the organization can profit from implementing some of my suggestions.

Effective customer communication is also vital. An advertisement for the airline Emirates ("Fly with Emirates") is an example of successful customer communication. The advertisement depicts an aircraft and its crew. The key theme of the advertisement is that the company offers something that other airlines do not. They guarantee fresh experiences to passengers who are already accustomed to receiving services of the highest quality. The appearance of a team of prominent specialists is enticing, and the advertisement's message also attracts customers. People are eager to do business with an organization that makes a difference. It is a remarkably accurate depiction of the company's business culture. The company's personnel are willing to go above and beyond to contribute to the company's success.

Management of Information and Knowledge at UAE Airline Companies

Companies in the aviation sector utilize the most recent technical developments to handle both information and knowledge. Various forms of software greatly simplify this operation. Internet usage is also a distinguishing element of the modern airline company in the UAE. Large sums of money are invested by businesses to create data bases that meet their requirements. Information storage is of the utmost importance to a business (Shaw 300).

Airline firms must maintain a range of information types originating from many sources. Thus, there are data required for the company's correct operation (flights, routes, etc.), data linked to the services gained by the customers (booking, consulting, etc.), and data utilized by the company's personnel. All of these data should be appropriately processed. It is also vital to provide stakeholders with access to information. The era of information necessitates the ability to properly possess and handle information. It also necessitates a quick response to an ever-changing environment.

Inappropriate information management is one of the biggest challenges that many airlines encounter. Therefore, employees lack access to the information required for optimal performance. Therefore, despite the company's effective storage system, employees are unable to complete jobs quickly. Therefore, it is essential that employees have access to information. There is no requirement to grant unfettered access to all firm personnel. Creating certain levels of accessibility is crucial. However, many businesses fail to accomplish this objective.

Despite the fact that numerous IT companies and specialists have created sophisticated apps to store and handle data, failure is caused by a managerial error. Top management fails to give employees with the required right. It is feasible to tackle this issue by requesting that employees complete a report in which they indicate the sort of information required. Obviously, each employee must demonstrate the necessity, i.e., explain why he or she requires the requested information. The reports will be brief, but staff should have sufficient time to consider the information. A week or less (between 3 and 5 days) may be sufficient.

When reports are complete, department heads should analyze them. The department head is responsible for determining which information is necessary for the staff. A meeting (or multiple meetings, if necessary) can be useful for ensuring that the department head knows the demands of the personnel. Each department head completes a brief report (similar to those filled out by employees), and the executive is responsible for determining which types of information will be accessible. The same conversation method can be employed at this level.

It is also important to highlight that employees who are out of the office cannot always access the information they require, even if they have permission to do so. Numerous businesses have previously addressed this concern. There are numerous applications that allow employees to remotely access data (Lock, Fattah & Kirby 14). Lock, Fattah, and Kirby emphasize that Mobility 3.0 allows businesses to manage information more effectively (8).

Social networking is also an efficient means of sharing information (with customers or within the company). Remarkably, market leaders have been using Facebook and other social networks for some time (Shearman n.p.). This application has proven beneficial. Certainly, in a competitive business climate, the mobility of information sharing is crucial.

Overall, it is fair to conclude that airline firms utilize numerous technical innovations to gather, store, and manage data. Currently, there are countless applications available, but certain managerial blunders might prohibit businesses from reaping the benefits of technology. Therefore, businesses should reevaluate some competitiveness measures.

Sources Cited

"Fly with Emirates: Fly with Elegance," website, n.d.

Lock, Amir Fattah, Howard Lock, and Shaun Kirby. Future Airline: Strategies for Intelligent Mobility that Will Transform the Industry Cisco IBSG (2010): 1-16 on the World Wide Web.

He is Stephen Shaw. Marketing and management for airlines. Surrey, United Kingdom: Ashgate Publishing, 2011.

Shearman, Sarah. "Emirates' Facebook Strategy Targets Competing Airlines."

” Marketing Magazine. 2011. Web.

Sull, Donald N.; Ghoshal, Sumantra; and Monteiro, Felipe. The Hub of the World, Business Strategy Review, 35-40, 2005. Web.

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Organizational Culture For Effectiveness And Success College Essay Help Nyc

Contents Listing
Introduction Considering issue Design and structure of the organization Leadership and management strategy for teams and teamwork Organization culture Conclusions and Suggestions References


Management is the process of completing tasks via the efforts of others in an effective and efficient manner (Agarwal 2008, p.302). These activities include planning, organizing, leading, and controlling; they are generally referred to as the four functions of management and are defined as follows:

Planning is the method by which a company determines its future actions (Hill and Jones 2009, p.381). In conjunction with the planning function, the organizing function guarantees that a company's available resources are utilized to the fullest extent and strategically distributed. Lastly, controlling is viewed as monitoring the progress in accordance with the initial plan and modifying where necessary if feedback indicates that things are not aligned with the plan (Mullins 2010, p.34).

Therefore, organization management is the act of building a relationship between people and resources in order to achieve particular aims and business objectives (Agarwal 2008, p.303). The five guiding principles of organization management are procedure, span of control, unity of command, homogeneous assignment, delegation of authority, and adaptability.

Organization management is a five-part process, with the first phase being the determination of the tasks involved. In this step, the nature of the job, the credentials necessary for the job, and the time required to complete the task are considered (Mullins 2010, p.35). The second phase is to subdivide big jobs into individual activities; the many possible tasks will be portioned as independent projects that may be carried out separately by different departments (Triplet 2007, p.3).

The third step involves assigning specific activities to individuals; at this point, the company must assess the capabilities of each worker before delegating available jobs. The tasks are matched to the individual and assigned to the individual who is best capable of efficiently completing the duties. The fourth element of the procedure is to give the available resources to assist individuals in completing assigned jobs successfully (Moyles 2006, p.176). Depending on the nature and difficulty of the allocated task, the organization offers the necessary resources. The last method entails building an organizational structure to define the strategy that will merge the many allocated tasks into one once they are completed and how the various organizational structures can collaborate (Picot et al., 2008, p.12).

Managers in an organization should recognize the significance of organization and management, which is the process by which people, diverse tasks, and technology are merged and coordinated to achieve organizational objectives (Triplet 2007, p.4). Bob and Lloyd must acknowledge that integrating the people, tasks, and resources in the fast-food business process is essential. Bob and Lloyd must achieve optimal utilization of the organization's resources in order to carry out all activities and implement their fast food company concepts (Triplet 2007, p.5). Establishing the policies and missions of the fast food industry and determining its structures should be the focus of organization and management (McNichol et al 2007, p.13).

Considering issue

If Bob and Lloyd thoroughly evaluate the organization and administration of their fast food business, their choice to open a fast food restaurant in Cambridge will be a profitable venture. In Cambridge's fast food business, their rate of success will be determined by the manner in which they establish their organizational structure, assemble their workforce, exercise leadership, and address organizational culture. To make strategic decisions for their new venture, Bob and Lloyd must carefully evaluate the following four factors (Chen 2004, p.5).

Design and structure of the organization

An organization structure is a system of interrelated jobs, job groups, and authority (Burstein 1991, p.327). An organization structure describes how personnel within an organization are classified into departments and how departments are grouped into an organization. It entails the creation of systems to provide effective communication, integration, and collaboration among departments. A typical organizational chart depicts formal relationships, such as the number of levels in a hierarchy and the span of control of managers and supervisors, as well as the structure of an organization (Schriber and Gutek 2010, p.642). Bob and Lloyd will need to choose an organization structure that reflects the range of control (Alder and Jelinek 2006, p.74). Each individual's function and responsibilities should be outlined in the fast food organization's structure.

The objective of an organization structure is to give a common reference that demonstrates the overall relationship between upper management, middle management, and lower level management (Murphy and Willmot 2010, p.268). Traditional organization structures always placed the CEO at the top, with everyone else grouped in layers according to department, but there are numerous current organization models that foster decentralization and adaptability. Even though there is no conventional organizational structure, Bob and Lloyd should adopt a structure that improves horizontal coordination and communication in order to promote change adoption (Burstein 1991, p.327). The horizontal organizational structure of the fast food company will decentralize decision-making. The organizational structure of an organization with three levels of management is depicted in the first diagram below. (Burstein 1991, p.327).

Three managerial levels.

One of the four factors that help a business build its organizational structure is job specification, which entails specifying the departments and their responsibilities (Barry 2000, p.33). The second strategy is departmentalization, in which positions are grouped and responsibilities are assigned in accordance with the company's objectives. The third aspect is span of control, in which the management takes into account the tasks at hand and the number of units and, as a result, combines the two factors in an advantageous manner (Chen 2004, p.6). The final component is delegation of authority, which introduces managers in charge of units and grants the authority to make decisions on behalf of the organization to the head of each unit. Bob and Lloyd should give decision-making authority to the fast food company's managers so that they may readily make decisions. Managers in each departmental unit should make decisions on behalf of the organization.

Collaboration and teamwork

For any management to be successful in reversing the organization's fortunes, they must promote a team-based strategy. Consistently, management gurus have asserted that a team outperforms an individual in terms of generating enthusiasm, maintaining concentration, and overcoming formidable obstacles. (Mullins 2010, p.46)

A team is a small group of people with complementary skills and a shared commitment to a goal for which they all feel responsible (Katzenbach and Smith 1993, p.68). Bob and Lloyd must ensure they adhere to the five team principles in order to establish a superior team for the hamburger fast food company.

The team for one must be small, two to twenty-five is an optimal quantity, because it is easier to work with a small number of individuals (Hill and Jones 2009, p.385). The second tenet is that the team members should possess complementary skills (Leitner 2004, p.35). The third principle stipulates that team members must share a common purpose and objective, which means that the team's objective and mission must be congruent (Hill and Jones 2009, p.384). The fourth principle is that the team must build a shared working approach in which the team pays attention to administrative and work-related details and each team member identifies their position in the team's work (Picot et al 2008, p.84). The final principle is that all members must be accountable to themselves and others in order to secure commitment and trust from other members (Katzenbach and Smith 1993, p.68). The second graph below illustrates a paradigm shift within a team system, often known as a team structure (Picot et al 2008, p.84).

Team structure.

For the sake of strategic team building, Bob and Lloyd should employ a committed, energized workforce by employing and selecting personnel with care. The fast food sector necessitates qualified, quick, and effective employees; anything less could result in the demise of the company (McNichol et al 2007, p.2007). Staffing corresponds to human resource planning; here, the organization should examine how many personnel are required, their backgrounds, credentials, and the cost of recruiting each one in order to carry out its objectives. Consideration must also be given to how to get the appropriate personnel, with recruitment considerations including education, experience, human relations, communication skills, and motivation among others (Northouse 2009, p.165).

The management should devise an elimination-based system for selecting the best applicants when undertaking personnel selection. Having a list of criteria and a score sheet for each candidate ensures that the organization's hiring rate is high (Baligh 2006, p.126). The company must define each interview, develop a plan, communicate with the interviewee during the interview, and establish a conclusion for each interview. Bob and Lloyd must perform a face-to-face interview to determine whether or not each employee have strong interpersonal skills (Chen 2004, p.7).

Motivation is a crucial part of any firm; if employees are not motivated, they are likely to decrease their output (Sekhar 2010, p.16). Examples of motivational elements include improved working environment, interpersonal interactions, compensation, job security, company policies, supervision, and management (Sekhar 2010, p.17). Bob and Lloyd should motivate their employees at the fast food restaurant by providing them with favorable working circumstances and by offering bonuses.

Leadership and management methodology

A leader is a person who guides a group of individuals, an organization, or a country (Leitner 2004, p.87). To the followers, a leadership model according to Mitchell, Margaret and Casey, John, professors of leadership management at the University of Illinois (2007) emphasizes a collective strategy that involves all members, such as improving the overall performance, focusing on strategy, and creating an environment for change (p.53).

Second, employing a collective approach begins to establish a positive relationship with the community since everyone is represented. As a result, the institution develops the foundation for collaborations, which is beneficial to the entire community (p.58). A good leader will, in the most significant way, combine all members in a strategic approach to work collaboratively; the leader should also be intelligent and inspiring (McNichol et al 2007, p.104). Moreover, a leader should propose new techniques that are effective and will provide positive performance outcomes; this will serve as an inspiration for all members.

Manpower planning is the most effective method for implementing "imposed-incremental change" within a corporation (Cooper 2005, p.231).

Cooper Crown (2005), a professional management guru and consultant in management issues, defines manpower planning as the process of forecasting and planning an institution's human resource organization in order to plan for the future in accordance with the institution's objectives and organizational structure (p.232).

The ability is intended to be useful when an organization has limited funds to spend, yet its tasks must still be carried out (Northouse 2009, p.168).

Well, the most effective method for enhancing one's leadership characteristics is to acquire skills in manpower planning, which will enable the regulation of projects and the establishment of a staffing structure to complete the duties.

A leadership mission entails determining long-term and short-term goals and assigning priorities to methods in order to attain successful leadership (Moyles 2006, p.178; Bass and Avolio 1993, p1). A strong leader should have a formula for strategy that focuses on the efficient allocation of resources, making judgments about diversifications, and accessing international marketplaces to combine and participate in an organization's initiative. A leader's strategy commits it to a defined vision, mission, and objective over an extended period of time, through which it is attained (Northouse 2009, p.169; Moyles 2006, p.179).

The success of implementing the policies is contingent on the capacity of the leadership function to persuade others to aid in the reworking of the plan (Moyles 2006, p.179) Redesigning enhances an organization's process and facilitates the leader's adaptation to uncontrollable external environmental limitations (Murphy and William 2010, p. 268). Bob and Lloyd should construct a strategy-supporting culture and a functional organizational structure in the fast food industry in order to achieve policy implementation (Moyles 2006, p.522). Bob and Lloyd must encourage the managers of each unit and the staff to discover ways to contribute to the implementation procedure (Normore 2010). Implementation involves personal discipline, commitment and sacrifice. This is due to the fact that the current state is regarded as unstable and involves the adoption of new systems by all parties (Picot et al 2008, p.86).

Organization culture

The word organization culture refers to a set of features that are unique to a given organization and can be derived from the manner in which an organization fosters and identifies the characteristics of cultures that promote learning and those that impede the learning organization process (Adler and Jelinek 2006, p.74).

Organizational culture encourages the learning process. Today's organizations are under a great deal of performance pressure, which compels them to learn, change, adopt, and take ethically sound activities in order to meet the demands of the industry's competition and the diverse shareholders (Schriber and Gutek 2010, p.645).

According to McNichol et al. (2007), organizational learning culture can be approached in numerous ways. These are the three most prevalent varieties (p.104):

This refers to a culture of learning inside an organization that is supported by either the team members or the leadership. Concretizing organizational learning culture: This occurs when the learning culture is grounded in actual processes and procedures, such as billing, logistics, and product creation (Mullins 2010, p.35). Leadership organizational learning culture: a technique that use leadership to foster learning inside an organization. This implies that the leader in the organization must study the organization's constraints, acknowledge them, and explore alternatives to improve the organization's performance in order to drive the learning process (Sekhar 2010, p.17).

There is pressure to keep up with evolving organizational learning processes as the world around us evolves. In the past, individuals were not required to make quick decisions, however today they are required to do so in unclear scenarios. A learning organization is defined as an institution in which employees successfully transmit knowledge (Leitner 2004, p.89).

By attempting to develop an effective learning organization, the fast food industry will demonstrate its efforts to change its organization's culture. There are two ways to improve an organization's learning strategy. The first is a single-loop learning process that entails modifying the environment without altering the organization's structures (Chen 2004, p.8). The second comprises a twofold loop wherein new systems are implemented and the learning process is redefined and challenged (Murphy and Willmot 2010, p.270). Bob and Lloyd should come up with innovative concepts that will advance the fast food company and provide it a competitive edge in Cambridge. If it is a single loop, Chen (2004) states it.

The Customer Services At TESCO Supermarket College Essay Help Nyc


An event is notable if it occurs once or repeatedly within a short period of time and leaves a lasting impact. This occasion could include festivities or performances, speeches, and ceremonies. The majority of events are arranged to commemorate cultural, political, or cooperative goals.

Recent years have witnessed substantial expansion in the event packaging business. The government's attention has been brought to the significance of this industry to the economies of various nations as a result of its expansion. The development of events supported by state governments has prompted the establishment of units. The purpose of which is to connect the success of tourism to the outcomes of these events. According to a number of academics, the success of an event has a good association, first with the visiting tourist and then as a method of conducting business. Providing quality beverage and food services, as well as the perception of authenticity, are agreed-upon factors that influence the happiness of event attendees.

In today's service-driven economy, corporations bundle their goods and services with an experience in order to increase sales. To reap the full benefits of experience staging, firms must embrace a fee-commanding, experience-engaging design. The transformation of promoting or selling an experience has not been simple for established businesses to execute.

The progression of economic history can be retraced through the many evolutionary stages experienced by birthday cakes. As proof of the agrarian economy, women baked birthday cakes from the very beginning. Combining farm products, such as sugar, butter, eggs, and flour. All of these together are inexpensive or free. At Betty Croker, women spent a dollar or more for pre-mixed components as the economy of the industrial period developed. At the beginning of this service-based economy, busy parents ordered cakes from bakery shops that, if purchased for $15 or $20, would have cost significantly more than the packed ingredients. In the 1990s, parents did not celebrate birthdays with cakes or celebrations. Instead, substantial sums were spent to completely outsource an event. From exploration zone to Chuck E. Cheeses, other event-promoting companies were noteworthy for children. Recently, free cakes have become the norm at festivals. Thus, this is the beginning of an economy of experience. Despite the fact that economists have grouped services and experience together, experience is a distinct economic gift that is distinct from services and goods. This economic gift is acknowledged and articulated today since experience is indisputably what people want, and more businesses are planning and implementing accordingly. From now on, leading firms will learn that experience staging is the new competitive frontier.

Literature Review

design and execution of services

There is a line of distinction between experience and service; to comprehend this divide, recollect an episode of the old television show Taxi. In it, Iggy, a poor and hilarious driver, decided to become the greatest taxi driver this planet has ever seen. He offered beverages and sandwiches to his passengers while providing city excursions. Frequently, he sung Frank Sinatra songs. He transformed an average taxi ride into an unforgettable experience that his clients will never forget. Iggy presented an altogether new economic contribution. The experience of riding in Iggy's taxi was significantly more important to his passengers than the service of being driven around the city. The response was that his consumers paid him more money. One of his customers had to pay far more than the statutory sum since poor service prolonged his experience. Iggy supplied services – taxi driving – as a front for selling an experience, which was in fact what he was doing. If businesses use their services as a stage and their products as props to engage with clients on an individual level, they will create a memorable experience. Thus, commodities are said to be fungible, while goods are said to be tangible, services are said to be intangible, and experiences are said to be memorable. Following Walt Disney, the pioneer of the experience economy, we will refer to experience purchasers as guests. This customer prefers to value firms' revelations over time. While pecuniary contributions, such as services and presents, are secondary to the guest. Experiences are personal, dwelling in the mind of an individual, including emotional, intellectual, and bodily components. Thus, the experiences of two individuals will always be distinct. This is because an experience consists of the fundamental interactions between an individual's mental state and the stage show. Walt Disney and his enterprises have cleverly utilized the concept that experience is the essence of show business. Today, marketing experience is valued in industries far from parks and theaters. The development of innovative technologies has altered the nature of experience. From online chat rooms to interactive video games, new types of entertainment have emerged. According to new schools of thought, business is more than the manufacture and sale of new things; it also involves information distribution and interactive life connection experiences.

At Planet Hollywood and Hard Rock Café, food serves as a prop for the entertainment that is the primary focus. Cabalas', Nike town, attracts clients by presenting them with amusing activities and attractive displays. Often commonly termed entertailing. However, experiences cannot be considered solely entertaining. Businesses stage experiences when they want to engage customers in a personal way that will be remembered for eternity. Sir Collin Marshal, the former chairman of British Airways, remarked that in the field of business travel, the commodity mentality is the belief that a business is only executing a function — in our instance, carrying people from point A to point B on time and at the lowest possible price. The airways compete with others on the level of offering an experience, going above and beyond just functionality. Experiences are not limited to companies that manufacture consumer items.

The attributes of experiences

Before collecting an admittance fee, a business must plan and implement an experience that customers deem to be worth the cost. Experiences, like goods or services, will require a flawless plan from conception through marketing and delivery. Inventiveness and uniqueness will always precede income growth. Experiences, like goods and services, include unique characteristics and face significant design challenges. One method to consider experiences is from a two-dimensional perspective.

Participation of the visitor

At one end of the spectrum is inactive involvement, in which customers have no effect on performance. Attendees of symphonies are a fantastic illustration of this type of participant. During an event, they gain experience by observing and listening. On the opposite end are active players. Here, clients contribute to the formation of the experience. Skiers are a fantastic illustration of this type of participation. Even ski race spectators cannot be considered as passive participants. By participating in the ski race, they contribute to the visual experience of people at the event.

The affiliation of the visitor

This is often referred to as the customer's or guest's ability to interact effectively with the environment. Connection unites the client or attendee with the event's performance. At one angle of connection range, absorption occurs, but at the other, immersion occurs. Guests seated in the grandstand and seeing the Kentucky Derby tend to focus on the action occurring beneath and in front of them. While those infield are immersed in the noises, sights, and smells of their surroundings. In physics class, frantically scribbling notes on a notepad can be far more engaging than reading a book. However, seeing a film in a theater with others, stereophonic sound, and a large screen is more immersive than watching the same film on a home video player.

The classification of experiences

Attending a live performance or watching television are examples of entertainment experiences in which the involvement or participation of consumers or guests is more passive than active. In this instance, the connection at the event is one of absorption rather than immersion. Educational events, such as taking a ski lesson or attending a class, engage people actively. However, students are typically more detached from the event than absorbed in it. Escapist experiences can educate in the same manner that educational ones do, or they can be funny as entertainment, but with a greater client immersion. Participating in an orchestra or acting in a play involves active and immersive experiential participation. Active guest participation must be lowered for an escapist experience to become ecstatic, the fourth type of experience. Here, visitors are immersed in the atmosphere, yet they have no effect, such as a gallery visitor. All experiences of depth, such as a trip to Disney World, embrace all dimensions of experience. The most essential question for those in positions of authority to ask themselves is, "How unique and distinct is the experience my company provides?" The quality of the experience provided will significantly impact the business of the firm. Experience must meet the customer's demand or expectation, just as goods or services do. Experiences are the product of a process of examination, scripting, and execution, whereas services are the outcome of a process of examination, blueprint construction, and enhancements.

Creating an exceptional experience

It is anticipated that developing experiences will become a business in the future, similar to product and process design. Design principles are undeniably evident from the actions and outcomes of organizations already in the industry. Below are the experience design principles.

The experience must have a theme

When one hears the names of entertainment-oriented restaurants, he or she forms an impression of what to expect from such an establishment. For instance, the rain forest café and the Hard Rock café, to name a couple. The first and most crucial step that owners must take when attempting experience staging is to create a memorable theme. A badly sculpted topic prevents prospective customers from imagining what to anticipate. And the memories from such locations are frequently fleeting. Such is the case with Gertrude Stein's Oakland. The guidelines are frequently violated by retailers. The motif created does not correspond with the retail experience that is to be performed, despite the fact that they trumpet the shopping experience. When it comes to theme creation, home appliance stores are especially lacking in originality. Considering that a Las Vegas-based mall features the notion of a "ancient Roman marketplace," this motif has been realized in every way through architectural elements. These features include pristine white columns, marble floors, an outdoor café, running fountains, living trees, and completion during a thunderstorm.

Impression complemented with positive cues

While the topic lays the groundwork, it is of utmost importance that the experience leave an unforgettable mark on the audience. The impression is what a guest takes away from an encounter, signifying that the theme has been accomplished. Companies must introduce clues that confirm the nature of the experience to the client or guest in order to establish the desired impression. Each cue must provide support for the theme. Harob George, the creator of a Washington, D.C.-based coffee business, conceived the company's mission statement (the marriage of Old world Italian espresso bars with fast paced American living). Customers are able to create queues without the need for signage, which would have deviated from the theme's objective, due to the interior design's representation of the ancient world. There is a feeling of quick service in a pleasant environment. Additionally, the franchise owner encourages his employees to recall the faces of regular customers in order to serve them without prompting. The cue, regardless of its size, contributes to the creation of a memorable experience. When a restaurant host informs you that your table is ready, he or she has given you no indication. However, the proclamation by a Rainforest Café host to her visitor to be on the lookout for an upcoming adventure tends to generate the impression of a unique encounter. Cues produce impressions, and impressions generate client experiences that are memorable. An unpleasant experience could be the result of an undervalued, ignored, or disorganized architectural feature. A customer may be left perplexed if an unintended visual signal is applied. After receiving information on the direction, it may be difficult to locate one's hotel room. The client's experience would be enhanced by clearer and more comprehensible indications on the walkway.

Remove unmotivated cues

Positive indicators alone are insufficient to preserve the authenticity of the guest or client experience. Everything that conflicts with the concept must be eliminated. Experienced stagers must adhere to this rule tenaciously. In offices, shopping malls, and airplanes, trivial massages are common. Despite the fact that customers occasionally require guidance, service providers frequently employ improper massage forms. For example, trash cans at fast food restaurants may feature a "thank you" sign. Instead, stagers of experience may transform the trash can into a talking, garbage-eating character that expresses gratitude when the lid is opened. A good massage is conveyed to the customer without any negative cues. The simplest way to transform a service into an experience is to deliver subpar services. This creates an interaction that is memorable, but of a negative one. Excessive service can ruin an experience.

The five senses must be stimulated.

The sensory stimuli accompanying an encounter must advance its topic. The more senses involved in an encounter, the more unforgettable that experience will be. Smart operators of shoeshine shops enhance the aroma of polish using fragile material fragments. Aroma and sounds that do not contribute to the shoe but improve the whole experience. During the blending of produce, grocery stores, channel bakeries, and others employ sound and light to resemble a thunderstorm. The Cloud Forest

Managing Organizational Employee Retention College Essay Help Nyc


Numerous strategies are employed by managers to ensure staff retention. Alferaih, Sarwar, and Eid (2018) suggest that compensation reviews are one of the most utilized assets for employee retention. This means that management must ensure that the compensation given to employees is not only fair, but also allows the individual to accomplish some of his or her own goals. According to Al Mansoori (2017), a substantial amount of employees who leave a firm do so because of inadequate compensation. This makes them even more susceptible to poaching. Indeed, there are several means through which businesses ensure the competitiveness of their compensation packages. One way is by recognizing the various pricing structures in the business and adjusting their offerings accordingly. Secondly, management must also examine the staff's qualifications. Even though employees are frequently evaluated based on fundamental requirements, there should ideally be some who are more qualified than others. Critically, the work environment also plays a vital effect in a company's ability to retain its employees. This study examines the measures managers can utilize to increase employee retention. Due to the increasing problems presented by the digital economy, the focus will be on 21st century businesses. The study will employ qualitative approach to produce findings and conclusions.


To explore and develop methods on how organizations of the twenty-first century might improve employee retention through effective employee relations techniques.


Determine how retention strategy decreases employee turnover. To discuss techniques for retaining employees. To examine the connections between employee engagement and staff retention. Determine the function of middle-level managers in employee retention strategies. To offer best-practice ways for enhancing employee retention and talent management for the success of the organization.

Literature Review

Employee retention is influenced by numerous factors. According to Bhandari and Verma (2013), the most crucial factor is wage or compensation. Watson (2020) says that employees quit their jobs when they believe they are not adequately compensated. There are companies that cannot afford to pay their employees as much as international corporations. Therefore, the employee must first acknowledge the management's ability to meet their desired compensation. Numerous companies, according to Bacchetta and Van Wincoop (2013), inquire about a candidate's current and anticipated salary to ensure they can afford the position. These offers must be evaluated periodically in order to retain employees within the organization. Companies, for instance, have policies requiring annual salary increases of a particular proportion to combat inflation. When negotiating employee severance, it is also necessary to consider packages such as Christmas bonuses, paid leave days, and even holiday perks. According to Furrer (2016), when a company's turnover rate is significant, the initial assessment is to determine whether the personnel believes they are paid properly. Therefore, it may be argued that the same holds true if management wishes to prevent employees from leaving the organization.

Moreover, job satisfaction is essential to comprehending why individuals stay or depart their workplaces. There are various factors that contribute to employee satisfaction (Zeffane and Bani-Melhem, 2017). As stated previously, the question of salary is crucial to job happiness. Alternatively, the work environment can have an effect on the same. Al Mamun and Hasan (2017) contend that when employees like their workplace, they are more likely to be pleased. Consequently, they will have less motives to leave their work station. Junejo, Ashraf, and Shaikh (2020) observe that many organizations do not consider their organizational culture and how it affects employee turnover. Further, the author notes that employees who are content with their work stations are more likely to be tolerant of lower pay. In accordance with these presumptions, the work environment as a whole is of utmost importance and relevance, and not only its constituent parts. Critically, culture is essential to guaranteeing employee retention and productivity. A thriving and optimistic culture will ensure that the staff are in optimal condition to achieve organizational greatness (Jabeen and Isakovic, 2018). This will have a direct effect on the company's ROI and bottom line.

Relationships that exist and thrive within the same culture might be linked to the bigger features of the workplace environment. According to Goldfarb, Greenstein, and Tucker (2015), there are two primary types of connections prevalent in all workplaces. The first is relations between employees. These are frequently influenced by the political views of the impacted personnel. Karam (2017) explains that different sorts of workplace politics impact employees in one way or another. Compared to gossipers, team players are more likely to get along with one another. It is advisable for management to not only comprehend the many teams in their workplace, but also recognize their behavior toward one another (Baker and Saren, 2016). This monitoring will assure the management of the company's culture. Thus allowing all employees to flourish. Employee-management relationships are the second type of relationship. Tong (2018) argues that businesses already employ "people" consultants and specialists. These personnel are entrusted for ensuring that the relationships between all staff members, regardless of status, are mutually advantageous to the employees and the organization as a whole. This relationship is essential to ensuring that the employee and the organization are on equal footing. If employees lack confidence in their superiors and/or management, they are more inclined to seek employment elsewhere.

In addition, employees leave their companies because of superior alternatives. There are three variables that must be taken into account when discussing alternatives. These are compensation, promotions, and advancement (Zenger, 2016). Indeed, wages and compensation have been discussed in relation to employee retention. The topic of promotion is closely related to professional advancement. Tapia (2018) contends that all employees value the opportunity to advance in their careers. Even if the adjustment may be little for the organization, it is practically certain that the impacted employee will be extremely pleased with it. Floyd and Wooldridge (2017) emphasize that promotions can also occur within the same occupational classification. Many businesses, for instance, implement a grading system in which different individuals within the same job group are scored differently. Therefore, instead of a single "officer" position, the organization has "junior officer," "mid-level officer," and "senior officer." A change from one of these characteristics of the same job category is also considered a promotion, even though the worker remains an officer. According to Saunders and Cornett (2019), one of the most common blunders firms make is assuming promotions solely result in monetary gains. However, the additional responsibilities are also a crucial component of the process.

Notably, job quality and design are also essential for maintaining employee motivation and retention. According to Smith and Hanover (2016), job quality refers to respect and the capacity to apply one's knowledge and talents to the fullest extent for a specific assignment. Rao and Klein (2015) state that toxic workplaces lack confidence in their employees' decision-making abilities. It is essential to highlight that such trust is also tightly related with respect. According to Randhawa and Komal (2018), businesses should always select capable applicants who can make judgments independently. Similarly, all staff decisions, regardless of their level, should be respected and, if required, directed. Placing blame on junior employees will result in a high turnover rate of the same personnel to organizations where they feel more valued and respected. According to Pedro and Cagica (2017), offering employees such responsibilities encourages them to advance in their professions. Therefore, they will remain if they can attain their individual professional objectives at the organization in question. Job design mostly relates to the type of the work assigned in accordance to the individual's interests (Al Abdouli and Ali, 2017). It is normal for individuals to perform professions they dislike. Frequently, individuals work in fields they did not initially study, but in which they have accumulated experience over the years. If such labor is not performed out of passion but rather as a means to earn a livelihood, then the impacted employees are likely to leave the firm when an alternative opportunity arises.

Importantly, the recruitment process has a direct relationship with job quality and design. According to Pandita and Ray (2018), the initial engagement with an employee can either guarantee a highly engaged staff or not. Ideally, the recruitment process should discover the most qualified individuals for the available roles. It is essential to highlight that this is a crucial aspect of employee retention. According to Oyku (2018), when the correct applicant is coupled with the team, everyone prospers. The ideal candidate will possess the necessary qualifications for the position. This will ensure that other employees are not negatively impacted by the incompetence of the selected candidate, resulting in a high turnover rate. In addition, management will be able to trust the selected individual's work and perspective, promoting a healthy relationship between all parties involved. According to Ogbonnaya, Daniels, and Nielsen (2017), this will benefit both the employee and the employer. Additionally, the recruitment process should determine whether the selected individual is compatible with the institution's culture. As previously said, the work environment is crucial when considering employee retention. Even highly qualified personnel will have varying responses to the organizational culture. Mishkin and Eakins (2018) argue that despite the fact that culture can be taught, the selected candidates must have some resemblance and conformity to the predetermined organizational culture. This ensures a smooth transition for the employee, hence reducing the likelihood of turnover.

Training and development are essential to employee satisfaction. According to Mishra (2017), management must devise two forms of training for all staff. The first is job-specific workshops that focus on the individual's primary responsibilities. According to Massoudi and Hamdi (2017), a large number of employees receive their initial training prior to entering the workforce. Nonetheless, fresh developments appear periodically in all sectors of the labor market. It is essential that personnel remain current with these new developments. Frequent and regulated training seminars are the best approach to ensure this. The second form of precipitation targets every employee. Therefore, regardless of one's occupation, they must attend the specified workshops. These trainings provide transferable skills applicable wherever and at any time. For instance, staff can be instructed on the company's newly implemented ERP system. This not only ensures that all employees are competent, but also that they feel valued and respected. Therefore, it may be argued that employees who receive continuous and valuable training are less inclined to leave their employer.

Socialization and burnout are also crucial factors in retaining employees. Arguably, employees who feel exhausted and burned out are more prone to seek out better chances elsewhere (Lathabhavan and Balasubramanian, 2017). They will also be continually searching for greater chances rather than focusing on their work. This will impact the performance of the entire team. There are several activities employed by management to prevent staff burnout (Kumar, 2017). For example, they use paid leave days to ensure that their staff may rest. Additionally, employees are eligible for maternity and paternity leaves, study leaves, and paid time off. Companies that provide these unpaid leisure days are more likely to experience substantial employee turnover. Critically, there are organizations who give the advertised perks but do not provide the necessary time for employees to utilize their rest days. Lemoyne et al. (2018), for instance, explain that despite all these advantages of paper work, a substantial majority of professionals in Abu Dhabi do not use them. Due to a lack of personnel, rest days are only granted when absolutely necessary. Even with the aforementioned benefits, it is debatable that these businesses will continue to experience a high employee turnover rate.

Similarly, job security is essential to comprehending why individuals abandon their workplaces. As Litz, Hourani, and Scott (2020) point out, firms that do not provide work security will likely also experience substantial employee turnover. There are a variety of elements to consider when evaluating job security. First, it is believed that long-term contracts promote more employee retention than short-term contracts. A considerable number of nations are currently experiencing low employment, particularly in terms of secure work. The nature of the economy has made it more difficult for employees to get such lengthy employment contracts. In addition, the younger generation has vastly different expectations on how long they must remain in one employment compared to earlier generations. These factors must be taken into account when considering job security and employee retention. According to Kundu and Lata (2017), the topic of generational differences is equally vital. Unlike their predecessors, generation X, members of Generation Y who are already in the workforce are not interested in remaining in a single employer for the duration of their careers (Jackson, 2019). This necessitates the management to produce numerous inventive methods for reducing their turnover.


As opposed to deduction

Two major methods were considered in terms of their applicability to the research. Methodologies of induction and deduction were the two approaches. Hitt et al. (2013) characterize the induction method as the utilization of particular facets to generate much wider generalizations. It is commonly known as the bottom-up research method. In some cases, researchers already know what they hope to discover through a study. Consequently, they test this hypothesis in an effort to produce viable and, as said, more generalized observations of the same. In contrast, the deduction strategy is the polar opposite of the first method. This indicates that the process begins with a broad concept that is subsequently evaluated to arrive at precise results. Typically, researchers begin by adopting a theory that connects to their area of interest, and then they devise tests that link the theory to the study in order to draw more definitive results. In order to conduct a meaningful study, it is crucial that the researcher use the proper methodology.

The researcher employed a logical approach to research methodology. This indicates that the researcher began with a broad understanding and perspective of the topic and then conducted research to achieve more specific conclusions. As stated previously, the purpose of the study was to develop

Small Business In Brazil: Burswood Ltd College Essay Help Nyc


The hospitality industry is highly competitive, with new players entering and old players developing new working strategies or approaches; in order to be competitive in the industry, particularly on the international market, it is necessary to make strategic decisions and employ scientific decision-making processes (Schrage 2010). Latin American countries provide a lucrative market for the hotel business; therefore, Burswood Entertainment Company, an Australian entertainment company, desires to enter Brazil and capitalize on the potential there. Burswood Entertainment is an Australian entertainment industry with a variety of modern entertainment industry facilities, including casinos, saunas, massage parlors, restaurants, gyms, bars, hotels, a golf course, a day spa, and nightclubs, among others; it is located near Perth, Western Australia, on the Swan River. The company, which has a strong brand reputation, desires to diversify its services and business line in Brazil.

Brazil is the largest economy in Latin America and has little entry restrictions. Despite the favorable entrance environment in the country, a market entry strategy must be devised; a good entry strategy enables a company to successfully exploit the new market's potential. A corporation must do an external environment analysis while designing an internal marketing entry strategy employing situational analysis methods such as political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental analysis. Additionally, the internal analysis must be conducted using techniques such as strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. This study analyzes the Brazilian market's external environment and Burswood Entertainment's internal environment for the objectives of the company's expansion. (Schrage 2010)

When in Brazil, the company will offer identical services, but they will be provided by Brazilians who have received training and practical experience in Australia; nonetheless, during the introductory phase of the business, Australians will be the primary service provider so that they may set the pace. In the early stages of business development, local Brazilians will be hired as temporary workers to lower the company's costs associated with importing Australians. For the firm to be steady, the area of concentration that demands skilled labor will be handled by trained Australians, particularly the management team.

Political Condition

Each of the country's three primary branches of government, the States, the Municipalities, and the Federal District, works for the general good of the nation in accordance with its democratic governance strategy. All of the country's executive and legislative members are elected, while judges are appointed after completing an examination (Magdalena, Eugenia and Oana 2008). Brazil is a Federate Republic, governed by a president who serves as both the head of state and the head of government. The elections are determined by the majority vote. Other government authorities outside the president are the vice president, ministers, senators, governors, and mayors.

When it comes to business, the government has enacted rules to enable fair commerce between domestic and foreign enterprises. Some enterprises receive market entry incentives, but others merely receive tax-deductible industrial deductions. Population expansion and the demand for social amenities have compelled the government to recruit foreign hospitality sectors; it does so by offering advantages such as easy licensing, tax breaks and tax holidays, and protection of intellectual property rights (Magdalena, Eugenia and Oana 2008).


Brazil's political climate is stable since its elections are believed to be conducted honestly. This stability is conducive to Burswood Company making confident investments in Brazil. The government's favorable stance toward international investors creates an advantageous environment for Burswood Company in Brazil. Politically, Brazil offers favorable terms and circumstances to international businesses.

Legal Environment

The country's primary source of law is the constitution, which every citizen is obligated to obey. The constitution promotes the observance of human rights in areas such as employment, retirement, and the environment. These laws are intended to facilitate free and fair trade among the nation's many economic actors. The hospitality industry has a union that advocates for its and its employees' rights. According to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) (2011), the country's tax regulations are flexible and offer several deductions.

The Burswood operation in Brazil is required by statute 4131 and law 4390, which regulate both foreign and domestic investments, to register with BACEN. The Brazilian taxation system is categorized as follows: taxation on various types of incomes and revenues, taxation on the production and movement of goods and services for both local and international activities, and taxation on financial transactions. The only law in Brazil that may prevent Burswood from entering the country is the requirement to disclose foreign exchange transactions to the central bank. Additionally, Burswood Company would be obliged to register its investment with the central bank during the first month of its activities. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) (2011) states that this form of registration must be conducted electronically.

Burswood Entertainment has no alternative but to adhere to the country's legal system. As Brazil's legislative system does not discriminate against certain industries, but rather treats them fairly, Burswood Company has a favorable environment in which to invest. Due to Brazil's equitable taxation system, the legal environment cannot be regarded an impediment to investment.

Economic Environment

The country's economy is driven by its well-developed export sector, which deals with iron, aircraft, and foodstuffs. In 2010, the country's economic growth is projected to increase by seven percent. The country has a highly developed telecommunications and transportation system, with one of the most efficient internet and mobile communication networks (Kotabe and Kristiaan 2004). The Brazilian economy announced a strategy to eliminate state control of salaries, reduce tariffs, and eliminate prohibitions on international investments in 1994.

This plan was successful, resulting in an increase in international investments and an improvement in the level of living for the majority of Brazilians. As a result of the central bank's decision to raise interest rates in response to inflationary pressures, the Brazilian economy's growth rate began to decline in 2001. Brazil's interest rate is recognized to be among the highest in the world. The most recent interest rates for Brazil are 11.75 percent, which is considerably higher than in December 2010 when they were 10.75 percent.

When Burswood Entertainment enters the market, it will likely have access to well-developed infrastructures, and the economic growth rate bodes well for the company's future. The rise of the economy and foreign trade will also help the organization.

Socio-cultural Environment

The society is categorized as having a low tolerance for uncertainty; in the past, the countries had an Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) of 76, indicating that the population is risk-averse, law-abiding, and places a high value on the truth. This shows that the degree of investment among these individuals is low due to their aversion to risk, creating an opportunity for foreign investors such as Burswood Company to explore and invest while being prepared for any type of uncertainty.

In families, the most noble part of society and society as a whole, power distribution is highly unequal; the Power Distance Index (PDI) is high. This indicates that the man in charge of all other family members is the head of the family (Geert Hofstede –itim.2009). The concept of the head of the family making decisions for the rest of the family gives an opportunity for the management of Burswood Company to adopt a strategy of approaching males when promoting the company's services in the field. Men are the nation's decision-makers; therefore, if Burswood Company is able to win men as consumers, they will draw the entire country.

Individualism (IDV) is prevalent in Brazil, where people have few links with one another, interact for specific purposes, and rarely stay in groups. The country is dominated by men, who are viewed as superior to women; women's roles differ from those of men due to their perceived Masculinity (MAS) (Geert Hofstede –itim.2009).

Individualism in Brazil suggests that decisions are rarely made collectively, hence the Burswood Company's sales and marketing staff should target individuals while advertising its services. When conducting fieldwork, the Burswood Company sales and marketing staff should also concentrate on collecting the opinions and complaints of individuals.

The country has a Long-Term Orientation (LTO), which implies it strives to preserve its traditions while preparing future generations to accept and respect the cultural practices it teaches (Geert Hofstede –itim.2009). If cultural practices are transmitted from one generation to the next, the Burswood Company management team would emphasize their services to the older generation with the intention of using them to transmit the message to the younger generation.

The country's better social-economic status will provide a market for Burswood Entertainment's products; the success of the entertainment sector is dependent on the prevailing social-economic situation in the market, thus with a growing young population, the company is more likely to prosper.

Technological Ambience

In the southern region of the United States, Brazil is the leader in science and technology, making it the most innovative nation. The majority of laboratory-based scientific advancements are transferred to the commercial sector, so contributing to the economic growth of the entire nation. The technological environment is extremely sophisticated in terms of enhanced raw materials, effective communications, and efficient energy transfer. The development of technology in Brazil is advantageous to Burswood Company since it will make it easier for the business to confront several obstacles (Kotabe & Kristiaan 2004). Brazil is renowned for its superior manufacturing sectors, including automobiles and computers, which are anticipated to play a significant function for Burswood Company.

Scientific invention and innovation have led to the development of new technology and software that facilitate company operations. Brazil has accepted foreign innovations in technology and is inventing and innovating its own systems. Different sections of the hotel industry utilize computers. Brazil possesses the infrastructure and human resources necessary to develop software for Burswood Entertainment, whose operations depend on current technology.

SWOT Analysis


Burswood Entertainment is one of the most well-known restaurants in the entertainment sector that offers excellent and competitive products and services; it has therefore established deep roots in the industry. The increasing number of CEOs, businesspeople, politicians, and worldwide clients who continue to support the company demonstrates the brand's power. To maintain its high standards and avoid disappointing its clients, the restaurant has invested in high-quality food, high-tech casinos, comfortable atmosphere, and high-tech customer service, and it strives to always provide its patrons with an unforgettable experience. In addition to personnel, the corporation has vision-ally management teams with the knowledge and expertise to take the organization to an entirely new level. Financially, the company has a solid financial foundation and a sound credit strategy, which will facilitate its access to lending facilities to fund its diversification (Burswood Entertainment Company Official website 2011).


Even though the entertainment industry is as old as humanity, the company's target clients are exclusively the wealthy; as a result, it loses the market of the majority of the population, the middle and lower classes. Second, the company is slanted toward the entertainment industry. It misses out on the benefits given by other sectors, such as the accommodation industry. (official Burswood Entertainment Company website 2011)


The company's greatest opportunity is the rising global level of life, as people progress rapidly and demand for recreational services rises. The country's youthful population will provide a market for the company's products in Brazil. The most crucial aspect of the marketplace is differentiating one's items from those of competitors (Zahra, Ireland and Hitt 2000). Burswood would take advantage of the government backing in Brazil because the government treats both international and domestic investments equally. The Brazilian government has encouraged and supported foreign investments.


The globe is recuperating from a financial crisis that began in 2007, and Brazil is not immune to its repercussions; as a result, its growth has slowed. Massive developments, breakthroughs, and inventions are occurring in the hotel business, particularly in the entertainment industry; this has increased industry competition as corporations seek competitiveness tactics (Hooley and John 1993). Several renowned Brazilian entertainment bays will compete with Burswood Company. Some of these entertainment bays have been on the market for a considerable amount of time, so it will be difficult to compete with them.

When Burswood Entertainment's financial standing, reputation, and brand name are leveraged to take advantage of prospects in Brazil, the company is likely to benefit from a successful endeavor and an increase in business (Brazil Federative Republic of Brazil 2011). The corporation can design measures to offset potential losses but can do little to eliminate external dangers. With the expansion, the company will be able to produce items for the middle and lower classes, thereby increasing its market share.


According to the report, Brazil has an unexplored market that Burswood Entertainment may exploit. The company should have an effective market entry strategy and be open-minded when in the community, as this would help it adapt its methods to meet the needs of the Brazilian market. The success of a country in the entertainment business depends on the caliber of its services and their degree of modernization. However, Brazil may be ahead or behind in the sector, and this should be taken into account to help the company match the country's level. Since the business is young, research should be conducted to aid in product creation and distinction.

Burswood Entertainment has few pollutants, and if there are any, they are controlled, thus this problem will not hinder the company's growth. The administration should proceed with diversifying the economy. Burswood Entertainment must identify its own strengths and shortcomings in order to create an effective market entry strategy and make sound business decisions. Using management tools for internal and external analysis, the management will be able to make smart decisions as a result of the Understanding, which will enable the company to capitalize on the prospects presented by the Brazilian market while mitigating any potential dangers.

Analysis of the Brazilian Political, Economic, Social, Technological, and Legal Environment highlighted the country's potential in the entertainment sector. Burswood Entertainment, on the other hand, has a solid financial position and a well-known brand that will help it join the market successfully. Through research and development, internal deficiencies can be remedied, while strategic measures are established to counter external environment dangers.


2011 Burswood Entertainment Company website. Burswood Entertainment. Web.

The Federative Republic of Brazil, Brazil, 2011.Web.

Geert Hofstede –itim. 2009. Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions.. Web.

Hooley, Graham, and John Saunders. 1993. Marketing strategy hinges on competitive strategy. The New York location of Prentice Hall.

Kotabe, Masaki, and Helsen Kristiaan.

2004. Global Marketing Management. John Wiley and Sons, New York

Luiela-Magdalena, Csorba, Ţligan Eugenia, and Brinzan Oana. International marketing strategy. Annals of the University of Oradea, Economic Science, 2008.

Series 17, no. 4: 848-850. EBSCOhost, Business Source Complete.

Schrage, Michael. 2010. The Best Business Columnist for the New York Times You Have Never Heard Of. Web.

The Brazilian Geography and Statistics Institute (IBGE). 2011. February's IPCA was 0.80. Web.

2000. "International expansion by new venture firms: international diversity, mode of market entry, technological." Zahra, Shaker A., R. Duane Ireland, and Michael A. Hitt.

Knowledge and performance

Academy of Management Journal, volume 43, number 5: 925-950. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost.

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Blackshop Restaurant IT Governance Assessment College Essay Help Nyc

Table of Contents
Introduction Conclusion: Organizational Structure Sourcing IT System Governance Funding Bibliography


First and foremost, it must be emphasized that the right organization of IT structure is one of the most crucial parts of a successful corporate operation. Modern business cannot exist without a properly calibrated communication system. Keeping in mind that the primary responsibility of IT departments is to maintain this communication, this paper will examine the right organization of IT structure from multiple perspectives.

The primary objective of this paper is to analyze the IT structure of Blackshop Restaurant Company from the following perspectives: organizational structure and effects of information systems on business activity, sourcing of the IT structure (in the context of HR management), and overall system governance. The financial aspect of this issue will be discussed last, as it is generally determined by the requirements of the previously mentioned components.

Organizational Structure

Chart 1 (Communication process within the organization).

First, it should be stressed that the organizational structure is the assumed communication hierarchy and the essential feature of organizational activity, as it establishes the priority and authority of the communication process between departments. The initial communication structure is depicted on Diagram 1

Following this chart is a representation of the authority and hierarchy of the enlisted bodies. According to Shah (2004), this is the archetypal representation of a team-based organizational structure. In addition, this researcher highlights the following assertion (Shah, 2004, p. 456):

Both horizontal and vertical teams exist. While an organization is composed of individuals who combine their individual competencies to attain new dimensions, the quality of organizational structure is determined by the collective competencies of teams. Larger bureaucratic companies can also benefit from teams' adaptability.

Furthermore, it should be mentioned that the Blackshop Restaurant Company's hierarchical structure is divided into functional and divisional levels. Initially, the functional portion of the hierarchy grouped the activity together, but the division function is the assignment of business responsibilities to departments, such as accounting, marketing, finance, engineering, and manufacturing. In turn, Currie (2005, p. 186) explains the following concept.

As training, work, and values for persons in the same function are often comparable, teamwork and efficiency are promoted within the function. This offers economies of scale and promotes the development of in-depth knowledge and skills. Moreover, coordination and cooperation with other departments become more challenging.

From this perspective, it should be noted that the decision to restrict public access to the OpenTable system was correct, as this system serves mainly managerial reasons. Nevertheless, the divisional function of the hierarchical structure should split the original tasks and assignments in order to simplify the job for the technical personnel. (Moolani and Peng, 2009)


Sourcing is a component of IT management whose purpose is to establish a tight structure for the technical upkeep of the IT-sphere within a company. Initially, Blackshop Restaurant Company is not substantial enough to need a distinct IT structure maintenance crew. Insourcing is the method utilized for this managerial component. Considering the simplicity of the organization's hierarchical structure and communication flow, it should be underlined that there is no need to outsource the management of the IT department. Consequently, the method to managing the department should be viewed as the simplified principle of multi-departmental management, which assumes independent responsibility for managing the organizational structure of the communication process. (2010) Pearlson and Saunders

In reality, the insourcing strategy relies on a definite command flow and managerial communication. Chart 2 depicts the flow for Blackshop Restaurant Company.

Chart 2 (Insourcing managerial process).

Thus, it should be underlined that the IT platform, which is maintained by the company's IT professionals, should be viewed as the fundamental feature of the overall IT administration. However, the management process is not adequately calibrated, as the weakest link in the chain is a business relationship. The OpenTable software is not properly updated by its developers. By Pearlson and Saunders (2010), page 310): the following assertion should be highlighted:

It is suggested that if a corporation outsources a core ability, it may lose control over that competency or lose connections with suppliers who can assist it in being innovative with respect to that competency. The company's competitive edge will be lost if it fails to maintain innovation and control of its core competencies. In addition, outsourcing enables a company to focus on its core skills.

On the one hand, the outsourcing strategy could assist in resolving these challenges; yet, the company's IT department management requires prompt replies and control.

Administration of the IT System

Any organization's information system can be compared to the sails of a ship. Initially, if the information system is appropriately organized, it indicates that the organization is headed in the right way and will eventually reach the destination mentioned in its business strategy and marketing objectives. From this perspective, it should be underlined that the Blackshop Restaurant Company has holes in its sails, since its information system is not adequately maintained and its management of IT-related issues is considered as subpar. (Moolani and Peng, 2009) Considering that the company's reservation system is software-based and, according to the case study, requires significant modification, it should be noted that the governance structure should be substantially altered. There are a variety of solutions to the problems that have arisen:

Enhancement of IT people Partnership extension with software development The IT system should be restructured, and a Chief Information Officer should be appointed. (2010) Pearlson and Saunders

The overall governance process of BRC necessitates reorganization and modification of the overall approach, as if the business activity and marketing approach are modified, and the software foundation and IT management principles must be adopted for effective performance in the context of modified approaches to business performance.

The enhancement of the IS system's governance is also essential for the protection of corporate data. The Informational Structure may be vulnerable if the IT department is mismanaged, hence exposing secret corporate information to disclosure.


On the one hand, the funding of IT resources depends on the organizational structure, the approaches to managing this area, and the managerial structure of this business aspect. On the other hand, if the funding is substantially constrained, it has a substantial impact on the structure and the overall process of managing the information system.

Following the case study material, it is important to note that Blackshop Restaurant Company uses an allocation financing structure. According to Bavly's (2007) research, this is one of the simplest financing techniques, but it is effective enough for enterprises like BRC. This idea should be highlighted (Pearlson and Saunders 2010, p.178):

Actual usage is not required to be recorded. Typically, the rate charged is set at the beginning of the year. It offers two primary benefits. First, the level of information necessary to calculate allocations is significantly reduced, which for many businesses reduces costs.

The concept of activity-based finance should be introduced into the financial system in light of this approach. It requires the right allocation of the company's financial resources and helps to reduce costs if the funds are not used efficiently; thus, the IT structure can be adjusted to reflect the most recent business trends. (Moolani and Peng, 2009)


Following the case study, it should be emphasized that the Blackshop Restaurant Company's IT governance faces significant challenges. Even while the software platform used for table reservations is quite useful for streamlining management procedures, it might be utilized more efficiently if the IT governance and departmental structure were reformed. Changes can also be made to the sourcing strategy, but for a conclusive answer, a more in-depth investigation must be conducted. Consequently, the financial system will be modified to conform to the new framework, and managerial performance will be enhanced.


Albers, M. J. & Mazur, B. (Eds). (2005). Information Design and Content Complexity in Technical Communication. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.

Bavly, D. A. (2007). Governance and Responsibility for IT Westport, Connecticut: Quorum Books

Currie, W. (2005). The International Information Society. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England

D. A. Marchand (Ed). (2006). Creating Business Value with Information Content: A Manager's Guide to Competing with Information John Wiley and Sons, New York

Moolani, K.A., and M. Peng (2009) published Blackshop Restaurant. Richard Ivey Business School

Shah, S. K. (2004). Improving Information System Performance by Assessing Client Value: A Case Study, Review of Business, 22(1):37.

Pearlson Keri E. and Carol S. Saunders (2010) published Managing And Using Information Systems. A Strategic Approach, Wiley, fourth edition

The authors Pearlson and Saunders (2010).

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The Influence Of Sustainable Business On Firm Performance College Essay Help Nyc

Table of Contents
Sustainable Business Models Sustainable Enterprise and Corporate Conduct Sustainability and Organizational Performance Summary Citations

The potential of organizations to make the world a more sustainable place is one of the most important subjects in sustainable business. The adoption of this trend and its incorporation into practice is the subject of numerous scholarly studies that examine the accompanying issues and consequences (Dentchev et al., 2018).

Given that the status of the planet and climate is anticipated to deteriorate as a result of the negative influence of businesses, the specified issue was selected in order to better comprehend the patterns and gaps in the relevant facts. The purpose of this study is to give a literature review that clarifies how sustainable business practices might affect company performance and corporate behavior. The following questions inform the development of this literature review:

What business models do sustainable enterprises employ? What are the advantages of sustainable business practices in terms of corporate behavior? In what ways does sustainable business impact the performance of a company?

Sustainable Business Models

Literature study reveals that sustainability models evolve swiftly, allowing for the achievement of more ambitious sustainability goals. Dyllick and Muff's (2015) paper introduces the typology of business appropriateness models, focused on the transitions of businesses from conventional business structures to genuine sustainability.

According to the authors' study of accessible literature, the business sustainability 3.0 paradigm entails an outside-in approach and the generation of value for the common good. Compared to the 3.0 model, Dentchev et al. (2018) discuss a generalist approach to sustainability, paying attention to the opinions of various authors. Adoption and scalability are correlated with a company's mission, goods, environmental effect, and other elements, according to the generalist strategy.

Dentchev et al. (2018) also propose the technology-centered strategy that combines waste management, social and sustainable manufacturing, and circular business as a subtheme. The model-centered innovation and entrepreneurship entails changes in the social sector and a greater emphasis on resolving social disputes and mobilizing resources (Dentchev et al., 2018). The literature also clarifies the importance of corporate conduct in ensuring sustainability within a business.

According to Dyllick and Muff (2015), environmental leadership and staff motivation can provide excellent outcomes. In turn, Nicolăescu et al. (2015) emphasize that the culture of sustainability gains a stable framework and set of norms, while continuous improvement tends to become an intrinsic aspect of sustainable business.

Sustainable Enterprise and Corporate Conduct

The evidence indicates that fostering a culture of sustainability enhances the conduct of businesses. According to Nicolăescu et al(2015) .'s case study, businesses that embrace social and environmental policies are more likely to be accountable for their actions and job performance. They are also more likely to involve stakeholders in sustainability measures. The connected benefit of sustainability is associated with improved information transparency and accurate measurement.

Dyllick and Muff (2015) add that not enough research has been conducted on the strategies required for the effective implementation of sustainability at the business level. There is a gap between the requirement to practice sustainability and the desire to engage employees and stakeholders. Therefore, future study should be conducted to identify techniques for enhancing business behavior through contributions that are sustainable and viable.

Corporate social responsibility is viewed as an inherent component of every business that seeks to build or maintain its reputation and market position. It indicates that organizations build their actions in accordance with ethical and conscientious techniques through time (Galpin et al., 2015).

In this regard, sustainable business contributes to the required social and environmental adjustments and improvements. Galpin et al. (2015) propose that strong sustainability should be evaluated based on its influence on human wellbeing and pollution. The major question addressed by the literature is how to ensure that profitability is not sacrificed in the name of sustainability.

Sustainability and Business Success

The influence of sustainable business on firm performance is another topic that has been thoroughly studied by academics. In general, sustainable practices have a favorable effect on how organizations carry out their missions (Galpin et al., 2015; Nicolăescu et al., 2015). However, obstacles include the recurring conflicts between economic, social, and environmental aspects. Nicolăescu et al. (2015) and Zhang et al. (2019) note that the construction of a balance between the aforementioned difficulties demands a great deal of time and effort from leadership and management.

Every employee who contributes to a company's performance adopts beliefs and attitudes that influence organizational behavior. For the success of the organization as a whole, each employee must be educated on the importance of sustainability and motivated to incorporate it into his or her job. To remain competitive in evolving marketplaces, businesses must modify their operational procedures and sustainability strategies.

Using a narrative synthesis methodology, Galpin et al. (2015) determined that incorporating sustainability within an organization's structure is good for its performance. However, sustainability initiatives should be selected based on organizational criteria, including but not limited to finances, mission, objectives, and strategy. For example, the strategy of customer engagement is important for sustainable firms since buyers seek assurance that they are purchasing ethical products and services (Galpin et al., 2015).

Specifically, they wish to choose the brands and participate in additional research in order to have more purchasing possibilities. Following sustainable practices results in increased customer loyalty and new growth potential for a firm. Hewlett-Packard (HP) is the corporation that performs waste control throughout the whole product life cycle (Galpin et al., 2015). Zhang et al. (2019) add that state-owned enterprises (SOEs) exploit green innovation more than private corporations. Consequently, the need for government supervision and increasingly complex programs appears obvious.


This literature review integrated the findings of five scholarly journal articles to shed light on sustainable business and firm performance. Several models were discovered to be utilized by businesses to launch social and environmental programs. There is a clear movement from traditional businesses with an emphasis on economics to environmental organizations.

Sustainability also improves company behavior, which necessitates involving stakeholders and employees through excellent leadership. Sustainable company performance involves long-term planning and a greater focus on achieving a balance between social, economic, and environmental objectives.

Consequently, all of the research questions were satisfactorily answered, and opportunities for future study were highlighted. Specifically, sustainable measures for enhancing corporate behavior should be considered. Additionally, global and local legislation aimed at promoting better sustainability should be investigated, with a focus on stakeholder and consumer participation.


Dentchev, N., Rauter, R., Jóhannsdóttir, L., Snihur, Y., Rosano, M., Baumgartner, R., & Jonker, J. (2018). Acceptance of the diversity of sustainable business models: a productive research topic and a future research agenda 194, p. 695–703 of the Journal of Cleaner Production

Dyllick, T., & Muff, K. (2015). Clarifying the meaning of sustainable business by introducing a typology from business as usual to sustainable business. 156-174. Organization & Environment, 29(2).

Galpin, T., Whitttington, J.L., & Bell, G. (2015). Is your approach for sustainability sustainable? Developing a sustainable culture Governance, 15(1), 1-17.

Nicolăescu, E., Alpopi, C., & Zaharia, C. (2015). Measuring the sustainability performance of a company. Sustainability, 7(1), 851-865.

Zhang, D., Rong, Z., & Ji, Q. (2019). Green innovation and corporate performance: Evidence from China's publicly traded companies 48-55 in Resources, Conservation, and Recycling, volume 144.

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Forest International Company: Human Resources Strategy College Essay Help Nyc

Situation Audit

Health and safety regulations for employees have remained a significant obstacle for many firms. Despite the fact that governments and other interest groups have enacted a multitude of measures, policies, rules, and regulations requiring employers to provide their employees with safe and healthy working conditions, this is not the case. Employers with a poor track record of following employee health and safety regulations have been seen to be less competitive in the business environment. This is due to the fact that prospective experienced personnel would avoid it, present experienced employees would move to competitors, and a great deal of money would be spent settling medical bills and a great deal of man-hours will be lost due to nursing injuries.

Problem Statement

Forest International's difficulty is that company has a lengthy history of work-related injuries. The majority of the employees appear to be untrained because they were hired because their parents previously worked for the company. The managers of the company appear to be more concerned with production than employee safety and would not want the machines to be halted to ensure staff safety.

Repairs are performed on operating machines, putting the safety of employees at risk. Additionally, the staff appear to praise work-related injuries as a show of bravery and dedication to the company. These factors have exacerbated the issue, necessitating drastic efforts to halt this alarming trend. One approach is to conduct a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, and trends) analysis (Katsushi 2001).


The firm's internal qualities and resources that offer it a competitive advantage are referred to as its strengths. Resources may be either human or material in nature. In the case of Forest International, there is a sufficient supply of human labor due to the company's vast pool of dedicated and devoted workers. Similarly, the company is situated in a forest in Georgia, where raw materials are abundant. However, severe injuries keep many people out of work for extended periods, which reduces productivity and provides competitors with opportunities to seize market share. The CEO of Forest International could be urged to reverse this trend by reducing the accident rate in order to maintain the majority of staff employed and reduce medical expenses.

This is an internal measure that could be taken. Training staff to respect safety standards, developing procedures to assure employee safety, protecting the machine's moving parts to prevent employee access, etc., could be implemented. They could also learn that an accident is a misfortune that should not be praised. Fewer accidents will increase worker confidence in the company (Haddad and Ishakat, 2007).


Weaknesses are an organization's internal deficiencies that make it less competitive. These deficiencies consist of a negative reputation among employees, suppliers, and consumers, high production costs, a lack of raw resources, etc. Forest International may incur substantial production costs as a result of the large number of injured employees who miss time at work. Customers who are aware of the organization's bad health and safety records may have boycotted its products, hence decreasing demand and profitability. The firm appears to treat people as machines for productive reasons rather than as humans whose safety must be a priority.

The CEO could be instructed to devise measures that could alter how people view the company and how the company views its personnel. It could be communicated to supervisors, for instance, that the happiness of employees is more essential than whether or not they are producing, and if there is a conflict between product and employee safety, the latter must take precedence. Funds could also be allocated to initiatives that educate workers on the need to operate with safety in mind (El-Hakim 2002).


Opportunities refer to external conditions that could be leveraged to achieve the firm's aims. Even if the organization lacks direct control over the opportunities, it may nevertheless be able to exploit them for the goals of preserving or achieving competitiveness. Opportunities include the application of new technologies, the relaxation of restrictions, and the elimination of impediments. A variety of opportunities exist for the CEO to seize.

He could, for instance, attempt to upgrade and safeguard the machines so that they are not inappropriately exposed to the employees. Additionally, he may collaborate with the government to develop health and safety regulations that expose employees to fewer dangers. Additionally, he might locate health and safety specialists to deliver lectures on environmental consciousness for staff. Forest International might take advantage of its location to cut the price of its products further in order to regain customer confidence and conduct conspicuous advertising efforts to inform the public that it has improved its health and safety standards (Alberto et al. 2006).


Variations in the organization's external environment that pose a risk to its performance are referred to as threats. Threats have the ability to jeopardize the organization's goals. New competitors on the local market, low pricing of goods by competitors, competitor access to cheaper routes of distribution, and the tax placed on your items are all examples of external threats. The chief executive officer of Forest International could save expenses by implementing safety measures. This allows them to price its products competitively. Location within the forest and close to the company's raw resources minimizes transportation expenses, which could cushion the company if it reduces pricing (Curles 2000).


Trends refer to the general direction in which the market is moving. The organization could examine other organizations and adopt any techniques that have been implemented and appear to be effective for it. The CEO could visit other companies, including those in direct competition with his, in order to examine their safety procedures. If they are viable, he could readily borrow and adopt them in his firm (Bonarz 2002).

Identification of Available Options

I would suggest using a number of alternatives in order to improve the company's safety record and boost production. First, it would be appropriate to consult with the HR director and implement company-wide employee safety regulations. There will be a need, among other things, to establish a safety office within the HR department to handle employee safety training and awareness. Additionally, warning signs might be posted wherever where there are moving devices. The office would ensure compliance with the specified policies by all employees.

Forest International could undertake an environmental scan to determine the safety practices and measures that other companies have implemented, with the goal of adopting the most suitable ones. Additionally, it will be necessary to define strategic safety issues and distinguish them from non-strategic ones. Strategic safety issues may involve, for instance, fencing off sections with moving parts, printing warning notices, educating employees, etc. Those requiring immediate execution could be implemented with the resources available. Together, we could identify the essential success elements associated with achieving safety objectives and implementing strategy, develop operation manuals and other safety reports, and begin monitoring the outcomes' implementation. Once the safety issues have been resolved, the company's product and competitiveness are expected to improve as well (Blais et al. 2004).

Critical Issues

The implementation of health and safety standards in the timber business is a costly endeavor; therefore, the availability of funds will be a determining factor. It is also likely that there will be misunderstandings between employees, as while some employees may be eager to support the program to improve workplace safety, others who still view injuries at Forest International as prestigious may resist, so causing conflict. Employers may continue with their former approach, in which employees are viewed as productive machines, and fail to implement safety safeguards. All of these issues are crucial and could have an impact on the organization's attempts to improve employee health and safety at Forest International (Barber et al. 2001).


There are a variety of approaches that might be suggested to address this issue. All aspects of the company's occupational health and safety requirements must be improved. Employee training is an essential instrument for achieving this objective. It is glaringly evident that the employees of Forest International must alter their outlook on workplace safety. Fencing off areas with moving parts would decrease employee interaction with those parts and, as a result, reduce the number of accidents. Warning posters put in various locations across the workplace will serve as a constant reminder to staff to avoid injury.

There should be a shift in company policy that prioritizes employee safety over output, and supervisors should be retrained to realize that in the event of an accident, human life must take precedence. The organization should also set criteria for managing staff fatigue, as fatigue may contribute to certain mishaps. After implementing the necessary

List of Citations

Manage Human Resources Strategic Planning, Journal of Geomapping, 32(7), pp. 68-75, Alberto, G., et al., 2006.

Barber, D. et al., 2001. Manage strategic human resource planning. Potsdam: International CIPA Conference.

Blais, F. et al., 2004. Planning strategically in business. Raincoast Books of Vancouver

2002, F. Bonarz, Surveying plan. Routledge, New York

B. Curles, "Implementation of health and safety measures," ACM plan, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 38–41, 2000.

El-Hakim, S.F., 2002, renowned Forest International. ISPRS Comm. V Symposium Proceedings, Corfu, Greece, pp. 143-148.

2007: Haddad, N., and Ishakat, F. Forest International could. Symposium of the International CIPA in Athens, Greece.

2001. Katsushi, L. Manage Human Resources. New York: Prentice Hall.

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Integrating Human Resource Strategies And Theories College Essay Help Nyc


Human Resources Management (HRM) is one of the most complex, diversified, and demanding management disciplines. In recent years, the discipline of Human Resources management has seen revolutionary transformations. Currently, new techniques and methodologies are continuously evolving and being adopted in order to increase the effectiveness of human resource management. This article gives a thorough examination of the various HRM strategies and theories.

Human Resources Management (HRM) and procedures must be linked with the organization's strategy.

Until it is properly executed within a company, a strategy merely exists as a vision. Human Resources Management conversations are always centered on the essential adjustments that must be implemented to build a resource-based model for strategic human resources management. Strategic human resource management theory focuses on the relationship between strategic management and employee affiliations within an organization. "Although there is evidence to suggest that HR is related to business performance, there is almost no evidence to demonstrate that the relationship is of the form HR – business performance as opposed to some other form of casual relationship." (Kabst & Matiaske 2005, p.177). First, in order to develop a comprehensive theory of strategic HRM, it is necessary to address a variety of HRM and employee-related questions. The theory of strategic HRM should integrate an adequate philosophy of employee relations.

Business, corporate, and operational strategies

A company's corporate strategy determines the numerous operations and their scope inside a business or organization. The primary objective of the company's strategy is to generate shareholder value. Portfolio management, restructuring, the transfer of talents, and the sharing of activities are the four fundamental elements of corporate strategy that a company employs. (1996, Goold & Sommers Luchs, p.298) An organization's HRM strategy is directly tied to its corporate strategy. The corporate strategy of a company is highly dependent on the company's autonomous actions, through which it anticipates and responds to the surrounding environment's complex pattern of change. Significant instability in the employer-employee relationship is almost certainly damaging to the business strategy of the company. According to the most recent surveys, outplacement is regarded as the superior alternative in cases of redundancy. "There appeared to be a shift toward normative practices in the management of redundancy, particularly in the use of outplacement as a buffer against the potentially negative effects of the redundancy situation." (Doherty et al. 1993). Strong ties exist between a company's corporate strategy and the creation and preservation of a competitive advantage in business. In terms of the decisions involved, the composition of an operations plan is explored. Lowson, 2003, The operational strategy of a company aids in the efficient management of the company's structure and activities. The corporate strategy of a company is strongly tied to its operations management and, by extension, its operational strategy. The operational strategy of a company determines crucial concerns such as the suppliers, the technology to be applied, and the procedures necessary for the production of goods, services, etc. The highest-level business strategy integrates the company's long-term objectives. By developing an effective corporate strategy, a firm or organization identifies its closest competitors, i.e., the industries and markets in which it will compete. A company's business strategy is dependent on the performance of each of its business divisions and their participation in a given market to generate competitive gains. The operations strategy is primarily concerned with the firm's overall operations and plays a vital role in achieving the firm's corporate and business plans. "The distinction between corporate and business strategies can be characterized by asking "what business or businesses should we be in (corporate)?" and "how should we compete (business)?" Lowson (2002), page 41 "Core HRM concerns, such as the selection of executive leadership and the formation of positive labor relations, are strategic in any organization." (Schuler & Jackson 1999, p.76).

Theories of Human Resource Management

A theory of strategic HRM should only be developed after comparing the current state of strategic management in the organization with compensation for work and bargaining power on the employment side. Human resource processes must be efficiently integrated into a company's business plan, as the HR strategy is what enables the company to run properly. This could be accomplished by recognizing and resolving HR-related issues that arise during routine business operations. The basic question in the discipline of strategic HRM is, “How can HRM contribute to management's attempts to address issues of viability and sustained advantage? (SHRM). SHRM scholars are interested in models and studies that establish a connection between HRM and company performance or organizational success. ” (Pinnington et al. 2007, p.72). The Normative Model of Human Resources Management addresses many concerns pertaining to the characteristics of the work force, labor market legislation, and management philosophy.

The Harvard model of HRM is depending on contextual circumstances and stakeholder interests. "The classification of inputs and outcomes at both organizational and societal levels provides the foundation for a critique of comparative HRM in the Harvard model. "The absence of a coherent theoretical basis for measuring the relationship between HRM inputs, outcomes, and performance is a weakness of the model." (19 Bratton and Gold, 2001, p. The Guest model theory of Human Resource Management focuses on the three HRM outputs, which are primarily Commitment, Flexibility, and Performance quality. According to the hypothesis, only behavioral change may be anticipated if a balanced mix of these three components can be attained. The primary advantage or strength of this model is that it addresses the primary objective of strategic integration and focuses on HRM-related issues in greater depth, as opposed to only emphasizing staff training and selection. A key disadvantage of this strategy is that it is more employee-centric and less neutral for businesses.

The Warwick model of HRM highlights the interdependence and interrelationship between a company's corporate and business strategy and its HR practices. This model's primary strength is that it identifies and grants significant environmental influence to the HRM policies of the organization. One may say that the new models of HRM theory emphasize the unique characteristics of strategic HRM theory. This theory also emphasizes the importance of the transfer of leadership responsibilities within an organization. The strategic HRM theory posits that HRM approaches vary from company to organization. Individualism, which is concerned with the employee and the workplace, and collectivism, which is concerned with the firm's relationship with the trade union, exist in every organization. “ This style approaches the “hard HRM model”. Employers who consider employees as a ‘commodity’ and a cost to be minimized are located at the low end of the individualistic axis. This style approaches the “soft” HRM paradigm at the high individualism end of the axis, where employers consider individuals as being vital to company success and invest in people (Bratton & Gold 2001, p.33).

According to the Behavioural Theory of Strategic Management, "Behavioral HRM theories can predict when workers will adjust so that the predicted OM bottleneck may never occur, whereas OM models can identify which adjustments are most significant." HRM behavioral models usually emphasize individual talents and motivation, as well as the effects of HRM practices such as rewards and training on work performance. (Boudreau et al. 2003, p.182).

Most firms today have integrated their HRM strategy with their business, corporate, and operations strategies in order to boost their market share and productivity. In Norway, Industrial Democracy examined the benefits of a better staff and found to its astonishment that it increased the firm's production capacity. Due to the development of theories, numerous businesses have implemented the redesign of employee jobs.

The reorganization of the employees by segregating them according to their job levels has become a standard aspect of strategic HRM theory and practice. This facilitates the assignment of jobs to individuals with the talent, competence, and innate capacity to perform them. Employing the optimum number of workers using the approach of right-sizing is essential since a competitive firm requires an optimal workforce and superior human resources. Through technical developments and progressive human resource strategies, organizational effectiveness can be accomplished. To attain organizational development effectiveness, three strategies are required: human resources, system, and managerial strategies. "The personnel strategy could play a significant role in boosting the effects of human resources management (HRM) and entrepreneurship by bolstering the key HRM elements. The system approach was employed to support technology innovation through knowledge management, while the organizational strategy was implemented to establish a positive corporate culture and high-performing systems." (Wang 2005).

A training approach is crucial to the reorganization process. Human resources specialists are skilled professionals who examine the personality and conduct of the organization's personnel. An HR practitioner is expected to adhere to particular standards of conduct. A HR professional's competency can be viewed as the sum total or cumulative sum of his many abilities, such as his intelligence, education, job experience, work ethics, and interest in the organization.

The Towers Perrin Workplace Index is a Towers Perrin office employee study project. This index provides a global representation of employee outlook, job attitude, and workplace environment. As part of their study, Tower Perrin has conducted surveys regarding employee health care and other employee welfare-related topics. Organizational repositioning is accomplished by understanding the requirements and benefits of repositioning and reorganizing leaders for competitive advantage. Firms must closely adhere to HR practices and, if necessary, modify them in accordance with new legislation. Among the best practices that businesses should implement are performance-based rewards, a fair appraisal of employee performance, safe and healthy working environments, etc. The ‘Matching model’ of human resource management emphasizes the “best-fit” notion. The HR strategy notion of optimal fit can be divided into two categories: external fit and internal fit. External fit refers to a company's operations plan, whereas internal fit relates to an employee's performance.

Leadership's involvement in integrating HRM policies and practices with business strategy

The concept of "managerial leadership" permeates and organizes both the theory and practice of an organization. Leadership is socially constructed via the repetition of both leaders and followers. "Leadership has been described in terms of characteristics, behavior, contingency, power, and administrative office occupation. The majority of definitions assume that leadership is a process in which an individual exerts influence over others within an organizational setting." Bratton and Gold (2001, page 56)

A hierarchical kind of leadership that emphasizes powerful relationships and gender dominance. Excellent leadership in a company fosters the growth of a robust organizational culture and a high level of worker dedication and cooperation. Transformational leadership, charismatic leadership, self-leadership, and principle-centered leadership are the various types of leadership. Each organization employs a distinctive style of leadership. According to Barney, the Resource-based SHRM necessitates a leader that cultivates, organizes, and categorically separates competent and seasoned employees from unconstitutional human assets. In actuality, we may easily get a technical asset, but it is extremely challenging to acquire a human asset!

The transformative leader inspires colleagues to work harder towards a common objective. This type of leadership places a premium on vision formulation and the extraordinary ability to communicate this vision to subordinates. In addition, it serves as an incentive for subordinates to make the leader's vision a fully realized reality. The new leadership theory emphasizes that shared leadership results in worker cooperation. Employer-employee relations are viewed from a unified perspective through the various styles of leadership.

The significance of company culture in HRM policy and practice integration with strategy

The fundamental HRM policies and procedures include Recruitment, Classification and Compensation, Performance Management, Monitory Rewards and No Monitory Credits, Benefits and Family Friendly Policies, Training, Employee Protection and Labor Relations, HRM Oversight, and Managerial Accountability.

" The HRM system should be highly idiosyncratic and tailored to the specific circumstances of each company" (Paauwe 2004, p.33).

HR policies and practices have a significant impact on an organization's culture. Organizations are 'culture-bound,' and management techniques have a significant impact on their values and beliefs. The management culture of a company or organization could be adopted and implemented by other companies. "If we accept the view that HRM approaches are cultural artifacts that reflect the fundamental assumptions and values of the national culture in which organizations are embedded, international HRM becomes one of the most difficult corporate tasks in multinational organizations" (Harris et al 2003, p.39).

In order to establish, maintain, and develop their corporate identity, multinational firms must maintain consistency in their global people management practices. To be effective locally, they must familiarize themselves with the customs and exact cultural obligations of other communities.

The significance of the interaction between employer and employee

In addition to labor, money, and time, exchange relationships involve many other factors, such as capacities, information, knowledge, learning, voice participation, and well-being. People spend typically more than eight or ten hours each week in an organization. Therefore, they will be significantly affected by this type of trade relationship between the company and employee. "HRM also involves moral principles. It involves obtaining justice and legitimacy. Individually, fairness pertains to the exchange connection. Legitimacy refers to the exchange connection on a more collective level and relates to the organization's interaction with society as a whole (Paauwe 2004, p.4). People desire a fair balance between their contributions to the organization and the rewards or returns they receive. This is not a straightforward exchange of money for labor and time. This goes much beyond that. It pertains to the legitimacy between the relevant parties. It should be highlighted that the employer and employee are not two separate, autonomous entities, but rather two sides of the same coin.

HRM's role in facilitating (or driving) change management

‘organisational change implies a temporal dimension’ – a movement in a direction that actualises a new reality that differs significantly from the current state of affairs’ (Naomi & Jennifer 2008, p.1). Since the last decade, most of the firms/companies around the world have

Project Management Skills, Conflicts, And Costs Problems College Essay Help Nyc

Project Management

By adding value to projects, effective project management methods can contribute to the strategic objectives and business performance of an organization. The goal of this study is to examine several project management approaches, such as leadership, conflict management, cost management concerns, and project lifecycles. It includes an in-depth overview of the leadership abilities necessary for managing complicated project management processes and how managers can settle project-related issues. It also gives a quick summary of common cost management difficulties and the project lifecycle.

Leadership Qualities

Leadership in project management involves a variety of tasks, including task coordination, decision-making, team management, problem-solving, conflict management, and efficient planning. Effective project managers must possess interpersonal, technical, and conceptual skills. Interpersonal abilities are essential for the successful implementation of a project. Interpersonal skills such as bargaining and persuasion are crucial to team development and teamwork support. Interpersonal skills consist of the capacity to communicate one's stance, listening skills, and the knowledge and consideration of several perspectives in a project (Project management institute, 2017, p. 350). Leaders can utilize negotiation skills to develop trust and collaborative relationships among team members (Shah et al., 2016, p. 1419). These abilities will be essential for sustaining positive team connections, managing employee behavior, motivating employees, resolving issues, and boosting employee engagement.

Technical abilities give the leader the expertise and competence needed to handle the project efficiently. Leaders must comprehend financial interpretation, statistical data analysis, and project implementation techniques and procedures. Even if they are not required to perform the actual task, they nonetheless require domain understanding. A leader is more likely to achieve success if they comprehend how a business operates (Project management institute, 2017, p. 62). This argument is based on the five pillars of power theory, which posits that a leader's talents, knowledge, and expertise (expert power) provide him the ability to lead and influence his team (Project management institute, 2017, p. 63). Therefore, technical skills are essential for managing project stakeholders throughout the lifecycle of a project.

Communication is essential at all phases of the project's lifecycle. Effective communication must be interactive in order to provide meaningful feedback and preserve the health of the project. Inaccurate or insufficient information can be counterproductive since it can lead to erroneous assumptions that have a negative effect on productivity (Chapman et al., 2017, p. 950). Therefore, leaders must communicate any information regarding quality requirements, schedule, and project scope to all involved parties. Effective communication will allow each participant to comprehend their roles and contributions to the success of the project. Effective communication also takes into account cultural variations, hence fostering healthy cross-cultural work environments. It allows executives to effectively manage stakeholder involvement through performance reporting and information dissemination.

Integrative leadership is essential for establishing and sustaining cross-sector collaboration and fostering collective action across diverse boundaries. A leader's ability to handle these diverse practices and systems can be enhanced by conceptual abilities. A leader with conceptual abilities can reason analogically and see the entire picture concealed within assumptions. The leader is motivated by innovative and divergent thought that can generate fresh solutions for opposing ideas. In this manner, the leader will acquire organizational ambidexterity and be able to reconcile competing stakeholder interests by exploring new capabilities and maximizing current ones.

Conceptual abilities are crucial for effectively implementing change. A leader must understand events and effectively convey the change to stakeholders in order to provide context. Sensemaking is a cognitive act including the interpretation and rationalization of organizational events. Research has demonstrated that sense-making mediates motivation and is essential to its effectiveness in the workplace (Weir et al., 2020, p 2). The studies hypothesize that employees are driven when they imbue events, settings, and experiences with significance. An excellent leader will influence their employees' meaning constructions to accept organizational change.

Conflict Resolution

Conflict Origins

Common reasons of project conflicts include unrealistic project timelines, resource allocation challenges, competing stakeholder interests, and personal conflicts. Underestimating the project's scope and unanticipated project dependencies might lead to invisibility in the schedule and erroneous estimations. Inaccurate scheduling can lead to disputes, such as staff feeling pressed to complete large workloads in a short period of time (Ahmed and Anantatmula, 2017, p. 193). In contrast, project managers believe that employees who miss deadlines are wasting time. Administrative procedures generate conflicts when project stakeholders possess divergent views on how the project should be handled, tradeoffs, and performance requirements.

Conflicts in labor resourcing, equipment and facilities, cost, and capital expenditures generate resource difficulties. Budget and expense estimates required to support diverse project areas are also well-known resource conflict triggers (Ahmed and Anantatmula, 2017, p. 194). Interpersonal challenges, such as opposing working styles, cultural disparities between team members, and unclear role boundaries, result in personal conflicts. Due to the multidimensional nature of the projects, the completion of one team's tasks may depend on the completion of those of other teams. Therefore, inadequate communications can result in silo functioning and conflicting prioritizing, which may delay the project's completion. Participants may hold divergent opinions regarding the task order and which tasks must be prioritized above others.

Conflict Management

There are five major forms of conflict management: avoidance, accommodation, collaboration, compromise, and competition. Avoiding entails ignoring the dispute by withdrawing from the situation or delaying solutions so that the persons concerned can resolve the matter on their own. To sustain harmonious relationships, the accommodation strategy requires yielding to the other party's expectations (Ozyildirim and Kayikci, 2017, p. 6). This technique emphasizes concentrating on areas of agreement as opposed to disputes. Compromising requires partially satisfying the expectations of each concerned party in order to reach an agreement (Project management institute, 2017, p. 63). Each side must be willing to make concessions in order to reach a compromise with the other side.

In the competing approach, neither party gives in to the demands of the other. One party will impose its beliefs on the other, resulting in a situation where both parties lose. Correctly implemented collaboration strategies will always result in a win-win outcome (Project management institute, 2017, p. 349). It entails having an open discourse and considering diverse perspectives and divergent points of view. The participating parties will then strike an arrangement that is mutually beneficial.

Cost Management Problems

Cost management is the process of controlling and enhancing a company's business procedures and activities to produce maximum value at the lowest possible cost. Cost information is gathered and analyzed, and costs are monitored, in order to facilitate decision-making. According to Banker et al. (2018), frequent cost management issues include cost forecasting, insufficient support for inter-organizational cost management, and failure to recognize potential for change. Cost forecasting assists project managers in estimating the likely or expected costs of a project. Thus, project managers can notify clients of the projected financial commitment prior to beginning work (Parker et al., 2017, p. 150). However, the majority of cost projections are erroneous, resulting in improper project pricing.

The historical data required to predict the costs of complicated projects may not be easily available, making cost estimation challenging. In addition, practical cost estimation depends on the knowledge and technical expertise of the project managers (Kujala et al., 2014, p. 52). However, this technical expertise may be limited depending on the project's complexity and scope. Depending on their competence and the complexity of the project, managers can produce inaccurate cost estimates for purchased products, engineering, commissioning, and project management. This circumstance can result in cost overruns and incorrect cost estimates. According to Kujala et al. (2014, p. 53), project managers utilize data from prior projects that may have accounted for the cost of inherent waste. Future projects that utilize such knowledge may miss out on cost-cutting potential. To get reliable cost estimates for a project, project managers must engage in extensive preparation.

Another issue with cost management is the absence of inter-organizational support for cost management. Currently, the relationships between suppliers, firms, and customers are vital to the operation of traditional supply chains, which are utilized by many businesses. These multitier supplier networks may incur additional transactional expenses, which will be borne by the customer at the top of the supply chain. According to Banker et al. (2018, p. 190), the most significant economic burden of this multi-tier interaction falls on the client. Because goods and services from these supplier groups constitute the largest single expense, businesses are required to seek the lowest price in every transaction. Techniques such as overall quality management can have a positive impact on the cost and quality of products and services in supply chains with multiple tiers.

Lifecycle of a Project and Its Significance

In project management, there are four essential phases: initiation, planning, execution, and completion. Initiating a project entails recognizing the project and its justification for existence. Initiation entails doing a feasibility study to determine the business issue a project is intended to address (Ahmed and Anantatmula, 2017, p. 195). At this stage, the management determine the project's scope, deliverables, stakeholders, and vision statement. The subsequent phase, planning, entails constructing a project plan, estimating costs, designing process diagrams, and gathering resources. The project plan will outline activities, tasks, dependencies, and timelines. A budget is developed by estimating the expenses of materials, equipment, and labor.

In the execution phase, the project is put into motion. The project plan is implemented, and the project leader ensures that the project's progress and control are maintained through the application of strong leadership abilities. The leader maintains proper information flow and keeps the project's sponsors and stakeholders apprised of its status. Throughout the duration of the project, the leader must ensure that quality standards are met and that project activities are aligned with the objectives (Ahmed and Anantatmula, 2017, p. 195). The closure phase entails delivering the project's deliverables and evaluating the project's success. The project manager then transfers the project on to the clients or operators. The lifetime of a project provides a detailed overview of the entire project. It establishes the project's scope and enables management to concentrate on what is critical. The framework can be utilized by project managers to guide the implementation process.


To effectively manage complicated processes, project directors must possess interpersonal skills, technical abilities, and conceptual skills. Interpersonal abilities will allow the project leader to navigate complex human interactions and relationships. A leader with technical expertise will have the ability to influence and manage all key stakeholders. To motivate and inspire employees' acceptance of a change, conceptual abilities are required. The origins of project conflicts include unrealistic project timelines, resource constraints, competing stakeholder interests, and personal conflicts. These disputes can be resolved by managers through accommodation, avoidance, competition, collaboration, and compromise. Typical challenges with cost management include cost forecasting, insufficient support for inter-organizational cost management, and failing to recognize potential for change. The phases of the project lifecycle are commencement, planning, execution, and completion.


Ahmed, R., and V. S. Anantatmula, "Empirical Study of Project Managers Leadership Competence and Project Performance," Engineering Management Journal, 29(3), pp. 189–205, 2017.

Banker, D. R., D. Byzalov, S. Fang, and Y. Liang, "Cost Management Research," Journal of Management Accounting Research, Volume 30, Issue 3, Pages 187–209, 2018.

Chapman, E., E.W. Miles, and T. Maurer. "A Proposed Model for Effective Negotiation Skill Development." Journal of Management Development, volume 36, number 7, pages 940–958.

New Higher Education President Integration: Change and Resistance Viewed Through Social Power Bases and a Change Model Lens. Gearin, C. A. (2017). Higher Education Policy and Management Journal, volume 39, number 5, pages 559–574.

Kujala, J., T. Brady, and J. Putila, "Challenges of Cost Management in Complex Projects," International Journal of Business and Management, volume 9, issue 11, pages 48–58, 2014.

Ozyildirim, G., and Kayikci, K., "The Conflict Management Strategies of School Administrators When in Conflict with Their Supervisors," (2017). European Journal of Education Studies, volume 3, issue 8, pages 1–20.

Parker, D. W., R. Kunde, and L. Zeppetella, "Exploring Communication in Project-Based Interventions," International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, volume 66, issue 2, pages 146–179, 2017.

Project Management Institute (2017) A Guide to the Body of Project Management Knowledge (PMBOK Guide). Pennsylvania: Project Management Institute, Sixth Edition

Shah, S. K., R. Agarwal, and R. Echambadi, "Jewels in the Crown: Exploring the Motivations and Team Building Processes of Employee Entrepreneurs," Strategic Management Journal, vol. 40, issue 9, pages 1417–1452 (2019).

Weir, C. R., Taber, P., Taft, T., Reese, T. J., Jones, B., and Del Fiol, G., (2020) “Feeling and Thinking: Can Theories of Human Motivation Explain How EHR Design Impacts Clinician Burnout?” 1–5 in Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association.

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Cost Behavior And Cost-Volume-Profit Business Analysis College Essay Help Nyc

The article "How to Increase Prices: Part I" by Chris Carey has been chosen for review. The story was published online by Forbes Magazine on April 21, 2011. The author employs the cost-volume-profit model to describe how businesses can raise prices during a recession (Carey 1). In the article, it is advised that corporations reveal to their clients information about their variable and constant costs. In addition, in order to reach their performance objectives, businesses must address operational inefficiencies. Lastly, businesses must give greater value to customers (Carey 2). If a company's pricing do not adequately cover its high costs, it should negotiate higher rates with its clients. It is essential for a firm to appropriately anticipate these expenditures. The organization may forecast its variable costs using its revenue data from the past 12 months. It could assist the company anticipate its future profit margin on sales. If the company anticipates that its variable expenses will increase in the next periods, which would have an impact on its sales volume and profit, it might consider raising its prices to prevent incurring losses. The cost-volume-profit ratio can assist the company in this regard (Carey 6).

Polaris offers its customers car maintenance and repair services. Variable, mixed, and fixed costs are incurred by Polaris's service division (Weygandt, Kimmel and Kieso 209). These costs are detailed in the table below.

Table 1: Polaris cost categories.

Type Specification

Variable Costs

Cost of vehicle components. Cost of direct labor required to conduct repairs. Cost of indirect supplies required by the company's maintenance services for its business.

Various Costs

The price of utility bills.

Fixed charges

Compensation paid to the management. The rent paid for the commercial property.

According to the table supplied above, some of the business's costs are set, while others are variable. The fixed costs are unaffected by changes in activity level; they are constant (Kinney and Raiborn 649). It is essential for the business to earn adequate sales and contribution margin to pay its fixed expenses. If the company has large fixed costs, it will be difficult for it to attain profitability and break even. In addition, it might be emphasized that variable expenses fluctuate with the degree of business activity. It suggests that if the company delivers maintenance services to a greater number of consumers, its variable costs will increase and vice versa.

The mixed costs contain both variable and fixed cost components that can be allocated to various business tasks, such as the administrative department and the company's workshop (Garrison, Noreen, and Brewer 225). The company incurs fixed costs regardless of the level of business activity, even when there is no commercial activity. The cost component associated with the administrative department is fixed. The administrative department's actions are not directly tied to business operations. Its expenses are independent of business activities. Therefore, this fraction of blended expenses is constant. Variable cost elements can be assigned to the service function of an enterprise. According to the preceding table, the proportion of utility costs that could be assigned to the workshop is a variable expense.

Based on the preceding description of the three categories of expenses spent by the firm, it is possible to conclude that the company will incur more variable costs as its revenues increase. To generate more money, the company will have to perform maintenance on a greater number of cars than in the past. This will necessitate an increase in the use of spare parts, direct labor hours, and indirect supplies. Additionally, the company's fixed costs will increase. The fixed expenses, including managerial salaries and rent paid to the business's property owner, will remain unchanged. If a company does not create a large contribution margin, it will be difficult for it to earn profits and maintain its market position.

It is acknowledged that when business volume increases, variable costs are unlikely to increase by a constant amount (Gowthorpe 440). It is not possible to charge the same amount for different sorts of services, as they are not the same for each consumer. Therefore, the business incurs variable expenditures that vary for each vehicle. In the case of Polaris, it is not possible to employ a simple contribution margin. If the company supplied conventional services and used the same materials, supplies, and labor hours for each customer, a basic contribution margin ratio might be applied (Warren, Reeve and Duchac 887).

Sources Cited

How to Raise Prices: Part 1 by Chris Carey. 2011. Web.

Ray H. Garrison, Eric W. Noreen, and Peter C. Brewer Administrative accounting 2009, Tata McGraw-Hill Education, New Delhi. Print.

Catherine Gowthorpe. Accounting and Finance for Business Non-Specialists. 2005, London: Cengage Learning EMEA. Print.

Michael R. Kinney and Cecily A. Raiborn. Cost Accounting: Fundamentals and Developments 2011 printing by Cengage Learning in Mason.

Carl S. Warren, James M. Reeve, and Jonathan Duchac Managerial and Financial Accounting 2008, Mason: Cengage Learning. Print.

Weygandt, Jerry J., Paul D. Kimmel and Donald E. Kieso. Tools for Managerial Accounting and Business Decision Making. 2009: John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey Print.

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Apple IPhone 5S Product Marketing Plan College Essay Help Nyc

Executive Synopsis

Apple is ready to release the iPhone 5S, a new version of its smartphone. The worldwide smartphone market is still in its expansion phase. Therefore, it offers enormous growth prospects to companies that can produce high-end devices like the iPhone 5S. The iPhone 5S from Apple will be marketed as a multifunctional device with a vast selection of applications for every use. This positioning technique emphasizes the iPhone 5S's better features and exceptional usefulness. Thus, it will distinguish the phone from its market competitors. iPhone 5S will benefit from the strong brand image and vast consumer base that its previous iterations have previously created.

The iPhone 5S will target consumers, businesses, and educational institutions. Potential clients are typically folks whose lifestyles necessitate enjoyment, dependable connection, and the capacity to manage information. The primary marketing target is to generate sales of $18 billion in the first year. In order to reach breakeven by the end of the first year, the corporation must sell at least 120 million devices.

Current marketing environment

5-Year Financial Perspective

As stated in Table 1 of the appendix, Apple's sales and profits grew significantly during the past five years, as indicated by the company's revenue and profit figures. In 2013, the company's net sales amounted to $170,910,000,000, a 9% rise from the previous year's sales (Apple, 2014). From $42,905 million in 2009 to $170,915 million in 2013, the company's net revenues climbed continuously (Apple, 2014). This indicates that the company's sales have grown by 298 percent during the past five years.

This impressive growth is a result of the company's excellent marketing strategy and superior products. From $8,235 million in 2009 to $41,733 million in 2012, Apple's net income climbed by 407 percent (Apple, 2014). However, the company's net income decreased by 11.25 percent in 2013 due to increased competition and declining personal computer demand. The company's cash reserves were $146.761 billion at the end of 2013, and its debt-to-equity ratio was only 0.13. This indicates that the organization is financially solid and able to fund its marketing strategies without external funding.

Market Characteristics

Apple segments its product market on the basis of psychographic characteristics. To determine its target market, the organization specifically examines socioeconomic position, lifestyle, education, and personality of potential clients. This strategy was chosen because the company generates high-quality products through innovation and distinction in order to suit the needs of its customers. Apple supports consumers in a variety of areas, including "consumer, education, enterprise, and government" (Apple, 2014). Apple, the market leader, offers its products in practically every country on earth.

Apple puts its products on the market as exceptional and distinctive. Apple uses a highly educated and skilled personnel to market the majority of its products directly to clients in order to showcase the distinctive qualities of its products (Apple, 2014). The organization has established a solid name on the market throughout the years. Therefore, its products are linked with superior quality, dependability, and sophistication. This accomplishment has enabled the organization to retain and acquire new clients.

Product Critique

Apple is one of the foremost producers and distributors of premium smartphones and laptops. iPhone is the brand name under which Apple markets its cellphones. iPhones integrate the functions of "a phone, a music player, and an internet device" (Apple, 2014). In addition to these capabilities, iPhones provide access to iTunes Store and iBooks Store, where users can purchase entertainment products such as music, movies, books, and television shows.

Additionally, the iPhone offers connectivity to other devices, such as personal computers (Apple, 2014). Apple's iPhones utilize the iOS multitouch operating system in order to give these benefits. Over the years, the business has introduced several models of the iPhone in an effort to improve its quality. iPhone 5C and iPhone 5S are the most recent models, having been released in September 2013.

Comparative Evaluation

Apple operates in markets marked by severe levels of competition. The regular introduction of new items and quick technology breakthroughs that influence the use of mobile phones and personal computers are the primary drivers that drive market rivalry. Apple faces intense competition since its rivals work on lowering their product pricing to acquire market share (Apple, 2014).

Apple's capacity to remain competitive will be determined mostly by product quality, product features, price, support services, and marketing initiatives. The primary challenge to the company is the presence of numerous huge, well-funded companies with decades of expertise in the mobile phone industry (McCray, Gonzalez, & Darling, 2011). In addition, the company's rivals are capable of replicating its products' features or partnering to create superior items. This will result in a major decline in market share and revenue for the company.

Review of Channels and Logistics

Apple sells its products in multiple markets through both direct and indirect distribution methods. The retail storefronts, internet stores, and direct sales force comprise the company's direct distribution channels (Apple, 2014). In contrast, the indirect channels consist of independent retailers, wholesalers, and value-added resellers. The majority of the company's retail outlets are situated in high-traffic shopping malls and urban shopping districts. Utilizing direct distribution channels enables the organization to create an exceptional purchasing experience for customers.

The organization has created an efficient supply chain in order to meet consumer demand. This includes forming partnerships with suppliers to offer essential services, such as shipping and the production of certain product components. In addition, the corporation sets huge purchases for its supplies to maintain a steady supply of its products and prevent its competitors from gaining access to third-party production capabilities.

SWOT Analysis of the iPhone 5S by Apple


The iPhone 5S has the following advantages: First, the brand has a solid reputation for dependability and good quality in the marketplace. In particular, the phone's operating system is regarded as the most stable and dependable. iPhone 5S has an iconic appearance. It is composed of glass and metal, giving it a high-class and stylish appearance (Apple, 2014). This makes the phone appealing to the urban youth who identify with modern smartphones. The iPhone 5S improves its capability by combining the functions of a computer, tablet, iPod, and phone into one device. Additionally, it is compatible with practically all third-party applications.

Consequently, the iPhone 5S is seen as superior than its competition. Fourthly, the iPhone 5S offers access to countless applications and forms of entertainment via the iTunes Store and Apps Store (Peterson, 2012). Important iPhone 5S features, including as the slide-to-unlock mechanism and the integrated touch technology, are protected by patents. Therefore, competitors cannot duplicate them without the company's permission. This will allow the product to keep its market competitiveness.


iPhone 5S has various flaws, including those listed below. First, there is a lack of screen size and keyboard options. As a result, it is unable to satisfy the tastes and preferences of clients who desire distinctive traits. This decreases the phone's competitiveness because its rivals provide users a number of options to meet their unique needs. The iPhone 5S lacks superior technologies, secondly. It lacks features such as expandable memory and near-field communication. These functions are accessible on its rivals, including the Nokia Lumia 920 and Android devices (He, 2013).

In addition, the phone's battery life is extremely short, restricting its utility. In most cases, a phone's inability to penetrate the market will be hampered by its lack of superior features based on the most recent technologies. Third, the iPhone 5S is pricier than the majority of its competitors. Therefore, it will be challenging to expand the phone's sales in a market where competitors are continually lowering prices to attract buyers.


The available growth opportunities include the following. Initially, the enhanced attributes of the iPhone 4 and iPhone 4S attracted a large number of customers (Apple, 2014). Existing customers are likely to upgrade to the iPhone 5S because they anticipate that it will have superior features and functionality to its predecessors. Second, there is a vast untapped market in Asia and the Middle East's growing markets (Johnsons, 2012). These markets are populated by substantial middle-income earners who are likely to purchase premium cellphones such as the iPhone 5S.

Lastly, the research being undertaken in the sector of information and communication is expected to lead to the development of new technologies that will provide computers and cellphones new applications. This is a potential for iPhone 5S to gain market share, as it is compatible with various third-party applications and several devices, such as laptops. In addition, the product can benefit from new technologies and developments that enhance its features in order to compete effectively with its competitors.


iPhone 5S confronts a number of threats that could have a negative influence on its competitiveness if they are not successfully addressed. First, the iPhone 5S faces stiff competition from superior-featured competitors. In the United States, the Galaxy S III has already surpassed the iPhone 4S in terms of sales. Moreover, Galaxy S III features a larger display and a better camera than iPhone 5S. (Edwards, 2013).

In recent years, there has been a movement in preference away from the iPhone. Customers are adopting new items such as Androids to take advantage of their superior technologies. In this regard, iPhone 5S is likely to lose market share in the future to its competitors. Thirdly, the economic recession in large markets such as Europe will affect iPhone 5S sales. During the 2011/2012 fiscal year, for instance, iPhone sales in Europe increased by 71%. (Apple, 2014). During the 2012/2013 fiscal year, however, sales increased by only 16%, due in part to economic challenges in European nations such as Spain and Greece.

Objects and Problems

Apple's primary purpose is to boost its revenue via the sale of its iPhones. In this regard, it has established ambitious but attainable marketing goals for iPhone 5S. The objectives will be met in the first and second year after the product's introduction.

Initial Objectives

Apple anticipates iPhone 5S will acquire a 30% market share in its first year on the market. In monetary terms, the company's goal for the first year is to generate $18 billion in sales. The average retail price of the phone will be $120 per unit. Therefore, the corporation must sell at least 150 million units in order to meet its sales objective for the first year. The sales objective will allow the company to break even in the first year's fourth quarter.

Second Year Targets

The company's goal for the second year will be to boost revenues by 20%. This means that the target for the second year will be to attain revenues of $21.6 million. In the second year, the second target will be to gain market share by 10%.


During the debut of the iPhone 5S, brand recognition and image will be of paramount importance. This will be accomplished using an assortment of marketing communication efforts. The phone will initially be sold through the company's retail locations. This will allow the company's sales representatives, who have extensive product expertise, to directly explain the product's characteristics to customers in order to increase brand awareness. Select independent merchants and distributors will get training and development programs to boost their awareness of the iPhone 5S's features and benefits.

As a result, they will be able to increase brand awareness and image by encouraging customer word-of-mouth promotion of the product. The second challenge will be to overcome the iPhone 5S's perceived inferiority. This will require fixing the product's limitations, such as its short battery life and lack of near-field communication capabilities, in order to enhance its quality. Advertising and public relations will be utilized to inform the public about the iPhone 5S's enhanced features in order to increase sales.

Marketing Strategy

Apple's marketing strategy is centered on three core values: empathy, concentration, and attribution (Apple, 2014). The company's mission is to create and sell products that satisfy client needs superior to those of its competitors. Apple focuses solely on market segments that are likely to acquire its items in order to boost the competitiveness of its goods (Apple, 2014). In addition, the organization thinks that its value proposition should be presented in a manner that is easily comprehended by the market. These techniques will be employed to promote the iPhone 5S.


The iPhone 5S will be marketed as a premium smartphone with exceptional features and usefulness. In this regard, the positioning statement will read as follows: "For individuals interested in entertainment, communication, and the ability to conduct business and manage information while on the go, the iPhone 5S, as a multipurpose device, offers a vast selection of applications for every function. Unlike the Androids, Galaxy, and BlackBerry, the iPhone 5S features a reliable operating system and a user experience that is unparalleled in its user-friendliness.

The positioning statement will help distinguish the iPhone 5S on the basis of its attributes. Differentiation is crucial to attract new clients and keep existing ones given the intense competition in the smartphone market (Amstrong & Kotler, 2011). The brand promise will be to give many applications, like as entertainment and internet and iCloud access, using a single portable device.

Customers should anticipate stability and adaptability, as the iPhone 5S has the most stable operating system and is compatible with a variety of third-party applications. Essentially, the iPhone 5S will be positioned based on its value rather than its price. To portray iPhone 5S as a superior smartphone, the business will leverage its marketing communication initiatives to educate the market about the phone's worth and benefits. The primary message of the communication initiatives will be that the iPhone 5S is more than a smartphone. It offers improved functionality that enhances the user's lifestyle.

Product Planning

The iPhone 5S will be introduced in many markets with all of its features. As the product’s brand awareness increases, more varieties will be introduced to satisfy customers’ varied needs. Specifically, the product's features will be upgraded internally every two years to maintain their market relevance. This includes offering a range of color and display options. Internal enhancements will enable iPhone 5S to effectively compete with other handsets.

Value Management College Essay Help Nyc


There are numerous individuals that are impacted by the development of any building or structure. These impacts might be both favorable and bad. Positive effects include efficient communication, comfortable lodging, and a higher standard of living. Construction projects are anticipated to affect not only the site but also the surrounding area. These individuals who are affected by the project are referred to as stakeholders. A stakeholder is any group or individual that can affect or is affected by the success of an organization's mission (Freeman 2010). Internal stakeholders can be distinguished from external stakeholders (Gibson 2000). External stakeholders are those who are significantly affected by the project but are not directly involved in its execution (for example, neighbours, the group, the overall population, and in addition the construction industry).

Conventional wisdom holds that the ceremonial planning approach, through norms and legislation governing the layout and size of an office, represents the management of external stakeholder interests. However, there is a growing tendency for various stakeholder groups to attempt to influence the execution of a building project (Lienert 2010). Henecke and Olander (2003) revealed that the conventional planning approach is insufficient to manage scenarios involving external stakeholders, resulting in conflicts and arguments. The inadequacy of the provided formal procedures makes it risky for developers to invest in new projects (Olander 2005). There have been instances in which technically and financially viable projects were discontinued as a result of government decisions (influenced by the interests of outside players), leading to the obsolescence of a great deal of previously prepared assets (Goldstein 2012). Sen (2002) argued that there is a conflict between the ceremonial standards and laws governing the planning and development of structures and the persistent view of external stakeholders that they should have a bigger say in decision-making.


Originating approximately 63 years ago, the instrument for analyzing product value has been known by a variety of names and encompassed numerous concepts (Hahn 2010). Gradually, the concept was renamed value management and is currently used to govern the three most crucial aspects of an enterprise: cost, quality, and time. Value management encompasses design, life cycle, risk, and human resource considerations (Daddow 2002). The primary objective of value management is to achieve maximum return on investment and optimal use of available resources and time. It is believed that the clarity of the concept of value management and its application to all phases of an industry or corporation has enormous potential for advancing business activities and having a favorable impact on the final product (Martin 1996).

In the construction business, value management can be implemented at any point from planning to completion (Oke & Ogunsemi 2008). Value management is employed to facilitate project integration and procurement (Kelly, Male & Graham 2008). However, in the absence of value management, any design modifications that are postponed could result in a cost increase (Ambituuni 2011).

Students still enrolled in college or university benefit greatly from value management workshops. They can gain knowledge about value management procedures, expand their skill set, and acquire valuable experience. Almost fifty percent of the ideas generated by pupils were adopted, according to collected data (Thomson 2008).

Considering the advantages of value management, the worldwide construction industry has been implementing the approach in projects of all sizes. It is utilized by several businesses for the advancement and evaluation of projects. It remains to be seen whether value management will be mandated for all building projects, regardless of size.

Despite all the benefits of value management that have been discussed, certain danger areas have been identified. Projects may fail due to such risk factors as (PWGSC, 2010):

Improper planning Inadequately defining services Insufficient communication Inappropriate project briefing Incorrect actions that are not in accordance with the real demand Inappropriate stakeholder management

The Hallands's endeavor is one of many that failed horribly. This project is one instance in which debate and arguments have affected project implementation. The project was scheduled to be finished in 1996, having been launched in 1991 with essentially all the necessary legal processes for authorization. The project was discontinued in 1997 because it was drying up the water wells in the surrounding area. In 2005, the project's work was resumed. Even 23 years after its inception, the project is still ongoing and is now scheduled for completion in 2015. (Railway Technology 2014). In addition, the expenses have skyrocketed. This occurred owing to poor administrative decisions that affected the surrounding ecosystem and its inhabitants. There have been a few studies that explicitly or implicitly use the Hallands' enterprise as an example of an investigation (e.g. Boholm 2000; Danielsson & Holmberg 2002; Baier 2003). The adventures of the Hallands can be summed up as follows:

The neighborhood association was frustrated at its inability to manage the project's schedule and implementation. The data provided to external stakeholders was inaccurate, inconvenient, and inappropriate. The neighborhood association was prejudiced to affect the project's decision-making process. The administration did not adequately address the requirements and concerns of external stakeholders.

The Hallands' endeavor is an example of unsuccessful external stakeholder management. This undoubtedly occurred as a result of management's inability to foresee the impact of its actions on external stakeholders and how they would, in turn, affect those decisions.

As was the case with the Hallands' project, if the possible impact of a planned project on external stakeholders is not well communicated in the earliest phases, this can lead to discussions and controversies regarding the project's location, scope, and strategy. Group mentality has been identified as a significant factor in the design and placement of projects (Meyer, Loch & Pich 2001). Experience gained from the tunnel project reveals that it is necessary to address the interests of external stakeholders in a timely way and that management of external stakeholders should be viewed as an important cost factor.

The Channel Tunnel and Hallandss are examples of noteworthy endeavors. However, the challenges associated with external stakeholder influence are not limited to construction projects of this scope. Henecke and Olander (2003) indicate that the influence of external stakeholders is a crucial consideration in numerous building projects. Regardless of the size of a construction project, disputes and disagreements with external parties are not unheard of. Similarly, the prestige factor is a significant factor in numerous construction projects. The UK's 'Considerate Constructors Scheme' (Barthorpe 2002; Barthorpe 2003; Olander 2004) is one example of how external stakeholders and the impacts they undergo 'due to development' are deemed significant.

The relationship between an organization and its stakeholders has always been crucial to the success of projects. It is essential for any project to maintain a high share price. A project may have multiple stockholders (those who own the project's shares), and projects tend to prioritize their financial benefits over the interests of the stakeholders (Alexander n.d.). There are various stakeholder interests that may need to be compromised in order to satisfy the stockholders' benefits. Under such conditions, projects fail to recognize that stakeholders are vital to their success. Additionally, projects have a tendency to prioritize monetary gains over stakeholder happiness. This management mindset has long-term consequences, when projects fail to reach their objectives.

Problem statement

Effective stakeholder management is the determining factor for the success of every project, regardless of its size or complexity.


As a result of the research, the following goals will be attained:

To comprehend diverse types of projects To evaluate the impact of diverse projects on stakeholder management To comprehend the influence that value management can have on stakeholder management. Assess the effects of stakeholder management on a project's success.

Research questions

When the research is complete, the following questions must be answered:

What does stakeholder management entail? What do value and value management mean? How is value management used in stakeholder management during a project? How may value management impact a project's success? What are the methods and outcomes of a project's value management? The procedures should be built in such a way that they meet the needs and expectations of stakeholders. What are the benchmarks for optimum value management practices? Projects can establish benchmarks that meet the expectations of stakeholders.

Importance of study

In the current corporate environment, the success of a project cannot be measured solely by its completion time, cost, and prominence. As a result, it is essential to comprehend their function in the success of any given project if a diverse group of stakeholders are to be satisfied. A project can be successful if it meets the requirements/expectations of the stakeholders. During the planning phase, value management can be utilized to discover stakeholder values. During the project phase, value management can aid in gaining the support of stakeholders. There are immediate expectations from stakeholders that must be addressed. Understanding the stakeholder values that require immediate attention can be facilitated by stakeholder management.


This research will primarily employ a literature review and a questionnaire survey as its approach. It will be necessary to consult reputable publications in the field of construction engineering and management in order to ascertain the opinions of previous researchers on the issue of the study. Relevant information will be retrieved via reputable search engines, such as Google Scholar. Value management, stakeholder management, project environment, project participants, and project success are examples of proposed keywords. Members of the stakeholder group (including vendors, contractors, and local residents, among others) will be asked to complete the survey.

Ethics-related factors

Prior writers' opinions on the subject of the research shall be given proper credit (correct citation). Participants in the questionnaire survey will be assured that the confidentiality of their information will be handled with the utmost regard for ethics. As a common norm for qualitative research, the focus of this study will be on two ethical issues: the depiction of the truth and the secrecy of the respondent group. The truth alignment would aid the researcher in avoiding bias, and the confidentiality would enhance the respondents' freedom of expression on their views on the significance of value management in stakeholder management.

Delimitation/range of inquiry (international, national, geographic area)

Dubai is a United Arab Emirates emirate located near the Persian Gulf. The total area of Dubai is 3,885 square kilometers, with the city itself covering 35 square kilometers. With the completion of ongoing developments, Dubai city is predicted to expand by 100 percent (man-made islands). It is evident that a great deal of building is occurring in the city. Dubai's economy relies heavily on the construction sector. In addition, the government invests millions of dollars in numerous construction projects. The city's geographical location promotes global connectivity. As a result, it is an appropriate location for a study on value management in construction projects. The following map illustrates Dubai's geographical location:

derive from: aber.ae

The objective of this study is to comprehend the significance of value management in Dubai's construction projects. However, since the subject is global in scope, the perspectives of experts from around the world will be included.

Arrangement of the dissertation

The introduction of the dissertation will cover the topic's context, problem statement, aims, research questions, significance of the research, methodology, ethical issues, and demarcation. In addition, it plans to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of global literature on the subject of value management. The study will elaborate on the research's methodology and outcomes. In addition, a framework for the value management study will be given.

Literature Review

This chapter tries to introduce the concept of value management. In addition to defining value management, this section will explore the common fallacy that value management is synonymous with cost management. The optimal time to implement a value management study and the various factors to be addressed when implementing one will be studied. It is acknowledged that there are numerous types of construction projects, but value management cannot be applied to all of them. It is essential to comprehend which types of initiatives can benefit from value management. In other words, initiatives that are suitable for implementing value management must be identified. Stakeholders are an integral aspect of every project, and they also exert considerable influence over the initiatives. Consequently, stakeholder management will also be discussed in this chapter.

The term "stakeholder" was first coined in the 1960s by Stanford Research Institute researchers. According to the findings, in order to formulate objectives, it is essential for organizations and their managers to comprehend stakeholder-related issues (Sinclair n.d.). There are two sorts of stakeholders: internal and external. Employees, clients, financiers, architects, engineers, contractors, and vendors are internal stakeholders. External stakeholders include of nearby inhabitants, landlords, environmentalists, archaeologists, and government regulatory agencies (Takim 2009). Several critical success factors (CSFs) must be taken into account during stakeholder management. To be successful, a broader group of stakeholders must be taken into account (Polonsky, Schuppisser & Beldona 2002). Any project's long-term success is contingent on the pleasure of its stakeholders. The decision-makers have a significant deal of responsibility for how stakeholder communication is conducted (Yang et al. 2009). Occasionally, it is difficult to foresee the opinions of stakeholders. However, it is essential for projects to comprehend the perspectives of stakeholders regarding the project's outcomes and whether or not their expectations are being met. Regarding the needs and objectives of a project, it is essential to get the buy-in of all stakeholders (Constructing Excellence 2004).

It is important to note that certain schools of thinking tend to differentiate value management from value engineering and value analysis. However, SAVE International, the foremost professional organization for value management, treats these three phrases as synonyms. To simplify matters, the word value management will be used exclusively throughout this treatise, rather than value engineering or value analysis.

Value management – Definition

Numerous academics have provided their various definitions of value management, which essentially transmit the same meaning but in different language. Norton and McElligott (1995) provide one of the most prevalent definitions of the term "value management" by defining it as an organized, comprehensive effort aimed at examining the workings of projects with the goal of achieving optimal value at the lowest possible cumulative life cycle costs.

The definition can be better comprehended if it is segmented as follows:

Methodical procedure: It has a definite beginning and

Importance Of Performance Evaluation System College Essay Help Nyc

Table of Contents
Introduction to the Evaluation Method Criteria for Feedback Performance in the LTC Customer Service Department Bibliography


A company's performance evaluation system is one of the most important internal operations. It is a periodic evaluation of how well personnel carry out their responsibilities (Portolese, 2015). The system can serve multiple crucial purposes for both workers and the corporation that employs them. A well-organized evaluation can reveal the staff's job performance and encourage them to improve their conduct (Portolese, 2015). In the meantime, the company's management and HR department can use the assessment data to promote or penalize employees and to design performance improvement tools for each department (Portolese, 2015). The system consists of various components, including the establishment of personnel-specific objectives, training, monitoring, feedback, formal evaluation, and the proposal of an improvement plan or awards, if necessary (Portolese, 2015). Overall, performance evaluation is a crucial instrument for human resource management, and every company should have a system that has been meticulously established.

Evaluation Procedure

The suggested performance evaluation method is intended to assess the Large Technology Corporation's customer service department (LTC). The system will evaluate the performance of department staff and determine if they require additional training. As the major responsibility of the staff is to resolve customer complaints, the Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) would be the most appropriate tool to use in this instance (Portolese, 2015). The scale can be tailored to evaluate if the customer service agents' actions and communication with customers reflect the company's values. The primary advantage of the scale is that it not only emphasizes negative behaviors but also the positive ones (Portolese, 2015). In addition, if constructed appropriately, the scale helps eliminate evaluator bias by providing supervisors with objective criteria and metrics for evaluation (Muller, 2013). In addition to preventing complaints from employees who are dissatisfied with the findings, setting specified criteria will allow for the prevention of complaints from employees who are displeased with the results.

Ensuring that both the department manager and the personnel engage in the appraisal process is another method for preventing allegations of bias or unfairness in performance evaluation. Before building a new system, it is essential to determine which aspects of the current system employees and managers find helpful and which criteria they believe should be modified or eliminated. It would be more productive to invite the department supervisor and staff to establish the competencies they would be evaluated on (Portolese, 2015). During a meeting where acceptable and unwanted actions are reviewed and rated, input from the persons involved in the assessment method might be gathered. Ensuring that the department's personnel and manager are on board with the process facilitates communication between the two sides and prevents misunderstandings (Portolese, 2015). In addition, knowing the evaluation criteria can encourage employees to be more conscientious about their performance.

Guidelines for Offering Comments

Providing employees with feedback is an integral part of the appraisal process. If there are no significant issues to discuss, the findings may be presented quarterly in one-on-one meetings or via email updates. The managers of the department should keep in mind that the purpose of the evaluation is not to fault the employees, but to mend and enhance their performance (Guerra-López, 2008). Therefore, prior to delivering the findings, managers should clearly outline existing difficulties with an employee's performance and determine how to remedy the issue and the suitable time period for resolution (Guerra-López, 2008). (Guerra-López, 2008) Employees should be encouraged to submit different solutions to increase their investment in fixing the issue. The most efficient and cost-effective plan can be implemented (Guerra-López, 2008). All the proposals can be ranked according to their feasibility and cost. Managers should also remember to maintain a positive attitude and convey to the reviewed personnel that problem resolution is their primary responsibility.

Criteria for the LTC Customer Service Department's Performance

When evaluating the performance of the company's customer service agents, five factors should be used. The ability to keep a happy and professional attitude when interacting with consumers is the first requirement. Not all customers that call customer service are able to precisely articulate the issue or, in some situations, be polite. Representatives of the company must be able to deal graciously and professionally with hostile and irate consumers. The second requirement is an in-depth understanding of the company's products. Representatives of the organization should be knowledgeable about its products and prepared to assist clients with any concerns that may arise. The third factor of the suggested evaluation is response time to consumer calls and emails. Time management is another vital requirement, as personnel must answer phone calls, emails, and live chat questions, and it is essential not to spend too much time on a single customer engagement. The final criterion is the ability to collaborate with others. Although the primary responsibility of the customer service department is to serve the company's clients, all employees should maintain professional connections.


Guerra-López, I. (2008). Performance evaluation: Proven methods for enhancing program and organization performance.

. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass


The manager's guide to human resources: hiring, firing, performance reviews, documentation, and benefits, and everything else you need to know. Amacom, New York, 2nd edition.

L. Portolese, Human Resource Management, FlatWorld, Boston, MA, 2015.

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Developing Your Team On Example Of Netflix College Essay Help Nyc


Being a leader is a huge task for managers in every organization since it demands ongoing team management and the sharing of responsibilities with other team members. Netflix was selected for a comprehensive system study. This example is useful because the organization in question focuses on providing engaging content and is renowned for its technological prowess and highly-qualified personnel in the field of computer programming. It is crucial to study how managers deal with the issue of multiple work orientations and how they manage the operations of different teams. Based on theoretical studies and principles in the field of strategic and emergency management, this research would serve as an illustration of incorporating innovative ideas to boost the team members' effectiveness. The purpose of this paper is to present the methods for assembling a diverse team of specialists, the techniques for enhancing the team's dynamics and regulating its behavior, as well as their motivation to work in accordance with the company's mission.

Developing a Diverse Team with Various Strengths

Netflix must assemble a team comprised of professionals from a variety of fields in order to produce compelling content with technology. A computer program, a director, a social media manager, and a producer should be included. People from various backgrounds would have great difficulty communicating with one another. In this situation, a manager's role is to foster positive connections with all team members and facilitate their collaboration to produce a high-quality product. First and foremost, it is essential to create competitive conditions among them (Hitt et al., 2016). It would be advantageous from the perspectives of determining the members' strengths and shortcomings and increasing the efficiency of the task. Human resource management must also be considered: it is reasonable to expect that employing a professional technique would have a favorable effect on the working process. A manager can create an evaluation system for each team member based on their area of expertise. It would aid in motivating staff and controlling both individual and overall performance.

It is essential to note that assessing the strengths of team members is a difficult assignment for a manager. It encompasses not only the professional realm but also extensive research on the personality aspects of employees. Some may be dormant leaders, whereas another individual desires quick feedback on his or her efforts. It is vital to identify the unique characteristics of each individual and capitalize on them (Hitt et al., 2016). Taking into mind the professional capabilities of the employees, it is essential to give them with ongoing motivation, so that they routinely want to increase their knowledge through participation in educational courses.

As an illustration of this idea, the scenario of working with a computer programming expert might be shown. The expert is aware that without his or her contribution, the product cannot be completed, thus he or she decides there is no need to enhance the abilities. In this situation, a manager can attempt to speak with other team members who desire regular education. They can encourage the programmer to enroll in classes to gain a deeper understanding of new technologies or to make new professional contacts. In addition, a manager can encourage the expert to communicate with coworkers from other groups in order to develop positive relationships with them and exchange work-related experiences, issues, and outcomes. In building and coordinating a team with varied expertise, the manager's position is frequently undervalued. However, it is vital to evaluate the strengths of each team member in order to increase the efficiency of the working process.

Methods for enhancing team dynamics and employee conduct

A crucial aspect of the working process is team dynamics. The manager's role is to offer members with comfort so that they can achieve future success. It is reasonable to suppose that exchanging feedback with the group is one of the most effective strategies. Moreover, it is vital to build a system of control, such as creating standards for communication and behavior. There must be no racial or other forms of discrimination, disagreements, or disputes. Implementing the set of rules would provide the manager with an overview of the team's conduct and the means to rectify it in times of stress.

Motivation has a significant role in establishing positive team dynamics. It is feasible to argue that the team's reward system is a solid starting point. In addition, it is crucial to explain why a particular project is important to the organization and what the team will gain by successfully completing it. It is evident that the techniques of the leader should be implemented. For instance, the producer may become the group's informal leader and inspire others to execute efficiently. It would aid in establishing the necessary trust among team members in order to produce high-quality work on time. In addition, the manager must maintain contact with his or her peers in order to understand more about the organization's different human resource methods.

Exchanging the experience and outcomes of the implementation of many ideas is a further technique that is advantageous to team dynamics. Sharing examples of poor experiences would, on the one hand, prevent significant errors at the level of the entire organization, hence preventing catastrophic errors. On the other side, it would be advantageous in the event that other managers achieve success. In addition, it would aid in regulating the decision-making process of a certain employee or manager and provide a more objective assessment of the current situation. Nonetheless, it is important to note that the process may differ depending on the specifics of the product or industry.

Two Management Strategies for Aligning Team Behaviors with the Organization's Mission

The company's mission is essential to the organization's effective operation. One strategy that might inspire team members to follow the guidance is to explain to them their unique contribution to the organization's success. Regular meetings where employees can learn more about their part in attaining the company's objective must be implemented. In addition, it is feasible to create a system of incentives and penalties that would regulate team conduct and provide additional cash compensation for following mission orders.


In order to determine the team members' strengths, the manager must build trustworthy relationships with them. Motivation and the exchange of experiences are advantageous to positive team dynamics and the monitoring of team conduct. It is vital to implement regular meetings in which each employee's role in achieving the company's overall objective is explained in detail. In addition, a manager must devise a system of rewards for adhering to the company's objective.


Hitt, M. A., R. D. Ireland, and R. E. Hoskisson (2016). Strategic management: theories and examples Globalization and competition. Cengage Learning.

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Coca-Cola Middle East: Coke Zero Marketing Strategy College Essay Help Nyc

Executive Synopsis

This research aims to shed light on Coca-marketing Cola's strategy in respect to the company's Middle East activities and the Coca-Cola Zero product. The paper proposes a novel marketing strategy that should greatly improve the company's financial and social performance in the region. It analyzes the various aspects affecting its existing marketing performance and uses them as the context for describing planned adjustments. The paper begins with an overview of the corporation, followed by an examination of the micro and macro marketing conditions affecting Coca-Cola in the Middle East. In addition, the research analyzes an existing brand and product gap in the marketing strategy of the organization. The report then suggests a remedy that should be effective over the medium term to increase the company's dominance.

The report links theory and observations using information gathered from Internet news sources and management and marketing books. It indicates that Coca-internal Cola's atmosphere and marketing milieu will be conducive to growth.

However, issues in the macro environment have the potential to destabilize the company's present growth rate. Social and environmental issues have the greatest potential to cause unfavorable changes to the company's operational environment, and they should play a significant role in the company's marketing strategy management analysis. In addition, the analysis reveals that an increasing youth population represents a significant marketing opportunity for Coca-Cola. To improve the effectiveness of its integrated marketing communication, the corporation can utilize the internet's new marketing channels.

An overview of the business

Coca-Cola is an American-headquartered multinational beverage manufacturer. The company's localization plan ensures that its brand meets the requirements of its target consumers in the Middle East market. Coca-core Cola's operations are conducted through a franchised distribution structure, and the parent corporation provides a marketing strategy guide for its over 400 brands in over 200 countries.

Coca-Cola is a widely recognized brand in the Middle East. The company's Middle Eastern businesses maintain their American roots. Despite this, the corporation continues to do well in the region, even as residents and public activist groups in nations such as Iran continue to demonstrate anti-American sentiment. The corporation has successfully marketed not only the Coca-Cola brand, but also its approximately 30 constituent brands. There are Fanta, Schweppes, and Dasani among them. Egypt is the largest and oldest market for Coca-Cola in the Middle East (Wagner, 2013).

Corporate Objectives

The Coca-Cola purpose describes the organization's nature and its intent to operate in the global marketplace. The mission also explains the company's guiding philosophy in achieving its purpose. Here is a synopsis of the organization's mission. It represents the objective of Coca-Middle Cola's Eastern business. It translates to revitalizing the globe on a physical, mental, and spiritual level. In addition, the objective is to generate optimistic moments.

The company explains that it will create value and make a difference through its brands and actions. The mission statement relates to all of Coca-activities Cola's and operations. These statements represent the company's overarching purpose and emphasize its consideration for people, the environment, its portfolio, partner organizations, and the essential business function of maximizing shareholder profits (The Coca-Cola Company, 2015).

Core competencies

According to the resource-based vision of the firm, Coca-core Cola's competencies consist of the activities and resources that give the corporation a competitive advantage in the Middle East (Lync, 2010). Coca-key Cola's capabilities consist of its signature product and its distinctive flavor, which continue to capture the tastes and preferences of its target consumers. The company's organizational competencies include the capacity to maintain a consistent level of product quality and marketing activity throughout all of its Middle Eastern submarkets. In addition to innovation, the company's ability to maintain the relevance of its brand through a new and relevant integrated marketing communication campaign is also a core competency.

Coca-Cola is able to correctly segment its market to compete with rivals in every category of the beverage market. It integrates its innovation capabilities with its market segmentation in order to develop new products that meet the evolving needs of consumers. For instance, the Coke Zero brand, which is a version of the original Coca-Cola beverage, was an innovation designed to address the calorie restriction concerns of consumers. Many customers throughout the world are now aware of the negative effects of ingesting excessive calories. They acknowledge that soft drinks are a significant source of calories. As a result, numerous Middle Eastern medical intervention programs against obesity have recommended against excessive intake of soft drinks. Coca-Cola introduced the Zero brand as a response to the new problem.

Coca-operations Cola's foundation, which provides the essential infrastructure for merchants to sell its soft drinks, is another area of expertise. It also operates a thorough franchise program that guarantees all retail locations have sufficient stock and product storage and display facilities, such as freezers and coolers, to deliver beverages to customers at the appropriate temperature. In each market, the organization has maintained its equipment well. It has even employed solar-powered refrigerators to ensure that beverages remain cold and in sufficient supply to satisfy customers' thirst.

The company's salesperson network is among the largest in the Middle East, and it provides substantial market intelligence regarding product distribution and customer trends. Personnel employed by various firm franchisees guarantee that all distribution and retail points are in good condition and stocked with the most recent merchandise. The company employs its salespeople network to support all distributor and retailer interests, including the repair of faulty equipment leased to retail partners by the company. Salespeople assist the company in providing accurate information about the benefits of its new healthy products to consumers (Segal, 2014).

Microclimate of marketing

The organization is well-positioned to satisfy market demands. It has a sufficient number of employees, a solid corporate social responsibility program, and the most advanced packaging and distribution technologies. The company's marketing approach is also driven by the internet, traditional media, and salespeople. The company examines suppliers, competition, consumers, middlemen, and itself inside the microenvironment.

PepsiCo is the primary competition, and both businesses employ the similar business model to attract consumers. They rely on franchises in each Middle Eastern country to fulfill their distribution and bottling needs. In addition, they employ various marketing methods developed by the parent firm and separate franchises. Customers are Middle Eastern residents of all ages who reside in the region's geographical location. They comprise both retail and business clients. Both Coca-Cola and PepsiCo are eager to obtain marketing benefits by purchasing smaller brands and competitors in order to compete with one another.

The macro-environment of marketing

This research use the PESTLE analysis method to offer a macroenvironmental overview of Coca-Cola in the Middle East. The political climate in the Middle East differs from country to country. Politically, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Iran, among others, have been stable, whilst Palestine, Yemen, and Iraq have been unstable. Coca-primary Cola's operations in the region are concentrated in the stable countries, but there is always the risk of violence spilling over or unfavorable economic sanctions harming its market performance in some countries. The region is generally secure for investors (Fry & Walt, 2015).

Because of its abundance of oil resources, the majority of the region's inhabitants have a Middle-Income. However, many markets are also interconnected with global financial markets and are affected by the global economy as a whole. Coca-market Cola's performance is impacted by a decline or increase in oil demand, which in turn affects the economies of numerous Middle Eastern countries. Population growth in the region, in addition to rising global oil costs, contributes to the expansion of the company's market and bodes well for the future demand for beverages.

The tastes and preferences of Middle Eastern individuals are among the social elements influencing Coca-performance. Cola's As a result of the region's warm climate, a large number of people have become aficionados of cold soft drinks. However, the most significant social factor contributing to beverage consumption has been the informality of work and social gatherings. Moreover, the region's inhabitants have a culture and tradition of numerous festivals, which provide them opportunities to consume refreshments. In addition, the Middle East has become more receptive of globalization, which includes the passive adoption of the American culture of beverage consumption.

The macroenvironment's technological consequences include the proliferation of the internet and the increase in mobile device penetration. This has enabled corporations such as Coca-Cola to operate integrated marketing communication channels that are spectacular in their contact with customers. Due to a growing youth population, social media is popular in the Middle East, and it offers companies advertising and word-of-mouth marketing options (Statista, 2015). In manufacturing, the corporation can utilize renewable energy and recycled resources to produce beverage packaging materials.

Other aspects of the macroenvironment include environmental and legal factors. The Middle East is not a single market, thus the business must obtain operating permits from each nations. It must also adhere to international business regulations. In numerous countries, the corporation operates through local franchises. As carbon emission sources, the company's bottling operations and distribution networks may be subject to environmental emission rules. Its beverage packaging can also be considered a significant source of plastic and metal trash. The company tries to employ recycled materials in its packaging, but it does not have complete control over its supply chain's sources.

Analysis of brand portfolio gaps (expected, augmented & ideal)

The company's current brand portfolio consists of soft drinks, juice and juice-based beverages, coffee, water, energy drinks and teas, carbonated soft drinks, syrups, and milk-based goods.

Coca-success Cola's in the Middle East has been sustained over the past few years, but the company risks losing favor with consumers if it fails to adapt to changing consumer preferences. Coca-Cola exports its North American marketing strategies to the Middle East, which may alienate some of its target consumers. It must develop a localized approach that incorporates adequate customer intelligence. This would allow it to adapt to changing consumer tastes and modify its product advertising in various market niches accordingly.

The prior year's growth in sales in the Middle East included an increase in sales of all Coca-Cola brands except Diet Coke. As American consumers continue to express worry with the sugar content and contents of Coca-Cola products, they will persuade their Middle Eastern counterparts to address the same issues. As a result, as part of its integrated marketing effort in the Middle East, the corporation should reply to inquiries from consumers throughout the world. Otherwise, it risks losing business to rivals that do not have similar unfavorable publicity incidents (The Associated Press, 2014).

New product or brand opportunity:

The corporation has recently introduced Coca-Cola Zero to its global markets. This product differs from the original Coca-Cola. It keeps the characteristic flavor of Coca-Cola, which is known to many people when they shop. However, it also offers consumers a sugar-free alternative. In the Middle East, where consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the need to make healthy beverage choices, the Zero brand has enormous potential. In addition, Coca-Cola was unable to become the dominant still beverage company in the Middle East with its existing product line, necessitating a new brand such as "Zero" to appeal to demographic shifts and convey an innovative brand image to customers. The company will have a large market share if it is successful in selling the "Zero" brand due to the rise in the number of young people.

Value proposition

Coca-Cola aspires to affect positive change in communities by offering happiness through its products and by participating in corporate social responsibility projects that benefit underprivileged populations. In Lebanon, the firm collaborates with the Regional Food Banking Network to supply over 4.5 million meals annually to needy Middle Eastern homes (Zaywa, 2015).

The business highlights its value to society through corporate citizenship activities. The company's product selection also includes healthy beverage options, allowing it to defend itself against claims that it is indifferent to its customers' health. Dubai hosted a recent presentation of its value offer in assisting needy members of the society. The corporation honored the labor of its employees by permitting them to make phone calls using bottle caps instead of coins. The corporation subsequently utilized the narrative as a promotional tool for Coca-Cola in the country (Croucher, 2014).

Strategy for segmenting/targeting consumers

The organization will separate its clients based on their geographic region. It will exploit national borders to differentiate its marketing activity. In addition to targeting consumers based on their location, the corporation will also consider their demographic features. For instance, Coca-Cola will leverage its Coca-Cola Zero brand to target consumers who are looking for a cool product image association and who are also health-conscious. The majority of this brand's consumers will be young. This group is not bound by brand loyalty, hence it is inclined to experiment with new brands. Other goods such as Diet Coke and Minute Maid will be pushed to older consumers, particularly health-conscious parents in need of a decent beverage.

In order to appeal to the feminine or masculine features of male and female consumers, the corporation will also subtly differentiate its marketing strategies. When pursuing its segmentation strategy, the corporation will consider the degree of education, cultural influences, and current reputation of this brand in a given market. In addition, it will target consumer activists by emphasizing its contribution to a safe environment in a variety of ways.

intended placement

In order to dominate the market for consumer beverage options, the corporation has been aggressively acquiring its competitors or engaging into joint manufacturing arrangements. The company lags behind PepsiCo in terms of market dominance and has been increasing the number of brands it offers to raise its market presence. Coca-Cola intends to offer itself as the default choice for most consumers when they consider any type of beverage in any situation. Its Coca-Cola Zero brand serves as a complimentary soft drink that

Management Concept: Keys That Drive To Success College Essay Help Nyc


The purpose of variously sized and shaped organizations is to accomplish distinct duties. Typically, an organization's functions can be characterized as formal or informal (Naoum, 2001, p.1). A formal function generates a visible output that is typically consumed by diverse segments of society outside of the organization. An informal function, such as organizing a party, does not yield an outcome immediately evident to the outside world (Naoum, 2001, p.1).

Essentially, the purpose of these two organizational roles is to attain definite and specified goals through the collection of people and other resources (Naoum, 2001, p.1). Constantly, the resources are coordinated by a set of procedures and integrated by an organizational structure. Different organizations plan their aims and coordinate and manage their personnel in different ways (Naoum, 2001, p.1).

In most instances, formal organizations share six characteristics. This includes the operation, which includes the task and technology, the resources, which include both human and non-human resources, the objective for both visible and invisible products, the structure, which can be formal or informal, the management, which includes both strategic and operational management, and the environment, which includes both the internal and external environment that affects the organization (Naoum, 2001, p.1).

Therefore, the success or failure of an organization will primarily depend on the clarity of its operations and aims, the caliber of its employees, the availability of its resources, and the fit of its organizational structure and management system (Naoum, 2001, p.1). Furthermore, in every organization there is interdependence between several sections, which are primarily departments, and no department can achieve success in isolation (Naoum, 2001, p.1).


Since the 19th century, the definition of the word management has been extensively researched. Many individuals wonder what it is, who needs it, and why it is essential (Naoum, 2001, p.11). In attempting to answer these questions, one will learn that virtually everyone need management in order to reach certain individual and communal goals by adopting particular strategies, systems, and approaches (Naoum, 2001, p.11).

Henry Fayol (1845-1925) says that "management plays a crucial role in the administration of undertakings; of all undertakings, large and small, industrial, commercial, political, and religious." Fayol observes that management is a characteristic of all human endeavors, including households, businesses, and governments. Further, he emphasizes that all of these endeavors need planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and managing, and that in order to operate effectively, they must all adhere to the same general principles (Sapru, 2006, p.102).

Management Function

Planning entails an examination of the future and the formulation of a plan of action, with coherence, continuity, adaptability, and precision constituting the defining characteristics of a good plan of action (Sapru, 2006, p.103). Organizing methods; constructing a dual structure of human and material to accomplish the task, with the human and material organization being consistent with the undertaking's objectives, resources, and requirements (Sapru, 2006, p.103). Coordination is working together and coordinating all activities and efforts, and regular talks are required to improve coordination (Sapru, 2006, p.105). Controlling involves ensuring that everything occurs in accordance with the "specific plan adopted, instructions issued, and established principles" (Sapru, 2006, p.105).

Other writers have added social and cultural factors to the definition of management, so that management can be defined in terms of: relating the organization to its external environment and its response to society's needs, and creating an organizational climate in which individuals and groups can achieve their objectives (Naoum, 2001, p.11). Therefore, management is the process of planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and regulating resources in order to attain certain objectives.


Leadership is a topic that has generated a great deal of writing. Any attempts to define a leader in terms of group processes, personality, compliance, special behaviors, persuasion, power, goal achievement, interaction, role distinction, and the initiation of structures have not yielded a consensus description (Naoum, 2001, p.193). In many instances, leadership is defined in terms of a certain theoretical framework, and it will vary depending on how it is defined.

There are three major theoretical foundations for effective leadership: trait theory, which posits that a leader possesses a set of traits or abilities that others may not have, situational theory, and behavioral theory (Naoum, 2001, p.194). These characteristics may include intelligence, self-assurance, and decisiveness. The second theory is the style theory, which examines the methods a leader employs to complete a task, and the third theory is the leadership theory, which examines the contingency variables that define the most effective sort of leadership for success (Naoum, 2001, p.194).

Managing versus leading


In that a leader and a manager share the following characteristics, management and leadership share parallels. Both are able to think beyond the day's crisis, the quarterly report, and hence the horizon, as they are both long-term thinkers (Roussel, Swansberg and Swansberg, 2006, p.172).

They are also able to think beyond the confines of their immediate unit and comprehend the relationship between the unit and the organization as a whole, including the external environment conditions and global trends. Additionally, the organization's mission, beliefs, and motivation are continually emphasized. Lastly, both the leader and manager focus on ensuring that the organization's structure and operations are adaptable to the changing environment (Roussel, Swansberg and Swansberg, 2006, p.172).


The first distinction between leadership and management is described by the adage "leadership is about doing the right things, whereas management is about doing the right things" (Marie and Chisholm-Burns, 2010, p.9). Leaders are concerned with the broad, general mission or vision of a company, whereas managers are concerned with operational details such as budgeting, planning, hiring, and developing workers in order to achieve a mission or vision (Marie and Chisholm-Burns, 2010, p.9). Therefore, as a manager, he is an effective planner and manager. Typically, a manager administers while the leader innovates. Moreover, a manager's concentration is on processes and structures, whereas a leader's is on people. Moreover, managers generally accept the status quo, whereas leaders challenge it (Naoum, 2001, p.195).

Levels of Management

Strategic management, Tactical management, and Operational management are the three levels of management.

Strategic Administration

Strategic management is a sort of planned management that is designated for top-level managers and entails determining the organization's general direction, i.e. where it should be headed. This form of management focuses on topics such as the organization's purpose and the important social, political, and technological variables that could significantly impact the business. It is primarily a procedure by which strategic decision-makers define the organization's objectives within the restrictions of its existing resources and its mission (Dale, 1969, p.19).

Tactical Administration

This style of planning management is reserved for intermediate and lower-level managers and focuses on selecting the tasks to be completed, assigning roles and accountability, establishing quantitative metrics for each task, implementing the planned actions, and exercising controls.

Operational Management

Operational management involves the design and management of the transformation processes that create societal value in industrial and service businesses. It entails the quest for rigorous laws that regulate the behavior of physical systems and organizations. This form of management occurs at a lower organizational level (Loch and Wu, 2008, p.1).

Organizational Management Human Resource Elements

Human Resource entails establishing management processes to ensure that human talent is utilized effectively and efficiently to achieve corporate objectives (Mathis and Jackson, 2007, p.4). In any organization, small or large, people are required to do the necessary tasks. They must be effectively recruited, selected, trained, and managed. In addition, they must be compensated sufficiently and competitively and provided with applicable benefits. Therefore, the human resource sector of an organization will be responsible for all of the following functions: recruitment, training, talent management and development, compensation, risk management and worker protection, and employee and labor relations (Mathis and Jackson, 2007, p.4).

Finance inside a Business

The finance department controls the financial resources of the organization and records and reports all financial transactions. Other functions of an organization's finance department may include insurance and risk management, contract administration and pricing, internal auditing, investor relations, bank relations, and cash management, as well as ensuring the organization has sufficient funds to carry out its functions and that funds are invested productively (Siciliano,2003,p.5).


In the organization, planning entails selecting among numerous options. In this situation, decision-making becomes crucial; therefore, decision-making entails selecting, from limited or numerous possibilities, the organizational decision-making path that the company may pursue. The top-level management is generally responsible for decisions of high significance or consequence, and major decisions are rarely taken by a single manager alone (Liebler and McConnell, 2004, p.141). In many businesses, involvement in the decision-making process is determined by the organizational structure.

Several consecutive steps make up the decision-making procedure (Liebler and McConnell, 2004, p.144). The first stage is agenda development, which includes problem characterization; the second step is searching for alternatives; the third step is analyzing the alternatives; the fourth step is commitment; and the fifth step is ongoing evaluation of decisions. Occasionally, various obstacles can impede the decision-making process. These barriers emerge from the external social, political, and economic environment, as well as the organizational structure, organizational politics, and human nature (Liebler and McConnell, 2004, p.151).


Management of companies, whether small or large, is crucial to the organization's success. Organizational management must contain a number of interconnected, essential components. The success or failure of an organization will depend on the strategic decisions that are made with sufficient information of the business's internal and external operations. In order to remain relevant, many businesses have altered their decision-making procedures in response to developing concerns and globalization.


J.L. Liebler and R.C. McConnell (2004). Management concepts for health care professionals, fourth edition, Jones & Bartlett Learning, Boston, MA. Web.

Loch, C.H., and Y. Wu (2008). Behavioral Operations Management. Massachusetts: Now Publishers Inc.

Mathis, R.L., and J.H. Jackson (2007). Human Resource Management. Internet. Ohio: Cengage Learning.

Pharmacy Management, Leadership, Marketing, and Finance. MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. Web. Marie, C. A., and M. A. Chisholm-Burns. 2010.

Naoum, S. (2001). Construction personnel and organizational administration. Web page authored by Thomas Telford in London.

Roussel, L., Swansburg, R.C. and Swansburg, R.C. (2006). Leadership and management for nurse administrators. Web., MA, Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Sapru, R.K. (2006). Administrative Theories and Management Thought, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, Web.

Siciliano, G. (2003). Finance for the non-financial manager. NY, McGraw-Hill Professional. Web.

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