Analysis Of Nivea’s Advertisement Image Essay Help Websites

The image is crucial to advertising, as it captures the attention of passersby when they pass billboards on the street. With order to effectively convey the value and purpose of a product or service, businesses must do so in a single image. An image for a Nivea men's moisturizer is an example of this type of advertisement, since it captures the attention of the target demographic and stimulates the purchase of a product with a simple image and a few fitting words.

Advertising body care goods for guys is difficult because the ethos of most societies prohibits males from using cosmetics. Therefore, even a skin moisturizer that reduces wrinkles must be advertised in a way that attracts but does not intimidate the target population. In a series of images from Nivea, it is evident that the brand has captured the attention of its target demographic by tackling relatable life situations. In the middle of the frame of each photograph is a man's forehead with deep, extensive wrinkles. These creases are the result of an incomplete home, a youngster at play, or a wrecked vehicle, depending on the image. Since this image is positioned in the center, it seeks to capture attention and illustrates the most pertinent problem for men. This symbol represents the stress males have as a result of having to tackle "adult" concerns, such as repairing a house or automobile and raising children. Therefore, the fundamental strategy for attracting customers is to emphasize the prevalent problem before demonstrating the solution.

In addition, a small image of the Nivea moisturizer can be seen in the appropriate area in the photograph. This position in the photo's corner underlines that the customer's problem is the company's top priority, and that their product is the solution. However, while the corporate emblem is plainly recognizable, the product name is obscured, which is both an advantage and a negative. A potential purchaser may pay attention to the brand, but if he does not know what type of product he need, he will decline to purchase the item to save time. On the other hand, since there are virtually no variations between moisturizers from different companies, the emphasis on the emblem can persuade the buyer to choose this firm instead of purchasing a different brand by accident. In light of this, the placement and size of the product image are reasonable and suitable.

The text surrounding the photograph is another crucial component of this commercial. The statement “Because life makes wrinkles” appears in the corner of the image, attracting the audience's attention. Since context is added by any background information in the image, these words are also an explanation (Sheffield). This phrase is easily readable, as it is printed in white letters on a dark background and is placed next to the product image, creating a connection between them. The laconic idea clarifies that wrinkles are a typical aspect of aging for all guys due to the obstacles and stress they experience in life. Nevertheless, the association established earlier reveals that both wrinkles and tension can be reduced or eliminated by using the Nivea cream. The sentence strengthens associations and urges the viewer to purchase the product, even when the image itself is self-explanatory.

Additionally, the usage of color is an integral component of the image. The images of the males are placed on a dark background to create contrast. The black color that surrounds the man's head represents stress, which exerts pressure on him, while highlighting the central image of wrinkles. This background also increases the visibility of the metallic design of the goods and the white color of the lettering. In addition, all elements have cold tones, which maintains the image's restraint and prevents distractions from the product. Thus, all colors are coordinated, and their combination is appropriate for the advertising setting.

In conclusion, the advertisement for Nivea's men's moisturizer contains all the characteristics of an effective product advertisement. The core topic is pertinent and appropriate for the many guys in the target audience because it relates to life's challenges. The placement and design of the elements also help to the disclosure of this concept, draw the attention of prospective purchasers, and encourage them to acquire the goods. Additionally, the use of subtle hues and tones allows the product to stand out in the overall composition without detracting from the principal concept. All of these factors come together to form the ideal image for advertising a men's beauty product.


Notes cited

Breaking Down an Image by Jenna Pack Sheffield. Writing Common, 2016. Web.

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Minimum Wage And The Poverty Gap Essay Help Websites


Since minority groups have established a presence in the workforce, workplace diversity has been a source of heated debate. Due to the fact that minority groups have shown to be great assets to most firms in terms of skill and integrating new cultural perspectives into business, many companies have decided to create a productive workplace atmosphere. It is anticipated that by 2010, Anglo-American males will account for only 15% of all new recruits in the United States. The remainder will consist of minority groups, such as African-Americans, Asians, Native Americans, and women. (Yamashita 2004) Therefore, it would be advantageous for managers and businesses to prepare multicultural-focused policies immediately. Nevertheless, many managers have realized the drawbacks and risks of managing a heterogeneous staff without adequate diversity training and cultural sensitivity.

The hotel sector is, by its very nature, an industry that routinely faces intercultural difficulties. Hotels, and hotel chains in particular, may be viewed as a Petri dish for the study of the impact of multicultural and diversity policies on the business's viability, due to its inclusive nature. In other words, failure to manage cultural diversity in the hotel industry can be disastrous.

However, rules regarding a multicultural workforce and their effects on the hotel industry have not been as prominent. This study will seek to support Hilton Hotels Corporation's existing multicultural employment policy using current research on effective workforce management.

Diversity within the workforce

Multiculturalism is surprisingly difficult to define. It is currently defined to as the accommodation of all minority groups in a particular social or political situation by the majority group. (Madood 2007) Much of the action related with diversity stems primarily from the perception that minority groups are being de-ethnicized or marginalized. Some argue that assimilation into a dominant group should not include the loss of cultural identity. Advocates demand that minorities be treated as equal and distinct, as opposed to equal and identical, which is the nature of assimilation. This is the reason why "accommodation" is the recognized term today.

The management of a multicultural workforce can be a challenging task. Attempting to alter policies to accommodate multiple cultures in a single location will require a person with extensive training. Enforcement is a difficulty encountered by many organizations that have created and implemented diversity programs. Typically, there are no measurements to determine if the policies are effective or not, or even if they are being utilized.

Due to the fact that hotel managers and personnel are already trained to treat visitors with cultural sensitivity, the concept of diversity training in the hotel sector is likely not so revolutionary. However, hotel chains having locations in countries where the dominant culture is distinct from that of the core hotels will require particularly adaptable corporate practices.

Advantages of employing a diverse workforce

A multicultural workforce implies the organization has access to a greater pool of workers and a broader selection of the most qualified candidates for important roles in the sector. It also implies that there are more sources of culturally inspired new ideas and inventions that could have a substantial impact on the company's performance and productivity. At hotels, it is not uncommon for a Thai chef to be supervised by a French kitchen manager who reports to an American general manager in a Japanese hotel. Mixing cultures with recognized strengths that will complement one another depending on function and position is a savvy corporate strategy that is unique to the hospitality sector, but may be adapted to match other industries to a certain extent.

In addition, a multicultural workforce will have a greater chance of accurately assessing and meeting the demands and desires of a multicultural customer market. Once again, the hotel exemplifies this quality of multiplicity. The presence of a culturally varied hotel staff enhances the likelihood that a guest will be from the same nation and will feel more at ease. Considering that this is the hotel industry, this is likely the most crucial aspect of consumer happiness.

Overall, management of multiculturalism in the workplace that maximizes the resource's inherent diversity will increase productivity, innovation, and customer service.

Difficulties posed by a multicultural staff

The advantages of having a multicultural workforce stem from the workforce's heterogeneity, which can be utilized to boost efficiency. Nonetheless, this is also the source of numerous troubles in the workplace. “cultural deprivation” is the source of the challenges faced by many managers in multicultural workplaces. ” This is defined as having limited contact with other cultures; academic courses in human behavior and management strategies do not typically address this circumstance. In the United States, where the dominant white male culture remains, this is very evident. In fact, the majority of the employee motivation literature is centered on a predominantly white and male workforce. It goes without saying that this is no longer applicable in a society where more than half of the workforce is female or non-white (Copeland, 2006).

Managers of a multicultural staff may encounter preconceptions, cultural differences, membership, and unwritten rules. The problem with stereotypes is that they attribute to individuals attributes that are not always true. It restricts how one interacts with that individual because of a preconceived notion, e.g., women are emotional. Cultural differences impact the employees' attitudes and motives with regard to job satisfaction, worker interactions, and perceptions of organizational roles. Membership is the creation of relationships inside a group in which like tends to attract like, e.g., when males are the dominant group, male employees tend to be automatically granted membership. The unwritten rules consist of the implicit standards and guidelines that represent the culture and orientation of the ruling group. This is frequently unclear and informal, with the majority of the governing group accepting its existence. It negatively affects individuals who are subject to such restrictions, i.e., double standards.

These concerns are frequently challenging to resolve in corporate practices. It is mostly a concern for middle management, where proactive on-site employees can reflect and modify established business policy. This is especially important in the hospitality industry, as personnel may have direct interaction with end-users from varied cultural backgrounds.

To illustrate the case for the hotel and hospitality industry, an overview of Hilton Hotels Corporation's corporate-wide diversity management and employee training will be detailed and examined based on acknowledged multicultural practices that encourage diversity.

Corporation for Hilton Hotels

Conrad Hilton purchased his first hotel, The Mobley, in Cisco, Texas in 1919, but the first "The Hilton" was constructed in Dallas in 1925. In 1943, expansion began with the acquisition of The Roosevelt and The Plaza. (Achievements and innovations 2007) Since the company's inception, Hilton's attitude has been “It has been and continues to be our duty to flood the world with the light and warmth of hospitality. Today, he appears to have achieved success. The Hilton Hotels Corporation is a hotel chain consisting of approximately 2,800 hotels in 80 countries. The majority of these hotels are owned, managed, or franchised in North America and operate under the following hotel brands: "Hilton (497 hotels), Hilton Grand Vacations (34), Hilton Garden Inn (184), Conrad (17), Coral by Hilton (, Doubletree (173), Embassy Suites Hotels (180), Hampton Inn and Hampton Inn & Suites (1,380), Homewood Suites by Hilton (190), Scandic and The Waldorf=Astoria Collection (4)." 2004

Diversification Efforts

Given the global presence of Hilton Hotels, multiculturalism is a major concern for its management. In 1999, under the leadership of President and Chief Executive Officer Stephen Bollenbach, the hotel business started its "Diversity Works" Diversity Initiatives for its workers and suppliers. It is a top-down diversity management method that utilized the experience and knowledge of the corporation's top management to construct a long-term, proactive action plan to achieve the Initiatives' goals.

In particular, the initiatives included: "Formal Supplier Diversity Mission Statement and Program Implementation; Diversity Programs Advertising Campaign; Franchise Development Diversity Outreach Program; Diversity Training Programs; Mentoring Program; Hotel Management Diversity Performance Measurements; Corporate Management Diversity Performance Measurements; Annual Week-long Cultural Diversity Festival; Charitable Giving Programs." "Hilton Hotels Corporation Recognizes Diversity as a Priority; Top-Down Commitment Drives Bottom-Line Results" (2003, Hilton Hotels Corporation).

According to the Diversity Committee of the hotel family, the results have been positive. Regarding human resources and training, the effectiveness of the aforementioned measures is described as follows:

There are now 350 affirmative action programs in effect. Received letters of compliance from the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs 60% of the workforce is comprised of ethnic groups, while 50% of the workforce is female. 40% of managers are female, and 30% are members of minority groups Training on diversity was provided to all employees, including a curriculum for general managers. Mentoring programs were established with senior executives as mentors. Established the Hilton Hotels Management Program to ensure the advancement of qualified employees from varied backgrounds. To ensure compliance with specified criteria, the Diversity Committee devised a measurement system for diversity management and performance objectives. These performance objective ratings were factored into the calculation of bonuses and other incentive packages for hotel and business management personnel.

In recognition of these efforts, the Hospitality Industry Diversity Institute has awarded Stephen Bollenbach the Lifetime Achievement Award and the Hilton Hotels Corporation has been named to the “50 Best Companies for Minorities” list for three consecutive years. In 2000, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the National Coalition of Black Meeting Planners, both of which are prominent minority advocacy organizations, awarded the Hilton Hotel Corporation the Corporate Award and the Exhibitors Award, respectively. The Hilton Hotels family was presented with the 2002 Gold Medal Achievement Award by Saludos Hispanos magazine for "taking a leadership role in providing opportunities for success within the Hispanic community."

The Hilton Hotel Corporation has also forged relationships with numerous organizations dedicated to promoting diversity in the industry, such as the "National Society for Minorities in Hospitality, the U.S. Pan Asian American Chamber of Commerce, the U.S. Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, the Women's Business Enterprise National Council, the Native American Scholarship Program, and many others". "Hilton Hotels Corporation Recognizes Diversity as a Priority; Top-Down Commitment Drives Bottom-Line Results" (2003, Hilton Hotels Corporation).

It is undeniable that the Hilton Hotels Corporation's efforts to promote diversity within its ranks have been comprehensive, extensive, and effective, as confirmed by independent organizations.

Analysis of the Diversity Initiatives of Hilton Hotels

Hilton's Diversity Initiatives meet the criteria for effective management of a culturally diverse staff, including the adoption of a top-down diversity management strategy, the use of mentoring strategies to facilitate diversity training, and an emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge and cultural competencies. The Diversity Committee that devised the programs was comprised of the most experienced and culturally savvy corporate and hotel executives. Through mentorship programs, the Initiatives utilized this experience to create a trickle-down effect in the quest of acculturation and diversity training.

In terms of effectiveness, the goal-oriented approach of performance ratings for hotel and corporate management is possibly the most intriguing. This is a proactive technique for guaranteeing the application and enforcement of policies, which is the primary challenge of the majority of diversity management initiatives. And because incentives and bonuses are related to performance ratings, this has increased the total drive to implement the procedures and training designed to promote the multiculturalism of the workforce, extending even to suppliers and third parties.

Résumé et conclusion

Especially in today's globalized economy, multiculturalism is not a subject that can be treated lightly. Minority groups' sheer numbers have made them a force to be reckoned with, which will inevitably lead to their rising dominance in all sectors of industry and society. In a sector as a whole, this dominance has been apparent in the workforce, where a quarter or more of employees are typically from varied cultural backgrounds, which may or may not have a presence in management. Due to the recognition of the value of this multicultural identity, diversity policies and training have been developed. Despite the greatest intentions, the paradigm shift from a largely white male workforce to a multicultural workforce has been troublesome for certain companies.

Some successful solutions for managing a culturally diverse workforce applicable to the majority of industries have been identified. These include developing management rules that emanate from the top management, preserving respect for cultural differences, and learning more about aspects of cultural diversity in order to gain a better understanding of effective management and motivational strategies.

Particularly, the hotel and hospitality industry has a head start in cultural diversity training because the nature of the business necessitates adaptable rules for dealing with multiple cultures. To extend this cross-cultural philosophy from a customer-focused to a workforce- and supplier-focused stance, it has been required to implement substantial and severe processes to develop a viable diversity program.

As an illustration of these measures, Hilton Hotels Corporation has been scrutinized. It was called the ideal example of a hotel with complex diversity challenges due to its status as a public company with more than 2,800 properties in 80 countries. According to an examination of the methods and strategies adopted, the hotel family has complied with many of the suggestions of research and studies aimed at enhancing workplace diversity. This has been independently confirmed by advocacy groups and government organizations.

The Hilton Hotels Corporation has been successful in creating and implementing sustainable initiatives for the Diversity Initiatives. Those in the hotel business would be very interested in additional research on how the committee was run, the real procedures utilized to design the initiatives, and the numerous training programs. The use of performance goal measurements and associated incentives is also an innovation that would facilitate the documentation of the efficacy of a specific diversity management program and should be implemented in diversity management techniques not only in the hotel and hospitality industry but also in other industries.


"Management of a diverse workforce," 2001. Black Enterprise. Bollenbach, S, 2007, A message from our CEO. Copeland, L. (2006). Managing a diverse staff. Hilton Hotels Corp. selects a new senior sales manager for Hilton Baltimore. "Hilton Hotels Corporation Recognizes Diversity as a Priority; Top-Down Commitment Is Company's Bottom-Line Focus" 2003. Business Wire. Gale Group. How Diversity is Implemented in Hilton Hotels Corporation Human resources and training in 2007 Managing a diverse workforce in 2006. Web. Marketing and sales 2007's landmarks and innovations North, R., and L. Hort. "Cross-cultural influences on employee commitment in the hotel industry: preliminary thoughts." North, R., and L. Hort. Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, volume 4, number 1, pages 22 through 34. Managing diversity in the hotel industry: The case of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, by J. Spillane. The Web's Most Comprehensive Directory of Company Career Centers and Leading Multicultural Businesses 2006. Web. Top-down responsibility and commitment 2007. Yamashita, K. (2004). The significance of building a multicultural diversity training program in the Minneapolis hotel business.

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Hewlett Packard: The Merger With The Compaq Corporation Essay Help Websites


A merger is one of the techniques used to boost a company's competitive advantage through obtaining market share. Mergers are a frequent business strategy, particularly in the aftermath of globalization. Many businesses believe that mergers would help them to acquire the necessary capital base and other resources, so making them more competitive in an increasingly competitive business climate. Hewlett-Packard Company (HP) and Compaq Computer Corporation (Compaq) announced their intention to merge in September. The declaration was made in response to rising competition in the computer sector, where competitors sought to expand their market share. HP planned to acquire Compaq for $24 billion. This merger was the first of its kind in the computer industry. With operations in more than 160 countries, the resulting corporation was to be one of the largest in the computer industry. Additionally, the merger was intended to produce a corporation that would provide some of the most comprehensive goods and services in the computer industry. Bill Herculett and David Packard, two important HP stockholders, opposed the transaction. However, the then-CEO of HP, Carly Fiorina, was anxious to close the purchase because she believed it would increase the company's competitiveness in the computer sector. In addition to opposition, it was anticipated that the technological merger would fail. The case study examines the effects of the merger on HP's performance in the computer market.

Background research

The Hewlett-Packard Company was founded by Bill Hewlett and David Packard in 1938. Initially, the company dealt in electronic instruments. In the 1940s, the company's instruments were able to obtain market acceptability, and it had its first significant expansion. The company was able to grow rapidly and capitalize on the constantly expanding electronic market. First offering of company shares to the public occurred in 1957. In the 1960s, HP expanded into medical equipment by acquiring Sanborn Company. In later years, the organization continues to develop fresh trends. It entered the computer industry in 1974 with the introduction of its first minicomputer. In the 1980s, HP was a significant competitor in the computer market and offered a vast selection of products. In the 1980s, the business also introduced successful products such as LaserJet and Inkjet printers. Prior to the merger, HP mostly dealt in printing equipment and Compaq in personal computers (Luthans, Doh and Hodgetts 198)..

Rationale for Merger

Intense competition in the personal computer business was the primary impetus for the merger. Due to a rise in competition and a decline in profit margin, the 1990s were a difficult time economically for personal computer companies. Small firms in the industry were particularly vulnerable to losing market leaders. Industry analysts projected that small businesses will merge in order to remain competitive. Hewlett-goods Packard's prior to the merger included Unix servers, electronic commerce software, printers, ink cartridges, PCs, network management, and hosted services (Lohr 3). Compaq's goods, on the other hand, including personal computers, storage, servers, and pocket competitors. HP's principal competitors included IBM, Dell, Compaq, and Canon. Compaq's key competitors, on the other side, included IBM, Dell, Sun Microsystems, HP, and Palm.


The merger proposal was met with conflicting responses from the founders' family, investors, analysts, and employees. Walter Hewlett was one of the most influential parties who strongly opposed the merger. He vehemently opposed the deal. As a trustee and board member of the William R. Hewlett, he committed to utilize his power to convince the stakeholders to reject the merger. To reject the offer, he sought the support of his sisters and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. He desired to use their combined 5% share to vote against the transaction. The easiest method for the founders' families to oppose the agreement was if the merger was rejected by the stakeholders. The board had to persuade Hewlett of the necessity of the proposed merger and limit the harm he had already caused. Carly Fiorina's position as CEO of the firm was jeopardized by the Hewlett family's refusal to oppose the merger. The Hewlett family had a substantial investment in the company, therefore their refusal to disapprove the merger had a significant impact on the agreement and Carly Fiorina's future. Hewlett argued that Carly Fiorina exceeded her authority. She overstated the advantages of scale in business. He argued that the proposed combination would not increase the company's competitiveness and could result in the brutalization of the low-profit PC industry. He argued that a merger with Compaq Company would significantly impair the value of the company's lucrative printing sector. The merger would result in a company portfolio that is inferior to the current Hewlett-Packard Portfolio. The ensuing greater PC position would result in increased risks and financial outflows; hence, the merger would not result in a higher profit margin and less commodity-like operations, contrary to the stated aim (Lohr 1).

Obstacles to the merger

Integration issues are always related with mergers. Combining the companies will result in extraordinary complications, which will balance cost efficiencies and create revenue threats. Both companies have separate unique cultures. Conflict will arise about how to integrate the cultures of the two companies. Merging the two companies will have unattractive financial consequences for HP shareholders. The reaction of the market to the merger is quite unfavorable. Royal customers of HP products may lack confidence in the united company's offerings. Compaq will have a greater relative contribution to earnings after the merger than HP. The combination will increase HP's risk of dilution and reduce its creditworthiness. All of these issues will result in greater equity risks and increased capital costs. Hewlett contended that the merger of the two companies would result in significant employment losses, which was contrary to the HP Way. He accused Fiorina of authoritarian management and argued that her efforts to alter the company's culture ran counter to the founding principles of the corporation. He cited the large layoffs of staff as a violation of the company's founding ideals. He noted that the proposed merger will result in the loss of employment for 15,000 individuals, with additional job losses expected to occur. This was contrary to the company's goals to "provide employment opportunities that include the opportunity to share in the company's success and maintain an organizational environment that encourages individual motivation, initiative, and creativity." Compared to small owners, he said that family shareholders abhor placing their enormous wealth at risk in family businesses. The founders' families had a stronger desire to maintain their acquired fortune than to develop more (Luthans Doh and Hodgetts 254-264).

Due to the fact that the two families were big shareholders, any action that could jeopardize their substantial investment in the company would be met with opposition. There have been issues between the two firms' direct and indirect sales channels. They have been unsuccessfully attempting to solve these issues. The HP culture is based on consensus, while the Compaq culture is based on swift decision making. It could take some time to integrate and synchronize the cultures, according to the company's analysts, who warned of tension in the merger's early years. Opponents of the merger plan argued that the merger would result in internecine conflict inside the new business, causing it to not only lose direction but also skilled workers. The infighting within the new corporation would provide an advantage to the company's rivals, particularly IBM. Before the new company stabilizes and resolves its internal conflict, IBM will have seized the market. Carly Fiorina, the architect of the merger, manifestly lacked the necessary abilities to handle the merger. Although she was able to complete the merger, it proved more challenging than she anticipated. Her high level of abrasiveness as a manager and her refusal to hear the advise of the founding families and other significant owners led to open charges between her and Hewlett, a situation that damaged the faith of many investors in the success of the merger. The first three years following the merger were extremely challenging for Fiorina. Despite uniting the resources of the two companies, the merger failed to produce the anticipated benefits. In 2005, the merger was on the brink of failure. According to Fortune magazine, the merger was a risky wager that never paid off. It did not come close to achieving what it was intended to achieve (Luthans et al 254-264).

The anticipated outcome of the merger

The acquisition would enhance the size of the HP service segment and raise HP's market share in hardware. This would provide HP with an advantage over rivals like as IBM and Dell. The merger would result in the development of a full-service technology corporation able to sell PCs, printers, and set up complicated networks. The combination would decrease superfluous marketing expenses, such as advertising and shipping, and preserve a significant portion of both companies' income. The combination between HP and Compaq would strengthen the competitive position of the new company. Fiorina stated that the focus of this acquisition will be on consolidation, as opposed to diversification, in order to disprove the founders' families' belief that mergers between IT companies do not succeed. She emphasized that proposed changes to the HP approach are always innovative and bold. She saw that HP had adopted a bureaucracy based on entitlement and agreement. She emphasized that the merger was necessary by the company's significant values, such as creativity, change, and innovation. She stated that the proposed combination would create significant value for HP shareholders by presenting a unique opportunity capable of enhancing the enterprise's position. The merger would result in the production of new value, the provision of end-to-end leadership, the enhancement of employee skills and the expansion of the sales force, and the strategic differentiation of the company's products from those of its competitors. The combination would accelerate the rate of improvement of the Compaq Company's direct access capabilities and reduced cost structure, leading to better model benefits, admission to new enterprise accounts, and an increase in its capacity to reinvest for development. The resulting firm would be stronger than both of its predecessors, and it would be able to outperform its competitors in terms of revenue and market share. Fiorina maintained that the amalgamated company would substantially boost profitability, operational margins, and access to services. Access was forecast to decrease from 4% to 3%, whereas service delivery was anticipated to increase from 5% to 14%. The mergers would substantially enhance predicted financials, increasing the EBIT margin from 5% to 9%. Due to the merged assets, the balance sheet would be strengthened by $8.2 billion in pro forma cash and net cash of $724 million. In fiscal year 2003, which would be the first full year of operation for the merged business, the planned merger would result in a significant buildup of earnings equivalent to 13%. Increasing annual synergies to $2.5 billion (Anders 234-238).

Evaluation of Business Strategy

Assuming no revenue upsides and a 10 percent income loss in exposed venture and access segments, as well as the market segment analysis indicating a 12 percent loss in contribution margin income, the overall income would increase substantially based on the market segment study. The value gained by uniting the companies would exceed the premium paid. The merger would give the joint venture operational capability. Any company's success depends on its capacity to achieve its goals. The merger would aid the joint venture in creating more efficient means of carrying out its responsibilities. The merger would facilitate integration planning, which would considerably concentrate value-creating methods. This would be accomplished effectively by maximizing the generation of value for all stakeholders. Following careful planning, the merger would result in the formation of a robust staff of more than 450 employees led by renowned advisors. The leaders and management of the amalgamated company have extensive expertise with complex organizational transformations. The merger would result in a complete reorganization of the HP and Compaq organizations. It might consolidate the product lines of both companies into four primary operating areas. It was anticipated that the resulting company would stay competitive in its original product sectors. It was anticipated that the amalgamated company would be a full-service technology corporation that would mix software and hardware into solutions while also delivering services. Carly Fiorina justified the merger by stating that it was in the stockholders' best interests (Fiorina 69-72).

The merger provided HP stockholders a substantial stake in the planned new business, as they were to have 64 percent of the shares while Compaq shareholders were to hold 36 percent. The merging company's primary growth plan was to find possibilities to obtain a dominant position in the lucrative consulting and services industries. Fiona suggested that integrating the two businesses would combine their respective strengths. Compaq Company was successful in engineering the entire line, while HP was successful in manufacturing consumer goods.

Initial Failures

As anticipated, the HP-Compaq combination did not produce beneficial benefits. As a result of the stock market's negative reaction to the merger, both companies' market share prices experienced a steep decline. Two days after the merger, HP share prices declined by around 21.5%, while Compaq share prices declined by approximately 15.7%. In subsequent weeks, the decline continues. Two weeks following the merger, the share price of HP fell by an additional 17%. This was the outcome of diminished investor confidence. The decline in investor confidence and the decline in share prices were mostly attributable to unfavorable comments from analysts and competitors. Numerous analysts opposed the technical merger. Many of them expressed displeasure and were unable to comprehend how the two corporations could mutually benefit.

HP faced intense rivalry from other firms in the computer business. In order to compete with Dell Computers, the company employed low-cost and direct marketing techniques. IBM also presented formidable opposition for HP in the personal computer and consulting industries. Compared to their performance before the merger, HP share prices continued to perform poorly on the stock market. In June 2005, HP's stock was valued at approximately US$ 23 per share. Prior to the merger in 2001, this stock's price was higher. The decline in share prices suggested that the combination failed to deliver shareholder value as expected. As compared to other companies in computer industry, HP performed poorly. Lexmark, HP’s major competitor, had a 60 percent rise

Customer Centricity In E-Business Essay Help Websites

Table of Contents
Customer-Focusedness as a Concept Difficulties of Customer-Orientation Examples of Customer-Centricity in E-Business References

Numerous sectors and economic spheres have prioritized client centricity for several decades. Customized operations and services that put customers at the center of corporate processes, so granting them greater influence as stakeholders, have dramatically improved the customer experience (Fournier 2011). In consumer-centric contexts, customers have the capacity to influence marketing and business tactics, adjust product variety and look, and act as brand and business image producers. The rapid growth of information and communication technology had a significant impact on the dynamics and behavior of consumers. Customer connections are equally essential to the entire profitability and competitiveness of e-commerce-dependent businesses and organizations. Nonetheless, e-commerce enterprises must adapt their customer-centric approach to their virtual environment in light of the distinctions between brick-and-mortar and online customer behavior.

Customer-Focusedness as a Concept

As a concept, client centricity has occupied the attention of business professionals for some time. Its impact on corporate performance has been debated for almost half a century (Shah et al. 2006). Historically, client centricity was a source of debate and inquiry. Its significance is now generally acknowledged, and the concept is utilized in a vast array of businesses. Customer centricity's guiding premise is the alignment of a company's operations, goods, and services with the needs of its customers (Fader 2012). In other words, rather than focusing on selling their products to consumers, customer-centric organizations are primarily concerned with satisfying their requirements.

A company organization can benefit from a customer-centric approach. First, it helps to strengthen and develop a positive brand image by associating it with an emphasis on service delivery and customer service excellence (Bucci 2012). Secondly, in today's world when customer experience is highly valued, firms that employ customer-centric strategies are able to enhance their revenue by adding value to the goods and services they provide (The journey toward greater customer centricity 2013). Thirdly, client centricity enables companies to cover their consumer categories with greater depth and involvement. Specifically, KPMG (2016) researchers define the adoption of customer-centric models in firms as operating "from the inside out and the outside in" (p. 5). This statement indicates that business insiders, such as employees, leaders, managers, and service-providing teams, are able to connect with their customers, collect feedback, and use it for the benefit of the business and the betterment of the customer experience. In this manner, customers and businesses engage in a continuous interaction that benefits both parties.

Difficulties of Customer-Orientation

In addition to its tremendous benefits, client centricity presents numerous hurdles to businesses who adopt this strategy. In fact, as observed by Shah et al. (2006), numerous contemporary businesses face challenges and encounter problems in their efforts to become customer-centric. The greatest obstacles associated with this strategy include the requirement to "read the minds of customers," the difficulties of transforming organizational structure, culture, and processes away from product-centricity, and the modification of financial KPIs to reflect the new strategy (KPMG 2017; Shah et al. 2006). Furthermore, Viehland (2000) projected that in the 21st century, customers will become increasingly tech-savvy and knowledgeable. In order to focus on satisfying their needs and desires, businesses will have to become accustomed to engaging with customers who are educated, intelligent, and conscious of their importance to firms. According to PWC (2014), one of the primary obstacles of customer centricity is that consumers have become accustomed to simple buying and service experiences that can be evaluated at any time of day. This trend causes customers to anticipate firms to be "always on" (PWC 2014, p. 1). In practice, this remark indicates that firms must invest significantly more effort in client connections than they would if they relied on the traditional 9 am to 5 pm timetable.

Customer-Focusedness in E-Business

The incorporation of contemporary digital technology into the sphere of commerce led to the birth of e-business, in which marketing and commercial operations are conducted online utilizing digital means. E-business organizations, like all other sorts of businesses, confronted the increasing relevance of customer pleasure and experience for organizational effectiveness. Due to the fact that e-businesses operate online and communicate with their customers digitally, their approach to customer relationship management differs from that of brick-and-mortar merchants.

Firstly, e-businesses enjoy a higher level of consumer satisfaction since they operate online and offer a greater degree of convenience, ease of access, and 24-hour availability (Kumar & Kumar 2014). Moreover, e-businesses lack the human contact capabilities of brick-and-mortar service providers, which hurts their customer relationship management positions. In addition, e-businesses must rely on a set of specialized customer care methods. In an effort to engage customers, advertise their services, and retain existing consumers, e-businesses frequently bombard them with spam and unsolicited emails (Kumar & Kumar 2014). The latter has a significant detrimental effect on the client experience. The difficulty in measuring the expenses of maintained vs newly gained clients, the required input in customer experience management processes, and the value of acquired advantages is a further significant problem for e-businesses (Kumar & Kumar 2014).

In order to understand how to traverse the various customer centricity techniques, e-businesses must do rigorous and repeated customer base and market research, according to a critical analysis of the material offered above. In addition, according to Jain (n.d.), knowledge is one of the most valuable things a modern organization may possess. E-businesses that operate online are able to obtain the required information regarding customer requirements. However, they must take an innovative approach to customer market research, as consumers seeking online experiences may be less eager to complete lengthy surveys and answer open-ended questions.


Dow Chemicals is one of the examples that can be examined for the aim of exploring client centricity in e-business. This is a renowned manufacturer of agricultural, plastic, and chemical goods. Dow Chemicals began operating as an e-business in the middle of the 1990s, developing its online presence and beginning to sell its products via a website (Chandran & Gupta 2004). Dow Chemicals encountered technology problems in addition to those revolving around organizational structure and culture adjustments, which Shah et al. (2006) identified as some of the major issues in customer centricity. Insufficient client experience was offered by their first website interface. The e-commerce approach required modifications and eventually incorporated customer-centric order and purchase management, a personalized interface with product-related information, and an order-tracking feature that kept consumers informed. is another e-business noted for its customer-centric approach. This company began as an online bookstore., aware of its lack of hands-on experience and personal interactions with customers, added a number of functions such as the option to search for books by their contents, suggestions for related or similar products, a quick checkout process, and the ability to view a few pages of selected books ( 2006). As a result, this e-business was able to defeat many of its brick-and-mortar rivals by offering features that made online shopping simpler and quicker than physical shopping.

In addition, the customized supply chain is one of the most significant advantages utilized by the majority of e-businesses. This method enables them to expedite product deliveries via overnight and one-day shipping alternatives. Consumers adore and respect these characteristics. As a result, some companies employed them as value-added initiatives. Consequently, this ability is an additional major advantage of customer-centric e-businesses that encourages consumers to favor e-shopping over traditional shopping.

References, Web, 2006.

Bucci, D. (2012). Customer-Centricity: Why Now More Than Ever!

Chandran, M., and Gupta, V. (2004). The consumer-centric e-business approach of Dow Chemicals.

Customer centricity: focusing on the right customers for strategic advantage, second edition, Wharton Digital Press, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2012.

The unwanted brand. Business Horizons, volume 54, number 3, pages 193-207, 2011.

Web. Jain, V.P., Importance of information flow, customer relationship management, and customer satisfaction in e-commerce strategic management, n.d.

The route toward increased client centricity, web page, 2013.

Seeking client centricity: KPMG 2016, Web.

KPMG 2017, The online consumer reality, Web.

E-business: advantages and disadvantages in customer relationship management. International Journal of Management and International Business Studies, volume 4, issue 3, pages 349-356, 2014.

PWC, The Cluetrain Manifesto, and embracing the "always on" consumer, Web, 2014.

Shah, D., R.T. Rust, A. Parasuraman, D. Staelin, and G.S. Day, "The path to customer centricity," Journal of Service Research, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 113-124, 2006.

Critical success elements for designing an e-business strategy. Research Letters in the Information and Mathematical Sciences, vol. 1, no. 1, 2000, pp. 1-7.

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Business Strategy For The Apple Inc. Essay Help Websites

Strategic planning
Statements of mission, vision, and core competencies

A mission statement explains the purpose of an organization. It is formally documented and widely known throughout the organization. It explains the company's main objectives, informs decision-making, and provides a feeling of direction (Daft and Dorothy, 2009). Vision, on the other hand, describes the future strategic objectives of a corporation. A company's core competency refers to a distinct factor that the company considers important to its operations.

Apple Inc. is among the worldwide corporations that have utilized strategic planning to sustain their industry leadership. This is its mission statement:

Apple’s business strategy capitalizes on its ability to design and develop its own operating system, hardware, and numerous software applications and technologies in order to provide its global customers with compelling new products and solutions that feature superior usability, seamless integration, and innovative industrial design (Miller, 2010).

"Introducing innovative, high-quality consumer electronics to the masses through impressive performance and leadership" is their vision statement (Miller, 2010)

The firm's main competencies consist on its marketing mix, technology, and product Lifecycle Management (PLM). The company's use of technology and design has enabled it to mix functionality with beauty. Its marketing mix combines the four Ps (Product, Price, Placement, and Promotion) to provide customers with an intuitively functioning product.

The involvement of shareholders in adopting specified plans

Stakeholders are individuals or groups who have invested in or have an interest in a business (Kessler, 2000). A shareholder is not required to be a stakeholder in a business. Apple's stakeholders consist of preferred and ordinary shareholders, creditors, product manufacturers, employees, suppliers, customers, software developers, and now the music business.

Stakeholders play a crucial role in the implementation of specified corporate strategy. A company's strategy must benefit all of its stakeholders, including the local community in which it operates. When implementing a plan, it is crucial for a firm to get the support of its stakeholders to secure a positive connection with them and their consent. Suppliers may not be consistent, employees may not be loyal, shareholders may not support diverse investments, and customers may transfer their loyalty when stakeholders are in disagreement.

Internal and environmental audit

Political-legal variables in a PEST analysis

Apple has a global presence, making it susceptible to foreign laws and regulations. Regional trade, such as that of the European Union, provides the company with immense potential by allowing it to operate in larger markets under the same regulations. Political upheaval in various places, such as the ongoing turmoil in Arabic nations and terrorism, has a significant impact on Apple's entire company operations and sales. Since Apple relies heavily on access to the intellectual property of third parties, it faces constant infringement challenges in several nations (Bach, 2010). Lawsuits filed against it may then negatively affect its reputation and cost it a great deal of money.

Economic factors

Apple's revenues and profitability are heavily influenced by the economic conditions of other nations. Due to lower consumer spending, Apple's growth rate has slowed in recent years as a result of the sluggish economy. As a result of the global economic crisis, several governments have reduced expenditures in their educational sectors in recent years, which has negatively impacted Apple's educational sales. Tariffs and tax rates often vary between markets, generating revenue volatility for the business.

Social-cultural factors

Apple's products are received differently across its various markets. Utilization of computers and the internet has been far greater in industrialized nations than in developing markets. Currently, demand for computers, phones, and other consumer gadgets is increasing in nearly all markets. This creates an opportunity for Apple and has resulted in increased corporate income. Apple's business is reliant on the fact that education is a priority for many nations today.

Technological variables

Each day, new challenges on the market necessitate new solutions, and Apple must stay up. Apple's business is based on technology; therefore, the company cannot afford to provide obsolete products on the market. Apple must invest more in technological innovation and development as the number of people who value technology rises.

Porter's five forces study Competition

The consumer electronics sector is not yet established, providing Apple with experimental opportunities. Apple is better positioned to advertise itself due to the strength of its brand identification. Microsoft's Windows operating system and media player for video and music continue to pose significant competition for Apple. Competition in the market for operating systems and computer hardware persists, particularly in the Linux applications. There are numerous upcoming online music stores with similar features to Apple's, such as Napster, and other firms now provide MP3 players.

Supplier power

Apple's market is expanding positively as the company expands into additional regions. However, the unavailability of substitute inputs presents a significant obstacle for the organization. Apple's suppliers of processors include IBM and Motorola, two businesses with strong bargaining positions. Strategic connections amongst Apple's suppliers will provide the company with substantial benefits. Its music sources, including BMG, Warner, and Sony, are all large corporations with considerable negotiating leverage.

Obstacles to admission

Apple may not have absolute cost benefits while attempting to enter new areas due to the current level of competition. Apple's brand identification provides a competitive edge in its existing markets, making it difficult for new entrants to obtain market share. Its financial position also enables it to easily meet the capital needs for new markets and to combat the plans of new competitors. However, businesses offering streaming video and audio technologies pose a greater danger.

Buyer power

Apple's brand identification provides the company with a significant competitive edge once more. Through marketing and Apple stores, the corporation assures that consumers receive the correct product information. Numerous nations are presently experiencing significant economic expansion, resulting in increased customer volumes. Price sensitivity is a concern and may play a significant impact in product differentiation. Threat of competition

Due to the high costs of conducting business in many regions of the world, switching costs are substantial. The majority of Apple product purchasers demonstrate brand loyalty, reducing their propensity to seek alternatives. As a result, the introduction of new products has little effect on performance.

SWOT analysis

Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities and dangers

-Apple enjoys market dominance

-The company produces its own hardware and software.

It can afford current technology and its products have a short life cycle.

Apple places greater emphasis on its "I" products.

-Low standing as an employer -Rising demand for anti-virus products

-Increasing populations and market sizes

-Online marketing opportunities

-Computer industry expansion -Hardware incompatibility with rivals' software

-Strong levels of opposition

-Premium-priced goods

Product's positions

Apple's robust market presence has been affected by a variety of factors. In the past four years, Apple's iPhone market share has increased from 21% to 25.3%. Greater profits are anticipated for the business. The company's iPod device and the iTunes music store today enjoy a dominant market position and generate substantial revenue. The iPod's compatibility with the Windows platform is a distinguishing feature that has contributed to its popularity among IT enthusiasts.

Apple's business model has allowed it to remain ahead of the competition for an extended period of time. The company creates its own hardware and software, providing it a cost-saving and quality-enhancing advantage. Since its clients are more concerned with the quality and experience of the items, they are barely influenced by market price competitions. Utilizing web technologies and marketing has also provided significant benefits to the firm. The brand enjoys high brand loyalty, and the company's excellent financial position and low debt level allow it to capitalize on new opportunities.

Value chain analysis

The incoming logistics of Apple are robust and well-established. The company has cooperated with logistics firms such as DHL to facilitate the delivery of supplies, raw materials, and finished goods in a timely manner. Operations are separated into production, information technology, corporate, sales, marketing, human resources, research & development, logistics, and storage. The value chain analysis begins with the conception of a new product and continues through its design and funding, production, distribution, marketing, and customer service. After removing all minor retailers in the mid-1990s, the corporation has a strong national presence and manufactures all of its own chips. Marketing and advertising have been successful, and customer service is mostly based on meeting the wants of customers.

Porter’s generic techniques

"If the primary determinant of a firm's profitability is the attractiveness of the industry in which it operates, then its position within that industry is an important secondary determinant" 11 (Thompson and Strickland, 2000). Michael Porter says in his analysis of business strategies that a company's strength might fall into either the cost advantage or distinctiveness category (Daft and Dorothy, 2009). The strategies of cost leadership, focus, and distinction are discussed by Porter. "The cost leadership strategy requires being the industry's lowest-cost producer at a given quality level" (Daft and Dorothy, 2009). Apple has elected to implement the focus and differentiation techniques as opposed to this strategy.

Apple, Inc. has incorporated the focus strategy. For the majority of its goods, Apple has targeted affluent consumers. Apple enjoys greater consumer loyalty than the majority of its competitors, which prohibits them from engaging in direct competition with Apple. Apple has been able to create strengths in the targeted areas as a result of this strategy.

Even though Apple Inc. has implemented the focus approach, the corporation has prioritized the differentiation strategy by creating distinctive goods with qualities that maintain consumer loyalty. Uniqueness gives value to the products, making them desirable regardless of their price. Thus, the company can readily afford the costs associated with making its products distinctive. When the company's production costs rise, it is able to readily pass the increase on to consumers.

Strategy formulation

Business strategy plan

Apple has utilized a strategy of differentiation to keep ahead of its competition thus far. Its business strategy focuses on gaining and retaining new clients, expanding its market share, and remaining competitive. The company has created and adopted a "never talk to the press" communication policy after too much publicity nearly wrecked their reputation under the former CEO's leadership. It does not leak information about new goods until they are ready to be announced, and then employs the same discipline to generate massive interest and coverage with new product releases.

Apple's first strategy for keeping ahead in the industry consisted of acquiring small businesses whose goods could be readily integrated into the company's products and business. "Apple's 2002 acquisition of Emagic led to the development of its digital audio workstation software," as an example (Miller, 2010).

The second aspect of its business plan is ensuring it stays ahead of the competition and is in a position to readily influence the market. The company has recently revealed that the iPod touch is the most popular portable gaming system in the world. Over time, the company has evolved a program that enables it to maintain a positive relationship with its clients by establishing stores in every country in which it has a market presence.

Currently, the company has a stronger financial position than the majority of its competitors, making it more appealing to organizations seeking market alliances, such as music content producers. It has a stable business strategy, a large market share, a high level of technology, and the ability to continue producing new items, all of which keep it at the top and make it more consumer-friendly.

Future direction

Apple Inc. appears to be well-positioned for a greater and better future. However, there are still areas that must be addressed if the organization is to remain at the top. The company's reputation as an employer is threatened by reports that one of its contracted manufacturers in China has overworked and underpaid its employees. This is why the corporation must place a greater emphasis on labor audits. The strategy will aid the organization in retaining the majority of its current workforce and attracting superior talent on the market.

Additionally, the corporation faces difficulties with its ads. Even though the advertisements are professionally produced, they are criticized for providing the consumer with inadequate information. Apple's future business plan must incorporate improved advertising techniques that enable customers to make more informed judgments. Apple's relationship with its competitors remains a barrier to its expansion into new markets. Apple may be able to save a significant amount of money by leveraging the market knowledge of other companies if it establishes relationships with Intel and Microsoft.

The matrix developed by Ansoff.

Apple's implementation of a market penetration, product creation, market development, and diversification plan may not be straightforward. Already dominant in its industry, the corporation appears to be well ahead of the competitors. Apple Inc. must undertake marketing and development methods that will be difficult for the competitors to replicate in order to maintain its position. Apple appears to be focusing more on individual items like as communication devices and music players at present.

The company's digital rights management does not allow for the simple sharing of content, and this is drawing significant criticism from both competitors and clients. This could pose a threat to the organization, as content producers may withdraw if they receive better offers. With adequate considerations, the company’s future plan should include a change of this policy to offer clients greater access to the online stores of competitors. For a proper product development strategy, the company must introduce more products of new generation. The iPhone is becoming increasingly popular as an internet-enabled gadget, and the company must enhance it to fulfill the expectations of online users.

Evaluation and selection of strategies

With the introduction of the iPad’s processor, Apple has taken a significant step in integrating hardware and software. As a result, the corporation will no longer require chips from other manufacturers, reducing its independence from third parties. It will have cost-saving impacts on the firm and enable it to produce a chip that is tailored to its goods' requirements. According to Miller (2010), Apple has transitioned from purchasing off-the-shelf products to purchasing items that they can customize to their particular body type. The A4, chipset is one of the expectedly successful components. The business's

Bawling Energy Company’s Information Technologies Essay Help Websites


The usage of IT solutions by businesses has increased significantly over the past decade, elevating the level of competitiveness. This presentation will demonstrate that Bawling has encountered a number of obstacles and subsequently reaped the rewards of effective IT solutions. This article argues that this success is owed to a number of causes, but most notably the expansion in the use of IT solutions such as E-commerce, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Business Intelligence (BI), and Data Warehousing. Bawling Energy conducts a literature analysis to illustrate the challenges facing the oil and gas industry and the role of IT in resolving these problems. The conclusion presents an overview of the variables that have contributed to Bawling's success in the highly competitive oil and gas industry.


Bawling Energy Corporation is a fast expanding corporation engaged in the extraction and production of high-quality oil and gas in Texas, United States. Bawling Energy was founded in November 1980 on the premise of using cutting-edge oil and gas extraction techniques to the development of oil and gas projects. Bawling continues to optimize its production by concentrating its oil extraction efforts in the Mississippi oil window of Northern Oklahoma. First Bawling entered the oil and gas industry in 1980 with the purchase of commercial development land in Texas. This area was located within the Mississippi oil window and contained undiscovered oil reserves. Today, crude oil features have been added to the oil and gas industry.

Bawling's company strategy is based on the following guiding concepts. To maximize the value of available assets by boosting production and finding reserves while controlling expenses is the first objective. Second, continue to target certain areas where the organization has a competitive advantage due to the ever-changing technologies. Thirdly, maintain a highly competitive workforce comprised of qualified engineers and human resource workers by utilizing IT solutions effectively. Bawling aspires to become a prominent oil and gas exploration and production company in the United States and abroad.

Its objective is to maximize value for stakeholders in a reasonable manner, taking into account the integrity and local communities. The basic principles held by Bawling include professionalism, ethics, respect, diversity, self-motivation, creativity, and teamwork.

Since its inception, Bawling has encountered numerous possibilities and obstacles. Inadequate market information accessibility, sluggish accounting procedures, ineffective marketing methods, and time wastage are the greatest obstacles facing Bawling. As will be seen later in this paper, all of these shortcomings are linked to the improper usage of IT solutions. Cross-sector relationships are among the potential encountered thus far. Bawling has engaged in strategic partnerships to enhance environmental safety and achieve regulatory excellence. Increased demand for gas and oil properties has resulted in an expansion of market share. However, the growing market share has been made feasible by the use of new techniques such as e-commerce.

Despite the rising demand for oil and gas goods, market competition has risen as a result of the adaptability of international trade. In addition, the rapid growth of information technology makes it difficult for enterprises to continue updating manually. Bawling must implement Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Business Intelligence (BI), Data Warehousing, and E-commerce techniques in order to boost operational efficiency and maintain cost stability. ERP system is appropriate for merging departmental business operations into a centralized information system. ERP facilitates improved departmental cooperation and communication.

This enhanced flexibility helps Bawling Energy decrease expenses, reduce risk, maximize IT spending, and boost overall production. BI solutions facilitate the creation of rich and valuable data and the use of this data to daily operations so that teams can make successful and correct decisions. For instance, the information obtained by BI systems enables managers to get insight into client wants, market dynamics, and the most effective resource allocation techniques. Therefore, E-commerce remains the most important aspect of the internet that Bawling Energy uses for cross-border marketing and shopping.

Background material

This assessment focuses on Bawling Energy's project success by analyzing the elements that impact the company's IT solution adoption. The oil and gas industry regards information technology (IT) solutions as future-critical business methods. This study aims to investigate how IT solutions continue to facilitate transactions and expand markets, among other characteristics that make IT solutions more appealing. Historically, the progress of a project was reviewed using the three metrics of cost, time, and performance. Realizing that project success is multifaceted raises the question of whether different input elements can have a substantial effect on the success of different projects.

Baxter (2005) investigated the essence of developing an adequate IT system and determined that it not only results in efficient outputs, but also prompt replies. This author has demonstrated that a significant amount of high-stakes initiatives fail or miss their deadlines due to a lack of suitable IT solutions. According to Doloi (2009), some of these failures include budget overruns, ignored project requirements, and deleted specifications.

Bawling has chosen to engage in this new company strategy in order to reduce their operating expenses. This paper tries to build upon the IT solutions framework of Bawling Energy to demonstrate how e-commerce, BI, ERP, and DW have helped the company overcome operational issues. However, through a review of the relevant literature, this paper will demonstrate how Bawling's management bridges the gap between product manufacturing and marketing.

Research Methodology

This review conducted a comprehensive literature search to collect evidence from prior articles addressing the impact of IT solutions on the expansion of the oil and gas industry. Ten papers were chosen for the study, but upon closer inspection, the number was reduced to six. To comprehend the changing dynamics of the oil business, a review of the relevant literature centered on worldwide case studies of oil and gas firms. This search yielded articles primarily on IT developments in the oil and gas business. The analysis omitted sources that did not present problems with any of the selected IT solutions.

Literature Review

This assessment intends to assist the current analysis in gaining a tacit understanding of the opportunities and limits associated with IT solutions that influence the success of projects in the oil industry. This review examines prior research to identify opportunities for the proper application of IT solutions. Numerous researchers have investigated performance in various industries under different scenarios. In order to build a strategy that may be used to comprehend Bawling Energy's processes, a review is essential. Specifically, this article examines the literature concerning the many parts of management efficiency based on E-commerce, BI, and ERP.

According to Collins (2011), quality improvement comprises achieving predetermined criteria, and it is attained when the completed project adheres to the initial blueprints. This scholar describes quality as the outcome of a project management strategy based on time and budget constraints. Jha and Iyer (2007) analyzed the corporate performance of India's Shell Refining Company. In this study, the researchers analyzed the five-year performance of the Indian manufacturing industry based on market share, profitability, liquidity, and financial solvency. During the time of the study, a decline in the solvency and profitability margins was noted.

Poor corporate performance was attributed by this study to incorrect management of company information. This inefficiency was caused in part by the presence of distinct software for various procedures. When systems operate independently, it can cause significant harm to the processes designed to guarantee a company is operating efficiently. The ERP software connects various systems so that all operations can be performed on a single database.

Peslak (2012) sought to identify the factors that influence the economic growth of corporations. This study identified inadequate access to business-related information as the primary problem that impeded expansion. This study found that businesses that rely on spreadsheets that must be manually updated and retrieved may waste time. Following the rapid expansion of technology, corporate activity has accelerated. This modification requires staff to have fast access to vital data.

With an ERP and DW system, management may always have a complete perspective of corporate operations. Additionally, other staff members have access to the information they need to do their duties more effectively. It was determined that these elements include the application of BI, ERP, and Data Warehousing to improve planning, advertising, and procurement. These traits were recognized as the basis for Bawling to have a greater possibility of effectively accomplishing their goals.

Improvements in quality lead to the Bawling Company developing a positive reputation and gaining customers' trust, resulting in sustained expansion in the oil business. As the oil and gas industry has grown increasingly competitive, the management team has been pushed to alter its plans in order to implement BI systems that allow the flexibility to respond to changing business requirements. Continuous project progress, according to Ranganathan (2012), is an ongoing endeavor to enhance everyday operations at a competitive level. This objective is achieved by employing e-commerce and DW to continuously learn about the consumer experience and ensure their pleasure.

Case Concerning Bawling Energy

Bawling Energy is a rapidly expanding oil and gas enterprise in terms of market share. Since its founding, Bawling has focused on oil and gas commodity discovery, extraction, refinement, and marketing. As a result of the intense rivalry for market share, Bawling has had significant difficulties in retaining clients and accessing new markets, prompting it to undertake the modernisation project. Bawling has a history of maintaining separate sales, inventory, and customer databases. If a client inquires about an order and employees are unable to track it to determine its status, a company's reputation for dependability suffers.

Nonetheless, Bawling is encountering significant difficulties in numerous areas, including accounting, sales, customer experience, and coordination. The accounting process is lengthy and quite intricate. This intricacy indicates that Bawling must implement ERP software to modernize its system. In order to avoid wasting time and requiring a large workforce to enter invoices and sales, ERP software can instantly do these tasks. ERP software can similarly be used to consolidate financial information. As a result, the accounting staff at Bawling may be more productive, as ERP facilitates the delivery of complex reports without errors or delays.

Key performance measures

KPIs are used to determine or evaluate the performance of business units and employees. KPIs are linked to target values in order to evaluate if the value of the outcome fulfills expectations. Among the KPIs that affect the success or failure of a business unit are marketing and sales, manufacturing, IT operations, and supply chain and logistics management. The marketing and sales department of Bawling Energy attempts to assess the status of existing clients and attract new ones. The manufacturing sector assures that the quality of the products cannot be questioned. Quality products reduce the rate of rejection to virtually zero.

At Bawling, the IT systems that address a variety of challenges, such as cashiering, cash management, general accounting, marketing, financial reporting, and research, have evolved into a relatively stable and dependable system. Nevertheless, if these systems are to withstand the test of time, the case study uncovered a number of continuity-related areas of emphasis. First, support and training, customer satisfaction and experience analysis, and effective communication must be centralized. The second objective of interface design should be to maximize each pertinent stakeholder group.

The project description

Bawling has attempted to increase its financial resources by selling items and services online to defray operating expenses. By delivering home, industrial, and organizational services and products, the modifications aim to expand the consumer base on both domestic and foreign markets. The executive management of Bawling will be charged with overseeing the implementation of the IT solutions. Since the market is getting more diverse, the project to implement updated IT solutions must begin immediately to prevent falling behind market demands. However, Bawling must hire IT specialists and allocate sufficient finances for the project's execution.

Depending on the amount of sophistication, the company's willingness to invest in IT-related operations will vary. The deployed systems must be self-explanatory so that training time is minimized and procedures are easily documented. In addition, the project should be addressed in manageable, split chunks using a user-friendly deployment method.

The particular IT solutions consist of BI, ERP, DW, and E-commerce. Business intelligence is the impact of gathering and synthesizing data and incorporating it into daily business operations. The management team is positioned favorably to understand clients' needs, respond to market fluctuations, and conduct quality analysis, among other advantages. In light of this change in the economic climate, Bawling Company has been able to reduce financial expenditures and satisfy cost objectives. Bawling must apply KIPs such as suitable communication channels to guarantee that the communication breakdown does not result in any delays or omissions.

ERP systems have also proven indispensable in the oil and gas business due to the fact that it includes all internal jargons, various accounting methods, and multilingual capabilities. ERP software attempts to integrate all cross-functional departmental business processes into a single unit. This method has improved the Bawling project management triangle by enhancing departmental cooperation and bridging all communication barriers. Bawling has been able to increase productivity and insight, incorporate growing industry needs, retain top engineers, reduce costs using key performance indicators such as enhanced flexibility, and improve access to industry information as a result.

Management scope and needs

The discourse of project management comprises providing the facilities and means that aid the project team in anticipating and organizing their work in accordance with the three key characteristics of project success. In order for the Bawling Company's e-commerce management to respond correctly to an unpredictable business climate, precise data is required. The most important client requirement is feedback. Energy management must examine the market state in relation to consumer requirements. To promote quality and rapid evaluation of the client's demands, the identified customer requirements must be managed appropriately.

The management team requires timely data from BI tools in order to make the best judgments. In order to achieve this objective, Bawling's information systems are oriented on business intelligence, which has emerged as a significant means of gaining a competitive edge by facilitating sound decision-making. In addition, BI fosters a better understanding of the consumer base, resulting in an increase in sales due to improved timing achieved by analyzing previous trends. BI also facilitates a greater comprehension of specific consumer requests and the identification of transactions that result in improved profit margins.

Problems confronting Bawling Energy

Despite the unpredictability of the energy business, enormous capital expenditures are required. In addition, the oil and gas industry attracts complicated

Accounting Standards For Developing Countries Essay Help Websites

Table of Contents
Introduction Background Material Standards International Accounting Cultural Factors Political and Legal Aspects Economic Factors Social Aspects Conclusion Bibliography


We reside in a dynamic society in which everything evolves with time. Globalization has seized complete control of global civilization and imposed numerous requirements. Globalization necessitates the synchronization of many characteristics of all societies so that the entire global society reads from the same script. One of the most significant aspects of globalization is the synchronization of economic and financial institutions, and this has necessitated the development and implementation of a global accounting system to ensure that the entire global society adopts a uniform approach to accounting and financial matters. This essay argues why international accounting norms are inappropriate for underdeveloped countries.

It is argued in detail that there are numerous distinctions between the financial systems of industrialized and developing nations. In addition to financial factors, the article discusses other factors that influence the accounting systems of a region. The article identifies and explores factors that make it difficult for poor nations to embrace international accounting systems that appear to have been designed for rich nations.

This article attempts to demonstrate that it is not possible for underdeveloped countries to embrace the international accounting system and that a starting point will be required to be upgraded to the international accounting system. The essay suggests that developing nations should create their own accounting systems in order to meet their financial needs more effectively.

Background Material

International accounting standards (IAS) originated in the western community in 1966; since then, numerous accounting standards have been added and others have been amended. However, it is important to note that this philosophy arose from the same societies that ushered in globalization, and as a result, it was more beneficial to industrialized nations. Due to the numerous differences between industrialized and developing countries, the application of the same policies in developing nations has been met with both support and criticism.

In terms of political and legal frameworks, economic differences, social factors, cultural and religious issues, and their impact on the harmonization and implementation of international standards in developing countries, it is essential to study and comprehend the differences between these two systems. This will allow us to bolster our claim that. Developing nations should develop accounting rules that match their specific demands.

Standards International Accounting

A developing country is a nation striving to achieve a better level of economic development. This word therefore encompasses a vast array of nations primarily located in Africa, Asia, and Latin America" (Oberholster, 1999, p.8). Accounting standards were defined by Hossain (2003) as "norms of accounting policies and practices issued by the accounting bodies, national and international, for the guidance of their members regarding the treatment of the item that made the financial statements and their disclosure therein" (Hossain, 2003, p. 3).

In 1973, the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) was established to oversee the harmonization of member countries' accounting and reporting systems. By 1991, the membership had increased to 80 countries, albeit the majority were from wealthy nations (Saudaqaran, 2009, p. 3). Due to the issues outlined below, acceptance of this concept in underdeveloped nations hardly ever materialized.

Cultural Factors

It is apparent that culture has a crucial role in virtually every element of society. It is thought that culture has one of the most significant influences on worldwide accounting systems. According to a report by Wiley (n.d.), "culture is considered an essential component in the framework for comprehending how social systems change, as culture influences norms, values, and group behavior within and across systems" (Wiley, n.d., p. 8).

Hofstede (1980) performed admirably in his analysis of cross-cultural psychology. He created the cultural architecture and distinct patterns that characterize the world's diverse cultures. Individualism vs. collectivism, large vs. small power distance, strong vs. weak uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity vs. femininity are the four classes of societal values that he defined. His research and analysis revealed that the power distance index between emerging and industrialized nations is vastly different. This indicates that poor nations are significantly more likely than industrialized nations to adopt hierarchical government structures, high uncertainty avoidance, and reduced individualism (Hofstede, 1980, p. 6).

Gray (1988) focused on these issues and built models demonstrating the relationship between culture and accounting. He proposed the following societal values: professionalism vs legal control, uniformity versus adaptability, conservatism versus optimism, and secrecy versus openness. Understanding these values enables us to comprehend the cultural differences between the two settings, i.e., where international accounting standards originated and developing countries, and thus to deduce why these cultural differences necessitate a different accounting system for developing countries (Gray, 1988, p. 5).

Generally, accountants perform more than technical accounting activities; they are motivated by the cultural expectations of the culture they serve. According to the models, the majority of developing nations, including Egypt, are "collectivist societies with a large power distance and a strong aversion to uncertainty" (Dahawy, 2007, p. 6). These nations are consequently more likely to have a culture of government control, conservatism, and secrecy over their financial information, in contrast to the majority of industrialized nations, which are more likely to value openness and transparency in their financial information and individualism (Notis & Bert, 2003, p. 1).

The finest illustration is the controversy that erupted when Egypt, a developing nation, attempted to accept these international norms. According to reports, "international standards require Egyptian accountants to exercise professional judgment, increasing uncertainty and clashing with the inherent risk aversion of the Egyptian culture; in addition, IASS shift the focus of accounting from taxes and the measurement of communal well-being to profit measurement with more extensive disclosures" (Dahawy, 2007, p. 7).

Since worldwide accounting standards are founded on transparency, applying them to emerging nations without modifying them to fit local accounting and financial information culture would only result in conflict and opposition. Adopting the international standards piecemeal or, better yet, developing one's own standards that represent the culture of the community will be the most effective means of navigating this cultural accounting issue. Dahawy (2007) proposed as a potential solution to such a dilemma in Egypt that "the incompatibilities between the secretive Egyptian culture and the required disclosures by imported IASS will generate conflicts that will be resolved through selective IASS implementation" (Dahawy, 2007, p. 8).

In underdeveloped nations, a language barrier could be one of the greatest obstacles to the application of international standards. This may complicate the interpretation and application of this concept in the majority of emerging nations, where native languages continue to serve as national languages. Developed nations may have an unfair advantage due to the fact that English and French are commonly utilized communication languages (Notis & Bert, 2003, p. 1).

This implies that emerging nations should be permitted to build their own accounting systems based on the languages they understand best, just as industrialized nations utilized their own tongues to formulate these worldwide accounting standards. According to a GCA report, "there are translation and linguistic concerns; the translation of IFRS into other languages poses a significant challenge that we must not underestimate" (CGA, 2006, P.1)

Political and Legal Aspects

Politics affects practically every aspect of a nation's activities and operations; therefore, it is impossible to disregard the impact of politics on how developing nations understand and interpret the concept of international accounting standards. Sawani (n.d.) echoed these feelings when he asserted that "the political environment naturally transitions into the legal environment; accounting literature agrees that the political environment, particularly stability and degree of freedom, can and does influence accounting doctrine" (Sawani, n.d., p. 3).

Given that the political landscape in developing nations is arguably vastly different from that of developed nations, they should be permitted to use accounting standards that best reflect their political perspectives. In the case of Zimbabwe, for instance, their political stance on western meddling with their state disfavors any interference with their internal accounting matters.

Sawani (n.d.) has suggested that "freedom can and does affect accounting doctrine; the level of freedom and civil liberties in a country has a direct impact on the extent of financial information disclosure" (Sawani, n.d., p. 4).

If international accounting standards are incompatible with the legal structures and framework of a specific nation, then we anticipate incompatibility, and adoption may never occur. This causes us to consider the basic legal structures of developing nations and their impact on the accounting systems of such nations. It can be claimed that the majority of developing countries share a common denominator in that their government structures and legal systems managing accounting and financial concerns are geared toward tackling social challenges such as poverty and economic imbalances. Legal needs take precedence, creating a conflict of interest with the implementation of international standards.

According to reports, Egypt's tax code prohibits integrated reporting and instead that businesses provide their accounting reports independently. This is counter to the international standards, which require consolidated reporting. The corporations are in the middle of a fight as they attempt to satisfy both sides. In any case, the corporations will lose.

In a system where tax compliance takes precedence, the submission of combined reports is deemed illegal. The submission of two reports is still not permitted. The only feasible alternative is to eliminate international accounting standards. Such a stalemate can only be resolved by locally crafted accounting rules based on legal structures and other variables (Hadawy, 2007, p. 11).

Economic Factors

Perhaps the greatest distinction between developing and developed nations is their relative financial strength. The majority of wealthy countries, including the United States and the European Union, have relatively robust economies. Notable is the fact that worldwide accounting standards were developed and are also utilized in these robust economies. Some of the transactions supported by international standards may be completely irrelevant to emerging nations, based on the same assumption. In actuality, Belkaoui (2004) suggested that:

Indeed, the international rules for accounting for certain transactions occurring in developed nations may be completely irrelevant to some emerging nations, as these transactions are unlikely to occur or may occur in a manner that is more appropriate to the setting of developing nations. (Belkaoui, 2004, p. 152)

This is best appreciated by comparing Zimbabwe, which has been severely affected by inflation, to the United States, which is a prosperous nation. Zimbabwe may be willing to join ISAC and use the same accounting platform with powerful economies such as the United States, but it may not be practicable due to the disparity in economic standing. It follows that emerging nations would be required to create their own accounting systems based on their financial resources in such situations. Samani echoes these sentiments: "It should come as no surprise that Australia, with its well-developed economy, has well-developed accounting practices, while Libya, with its stagnant, ill-defined economy, has few accounting regulations or guidelines" (Sawani, n.d., p.4).

International accounting standards attempt to standardize the structure of capital markets from a distinct economic angle. Nevertheless, the nature of each nation's economic structure determines the accounting data sources for each nation. In contrast to the United States, whose capital markets are equity-oriented and so seek to protect its investors, Germany's international accounting rules would be geared toward safeguarding creditors and preserving capital.

In the case of developing nations, however, the majority of developing nations obtain a portion of their capital market financing from institutions that are likely to originate in developed nations, and their economies may also have been bolstered by developed nations, a circumstance that necessitates separate accounting standards (White, n.d., p. 7).

Variations in market forces are an additional economic aspect. The two organizational structures respond differently to prevailing market conditions. In wealthy countries, financial decisions and resource allocation are made to reflect changes in market forces. However, in developing countries, financial and accounting decisions are specifically customized to match their circumstances, such as the need to minimize economic imbalances.

It is also important to note that the majority of essential economic and financial decisions in developing countries are made by the government, whereas in rich countries such decisions are made by private investors (Bernan & U.N., 2008, p.14). Due to these variations, it may be reasonable to claim that the international standards may not be optimal for emerging countries, and hence they should be permitted to establish their own (Oberholster, 1999, p. 8).

Using South Africa as an example of government impact on market dynamics in developing nations, Oberholster (1999) argued that the government had the upper hand in regulating the prices of medications and other resources.

He suggested and cautioned that "if the problems associated with South Africa's status as a developing nation are considered, the acceptance of the lASs without any attempt to make them more acceptable to non-educated users could create even greater problems" (Oberholster, 1999, p. 9).

Social Aspects

The industrialized nations have a lengthy tradition of accounting excellence. The fact that the majority of these nations are also the pioneers of these international accounting standards may give them an advantage in terms of accounting experience and competence. This can be seen as a contrast with some of the developing countries which might even be struggling with their domestic accounting arrangements due to lack of enough excellent and experienced accounting framework. A study conducted by Hossain (2003) on international accounting standards in Bangladesh, a developing nation, indicated that certain corporations failed to comply with disclosure requirements as a result of:

Difficulties in interpreting disclosure requirements and auditing guidelines; insufficient awareness of general accounting concepts; lack of proficiency of

Commodity Pricing And Indexation: Islamic Financial Systems Essay Help Websites


Approaches to commodity pricing and indexation vary based on the varying regulations that apply in various jurisdictions and under various systems. This article explores differences in the norms of commodity pricing and indexation between conventional banking systems and Islamic banking systems in order to examine the various approaches. In an effort to attain this goal, the study traces numerous pre-Islamic forms and mediums of exchange in order to establish a basis for identifying the conventional economic faults that the Islamic banking system attempted to remedy. The research identifies the principles of gharar and riba applicable to Islamic financial systems as the primary motivators for the desire to engage in commodity pricing and indexation activities that result in high profits with low or no effort in the conventional system.


To Muslim financial academics, disguising conventional services and goods as Islamic ones is a major issue of concern. This difficulty stems from the perception that Islamic financial institutions have recruited their human resources from the market pool of individuals trained in financial management under conventional approaches to commodity pricing and indexation over the years (Obaidullah, 2005). Creating a broad and in-depth awareness among Islamic financial market participants through training, research, and education on Islamic methods of financial management is one solution to this problem. This study paper aims to accomplish this by focusing on the laws of commodity pricing and indexation that differ between the conventional system and the Islamic system. This action contributes to establishing the foundation for Shariah-compliant commodities pricing and indexation systems.

The paper begins with a discussion of pre-Islamic modes of exchange and exchange mediums, followed by a discussion of characteristics of the barter trading system that the prophet PBUH modified, including usury and exploitation. The section then discusses rules of exchange in the Islamic system, illustrates with examples and evidence how the commodity index principle applies in the modern world, and explains how using a basket of commodities along with Fiat (paper money) constitutes a necessary strategy for reducing inflation. Other essential topics in commodity pricing and indexation covered include an introduction to the notion of market marking, types of sales permitted and prohibited in the Islamic system, and hedging instruments and their permissibility in Islam paradigms of indexation. In the final half of the study, the relationship between riba-free business models and the commodity pricing concept is demonstrated and explained.

Forms and mediums of commerce throughout the pre-Islamic period

In the Middle Ages, trade results in the formation of numerous forms and means of exchange. Before the advent of Islam, trade had already developed in the Middle East. In all urbanized regions, commerce predominated. In fact, the Prophet Muhammad was a merchant. Changes in culture and political systems compelled many regions to unify, granting the Arabs tremendous strength and allowing them to conquer numerous civilizations. During such conquests, Arabs received gold and silver, among other precious metals. These metals served as measures of value and wealth, but they were never used as a medium of trade. However, metals were essential to the quick expansion and development of the Baghdad-based Arab economy.

People have a significant disadvantage due to their lack of independence. The only way to achieve independence is through the exchange of commonalities. Prior to the birth of Islam, bartering was the most common method of transaction. Through barter trading, goods and services were directly swapped for other goods and services (El-Gamal, 2006). Prior to the development of Islam, difficulties linked with the barter system, particularly those concerned with the valuation of one product relative to another or commodity pricing, had already emerged. This factor led to the creation of new commodities whose value reflected that of the commodity swapped. Consequently, the concept of money as a medium of transaction existed before to the advent of Islam. Islam was born when the Prophet Muhammad received a divine calling. Positively, the region received trade. In the early years of the establishment of Islam, barter trade was the predominant form of exchange. However, regardless of the form of exchange or medium of exchange used, Islamic religious teaching embraced the exchange of goods and services (trade) if it was not characterized by fraud and interest.

Prophet Muhammad modified facets of the barter system

In the early years of the sixth century A.D., when Islam was created, money not only played a significant role in the lives of many people, particularly in highly developed towns, but it also facilitated numerous transactions. The Arabs had frequent and intimate relationships with people from other nations. The majority of their everyday business transactions were conducted using coins. However, the vast majority of transactions, particularly those involving agricultural goods, were conducted through barter commerce during the time and era in which the prophet Muhammad (PBUH) established the Islamic state of al-Madinah.

Following the creation of Islam, its teachings developed regulations to govern the exchange of goods in accordance with Islamic principles. The barter trade system presented a number of unique difficulties. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) recognised these obstacles and attempted to address them by implementing appropriate changes. Prophet PBUH was concerned about commodity price difficulties arising from Islamic methods to commodity pricing and indexation, which included exploitation, usury, and injustice in addition to other ills associated with the exchange of commodities. (Rosly, 2005)

In the process of determining the value of commodities exchanged (commodity pricing) between a buyer and a seller using a barter system, the Prophet (PBUH) identified instances in which either the seller or the buyer acquired unjustified gains following an exchange involving commodities of the same type but different quantities. Trade usury (riba-al-buyu) characterizes such profits (Obaidullah, 2005). Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) encouraged his followers and all Muslims to use money as a means of exchange to prevent riba-al-buyu in barter transactions. Islamic literature also describes riba-al-buyu and riba al-khafi. Riba al-khafi covers concealed or implicit riba (El-Galfy & Khiyar, 2012), as opposed to riba al-duyun, which is jali (plain or explicit) riba (Azhar, 2010).

During the pre-Islamic era, riba was defined by exploitation and acts of injustice. Whereas barter trading entailed the exchange of one commodity for a different payment in exchange for another commodity in the future, riba involved the doubling and redoubling of commodities (Munawar & Molyneux, 2005). Consider a situation in which a person owes another person one goat in exchange for a commodity that the creditor obtained from the debtor at some point in the past in an effort to illustrate this type of riba, which the prophet Muhammad (PBUH) opposed because he believed it served injustice by encouraging exploitation: a person owes another person one goat in exchange for a commodity that the creditor obtained from the debtor in the past. In the pre-Islamic era, if a debt was not repaid within a year, the creditor would confront the debtor and demand payment, at which point the riba would double, resulting in a new debt of two goats. The debt over the following year would increase to four goats. This was not only an act of taking advantage of the debtor's inability to pay (exploitation), but it was also an injustice to the poor, as the rich continued to become wealthier while the poor became poorer.

Exchange regulations in the Islamic system

Commodity pricing and indexation refers to the practice of developing indices to not only measure but also track the performance of numerous commodities over a certain time period (Azhar, 2010). Under conventional methods, this objective is attained by speculating on future price increases. Such speculative investments are prohibited by Shariah because they include acts of deprivation. Shariah also regulates the transaction of goods to prevent undue or illegal advantages on the part of either the vendor or the purchaser. According to Obaidullah (2005), the prophet PBUH said, "sell gold for gold, silver for silver, wheat for wheat, barley for barley, date for date, salt for salt, in same quantities on the spot; and when the commodities are different, sell as you see fit, but on the spot" (p.23). Under the Islamic system, this hadith illustrates the regulations for spot markets in commodities exchange markets. The spot-market commodities exchange trade is governed by the cash-and-carry principle. As demonstrated by ahadith, the Islamic exchange system promotes spot markets in financial systems.

Although the Islamic exchange system includes spot markets, the conventional exchange system also includes future and forward markets, which are used extensively in the trading of stocks and commodities in financial markets. The Islamic exchange system applies distinct laws to these two marketplaces. The regulations prohibit superfluous profits or activities of stealing money from others (Abdul-Rahman, 2010). For a typical system of exchange, commodity exchange on futures markets entails selling the commodities in the present, but delivering them at a future date, location, and quantity. Under the system of exchange, money is not exchanged at the time of contract formation, except in exceptional circumstances when the terms of the contract require the buyer to make deposits during the due period. Upon receipt of the goods, the purchaser instantly pays for them. Under the system, commodity prices are determined by the dynamics of demand and supply at various maturities.

Hedging is the primary driver of the forward markets trading system. Conventional exchange systems justified the system on the grounds that it enables individuals, such as farmers, to develop cost-controlling strategies. Through forward markets for raw material processors, the company develops the ability to set future production schedules and future supply obligations for finished goods. In addition to hedged stocks and raw materials, conventional banking systems also accept hedged stocks and raw materials as necessary loan collateral. In forwarding markets, items of exchange do not exist when agreements that amount to contracts are made. Using standard norms for exchanges in accordance with Islamic law, such contracts are void because there is no actual exchange of goods. Islamic regulations on commodity exchange make specific provisions, such as bay'al istisna, bay'al-salam, bay'al-mua'jjal coupled with bay'al-istijrar, upon the realization of the benefits that may arise from certain forms of contracts based on the notion of forwards market (Ayub, 2002).

Under the bay'al istisna norm, a seller and a buyer may agree to exchange nonexistent goods. However, this condition applies if the supplier needs time to manufacture the commodities in accordance with the agreed-upon quality requirements, so that the agreed-upon price reflects both the quantity and quality of the products. Bay'al-Salam requires parties participating in the forward market type of commodity exchange to complete full payment of the commodities so that delay in delivery does not result in benefits for one party (Zahan & Kenett, 2012). In a typical system of exchange, where the price is determined at the moment of the commodity's delivery based on market forces of demand and supply, such gains would be realized. Any agreement for sale under forwarding markets involves a promise to sell, but not an actual sale, according to Islamic law (Warde, 2000). This characteristic indicates that such an arrangement is not enforceable under Islamic law. Under a normal exchange system, such agreements constitute contracts enforceable in accordance with local civil law standards.

The actual delivery of commodities does not occur on futures markets. Not only does the commodity exchanged not exist, but its physical transfer does not occur either. The commodity undergoes a series of transactions during which no single party can assert ownership at any given time. While there are exceptions to Islamic law that support the operation of forwarding markets and other types of commodities trading, the Shariah has a definite position on future markets.

All sorts of deals involving substantial profits from future market exchanges are prohibited. Islamic law justifies this prohibition on the grounds that numerous futures market intermediaries earn enormous sums of money without adding any sort of utility or even placing utility on the various commodities traded (Iqbal & Mirakhor, 2011). Consequently, it follows that participants participating in future markets forms of commodities trading get profits without iwad (recompensing). Charging riba without compensation is comparable to this circumstance.

The current implementation of the commodities index principle to reduce inflation when utilizing fiat currency (paper money)

The commodity index includes the index, which follows baskets of commodities in an effort to quantify their performance across markets. Commodity indexes are traded on the exchange markets, allowing investors instant access to diverse commodities without the need to participate in futures markets. Various commodity prices are determined by certain commodity qualities, similar to how stock exchanges function. In addition to tangible commodities such as precious metals, agricultural items, and even energy commodities, debts are also indexed. Inflation rates play a significant role in setting the cost and indexing of certain goods.

The manner in which the aspect of debt indexation is handled under Islamic law is one of the most contentious matters. In relation to debts, Islamic law presents numerous arguments for its divergent approaches to the time worth of money. In instance, the Islamic system prohibits prospective earnings that disadvantage the debtor in the future through several permitted forms of riba. An significant objection that has not been adequately addressed relates to inflation and the subsequent loss in the value of money payable in the future for a commodity exchanged in the past (Obaidullah, 2005). Under the conventional system of exchange, preparations are made for the reduction in purchasing power of the money paid for the commodity as a result of inflation's persistent growth. Consequently, where payment is different, inflation results in debtors gaining in the future while creditors lose. Such a benefit occurs because the debtor will pay for goods obtained in the past at a price that cannot purchase comparable quantities of goods of equal quality. The challenge is how such creditors might be paid for these losses utilizing the indexation approach with a basket of commodities and Fiat currency (paper money).

Consider a scenario in which the purchasing power of money decreases by 3 percent after two years to demonstrate the applicability of the commodities index principle in the contemporary world. Supposing also that interest (riba) of 2 percent is acceptable within this period of time in which debt will be fully settled. After the two years, this illustration implies that if the transaction

The Impacts Of Employee Benefits Essay Help Websites


Motivation of employees is a primary concern for any businesses that value their reputation and employees' confidence. The success of a business depends heavily on the credentials and dedication of its personnel. An effective and well-organized system of employee benefits becomes a prerequisite for the healthy growth of a company. There are three primary categories of employee benefits: discretionary, health insurance and retirement programs, and mandatory. The purpose of this presentation is to explain these advantages in light of contemporary scholarly literature and personal experience.

Examining Benefits

Non-mandatory Benefits

Discretionary benefits relate to the pay offered to employees by an employer that is not mandated by law. These concerns may include insurance, maternity or sick leave, etc (Martocchio, 2016). The discretionary income of an employee is the portion of his or her pay spent on leisure and travel, as opposed to necessary expenses for housing, transportation, insurance, etc.

In many firms, discretionary privileges, such as loans for the purchase of home, free lunches, or the chance to purchase the company's products at a discount, are restricted to specific types of employees (Martocchio, 2016). For instance, they may be given senior managers or staff who have been with the organization for a long time. A separate option for the construction of the identified benefits is an employee's autonomous selection from the list. For instance, one would want to pay for school, but the other would prefer extra medical insurance.

For employee engagement, it is vital to provide each employee with a sense of self-worth, so that he or she feels enthusiastic about performing responsible job for the organization's benefit. Yahoo has fitness centers including yoga, cardio-kickboxing, pilates, and golf, for example. The offices are also furnished with ergonomic seats that give back support, and vending machines with nutritious food and beverages are located on each floor (Shields et al., 2015).

Outside of the workplace, Yahoo offers discounts on California ski resorts and theme parks and has an annual celebration dubbed Octoberfest. Additionally, the corporation hosts a baby shower for employees who are expecting children. These discretionary incentives foster a culture of engagement and demonstrate that the company's leadership cares about the professional and personal development of its employees.

According to a number of academics, the employee benefits are typically the first factor that job seekers consider. An employee receives some assistance from the employer, and as a result, the company's production grows, the team's atmosphere improves, and staff turnover lowers (Fronstin & Roebuck, 2013). Nevertheless, additional employee benefits are advantageous for businesses because employers frequently retain valuable individuals without a substantial salary rise.

The psychological aspect is equally important since it fosters team cohesion and a positive environment within the firm. Current trends indicate that for many employees, the demonstration of concern by their employers will be more significant than monetary incentives.

Programs for Health Insurance and Retirement

The inclusion of employee retirement plans and health insurance programs constitutes an assurance of dependability and stability. Depending on what a business includes in this package, a potential employee can judge how comfortable he or she will feel working for one company against another. The United States has a highly developed insurance system that is regarded as one of the best in the world, and it accounts for around one-fourth of the worldwide insurance market.

According to the Affordable Care Act, the primary law governing health insurance in the United States, every US resident is required to acquire coverage (Shields et al., 2015). If an employee lacks insurance for whatever reason, he or she may be punished. There are a variety of health insurance packages that employers may offer as employee perks.

Medicare is a health insurance program in the United States for anyone aged 65 and older. People under 65 who have disabilities, permanent renal insufficiency, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Charcot's illness) can also apply for this insurance (Shaw, Asomugha, Conway, & Rein, 2014). The program provides financial assistance for medical care, although it does not cover all medical costs. Medicare is funded in part by payroll taxes paid by both employees and employers, and in part by contributions deducted from social security benefits on a monthly basis.

The insurance of medical services covers the costs of physicians and other providers of medical services, outpatient care, permanent medical equipment, and home care services (Shaw et al., 2014). In addition, the indicated program includes preventative care for maintaining and boosting health. Medicaid was formed in the 1960s as a medical care program for the poor; however, over time, the number of recipients has increased to cover more and more Americans with incomes two to three times greater than the poverty level.

Regarding insurance programs, there are two primary sorts of organizations responsible for providing these benefits. The cheapest insurance, Health Maintenance Organization (HMO), requires an employee to choose a physician who will monitor him or her in the future (Shaw et al., 2014). This physician has the authority to send a patient to more specialized specialists, such as a cardiologist or oncologist, if necessary.

In this instance, medical care is restricted to specific groups. Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) insurance, which is more expensive, provides the most favorable medical insurance circumstances. A person, for instance, can be served not just by fundamental organizations, but also by virtually all medical organizations. There is no requirement for interaction with the therapist; a person can contact the required specialist at the chosen medical institution.

The retirement programs that comprise the American pension system are comprised of numerous components. The pension comprises of both the state-paid portion and the financed portion. The latter includes the portion paid by the company-employer (the so-called 401K) as well as the pensioner's savings, which can be accumulated in the account or invested in securities (Martocchio, 2016). It should be emphasized that neither of the items mentioned are tax deductible.

The military personnel receive additional perks, since a separate fund pays for retirement plans. The majority of retirees receive an insurance pension, and their income substantially surpasses the legislated minimum wage. In addition to the mandated state pension system, approximately 700,000 private pension plans exist in the United States. About eighty percent of full-time workers join in voluntary workplace savings schemes (Shields et al., 2015).

I can personally attest to the expanding number and variety of retirement programs. For example, my aunt recently retired and received a substantial pension, along with additional payments from a private fund she joined 15 years ago. As for my uncle's employer, they were less concerned with encouraging employees with insurance benefits and retirement programs, so they paid the bare minimum.

Statutorily Required Benefits

There are necessary state-guaranteed benefits for all organizations. This includes yearly leave, temporary disability, benefits for young employees, and disability payments. The employee benefits are the extras that a firm might offer in addition to the basic salary in order to support and motivate employees to work harder (Ko & Hur, 2014). This pay appears differently in each organization, although there are certain commonalities.

In compliance with the Labor Law, my company's management and leadership pay for sick and maternity leaves, deduct funds for pension and insurance, and offer medical insurance plans. In accordance with federal legislation, my company also compensates me for using my personal property for work purposes. In other words, an employee is entitled to payment if he or she uses a personal vehicle or smartphone for business purposes.

The scientific literature and the media provide the chance to highlight some of the most effective implementations of legally mandated employee perks. For example, Boeing's REACH program, which encourages participation in numerous social projects, prevents new employees from feeling isolated (Shields et al., 2015). There are 12 paid holidays per year for Boeing employees, in addition to the holidays between Christmas and New Year's.

Microsoft is another major corporation that gives paid parental leave. In addition, there is a mentoring program, and employees receive medical insurance that includes autism-specific doctors. Microsoft is the first major firm to offer this perk, demonstrating its care for the health and welfare of its employees.

In addition to the medical system, the United States has also developed a social insurance system. Unemployment, disability, loss of the breadwinner, and old age are the insured events. If health insurance is not provided by the government, then contributions are made to budgets: the number of benefits in the event of an insured event will be determined based on the number of hours worked, income, etc (Ko & Hur, 2014).

In 1935, President Franklin Roosevelt signed the statute establishing the national social security pension system. According to this document, all individuals whose age surpasses the officially specified threshold receive a cash benefit, the amount of which is dependent on the average pay level. Other advantages include discounts on manufactured goods, payment for sports or housing, etc.


In conclusion, it should be underlined that employee benefits in the US are separated into three broad groups such as compulsory by legislation, discretionary benefits, and insurance and retirement programs. It was shown that the benefits mandated by law assist employees in meeting their essential needs, whereas discretionary perks aid in scheduling vacation and leisure time, as well as boosting employee enthusiasm.


Fronstin, P., and M. C. Roebuck (2013). A five-year study of health care expenditures following adoption of a high-deductible, full-replacement health plan with a health savings account. Issue Brief, 388, 1-16.

Ko, J., & Hur, S. (2014). Integrative understanding based on social exchange theory of the effects of employee perks, procedural justice, and managerial trustworthiness on work attitudes. 74(2) Public Administration Review: 176-187.

Martocchio, J. J. (2016). Strategic compensation: An approach to human resource management (9th ed.). New York, New York: Pearson

Shaw, F. E., C. N. Asomugha, P. H. Conway, and A. S. Rein (2014). The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Prevention and public health opportunities. 75-82 in The Lancet 384(9937).

McLean, P., & Plimmer, G. Shields, M. Brown, S. Kaine, C. Dolle-Samuel, A. North-Samardzic, P. McLean, and G. Plimmer (2016). Managing employee performance and compensation: concepts, procedures, and strategies (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press is headquartered in New York, New York.

[supanova question]

The Impacts Of Employee Benefits Essay Help Websites


Motivation of employees is a primary concern for any businesses that value their reputation and employees' confidence. The success of a business depends heavily on the credentials and dedication of its personnel. An effective and well-organized system of employee benefits becomes a prerequisite for the healthy growth of a company. There are three primary categories of employee benefits: discretionary, health insurance and retirement programs, and mandatory. The purpose of this presentation is to explain these advantages in light of contemporary scholarly literature and personal experience.

Examining Benefits

Non-mandatory Benefits

Discretionary benefits relate to the pay offered to employees by an employer that is not mandated by law. These concerns may include insurance, maternity or sick leave, etc (Martocchio, 2016). The discretionary income of an employee is the portion of his or her pay spent on leisure and travel, as opposed to necessary expenses for housing, transportation, insurance, etc.

In many firms, discretionary privileges, such as loans for the purchase of home, free lunches, or the chance to purchase the company's products at a discount, are restricted to specific types of employees (Martocchio, 2016). For instance, they may be given senior managers or staff who have been with the organization for a long time. A separate option for the construction of the identified benefits is an employee's autonomous selection from the list. For instance, one would want to pay for school, but the other would prefer extra medical insurance.

For employee engagement, it is vital to provide each employee with a sense of self-worth, so that he or she feels enthusiastic about performing responsible job for the organization's benefit. Yahoo has fitness centers including yoga, cardio-kickboxing, pilates, and golf, for example. The offices are also furnished with ergonomic seats that give back support, and vending machines with nutritious food and beverages are located on each floor (Shields et al., 2015).

Outside of the workplace, Yahoo offers discounts on California ski resorts and theme parks and has an annual celebration dubbed Octoberfest. Additionally, the corporation hosts a baby shower for employees who are expecting children. These discretionary incentives foster a culture of engagement and demonstrate that the company's leadership cares about the professional and personal development of its employees.

According to a number of academics, the employee benefits are typically the first factor that job seekers consider. An employee receives some assistance from the employer, and as a result, the company's production grows, the team's atmosphere improves, and staff turnover lowers (Fronstin & Roebuck, 2013). Nevertheless, additional employee benefits are advantageous for businesses because employers frequently retain valuable individuals without a substantial salary rise.

The psychological aspect is equally important since it fosters team cohesion and a positive environment within the firm. Current trends indicate that for many employees, the demonstration of concern by their employers will be more significant than monetary incentives.

Programs for Health Insurance and Retirement

The inclusion of employee retirement plans and health insurance programs constitutes an assurance of dependability and stability. Depending on what a business includes in this package, a potential employee can judge how comfortable he or she will feel working for one company against another. The United States has a highly developed insurance system that is regarded as one of the best in the world, and it accounts for around one-fourth of the worldwide insurance market.

According to the Affordable Care Act, the primary law governing health insurance in the United States, every US resident is required to acquire coverage (Shields et al., 2015). If an employee lacks insurance for whatever reason, he or she may be punished. There are a variety of health insurance packages that employers may offer as employee perks.

Medicare is a health insurance program in the United States for anyone aged 65 and older. People under 65 who have disabilities, permanent renal insufficiency, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Charcot's illness) can also apply for this insurance (Shaw, Asomugha, Conway, & Rein, 2014). The program provides financial assistance for medical care, although it does not cover all medical costs. Medicare is funded in part by payroll taxes paid by both employees and employers, and in part by contributions deducted from social security benefits on a monthly basis.

The insurance of medical services covers the costs of physicians and other providers of medical services, outpatient care, permanent medical equipment, and home care services (Shaw et al., 2014). In addition, the indicated program includes preventative care for maintaining and boosting health. Medicaid was formed in the 1960s as a medical care program for the poor; however, over time, the number of recipients has increased to cover more and more Americans with incomes two to three times greater than the poverty level.

Regarding insurance programs, there are two primary sorts of organizations responsible for providing these benefits. The cheapest insurance, Health Maintenance Organization (HMO), requires an employee to choose a physician who will monitor him or her in the future (Shaw et al., 2014). This physician has the authority to send a patient to more specialized specialists, such as a cardiologist or oncologist, if necessary.

In this instance, medical care is restricted to specific groups. Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) insurance, which is more expensive, provides the most favorable medical insurance circumstances. A person, for instance, can be served not just by fundamental organizations, but also by virtually all medical organizations. There is no requirement for interaction with the therapist; a person can contact the required specialist at the chosen medical institution.

The retirement programs that comprise the American pension system are comprised of numerous components. The pension comprises of both the state-paid portion and the financed portion. The latter includes the portion paid by the company-employer (the so-called 401K) as well as the pensioner's savings, which can be accumulated in the account or invested in securities (Martocchio, 2016). It should be emphasized that neither of the items mentioned are tax deductible.

The military personnel receive additional perks, since a separate fund pays for retirement plans. The majority of retirees receive an insurance pension, and their income substantially surpasses the legislated minimum wage. In addition to the mandated state pension system, approximately 700,000 private pension plans exist in the United States. About eighty percent of full-time workers join in voluntary workplace savings schemes (Shields et al., 2015).

I can personally attest to the expanding number and variety of retirement programs. For example, my aunt recently retired and received a substantial pension, along with additional payments from a private fund she joined 15 years ago. As for my uncle's employer, they were less concerned with encouraging employees with insurance benefits and retirement programs, so they paid the bare minimum.

Statutorily Required Benefits

There are necessary state-guaranteed benefits for all organizations. This includes yearly leave, temporary disability, benefits for young employees, and disability payments. The employee benefits are the extras that a firm might offer in addition to the basic salary in order to support and motivate employees to work harder (Ko & Hur, 2014). This pay appears differently in each organization, although there are certain commonalities.

In compliance with the Labor Law, my company's management and leadership pay for sick and maternity leaves, deduct funds for pension and insurance, and offer medical insurance plans. In accordance with federal legislation, my company also compensates me for using my personal property for work purposes. In other words, an employee is entitled to payment if he or she uses a personal vehicle or smartphone for business purposes.

The scientific literature and the media provide the chance to highlight some of the most effective implementations of legally mandated employee perks. For example, Boeing's REACH program, which encourages participation in numerous social projects, prevents new employees from feeling isolated (Shields et al., 2015). There are 12 paid holidays per year for Boeing employees, in addition to the holidays between Christmas and New Year's.

Microsoft is another major corporation that gives paid parental leave. In addition, there is a mentoring program, and employees receive medical insurance that includes autism-specific doctors. Microsoft is the first major firm to offer this perk, demonstrating its care for the health and welfare of its employees.

In addition to the medical system, the United States has also developed a social insurance system. Unemployment, disability, loss of the breadwinner, and old age are the insured events. If health insurance is not provided by the government, then contributions are made to budgets: the number of benefits in the event of an insured event will be determined based on the number of hours worked, income, etc (Ko & Hur, 2014).

In 1935, President Franklin Roosevelt signed the statute establishing the national social security pension system. According to this document, all individuals whose age surpasses the officially specified threshold receive a cash benefit, the amount of which is dependent on the average pay level. Other advantages include discounts on manufactured goods, payment for sports or housing, etc.


In conclusion, it should be underlined that employee benefits in the US are separated into three broad groups such as compulsory by legislation, discretionary benefits, and insurance and retirement programs. It was shown that the benefits mandated by law assist employees in meeting their essential needs, whereas discretionary perks aid in scheduling vacation and leisure time, as well as boosting employee enthusiasm.


Fronstin, P., and M. C. Roebuck (2013). A five-year study of health care expenditures following adoption of a high-deductible, full-replacement health plan with a health savings account. Issue Brief, 388, 1-16.

Ko, J., & Hur, S. (2014). Integrative understanding based on social exchange theory of the effects of employee perks, procedural justice, and managerial trustworthiness on work attitudes. 74(2) Public Administration Review: 176-187.

Martocchio, J. J. (2016). Strategic compensation: An approach to human resource management (9th ed.). New York, New York: Pearson

Shaw, F. E., C. N. Asomugha, P. H. Conway, and A. S. Rein (2014). The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Prevention and public health opportunities. 75-82 in The Lancet 384(9937).

McLean, P., & Plimmer, G. Shields, M. Brown, S. Kaine, C. Dolle-Samuel, A. North-Samardzic, P. McLean, and G. Plimmer (2016). Managing employee performance and compensation: concepts, procedures, and strategies (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press is headquartered in New York, New York.

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American Superconductor Firm’s Equity And Debt Essay Help Websites


AMSC is a rapidly expanding energy corporation on the public markets of the United States. Its primary client is the Chinese energy giant Sinovel, whose business contributes significantly to AMSC's profitability. This company has abandoned its $50 million debt funding plan and is now considering a public offering of the same amount.

Advantages of undertaking an equity offering

The decision to prefer a public offering over debt funding may result from a number of factors that must be considered.

Stocks that are grossly overpriced

In most cases, companies issue equity when they believe their stocks are grossly overvalued, and the value of a stock is thus corrected through market operations, since "even if the company's stock is currently fairly valued, the market reaction to the announcement of a new equity offering is expected to cause the company's stock price to fall below fair value."

The majority of the time, investors receive indications that the company is overvalued, and the decline in stock prices preceding an equity offering would remedy the imbalances and unrealistic nature of stock prices.

In the example of AMSC, it can be observed that the value of equity as a proportion of assets has increased, as it increased from 76% in 2006 to 79% in 2007. Thus, it may be argued that stock prices should represent their true value in terms of the true and fair assessment of accounting accounts, and that it would be in AMSC's best interests to pursue an equity offering. This year, the stock of the company, which finished yesterday at $12.20 on the Nasdaq Stock Market, up 60 cents, has up 305 percent.

AMSC is evidently involved in high-investment projects in the wind and alternative energy sectors. These industries are characterized by lengthy gestation periods and the time required for initiatives to break even and generate revenues. Under such conditions, seeking loan money would be both costly and imprudent, as trillion-dollar investments cannot always be financed safely with debt capital. Under these conditions, it would be prudent to choose the safer alternative of public offerings, which may generate a substantial capital base and ensure that quick returns are not required to cover the cost of these investments. Moreover, dividends to equity owners are discretionary and at the company's discretion, whereas interests are mandatory and must be paid regardless of profitability.

Volatile moves of AMSC equities in stock markets

AMSC's stock is prone to significant changes and vicissitudes that frequently have nothing to do with the company's success. Under these conditions, it is evident that an equity offering might extend the capital base and, by diluting the capital, ensure that volatility can be properly managed.

Possibilities of compelled dissolution of the company

Debt capital must be supported through periodic interest payments and principal repayment upon the debt's maturity. In the case that this need is not met, there is a possibility of lawsuits for creditors' claims and the eventual liquidation of the company. Such dangers do not exist with relation to equity capital, and the problem of equity payback would not emerge until the official dissolution of the company.

Disadvantages of undertaking an equity offering

Loss-making company

It is evident that AMSC is a firm that incurs losses. Our net losses for fiscal years 2007, 2006, and 2005 were $25,4 million, $34,7 million, and $30,9 million, respectively. Our accumulated deficit at the end of the 2007 fiscal year is $410,500,000."

Thus, it is evident that recurrent losses would have reduced reserves, and despite the fact that the company has healthy cash reserves, it lacks the solid earnings and surplus that could sustain it in future years. In the event that AMSC's activities were to cease, the repatriation of capital to equity shareholders would become an issue. This is a significant issue that must be anticipated and addressed immediately.

Non-dividend paying organization

In addition, the corporation is not accustomed to paying dividends, which could lead to shareholder objections.

However, if a company utilizes project-specific weighting, debt-financed projects will have lower capital costs than equity-financed initiatives.

In addition to being a technically oriented organization, administrative and commercial components of business must also be prioritized; consequently, in the event of a public issue, the company's current track record would be scrutinized. In the normal order of events, denying shareholders dividends is not a good omen for the company. Dividends are the payback for the risks shareholders have assumed. In order to avoid a negative impact on annual profits, it makes more sense from a business perspective to amortize large R&D costs incurred at the company's founding over a lengthy period. Thus, the amortized portion of the expenses would be reflected in their account each year, allowing them to leverage funds for other activities and projects.

Diluting of authority

New equity owners would have the right to be represented at a general meeting, vote, and determine the path of executive decision-making on critical topics, which could result in a loss of control over the company. They would have direct or indirect control over the company's affairs, including the appointment, election, and removal of the company's directors and auditors.

Decision evaluation

It is significantly more prudent for currently loss-making enterprises like AMSC to seek equity from the equity market than debt from the money markets. This is due to the fact that stock capital carries a smaller risk of liquidation than debt capital.

In addition, if contracts are terminated due to government interference or technical issues, the negative impact of indebtedness would be substantially greater than that of equity capital. The measure of safeguarding risks under equality is significantly greater than debt, as is the availability of cheaper and relatively risk-free capital.

Moreover, in the context of the energy sector, investments are massive, with long gestation periods during which interest payments must be made without earnings in the case of debt capital. "The company reported backlog of approximately $558 million as of March 31, 2009, compared to $602 million as of December 31, 2008, and $199 million as of March 31, 2008. The rise is primarily attributable to a $450 million, three-year contract for wind turbine core electrical systems that Sinovel Wind Company awarded to the company in June 2008. The decrease in backlog since December 31, 2008 is mostly attributable to shipments under the Sinovel contract."


In the case of AMSC, although the decision to issue equity or debt is heavily market- and circumstance-dependent (interest rates, cost of capital, amount of funds required, repayment schedule, etc.), equity capital would be the preferred option due to its lower risk profile and lack of interest commitment requirements. Moreover, in AMSC's situation, borrowed capital would have a negative impact on its bottom line, particularly as the company has recently emerged from the red and is beginning to generate profits. The plan is for AMSC to continue to generate substantial profits during the course of its usable years, and then to opt for a leveraged buyout (LBO) that "could permit a small group of investors, typically including current management, to acquire a company in a transaction financed primarily by debts." This would rectify the control loss and restore the corporation to a stronger position, increasing sales and earnings.

In terms of liquidity and risks, as well as repayment of liabilities at future dates, and optimal use for the project and working capital requirements, the primary considerations in achieving a debt-equity balance would be to maximize the benefits of both types of capital.

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Day Shift Versus The Afternoon And Midnight Shift Essay Help Websites

Table of Contents
Introduction Night and Day Shifts Day and Night Shifts Works Cited


There are numerous benefits and drawbacks of working throughout the day, evening, or late at night. The night and day shifts present workers with a variety of obstacles and advantages. The number of shift employees has increased as a result of technological, economic, and societal factors (Kazemi et al. 203). For those who have the option to choose their shift, there is study and verifiable data indicating which shift type is optimal for each individual.

Day and Night Rotations

When comparing day and night shifts, employees must consider elements such as the worker's family situation (if they have children or a spouse) and other commitments, such as the employee's medical condition and educational requirements. Before choosing the most appropriate shift to work, all characteristics, such as "personality, experience, and motivation," should be considered (Conte et al. 69). Choosing the sort of shift to work is one of the considerations any worker will face throughout their career.

Evening Shifts

The disadvantages of the night shift include an imbalance between work and personal life, the exposure of workers to security risks when commuting to work at night or late in the evening, and the likelihood of negative health repercussions. However, the night shift has more advantages than the day shift. There are various advantages to working at night or in the evening: The majority of businesses offer evening differential pay to attract employees to work less desirable shifts. If a worker is able to overcome the negative impacts of working at night, there are a number of income options that are unavailable to those who work during the day. Due to the fact that the majority of the management team works during the day, working late at night or at night provides a greater sense of independence. Due to the absence of management, workers will have the freedom to shape their work as they see fit. This sense of independence and the possibility of a wage raise for the night shift are two of the many advantages of working the night shift.

There are very few distractions at night because the working atmosphere is quieter, making it simpler to focus on the duties at hand. In other industries besides healthcare, the nighttime workload is lighter than the daytime workload, resulting in less employee tiredness. In addition, working at night makes commuting easier and less stressful because traffic is significantly lighter at night and late in the evening. The majority of people are either at home or traveling in the opposite direction, reducing traffic. Working at night leaves adequate time during the day to complete errands. Night shift workers can pursue passion projects that provide additional income for their own purposes. An employee who works at night is a superstar since they carry out crucial responsibilities while the rest of the population sleeps. Regardless of the greater financial rewards connected with night shift job, night shift labor requires sacrifice.

Day Shifts

There are benefits to working during the day, albeit they are fewer than those of the night shift. The day shift employees have adequate time to sleep at night because the mind is typically programmed to associate the night with sleep. The majority of workers are present during the day, providing greater support for employees who work during the day. The senior management staff is also accessible during the day, facilitating the resolution of any issues that may arise. Day shift employees have the advantage of being in sync with the rest of the world's schedules; since most people are asleep at night, they can connect with pals during the day.

Although the day shift has advantages, they are outweighed by its negatives. The disadvantages include lower compensation for day shifts compared to night hours as a result of the night shift workers' allowance. Those who work during the night are less productive than those on the night shift. The reduction in productivity is caused by interruptions and routine workplace conversations. Working during the day leaves little time for personal matters such as socializing with friends and family.

Despite the fact that the night shift is disliked by the majority of employees, there are various things to consider when selecting which shift is preferable. Nevertheless, the night shift is superior due to a number of advantages, including the freedom to work and the additional compensation its employees receive. It is therefore important that after putting some of the factors such as increased payment and freedom of working into consideration, one chooses to work at night in order to benefit from the available gains.

Sources Cited

Jeffrey M. Conte and Frank J. Landy. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: An Introduction to Work in the 21st Century. Wiley, 2018.

Kazemi, Reza et al. “Field Study of Effects of Night Shifts on Cognitive Performance, Salivary Melatonin, and Sleep.” Safety and Health at Work, volume 9, issue 2, pages 203-209, 2018.

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Breast Cancer Research Foundation’s Non-Profit Management Essay Help Websites

Table of Contents
Background Material Managing Employees and Services Volunteers Fundraising Marketing Communications Strengths and Weaknesses Recommendations Conclusion Bibliography

Breast Cancer Research Foundation (BCRF) is a non-profit organization devoted to preventing and curing breast cancer. The company provides essential funding for cancer research to advance tumor biology, genetics, prevention, treatment, metastasis, and survivability. The founding of the corporation may be linked to Evelyn H. Lauder in 1993, and the company has invested at least $500 million in longevity research (Bish & Becker, 2016). Its commitment to the welfare of individuals is reflected in its revised awards program, which encourages excellence in research and medicine by providing necessary resources. In 2020/21, the business plans to provide around $40 million annually to 275 researchers from renowned universities and medical institutes around the globe (Bish & Becker, 2016). This study investigates the functioning of this non-profit organization, focusing on major issues of non-profit administration.

Background Material

The BCRF is a healthcare sector organization that primarily serves the United States of America. In general, charity organizations provide a vast array of goods and services without the purpose of profiting (Lubek, 2018). The nonprofit organization cited above primarily provides a variety of services, including funding for cancer research (Bish & Becker, 2016). The company can significantly contribute to efforts aimed at discovering a cure for the malignant disease. Its investigators have been part of the team responsible for key advances in breast cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Its vision statement emphasizes its desire to prevent and develop cures for breast cancer through changing the world's most promising research. Its organizational techniques are centered on increasing the likelihood of discovering a new approach that will lead to the discovery of a cure for breast cancer (Lubek, 2018). Everly Lauder and her husband, Dr. Norton, decided in 1993 that research was the only way to find a cure for breast cancer, which led to the formation of the Breast Cancer Research Foundation (BCRF) (Bish & Becker, 2016). At the time, they believed that poor financing prevented a cure from being developed for the disease. Throughout its growth and evolution, BCRF's policies have included an innovative grantmaking structure. Since this humanitarian initiative promotes individuals rather than projects, those who have the potential and are successful through a peer-review process are given the opportunity to pursue their most inventive and ground-breaking ideas (Bish & Becker, 2016). It also incorporates BCRF researchers into conferences and seminars in an effort to foster cooperation.

Staff and Service Volunteer Management

Especially unpaid workers, charitable organizations rely heavily on their employees. Therefore, managers of such organizations need have the skills and experience to address the different requirements of their employees (Worth, 2020). Diverse theories have given an indispensable framework for managers to comprehend the demands and causes that inspire employees. Individuals are inspired and motivated, for instance, depending on the satisfying of their needs, such as biology, safety, esteem, and self-actualization, according to Maslow's model of motivation (Worth, 2020). Therefore, nonprofit organization leaders must recognize that what motivates them does not necessarily encourage their staff.

Volunteers contribute to the economic growth of nonprofit organizations. According to the independent sector, each hour of volunteering costs the organization around 24.14 USD (Worth, 2020). There are numerous types of volunteers available to nonprofit organizations, including regular, encouraged, episodic, and virtual employees (Worth, 2020). The administration of BCRF ensures the efficient management of both paid and unpaid labor. For instance, talent management for these groups consists of training in which volunteers are trained and awarded certification (Bish & Becker, 2016). They are permitted to engage in walks for charity, such as marathon walks. Consequently, both unpaid employees and survivors come together to raise funds for research.

Promotional Communications

Charitable organizations must ensure that their message remains consistent with their goal, vision, and guiding principles. Marketing is crucial to the dissemination of information across multiple platforms. Regardless of their desire to generate money, organizations must recognize that they operate in a competitive environment (Worth, 2020). Therefore, marketing can be defined as the process wherein businesses employ their messages and initiatives to affect the customer's behaviors and preferences (Worth, 2020). Additionally, nonprofits have a distinct marketing mix that includes their product, promotion, distribution, and price strategies.

In the case of BCRF, promotional actions are essential to enhancing its brand reputation. For instance, its department of public relations fulfills a variety of duties. It monitors and reports on all press mentions of the company and breast cancer media coverage, as well as provides regular reports of impressions (Garven et al., 2016). The marketing section of BCRF is responsible for directing the organization's message efforts. In essence, this function entails the development of a marketing plan, the maintenance of social media platforms, the production of content, and fundraising campaigns (Bish & Becker, 2016). In addition, it designs a strategy for administering its website using WordPress, including site updates and page administration. The marketing staff also contributes to periodic e-bulletin writing and editing. In conclusion, promotional initiatives guarantee the nonprofit's continued attractiveness in a competitive environment.


Nonprofit organizations rely heavily on fundraising to sustain their missions and aims. Managing a fundraising event is a tedious process including a number of procedures. First, an organization must establish its financial aid priorities and construct a case to support its aims (Worth, 2020). Second, it must establish a realistic projection that enables it to have a crystal-clear view of its purpose (Worth, 2020). Online donations, donation kiosks, crowdfunding, and charity auctions are examples of methods by which charitable enterprises might raise revenue for their projects.

BCRF views fundraising as a crucial enabler in its fight to develop a breast cancer cure. For instance, its employees and volunteers conduct a fund-raising drive since the philanthropic endeavor does not hire the services of external fundraisers (Worth, 2020). Consequently, a sizeable portion of the foundation's revenue is generated via organizational partners, special events across the United States, and individual contributions (Lubek, 2018). In 2016, the foundation introduced a collaborative program for drug research with the goal of bridging the gap between academic researchers and access to medicine.

As a result, Pfizer, a pharmaceutical company, contributed to the foundation's efforts to combat cancer by supporting its program. The pharmaceutical organization awarded BCRF a 15 million dollar grant and granted researchers access to its extensive array of authorized goods and a combination of drugs in development (Garven et al., 2016). In addition, the incoming president of the United States, Joe Biden, spoke about the Cancer Moonshot; he called for commitment, cooperation, and teamwork from cancer-fighting groups; and BCRF answered (Bish & Becker, 2016). Therefore, the charity has pledged to increase its annual funding for cancer research and aspires for a total investment of around one billion dollars by the end of 2021. (Garven et al., 2016). The American pharmaceutical company therefore served as a possible sponsor and financier for BCRF's research endeavors.

Strengths and Weaknesses

BCRF is regarded as one of the most prominent philanthropic organizations in the United States, and this is one of its strengths. It has a highly motivated and determined team that is prepared to assist the company in achieving its objectives. Moreover, these employees have a personal connection to breast cancer; hence, they feel empowered, encouraged, and linked by the company's purpose to find a cure for breast cancer (Worth, 2020). A further characteristic of the non-profit organization is its ability to raise finances, which are crucial for sustaining its future research. The crew is additionally trained and educated by visiting conferences and connecting with professionals in order to remain current on the latest research trends. Over one hundred organizations collaborate with BCRF to discover a cure for cancer (Bish & Becker, 2016). In addition, it is supported by a global scientific advisory board in partnership with the Cancer Institute.

Despite these key competencies, the nonprofit has a number of faults that hinder the pursuit of organizational goals and objectives. For instance, the organization has predominantly concentrated its efforts and determinations on finding a cure for breast cancer, despite the fact that there are several types of cancer (Lubek, 2018). The philanthropic organization has a global reach, which suggests that the general public may feel alone in the fight against cancer-causing pathogens (Worth, 2020). Regardless of the success of the foundation, it has always faced obstacles such as obtaining sufficient finances to support its research initiatives (Bish & Becker, 2016). Intriguingly, a number of philanthropic organizations are dedicated to discovering a cure for breast cancer; therefore, BCRF must evaluate its competitive background.


It is advised that the foundation enhance its diversity and inclusion policies in order to achieve its aims. For instance, outlining measures and techniques to examine disparities amongst populations would be crucial to the firm's success. In addition, it is suggested that the foundation increase marginalized representation in major efforts such as the Cancer Genome Atlas. In addition, creating dependable quality services and practices to improve equity in healthcare delivery and patient outcomes is crucial to the foundation's vision and objective (Bish & Becker, 2016). Lastly, enhancing community participation in research programs would make the study more pertinent to the needs of the community. The aforementioned ideas are crucial for helping the foundation match its strategies, vision, mission, and objectives with its ultimate objective of discovering a cure for breast cancer.


This study investigates the Breast Cancer Research Foundation as a nonprofit organization. This organization plays a crucial part in the fight against breast cancer because it is one of the leading non-profits with cutting-edge equipment and resources that facilitate research and study. It has numerous divisions that contribute to the achievement of its goals, including marketing and human resource management. During the institution's inception, the founder asserted that financial aid for assisting research would play a crucial part in achieving the institution's goals. In light of its strengths and limits, this charity ought to consider strategic planning and enhancements in order to face the difficulties of the modern world.


Bish, A., & Becker, K. (2016). Exploring managerial standards for nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 45(3), pages 437–448.

Garven, S. A., M. A. Hofmann, and D. N. McSwain (2016). Program ratio management in charitable organizations as a game of numbers Nonprofit Management and Leadership, volume 26, issue 4, pages 401-416. Web.

Lubek, J. E. (2018). Foundations for head and neck cancer research and assistance. Clinics in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 30(4), 459-469. Web.

Value, M. J. (2020). Management of nonprofit organizations: principles and practice. The CQ Press.

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Global Business Cultural Analysis: Sweden Essay Help Websites


Sweden is located on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and is the third largest country in the European Union in comparison to other member states. The majority of the country's population consists of Swedes of Swedish descent, but there are also immigrants known as new Swedes. Swedish culture, which has withstood the test of time and other adversities such as the Second World War, is largely responsible for the country's relatively stable society (Gannon, 2004, pp. 149)

Sweden as a country is self independent as a result of its rich natural resources endowment and developing industrial sector paired with an enviable consistent economic growth that has been experienced over the years. Swedish economic activities include, among others, mining, agriculture, forestry, tourism, and manufacturing. (Boraas, 2003, pp. 35-39) Sweden is governed under a constitutional monarchy with the Prime Minister as the leader of government business and the cabinet. Additionally, elected members of parliament are part of the government (Gannon, 2004, pp. 151)

Sweden and its people are renowned for their adherence to traditional cultural values and have for a long time operated under a generous state welfare program with low tax rates for individuals and businesses, but this situation has changed due to the observable effects of globalization. In an effort to keep the country economically viable and competitive in the global arena, the people have accepted some of these changes and continue to embrace a model with both capitalism and socialist traits. On the other hand heavy taxation as well as substantial social benefits envisaged as payment to employees by international investors has sometimes discouraged foreign investment (Putzi & Curry, 2001, pp. 735)

Dimensions of Culture

The various dimensions of culture include, among others, values, religion, ethics, attitudes, customs, communication, social organizations and structures.

Communication: This refers to the means by which information is transferred from one party to another. Information may be communicated verbally or nonverbally. Verbal communication entails communicating information through spoken word or in some circumstances written word while non verbal communication refers to the conveyance of information through facial expressions or body language for example nodding and waving. It is important to be conversant with the language of the people one intends to do or is already doing business with to avoid incidence of misunderstanding or misinterpretation.

Values and Attitudes: Values refers to those beliefs that are imparted on individuals by the society regarding what is considered to be right or wrong. Attitudes on the other hand pertain to peoples’ views and sentiments about other people or objects. These vary based on the origin and culture of the individuals.

Social Structures: This refers to the way a society is organized in terms of groupings, position of the members of the society, societal institutions and the roles the societal culture imposes upon the different structures.

Societal/cultural Ethics: This is the acceptable code of conduct and morals that a culture holds for its members. In the business environment they affect the decision making process but are generally similar to those acceptable even in the normal day to day activities.

Education: Refers to the process through which skills and knowledge, whether formal or informal, are transmitted to members of the society.

Religion is the relationship between an individual and the supernatural or divine power he believes in. People with similar religious connections tend to have similar methods of doing things and thus a form of culture evolves from such. Religion is a crucial consideration, particularly when interacting with individuals from other areas and nations. There are nations, for instance, that are largely governed by religious views; therefore, acquaintance with the faith is essential in order to comprehend what is acceptable and what is not. For example in Muslim nations that are ruled by the Sharia Law, dealing in products such as alcohol is not permitted, interest generating is also not allowed. Religious beliefs vary depending on whether one is a Christian, Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist or Judaist.

The term 'customs' refers to the generally accepted and widely practiced behaviors of a society's members. They are viewed with importance and as such they are passed down from one generation to another through a structured or informal learning or socialization process.

Society and Business

Culture refers to the beliefs, habits, values and styles of behavior that are shared by members of particular groups and societies in order to deal with the expectations of the world and people who share the same cultural lifestyle. In most cases it is passed down from one generation to another through communication and learning. In most cases, culture is group-oriented and not individualistic. Culture found on a national level is referred to as nationalistic culture meaning that it is common to the majority of the people living in that country (Hofstede, Pedersen & Hofstede, 2002, p.17) (Hofstede, Pedersen & Hofstede, 2002, p.17)

Culture is a very significant component while doing business especially with people from other nations as it may function either as obstacle or incentive to the commercial relationship. In order to improve the performance of a business, it is crucial that all parties involved are aware of one another's cultural norms so they know what they are and are not expected to do in the course of conducting business.

A peoples’ culture affects the way business talks are handled, how organizations are managed and how the operations of the enterprises take place. Culture also affects people’s attitudes towards certain businesses and the operations that are carried out to enable the success of the business. However, this does not imply that international commerce is impossible. As a result of the globalization movement, such cultural obstacles are dealt with and avoided daily. Among other things, a people's culture is reflected in its language, religious and political views, and traditions.

Swedish Culture

Swedes are generally recognized to be very practical and rational people and they tend to dissociate themselves from activities they consider impractical and not beneficial in the long run (Gannon, 2004, p. 155) (Gannon, 2004, p. 155) This has been shown by their neutral disposition when it comes to topics of war with the country having stayed indifferent to war since 1814 when the country last engaged itself in war. This mindset saw them through both the First and Second World Wars. Sweden has remained a socially democratic state and this is clearly expressed in the governing of the state and other governmental activities such as policy formulation.

Social Organization and Structure

In contrast to many other countries, Sweden's social structure is not highly stratified. This is because of the culture of equality that has been in place for a long time. The fact that Sweden has been a social welfare for a long time has contributed to the problem. It is nonetheless crucial to note that despite this absence of or limited differentiation, Sweden has been discovered to have a very small portion of its people holding top executive or managerial roles. This is despite the fact that the country has a fairly large labor force compared to most countries of the world. (Hess, 2001, p. 152)


A majority of Swedes are attached to the Lutheran church although church attendance in the country is considered as being low as the country is primarily secular. Other religious affiliations exist in the country, which is largely attributable to migration. Because the country is not a religious state governed by religious values, religion does not pose a significant threat to those wishing to conduct business there.

Language and Communication

The majority of Swedes speak Swedish as their primary language and English as their secondary. This is a vital issue for anyone intending to do business in the country since it is through a clear comprehension of the languages that information can be appropriately transmitted and comprehended.

Culture in the United States

United States is a largely cosmopolitan country with a diverse number of people from different parts of the world. Thus, the country's culture is diverse, with globalization serving as its primary cause. Due to the individualistic nature of the people, who are taught to be self-reliant and hardworking from childhood, the country lacks a clearly defined culture, as is the case in other countries of the world. They are also taught to believe that anybody can grow up to be a high achiever if they set their mind to it (Shearer, 2008, p 20) (Shearer, 2008, p 20)

Right from when the nation was created, the United States inhabitants were provided liberty and freedom and they remain deeply rooted to this style of thought and are quite proud of it with most of them being of the belief that there can be no better place to live than America. This belief is supported by the actions of people from other nations who move there in search of greener pastures, believing it to be a land of boundless opportunities.

Shearer is also of the belief that the United States culture ingrained in its social, economic, ethnic, political, education and religious ideas is a source of strength and is based on compromise (2008, p. 20) The United States people profess different religions and therefore the country cannot be said to adhere to the values and beliefs of a specific religion. As far as doing business is concerned, the people are adherent to Law and they insist on making official agreements in contracts which have to be checked and certified by legal agents before they can consent to legally endorse them. (Shearer, 2008, p. 20)

In the United States people are driven to be better than the others and gaining power, success and the social status that comes with it is highly sought after. From when children are small they are allowed to choose what interests them and are encouraged to do so there by giving them the advantage of being able to develop themselves in their fields of interest, giving them an edge over children in other countries. The culture of innovation is also promoted and this is represented even in the corporate sphere where different organizations and individuals aim to come up with new goods, inventions and technologies of doing things in order to generate efficiency and effectiveness.

People in the United States are also very business minded and are always seeking for new market and business opportunities making the country one of the leading in foreign investment whether directly or indirectly. The country’s residents are also encouraged and expected to be independent as relying on others is not regarded to be a positive aspect. This is prevalent in regions where children and adolescents who are still in school are encouraged to obtain part-time employment in order to earn their own money. They are also expected to leave home upon reaching the age of majority. In the United States, English is the official language, and the majority of contracts, business negotiations, and other forms of communication are conducted in English.

From these perspectives, it is clear that the cultures in the two countries are generally distinct, implying that their business practices also differ to some extent. Robinowitz and Carr (2001, p. 151) have grouped the ways in which conducting business in the United States differs from the style of doing business in the United States into four areas. These include communication, decision-making, the corporate structures of the two countries, and competition. Due to Sweden's collectivist culture, intense competition is not usually encouraged, whereas the individualistic nature of the United States necessitates such competitiveness. This poses trouble in circumstances where members from the two countries are involved in similar work projects.

Decision Making

Swedes tend to make decisions collectively, whereas Americans tend to make decisions independently. This is due to the egalitarian nature of Swedes, which influences their management style as well. There is little separation between the various levels of management and between management and lower-level employees. This contributes to the advantage of the business and organization environment, as staff members rarely experience friction. The United States on the other hand is a pseudo democratic nation and this also plays itself into the management and operations of organizations. There is an appearance of democracy, but the ultimate decisions are made by a handful of executives. In addition to management occurring from the top down, operational decisions are also made by executives at the highest level (Lawrence & Spybey, 2000, p. 62)


Whether in politics, business, or personal matters, or when communicating with the public, communication facilitates transformation among people. For communication to take place efficiently, both parties must use channels that are favorable to both of them. Swedes are more straightforward and regulated in their communication. In communicating business matters, Swedes avoid exhibiting emotion as this is thought to be harmful.

On the other side, Americans have an even more direct communication culture with people expected to express clearly what is on their mind and not beat around the bush and in effect waste time. They are also not demanding on face to face meeting and in most cases are happy with doing business over the phone unlike their Swedish counter parts that prefer the traditional face to face meetings when discussing business problems. Americans are also less hospitable compared to the Swedes as they are always preoccupied with the issue of time which to them is money and therefore wasting time means wasting money. Swedes are more welcoming and appreciate getting to know their business counterparts on a personal level. This is not an issue as such to Americans as long as all the legal and other requirements are in place and check out.

Organizational Structures

The structures of corporations in America are very much defined. Different levels of management and their duties are more or less specific and there is little interference from each other. The majority of decisions are taken by upper-level managers, who are then followed by lower-level managers and staff people. Communication is also conducted from the top down. They pretend to be democratic but it is more of a fiction that a reality. There are little interactions between supervisors at different levels. The interaction between staff members in formal meetings is less formal, but the topics discussed are taken seriously.

Their Swedish counterparts take business meetings very seriously and everything takes place in a formal manner until when it is deemed okay for them to relax and even so there

How To Become An Ethical Organization Essay Help Websites

The path of doing the right thing is not always the simplest, but it is the path that keeps you looking ahead rather than backward. There are numerous approaches to making ethical decisions. Consider how the public would react to your decision if they heard about it on the nightly news. You can examine whether your mother, father, or someone you hold in high regard would consider your action to be ethical. Compliance with the law is crucial to the stability and long-term success of any business. (2009) Martin Therefore, it is essential to choose causes that are meaningful to you and then to give your all to them. (2003) (Goldsmith, 2003).

When making decisions, values, ideals, and ethics play a role. Equal Opportunity for all employees is mandated by law and should be a company-wide policy. This forbids discrimination based on race, color, religion, disability, national origin, age, or veteran status. All personnel decisions, including selection, hiring, training, transfers, promotions, demotions, termination, and layoff, must be based solely on job-related factors (Budd & Scoville, 2005).

According to Kaptein (2008), many of today's leading organizations are faced with the difficulty of establishing an ethical organization. But before an organization can begin its metamorphosis into an ethical organization, it must first create certain fundamental features. These include the leader's ethical orientation, the support of upper management, and a documented business ethics policy. It is believed that the ethical orientation of the boss is the most important component in promoting ethical behavior among employees. Today, leadership qualities are insufficient; they must be coupled with integrity and ethical behavior. It has been determined that honesty and integrity are necessary for a leader to successfully establish a relationship of trust with his or her followers (Kaptein, 2008).

Global Ethics & Integrity Benchmarks is a tool designed to assist multinational firms in evaluating and measuring their progress toward a formal and public commitment to ethics and integrity in the workplace. In the introduction, it should be made clear that this topic is a bilateral occurrence and that each perspective can be viewed from two distinct angles. The first perspective is that of the employer, whereas the second is that of the employees. However, the term "employment at will" conveys the employer's perspective more than the employee's.

Under the guidelines of a capitalistic system of governance, the business owner's property rights predominate in business or monetary transaction actions. Under the impact of a market economy, it is impossible to conceive of a setting that cannot offer the employer with confidence in its financial operations, and the property rights of the business owner provide precisely this assurance to establish and maintain a business. On the other hand, it is also true that when a certain number of impositions are not regulated by the government, the border of clean and ethical business approaches the margins. This is to indicate that the government is observing every move, and therefore everything that is operational is essentially government property, which is advantageous for the employees.

Freedom of contract is another characteristic of business that applies in both directions. From the perspective of the employer, it is obvious that management would seek the finest skills at the lowest cost; therefore, a contract is established to guarantee the final result. Similarly, the employee would want a position that gives the greatest crop. Similarly, a contract would guarantee a fixed or variable price, depending on the circumstance, and reach an agreement with the management. It may be unethical, but it is transparent for both parties and they can maximize their profit margins at any time. However, freedom of touch and fiscal stability for a vast timeframe are scarcely provided. At all times, an environment of insecurity persists. For instance, a government job or service can provide the guarantee that the global corporation cannot.

The requirement for an efficient business is the most significant issue. Developing efficiency is crucial in a market-driven economy, and the consequence of this efficiency directly translates into profit ploughback for both the company and the employee, although not in the same proportion. Thus, this measure increases economic inequality. Between 1991 and 2000, research revealed that the average compensation of lower-level employees increased by 11%, while the highest level earned a staggering 611% increase in profit. This indicates that the upper level employees reduced the potential income of the lower level employees. Nonetheless, only with an efficient business operation would it be feasible to sustain the operations of a firm, and neither the management nor the employees would exist without the success of the business. Thus, it is incredibly evident to establish a business climate conducive to success and productivity.

The most important part of developing an ethical company is its code of ethics. Every member of the organization is required to demonstrate dedication to these values with a professional demeanor. This is the essential requirement for any machine to function effectively and with an ethical mindset. These rules can be considered as a formulation of personal responsibility, with the most recognizable significance being the individual's style of commitment. In a general sense, the code encompasses all facets of a professional scenario, both as a person and as a proficient organization member. Clearly, an organization is comprised of human elements, and for an organization to become ethical, it is essential that the human elements adhere to the code. It is vital that these codes of ethics be subjective and open to individual interpretations, but it should also be recognized that in such situations, these codes, phrases, and words will be judged based on an individual's approach to compassionate problem-solving.

In this regard, it is crucial to note that the advent of Professional Care Organization (PCO, a newly founded health care organization) may undoubtedly be viewed as a paradigm shift. This is a for-profit organization that offers various forms of hospital and clinic care, including mental health and rehabilitation services, to its patients. The clientele consists of the general population in need of medical care. The company employs 120 individuals (doctors, paramedics, assistants, nurses, health-care assistants, and maintenance staff). PCO aims to become the premier provider of healthcare services in its region. It also intends to change the general perception of high medical care prices by developing a scheme that will dramatically cut patients' out-of-pocket expenses.

PCO reflects the rising realization that American medicine had outgrown society's ability to pay for all health care that individuals could truly use to improve their health. The contemporary American health business is through a tough phase marked by increased concerns about rising health expenses. Prior to that time, the primary concern that guided medicine was that Americans required more medical care than the market could provide. Currently, however, concerns about rising costs are overtaking concerns about expanding access. The nation focuses on the issue of redundant treatments, high surgery and hospitalization rates, and duplication of facilities and equipment. PCO represents the increasing popularity of scientific and rational responses to social issues, especially health-related issues. PCO represents a means of leveling the playing field and bringing structure and scientific logic to the sometimes ineffective health care system. Its decision-analytical framework enables society to pose a variety of concerns concerning priority-setting. It enables the general public to evaluate existing alternatives, investigate hypothetical methodologies, and test the robustness of key assumptions in a clear, quantitative, and methodical manner.

Cost-benefit analysis has typically been used by researchers in health policy to determine the value of health interventions. In accordance with this method, analysts calculate the net social benefit of an initiative or intervention as the incremental benefit of a program minus the incremental expenses. All expenses and benefits are measured in terms of money (e.g., dollars). The technique is advantageous because it leads to a basic decision rule: if the net benefits of a program exceed its net costs, then it should be selected and implemented. Nevertheless, cost-benefit analysis creates measurement challenges in that it must incorporate the monetary valuation of health benefits. It is unknown how to assign a monetary value to a case of cancer averted or a life saved.

Historically, cost-benefit researchers counted health benefits using a human capital methodology. The value of diminished health was determined by the lost incomes of those afflicted. The advantage of the human capital method was that it judged value as the society's lost productive capacity due to disease and death. It also enabled a relatively straightforward calculation. The technique has no basis in economic theory, as it disregards fundamental individual desires and entails that unproductive periods such as leisure time and retirement have no value.

Recently, the PCO-adopted cost-effectiveness technique has emerged as a preferred analytical tool for economic evaluation in health care. The primary advantage of cost-effectiveness over cost-benefit analysis is that it allows analysts to quantify health benefits in terms of health rather than dollars. Consensus teams have underlined the practical and political advantages of utilizing cost-effectiveness strategy since measuring results in dollars, as required by the cost-benefit approach, involves arithmetic issues and ethical dilemmas.

Is PCO among the few firms that will embrace a cost-effective strategy? The answer relies on a variety of variables. PCO asserts that the organization's success is highly dependent on the tool's adoption by the medical community at large. It will be necessary to convert or at least counteract practicing physicians. This would necessitate a modification in their logic. In contrast to their earlier training, which emphasized the necessity to provide effective treatment or service without regard to marginal costs, physicians must now consider limits.

Some of the trials could involve persuading doctors to acknowledge that they already thought routinely, not openly but by compromising in varied and masked ways—by not sending all post-operative patients to the intensive care unit (ICU), by adhering to health plan policies to offer the most expensive drug only after others have failed, and by adhering to standards of care, which suggested screening for cancer every three years, for instance, rather than every two or on an annual basis. In addition to persuading physicians to acknowledge the argument, PCO administrators will need to persuade them to support organizational approaches as the preferable rationing method. However, PCO has every reason to succeed because it genuinely cares about the community and creates tools that will enable patients to dramatically reduce their medical expenses.

The survival of the firm and profession rests on upholding the code; hence, it is crucial that employees encourage others to adhere to the code. If an employee is proven to have engaged in serious misbehavior, any violation of the code could result in the termination of their employment.

The code motivates people to produce concrete results in diverse ways and from varied perspectives. First, the code acts as a guideline for the organization's general attitude. Second, it serves as a criterion that enables an employee to comprehend precisely what is to be performed and what is not to be performed or encouraged. Thirdly, it enumerates a uniform guideline for all employees within the firm, making them feel more like members of a giant family governed by the same rules, from the top management to the lowest employees. Fourthly, this code serves as a baseline for personnel, allowing them to better comprehend the organization. Fifthly, and most importantly, this code is the statement that aids the organization in achieving its higher production rate and aims, as adhering to this code will undoubtedly streamline the production or service infrastructure, allowing for the effortless achievement of efficiency.

Thus, the organization's principles are quite similar to those of an organization that seeks to be evaluated as an ethical organization, particularly in the health care sector. In this way, the rules already suggest the fundamental services required by the health organization, and as a sensitive and responsive declaration, the code of ethics gives the necessary perspective. This alignment makes the ethical code more apparent and induces the organization's true ideals, which were already implicit. With the code in effect, the specifics demonstrated a written record that must be followed, treasured, and respected under all circumstances. Thus, the ethical rules are well linked with PCO and the healthcare value proposition is well-positioned.


Budd, John W., and John G. Scoville (2005). Human resource and industrial relations ethics. Cornell University Press, London. Frederickson, H.G. & Ghere, R. K. (2005). Ethics in public administration. M.E. Sharpe, NY, 2005 M. Goldsmith (2003). Global leadership: the generation to come Los Angeles: FT Press. A. Gully, L. Stainer, and A. Stainer (2006). An overarching foundation for responsible business decisions. 6(3-4) Journal of Public Affairs: 185-196. Kaptein, M. (2008). Developing and evaluating the corporate ethical virtues model, a measurement for the ethical culture of organizations. Organizational Behavior Journal, 29(7), 923-947. Lawry, R. P. (2005). An ethical stance on accountability in nonprofit organizations Nonprofit Management and Leadership, volume 6, number 2, pages 171 to 180. Martin, G. S. (2009). A comparison of German and American attitudes on ethical leadership across cultures. 18(2) Business Ethics: A European Review, 127-144. Moore, S. L. (2009). Social responsibility of a profession: An investigation of faculty perceptions of social responsibility factors and their incorporation into educational technology graduate programs. 22(2) Performance Improvement Quarterly: 79-96

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Management Control And Performance Management Essay Help Websites


Survival in the modern business world is largely dependent on the decisions made by an organization's management. It is the responsibility of leaders at various levels to ensure that businesses achieve their strategic objectives, increase or maintain their market share, and attract new customers with their products and services. The capability of an organization to achieve its objectives largely determines its long-term success and profitability. In modern firms, management control and performance management are crucial parts of administration. By applying these concepts and implementing various approaches or systems associated with them, businesses can improve performance and decision-making, thereby adapting to a more competitive business climate. The purpose of this article is to provide a complete overview of management control and performance management ideas, as well as a description of how these concepts can be applied in practice to assist businesses in a variety of industries.

Management Control

The concept of management control is vital in modern enterprises due to the increasing complexity of organizations over the past few decades. As the corporate structure has expanded, decision-making has grown decentralized, meaning that employees and leaders at many organizational levels impact the performance and accomplishments of the business. According to Garrison, Noreen, and Brewer (2017), decision-making authority is delegated to subordinates in the majority of firms nowadays. In so doing, they deploy managerial control, which seeks to match the behavior of firm employees with the organization's goals and interests.

According to researchers, the ideal definition of management control is the process by which managers guarantee that organizational strategies are implemented effectively. According to Merchant and Van der Stede (2017), management control is one of the "management functions along a process that includes objective setting, strategy formulation, and management control" (p. 9). In other words, management control is a method that managers utilize to direct their firms to achieve success in the present business climate.

The significance of managerial control for firms cannot be overstated. Scholars emphasize that failing to apply this principle effectively can result in catastrophic business failures that can harm a company's profitability, operations, and reputation, causing it to lose its market position (Merchant & Van der Stede, 2017). In contrast, if management control is applied effectively, businesses can improve their strategic performance and achieve their goals, so becoming more competitive and sustaining their business achievements over time.

Management Control Systems

In order to aid leaders in the process of management control, numerous organizational systems can be devised and implemented. The definition of management control systems is "systems used by managers to ensure that the behaviors and decisions of their employees are consistent with the organization's objectives and strategies" (Merchant & Van der Stede, 2017, p. 8). The major objective of these systems is to aid managers in the execution of organizational strategies by providing information and decision-making support. Therefore, management control systems are largely concerned with evaluating the performance of various firm resources, such as human and financial capital. By allowing managers to evaluate the effectiveness of various organizational characteristics, management control systems contribute to the alignment of employees' actions with the organization's short- and long-term objectives (Garrison et al., 2017). Therefore, management control systems are crucial to the whole execution of management control.

Management control systems are often devised by firms in accordance with their strategic goals and objectives. “ As demonstrated by Merchant and Van der Stede (2017), management control systems are created by the answering of certain organization-related questions. What is wanted? and What is the likelihood? […] What controls must be implemented? & How should each be implemented? ” (p. 221). Consequently, the process of building a management control system entails evaluating the current internal environment of the business in order to identify its essential needs that must be addressed in order to attain strategic objectives.

A system of management control normally contains a number of evaluation methods that permit the examination of the operation of various organizational components. Merchant and Van der Stede (2017) identify three distinct forms of controls: results, action, and personnel or cultural controls. The procedures vary considerably according on the type of controls utilized. Typically, results are regulated through accountability, in which managers or employees are held responsible for the organization's outcomes (Merchant & Van der Stede, 2017). In turn, action controls may include behavioral limits, preaction reviews, or action accountability, as all of these strategies can prevent unfavorable decisions and encourage productive activity at various organizational levels (Merchant & Van der Stede, 2017). Finally, personnel controls can encompass a variety of human resource management activities, such as selection and placement, training, and culture building, because these methods promote employee engagement, morale, and loyalty to their employers (Merchant & Van der Stede, 2017). Moreover, personnel controls can be linked to prizes and recognitions, thereby encouraging individual or group successes that contribute to the performance of the organization (Merchant & Van der Stede, 2017). Consequently, management control systems are very adaptable and may be adjusted to the specific requirements and environment of a company. By evaluating the present status of the organization and comparing it to the anticipated results, managers can identify the areas that demand the most control and determine how to implement it.

Performance Administration

Performance management is a concept related to management control since it focuses on boosting company performance using tried-and-true methods. Scholars believe performance management an essential for modern organizations because it ensures the achievement of financial and operational objectives. Literature definitions of performance management vary slightly. However, the phrase is most frequently used to refer to "an applied, systematic, and structured approach to the successful management of enterprises, systems, processes, employees, departments, and organizations in order to ensure that goals and objectives are achieved efficiently and effectively" (Hemold & Samara, 2019, p. vii). Consequently, three features describe the performance management actions.

First, they are systematic, which means they are applied uniformly across the organization. This guarantees that all business units and departments contribute constructively to the attainment of the company's primary objectives. Second, performance management activities are planned to enhance alignment with company goals. Thus, both the progress evaluation metrics and the overall performance improvement objectives are relevant to the company's strategy (Hemold & Samara, 2019). The third objective of performance management activities and strategies is to ensure effectiveness and efficiency. This indicates that, when implementing performance management, a company's leaders aspire not only to successfully implement the organization's plan, but also to do so without extra activities, expenses, or efforts (Hemold & Samara, 2019). In this manner, performance management assists firms in regulating their expenses and resource usage while attaining financial and commercial success. These benefits are very relevant in competitive business situations because they enable organizations to earn greater profits that may be given to shareholders or reinvested in product or service enhancements.

Performance Management Techniques

Accountability Accountability

Responsibility accounting is one of the most important approaches related to performance management in modern businesses. According to Garrison et al. (2017), companies require responsibility accounting systems that link the decision-making authority of lower-level managers with accountability for the effects of those decisions (p. 508). In decentralized companies, when decisions are made at multiple levels of the organizational structure, responsibility accounting is very important. In order to implement this strategy, managers must create responsibility centers that correspond to areas of the organization where they have authority over costs, earnings, or investments (Garrison et al., 2017). Then, responsibility centers are evaluated based on financial outcome metrics such as return on investment (Garrison et al., 2017). By ensuring that managers are held accountable for their decisions, responsibility accounting can aid in the enhancement and maintenance of performance across a variety of organizational activities.

Operating Performance Assessment

While responsibility accounting focuses on financial measurements of performance, many businesses also require assessments of operating performance to ensure the efficient production or processing of goods or services. Achieving operational efficiency is a crucial objective for businesses since it reduces waste and losses connected with functional activities, such as money or time losses (Garrison et al., 2017). The major method for evaluating operational success is the analysis of key performance indicators. This may include throughput time, delivery cycle time, and manufacturing cycle efficiency, based on the nature of the firm and its operational processes or goals (Garrison et al., 2017). Once a mechanism for analyzing these aspects has been established, managers can utilize these indicators to measure the effectiveness of the company’s operations, establish improvement goals, and undertake operational performance initiatives to drive development.

Rational Scorecard

Balanced scorecards are a beneficial performance management approach that may be implemented in a variety of industries and organization types. A balanced scorecard is a combined instrument that can encompass operational and financial performance evaluation metrics (Garrison et al., 2017). A balanced scorecard is, at its most fundamental level, an integrated collection of performance measurements that are generated from and support a company's strategy (Garrison et al., 2017, p. 519). In other words, the deployment of a balanced scorecard entails identifying key performance indicators for various business sectors that relate to the company's overall strategy and collecting data on them in order to evaluate success and determine the need for improvements. The primary advantage of a balanced scorecard is that it facilitates the operationalization of a company's strategy in a manner that can be easily used to oversee and evaluate performance (Garrison et al., 2017). For instance, balanced scorecard metrics can target financial results, customer outcomes, internal business processes, and even organizational environment features (Garrison et al., 2017). Consequently, the technique is applicable to all business kinds and offers considerable advantages to management.

System Quality Management

Quality management systems are another strategy that can contribute to performance management in enterprises. A quality management system, as defined by Hemold and Samara (2019), entails corporate operations that strive to increase customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is crucial to the competitiveness of the majority of businesses in the world today, as it influences profitability, market share, and future growth prospects. Therefore, a quality management system includes a set of process standards that specify how the organization will attain superior customer satisfaction and how progress will be measured (Hemold & Samara, 2019). Although quality management systems can be tailored to any organizational situation, some standardized systems, such as ISO 9001, are routinely utilized by corporations (Hemold & Samara, 2019). Quality management systems offer several advantages to firms, ranging from increased customer satisfaction to improved internal operations. Consequently, they constitute an effective performance management strategy that can be supplemented with other tools.


Modern businesses encounter numerous obstacles that require them to consistently improve performance in order to survive and expand. Changes in the external environment and highly competitive marketplaces necessitate the implementation of well-defined, simple tactics. In addition to achieving their objectives effectively, firms must minimize the costs and non-financial inputs required to provide goods and services. In this framework, managerial control and performance management are essential concepts that firms pursuing long-term success must implement. On the one hand, management control assists businesses in implementing their strategies by ensuring that the decisions made by personnel at all organizational levels contribute to the attainment of strategic goals. On the other hand, performance management tools and techniques aid in reviewing and enhancing company functions, leading to enhanced financial results, customer satisfaction, and operational performance. Leaders may achieve their strategic objectives and goals, so positioning their firms for long-term success, by employing a combination of proven performance management strategies and proper management controls.


Garrison, R. H., E. W. Noreen, and P. C. Brewer (2017). Administrative accounting (16th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education was located in New York, New York.

Hemold, M., and W. Samara (2019). Industry insights and case studies on performance management principles, application tools, and practice. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

Merchant, K. A., & Van der Stede W. A. (2017). Management control systems: measurement, evaluation, and incentives for performance (4th ed.). Harlow, United Kingdom: Pearson.

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Wal-Mart: Strategic Management Essay Help Websites


Wal-Mart is a major influence on the world economy and consumer culture as a retail powerhouse. This article will investigate and assess the internal and external elements that influence Wal-Mart stores in the United States. In recent years, market liberalization and new trading opportunities have had a significant impact on the retail industry's structure.

External Environment

General Environment

In the first decade of the 21st century, marketing has become increasingly significant for businesses of all kinds, their customers, and national economies. PESTEL analysis enables marketers to discover and analyze the most significant economic and industrial aspects (Pittengrew et al 2006).

Aspects Political and Legal

Stability in politics has a good effect on the global business climate and provides continued growth and legal protection. Critics concede that the state's powerful financial interests were particularly opposed to the tight money policy pursued by successive Republican national administrations, which was supported by eastern banking leaders. In addition, they desired that the government regulate railroad freight prices, grant additional loans, and implement a graduate income tax (Pittengrew et al 2006; Wal-Mart Home Page 2008).

Economic Factors

The economic climate in the United States provides fresh options for the retail industry to expand sales and acquire new customers. Low inflation rates and high employment rates enable Wal-Mart to preserve its market position and brand image as a family-owned business. The retail industry consists of "sellers of consumer goods, including electronics, food, and beverages, among others."

The retail companies contact consumers through a range of retail methods, including internet retail and home shopping networks (Johnson and Scholes 1998, p. 98). Global economic shifts have affected the retail industry in recent years. It relates to the type of production and raw materials, new technologies, a new global manufacturing system, and the emergence of national economies. These variables have a significant impact on retail marketing and strategic planning. Changing consumer lifestyles and demand patterns are the most fundamental drivers driving change in the retail industry (Wal-Mart: Is it Good for America 2005).

Such a phenomenon as cultural globalization develops as a result of the technology revolution and economic globalization, which produce a flood of cultural blessings. There were no particular regulations limiting the industry's objectives and organizational structures, and there are no constitutional constraints or legislative mandates restricting retail shop leadership (Wal-Mart Home Page 2008).

Technological Elements

Technology and innovation entail alterations to the industrial work flow system. With the conventional "functional layout" of production, lines of identical machines or operations are structured such that components are passed back and forth until all tasks are accomplished. In contrast, the work flow system for "group technology" production is based on the grouping of personnel and a variety of machines.

Recent alterations included adjustments in worldwide distribution and in-house brand products (Drejer, 2002). In this case, the reasons include complete control over the international marketing channel. On the wine market, Wal-Mart items helped to build a base of devoted customers and compete with foreign companies. The competitiveness of the new product relative to those already handled by intermediaries was crucial. This notion of strategy formation as an ad hoc procedure reflects Wal-propensity Mart's to pursue a specific course of action until something goes wrong. Wal-Mart plans to adhere to a certain strategic orientation for around ten years before making a significant course correction (Wal-Mart Home Page 2008).

Opportunities for Wal-growth Mart's include an increase in market share and customer satisfaction, enhanced job efficiency, and a reduction in work hours. The current scenario at Walmart is characterized by two factors: specification, which relates to the quality’ of service, and conformance, which relates to the ‘process’ quality that is reached. Both of these factors are of special importance to customers. However, these two variables are themselves determined by other variables (Keegan and Green 2004). Understanding Wal-unique Mart's operating environment is crucial to developing service strategies. Innovations in technology and inventiveness in production might be viewed as Wal-business Mart's philosophy. Changes in legislation and competitiveness are dangers (Wal-Mart Home Page 2008).

Demographic Variables

Sales decline due to demographic issues and changes in income distribution. Changes in the environment have altered customer demand, but they have had little effect on their purchasing power. The demographic shift poses a threat and has a significant impact on sales. In recent years, an increase in loan rates and a non-compete agreement have been additional obstacles for Wal-Mart. Current economic trends indicate price declines and alterations in supply patterns (Johnson and Scholes, 1998).

Internal Conditions


Wal-strength Mart's is that it has maintained a highly competitive position on the national market. The store has a solid base of devoted customers and develops service lines to meet the needs of a broad audience. Wal-Mart sustained rapid expansion with a variety of products and continuous technical innovation. This was accomplished by competitor cooperation and the absence of anti-competitive behavior among national businesses (Johnson and Scholes, 1998).

The fact that Wal-Mart uses informal communication methods to achieve its aims is a positive aspect of the company. It contributes to the satisfaction of members' social needs and to their sense of identification and belonging. This style of communication gives additional channels of communication and a technique of motivation, such as status, social interaction, diversity in everyday jobs, and informal methods of employment. Informal communication offers a sense of stability and security, and through informal ‘norms’ of behavior, informal communication can exert a form of control over members.

Wal-culture Mart's and structure evolve throughout time in response to multiple complicated influences. Wal-culture Mart's is influenced by the rationale and manner of its founding, its age, and the philosophies and ideals of its founders and initial top managers. Walmart's borrowing capacity and ability to produce internal money are substantial. Walmart's leadership position and market development are supported by organizational and physical resources.

Wal-human Mart's resources and organizational systems provide a pattern of unstated values, conventions, beliefs, attitudes, and assumptions that influence how people act and how things get done. Thus, the primary themes are a focus on high standards and technical advancement. The style of management can be described as charismatic. It helps Wal-Mart establish a strong brand image, which has a significant impact on staff dedication.

Despite multiple charges and trials against Wal-labor Mart's politics and poor pay, the company cultivates an appealing organizational culture. Wal-Mart depends on technical innovation and the Internet to transform conventional business practices. It implemented a new supply chain three years ago, which helps save time and resources and boosts productivity. The Internet facilitates the retail industry's global relationship building with its customers (Hollensen, 2007).


In recent years, Wal-image Mart's in the industry has suffered due to several complaints over the quality and category of its products (Wal-Mart Home Page 2008). Some buyers assert that Wal-Mart sells inferior products made of particle board instead of solid wood. Negative reputation had a negative influence on the company's image and customer brand loyalty, leading to a decline in sales and profitability (Hollensen, 2007).


Wal-opportunities Mart's include a strong growth and profitability potential; the promotion of other wines; and the enhancement of services. There is a risk associated with disregarding the environment, as customers and their requirements, competitors, technological advancements, etc. may play a significant impact in deciding competitive success. Wal-Mart must expend its own resources in order to achieve the objectives, with an emphasis on technological efforts and productivity, from an economic standpoint. The difference in installation costs for the crushing facility is an additional opportunity for Walmart.

These technological innovations are intended to enhance security and accelerate the production process. Additionally, it enabled Walmart to deliver consumer pleasure more quickly (Keegan and Green 2004). Technology supplanted conventional betting methods, resulting in an expansion of businesses. Wal-Mart views long-term contracts as an opportunity that enables the corporation to maintain a steady competitive position on the market.

Walmart's effective management is both a strength and an opportunity. Applications of organizational behavior and the effective management of human resources are dependent on Wal-industry, Mart's culture, and environment (Pittengrew et al 2006).

This method enables Wal-Mart to acquire a strong market position and rapid growth in a short period of time. Performance and development reviews provide participants the opportunity to reflect on past performance in order to formulate plans for future development and improvement. Obtaining a historical perspective through analysis is a vital component of the review, but determining what should be done in the future is the primary objective. The performance review should take the nature of a conversation, not an interview or "evaluation" (Wal-Mart Home Page 2008).


The principal danger is competition. When product criteria for minimum quality and features were set, the competition between Wal-Mart and Target switched to research and development. Urban and rural middle-income families comprise Wal-market Mart's segment. In certain places, however, the loss of local business exceeds the increased salaries and tax revenues delivered by Wal-Mart, not to mention the economic disadvantages for local business owners who lose sales or go bankrupt as a result of the presence of the retailing giant (Keegan and Green 2004).

Politically, Wal-prodigious Mart's contributions to candidates who favor their business practices and expansion appear to have a negative impact on local and national political arenas. Unions' opposition to Wal-Mart and its consequences on its employees frequently wreak havoc in local communities (Wal-Mart: Is it Good for America?, 2005). From a social standpoint, however, there are numerous advantages, such as a rise in job opportunities, a decrease in the cost of living for residents, and an increase in the availability of low-cost health care (Pittengrew et al 2006).

Corporate Social Responsibility and Walmart

Contemporary Problems and Unethical Conduct

Wal-Mart is frequently accused of having low ethical standards and immoral actions towards its stakeholders. If a corporation fails to develop an effective Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policy, it could result in a loss of partner and consumer trust, as well as business failure. According to Friedman (2005), the sole social obligation of a business is to "use its resources and engage in profit-maximizing activities" (p. 285).

Wal-Mart adheres to this philosophy by focusing on worldwide expansion and acquisition tactics, monopolistic and dominant market position. According to Friedman's arguments, Wal-Mart does adhere to the majority of their commitments and ethical values. For instance, Wal-Mart has attempted to acquire large locations in Argentina, Brazil, and Peru by offering workers very low wages (even if this causes discontent with the company's practices and harms its reputation).

Wal-Mart intends to acquire a monopoly position in less developed countries in order to increase its profits at the expense of local businesses' market potential. A business's obligation, according to Friedman, is to maximize profits and serve the interests of its owners, but even in this scenario, businesses should avoid from "raising the price of the product" or offering poor pay (Kotabe and Helsen, 2006). Wal-anticipated Mart's low pay and minimal compensation is another source of criticism.

The concerns highlighted in the documentary "Is Wal-Mart Good for America?" starkly illustrate that Wal-Mart only employs stakeholder theory if it meets its strategic marketing objectives and does not affect its profit margin. As an example, Hedrick Smith states, "Wal-Mart has a life-or-death decision over all the consumer goods industries that exist in the United States, because it is the largest supplier-retailer of the majority of our consumer goods" (Is Wal-Mart Good for America?).

Importance of Moral Standards

Because commercial activity is a component of social life, Wal-Mart should adhere to ethical concepts and standards that benefit society and its members. In general, social corporate responsibility refers to the coordination of activities in accordance with a company's and an industry's code of conduct. In this instance, the CSR standards are geared toward attaining the organization's aims and objectives. Wal-management Mart's asserts, "Wal-Mart is a company founded on the principle of caring for its customers and whose founder refused to get involved in politics. Initially, Wal-Mart was hesitant to change its business practices" (Ferdinand 2007, p. 87).

As society becomes more complex, the importance of new values for Wal-Mart is intimately related to the helplessness of consumers. For Wal-Mart, duty entails being honest or accountable to its customers. It means that promotional activities and advertising should tell potential buyers about the product's quality and characteristics using ethical methods. Generation and transmission of information have reached new heights. Consequently, many consumers rely on product information pushed by the firms accountable for product quality and advertising messages (Is Wal-Mart Good for America?, 2004).

Also, the nature of ethical standards is one of the most important challenges that people managers in large corporations must confront. There should be a progressive convergence of national practices on working hours and insensitivity. Equal opportunity for all employees is a component of corporate social responsibility, however there may be significant dispute over what this entails in practice. Focusing for the time being on service delivery, a values-driven approach to specification will include issues of humanity, whether in a brief encounter or a long-term connection (Ferdinand 2007).

Timeliness, responsiveness, and flexibility, courtesy and friendliness, availability and access, sympathy and support, understanding and guidance; all of these, and others such as respect and confidentiality, must be considered as elements of CSR where the client's felt experience is at least as important as, if not more important than, procedural or technical precision (Keegan and Green 2004).

Target and SCR

CSR may provide numerous advantages for a business, including achieving high performance standards at all levels of the workforce and eliminating worry and confusion around acceptable employee conduct. Importantly, a company's employees should believe that the company's renown and strong corporate culture eliminate the need for explicit CSR policies (Ferdinand 2007).

Customers, employees, and suppliers should all be treated in accordance with their country's norms and standards. According to the conditions of the target market, prices should be established at a level that will be deemed acceptable or fair. Thus, Friedman emphasizes that "there are no values, no'social' responsibilities other than shared values and individual responsibilities" (Friedman 2005, pp. 284-285).

Social responsibility does not equate to a reduction in profitability. It means that the company should have a CSR as a basic concept of its business. The code should handle some aspects of workers' private life that have an impact on their professional performance or the organization's interests. Occasionally, the moral rationale is derived from a value system.

Financial Profile Of Oman Agriculture Development Company SAOG Essay Help Websites


Oman Agriculture Development Company SAOG is a subsidiary of OMZEST Group with its headquarters in Oman. The business is located in Sohar, where it maintains an 800 hectare farm. The company's primary focus is the manufacture of dairy products. Additionally, the company offers vegetables, juices, and beverages. It also engages in product trade, training, service provision, and building. Its various product brands are Sohar, Sunfarms, Moo Cow, Nakhal, Nizwa, and Sun Up.

The Contents and Organization of the Data

Illustration regarding Balance Sheet

Appendix 1 contains the Balance Sheet of Oman Agriculture Development Company.

These tangible assets that are anticipated to be utilized for at least two years constitute Property, Plant, and Equipment. During the course of the fiscal year, such assets should not be sold. These assets should be used by the entity. The term assets might be extended upon. These assets may include the following:

Land and Construction Machinery and Equipment Furniture and fixtures Any construction that is in process

In other words, Property, Plant, and Equipment encompasses assets that are crucial to the operation of a corporation yet are difficult to dispose of. Due to their tangible character, the value of these assets is depreciated annually. These assets have a certain lifespan after which they become obsolete or useless. The value of such assets depends on an organization's line of operation. For instance, in a furniture manufacturing unit, the amount of Property, Plant, and Equipment can be relatively significant, as the majority of these assets will be directly tied to the firm. In organizations that make extensive use of machinery, Property, Plant, and Equipment will be of significant value. In contrast, a real estate broker's office will require merely a computer, a few tables and chairs, and an office in order to function.

ii) At Oman Agriculture Development Company SAOG, the value of Property, Plant, and Equipment is 4.24 million Omani Rials, while the value of Buildings and Improvements is 1.14 million Omani Rials. Together, they will total 5.38 million Omani Rials. However, depreciation on these assets totaling 4.49 million Omani Rials, or 76.12%, has been documented. This results in a balance of 0.89 Omani Rials for Property, Plant, and Equipment (Net Fixed Assets). This represents 15.14 percent of the Total Assets.

iii) Based on the figures in the balance sheet of Oman Agriculture Development Company SAOG, it is evident that, on average, the company is taking into account an additional depreciation of 3% compared to the previous year, with the exception of 2011, when the depreciation was only 0.72 % higher than in 2010. This may have occurred as a result of the corporation selling property or equipment.

Example regarding Profit and Loss

Appendix 2 contains the Income Statement of Oman Agriculture Development Company.

A company's revenue derives from the selling of its products. In reality, revenue comprises the cost of sales and the gross operating profit. The cost of sales equals the starting stock value plus the cost of items acquired minus the closing stock value. Therefore, it is accepted that the cost of sales includes the cost of purchasing both raw materials and completed commodities. In a service industry, these products consist of the services rendered to clients. When sales have been consummated or services have been given, the company records revenue.

Illustration on the Cash Flow Statement

Appendix 3 contains the Cash Flow Statement of Oman Agriculture Development Company.

Cash flow from operations is essential for covering operating and other capital expenses. Oman Agriculture Development Company SAOG generated Cash mostly from Operating activities due to its significant net Income mixed with cash generated from Depreciation charges and Noncash items.

Performance of the Current Year Compared to Prior Years

Ratio Analysis

Total current assets divided by total current liabilities:

This ratio measures the company's capacity to meet its short-term obligations. As a precaution, it should be sufficiently tall. The Current ratio in 2010 has declined from 0.98 in 2006 to 0.41 in 2010. The reason for the decline is that the percentage rise in total current assets in 2010 (compared to 2006) is less than the percentage increase in total current liabilities (compared to 2006). Current assets have increased by just 8.16 percent, whilst current liabilities have soared by 158.15 percent. As a result of the formula, the ratio is lowered. Based on the calculated ratios, we can observe that this ratio has declined every year except 2010. Now, this is a major worry for the business.

([Cash and Equivalents – Inventories] / Total Current Liabilities):

Inventory was subtracted from cash and equivalents because it is the least liquid asset. The Quick ratio in 2006 was -0.535, while in 2010 it is -0.12. The primary explanation for this rise is the change in cash and equivalents, which has multiplied by 1129.20 percent. The dividing factor, or current obligations, have only increased by 158.15 percent. Consequently, a difference is seen.

Cash Ratio (Cash / Total Current Liabilities): If the cash ratio is high, it indicates that the organization has an excessive amount of cash, which is undesirable. Cash surpluses should be invested to generate returns. Nonetheless, it is obvious from the table that the Cash ratio in 2010 increased by 500%, from 0.01 in 2006 to 0.05 in 2010. However, this does not imply that the ratio is large. Only the comparison exists. In reality, the ratio is low, which suggests that the corporation invested its funds elsewhere. This bodes well for the future. This increase is due to the fact that the increase in cash and equivalents is significantly more than the increase in current obligations. The percentage increases in cash and equivalents and current liabilities are 1129.20% and 158.15 %, respectively.

([Total Assets – Total Equity] / Total Assets):

There has been a 93.75 percent increase in this ratio. Total equity is the determining variable for this ratio. The increase in the Total Debt ratio is due to the enormous decline in total equity. The rising debt-to-equity ratio is not a positive indicator because it indicates that the company incurs debts year after year.

Ratio of EBIT to Interest Earned (EBIT / Interest):

This ratio increased from -1.16 in 2007 to 2.96 in 2010 because EBIT decreased by a greater percentage than interest expense (percentage wise). In 2009, the ratio was the greatest, indicating that the corporation was better able to cover its interest expenses. However, a decline in the ratio in 2010 compared to 2009 indicates that the company's ability to cover interest expenses has diminished.

Ratio of EBIT to Interest ([EBIT + Depreciation] / Interest):

The EBIT/Interest ratio has increased by 64.28 percent, from -3.22 in 2007 to 2.07 in 2010. We can see from the table that the depreciation has been nearly constant (minor fluctuations). The rise in the EBIT/Interest ratio indicates the company's current capacity to pay interest from earnings, leaving room for tax payments and future investments. The difference between the Times Interest Earned Ratio and the EBIT/Interest Ratio is that depreciation is included to the EBIT in the EBIT/Interest Ratio before division.

Inventory turnover Ratio (Cost of Sales / Inventory): We observe that this ratio does not differ much. There has been an 8% change in nominal value (from 3.50 in 2007 to 3.78 in 2010). It does not indicate that the numbers have not changed. We observe that although the ratio has increased, the sales and inventory statistics in 2010 are lower than their respective figures in 2007. However, there is a point. The decline in sales is 22.64 percent, while the decline in inventories is 28.42 percent. The fact that both sales and inventories have declined indicates that the company's items are not in high demand. The management should take urgent corrective action.

Inventory Days Ratio:

This ratio represents the amount of days that stocks have been held. This ratio has decreased from 104.36 in 2007 to 96.56 in 2010. It's a positive sign since the longer stocks are held, the more expensive they become.

Receivable Turnover Ratio (Net Sales / Account Receivables): This ratio indicates the number of times the money is recovered from the debtors for the accounts receivable. From 6.74 in 2007 to 5.33 in 2010, the ratio has declined. A decline in this ratio indicates that less money has been collected from debtors. This is not a good sign, as late payments result in higher interest rates.

The Days Receivables Ratio (calendar days / Sales Receivable Ratio) is the ratio of the number of calendar days to the Sales Receivable Ratio.

This ratio indicates the number of days it takes to recover payments from debtors. From 54.13 in 2007 to 68.54 in 2010, the ratio has increased. There is a rise here once more. It indicates the company is not attentive to the collection process. Providing the debtors with additional time results in the accumulation of higher interest.

Total Asset Turnover Ratio (Sales / Total Assets): This ratio indicates the company's asset use efficiency. The values represent the dollar amount earned for every dollar of assets. This proportion fell from 1.07 in 2007 to 0.69 in 2010. The decline in this ratio indicates that the organization is not effectively utilizing its assets.

This ratio fell from zero in 2007 to -0.27 in 2010. This is a major problem for the company's administration. It indicates the company is incurring losses. If the same strategy is pursued, investors will withdraw their funds, and the company would sink into the doldrums.

This ratio fell from zero in 2007 to -0.19 in 2010. This demonstrates that the company's assets are not conducive to income generation. The organization should consider acquiring new profitable assets.

This ratio grew from 0.02 in 2007 to 0.79 in 2010. In 2009, however, the figure was 6.01. It indicates that 2009 was the best year for shareholders. They made $6.01 for each dollar of their investment in the company. But in 2010, there was a significant decline.

PE Ratio (Price per share / Earnings per share): This ratio has decreased significantly. From 63.40 in 2007 to -1.39 in 2010, it has decreased. This indicates that the company's shares have declined on the stock market. This undermines the credibility of the company.

This ratio fell from 0.942% in 2007 to -1.223 in 2010. It indicates that the corporation has failed to create value for its owners.


In 'Appendix 4', a comparison chart for the past four years is presented. The year 2008 (with a ratio of 0.02) was clearly the most profitable for the company, while 2009 (with a ratio of -0.60) was the least profitable. In 2007 and 2010, the respective ratios were 0.00 and -0.27. Even sales were at their peak in 2008. Return on assets is an essential component for any business. In 2008, the ratio was 0.02; in 2009, it was -3.32. In 'Appendix 5', the graphs for 'Sales' and 'Net Income' are displayed. Although 2008 was the most profitable year for the company, compared to 2009, the company was able to enhance its financial performance in 2010. There has been a 39.19% growth in sales, and there has also been an increase in net income. In terms of 'Market-to-Book Ratio,' 2010 has also been superior. Even the 'Profit Margin Ratio' has improved, increasing from -0.60 to -0.27. But 2009 has been a prosperous year for the corporation in terms of its ability to cover fixed interest expenses with current earnings. In 2009, the 'Times Interest Earned' ratio was the highest, at 8.54. But in 2010, it fell by 65.33 percent to 2.96. In 2010, the 'Total Debt Ratio' grew from 1.05 in 2009 to 1.24. Additionally, the 'Receivable Turnover Ratio' has improved from 5.08 in 2009 to 5.33 in 2010, a rise of 4.92 percent.

Therefore, we may conclude that the company's 2010 fiscal year was superior to that of 2009.

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People Power: Driving Fashion Forward Essay Help Websites


The dynamic nature of the corporate environment has altered the focus of organizations from success based on money and assets to success based on intangible assets and especially the human resource, as the employees of an organization decide its competitiveness relative to its competitors. As a result, Human Resource Management is a crucial component of a business, as it dictates the interactions between the firm and its employees. Human Resource Management refers to the strategic and logical approach an organization's management takes while dealing with its employees (Sharma 2009, pp. 1). Numerous organizations have adopted the People Power method as a human resource management (HRM) tool because it acknowledges the crucial role people play in shaping the destiny of the firm. It includes functions such as recruiting, hiring, training, compensating, managing, and developing personnel inside the organization.

Approach to Human Resource Management

The approach to human resource management involves employing a variety of tactics to guarantee the aforementioned responsibilities are completed in accordance with the organization's objectives. Combining the Hard strategy, which aims to benefit from the competitive advantage an organization gains when its people remain with the organization for long periods of time, with the Soft strategy, which seeks to promote employee morale and trust in the organization (Bratton & Gold 2001, pp. 26). By implementing this method, Fashion Forward will be able to make its staff feel like an integral part of the organization, thereby achieving a high level of devotion and productivity from them, which will improve the marketing department's overall performance. The HRM approach considers employees to be an integral part of the organization, and thus seeks to create a working environment that fosters their development and accords them the right to participate in the management of the organization, for instance by allowing them to participate in the decision-making process (Armstrong 2006, pp. 19). The majority of interactions between Fashion Forward and its clients are mediated through the marketing department, through which the company obtains various types of client feedback. Such knowledge is vital to an organization, but employees can only communicate it to the proper authorities if they are permitted to participate in decision-making processes. The HRM strategy aims to teach and develop people so that their requirements and operations are matched with those of the organization, hence maximizing their performance. If Fashion Forward is able to accomplish this, it will be able to achieve sustained growth.

It has been discovered that the HRM approach to managing people differs from the more traditional Personnel Management approach in that it focuses more on the employees as opposed to the overall organisational workforce, whereas the Personnel Management approach focuses on the smooth operation of the entire organisational workforce and does not specifically focus on the employees, their aspirations, and their development (Kumar & Sharma 2000, pp. 701). The personnel management approach is more administrative and takes a more procedural approach to employee management, which is based on monitoring employees, whereas the human resource management approach is less administrative and views employees as business partners, thus treating them as company assets (Armstrong 2006, pp. 19).

To ensure the sustained success of fashion Forward, I suggest that the board adopt an HRM approach to personnel management. The already existing cohesion between management and employees of the organization offers a foundation for the success of the system, since this is the type of environment in which the approach is most effective. It provides an opportunity for the organization's employees to learn and grow in a manner that is advantageous to the firm, as it fosters goodwill among the employees, so increasing their dedication and devotion to the organization. This will benefit Fashion Forward by giving it a competitive advantage over other participants in the retail fashion business and ensuring that the company's recruitment, hiring, training, and management processes continue to supply qualified employees.

Strategic Human Resource Management and Human Resource Planning

According to Aswathappa (2005, p. 64), Human Resource Planning (HRP) involves the future forecasting of an organization's employee demand in order to determine the number of employees an organization needs to meet its operational needs, goals, and objectives, as well as other related factors such as the knowledge and skills required of future employees. According to Price (2000, p. 86), it entails doing an examination of the already existing personnel in terms of their abilities and numbers and identifying areas where the organization need additions, transfers, or layoffs of employees, as well as staff training and retraining. These modifications may be implemented in reaction to alterations in the organization's internal or external environment. These services would be advantageous to Fashion Forward because they will assist in determining the number of people and capabilities required for the company's expansion objectives.

Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) refers to the tactics and strategies employed by an organization's management when addressing human resource issues and how they impact the overall performance of the organization. It guarantees that an organization's productivity and effectiveness are maintained, allowing it to fulfill its goals and objectives (Sharma 2009, pp. 17).

Human Resource Planning is a precondition for human resource management functions since it allows for the organization's recruitment, training, and development programs to be planned. This might be advantageous for Fashion Forward in the following ways:

HRP would assist Fashion Forward in determining its future marketing department personnel needs in accordance with the organization's future expansion plans in order to achieve sustainable growth. HRP would also determine the required skills and knowledge for such employees, as well as the levels of such skills (Aswathappa 2005, pp. 66). This helps to prevent occurrences of excessive or insufficient staffing. The marketing department's activities are significant because they contribute to increasing market awareness of the company's products and to the sale of those items; consequently, the department must be adequately staffed.

HRP is a vital aspect of strategic planning since it provides pertinent information for making strategic decisions regarding human resource management and then develops a strategy for implementing these decisions. It would be advantageous for the marketing department, which requires clear strategic plans and implementation processes to ensure the organization fulfills its sales and marketing objectives, if these two domains' decisions were heavily linked (Schuler & Jackson 2007. pp. 6).

As with any other organization, Fashion Forward places a great value on its marketing department, and as a result, the department's staffing requirements are treated with equal attention. Fashion Forward stores are primarily located in prestigious areas, such as Bristol City, and as a high-end fashion company, it frequently deals with affluent, sophisticated clients, necessitating the employment of a team of highly qualified professionals in order to provide them with quality marketing and sales services (Bandt & Haines pp. 7). HRP would go a long way toward assessing the precise degree of these skills and advising HRM on the recruitment, training, and retraining procedures required to ensure that employees acquire the skills required to serve its clients.

SHRM enables strategic decision-making, including strategic staffing decisions, which are made in close partnership with HRP (Fombrun, Tichy & Devanna 1984, pp. 66). Strategic organizational decisions include expansion, sustainable development, and performance enhancement. Fashion Forward would benefit from the SHRM and HRP functions in that it would be able to build a clear vision for the future and define the necessary human resource requirements that are in accordance with the vision. SHRM will also assist the organization to develop a competitively intelligent team that will ensure the organization's continuous success based on the competence of its employees and strategies that ensure their demands are met effectively (Hendry 1995, pp. 126). SHRM and HRP will also guarantee that Fashion Forward evaluates its deficiencies as well as its strengths, makes the appropriate strategic modifications, and maintains healthy levels of employee enthusiasm. All of these characteristics will guarantee the organization's continued short- and long-term excellence.

Interview and Selection Criteria for the Public Relations Manager Position at Fashion Forward

To effectively convey its goals, objectives, policies, and strategies, Fashion Forward must employ a professional and highly skilled Public Relations Manager. To find the ideal candidate for the position, the organization requires the following selection criteria:

Determine the required knowledge and abilities for the individual and publicize them. The advertisement must contain:

Mandatory Requirements: educational credentials, experience level, and training. Competency Prerequisites for performing the duties and obligations associated with the position of public relations officer. They must be prominently displayed in the advertisement. These may include personal characteristics of the candidate, such as age, as well as other pertinent but non-mandatory conditions. Additionally, the date by which all applications must be received should be specified.

After the application deadline, the Human Resources department should:

Examine each application and remove those who do not satisfy all of the job's requirements. Invite the prospects on the short list to an oral interview.

Ask the following inquiries during the interview:

Give us a quick introduction to yourself and your educational history. What prior experience and relevant abilities do you possess that are pertinent to this position? What is your familiarity with Fashion Forward and the fashion business in general? What benefits do you aim to offer to Fashion Forward if we hire you? How have your strengths and shortcomings affected your performance in your prior or present position? Describe a challenging situation you have encountered on the work and how you handled it. What benefits do you anticipate from Fashion Forward? Do you have any questions regarding the organization or the position that we should address? Any closing thoughts or opinions?

The interview panel should next deliberate on the outcome of the interview, based their deliberations on the candidate's personal, academic, and professional experiences and skills in order to determine the best candidate for the position.


Human Resource Management, Human Resource Planning, and Strategic Human Resource Management are crucial components of every organization, and their advantages cannot be overlooked. Therefore, Fashion Forward should implement the appropriate rules to guarantee that they have all of these divisions in place so that they can secure the organization's continuing, sustainable growth.


A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, M. Armstrong, 2006. London: Kogan Page Publishers, 10th edition

Human Resource and Personnel Management: Text and Cases, by K. Aswathappa, 2005. New Delhi: McGraw Hill Publishers, 4th Edition.

Bandt and Haines (2002) published Successful Strategic Human Resource Planning. Systems Thinking Press Publications in New York.

Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice, edited by J. Bratton and J. Gold, was published in 2001. Routledge Publishers, London.

Fombrun, C. J., M. N. Tichy, and M. A. Devanna published Strategic Human Resource Management in 1984. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Toronto, Canada

Human Resource Management: A Strategic Approach to Employment, by C. Hendry, 1995. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann Publishers.

Kumar, A., and R. Sharma, 2000, Personnel management Theory and Practice, 3 Volume Set, Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.

A. Price, "Principles of Human Resource Management: An Active Learning Approach," in 2000. Blackwell Publishers Limited, Oxford.

2009, Human Resource Management: A Strategic Approach to Employment, by Sharma, S. K. Global India Publications Limited, New Delhi.

Schuler, R. S., and E. S. Jackson, 2007, Strategic Human Resource Management, 2nd edition, Blackwell Publishing Limited, Australia.

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Lean And Agile Supply Chain Operations Management Essay Help Websites

Supply chain management is essential to the success of many businesses. This feature is particularly essential in production and manufacturing organizations since it can affect lead times and the company's response to consumers' needs. Fortunately, a supply chain can be adapted to the demands of a firm, making production more efficient and facilitating the resolution of certain challenges. Regarding the form and administration of the supply chain, the companies in the two described scenarios have diverse demands and expectations. A competent supply chain management plan could aid both firms in raising output, hence boosting their market success.

Agile and Lean Supply Chains

This assignment focuses on two key supply chain types: lean and agile. Lean supply chains concentrate on avoiding waste and improving production to ensure short lead times and superior product quality (Bhamu & Sangwan 2014). This entails minimizing or removing manufacturing process operations that do not provide value (Carvalho, Azevedo & Cruz-Machado 2014). For instance, lean supply chains focus on creating a fixed number of product options from a restricted amount of raw materials (Jasti & Kodali 2015). This is advantageous for producers because it allows them to eliminate the need for variance in production while maintaining product quality. Lean supply chains also permit the application of standardized quality assessment procedures, which contributes to the final product's quality (Roh, Hong & Min 2014). On the basis of this summary, lean supply chains are more efficient, but only suitable for businesses with little product variety, such as Company B. They also aid in reducing waste and lead time, which are the most pressing concerns facing the firm.

Agile supply chains are frequently contrasted with lean structures due to their divergent focus, objectives, and outputs. According to Crandall, Crandall, and Chen (2014), agile supply chains prioritize the delivery dependability and product variability requirements of the client. This enables flexible supply chains to respond to client needs more effectively while reducing lead times and increasing production capacity (Gligor, Esmark & Holcomb 2015). Agile supply networks are more flexible than lean supply chains, which permits product customisation and the production of made-to-order products. Purvis, Golsa, and Naim (2014) also remark that agile supply networks increase product and volume flexibility. Consequently, a flexible supply chain will be able to provide varying product volumes with variable attributes in order to meet consumer expectations.

Given that at least fifty percent of the items manufactured by Company A require partial or complete modification, an agile supply chain would work best for this business. It would also enable Company A to fulfill orders quickly because agile supply chains can reduce the amount of time needed for customization by establishing a flexible network of raw material suppliers (Ciccullo et al., 2018). Consequently, the company would be able to address its primary production concerns and become more efficient if it chose this choice.

Researchers add that organizations can also mix agile and lean supply chain characteristics to enhance performance gains. According to Purvis, Gosling, and Naim (2014), this method entails either maintaining a flexible network of suppliers with fixed production levels or employing a fixed number of vendors with variable production volumes. This supply chain model was motivated by current supply chain management advancements highlighted by Christopher and Ryals (2014). The authors notice a growing trend toward modeling supply networks based on demand, which necessitates both adaptability and waste reduction. Consequently, demand chains are developed, which serve the same functions as supply chains but with greater structural and functional diversity (Christopher & Ryals 2014). Company A may benefit from the combination of lean and agile frameworks employed in demand chains, as the company still produces a considerable proportion of typical, high-volume products. However, the implementation challenges associated with mixed supply chains or demand chains indicate that it would be more advantageous to transition to an agile supply chain.

Benefits and Pitfalls

Lean Distribution Channels

Due to its focus and characteristics, lean supply chains provide businesses with several benefits. First, lean supply chains help manufacturers and other organizations reduce costs by ensuring that the amount of raw materials provided is minimum different from product demand (Martnez-Jurado & Moyano-Fuenmayor, 2014). This implies that manufacturers generate less waste during their operations, resulting in cost savings and higher productivity.

Secondly, research indicates that lean supply chains have a high correlation with sustainability. According to Martnez-Jurado and Moyano-Fuentes (2014), better production efficiency and decreased waste have a positive impact on the environment. In addition, the enhanced focus on product quality and bigger production volumes reduce the requirement for additional production capacity to be devoted to error correction. This results in the production process becoming more efficient and requiring less resources, hence contributing to sustainability. For instance, Zara's supply chain contains the lean supply chain attribute of reduced waste (Myerson 2014). This allows the company to profit from economies of scale while remaining sustainable, given its high production volume.

Additionally, the improved quality of final products is an important advantage of lean supply chains. By making standardized products from a predetermined range of materials, manufacturers can establish and apply a system for quality control and improvement, thereby enhancing customer satisfaction and avoiding production errors (Govindan et al., 2015). This characteristic of lean supply chain techniques is the fundamental reason why many renowned product quality manufacturers, such as Samsung, Apple, and Lenovo, employ them (Degun 2014). Therefore, the benefits of a lean supply chain are especially significant for businesses that prioritize quality, affordability, and waste reduction.

However, the fundamental disadvantage of lean supply chains is that they provide manufacturers minimal flexibility. According to Purvis, Gosling, and Naim (2014), lean supply chain solutions rely on standardized production quantities and decreased product variability to achieve optimal efficiency. These characteristics assist lean supply chains accomplish waste reduction and quality management. Nevertheless, some lean supply chains still possess some product-related flexibility. This is possible in the case of anticipated production modifications if the company's overall manufacturing capability is high (Carvalho, Azevedo, & Cruz-Machado, 2014). Therefore, this disadvantage solely affects manufacturing enterprises, such as Company A, who must produce customized items on short notice.

Lean Supply Chain

In contrast to lean supply chains, agile supply chains are primarily advantageous due to their improved production flexibility. Purvis, Gosling, and Naim (2014) demonstrate that agile supply chains enable businesses to manufacture varied products in varying quantities. This is an essential benefit for businesses that strive to meet the needs of their clients. Using agile supply chain management tactics, they can meet the client's needs in a short period of time, resulting in increased customer satisfaction with their products and services (Carvalho, Azevedo, & Cruz-Machado, 2014).

Companies utilizing this type of supply chain are also able to increase product prices and enhance their financial performance due to the increased degree of flexibility and emphasis on client needs and requirements (Gligor, Esmark & Holcomb 2015). This is mostly due to the fact that products that are customized and created on short notice bring added value to the consumer and hence cost more. Nike is one of the businesses that benefits from an agile supply chain (Pratap 2018). This decision enables the corporation to develop customised, higher-priced items, which has added to its earnings.

Another significant advantage of agile supply chains is their capacity to contribute to sustainability by minimizing the consumption of resources, such as electricity and raw materials. Ciccullo et al. (2018) emphasize that, despite the scarcity of study on agile and sustainable supply chains, the improved adaptability of this system enables resolving the excessive use of resources and minimizing waste. Therefore, flexible supply chains are especially advantageous for businesses with a high degree of product and volume customisation that seek to stay cost-effective and environmentally friendly.

An important disadvantage of agile supply chains is that they complicate particular manufacturing procedures, such as performance assessments and quality assurance. Singh Patel, Samuel, and Sharma (2017) demonstrate that a rise in the number of raw material suppliers may result in disparities in product quality, leading to consumer complaints and unhappiness. In addition, Purvis, Gosling, and Naim (2014) believe that agile supply chains necessitate a more sophisticated approach to supply chain and operations management due to the increased likelihood of production failures and operational disruptions. Therefore, management must pay greater attention to agile supply chains in order to assure the high quality of products and eliminate errors that damage consumer happiness.


A company

A flexible supply chain would assist Company A, which should implement one in four distinct steps. Initially, the organization must assess the pricing and flexibility of its present suppliers (Webb 2017). Given the volume of orders that must be delivered quickly and with a high degree of customization, the company should analyze the delivery time and variability capabilities of its current suppliers. Eliminating providers that do not meet the specifications would aid in the development of an agile supply chain.

Company A's implementation approach should include an evaluation of the use of technology within the supply chain. Webb (2017) asserts that technologies can increase supply chain agility by facilitating communication between customers, manufacturers, and suppliers. Therefore, the organization should evaluate and implement accessible digital communication options. The third step in the implementation process would be to increase the adaptability of the current manufacturing procedures so that they can respond to alterations in supply chain agility without raising lead times. At this stage, a customizable performance evaluation system can be utilized to assess existing activities.

Company A should check the quality of raw materials and finished goods to ensure that the new supply chain has no detrimental effect on quality. Particularly, it would be advantageous for the company to choose a responsible individual who would conduct random quality checks in accordance with a specific assessment guideline that is appropriate for a variety of goods and materials (Siddhartha & Sachan 2016). This would allow the organization to increase customer satisfaction regardless of supply chain management changes.

B Company

Company B should adopt a lean supply chain with an emphasis on minimizing waste and lead times, according to the research. In order to accomplish this, the organization should conduct an analysis of its present supply chain to identify waste reduction targets (Crandall, Crandall & Chen 2014). For instance, if the company has three or four suppliers providing identical raw materials, it should evaluate their cost structures and dependability and select a single source with whom to continue working. This action would enable the organization to streamline its supply chain and remove waste, so improving its operations and supply chain management. In addition, the business would benefit from examining its contact with vendors and its use of technology to identify unnecessary stages that might be avoided.

Second, the company should minimize product and volume fluctuation whenever possible. This stage is vital since it would help to develop a quality assurance framework and reduce production waste and lead times (Jasti & Kodali 2015). In order to achieve this objective, it would be beneficial for the firm to assess its product line and minimize customisation alternatives. If clients frequently use the customisation tool to purchase products in the color burgundy, for instance, the company should consider substituting one of the less popular basic colors with it. This would make it possible to reduce the product line without affecting earnings or demand.

Implementing appropriate quality assurance and performance measurement systems is the third step in establishing a lean supply chain. According to Bhamu and Sangwan (2014), the incorporation of performance assessments and quality checks into the supply chain reduces lead times and product variance, hence facilitating the deployment of lean supply chains. Following these procedures would aid in transforming the current supply chain into a lean one, thereby assisting Company B in addressing its most pressing issues.

Successful Implementation Example

Walmart is a notable example of a firm renowned for its efficient supply chain. Wal-Mart is an American firm that serves numerous national and international markets, such as the United Kingdom, Canada, India, and Japan (Nguyen 2017). Wal-Mart sells a large variety of products, necessitating a robust supply chain to meet customer demand. The company decided to establish a flexible supply chain, allowing it to stay adaptable in terms of product diversity despite a high sales volume. Wal-Mart utilized technical advances, such as automatic distribution centers, in order to successfully implement this form of supply chain (Nguyen 2017). Additionally, the organization uses market intelligence to coordinate its supply chain by forecasting and planning demand, which is particularly important in the retail industry (Nguyen 2017).

Walmart's direct involvement with its suppliers is a crucial element of its nimble supply chain management. By removing intermediaries, the organization may assure that the required supplies and goods are supplied on time (Nguyen 2017). This facilitates the management of product quality as any faults may be communicated directly to the supplier. Inventory management is an essential component of Walmart's dynamic supply chain. Utilizing contemporary computer technologies, Walmart was able to record inventory data and share it with suppliers to facilitate rapid and effective collaboration (Nguyen 2017). These strategies may also be utilized by Company A to develop an agile supply chain.


Overall, lean and agile supply chains include both benefits and drawbacks that make them advantageous for various types of businesses. According to the findings of a study, agile supply chains are better suited for businesses that offer clients customized options and hence demand greater product and production volume flexibility. In contrast, lean supply chains restrict flexibility in order to decrease waste and boost production efficiency. In the selected scenarios, Company A would profit from an agile supply network, while Company B would be better off with a lean supply chain. Using the paper's recommendations and the supply chains of other companies as examples, both organizations can fix their challenges and develop robust supply chains.


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