Innovation Importance To International Business My Assignment Essay Help London

Introduction

Innovation encompasses a broad variety of creative improvements incorporated into company practice to enhance organizational performance and nurture creativity. Thus, innovation is a component of the creative process, since it enables the discovery of the most effective and, in many cases, new solutions to existing problems through altering business practices. There are many distinct definitions of innovation, which can be summarized as follows:

Innovation is always a change from the status quo; it develops from the need to tackle organizational problems with technology solutions; innovation is both a process and its end result.

Innovation management, on the other hand, is the process of allocating human and technical resources to improve production and marketing through change implementation.

Innovation's significance is difficult to overstate in the context of globalization and the expansion of businesses. Prior to only a few decades ago, economic theories emphasized a finance-based strategy focused on capital accumulation. However, current theories have switched the emphasis to technical advancement and the development of worldwide networks. In the information age, innovation and globalization processes have intermingled to become the driving engine of company progress.

According to Belloc (2012), the continual process of seeking and acquiring information has elevated innovation systems to the worldwide level to facilitate knowledge exchange across nations. Modern businesses are required to participate in the process if they wish to survive in today's highly competitive market. Global innovation generates new quality standards for goods and services, as well as new employment, manufacturing, and management models. Innovation enables businesses to expand their market position, access new markets, replace obsolete technologies, and adopt a more eco-friendly approach.

Innovation Rules

To determine which element needs innovation, it is vital to regularly evaluate all organizational processes. At current time, organizations must adhere to the following innovation rules:

Exert Strong Leadership Regarding the Direction and Decisions of Innovation

If a corporation wishes to be innovatively successful, it must have strong leadership. Steve Jobs and Bill Gates are CEOs whose presence has propelled their respective firms to the pinnacle of success. It has been demonstrated that the strength of the leader is the most important aspect for company success, followed closely by the strength of the project team and the chosen strategy. Technology is only ranked third. According to a survey, 95 percent of respondents are only willing to invest in a firm if it has a notable CEO, while 72 percent believe this company must also have market domination (Chen, Tang, Jin, Xie, & Li, 2014).

64% of respondents stated that technology leadership trumps the aforementioned considerations. The premise is that the CEO and top management are responsible for all choices, even technological ones, within the organization. They are responsible for communicating them to other staff and ensuring their implementation. This is why leadership is the most important aspect in deciding the success of any invention, as it is intended to establish the direction and pace of innovation. Innovation is not intangible. In contrast, it must be a theory in action, which necessitates the participation of individuals.

Incorporate Innovation into Your Business Mindset

A CEO can introduce innovation, but it cannot flourish if it does not become ingrained in the business's culture. It cannot be a voluntary component of the organization. According to Markides (2013), innovation has the potential to be beneficial only if it equates to existence and survival. Innovation is founded on two primary activities: the first is technological advancement, and the second is business model transformation. If the company focuses on only one, it will surely fail. This is the error that many firms make: they feel that introducing technology breakthroughs to adjust the manufacturing process is sufficient, but their primary strategy and business model remain untouched. As a result, the old and the new crumble, putting success to an end.

Integrate Innovation into Corporate Strategy

Profit is the primary objective of any business strategy, regardless of its methods and tactics. Innovation can therefore be considered as a strategy for achieving long-term success and gaining a competitive edge. Innovation cannot be a continuous process, as it needs a great deal of time, effort, and resources, as well as significant transformations that encounter numerous obstacles, such as a lack of funding, opposition to change, misunderstanding, etc. When a corporation intends to innovate, it must ensure that the innovation is consistent with its primary business plan. The greatest error made by CEOs is choosing innovation based on external market conditions and client demand. Although these variables are extremely crucial, relying solely on them while ignoring the company's internal circumstances would result in failure.

Manage the Natural Conflict between Innovation and Value Capture

As previously stated, innovation always requires originality. Introducing a revolutionary technology necessitates the management of a multitude of inventive processes, structures, and resources (Johnston & Bate, 2013). A business must be able to identify the characteristics that will capture the attention of prospective customers and generate profit and client loyalty (Davila, Epstein, & Shelton, 2012). Apple is a fantastic example of successful creative management since, despite its expensive costs and upper-class emphasis, its originality attracts a large number of customers. Despite the introduction of new developments, a corporation should not lose sight of the fact that its values must remain constant.

Neutralize Organizational Antibodies

One of the primary issues with innovation is that it rarely occurs without difficulty. In the majority of instances, the organization must overcome many hurdles, or "antibodies," that threaten its success. Generally speaking, the more radical an innovation is, the more antibodies it will meet. Moreover, if the firm is effective and has excellent performance indicators, it is likely to face stronger antibodies. To innovate, the organization must have a culture with the confidence to adapt. Typically, it is erroneous for successful businesses to believe that the elements that contributed to profits in the past will continue to do so in the future.

Develop an Innovation Network Outside of the Organization

Instead of focusing on an individual and his or her characteristics, the establishment of a network across enterprises should be viewed as a top priority. Using these networks, both internal and external concerns can be expanded. Cooperation across multiple companies will help, for instance, marketing and production, as well as suppliers and business partners (Lai, Lin, & Wang, 2015). A skill in innovation can be readily exemplified by the example of a 3M firm that has developed substantial technological contacts. At this time, innovation platforms can be utilized as a framework for integrating all innovation-required procedures. Specifically, partners, customers, supply chain information, etc., must be considered while designing and implementing network creation innovations.

Create the Right Innovation Metrics and Rewards

To foster innovation, businesses offer appropriate incentives and measures. However, managers want to minimize risks and invest in only safe projects, which hinders the creation of creative tactics and procedures. According to Anderson, Potonik, and Zhou (2014), the suggested reward system cannot motivate employees. Many organizations continue to struggle with the assessment issue. There is a need to establish suitable reward and measurement mechanisms for revolutionary inventions, so producing a more balanced view of the potential hazards and obtaining better long-term outcomes.

Importance of Innovation for International Business

Due to the expanded significance of scientific and technological potential in modern production, multinational business is increasingly focusing on the innovation and enhancement of its products, services, and technology. The release of new or improved products serves the primary purpose of distinguishing and differentiating a company's products on the market, hence achieving enhanced efficacy and client preferences. The same is true for the market for services: the supply of new services based on the use of new equipment and new materials stimulates demand, creates new markets, increases sales of new products and services, and lays the groundwork for the formation and rapid growth of new businesses.

Occasionally, organizations may find themselves in a scenario where their efforts were misdirected, preventing them from receiving a satisfactory return on investment. Another error is to adhere to the maxim "the more innovation, the better." It is improper to be swept away by innovation efforts, as every firm requires stability to exist between technological breakthroughs. Due to the fact that time and resources are always limited, a CEO should be able to focus on a single field at a time.

The issue is that very few businesses have effective diagnostic tools that would allow them to choose innovative operations, preventing them from knowing where to begin. The most significant hurdles to innovation are coordination and organizational issues (Moreira, Silva, Simes, & Sousa, 2012). Impossible is the circumstance in which managers attempt to impose changes based on views and ideals they do not share. Consequently, a successful leader is a change agent who supports innovation via the strength of his or her dedication.

In order to achieve success, a business must address the so-called organizational "antibodies" that may hamper innovation. As a general rule, "the more radical the innovation and the more it challenges the status quo, the greater the number and potency of the antibodies" (Davila et al., 2012, p. 123). Additionally, the bigger a company's historical triumphs, the greater its organizational antibodies. Management should develop a culture that encourages employees to change, investigate, and innovate, while maintaining consistent in implementing innovations, in order to foster innovation (Dunning, 2012).

The establishment of an innovation-friendly culture aids in overcoming customer resistance to change and achieving success when introducing innovations. Innovation is not a unidirectional process that sits in a single division of a business (Unger, Rank, & Gemünder, 2014). In contrast, it necessitates the coordination of all departments in order to transform a concept into reality. Collaboration is now a fundamental aspect of any innovation, which is why so many businesses are merging and outsourcing. Thus, innovation is a very complex process whose success is dependent on a vast array of conditions. Consequently, this study will investigate the rules of innovation and analyze its function in international business.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is crucial to underline that innovation is a significant issue that must be considered by all businesses, particularly those that operate internationally. Innovations give the necessary degree of change, taking into consideration the fact that customers' expectations alter and rise with technological advancement. Specifically, the dimensions of innovation highlighted in this research demonstrate how innovations can affect the success of a business.

References

Anderson, N., Potočnik, K., & Zhou, J. (2014). A state-of-the-science review, prospective commentary, and guiding framework for innovation and creativity in organizations. 40(5) Journal of Management, 1297-1333.

Belloc, F. (2012). A survey of corporate governance and innovation. 26(5):835-864 in the Journal of Economic Surveys.

Chen, Y., Tang, G., Jin, J., Xie, Q., & Li, J. (2014). The roles of corporate entrepreneurship and technology orientation in the performance of CEOs' transformative leadership and product innovation. 31(1), 2-17, Journal of Product Innovation Management.

Davila, T., Epstein, M., & Shelton, R. (2012). How to effectively manage, measure, and profit from innovation. New York, New York: The FT press.

Dunning, J. H. (2012). International manufacturing and multinational corporations (RLE international business). Routledge, New York, NY

Johnston, R. E., & Bate, J. D. (2013). The power of strategy innovation: a novel method for connecting creativity with strategic planning in order to identify excellent business possibilities. AMACOM, New York, New York

Lai, W. H., C. C. Lin, and T. C. Wang (2015). Investigating the compatibility between innovation capability and business sustainability. 68(4), pp. 867-871, in Journal of Business Research.

Markides, C. C. (2013). Business model innovation: what can the literature on ambidexterity offer us? 27(4), 313-323, Academy of Management Perspectives.

Moreira, J., Silva, M. J., Simões, J., & Sousa, G. (2012). Marketing innovation drivers in Portuguese companies. Amfiteatru Economic, 14(31), 195-206.

Unger, B. N., Rank, J., & Gemünden, H. G. (2014). Corporate innovation culture and project portfolio success dimensions: The moderating effect of country culture. 45(6) Project Management Journal: 38-57.

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McDonald’s: Marketing Mix Segments My Assignment Essay Help London

Introduction

Marketing is one of the most essential business functions. Producing things or offering services is insufficient; the products must also reach their intended users. Marketing is focused with determining the needs of customers, delivering product information to consumers, and developing a sales plan. Marketing discovers clients, offers them the concept of a product, and aims to satisfy and retain them. A marketing plan is always required, not only for entering a new market, but also for expanding and preserving an existing market share (Paliwoda & Ryans, 2008, p.127). There are numerous marketing factors, including the marketing mix, market segmentation, and price strategy.

McDonald's marketing strategy

McDonald's was founded in California by two brothers, Mac and Dick McDonalds. Before establishing restaurants in other countries, the company enjoyed rapid expansion across all fifty states in the United States. Effective marketing mix utilization has contributed significantly to the company's success. The corporation has utilized product, location, price, and marketing to acquire and retain customers. McDonald's has been able to weather intense competition in the fast food industry due to its efficient marketing mix.

Product

McDonald's offers a variety of fast foods, including hamburgers, chicken products, cheeseburgers, breakfast dishes, French fries, milkshakes, desserts, and soft beverages. The company has recently expanded into the realm of healthy foods, offering wraps, salads, and fruits. This is an effort by the corporation to combat the obesity problem associated with fast food consumption. To meet the needs of the target market, McDonald's products are standardized and offered under a single brand. Burgers consist of seasoned beef patties that have been cooked. Burgers such as Big Mac, Quarter Pounder, Hamburger, Double cheese burger, Big N Tasty, Angus Third Pounders, and Cheddar MacMelt are available for purchase. Prior to the introduction of other burgers, the company's most popular burgers were the Big Mac and the Quarter. Burgers were introduced at various times in response to consumer preferences. The burgers range in weight from 45 to 113 grams, while the Cheddar McMelt is only available in certain areas. Chicken, hog, and fish products are sold under a variety of brand names, such as McChicken, Premium chicken sandwiches, Snack wrap, Chicken Selects, McRib, and Chicken McNuggets. In 1977, McDonald's began offering breakfast, which consisted primarily of sandwiches. Today, McMuffin is McDonald's most popular breakfast offering. In addition, it offers a variety of breakfast sandwiches, including biscuits, bagels, and McGriddle. McDonald sells soft drinks, mostly Coca-Cola products, Coffee, hot and iced tea, milkshakes, beer, and Irn-Bru for beverages. Furthermore, McDonald's offers a variety of cheap menus, including the renowned Happy Meal.

McDonald's primary objective is to deliver standardized items throughout its restaurant chain. McDonald's items served in numerous nations where the restaurant company is active have a similar flavor (Anderson & Kroc 1987, p.15). The varied goods strive to satisfy the diverse preferences of customers. McDonald's is committed to standardization, yet it has been able to adapt to individual tastes in different nations in order to accommodate specific clientele.

Product adaptation is necessary for a variety of reasons, including consumer preferences and tastes, cultural and religious considerations, and legal requirements. McDonald's has modified their goods on numerous occasions to accommodate consumer preferences, religious and cultural difficulties. McDonald's, as a worldwide firm, offers goods that meet the cultural and religious standards of numerous countries. In Israel, McDonald's provides Big Macs without cheese to accommodate customer preferences. Due to the Hindu religion, the company does not serve meat burgers in India. Instead, McDonald's serves vegetable McNugget. Instead of Big Macs, the firm serves Maharaja Macs made with lamb. McDonald avoids offering pork products and instead offers dishes that adhere to Hindu dietary restrictions.

In addition to religious and cultural issues, McDonald has changed its menu to satisfy the needs of international clients. For instance, guava juice was introduced in tropical areas to satisfy client preferences. Due to popular preference, McDonald's in Germany sells beer with McCroissants. Thailand's launch of the Samurai Pork burger is another such. In its extensive history, McDonald's has launched new products and discontinued others in response to consumer preferences and market trends.

Place

McDonald's operates an international restaurant chain. There are McDonald's restaurants in more than 120 countries throughout the world. McDonald's operations were first limited to the United States before expanding to other countries. The majority of the more than thirty thousand eateries are located in urban regions. In 1955, McDonald's fulfilled its key expansion goals by deciding to franchise its operations. Since then, the business has expanded its operations. McDonald's restaurants provide access to McDonald's items on a global scale. This assures that McDonald's customers have access to their favorite flavors whenever they desire. McDonald's expansion continues to be guided by strategic planning. Through franchising and collaborative partnerships, McDonald's expanded its number of outlets by 1,668 in 1998. As the American fast food market is nearly saturated, the corporation has shifted its focus to investing in other markets. New markets in India have proved successful, and the company is pursuing expansion into further international markets.

Price

At McDonald's, price has been a big marketing factor. When the company first began, its items were sold at inexpensive prices to attract more customers. Standardization has decreased the price of McDonald's items, allowing them to be sold at reasonable costs. The corporation has adopted a localized pricing model in which prices are determined based on individual markets as opposed to the mass market. This price approach is a result of the company's globalization and the varying market conditions in different regions. Instead than having a pricing policy that is based on specific products, such as Big Mac, the corporation has tailored its prices to each country.

Promotion

Promotion is a crucial aspect of marketing. According to Kotler, the promotion mix includes advertising, sales marketing, direct marketing, personal selling, as well as public relations and publicity (Ohmae, 1999, p. 79).

McDonald's market communication appears to be country-specific in light of the aforementioned variables. The objective of localizing market communication is to use numerous cultural characteristics to grab the attention of buyers. McDonald's must assess diverse cultural variances in the nations in which it operates. McDonald's market communication strives to depict the corporation as a global one, but it also aims to satisfy the specific market needs of individual regions.

McDonald's utilizes both institutional and product advertising. Individually advertised products, such as Big Mac, are contrasted with commercials that promote the corporation as a whole. In marketing, direct marketing, personal sales, and public relations are also utilized.

Market Segmentation

Market segmentation is finding segments of a market with comparable features in order to meet the needs of these segments' consumers. A market segment is a portion of the market with distinct, independently-servable demands. A market segment consists of individuals or institutions who have a comparable preference or demand due to one or more criteria (Sandler & Shani, 1991, p.39). To be genuine, a market segment must be distinguishable from other market segments. In addition, there must be homogeneity within the segment, meaning that its responses to market stimuli must be similar and it must be accessible. Identifying market segments is one of market segmentation's greatest issues (Walker 2003, p.89). In addition to identifying market groups, another problem is developing products that meet the specific requirements of each market category.

Despite the fact that there are several market segmentation criteria, a market segment may be classified into four primary categories: demographic, geographic, geodemographic, and psychological (McCarthy, 1975, p. 56). Geographic segmentation divides the market according to geographical borders. Demographic segmentation analyzes market segments according to demographic factors including age, gender, income, and education (Wedel & Kamakura, 2000, p 45.). Psychological segmentation identifies market segments based on emotions, culture, and way of life. In contrast, geodemographic segmentation employs both demographic and geographic variables to establish market groupings.

McDonald's has evidence of using market segmentation. Utilizing geographic, demographic, and psychological criteria, the market is segmented and goods are developed to serve certain market niches. McDonald's primarily uses demographic segmentation, with the majority of their items aimed at children and their moms. McDonald's, unlike eateries that attempt to serve whole meals, focuses in fast food. Over time, numerous children's products have been developed and marketed to the target demographic. Additionally, products aimed at various age groups have been produced. McDonald's initially catered to children and their moms, but has since broadened its product line to accommodate other age groups as well (Love 1999, p. 156). Happy Meal was designed specifically for children, but Big Mac is marketed to all age groups. McDonald's has further segmented their market based on additional demographic variables. For instance, the McDonald's breakfast package was created to serve employed individuals. The objective of the program is to provide breakfast to working individuals who leave their houses early in the morning.

McDonald's global expansion necessitated geographic division. While McDonald's initially provided identical goods to all of its markets, the company's expansion into additional nations necessitated that it meet the specific market requirements of each country. Although some of McDonald's goods are global, the company has created products for specific markets (Love, 1999, p. 156). For instance, Cheddar McMelt is exclusively available in Brazil, whereas Guava juice is sold in some tropical nations but not in others. McDonald's attempts to cater to market-specific client preferences (Ohmae, 1999, p. 79). For instance, burgers in India differ significantly from those in the United States and Thailand. This segmentation will be the most crucial market segmentation factors to consider as a result of globalization.

Also visible at McDonald's is psychological segmentation. McDonald's has designed goods to meet consumers' specific psychological demands. For instance, the rise in obesity has increased people's concern for their health. McDonald's has developed products to address the health concerns of this market sector. For this factor, healthy items such as fruits, fruit salad, and juices have been produced. In reaction to psychological variables, McDonald's has also introduced and removed numerous goods.

McDonald's can utilize demographic groupings more effectively. McDonald's has started targeting preteen youngsters. This has resulted in numerous goods that cater to the tastes of children. Due of the restricted size of this market niche, McDonald's should also target other demographic subgroups. McDonald's success in the United States has been greatly influenced by baby boomers, but a shift in lifestyle among this demographic could damage the company's sales (Love, 1999, p. 137). To combat this, McDonald's could offer products that appeal to a broader age range. For instance, McDonald's can boost the number of alcoholic beverages to attract more senior citizens. McDonald's can also respond to rising health concerns by offering healthier options. By building specialty restaurants, McDonald's may also instill a sense of status. The family is another market sector that McDonald's can target. McDonald can attract more families to its restaurants by offering menu items that the entire family can enjoy.

Strategy and Objectives for Pricing

Pricing strategy is crucial for market access, promotion, and profitability. The pricing strategy must not only ensure profitability, but also contribute to other marketing factors. McDonald's pricing strategy incorporates multiple market factors and production costs. McDonald’s first exploited prices as a primary marketing factor. By focusing on youthful consumers, McDonald's was able to sell their goods in large quantities at affordable prices. The low prices were intended to attract and keep clients. McDonald prices are set by both the parent corporation and the franchise.

McDonald's franchises charge varying prices. The prices of McDonald's products are decided by the local costs and expenses. McDonald's prices were generally based on profitability and consumer affordability (Jeannet & Hennessey, 2001, p. 123). The rates are chosen to guarantee that the company makes a profit while remaining affordable for customers. Theo proprietors are educated on how to operate in a cost-effective manner in order to keep pricing affordable for customers. The company's pricing policy strikes a balance between profitability and consumer affordability (Eichmann & Maze 1998, p. 78). McDonald's pricing policy takes into account both the costs of manufacturing a product and the customer value of that product. The policy presupposes that consumers are willing to pay a specific price for a product of comparable value.

McDonald's pricing policy is not worldwide, but rather specialized. McDonald's goods are priced differently in several regions. Instead of basing prices on the products themselves, prices are tailored to each country's market (Love 1999, p. 156). For instance, the price of a Big Mac varies between countries based on market conditions.

Pricing strategy is an essential aspect of marketing. McDonald's pricing strategy was successful in ensuring profitability and expansion, as well as in marketing its prices. Utilizing entry prices, the corporation entered a new market. The corporation has also modified its prices in response to those of its competitors. In addition to adjusting its rates for promotions, the corporation has acquired client confidence by doing so.

Recommendations

McDonald's is a leader in the fast food market. However, developments in the fast food sector, globalization, and the emergence of new competitors necessitate increased marketing activities. McDonald's should be capable of adapting its offerings to market changes. As health awareness increases, McDonald's should develop more nutritious products. McDonald's can also alter their products to create the appearance that they are healthy. McDonald's can also capitalize on particular locales. For instance, the corporation can establish eateries in educational institutions such as schools and colleges. With a rise in competition, McDonald's should strive to increase product royalties from customers. As part of its pricing plan, the corporation may issue a royalty card, for instance. In order to attract guests having royalty cards to frequent the restaurant, it may offer them discounted prices.

Conclusion

McDonald's is the most established fast food chain. The company currently operates in over two hundred countries and services over forty million consumers. Analysis of the company's marketing mix reveals that it is multinational and consequently targets the international market. McDonald's has multiple market categories, including geographic, demographic, and psychological. The company can profit by addressing a broader market niche. As a worldwide enterprise, it is vital to employ pricing methods that are tailored to specific regions. McDonald's marketing mix and price strategy have contributed to its success in a competitive market. By concentrating on meeting the needs of new market sectors in the global fast food industry, the company is certain of expansion.

Reference

Anderson, R. & Kroc, R. 1987. "Grinding it out: the creation of McDonald's." St. Martin’s Paperbacks, New York. Jeannet, J. & Hennessey, H. 2001. "Global marketing strategies". Houghton Mifflin, London.

1999. "McDonald's: behind the arches." Love, J. Bantam Books, New York

J. McCarthy, "Basic Marketing: A Management Approach," 1975. Homewood: Irwin.

Michman, R., and E. Mazze, "The food industry wars: marketing successes and failures," 1998. Greenwood Publishing Group, New York.

Ohmae, K. "Managing in a Borderless World," Harvard Business Review, vol. 4, no. 1, 1999, pp. 71-87.

Paliwoda, S. & Ryans, J. 2008. "International Marketing". Edward Elgar Publishing, New York.

Sandler, D., and D. Shani. "Brand Globally, Advertise Locally? An Empirical Study, International Marketing Review, 9 (4)

"Marketing strategy: a decision-focused approach," by O. Walker, 2003. Manhattan: McGraw-Hill

Wedel, M. & Kamakura, A., 2000. “Market segmentation: conceptual and methodological foundations”. New York: Springer.

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Effective Communication For Change Management My Assignment Essay Help London

Research Problem

How can excellent communication increase a leader's effectiveness?

Introduction

This paper explores the effects of effective communication on leadership effectiveness. Currently, models of good communication incorporate verbal and nonverbal activities while connecting with people. The paper conducts a theoretical and empirical literature evaluation on the relationship between effective communication and leadership effectiveness. Using the results of a primary interview, the report then discusses the accomplishments of leader X, a prominent CEO of a blue-chip company in Dubai.

Literature Review

Effective communication is the art of accurately encoding and decoding information in an organization through a structured and dependable network between the participants (Sostrin, 2013). According to Obeidat, Masadeh, and Abdallah (2014), effective communication is crucial for enhancing work relationships, surpassing objectives, and fostering a productive and healthy organizational culture. A leader must be able to proactively tune to steady situational awareness in order to balance the emotions associated with effective leadership in an organizational setting. Effective communication is the understanding, encoding, decoding, knowing, conquering, and general knowledge of how one's actions affect others (Sostrin, 2013).

Harrison (2018) found that 93% of effective communication consists of body language and tone, while only 7% consists of words. This implies that effective communication is a multidimensional concept including the methodical encoding and decoding of information. Baxter (2015) found that a lack of communication is the foundation of a negative organizational culture since it restricts the ability to connect freely and productively. A weak system for decoding and encoding communications in an organization, for instance, could result in a deficient feedback monitoring strategy. The researcher came to the conclusion that an effective communication channel is a means through which a message reaches its intended audience. During yearly meetings, for instance, (Baxter, 2015) noted that an effective medium is capable of removing interaction obstacles and fostering robust and healthy workplace contact.

Dasgupta, Suar, and Singh (2013) found in a separate study that good communication is crucial for managing expectations and job allocation in an organizational context since it involves direct or indirect interaction between the concerned parties. The writers came to the conclusion that good organizational vision and direction are regulated by organized and effective communication because it reinforces a sense of accomplishment and value. According to Sostrin (2013), effective communication is a prerequisite for sharing a sense of purpose and aligning an organization toward predictable and acceptable conduct. Hughes, Ginnett, and Curphy (2015) identified desirable communication as a crucial leadership characteristic capable of influencing the perception and conduct of other parties such that they accept and internalize any conveyed choice. Effectively balancing the encoding and decoding of information has the potential to create an interactive and focused work environment. According to Reina and Reina (2015), in an environment with an effective encoding and decoding network, the equilibrium between leadership expectations and messages is accommodating, stable, and capable of retaining the communication channel's inherent dynamism.

Several theoretical models have been proposed to explain the relationship between effective communication and leadership greatness. For example, the expectation theory of motivation as a leadership model investigates the behavioral influences linked to interactive decision-making devoid of prejudice, bias, and unpleasant emotions (Harrison, 2018). This condition can only be attained by good communication to foster creative leadership, which is a formula for proactive and innovative interaction between the people involved. The expectation theory of motivation model describes performance stimulation as being connected with efficient communication channels that facilitate the timely encoding and decoding of information inside an organization.

The arousal theory is another abstract model tying leadership efficiency to communication effectiveness. Sostrin (2013) portrays the arousal model as useful in an organization's communication culture by providing transparent interaction norms capable of establishing expectations, guidelines, objectives, and controlled association between managers and other subordinates. For instance, a chain of communication directed at subordinates that begins with self-opinion or bias is likely to inspire self-contempt (Harrison, 2018). In implementation, the arousal theoretical model promotes a communication channel that is both inventive and systematic in order to combine the parties' general motivation.

Original Research

Context

The interviewee was the Arab CEO of a prestigious private IT firm in Dubai. Due to concerns over privacy, the interviewee will hereafter be referred to as Mr. X. Mr. X was chosen as a participant in this study due to his achievement in changing the modest company into a million-dollar enterprise over a five-year period. In addition, the researcher was interested in relating the results of the empirical and theoretical literature study to the interviewee's thoughts regarding successful communication and leadership effectiveness. The interview lasted forty-five minutes and took place over the phone. The researcher acquired the phone interview following a five-day waiting period and a verbal nondisclosure agreement. This means that the audio recordings or the respondent's identity must remain confidential.

Content

The researcher prepared five open-ended questions to elicit the interviewee's personal insights and allow for additional investigation (see appendix 1). In accordance with the study topic, the questions focused on the relationship between effective communication and leadership effectiveness (Mason, 2017). Because they highlight the application of successful communication and personal experiences in organization leadership, the first five questions were quite beneficial. Question 6 was irrelevant because the respondent was chosen due to his exceptional leadership abilities (see appendix 1). After completing the five questions, it was not possible, due to time constraints and interruptions connected with a phone interview, to inquire about the respondent's personal opinion on the topic. However, it was possible to record his personal ideas on the topic in the spaces between the questions.

Findings and Discussion

The results of a critical analysis of the interview are discussed below. The analysis includes identifying crucial ideas of effective communication and how respondent X applies them.

Effective communication generates a pleasant and holistic workplace

Effective communication establishes a fluid and dynamic channel for encoding and decoding information in order to inspire and maintain intra- and inter-organizational interactions. Effective communication, according to interviewee X, permits passing on messages to subordinates in a professional manner and making decisions that are not discriminatory or biased. Due to the leader's ability to develop a culture of mutual respect, subordinates will respond positively and desire to work with him or her (Reina & Reina, 2015). Moreover, according to respondent X, efficient communication is the key to unlocking the potential of everyone in an organization since it enables consultative and collaborative information exchange (see appendix 2).

Consequently, everyone embraces any leadership approach in place, even if it does not meet individual interests. The respondent stated categorically that efficient communication fosters a healthy relationship among an organization's stakeholders since it is motivated by the necessity to consider everyone's opinions when making choices. As mentioned in, this corresponds to the concepts of providing a holistic and proactive work environment for optimal performance (Harrison, 2018). The consultative nature of good communication reduces instances of diversion and reinforces cohesiveness within an organization's culture, regardless of an individual's position.

Effective communication increases acceptance and decision making.

Effective communication is replete with positive and professional channels for disseminating information about all aspects of an organization. As stated by respondent X, a leader must be a good communicator in order to gain everyone's support when introducing or executing organizational changes. Respondent X remarked that while good communication accommodates diversity and integrates systematic contact, it is crucial to involve employees in the process, as they will be accountable for implementing any idea. As highlighted by Sostrin, a leader should employ good communication to establish an inclusive atmosphere that meets the needs of everyone (2013). This condition may exist when there is a good relationship between the leader and the subjects, a precondition for change acceptance. Respondent X also admitted that decision making and sharing of the outcomes is a dynamic process that requires caution (see appendix 2). This implies that decisions taken with insufficient information would not produce the best results. As mentioned by Baxter, an effective leader must be able to instill confidence in subordinates in order to collect appropriate information in any situation (2015). Employees would feel at ease with a boss that inspires confidence and prioritizes their needs. In such an environment, not only will the subordinates support the leader's vision, but it will also be integrated inside the performance standards.

Limitations

The phone interview was marked by many interruptions, and when the session continued, the researcher had to explain to respondent X what had been discussed. In addition, a single respondent's sample space is not representative of the entire population. Therefore, the results cannot be utilized to derive any scientific conclusions. As a method of mitigating the effects of the aforementioned restrictions, the researcher actively interrogated the respondent to collect sufficient data.

Conclusion

Effective communication is a crucial leadership quality for establishing solid channels inside an organization for encoding and decoding information. Managers must be effective communicators to foster healthy company relationships and ensure change acceptance. The outcomes of the interview demonstrate, in accordance with the empirical and theoretical literature evaluation, that good communication is a component of effective leadership.

References

Baxter, J. (2015). Who desires to assume leadership? The linguistic production of emergent leadership in teams comprised of diverse genders. 52(4), pages 427 to 451 in the International Journal of Business Communication.

Dasgupta, A., Suar, D., & Singh, S. (2013). Influence of managerial communication techniques on the attitudes and behaviors of employees. Employee Relations, 35(2), pages 173 to 199

C. Harrison (2018). Leadership theory and research: A critical examination of new and established paradigms Palgrave Macmillan, New York, New York

Hughes, R.L., R.C. Ginnett, and G.J. Murphy (2015). Leadership is the enhancement of experience's lessons (8th ed.). Boston, Massachusetts: McGraw-Hill.

Mason, J. (2017). Qualitative investigating. London, United Kingdom: SAGE.

Obeidat, Y., Masadeh, R., & Abdallah, B. (2014). A structural equation modeling approach to the links between human resource management techniques, organizational commitment, and knowledge management procedures. 9(3), 9-26, International Journal of Business and Management.

Reina, D., & Reina, M. (2015). Trust and betrayal in the workplace: Developing productive business partnerships (3rd ed.). Oakland, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

J. Sostrin (2013).

How managers and employees can navigate the genuine needs of the job, beyond the job description. Palgrave Macmillan, New York, New York

Appendices

Appendix 1: Question for an Interview

How can you manage your organization through efficient communication? Please describe instances in which you successfully employed effective communication. What advantages are associated with excellent communication inside your organization? How do you communicate organizational changes? From your own experiences, what do you believe it takes to be a good communicator? Are you a competent leader? Please explain.

Interview transcript excerpts on Healthy Relationships and Accepting Change are shown in Annex 2.

Interviewee X noted,

"In my company, I attempted to integrate the principles of decision making and communication as they are both crucial. I am eager to communicate and obtain the support of my subordinates, as they will ultimately implement my decisions… I must gain their support in order to ensure that they accept my decisions. I always endeavor to make them feel valued and at ease… I also manage their expectations with a planned, systematic, and adaptable approach to communication."

[supanova question]

Emirates Airline Company’s Case My Assignment Essay Help London

Table of Contents
Introduction Analysis problem Organizational architecture and structure Teams and teamwork Leadership and administration strategy Organization culture Conclusion Recommendations References

Introduction

Management is the practice of achieving objectives through other people in an effective and efficient manner (Agarwal 2008, p.302). These activities consist of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling, and are generally referred to as the four functions of management.

Planning is the process by which an organization determines its future actions (Hill and Jones 2009, p.381). In conjunction with the planning function, the organizing function guarantees that the firm's available resources are maximized and distributed strategically. Lastly, controlling is viewed as monitoring the progress in accordance with the initial plan and enforcing adjustments when necessary if feedback indicates that things are not aligned with the plan (Mullins 2010, p.34).

Therefore, organization management is the act of building a relationship between people and resources in order to achieve particular objectives and business goals (Agarwal 2008, p.303). Management of an organization is founded on five principles: procedure, scope of control, unity of command, homogeneous assignment, delegation of authority, and adaptability.

Organization management is a five-step process, the first of which entails identifying the tasks involved, taking into account the nature of the job, the credentials required for the job, and the time required to complete the assignment (Mullins 2010, p.35). The second phase is to subdivide big jobs into individual activities; the numerous possible tasks will be portioned as stand-alone projects that may be carried out independently by different departments (Triplet 2007, p.3).

The third step involves allocating specific activities to individuals; at this stage, the organization must determine the capabilities of each employee before assigning available assignments. The tasks are matched to the individual and assigned to the person most capable of completing them efficiently. The fourth step is to give the available resources to help individuals in successfully completing their assigned jobs (Moyles 2006, p.176). The organization allocates resources based on the nature and complexity of the allocated work. The final step involves building an organizational structure to decide the strategy that will merge the numerous allocated tasks into one once they are accomplished and how the various organizational structures can collaborate (Picot et al., 2008, p.12).

Managers in an organization should recognize the significance of organization and management, the process through which people, diverse jobs, and technology are blended and coordinated to achieve organizational goals (Triplet 2007, p.4). Bob and Lloyd must see the importance of linking the people, tasks, and resources in the fast-food company process. Bob and Lloyd must make optimal use of the organization's resources to complete all tasks and implement their fast food company concepts (Triplet 2007, p.5). Organization and management should be based on determining the policies, missions, and structures of the fast food firm (McNichol et al 2007, p.13).

Analysis problem

Bob and Lloyd's choice to launch a fast food restaurant in Cambridge will be a wise investment if they properly evaluate the organization and administration of the business. In Cambridge's fast food market, their success rate will be determined by how they establish structure, assemble their team, exercise leadership, and address organizational culture. Bob and Lloyd must carefully analyze the following four factors before making strategic judgments regarding their new venture (Chen 2004, p.5).

Organizational architecture and structure

An organizational structure is a network of interconnected jobs, job groups, and ultimately authority (Burstein 1991, p.327). A structure of an organization specifies how individuals are placed into departments and departments are grouped to form the organization. It comprises the creation of mechanisms to ensure effective departmental communication, integration, and coordination of efforts. Typically, an organizational chart depicts the formal relationships within an organization, including the number of levels in the hierarchy and the scope of control of managers and supervisors (Schriber and Gutek 2010, p.642). Bob and Lloyd must choose an organizational structure that corresponds to the span of control (Alder and Jelinek 2006, p.74). Each individual's function and responsibilities must be specified within the organizational structure of the fast food establishment.

The objective of an organization structure is to give a common reference that demonstrates the general relationship between upper management, middle management, and lower level management (Murphy and Willmot 2010, p.268). Traditional organization models always placed the CEO on top, with everyone else grouped in layers according to department, however today there are numerous decentralized and flexible organization systems. Bob and Lloyd should establish a structure that improves horizontal coordination and communication, despite the absence of a traditional organizational structure, in order to promote change adoption (Burstein 1991, p.327). In a fast food industry, a horizontal organizational structure will decentralize decision-making. The first diagram below depicts a contemporary organizational structure with three management levels. (Burstein 1991, p.327).

Three managerial levels.

One of the four factors that help a corporation develop its organizational structure is job specification, which entails outlining the departments' responsibilities (Barry 2000, p.33). The second is departmentalization, in which positions are grouped and responsibilities are assigned in accordance with the company's objectives. The third aspect is span of control, in which the management examines the tasks at hand and the number of units and, as a result, merges the two factors in an advantageous manner (Chen 2004, p.6). The final aspect is delegation of authority, which introduces managers in charge of units and gives the head of each unit the capacity to make decisions on behalf of the organization. Bob and Lloyd ought to distribute control to the managers of the fast food company so that they may make decisions with ease. Each unit department's managers should make choices on behalf of the organization.

Teams and group effort

In order to turn around an organization, management must support a team-based approach. Consistently, management gurus have asserted that a team exceeds an individual in terms of passion, focus, and overcoming formidable obstacles. (Mullins 2010, p.46)

A team is a small group of individuals with complementary skills and a shared purpose for which they all feel accountable (Katzenbach and Smith 1993, p.68). Bob and Lloyd must adhere to the five team standards in order to establish a formidable team for the fast-food hamburger enterprise.

The team for one must be modest, ideally between two to twenty-five members, because it is easier to collaborate with a small group (Hill and Jones 2009, p.385). The second concept is that team members must possess complementary abilities (Leitner 2004, p.35). The third principle states that members should share a common purpose and objective, which means that the team's objective and mission must coincide (Hill and Jones 2009, p.384). The fourth principle is that the team must build a shared working style in which the team pays attention to administrative and work-related aspects and each team member identifies their position in the team's work (Picot et al 2008, p.84). The final principle emphasizes that all members must be accountable to themselves and to others in order to ensure the commitment and trust of other members (Katzenbach and Smith 1993, p.68). The diagram below depicts a paradigm change in a team system, often known as a team structure (Picot et al 2008, p.84).

Team structure.

For the sake of strategic team building, Bob and Lloyd should carefully pick and staff their employees so that they have a motivated, vital workforce. The fast food sector necessitates qualified, quick, and efficient employees; else, the business could fail (McNichol et al 2007, p.2007). Staffing corresponds to human resource planning; here, the organization should evaluate the number of personnel required, their backgrounds, their credentials, and the cost of recruiting each one in order to achieve its objectives. Consideration must also be given to how to get the necessary personnel, with recruitment considerations including education, experience, human relations, communication skills, and motivation (Northouse 2009, p.165).

When undertaking employee selection, management should devise an elimination-based method for selecting the most qualified individuals. Having a set of criteria and a score sheet for each candidate guarantees that the organization will have a high rate of successful hires (Baligh 2006, p.126). The organization must define each interview, develop a strategy, communicate with the interviewee during the interview, and establish a conclusion for the interview. Bob and Lloyd should perform an in-person interview to determine whether or not each employee have strong interpersonal skills (Chen 2004, p.7).

Motivation is a crucial part of every firm; if the employees are not motivated, they will inevitably produce less (Sekhar 2010, p.16). Increases in working conditions, interpersonal relationships, income, job security, company regulations, supervision, and administration are examples of motivating factors (Sekhar 2010, p.17). Bob and Lloyd should motivate their fast food staff by providing them with favorable working conditions and bonuses.

Leadership and administration strategy

A leader is a person who directs a group of people, an organization, or a nation (Leitner 2004, p.87). To the followers, a leadership model according to Mitchell, Margaret and Casey, John, professors of leadership management at the University of Illinois (2007) emphasizes a collective strategy that involves all members and includes elements such as improving the overall performance, focusing specifically on strategy, and creating an environment of change (p.53).

Second, employing a collaborative approach begins to foster excellent community connections because everyone is represented, so laying the groundwork for collaborations within the institution, which benefits the entire community (p.58). A skilled leader will most effectively unite all members in a strategic manner to work together; he or she must also be intelligent and inspiring (McNichol et al 2007, p.104). In addition, a leader should propose innovative tactics that are effective and will provide positive performance outcomes; this will serve as motivation for all members.

Manpower planning would be the optimal strategy for implementing "imposed-incremental change" in an organization (Cooper 2005, p.231).

Cooper Crown (2005), a professional management guru and consultant in management issues, defines manpower planning as the process of forecasting and planning the human resource organization in every institution in order to plan for the future in accordance with the institution's goals and organizational structure (p.232).

The competency is intended to be useful when an organization has limited funds to spend yet must carry out its activities (Northouse 2009, p.168).

Well, the best approach to strengthen one's leadership characteristics is to develop skills in manpower planning, which will allow for the regulation of projects and the establishment of a structured workforce to complete the duties.

In order to achieve strong leadership, a leadership mission entails deciding on long-term and short-term objectives and allocating priority to methods (Moyles 2006, p.178; Bass and Avolio 1993, p1). A competent leader should have a strategy formula that focuses on effective resource allocation, making judgments on diversifications, and entering overseas marketplaces to combine and participate in an organization's initiative. A leader's strategy commits the organization to a defined vision, mission, and objective over a prolonged period of time in order to achieve it (Northouse 2009, p.169; Moyles 2006, p.179).

The success of policy implementation depends on the capacity of the leadership function to motivate others to assist in strategy redesign (Moyles 2006, p.179) Redesigning an organization's process enhances it and helps it adapt to external environmental restrictions over which the leader has no control (Murphy and William 2010, p. 268). Bob and Lloyd should construct a strategy-support culture at the fast food industry and establish an effective and functional structure in order to ensure policy implementation (Moyles 2006, p.522). Bob and Lloyd must encourage the managers of each unit and the staff to discover methods to contribute to the implementation process (Normore 2010). Implementation involves personal discipline, commitment and sacrifice. This is due to the fact that at this time is seen as unstable and requires everyone to embrace new systems (Picot et al 2008, p.86).

Organization culture

The word organization culture refers to a set of characteristics that are unique to a given organization and can be derived from the manner in which an organization develops and identifies the characteristics of cultures that promote learning and those that impede the learning organization process (Adler and Jelinek 2006, p.74).

Organizational culture encourages the learning process. Today's organizations are under a great deal of pressure to perform, which requires them to learn, adapt, and take ethically sound actions in order to meet the demands of the industry and the shareholders (Schriber and Gutek 2010, p.645).

According to McNichol et al. (2007), there are a variety of corporate learning culture approaches. The three most prevalent categories are (p.104):

A supportive organization learning culture is one in which team members or the management of an organization provide assistance for learning. Concretizing organizational learning culture: when the learning culture is founded on concrete procedures and practices, such as billing, logistics, and product development (Mullins 2010, p.35). Leadership organizational learning culture: a technique that employs leadership to reinforce learning inside an organization. This indicates that the leader in the organization must study the organization's constraints, acknowledge them, and explore alternatives to improve the organization's performance in order to steer the learning process (Sekhar 2010, p.17).

Organizational learning is under pressure to keep up with the shifting patterns of the times. In the past, people were not required to make quick decisions, but today they must do so in uncertain circumstances. A learning organization is an entity in which employees successfully transfer knowledge (Leitner 2004, p.89).

By attempting to develop an effective learning organization, the fast food corporation will demonstrate its efforts to rethink the organization culture process. There are two strategies to improve an organization's learning strategy. The first is a single-loop learning process that involves modifying the environment without altering the organization's structures (Chen 2004, p.8). The second consists of a double loop in which new systems are implemented and the learning process is redefined and tested (Murphy and Willmot 2010, p.270). Bob and Lloyd should come up with innovative ideas for the development of the fast food company and the establishment of a competitive edge in Cambridge. Chen (2004) specifies, if it is a single-loop, the condition.

GenRays Company’s Human Resource Information System My Assignment Essay Help London

Based on the knowledge gained from Project Management Institute's (2008) work on project management, the following titles are applicable to GenRays' HRIS project.

Purpose

The primary objective of deploying this human resource information system at Gen Rays Company is to enhance the overall operations of the human resources department. Other reasons for its introduction will be:

To improve the precision of data and information on the company's workforce

This system will ensure that data are retained and prevent the loss of vital organization information, which would have occurred if data were stored manually in the form of files or papers.

Human Resource (HR) planning for the future

A company's human resource management is able to anticipate future employee demands since he or she has access to all relevant personnel information. Having information on the educational accomplishments and advancements of employees, for instance, enables one to assess the abilities that employees need and accordingly plan for future trainings and seminars. Having information on the age ranges of all employees also allows managers to determine the amount of employees nearing retirement, allowing them to prepare for future recruiting and the selection of candidates to replace the vacancies left by these employees.

To match the human resource department's policies and goals with the organization's broader objectives

This database facilitates the evaluation of the performance of human capital and the determination of whether its productivity is in line with organizational objectives. If there is a deviation, the required measures are taken to ensure that the workforce is aligned with the organization's objectives.

To provide knowledge for decision-making

The human resource information system guarantees that data are readily accessible whenever they are required for decision-making, hence expediting the decision-making process and saving time.

Description

The human resource information system is a centralized, automated HR technology that enables the human resource manager to accomplish his/her duties of employee recruitment and selection, training and development, and employee concerns relating to discipline and performance management more successfully.

It consists of databases, computer programs, hardware, and software that are in perfect working order to gather, store, maintain, and aid in retrieving human resource information. Additionally, it supports data manipulation and validation. This system is required for all management roles because it ensures that all organizational actions are aligned with the attainment of the organization's goals and objectives.

Objectives

Among the objectives of implementing this HRIS are:

In order to administer succession planning

Employees are aware of professional advancement opportunities and the skills required to fill these vacancies inside the firm. They can then join in classes or undergo other sorts of training to enhance their talents.

To record performance evaluations

The HRIS will replace the document storage system in which information is not always searchable when it is necessary to access it. This is because the majority of documents are handwritten. A HRIS will reduce the amount of paperwork associated with performance reviews. It will be easier to monitor performance evaluation reports and follow up on the results to ensure that staff work to accomplish goals they did not meet at the time of their review.

In order to boost competitiveness and productivity

Due to time savings in human resource management operations, the organization will have a competitive advantage over its rivals. Maintaining accurate records of all employee activities ensures that the company's management is focused on achieving organizational objectives, which ultimately results in higher productivity.

To simplify database systems to a level that is manageable

Access to information will be greatly facilitated by the elimination of the bulk of labour associated with maintaining paper records. Additionally, fewer personnel will be required to manage this paper task. This will save money for the organization.

To keep training records in order

Employees enter their data into the system and then monitor their progress and plot a plan to achieve their growth objectives.

To manage the employee database and electronic forms.

One of the primary goals of the HRIS will be to contain up-to-date employee information including their office location, telephone numbers, etc. The electronic forms will enable the production of forms with database-populated fields. This will function similarly to mail merge and save money and time on form filling.

Enhanced payroll management capabilities

This will be reflected by the elimination of manual time card entry. This implies a more efficient method of tracking employees' time utilization in the workplace. As the human resource system will contain all of the necessary data, there will be efficiency in the management of pay stubs for employees, including allowances and deductions to be made.

Success Criteria and Anticipated Rewards

In order to determine the success of this human resource information system, Gen rays business will using the following success criteria:

Efficiency

This will be demonstrated by a reduction in the amount of time required to process employee information transactions, as well as a significant reduction in the amount of time spent on administrative tasks, so that more time can be devoted to operational work, which is crucial for enhancing the company's productivity.

In addition, efficiency will be measured by the ability of the current human resource officers to manage the workforce without external assistance.

Effectiveness

The effectiveness of the human resource information system will decide whether the organization's implementation is successful. This will be demonstrated by the correctness of employee information records and by managers having more access to employee information, allowing them to track the progress of employees who have applied for a position or promotion.

System usage

This criterion analyzes the success of the HRIS based on the user and organizational frequency of its use. At the user level, the HRIS is used to watch the everyday operations and behavior of the user, but at the organizational level, institutionalization is measured; that is, the behavior of users and management's perspective.

User gratification

This is another criterion that will be utilized to determine the HRIS's success. Since the majority of users will be human resource experts, the effectiveness of the system will be determined by the ease with which they can access the database and use the system. The users of a successful system are pleased with the services it has provided. If the HRIS is utilized in the recruitment process, for instance, both the potential candidates entering their information and credentials into the system and the managers reviewing this information throughout the selection process must be happy.

Technology excellence

This will gauge the system's technical success. If the technical system is effective, individuals will desire to utilize it again. However, persons without a technological background will find it difficult to use this system; hence, training provisions will be made to facilitate their acquisition of the necessary abilities.

As for advantages,

Among the benefits received by the company as a result of the use of this system are:

Reporting and accountability are simplified as essential data are readily accessible and may be resorted to to clarify any concerns that arise after reporting on workforce-related matters. Employees may follow up on procedures like as recruitment in a timely manner, allowing them to respond quickly as required. Employees are motivated by the fact that records of their training, promotions, and performance evaluations are retained; these records are used to process their fringe benefits, like as bonuses. The tracking of staff certifications and educational requirements will be simplified. Government compliance and communication will be simplified. It will be possible to link time information with attendance information in order to monitor employee dedication. It will be possible to link benefits such as time and sick leave to attendance (instead of years of experience). In most cases, it will save time. For example, weekly data entry time will be drastically reduced since staff will be able to enter their own information.

Funding

Profits will be the primary source of funding for this endeavor. According to the profit cost chart, the company's profitability has been on the rise. For instance, the company's profits tripled in the second quarter of its fiscal year. These profits will supply the project with the necessary funding.

The new financial structure has also led to cost reductions. Automatic calculations have saved time, which contributed to its success. These savings accumulated over the past six months will be used to fund the Human Resource Information System's installation.

The following table details the deliverables, acceptance criteria, and milestone dates for the HRIS project at GenRays:

Major Deliverables Criteria for Acceptance Timeline

Advanced computers The computers should have a high level of performance, including:

Large RAM (Random Access Memory) – The memory of the appropriate clients (or computer stations) should be sufficient to permit rapid temporary data storage in the HRIS while data is being processed. Since GenRays is a comprehensive organization with extensive personnel data, it will be necessary to invest in high-tech computers with sufficient memory. Hard disk space – the storage space in this instance should be sufficient to accommodate the massive volumes of employee data that will be a prominent feature of the HRIS project. Sufficiently quick processing speed – Processing speed is essential in all IT-related technologies and systems; it plays a significant role in ensuring time savings in any digital operations system. Secure operating system — In order for the HRIS project to be successful, the high-tech computers used must have a secure operating system and be free of the possibility of virus infection. Additionally, the security should be robust enough to deter hackers with bad intentions (for example to gain unauthorized access to sensitive or classified employee information) High multitasking capacity – It is crucial for GenRays to adopt a computer system that supports multitasking; this will allow the HR manager and the entire HR staff to do a variety of duties simultaneously. For instance, the HR manager may update employee data while retrieving online GenRays applications for recruitment reasons or creating payrolls for a certain time period. Thus, multitasking is crucial for the proposed HRIS by GenRay.

The projected time period for the acquisition of high-tech computers is between two and four months. Due to the fact that GenRays is a relatively large organization, the acquisition of computers for all human resources departments should be a methodical one so as to minimize any potential accidents. Lack of physical protection during storage, accidents and damage to computer peripherals, theft, etc., are a few examples.

Internet connections

Since the Human Resource Information System (HRIS) is intended to facilitate the management of employee data or information, it is important that all GenRays departments submit employee profiles to the HR department in a dependable manner. For this to occur, GenRays must be interconnected by an efficient network. A Local Area Network (LAN) is ideal since it ensures quick connections throughout the entire enterprise. Additionally, it is easier to troubleshoot technological issues on a small, functional network, such as a LAN. Multi-user capability — The networking system of GenRays must support multi-user activities. This essentially means that the HR manager may be performing his or her own work from the office computer while another employee (from any other GenRays office) could be evaluating the same content or any other information in the same network. Ability for open file sharing – The workplace network for GenRays should also allow for open file sharing; this enables the HR manager to send pertinent information to the network for retrieval or inspection by any GenRays employee (albeit they may need a password and/or username to confirm authorization). Transparency is enabled by file sharing in the open. It also facilitates the efficient transfer of any employee-related data inside the organization. The establishment of the Human Resource Information System should facilitate the efficient retrieval of employee data.

Installing a Local Area Network is vital, and should thus be performed with the utmost care. Therefore, a duration of one and a half to two months would be suitable.

HR database Application According to Kavanagh, Thite, and Johnson's (2011) work, "… for any database-related system to function, there must be relevant software in place to facilitate system operations." (p.18). In the case of GenRays, there will be an urgent requirement for software or program installation in order to initiate the HRIS project. The software must provide efficient database operations. Examples include spreadsheet software such as versions of Microsoft Excel and R. These software solutions include built-in, user-friendly algorithms that can be particularly useful when managing employee financial data. After the computers and LAN are installed, purchasing and installing HR database software would not pose a significant obstacle. Depending on the number of software applications required by GenRays, the overall process should not exceed three weeks.

Multiple Power supply It is general known that any IT-related business system requires an effective (and often excessive) power supply to maintain ongoing system operations, particularly when processing sensitive employee data. Therefore, redundant power supply meets the criteria for HRIS project operations. The milestone schedule for power supply installation would be comparable to that of database software; three to four weeks would be sufficient.

Redundant decent generators GenRays will also require powerful backup generators in the event of a total power outage. Consequently, another another crucial addition to the criterion. Since the generators need just to be ordered and installed, a two-week timeframe would be adequate (just to make sure there are no irregularities with the purchased generators as well as ensure that they are safe for use within a workplace setting).

Maximum physical protection Since GenRays will invest in a vast array of high-tech computers and other IT equipment, it is imperative that the company invests in physical security measures such as alarm systems, burglar-proofing of door entries and windows, etc. Prior to initiating the HRIS project, it is crucial that there be a comprehensive plan.

Maps, Knowledge, And Power In The Link Of Oil And People My Assignment Essay Help London

Table of Contents
Introduction Maps and information Institutionalization of Maps Maps, oil, and power Bibliography

Introduction

The use of maps as a source of knowledge and authority has been a significant part of human history. They have been identified and utilized to denote land boundaries, topographical characteristics, and political boundaries. Knowledge, when utilized effectively, produces power, which leads to dominance, and maps have led to this knowledge. The discovery of oil has led to its extraction and the use of its tremendous profits to dominate the planet. Oil is a vital resource for a nation since it keeps the economy running by providing energy and generating foreign exchange, so directly adding to the nation's gross domestic product. Despite the fact that many nations are interested in the quest for oil minerals, the commodity has only been discovered in specific regions of the world. This article examines maps, knowledge, and power in connection to oil and people in the context of Harley's "Maps, knowledge, and power" (1988).

Maps and information

In "Maps, knowledge, and power," Harley (1) presents a poem that details the movement from Persia, along Armenia and the Caspian Sea, Bithynia, Turkey, Egypt, and Arabia, Nubia at Bomo Lake, along the Ethiopian sea, and Zanzibar. This movement or migration can demonstrate the hidden meaning of maps, as the author asserts, "Maps are no longer understood primarily as inert records of morphological landscapes or passive reflections of the world of objects, but as refracted images contributing to dialogue in a socially constructed world" (Harley 2). In addition, people divert the discussion away from whether maps are "true or false, accurate or inaccurate, objective or subjective" (Harper 2) to an ideological misrepresentation of the economic significance. However, it is difficult to demonstrate the vagueness of maps, and the maps can be influenced by those who generate them or by the wealthy and powerful.

The author specifies three peaks where maps can be traced. First, maps can function as a type of language. Second, maps can only express and identify the surface and can only imply deeper meanings via symbols. Lastly, maps are social product knowledge. Maps are derived from cartography, and they provide the reader with knowledge; since knowledge is power, the usage of maps confers power upon the reader.

The surveyors provide the map readers with knowledge of both the environment and the defensive imperatives of a particular political system. Regardless of how a map is created (whether by cartographic science or open propaganda), it goes through knowledge, which is converted into power.

Both time and space are woven into the fabric of power and knowledge. The political influence of a civilization has been illustrated using maps. "Maps as 'knowledge as power' are explored here under three headings: the universality of political contexts in the history of cartography; how the exercise of power structures the content of maps; and how cartographic communication at a symbolic level can reinforce that exercise through map knowledge" (Harper p.5).

When maps are analyzed in their context, it is possible to derive their meaning and purpose. These are the conditions under which maps are generated and utilized. The setting of the maps corresponds to the spoken situation, necessitating the reconstruction of both the social and physical background in order for the maps to be made and consumed. The context lets the reader identify persons who created and used the map, as well as their motivations and the map's consequences and relevance.

In earlier ages, extensive terrestrial maps were created in China, for instance, to accommodate the policies of successive kingdoms. In ancient Europe, they were also used as military and bureaucratic machinery for defense and battle.

Therefore, maps had a significant influence in the distribution of power, particularly regionally. Through the use of maps, empires were formed, nation states were preserved, and property ownership was denoted. Imperialism, colonial conquest and reconquest, and the building of empires were greatly aided by maps. They were legal documents that identified colonies and empires and aided in the creation of myths and transmission of kingdom messages, so maintaining the territorial status quo. They were also utilized in the transmission and distribution of imperial messages, texts, histories, and virtues of any empire.

Maps' Institutionalization

Although their power effects grew stronger, the maps of the nineteenth century formalized and shifted to depict the expansion of geography. During this time period, maps depicted the European chase for African territories. At this period, maps served as currency, particularly for political negotiations, leases, partitions, purchases, and treaties, and, once created, they established authority and legal force (Harley 8).

Nation states began to be depicted on maps of the modern globe. The maps depicted estates, political boundaries, and socioeconomic geographical elements. Individual or state landlords used maps to manage their tenant populations, as well as to establish the identification of property rights. They advanced capitalism in the early modern period and served as regional political power.

Maps are subject to change, and over history, they have undergone significant transformations. They are susceptible to both conscious and unconscious distortion. The maps have been categorized as social, political, geographical, topographical, and geologic; each provides a unique context for the provided information. When individuals using the maps, they acquire knowledge that has a significant impact on their thinking and actions. Historically, maps delineated numerous political class boundaries, but these have evolved, resulting in various conflicts. Changes in borders have triggered wars and fights that have resulted in numerous deaths and injuries. The struggle for economically valuable territories has escalated, and many have manipulated maps to their advantage.

Oil, maps, and power

The majority of global oil producers and consumers have been depicted on maps. According to "A map of the oil world" in the New York Times (paragraph 1), Saudi Arabia, Russia, and the United States were the top three oil producers in 2006, producing 10.7, 9.9, and 8.4 barrels of oil, respectively. They were followed by Iran with 4.1, China with 3.9, Mexico with 3.7, Canada with 3.3, the United Arab Emirates with 2.9, Venezuela with 2.8, and Norway with 2.8. Estimating that oil reserves are diminishing, governments have dug deeper in quest of the resource. Every continent has a percentage of the global reserves, but the Middle East holds the highest share.

The high price of oil on the global market has raised the value of the resource, causing more nations to expand their exploration efforts (Sabin 58). Only the struggle for control of the world's oil reserves can explain the connection between map knowledge and power in relation to oil. Once the maps indicate the possibility of a mineral's presence, countries invest substantial resources in its extraction. In an endeavor to control the resource, conflicts and war may develop if the mineral occurs at national borders. This implies that maps have produced knowledge and, hence, power. The oil producing and exporting countries (OPEC) have constructed cartels that allow them control over the resource and its price in order to extend their influence. When oil is present, a nation has a very high potential for economic growth if it is exploited constructively (Noreng 82).

According to Pava (para.1) in "Who has the oil," more than 60 percent of the world's oil reserves are located in the Middle East, but the United States consumes the most oil in the world. It is estimated that daily consumption exceeds 20,000,000 barrels, however it comprises less than 2% of the remaining oil reserves (World-Oil Reserve, n.d.)

According to Akerman's (2002) paper "American Promotional Road Mapping in the Twentieth Century," maps have been sold as consumer goods since the sixteenth century. The travel business has consumed the most oil, which has been described as the consumption of geographical knowledge. The more people read, the more they find, and maps have contributed to the dissemination of information. In 1934, oil firms produced an estimated 70 million road maps annually, whereas in 1964, gas businesses produced 200 million gas maps annually (Akerman 2).

In regard to oil, Akerman (3) views maps, knowledge, and power differently. He outlines the maps produced by oil firms to map the terrain for passage by road, rail, and air. These maps are published and supplied to highway-using motorists so they can utilize automotive companies' services. He sees these maps as "not only a promotional tool, but also a prerequisite for consumption."

Numerous customers required schematic railroad maps for route mapping, pathfinders, and trailblazers. These maps impart knowledge in a novel manner, as they advertise their owners wherever they are located. People are able to do business using maps, which leads to economic power.

Oil can be considered the driving power of the economy because it provides the economy with energy. Therefore, any information on where to obtain it in its natural or refined form will grant the people unlimited control. In the quest for rare and essential supplies that may be available in various places, economic and resource maps, especially those depicting minerals, have been used extensively.

Oil is the most valuable mineral because without it, a country has the means to provide energy to its inhabitants (Flood para.1). Numerous nations have been sighted unsuccessfully searching for oil in their sovereign territories, while those possessing oil as a mineral have continued to dominate the global economy. Oil is extremely expensive for countries, and since it is required in large quantities, countries frequently lose billions attempting to get it. However, those nations having the resource have attempted to find more in order to grow their reserves.

Conclusion

In ancient times, maps continued to be utilized, and each time they informed people about a variety of concerns. Those that utilized the information acquired the utmost authority in terms of empires, colonies, and money. This demonstrates the significance and use of maps throughout world history. Every map has a tendency to affect the acquisition of knowledge, and the application of such knowledge results in the acquisition of power.

The Maps, Knowledge, and Power in relation to oil and people might be interpreted to indicate that the obtained information is employed effectively. Those who discover oil have the capacity to undergo a transformation. Many times, maps have been used to impart knowledge, but it is the use of that knowledge that gives the people power. People may possess information but fail to utilize it, resulting in a loss of power. Many nations have regarded oil as a precious mineral for many years, and a map depicting its locations would cost a fortune.

Sources Cited

"American promotional road mapping in the twentieth century," by James Akerman. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 175-191, 2002.

Flood, Christopher. "Oil prices fall below $80 as metals decline" The Financial Times website in 2009

J. Brian Harley, Maps, Knowledge, and Power. 1988, New York: Cambridge University Press.

The New York Times, "A World Oil Map" 2007 New York Times website.

Crude power: politics and the oil market. London: I.B.Tauris, 2006. Web. Noreng, Oystein.

Pava, Aaron. Who possesses the oil? Energy Bulletin, Civil Actions, Internet, 2007.

Crude politics: the California oil market, 1900-1940, by Paul Sabin 2005. Web. California, University of California Press.

“World-Oil Reserve.” The Independent. N.d. 2010. Web.

[supanova question]

InteCom: Proposed Strategic Development Plan My Assignment Essay Help London

Introduction

A remarkable occurrence is one that leaves a lasting impact, whether it occurs once or often within a small time span. This event could involve celebrations or performances, as well as presentations and rites. The majority of events are planned to honor cultural, political, or business purposes.

The event packaging sector has experienced substantial expansion in recent years. Due to the industry's relevance to the economies of various countries, the government's attention has been called to its expansion. There have been established units for the creation of state-sponsored events. The purpose of which is to connect the results of these events to the success of tourism. According to the opinions of a number of academics, the success of events has a beneficial link, firstly with the visiting tourist and secondly as a method of business management. Providing quality beverage and food offerings, as well as the perception of authenticity, are agreed-upon factors influencing the happiness of event attendees.

In today's service-driven economy, corporations bundle their offerings with an experience in order to sell them more effectively. Businesses must adopt a fee-commanding, experience-engaging design in order to realize the full potential of experience staging. Transitioning from providing a service to marketing or selling an experience has not been simple for established businesses.

The progression of economic history can be retraced by the various transformations that birthday cakes have undergone. As proof of the rural economy, women baked the first birthday cakes. Mixing farm-obtained goods, such as sugar, butter, eggs, and flour. Combined, these items are inexpensive or free. At Betty Croker, women spent a dollar or more for pre-mixed components as the economy of the industrial period advanced. At the beginning of this service-based economy, busy parents ordered cakes from bakery shops that, if purchased for $15 or $20, would have cost significantly more than the packaged ingredient. Parents did not celebrate birthdays with cakes or celebrations during the 1990s. Instead, significant quantities of money were used to completely outsource an event. Other event promoting companies, such as discovery zone and Chuck E. Cheese, were memorable for children. Recently, the majority of the time, cakes at gatherings are provided gratis. Consequently, this is an entry point into an economy of experience. Despite the fact that economists have grouped services and experience together, experience can be viewed as a distinct economic gift, distinct from services. Experience is undoubtedly what customers want, and more businesses are planning and implementing accordingly. From now on, leading businesses will learn that experience staging is the new competitive frontier.

Literature Review

Designing and delivering services

In order to comprehend the differences between experience and service, recollect an episode of the old television show Taxi. In it, Iggy, a poor and hilarious driver, decides to become the best taxi driver in the history of this planet. While doing city excursions, he provided his passengers with beverages and sandwiches. He sung Frank Sinatra songs frequently. He transformed an ordinary taxi ride into a memorable experience for his passengers. Iggy presented a very unique economic gift. The experience of riding in Iggy's taxi was significantly more valuable to his passengers than the service of being driven around the city. Customers responded by paying him increased amounts of money. One of his customers was forced to pay far more than the standard rate due to subpar service that prolonged his stay. Iggy supplied services — taxi driving – but this was basically a ruse to sell an experience, which was what he was doing. If businesses utilize their services as a stage and their products as props to engage with clients on an individual level, thereby producing a memorable event, then they will create an experience-based occurrence. Thus, commodities are fungible, whereas things are physical, services are intangible, and experiences are regarded as being unforgettable. Following Walt Disney, the forefather of the experience economy, we will refer to experience purchasers as guests. This visitor favors firms that reveal information over time. While first economic contributions, such as services and presents, are of secondary importance to the guest. Experiences are individual, dwelling in the mind of a person and involving emotional, intellectual, and bodily levels. Thus, two individuals' experiences will always differ. This is due to the fact that an experience consists of the fundamental interactions between a person's mental state and the stage performance. Walt Disney and his businesses have cleverly utilized the idea that experience is the foundation of the entertainment industry. Today, marketing experience has a position in the workplace that is far from parks and theaters. The evolution of new technology has altered the nature of human experience. Internet chat rooms and interactive video games are examples of the emergence of new types of entertainment. New schools of thinking assert that business is more than the manufacture and sale of new things; it also involves the distribution of information and the construction of interactive life link experiences.

At Planet Hollywood and the Hard Rock Cafe, food serves as a prop for the primary focus, which is entertainment. Cabalas', Nike town, attracts customers with amusing activities and captivating displays. Often commonly termed entertailing. However, it cannot be stated that experiences are solely entertainment. Businesses create experiences when they wish to engage customers in a way that will be remembered forever. In the field of business travel, the former chairman of British Airways, Sir Collin Marshal, remarked that the commodity mentality is the belief that a business is only fulfilling a function — in our instance, carrying people from point A to point B on time and at the cheapest price feasible. The airways compete with others on the level of experience provision, surpassing the level of function. Experiences are not limited to consumer-goods manufacturers.

The properties of experiences

Before collecting an admission fee, a corporation must plan and implement an experience that, in the opinion of the customers, is worth the price. As it is for products or services, a flawless plan from design to marketing and delivery would be required for experiences. Always preceding a revenue growth will be inventiveness and creativity. Identical to commodities and services, experiences possess unique characteristics and bring unique design problems. Considering experiences from a two-dimensional perspective is one method of approaching them.

The visitor's participation

At one end of the spectrum, inactive involvement occurs when customers have no impact on performance. This type of participants is exemplified by symphony attendees. During an event, they observe and listen in order to gain experience. Active players comprise the opposite end. Here, the customers contribute to the experience's creation. Skiers are an excellent illustration of this type of participation. Even spectators of a ski race cannot be deemed as passive players. By participating in the ski race, they contribute to the event's visual appeal.

The guest's relationship

This is often referred to as the capacity of a consumer or attendee at an event to properly interact with the surrounding environment. The connection between the client or guest and the event's performance. At one angle of connection range, there is absorption, and at the other, there is immersion. Guests seated in the grandstand and seeing the Kentucky Derby have a tendency to focus on the action occurring below and in front of them. While those right infield are engrossed in the sounds, images, and smells surrounding them. Reading a book can be significantly less engaging than frantically scribbling notes on a notepad during physics class. However, seeing a film in a theater with others, stereophonic sound, and a large screen is more immersive than watching the same film on a video player at home.

Classification of encounters

The involvement or participation of consumers or guests is more passive than active during entertainment-related activities, such as attending a live concert or watching television. In this instance, the relationship during the event is more akin to absorption than immersion. Participation is encouraged at educational events, such as taking a ski lesson or attending a class. However, students are less likely to be immersed in the event than to be on the outside. Escapist experiences can educate in the same way that educational ones do and can be entertaining in the same manner that entertainment experiences may, but with a larger client immersion. Active and immersive experiential participation is required while performing in an orchestra or participating in a play. When active guest participation is limited, an escapist experience transforms into an ecstatic one, the fourth type of experience. Here, guests are immersed in the atmosphere, yet they have no effect, such as a visitor to a photograph exhibit. All rich experiences, such as visiting Disney World, incorporate all components of experience. How distinctive and specific is the experience my company provides? should be the most crucial question for individuals in positions of responsibility to ask themselves. The extent to which the company's business is defined by the quality of the given experience is substantial. As with goods or services, the customer's experience must match his or her requirements or expectations. Experiences are the product of a process of examination, scripting, and execution, whereas services are the result of an examination, blueprint development, and enhancement process.

Creating a remarkable encounter

As with product and process design, it is anticipated that designing an experience will become a business in the future. Incontestably, design principles are evident in the activities and outcomes of organizations already in the industry. The following are the fundamentals of experience design:

The event should have a theme

When one hears the names of restaurants that cater to entertainment, a mental image of what to expect from such a place is formed. Notable examples are the rain forest café and the Hard Rock café. In an effort to stage an event, the first and most crucial step for the proprietors is to create an arresting motif. A badly sculpted topic leaves a prospective client unable to imagine what to anticipate. Moreover, the memories made in such places are frequently fleeting. Gertrude Stein's Oakland is one example of this. Retailers frequently violate ethical standards. They trumpet the shopping experience, but the theme generated does not correspond to the shopping experience that will be produced. When it comes to theme creation, retailers of home appliances demonstrate the least originality. Regarding a Las Vegas mall with the subject of an antique Roman marketplace, this motif has been realized in every way through architectural design. These contain pristine white pillars, marble floors, an outdoor café, running fountains, living trees, and are finished during a thunderstorm.

Adding hopeful hints to the impression

While the theme forms the basis of the experience, leaving an indelible mark on the audience should be viewed as the most important aspect. The impression is what a guest takes away from an encounter, signifying that the theme has been satisfied. Companies must introduce cues that confirm to the client or guest the nature of the encounter in order to make the desired impression. Each cue must correspond with the subject. Harob George, the founder of a Washington, D.C.-based coffee franchise, conceived of the company's identity as a "coffee club" (the marriage of Old world Italian espresso bars with fast paced American living). Customers are able to establish queues without the need for signage, which would have deviated from the theme's intended appearance. This establishment has a reputation for providing prompt service in a pleasant atmosphere. Additionally, the franchise owner encourages his employees to recall the faces of frequent customers in order to serve them without prompting. No matter how minor, the cue adds to the creation of an unforgettable experience. When a host in a restaurant informs you that your table is ready, he or she has not provided you with a cue. In the Rainforest Café, however, a host's warning to her guests to be on the lookout for a soon-to-begin adventure creates the sense of a unique encounter. Cues build impressions, and impressions generate experiences that endure in the customers' memories. A negative experience could be the result of an architectural aspect that has been undervalued, neglected, or mismatched. Due to an unintended visual signal, a consumer may be left bewildered. After being given directions, it may be difficult to locate one's hotel room. The client would have a better and more satisfying experience if there were clearer and more distinct signs on the walkway.

Eliminate discouraged cues.

Positive indicators alone are insufficient to preserve the guest or client experience. Whatever contradicts the topic must be eliminated. Experienced stagers must steadfastly adhere to this. In offices, malls, and airplanes, trivial massages can be observed. Inappropriate massage forms are frequently used by service providers, despite the fact that customers occasionally require guidance. For example, trash cans at fast food restaurants may bear a sign reading "thank you." Alternately, stagers of experience may transform the trash can into a talking, garbage-eating persona that expresses gratitude when the lid is lifted. Without a negative cue, an excellent massage is communicated to the customer. Providing poor services is the quickest method to transform a service into an experience. Thus, an interaction is produced that is memorable, but of a negative nature. Overservice can ruin a customer's experience.

Engage each of the five senses.

It is essential that the sensory stimuli accompanying an event advance its topic. The greater the number of senses involved in an experience, the more memorable it is. Smart operators of shoe-cleaning establishments enhance the aroma of polish using material fragments that are brittle and easily broken. Aroma and sound that contribute nothing to the shoe but enhance the experience. During the mixing of produce, some grocery stores and bakeries scent the passageway, while others employ music and light to simulate a storm. The rain forest.

Jordan’s Landscaping: Marketing Management Plan My Assignment Essay Help London

Introduction

A remarkable occurrence is one that leaves a lasting impact, whether it occurs once or often within a small time span. This event could involve celebrations or performances, as well as presentations and rites. The majority of events are planned to honor cultural, political, or business purposes.

The event packaging sector has experienced substantial expansion in recent years. Due to the industry's relevance to the economies of various countries, the government's attention has been called to its expansion. There have been established units for the creation of state-sponsored events. The purpose of which is to connect the results of these events to the success of tourism. According to the opinions of a number of academics, the success of events has a beneficial link, firstly with the visiting tourist and secondly as a method of business management. Providing quality beverage and food offerings, as well as the perception of authenticity, are agreed-upon factors influencing the happiness of event attendees.

In today's service-driven economy, corporations bundle their offerings with an experience in order to sell them more effectively. Businesses must adopt a fee-commanding, experience-engaging design in order to realize the full potential of experience staging. Transitioning from providing a service to marketing or selling an experience has not been simple for established businesses.

The progression of economic history can be retraced by the various transformations that birthday cakes have undergone. As proof of the rural economy, women baked the first birthday cakes. Mixing farm-obtained goods, such as sugar, butter, eggs, and flour. Combined, these items are inexpensive or free. At Betty Croker, women spent a dollar or more for pre-mixed components as the economy of the industrial period advanced. At the beginning of this service-based economy, busy parents ordered cakes from bakery shops that, if purchased for $15 or $20, would have cost significantly more than the packaged ingredient. Parents did not celebrate birthdays with cakes or celebrations during the 1990s. Instead, significant quantities of money were used to completely outsource an event. Other event promoting companies, such as discovery zone and Chuck E. Cheese, were memorable for children. Recently, the majority of the time, cakes at gatherings are provided gratis. Consequently, this is an entry point into an economy of experience. Despite the fact that economists have grouped services and experience together, experience can be viewed as a distinct economic gift, distinct from services. Experience is undoubtedly what customers want, and more businesses are planning and implementing accordingly. From now on, leading businesses will learn that experience staging is the new competitive frontier.

Literature Review

Designing and delivering services

In order to comprehend the differences between experience and service, recollect an episode of the old television show Taxi. In it, Iggy, a poor and hilarious driver, decides to become the best taxi driver in the history of this planet. While doing city excursions, he provided his passengers with beverages and sandwiches. He sung Frank Sinatra songs frequently. He transformed an ordinary taxi ride into a memorable experience for his passengers. Iggy presented a very unique economic gift. The experience of riding in Iggy's taxi was significantly more valuable to his passengers than the service of being driven around the city. Customers responded by paying him increased amounts of money. One of his customers was forced to pay far more than the standard rate due to subpar service that prolonged his stay. Iggy supplied services — taxi driving – but this was basically a ruse to sell an experience, which was what he was doing. If businesses utilize their services as a stage and their products as props to engage with clients on an individual level, thereby producing a memorable event, then they will create an experience-based occurrence. Thus, commodities are fungible, whereas things are physical, services are intangible, and experiences are regarded as being unforgettable. Following Walt Disney, the forefather of the experience economy, we will refer to experience purchasers as guests. This visitor favors firms that reveal information over time. While first economic contributions, such as services and presents, are of secondary importance to the guest. Experiences are individual, dwelling in the mind of a person and involving emotional, intellectual, and bodily levels. Thus, two individuals' experiences will always differ. This is due to the fact that an experience consists of the fundamental interactions between a person's mental state and the stage performance. Walt Disney and his businesses have cleverly utilized the idea that experience is the foundation of the entertainment industry. Today, marketing experience has a position in the workplace that is far from parks and theaters. The evolution of new technology has altered the nature of human experience. Internet chat rooms and interactive video games are examples of the emergence of new types of entertainment. New schools of thinking assert that business is more than the manufacture and sale of new things; it also involves the distribution of information and the construction of interactive life link experiences.

At Planet Hollywood and the Hard Rock Cafe, food serves as a prop for the primary focus, which is entertainment. Cabalas', Nike town, attracts customers with amusing activities and captivating displays. Often commonly termed entertailing. However, it cannot be stated that experiences are solely entertainment. Businesses create experiences when they wish to engage customers in a way that will be remembered forever. In the field of business travel, the former chairman of British Airways, Sir Collin Marshal, remarked that the commodity mentality is the belief that a business is only fulfilling a function — in our instance, carrying people from point A to point B on time and at the cheapest price feasible. The airways compete with others on the level of experience provision, surpassing the level of function. Experiences are not limited to consumer-goods manufacturers.

The properties of experiences

Before collecting an admission fee, a corporation must plan and implement an experience that, in the opinion of the customers, is worth the price. As it is for products or services, a flawless plan from design to marketing and delivery would be required for experiences. Always preceding a revenue growth will be inventiveness and creativity. Identical to commodities and services, experiences possess unique characteristics and bring unique design problems. Considering experiences from a two-dimensional perspective is one method of approaching them.

The visitor's participation

At one end of the spectrum, inactive involvement occurs when customers have no impact on performance. This type of participants is exemplified by symphony attendees. During an event, they observe and listen in order to gain experience. Active players comprise the opposite end. Here, the customers contribute to the experience's creation. Skiers are an excellent illustration of this type of participation. Even spectators of a ski race cannot be deemed as passive players. By participating in the ski race, they contribute to the event's visual appeal.

The guest's relationship

This is often referred to as the capacity of a consumer or attendee at an event to properly interact with the surrounding environment. The connection between the client or guest and the event's performance. At one angle of connection range, there is absorption, and at the other, there is immersion. Guests seated in the grandstand and seeing the Kentucky Derby have a tendency to focus on the action occurring below and in front of them. While those right infield are engrossed in the sounds, images, and smells surrounding them. Reading a book can be significantly less engaging than frantically scribbling notes on a notepad during physics class. However, seeing a film in a theater with others, stereophonic sound, and a large screen is more immersive than watching the same film on a video player at home.

Classification of encounters

The involvement or participation of consumers or guests is more passive than active during entertainment-related activities, such as attending a live concert or watching television. In this instance, the relationship during the event is more akin to absorption than immersion. Participation is encouraged at educational events, such as taking a ski lesson or attending a class. However, students are less likely to be immersed in the event than to be on the outside. Escapist experiences can educate in the same way that educational ones do and can be entertaining in the same manner that entertainment experiences may, but with a larger client immersion. Active and immersive experiential participation is required while performing in an orchestra or participating in a play. When active guest participation is limited, an escapist experience transforms into an ecstatic one, the fourth type of experience. Here, guests are immersed in the atmosphere, yet they have no effect, such as a visitor to a photograph exhibit. All rich experiences, such as visiting Disney World, incorporate all components of experience. How distinctive and specific is the experience my company provides? should be the most crucial question for individuals in positions of responsibility to ask themselves. The extent to which the company's business is defined by the quality of the given experience is substantial. As with goods or services, the customer's experience must match his or her requirements or expectations. Experiences are the product of a process of examination, scripting, and execution, whereas services are the result of an examination, blueprint development, and enhancement process.

Creating a remarkable encounter

As with product and process design, it is anticipated that designing an experience will become a business in the future. Incontestably, design principles are evident in the activities and outcomes of organizations already in the industry. The following are the fundamentals of experience design:

The event should have a theme

When one hears the names of restaurants that cater to entertainment, a mental image of what to expect from such a place is formed. Notable examples are the rain forest café and the Hard Rock café. In an effort to stage an event, the first and most crucial step for the proprietors is to create an arresting motif. A badly sculpted topic leaves a prospective client unable to imagine what to anticipate. Moreover, the memories made in such places are frequently fleeting. Gertrude Stein's Oakland is one example of this. Retailers frequently violate ethical standards. They trumpet the shopping experience, but the theme generated does not correspond to the shopping experience that will be produced. When it comes to theme creation, retailers of home appliances demonstrate the least originality. Regarding a Las Vegas mall with the subject of an antique Roman marketplace, this motif has been realized in every way through architectural design. These contain pristine white pillars, marble floors, an outdoor café, running fountains, living trees, and are finished during a thunderstorm.

Adding hopeful hints to the impression

While the theme forms the basis of the experience, leaving an indelible mark on the audience should be viewed as the most important aspect. The impression is what a guest takes away from an encounter, signifying that the theme has been satisfied. Companies must introduce cues that confirm to the client or guest the nature of the encounter in order to make the desired impression. Each cue must correspond with the subject. Harob George, the founder of a Washington, D.C.-based coffee franchise, conceived of the company's identity as a "coffee club" (the marriage of Old world Italian espresso bars with fast paced American living). Customers are able to establish queues without the need for signage, which would have deviated from the theme's intended appearance. This establishment has a reputation for providing prompt service in a pleasant atmosphere. Additionally, the franchise owner encourages his employees to recall the faces of frequent customers in order to serve them without prompting. No matter how minor, the cue adds to the creation of an unforgettable experience. When a host in a restaurant informs you that your table is ready, he or she has not provided you with a cue. In the Rainforest Café, however, a host's warning to her guests to be on the lookout for a soon-to-begin adventure creates the sense of a unique encounter. Cues build impressions, and impressions generate experiences that endure in the customers' memories. A negative experience could be the result of an architectural aspect that has been undervalued, neglected, or mismatched. Due to an unintended visual signal, a consumer may be left bewildered. After being given directions, it may be difficult to locate one's hotel room. The client would have a better and more satisfying experience if there were clearer and more distinct signs on the walkway.

Eliminate discouraged cues.

Positive indicators alone are insufficient to preserve the guest or client experience. Whatever contradicts the topic must be eliminated. Experienced stagers must steadfastly adhere to this. In offices, malls, and airplanes, trivial massages can be observed. Inappropriate massage forms are frequently used by service providers, despite the fact that customers occasionally require guidance. For example, trash cans at fast food restaurants may bear a sign reading "thank you." Alternately, stagers of experience may transform the trash can into a talking, garbage-eating persona that expresses gratitude when the lid is lifted. Without a negative cue, an excellent massage is communicated to the customer. Providing poor services is the quickest method to transform a service into an experience. Thus, an interaction is produced that is memorable, but of a negative nature. Overservice can ruin a customer's experience.

Engage each of the five senses.

It is essential that the sensory stimuli accompanying an event advance its topic. The greater the number of senses involved in an experience, the more memorable it is. Smart operators of shoe-cleaning establishments enhance the aroma of polish using material fragments that are brittle and easily broken. Aroma and sound that contribute nothing to the shoe but enhance the experience. During the mixing of produce, some grocery stores and bakeries scent the passageway, while others employ music and light to simulate a storm. The rain forest.

Jordan’s Landscaping: Marketing Management Plan My Assignment Essay Help London

Introduction

An event is notable if it occurs once or repeatedly within a short period of time and leaves a lasting impact. This occasion could include festivities or performances, speeches, and ceremonies. The majority of events are arranged to commemorate cultural, political, or cooperative goals.

Recent years have witnessed substantial expansion in the event packaging business. The government's attention has been brought to the significance of this industry to the economies of various nations as a result of its expansion. The development of events supported by state governments has prompted the establishment of units. The purpose of which is to connect the success of tourism to the outcomes of these events. According to a number of academics, the success of an event has a good association, first with the visiting tourist and then as a method of conducting business. Providing quality beverage and food services, as well as the perception of authenticity, are agreed-upon factors that influence the happiness of event attendees.

In today's service-driven economy, corporations bundle their goods and services with an experience in order to increase sales. To reap the full benefits of experience staging, firms must embrace a fee-commanding, experience-engaging design. The transformation of promoting or selling an experience has not been simple for established businesses to execute.

The progression of economic history can be retraced through the many evolutionary stages experienced by birthday cakes. As proof of the agrarian economy, women baked birthday cakes from the very beginning. Combining farm products, such as sugar, butter, eggs, and flour. All of these together are inexpensive or free. At Betty Croker, women spent a dollar or more for pre-mixed components as the economy of the industrial period developed. At the beginning of this service-based economy, busy parents ordered cakes from bakery shops that, if purchased for $15 or $20, would have cost significantly more than the packed ingredients. In the 1990s, parents did not celebrate birthdays with cakes or celebrations. Instead, substantial sums were spent to completely outsource an event. From exploration zone to Chuck E. Cheeses, other event-promoting companies were noteworthy for children. Recently, free cakes have become the norm at festivals. Thus, this is the beginning of an economy of experience. Despite the fact that economists have grouped services and experience together, experience is a distinct economic gift that is distinct from services and goods. This economic gift is acknowledged and articulated today since experience is indisputably what people want, and more businesses are planning and implementing accordingly. From now on, leading firms will learn that experience staging is the new competitive frontier.

Literature Review

design and execution of services

There is a line of distinction between experience and service; to comprehend this divide, recollect an episode of the old television show Taxi. In it, Iggy, a poor and hilarious driver, decided to become the greatest taxi driver this planet has ever seen. He offered beverages and sandwiches to his passengers while providing city excursions. Frequently, he sung Frank Sinatra songs. He transformed an average taxi ride into an unforgettable experience that his clients will never forget. Iggy presented an altogether new economic contribution. The experience of riding in Iggy's taxi was significantly more important to his passengers than the service of being driven around the city. The response was that his consumers paid him more money. One of his customers had to pay far more than the statutory sum since poor service prolonged his experience. Iggy supplied services – taxi driving – as a front for selling an experience, which was in fact what he was doing. If businesses use their services as a stage and their products as props to engage with clients on an individual level, they will create a memorable experience. Thus, commodities are said to be fungible, while goods are said to be tangible, services are said to be intangible, and experiences are said to be memorable. Following Walt Disney, the pioneer of the experience economy, we will refer to experience purchasers as guests. This customer prefers to value firms' revelations over time. While pecuniary contributions, such as services and presents, are secondary to the guest. Experiences are personal, dwelling in the mind of an individual, including emotional, intellectual, and bodily components. Thus, the experiences of two individuals will always be distinct. This is because an experience consists of the fundamental interactions between an individual's mental state and the stage show. Walt Disney and his enterprises have cleverly utilized the concept that experience is the essence of show business. Today, marketing experience is valued in industries far from parks and theaters. The development of innovative technologies has altered the nature of experience. From online chat rooms to interactive video games, new types of entertainment have emerged. According to new schools of thought, business is more than the manufacture and sale of new things; it also involves information distribution and interactive life connection experiences.

At Planet Hollywood and Hard Rock Café, food serves as a prop for the entertainment that is the primary focus. Cabalas', Nike town, attracts clients by presenting them with amusing activities and attractive displays. Often commonly termed entertailing. However, experiences cannot be considered solely entertaining. Businesses stage experiences when they want to engage customers in a personal way that will be remembered for eternity. Sir Collin Marshal, the former chairman of British Airways, remarked that in the field of business travel, the commodity mentality is the belief that a business is only executing a function — in our instance, carrying people from point A to point B on time and at the lowest possible price. The airways compete with others on the level of offering an experience, going above and beyond just functionality. Experiences are not limited to companies that manufacture consumer items.

The attributes of experiences

Before collecting an admittance fee, a business must plan and implement an experience that customers deem to be worth the cost. Experiences, like goods or services, will require a flawless plan from conception through marketing and delivery. Inventiveness and uniqueness will always precede income growth. Experiences, like goods and services, include unique characteristics and face significant design challenges. One method to consider experiences is from a two-dimensional perspective.

Participation of the visitor

At one end of the spectrum is inactive involvement, in which customers have no effect on performance. Attendees of symphonies are a fantastic illustration of this type of participant. During an event, they gain experience by observing and listening. On the opposite end are active players. Here, clients contribute to the formation of the experience. Skiers are a fantastic illustration of this type of participation. Even ski race spectators cannot be considered as passive participants. By participating in the ski race, they contribute to the visual experience of people at the event.

The affiliation of the visitor

This is often referred to as the customer's or guest's ability to interact effectively with the environment. Connection unites the client or attendee with the event's performance. At one angle of connection range, absorption occurs, but at the other, immersion occurs. Guests seated in the grandstand and seeing the Kentucky Derby tend to focus on the action occurring beneath and in front of them. While those infield are immersed in the noises, sights, and smells of their surroundings. In physics class, frantically scribbling notes on a notepad can be far more engaging than reading a book. However, seeing a film in a theater with others, stereophonic sound, and a large screen is more immersive than watching the same film on a home video player.

The classification of experiences

Attending a live performance or watching television are examples of entertainment experiences in which the involvement or participation of consumers or guests is more passive than active. In this instance, the connection at the event is one of absorption rather than immersion. Educational events, such as taking a ski lesson or attending a class, engage people actively. However, students are typically more detached from the event than absorbed in it. Escapist experiences can educate in the same manner that educational ones do, or they can be funny as entertainment, but with a greater client immersion. Participating in an orchestra or acting in a play involves active and immersive experiential participation. Active guest participation must be lowered for an escapist experience to become ecstatic, the fourth type of experience. Here, visitors are immersed in the atmosphere, yet they have no effect, such as a gallery visitor. All experiences of depth, such as a trip to Disney World, embrace all dimensions of experience. The most essential question for those in positions of authority to ask themselves is, "How unique and distinct is the experience my company provides?" The quality of the experience provided will significantly impact the business of the firm. Experience must meet the customer's demand or expectation, just as goods or services do. Experiences are the product of a process of examination, scripting, and execution, whereas services are the outcome of a process of examination, blueprint construction, and enhancements.

Creating an exceptional experience

It is anticipated that developing experiences will become a business in the future, similar to product and process design. Design principles are undeniably evident from the actions and outcomes of organizations already in the industry. Below are the experience design principles.

The experience must have a theme

When one hears the names of entertainment-oriented restaurants, he or she forms an impression of what to expect from such an establishment. For instance, the rain forest café and the Hard Rock café, to name a couple. The first and most crucial step that owners must take when attempting experience staging is to create a memorable theme. A badly sculpted topic prevents prospective customers from imagining what to anticipate. And the memories from such locations are frequently fleeting. Such is the case with Gertrude Stein's Oakland. The guidelines are frequently violated by retailers. The motif created does not correspond with the retail experience that is to be performed, despite the fact that they trumpet the shopping experience. When it comes to theme creation, home appliance stores are especially lacking in originality. Considering that a Las Vegas-based mall features the notion of a "ancient Roman marketplace," this motif has been realized in every way through architectural elements. These features include pristine white columns, marble floors, an outdoor café, running fountains, living trees, and completion during a thunderstorm.

Impression complemented with positive cues

While the topic lays the groundwork, it is of utmost importance that the experience leave an unforgettable mark on the audience. The impression is what a guest takes away from an encounter, signifying that the theme has been accomplished. Companies must introduce clues that confirm the nature of the experience to the client or guest in order to establish the desired impression. Each cue must provide support for the theme. Harob George, the creator of a Washington, D.C.-based coffee business, conceived the company's mission statement (the marriage of Old world Italian espresso bars with fast paced American living). Customers are able to create queues without the need for signage, which would have deviated from the theme's objective, due to the interior design's representation of the ancient world. There is a feeling of quick service in a pleasant environment. Additionally, the franchise owner encourages his employees to recall the faces of regular customers in order to serve them without prompting. The cue, regardless of its size, contributes to the creation of a memorable experience. When a restaurant host informs you that your table is ready, he or she has given you no indication. However, the proclamation by a Rainforest Café host to her visitor to be on the lookout for an upcoming adventure tends to generate the impression of a unique encounter. Cues produce impressions, and impressions generate client experiences that are memorable. An unpleasant experience could be the result of an undervalued, ignored, or disorganized architectural feature. A customer may be left perplexed if an unintended visual signal is applied. After receiving information on the direction, it may be difficult to locate one's hotel room. The client's experience would be enhanced by clearer and more comprehensible indications on the walkway.

Remove unmotivated cues

Positive indicators alone are insufficient to preserve the authenticity of the guest or client experience. Everything that conflicts with the concept must be eliminated. Experienced stagers must adhere to this rule tenaciously. In offices, shopping malls, and airplanes, trivial massages are common. Despite the fact that customers occasionally require guidance, service providers frequently employ improper massage forms. For example, trash cans at fast food restaurants may feature a "thank you" sign. Instead, stagers of experience may transform the trash can into a talking, garbage-eating character that expresses gratitude when the lid is opened. A good massage is conveyed to the customer without any negative cues. The simplest way to transform a service into an experience is to deliver subpar services. This creates an interaction that is memorable, but of a negative one. Excessive service can ruin an experience.

The five senses must be stimulated.

The sensory stimuli accompanying an encounter must advance its topic. The more senses involved in an encounter, the more unforgettable that experience will be. Smart operators of shoeshine shops enhance the aroma of polish using fragile material fragments. Aroma and sounds that do not contribute to the shoe but improve the whole experience. During the blending of produce, grocery stores, channel bakeries, and others employ sound and light to resemble a thunderstorm. The Cloud Forest

Walmart Supply Chain Case Study My Assignment Essay Help London

Introduction

The retail industry is one of the world's largest, and some of the greatest global corporations, such as Walmart, serve it. Traditional and contemporary merchants differ significantly in the retail industry. Amazon and Walmart compete for the same market share as a result of technological advancements. It is essential to recognize, however, that even such conventional enterprises are attempting to adapt to new technology and, most crucially, the new digital generation, which is best serviced by digital media. Companies like Walmart struggle to transform, with numerous attempts failing to bear fruit. This case study illustrates the digital competitiveness issues Walmart has as a result of its failed efforts to compete with Amazon. Alongside proposed action plans, strategic and operational analysis and ethics and sustainability aspects will be considered.

History of the Company

The Bentonville, Arkansas-based Walmart Stores, Inc. (henceforth Walmart) is one of the world's largest retailers. Sam Walton, who previously had a profitable network of stores under the name Ben Franklin Stores, started the corporation in the 1960s. It originated as a 'big box' discount store model and eventually expanded to incorporate supercenters, larger versions of discount stores that sold groceries, clothing, and items (Mark, 2019). Operating under the Ben Franklin label obliged Sam to purchase the majority of his inventory from Franklin Stores. Nonetheless, he was able to acquire things in bulk from other vendors and transport them to his businesses. Sam opened locations with the original name Walmart Discount City in response to a new national trend in discount retailing that involved generating high volumes through cheap costs. Sam was willing to transform the industry and surpass the offerings of other retailers. In light of this, he chose to establish distribution facilities in rural Arkansas and dispatch vehicles to the suppliers.

Walmart's initial public offering occurred in 1969 to acquire funds for the construction of the company's first distribution center in Bentonville, Arkansas. Between 1960 and 1990, the company's expansion was aided by the improvement of the national transport system (Mark, 2019). In addition, Walmart capitalized on the fact that competitors were reluctant to respond to legislation requiring minimum resale prices (Mark, 2019). The evolution of Walmart's supply chain throughout its history best explains the company's expansion as a retailer.

Digital advancements are an indispensable component of the company's growth. As stated previously, conventional firms such as Walmart attempt to keep up with current e-commerce companies such as Amazon as they open up new markets and niches. Walmart operated Walmart.com, Marketplace, and Jet.com as its primary online programs in the United States. Walmart.com was created in 2000 as an online marketplace for a variety of products sold in Walmart shops (Mark, 2019). The marketplace was designed to facilitate the sale of third-party products on Walmart.com. Jet.com was created as an upscale retailer of consumer products. In comparison to digital retailers, Walmart has not been successful in its e-commerce skills despite its significant capital base and well-known brand. As will be addressed in the following section, the company appears to have difficulty with the operational and technological aspects of an e-commerce platform.

Difficulties confronting the company

As noted previously, Walmart's troubles are primarily related to its e-commerce platform. It is essential to note, however, that Walmart's e-commerce system is not a failure, as its income has increased by 40% to $15.7 billion (Mark, 2019). However, Walmart is finding it costly to manage the platform, which has necessitated price increases on Walmart.com for commodities such as groceries and household essentials. In comparison to Amazon, Walmart's 40% revenue growth falls short of forecasts, indicating that the company has yet to grab online buyers. In other words, the $15.7 billion in revenues as of January 31, 2019 pale in comparison to Amazon's $206.82 billion in e-commerce sales in 2018. (Mark, 2019). Importantly, the 16.3% increase in Amazon sales from 2017 to 2018 indicates that Amazon is poised to dominate the e-commerce industry as Walmart suffers (Mark, 2019). Walmart must consequently design a more effective strategy.

Because Walmart was founded as a traditional corporation, one may argue that it lacks the innovative capacity of a company like Amazon, which was founded primarily as an online shopping platform. Additionally, it may be predicted that a firm of Walmart's size will have difficulty adopting new technologies due to the bureaucracy involved. In spite of the fact that Sam Walton has transformed Walmart through a succession of inventions and advancements that contradict the standard in the American retail industry, this is the case. The operational and economic efficiencies that contribute to the success of Walmart's analog business model are not achieved in the company's e-commerce, resulting in issues with growing prices on Walmart.com.

Many of the company's e-commerce difficulties are attributable to its omnichannel attempts. Walmart aimed to provide its customers with a smooth omnichannel experience by integrating its retail shops and e-commerce foundation. Among the omnichannel options available were Grocery Pickup, Walmart Pickup, Grocery Delivery, Pickup Today, and Endless Aisle. Customers were able to order things online, select a convenient pickup time, and pick up their orders at any of Walmart's tens of thousands of locations without leaving their vehicles. Therefore, the purpose of the omnichannel projects was to link e-commerce with Walmart's stores. While some of the tests were successful, others were unsuccessful. For instance, Walmart teamed with Google Express in 2017 to make its products available on Google's online marketplace. Google said in 2019 that it had withdrawn Walmart's products off its online shelves, putting an end to this partnership (Mark, 2019). This illustrates Walmart's difficulties with its e-commerce strategies.

Other failures in omnichannel and e-commerce ventures include the company's 2017 decision to forgo efforts to develop an Amazon Prime competitor. The service, dubbed ShippingPass, was launched in 2015 to offer free two-day shipping to customers who paid a $49 membership fee (Mark, 2019). It was replaced by one that promised free shipping for items whose worth was over $35. In 2018, a scheme that required staff to use their own automobiles and insurance policies to make deliveries after hours was also discontinued. Therefore, a closer evaluation of these issues demonstrates that Walmart aimed to compete with Amazon without "appearing like" Amazon. In other words, Walmart did not plan to embrace Amazon-like structures and systems, resulting in a series of unsuccessful initiatives. Amazon, whose online presence and success continue to surpass even Walmart's traditional company, has defeated Walmart.

Analysis of Strategic and Operational Elements

Walmart will evaluate the success and/or failure of the company's strategies and operations as part of its strategic and operational analysis. In the literature, operational and strategic analyses are frequently conducted concurrently under the term strategic operational analysis. The strategic analysis studies the operating environment of a corporation in order to generate pertinent strategies. In contrast, operational analysis tries to comprehend and improve a company's operational procedures. Several scholars, like Krylov (2017), employ a balanced scorecard (BSC) to undertake a strategic operational analysis. The BSC examines the strategic and operational performance of an organization. Developed performance measurements are used to evaluate the company's actions. In this instance, a strategic and operational analysis of Walmart will focus on the strategic and operational performance of its e-commerce operations in order to throw further insight on the issues the company faces.

Walmart’s 2018 revenues of $514 billion attest to the company’s evolution into the world’s highest-grossing retailer as a result of its business tactics. The preceding description of the corporation illustrates how eager it was to pursue innovative strategies that would increase its revenue and market share. Variable pricing (or ‘hi-lo’ pricing) and everyday low price (EDLP) are the two major methods utilized by worldwide merchants (Mark, 2019). Walmart adopted the latter, which helped it to maintain low product pricing. This strategy's effectiveness is demonstrated by the consistent growth of the company's products, which facilitated the simplification of internal operations such as inventory management and control. Walmart did not need to spend a great deal of money on advertising and similar promotional strategies due to the lower costs and rising demand.

The company may have adopted information systems early on. As a strategic move, efforts such as Retail Link and other inventory management information systems have yielded substantial benefits. Later endeavors in technology adoption, particularly the construction of an e-commerce platform to compete with Amazon, can be viewed as operational failures. As discussed previously, numerous omnichannel attempts including the construction of online storefronts failed and were abandoned, signifying an operational disaster. Walmart’s physical store operations remain unrivaled, but its internet operations have proven too challenging. Walmart's implementation of supply chain operations, including distribution centers and transportation infrastructure, would be revealed through an operational examination of the company's physical stores and supply chain (Mark, 2019). The company has yet to achieve the same level of success as Amazon as a result of poor decisions surrounding its e-commerce operations. Despite the fact that the online stores' revenue growth is increasing, the company has not yet achieved the same level of success as Amazon.

Moral and Environmental Considerations

Walmart's ethical and environmental issues are not as evident in the case study as other parts of the corporation. The most obvious ethical issue is the after-hours delivery program that required staff to use their own vehicles and insurance to deliver things to clients (Mark, 2019). For a firm of Walmart's magnitude, such a move could be called exploitative. Besides contractual agreements with third-party logistics companies, Walmart already has a transportation infrastructure in place. It is fundamentally unethical to require employees to incur any expense for the sake of the firm without compensating them.

Modern firms must also demonstrate their commitment to environmental and other sustainability goals due to the importance of sustainability to their operations. The case study does not fully indicate the extent to which Walmart implements sustainability or disregards it. Walmart’s acquisition of India’s largest e-commerce shop, Flipkart, demonstrates the corporation’s commitment to sustainability by requiring the company to create sustainable advantages such as jobs. Additionally, Walmart demanded that Flipkart engage in additional sustainability activities, including help for small businesses, reduction of food waste, and support for the country's farmers and the development of the supply chain (Mark, 2019). E-commerce initiatives can be deemed unsustainable in terms of business continuity since the company has failed to build a platform that gives the same price advantages as its physical outlets. In addition to being costly, the failed experiments indicate that the company must pursue sustainable digital transformations.

Proposed Plans of Action

The aforementioned issues are associated with the company's e-commerce. The recommended action plan entails adopting new strategies for the creation of an e-commerce platform that is as successful as Amazon's. Walmart has already abandoned its efforts to directly compete with Amazon (Mark, 2019). However, it is suggested that e-commerce is the future of retail and that Walmart must do everything possible to be a part of that future. The proposed action plan contains three initiatives: 1) spend more in e-commerce research and development; 2) establish an independent e-commerce platform; and 3) use agile techniques in the new e-commerce platform.

Investigation and Development

Research and development on the best e-commerce technology and applications will aid Walmart in avoiding many of the errors that lead to the failure of omnichannel projects. The startup does not intend to deliberately imitate digital stores like Amazon. Either Walmart is seeking bigger benefits from the commerce platform than Amazon, or Walmart has the required expertise to establish effective platforms. Today, rising technologies such as artificial intelligence are transforming industries and e-commerce in significant ways (Soni, 2020). Even though it is not specified how much artificial intelligence Amazon and other e-commerce companies utilize, it can be argued that tech firms are among the earliest adopters of such innovations. Walmart's research and development capabilities enable it to pursue comparable objectives and create more effective applications.

Independent Ecommerce Platform

In this context, the term autonomous refers to a platform that is governed and operated differently than traditional and real Walmart stores. The company's failure to successfully combine e-commerce and physical stores should serve as evidence that combining the two could result in a catastrophe, given that they are based on separate paradigms. Due to the operational requirements of both, the old business model and the digital one are incompatible. A stand-alone e-commerce site appears to be the best course of action, given Walmart's substantial financial resources and its willingness to undertake significant improvements. Thus, Walmart's online stores can be operated similarly to standard online retailers such as Amazon, albeit with a distinct infrastructure. Any interaction between stores and e-commerce should not need that the digital platform modify its procedures to meet the requirements of physical retailers. Therefore, physical stores should embrace e-commerce only when it is convenient to do so.

Lean and Agile Methodologies

In e-commerce, agile procedures frequently target supply chains and other operations. Current research has explored, among other topics, logistical customer service, virtual sales channels, and the expansion of online commerce. The term "lean" is used here to refer to minimal operating costs or cost reductions through waste reduction and other initiatives. Agile, on the other hand, is a term used to describe a company's capacity to rapidly adapt to market circumstances (Kawa & Maryniak, 2019). With these two procedures, Walmart can create an e-commerce platform that is adaptable to market changes and does not require price increases to cover increased operational costs. Without an independent platform, it would be difficult to implement these ideas, as they may necessitate significant organization-wide changes.

Conclusion

Walmart's efforts to compete with Amazon and other digital merchants online have failed. The company must adopt a new e-commerce strategy to become a formidable competitor and secure its future. The proposed course of action entails conducting more research and development so that the organization can create and implement the appropriate technologies. Second, Walmart should operate an e-commerce business apart from its physical stores. On the e-commerce platform, lean and agile processes are adopted to enable the company to continue its aim of maintaining cheap costs.

References

Kawa, A., & Maryniak, A. (2019). Lean and flexible e-commerce supply chains: empirical research. 3(2), pages 235–247, in Journal of Information and Telecommunication. Web.

Krylov, S. (2017). Applied Strategic Operational Analysis as a new research method to investigate strategic aspects of operational activity within an organization [PDF Document]. Web.

Mark, K. (2019). Supply chain management at Walmart. The publisher Ivey.

Soni, V. (2020). New applications of artificial intelligence in e-commerce. The fourth issue of the International Journal of Trends in Scientific Research and Development (5). Web.

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Spiritual Needs: Case Analysis My Assignment Essay Help London

Table of Contents
Mike's Choices Christians: Spiritual Needs Assessment for Illness and Health References

Mike's Choices

The concept of patient autonomy is a unique philosophy that guides physicians in making informed decisions and facilitates the provision of high-quality medical care. James is a patient suffering from acute glomerulonephritis in the current case. This life-threatening medical issue has the potential to impact the patient's health. Mike has been making irrational choices that have the potential to hurt James. This scenario is complex due to the presence of two issues: religious faith and scientific intervention. This argument is premised on the notion that the physician should examine the most appropriate course of action capable of satisfying James's medical needs (Igboin, 2015). He should do so by taking into account the fundamental principles of care delivery, including beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy, fairness, and justice.

Using a Christian worldview as a lens, the doctor will counsel Mike and educate him on the role of medical intervention in furthering God's desire for a happy world. This understanding will allow the professional to engage the parent, learn more about the predicted health outcomes, and explain why an effective care delivery strategy will result in favorable outcomes (Carlin, 2019). James's health could be negatively affected by the decision to allow him to make such dangerous choices. The resolution will respect the concept of patient autonomy, as the desired outcome is to produce favorable medical outcomes. The recovery after the proposed kidney transplant will demonstrate that the physician's decision is just, fair, and incapable of causing harm to the patient.

Christians: Disease and Wellness

Christians have distinctive perspectives on health and illness. In particular, they believe that sicknesses are a type of punishment designed to bring them closer to their moral practices. This understanding explains why they will ask for divine intervention and rely on their faith to be healed. Medical personnel should be aware of this perspective and concentrate on the most effective means to enhance patients' health experiences (Igboin, 2015). God's blessing of good health is available to those who obey His commands and do what is just.

As a result of their belief that medical experts are a gift from God, many Christians permit medical interventions in their life. They utilize drugs and therapy to document favorable health experiences. However, some beliefs prohibit certain intrusive procedures, including organ transplants and blood giving (Loue, 2020). Some folks concur with their medical professionals to intervene in order to record great health outcomes. In order to build tailored care delivery and treatment strategies for their particular patients, physicians should be aware of these varied perspectives.

In this situation, Mike must achieve a genuine balance between his religious convictions and the realities James is experiencing as a patient. He will regard this information as a means for the engaged doctor to intervene and help save James' life. This method will facilitate the patient's experiences and alleviate his agony. The remarkable observation is that the expert has made a legitimate recommendation that can support James' medical expertise (Igboin, 2015). This information illustrates why Mike should support such a proposal.

The nature of this instance implies that total exclusion of an efficient medical strategy will not be of use to James. Instead, he will continue to suffer and die prematurely despite the presence of a medical procedure supported by evidence. In light of the principle of nonmaleficence, Mike should therefore approve the idea of medical therapy. The incorporation of intervention will enable the physician to provide individualized assistance and direction (Carlin, 2019). Mike will also have another chance to pray and implore God to intervene. This initiative will guarantee that the entire process is successful and capable of achieving the desired healing. In James's care, this decision will hone the ideals of beneficence and nonmaleficence.

Spiritual Needs Evaluation

Mike must undergo a spiritual needs evaluation in order to learn more about the relationship between faith and healing. In order to achieve the goals of a better world, he will investigate a number of suitable medical options. The physician will describe his willingness to remain active, provide the necessary emotional support, and urge family members to participate in the treatment process (Igboin, 2015). This type of evaluation will identify additional religious activities that are appropriate and capable of improving the entire healing process.

With the obtained knowledge, it will be simpler for Mike to appreciate the medical intervention and combine it with prayer. The participation of family members and other practitioners will facilitate the provision of culturally appropriate care. The attendees will understand the significance of bioethics and why doctors are always in the forefront of protecting life. This level of comprehension will enable all parties involved to consider the most effective means of meeting James's medical needs (Carlin, 2019). Therefore, this example gives a methodology based on evidence for guiding individuals when religious and medical expectations appear to conflict, thereby supporting the delivery of favorable health results.

References

Carlin, Nicholas (2019). A theological perspective on principalist bioethics from the perspective of pastoral aesthetics. Oxford Publishing Company.

B. Igboin (2015). Christian perspective on spirituality and medical practice 12(4), pages 199-206, Indian Journal of Medical Ethics. Web.

Loue, S. (2020). Society, religion, and bioethics case studies. Springer.

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Naspers: Investment And Portfolio My Assignment Essay Help London

Table of Contents
Introduction Earnings Reported and Future Prospects ROE and the Key Driver of Earnings Growth Other Ratios Profitability Ratios of Economic Value Added Shares of Naspers Prospects Evaluation Reference List

Introduction

Naspers is a South African corporation engaged in transnational media and operating in the electronic media segment, including satellite and cable pay-TV, internet and instant messaging, and the platforms for the related services.

In addition, its activity relates to printed media and related services, including publishing, distribution, and printing. This paper intends to assess the company's financial statements and provide an analysis of investment opportunities for the company's potential stakeholders from the perspective of the portfolio manager of the Westville High Growth Investment Portfolio (WHGIP). In light of the fact that the company's reported earnings will also be assessed from the perspective of potential investments, in addition to risk analysis, asset turnover, and interest coverage ratios.

Earnings Reported and Future Prospects

The following numbers should be provided initially. The original source of these figures is the official website of the Naspers Group, where data for 2009 is published.

Revenue ($ mil.) 2,746.4

Gross Profit (millions of dollars) 1,354.0

Income from operations ($ million) 581.6

Total Net Income ($ mil.) 356.6

0.73 Diluted EPS (Net Income)

According to reports, the internet part of the operational activities accounts for as much as R 3.8 billion. Initially, this section included the e-commerce operations of Allegro (Eastern Europe) and Ricardo (Western Europe) firms. In light of the fact that Eastern European markets were seeing significant expansion, Naspers had a good potential to boost its operational profits.

The Olympics significantly expanded the multi-media market in Asia, with daily page views reaching one billion and peak concurrent users over 57 million.

The Indian market is represented by Ibibo, one of the main partners of Naspers in Asia. Unfortunately, this organization lacks information on its traffic and financial flow.

Regarding future projects, Naspers will expand its partnership with Russian mail.ru services and invest in the expansion of mail.ru's services and technical foundation.

Pay-TV services contribute one-third of the company's total income. According to the CEO, operating margins decreased.

As a result of the costs associated with growing the subscriber base, rising content expenditures, and increased competition, the cost per subscriber has climbed. In South Africa, advertising sales decreased due to a broad economic downturn. Some content prices are higher across the continent as a result of increased competition (Sutcliffe, 2007).

ROE and the Primary Determinant of Earnings Growth

According to Reuters.com, Naspers Corporation's Return on Equity is 7.56, while the average metrics in the industry are -8.06. Regarding the primary factors influencing the success of a corporation, it should be noted that the expansion of the multimedia market is the most important aspect. While western markets are large and saturated with multimedia services and resources, the markets of Eastern Europe, Asia, and Africa are still devoid of extensive expertise. As a result, Naspers intends to expand its activity in developing markets and invest in potentially lucrative projects such as mail.ru services in the Russian-speaking internet segment. According to Reuters, this investment has generated 44% of the total interest revenue. (Stock Quote, 2009). Consequently, the following growth rates and metrics apply:

Company Business Sector

Sales (MRQ) versus Qtr. 1 Yr. Ago 28.42 1.69 -7.47

Sales (TTM) vs Sales (TTM) One Year Ago 30.08 4.55 -4.15

Sales Growth Rate over Five Years 15.82 8.96 10.87

EPS (MRQ) versus Qtr. 1 Yr. Ago 1.70 -47.75 -40.93

EPS (TTM) vs EPS (TTM) One Year Ago -20.49; —

EPS Growth Rate over 5 Years 38.20 15.01 -3.08

Capital Expenditures – Growth Rate over Five Years 24.86 19.27 12.69

In light of the global financial crisis and the unfavorable industry indications, the growth and investment rates of the Naspers Company look to be quite positive.

Diverse Ratios

Corporation Industry Median Market

7.52 2.61-6.84 Price-to-Sales Ratio

Price-to-Earnings Ratio: 34.84 (172.41) = 24.88

Price-to-Book Ratio, 2.76 to 4.56 to 6.58

45.45 10.94 42.55 Price/Cash Flow Ratio

These financial ratios describe the dynamics of the company's growth and can be used to evaluate future development risks. The fact is that the risks connected with increasing multimedia are related to its technical problems.

The financial risks, however, which are managed by the risk management team, appear to be moderate. Liquidity risks necessitate the preservation of sufficient cash and marketable securities, which are accessible for the funding components by way of a sufficient quantity of committed credit. Regarding the context of the company's affiliation, no practical constraints should be placed on the company's borrowing ability. It is important to note that the corporation has the following unused banking facilities on March 31, 2008 and March 31, 2007:

2008

R'000 2007

R’000

On-call 1 482 090 252 200

Within the next 12 months 18 439 1 554 539

beyond a year's duration 909 664 –

2 410 193 1 806 739

Profit Ratios

For a proper examination of the industrial segment and a correct evaluation of the ratios linked with the prices in the markets, the earnings ratios require the definition of the market. This information is essential for calculating the price-earnings ratios, as the market value primarily represents market determination. Originally, the price-earnings and price-book ratios were included in the report's "other ratios" segment. On the basis of these data, it can be claimed that the investment climate appears to be quite positive, since the ratios indicate the company's continued expansion.

As the company is increasing steadily, however, the investment share will be rather large; accordingly, stakeholders should not anticipate inexpensive activities and speedy growth. Because the ratios are based on the entire market value per share, it should be mentioned that the investment environment's overall ratios appear to be positive. However, stakeholders and investors should not anticipate speedy returns, since the corporation will make expensive investments in the development of media markets in Eastern Europe and Asia.

Economic Value Added

Generally speaking, the costs associated with value-added stem from market expansion and project development. Thus, the most expensive ventures, such as Tencent and Sportscn.com, account for up to 80% of the Naspers Company's investment rates. According to the report by Naspers Group (2009):

"Internet value-added services serve as the primary foundation for Tencent's user community. The heart of Tencent's Internet value-added service platform is instant messaging. QQ is a comprehensive service platform that uses instant messaging and other value-added services to build an online community.

In addition, Tencent is making long-term investments to develop IM solutions for China's businesses by leveraging its technical knowledge. Since a result, the Economic Value Added will increase, as the projects will necessitate a greater investment inflow.

Naspers Inc. shares have a market capitalization of

Initially, it is difficult to determine whether Naspers Company's values or shares are overvalued or undervalued. As the multimedia industry is one of the most stable or rapidly growing (depending on the geographic region) industries in the world, security analysis that employs this type of business evaluation is ineffective here. The only exception is the large investment insurance for the mail.ru project, as it is a portal with a stable readership that is constantly expanding.

Analysis of the Situation

The investment projection, which should be based on the presented information, should underline that the investment climate is sufficiently favorable for market growth and an increase in investment in general. Consequently, the acquisition of ordinary shares of Naspers Ltd will not result in a loss. However, there is no need to wait for a stable and speedy income, since the company's ratios are relatively high while the industry's ratios look to be negative.

Bibliography

Braczyk, H., Fuchs, G., & Wolf, H. (Eds.). (2007). (2007). Multimedia and Regional Economic Restructuring. Routledge, London

Johnson, B. A., Ott, J. H., Stephenson, J. M., & Weberg, P. K. (2005). Banking on Multimedia. The McKinsey Quarterly, volume 2, page 94.

Naspers group Directors' Report to Shareholders (2009). Financial statements. Web.

The Internet operations of Naspers Group in Africa, China, and Thailand in 2009. Web.

(2009) Naspers Limited (NPNJq.L) Stock Quote (London Stock Exchange). Reuters. Web.

M. Simkins, K. Cole, F. Tavalin, and B. Means (2006). Enhancing Student Learning with Multimedia Projects Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, Virginia.

A. Sutcliffe (2007). Creating Multisensory User Interfaces for Multimedia and Virtual Reality Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.

A. Zegeye and R. L. Harris (Eds). (2008). Post-Apartheid South Africa's Media, Identity, and Public Sphere Brill, headquartered in Boston.

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Saudi Arabia And Its Vision 2030 My Assignment Essay Help London

Vision 2030 is Saudi Arabia's long-term strategy to enhance the nation's strengths and capabilities. The objective is to diversify economic capacities, generate new employment possibilities for individuals, and enhance the quality of government services. It is based on the country's strategic geographic location and its investment capacity. In a nutshell, Saudi Arabia's development policy aims to make the kingdom more stable and independent from global markets, and to improve the lives of its citizens in every way feasible.

The initial progress in Saudi Arabia is tied to the strengthening of the national identity. It encompasses topics such as goods and services, investment, and society, and influences how other nations perceive Saudi Arabia. According to Brand Finance's annual report, the value of the country's brand increased by 19% in 2017, or $93 billion ("Vision 2030 Boosts Saudi Arabia's Nation," 2017, paragraph 1).

These outcomes would boost international investment and attract international entrepreneurs and visitors. As evidenced by the principles, the policy of diversifying the Saudi economy, enhancing the social environment, and promoting tourism is extremely advantageous for the country's reputation internationally. Therefore, the implementation of Vision 2030 helps to the improvement of Saudi Arabia and its residents' future.

Saudi Arabia's continued development, based on the national brand hexagon model, is supported by three basic pillars. They include people, tourism, exports, culture and heritage, investment and immigration, and government. The first pillar of its Vision is the country's position as a hub for the Arab and Islamic worlds. The religious character of Saudi Arabia is expressed in the concept of preserving and accumulating Allah the Almighty's bounty.

The second pillar of the Vision indicates Saudi Arabia's goal to become a worldwide investment leader by stimulating its economy through the use of investment skills and expanding the country's revenue streams. Lastly, the third pillar refers to the establishment of robust ties with Asia, Europe, and Africa.

As a result, Saudi Arabia would become the hub of international commerce ("Economic Data & Reports", 2016). The implementation of these three steps or pillars is predicated on Saudi Arabia's abundant natural resources and rich minerals. It seeks to provide its younger generations with a brighter future.

The execution of Vision 2030 attracts several international stakeholders and investment. The goal is to grow foreign direct investment to 5.7% of GDP by 2030 ("Saudi Vision 2030," 2019, p.52). Currently, foreign direct investment accounts for 3.8% of GDP. The purpose of the public investment fund program is to achieve this objective.

The anticipated rise and diversity of economic activity in Saudi Arabia's strategic sectors contribute to the expansion of international investments. Consequently, the primary goals of the investment fund program are the increase of the public investment fund's assets, the entry into new markets, and the exploration of varied economic sectors. For this goal, localization of edge technologies and expertise is required, and this stage is also included in the program.

The implementation of the program for the public investment fund will help improve socioeconomic conditions. For instance, one of the anticipated results of program implementation is the creation of 20,000 direct jobs for Saudi nationals ("Economic Data & Reports", 2016). However, for the success of the initiative, more international investors are required. By 2030, total shareholder return would reach 4-5%.

Reuters reported that foreign investment in Saudi Arabia reached $3.5 billion in 2018 ("Foreign investment in Saudi Arabia," 2018). In this regard, it can be inferred that the implementation of the public investment fund program, together with the steady rise of economic indicators, would result in increased profits for stakeholders and investors by 2030, as well as the creation of new jobs for Saudi nationals.

Several reforms are scheduled to be implemented throughout the next decade. However, the majority of them pertain to the social and economic aspects of life. The strategic reformation of Saudi Aramco in order to make it a leader in other industries, not just oil extraction, is one of the primary economic programs.

The assessment of the economic impact of capital expenditures for the diversification of revenues from a variety of enterprises, as part of the fiscal balance program, is an additional action done for the economic prosperity of the nation. As for social reforms, its primary objective is to increase government assistance for the development of the people's abilities and the efficiency of the civil service under the human capital program ("Economic Data & Reports," 2016).

In the meantime, complementary projects are being developed in order to accomplish Saudi Arabia's sustainable development until 2030. Providing greater possibilities to the country's population and diversifying the Saudi economy by accessing new markets remain the top priorities.

Recent modifications to Saudi Arabia's economic policies have resulted in the creation of multiple opportunities and, consequently, an increase in the country's appeal to foreign investors and businesspeople. Alper Celen was one of the first individuals to enter the Saudi business even before the commencement of its global development, and his foray into the market has been profitable. Currently, he is a founding partner of the holding company Enhance and a co-founder and co-CEO of the online presents marketplace joi (Megha, 2019).

He is among many who have benefited from joining the Saudi market and securing Saudi financing for his ventures. Despite the challenges of being foreign pioneers on the Saudi market, he is pleased to have made this decision in the past and considers it incredibly advantageous for his firm.

As a result of the government's implementation of Vision 2030, the situation for international entrepreneurs is now improving, and it is now simpler for them to enter the Saudi market. In addition to the primary development programs, a series of government initiatives help the process. Among them are licensing options for new firms and funding channels for small and medium-sized businesses.

Monshaat, the Saudi general authority, strives to eliminate administrative, regulatory, and informational barriers that restrict market access. In addition to providing training and mentoring, it offers a variety of other services (Megha, 2019). Therefore, Vision 2030 programs and related government measures provide a more favorable environment for emerging companies on the Saudi market.

References

Economic Data & Reports (2016). Embassy and Consulates of the United States in Saudi Arabia. Web.

Foreign investment in Saudi Arabia increased in 2018, according to the minister (2018). Reuters. Web.

Megha, M. (2019). Why Saudi Arabia is increasingly viewed as a prime location for launching a business in the Middle East. Entrepreneur. Web.

Saudi Vision 2030. (2019). Vision 2030. Web.

Vision 2030 increases the value of Saudi Arabia's national brand (2017). CIC – Saudi Arabia. Web.

[supanova question]

Saudi Arabia And Its Vision 2030 My Assignment Essay Help London

Vision 2030 is Saudi Arabia's long-term strategy to enhance the nation's strengths and capabilities. The objective is to diversify economic capacities, generate new employment possibilities for individuals, and enhance the quality of government services. It is based on the country's strategic geographic location and its investment capacity. In a nutshell, Saudi Arabia's development policy aims to make the kingdom more stable and independent from global markets, and to improve the lives of its citizens in every way feasible.

The initial progress in Saudi Arabia is tied to the strengthening of the national identity. It encompasses topics such as goods and services, investment, and society, and influences how other nations perceive Saudi Arabia. According to Brand Finance's annual report, the value of the country's brand increased by 19% in 2017, or $93 billion ("Vision 2030 Boosts Saudi Arabia's Nation," 2017, paragraph 1).

These outcomes would boost international investment and attract international entrepreneurs and visitors. As evidenced by the principles, the policy of diversifying the Saudi economy, enhancing the social environment, and promoting tourism is extremely advantageous for the country's reputation internationally. Therefore, the implementation of Vision 2030 helps to the improvement of Saudi Arabia and its residents' future.

Saudi Arabia's continued development, based on the national brand hexagon model, is supported by three basic pillars. They include people, tourism, exports, culture and heritage, investment and immigration, and government. The first pillar of its Vision is the country's position as a hub for the Arab and Islamic worlds. The religious character of Saudi Arabia is expressed in the concept of preserving and accumulating Allah the Almighty's bounty.

The second pillar of the Vision indicates Saudi Arabia's goal to become a worldwide investment leader by stimulating its economy through the use of investment skills and expanding the country's revenue streams. Lastly, the third pillar refers to the establishment of robust ties with Asia, Europe, and Africa.

As a result, Saudi Arabia would become the hub of international commerce ("Economic Data & Reports", 2016). The implementation of these three steps or pillars is predicated on Saudi Arabia's abundant natural resources and rich minerals. It seeks to provide its younger generations with a brighter future.

The execution of Vision 2030 attracts several international stakeholders and investment. The goal is to grow foreign direct investment to 5.7% of GDP by 2030 ("Saudi Vision 2030," 2019, p.52). Currently, foreign direct investment accounts for 3.8% of GDP. The purpose of the public investment fund program is to achieve this objective.

The anticipated rise and diversity of economic activity in Saudi Arabia's strategic sectors contribute to the expansion of international investments. Consequently, the primary goals of the investment fund program are the increase of the public investment fund's assets, the entry into new markets, and the exploration of varied economic sectors. For this goal, localization of edge technologies and expertise is required, and this stage is also included in the program.

The implementation of the program for the public investment fund will help improve socioeconomic conditions. For instance, one of the anticipated results of program implementation is the creation of 20,000 direct jobs for Saudi nationals ("Economic Data & Reports", 2016). However, for the success of the initiative, more international investors are required. By 2030, total shareholder return would reach 4-5%.

Reuters reported that foreign investment in Saudi Arabia reached $3.5 billion in 2018 ("Foreign investment in Saudi Arabia," 2018). In this regard, it can be inferred that the implementation of the public investment fund program, together with the steady rise of economic indicators, would result in increased profits for stakeholders and investors by 2030, as well as the creation of new jobs for Saudi nationals.

Several reforms are scheduled to be implemented throughout the next decade. However, the majority of them pertain to the social and economic aspects of life. The strategic reformation of Saudi Aramco in order to make it a leader in other industries, not just oil extraction, is one of the primary economic programs.

The assessment of the economic impact of capital expenditures for the diversification of revenues from a variety of enterprises, as part of the fiscal balance program, is an additional action done for the economic prosperity of the nation. As for social reforms, its primary objective is to increase government assistance for the development of the people's abilities and the efficiency of the civil service under the human capital program ("Economic Data & Reports," 2016).

In the meantime, complementary projects are being developed in order to accomplish Saudi Arabia's sustainable development until 2030. Providing greater possibilities to the country's population and diversifying the Saudi economy by accessing new markets remain the top priorities.

Recent modifications to Saudi Arabia's economic policies have resulted in the creation of multiple opportunities and, consequently, an increase in the country's appeal to foreign investors and businesspeople. Alper Celen was one of the first individuals to enter the Saudi business even before the commencement of its global development, and his foray into the market has been profitable. Currently, he is a founding partner of the holding company Enhance and a co-founder and co-CEO of the online presents marketplace joi (Megha, 2019).

He is among many who have benefited from joining the Saudi market and securing Saudi financing for his ventures. Despite the challenges of being foreign pioneers on the Saudi market, he is pleased to have made this decision in the past and considers it incredibly advantageous for his firm.

As a result of the government's implementation of Vision 2030, the situation for international entrepreneurs is now improving, and it is now simpler for them to enter the Saudi market. In addition to the primary development programs, a series of government initiatives help the process. Among them are licensing options for new firms and funding channels for small and medium-sized businesses.

Monshaat, the Saudi general authority, strives to eliminate administrative, regulatory, and informational barriers that restrict market access. In addition to providing training and mentoring, it offers a variety of other services (Megha, 2019). Therefore, Vision 2030 programs and related government measures provide a more favorable environment for emerging companies on the Saudi market.

References

Economic Data & Reports (2016). Embassy and Consulates of the United States in Saudi Arabia. Web.

Foreign investment in Saudi Arabia increased in 2018, according to the minister (2018). Reuters. Web.

Megha, M. (2019). Why Saudi Arabia is increasingly viewed as a prime location for launching a business in the Middle East. Entrepreneur. Web.

Saudi Vision 2030. (2019). Vision 2030. Web.

Vision 2030 increases the value of Saudi Arabia's national brand (2017). CIC – Saudi Arabia. Web.

[supanova question]

5HRF – Managing And Coordinating The Human Resources Function My Assignment Essay Help London

Table of Contents
Abstract Introduction to the HR Business Partner Strategy Utilizing Internal Benchmarking KPIs Reference List

Abstract

Human resources (HR) are often considered an organization's most valuable asset for good reason. Once employees are motivated, enthusiastic, and willing to connect with the company's goals, considerable quality and efficiency gains in their performance are possible. Thus, understanding how HR objectives can be applied in organizations will aid in the development of an efficient HR management system. This paper will examine some of the most important strategies for developing and enhancing the HR function in a firm.

Introduction

For a firm to function effectively in the global economy and increase its competitive advantage, it must pay great attention to the tactics chosen for managing its human resources function. Depending on how a firm chooses to manage its employees, the outcome can be either a phenomenal success or an untimely and permanent failure. To implement an efficient HR strategy, a firm must be aware of the essential HR functions that must be implemented in the corporate environment. In the contemporary business environment, the essential HR functions can be simplified to eight major ones (see Fig. 1 below).

Figure 1. HR Functions.

The organizational objectives that must coincide with the HR function are typically categorized as organizational, functional, personal, and societal. Thus, the HR function is accountable for the development of a company's performance by raising employees' motivation and, consequently, their potential as company members (Banfield et al., 2018).

The recruitment portion of the HR function is crucial to its capacity to achieve organizational goals, particularly those linked with the need to deliver the required quality and rate of performance. During the recruitment process, an HR manager must apply the tools and strategies that enable them to discover the individuals who possess the required set of talents and are the greatest fit for a particular job role (see Fig. 2).

Figure 2: HR Tools & Techniques.

The motivational factor is inextricably linked to the issue of staff members' professional growth and the provision of innovative and valuable opportunities to acquire new skills and essential knowledge. The defined aspect of the HR function is also linked to the organizational objectives of enhancing a company's performance and competitive edge. Moreover, the level to which employees are motivated is strongly dependent on the leadership strategy a manager employs in the organizational context.

(Banfield et al., 2018) Conventionally, the Transformational Leadership approach is regarded as the one that maximizes employee motivation due to the presence of a clear example, the appeal to employees' personal needs and goals, and the incorporation of a philosophy centered on professional development and growth (see Fig. 3).

Transformational Leadership Framework Diagram.

In line with this, the adoption of successful training approaches should be considered a crucial element of an organization's HR function. As an HR manager, one's responsibility is to ensure that the level of employees' abilities and skills conforms to the organization's and industry's quality standards and criteria (Banfield et al., 2018). Therefore, with the assistance of the HR department, the firm must implement suitable training strategies.

Moreover, the HR function is inextricably linked to the purpose of research, which is often viewed as the vehicle for the organization's development and the instrument for establishing its competitive edge in a given industry's environment. In turn, a suitable HR strategy selection enables an HR manager to ensure that a firm evolves and develops the appropriate amount of potential to keep its ability to compete in the target market.

When examining examples of organizational goals and expectations that the HR function is expected to accomplish, it may be useful to study recruitment, retention, and talent management in greater detail. It is crucial for a business to hire skilled employees who are willing to contribute to its growth. In addition, it is vital to ensure staff loyalty and retention, which will necessitate profound, inspiring leadership and incentives. Lastly, it is the responsibility of the HR department to promote the professional development of employees and to encourage them to explore their skills within the firm.

The evolution of personnel management, recruitment, and retention has also been pretty amazing. Specifically, the emphasis on people as an organization's most valuable asset and the willingness to invest in human capital might be seen as the most significant advancements.

Consequently, the HR function had to adapt by modifying the existing set of tactics and approaches and implementing new ones. Although the incorporation of novel technology may be the feature of the observed change that stands out most to side observers, the promotion of the change's acceptability has required the most effort.

Change cannot be viewed as a separate entity inside the context of an organization; rather, it must be viewed as a part of the company's perpetual cycle. To execute the HR role effectively and establish an atmosphere that is highly supportive of an innovation-driven culture, it is necessary to have a firm grasp of the major theories of change. Therefore, a manager of human resources must understand the key theories of change that can be implemented inside an organization.

Despite the frequency with which new models of organizational change develop, four basic frameworks have emerged as the acknowledged theories of organizational change. Lewin's Change Management Model, Kotter's change management theory, the McKinsey 7 S Model, and the ADKAR Theory are examples (Banfield et al., 2018).

Each of the aforementioned theories has a well-established position within the current corporate management framework. It is important to note that none of the theories should be viewed as inherently superior, as each may be applicable to a particular organizational context based on the situation and features of a company.

The aforementioned theories are implemented by isolating the primary goals that a company seeks to achieve, reviewing the current organizational environment to identify important issues, assessing the HR strategies utilized to handle the described problems, and identifying the key change milestones. Then, the method for implementing change is identified and integrated into the corporate framework, if necessary altering the performance and behaviors of staff members as well as their attitudes.

The theories by Kotter and McKinsey are the universal approaches that are most frequently utilized in the current organizational setting, if one focuses on the ideas that are used most frequently in the corporate world. Kotter's 8-Step Model suggests the following stages of change: creating urgency, developing a team, creating a vision, communicating it, empowering staff for action, creating short-term wins as milestones, following up, and ensuring that changes are institutionalized within the organization (Banfield et al., 2018). (see Fig. 4).

As opposed to Kotter's Model, McKinsey's approach to change management includes a lower number of components, which are presented as concepts rather than as a call to action. The key notion of McKinsey's Model is the structure, systems, style, staff, skills, strategy, and shared values (Banfield et al., 2018). The proposed paradigm for change management permits the incorporation of change into the corporate value system.

Figure 4. Kotter's 8-Step Model.

Applying the change models discussed above to the organizational environment reveals that both frameworks function pretty effectively when applied to the proper circumstances. Specifically, Kotter's 8-Step Model is ideal for altering the organizational philosophy and providing new value, which is essential for adjusting to a new environment (Banfield et al., 2018).

Specifically, AT&T's case demonstrates that the transition to a new model of collaboration must come as a natural development from the current fragmented framework to a more coherent strategy. However, McKinsey's Model also works to institutionalize and regulate change by integrating organizational initiatives under an unified philosophy (see Fig. 5).

Figure 5: The McKinsey Change Model.

The requirement to boost employee motivation, engagement, and loyalty is an example of a shift in a company that may necessitate the implementation of the aforementioned two models. Staff members are likely to oppose the stated change, making its implementation highly challenging. In accordance with the McKinsey Model, the corporate values must be restructured so as to permit a focus on the demands of all stakeholders, including employees.

The associated system modifications will necessitate adopting a new strategy for allocating financial resources in order to offer employees a broader choice of benefits and incentives. In turn, the style component of McKinsey's Model will need a shift to a more effective leadership framework, which in the aforementioned scenario might be represented as Transformational Leadership (Banfield et al., 2018). The emphasis on personnel will necessitate changing the current framework for talent management, thereby encouraging people to acquire new skills. Lastly, a change in the approach for managing organizational relationships will serve to connect all of the previously outlined modifications to the shared value framework.

The requirement for a well-developed change management model is necessitated by the growth in quality, which is another significant organizational change that a company is likely to require in the current business environment. Specifically, a corporation could specify as a change-related objective a reduction in the number of faults per batch of items. Applying Kotter's 8-Step Model requires SMART objectives (see Fig. 6 below).

Figure 6. SMART Goals.

The establishment of the given objectives must adhere to a leader-created agenda. The suggested actions will correlate to stages 1-3 of Kotter's model, including defining the issue's urgency, assembling a team, and articulating a vision. In turn, the objectives of developing buy-in and articulating a vision can be performed by overcoming resistance to change with incentives and establishing a variety of performance-related quality criteria that employees must meet.

To establish the platform for the organizational philosophy, one may need to consider the tools for promoting corporate social responsibility as part of implementing the transformation. The indicated action will also facilitate the transition to the eighth stage of Kotter's model, which entails consolidating the company's performance criteria.

In business, it is impossible to understate the significance of ethics and fairness. Although justice and fairness as components of business contacts are frequently viewed as naive depictions of corporate relationships, they are, in reality, essential to the effective management of an organization.

The described principle also applies to the HR function, suggesting that, as an HR manager, one must align one's decision-making with the ethical norms and values upon which a firm is managed. In addition, it is the job of the HR manager to address issues with the company's ethical framework and create a safe environment in which employees may collaborate and perform most efficiently (see Fig. 7).

Figure 7: Element of Human Resource Ethics.

The importance of focusing on justice when addressing HRM issues is heightened by the fact that it contributes to the creation of a corporate climate in which employees are inclined to accept corporate values, approach their workplace responsibilities responsibly, and concentrate on enhancing their performance and advancing the company's progress. In other words, an HRM policy focused on fairness, justice, and stakeholder-oriented ethics will enhance workplace motivation (Banfield et al., 2018). Thus, an HR manager's contribution to the establishment of corporate ethics and its support is substantial.

Alongside a rise in employee motivation, staff loyalty is likely to increase. According to studies, firms whose HR function is founded on the strict principles of equity and business ethics get the most amazing results (Banfield et al., 2018). According to the research, the tendency toward fairness and justice during the screening of job candidates is greatly valued.

Specifically, Konradt et al. (2017) remark on page 8: "Fair selection procedures should serve as important signals to applicants about how they can expect to be treated after being hired." Consequently, with the adoption of notions of fairness and justice, an HR manager can initiate trust-based relationships with employees and the steady growth of their loyalty from the very beginning of their integration into the organizational environment (see Fig. 8).

Figure 8: Variation in HR Function Across Organizations.

Aside from the recruitment and selection phases of implementing the HR function, an HR manager must also act properly and professionally to guarantee that employees are motivated and inclined to trust the organization. The growth in employee motivation prompted by a company's emphasis on fairness, honesty, and justice is also likely to result in a readiness to gain new professional abilities and contribute to the company's advancement. Thus, the promotion of fairness and justice paves the way for the introduction of training alternatives and encourages employees to take use of their possibilities to develop a new or enhanced skill set (see Fig. 9).

The HR role is contingent on a variety of external and internal elements, with the company's size being an insignificant example of the latter. Different HRM methods must be used in the organizational context based on a company's size and objectives. Several HRM models must be taken into account when establishing the tools for defining staff members within an organizational environment. Specifically, four key HRM models, namely the Fombrun, Harvard, Guest, and Warwick models, are identified as the core concepts for managing personnel.

Each reflects a distinct strategy for addressing employee-related concerns within the context of the organization. Nevertheless, all models appear to concur that maintaining high employee motivation enables a business to grow and creates the environment for incremental innovation and continuous quality improvement.

Depending on the selected model, the HR function may emphasize individual well-being (Fomburn) (see Fig. 10), the search for the connection between key stakeholders (the Harvard Model) (see Fig. 11), the alignment of HRM strategies with the corporate perspective (Guest) (see Fig. 12), and the emphasis on internal and external factors (Warwick) (see Fig. 13). Consequently, depending on the chosen model, the HR function may be slanted toward either of the aforementioned ideas.

The Fomburn Model is displayed in Figure 10. The Harvard Model, as depicted in Figure 11. The Guest Model, as shown in Figure 12. Figure 13 illustrates the Warwick Model.

To comprehend how the HR role differs based on the company's size, consider the following.

Negotiation And Conflict Resolution My Assignment Essay Help London

Table of Contents
The process of negotiating and the nature of conflicts Sources of authority Negotiation moral principles Bibliography

The process of negotiating and the nature of conflicts

Integration of defusing technique requires reaching an agreement with the other side without compromising individual core values. Given that there are disparities between individuals, the approach of diffusion is effective. This will assist in establishing peace between the parties, thereby laying a solid foundation for conflict resolution (Barker & Angelopulo, 2005).

This involves perceiving the conflict in the same way as the opposing party. This is a vital activity because it gives the other party confidence that he or she is being heard. The consequent consequence is an improvement in negotiating communication feedback.

Exploration entails asking penetrating inquiries about the opposing party's perspective on the conflicting subject. Exploration also involves ensuring that the other party expresses their whole thoughts (Donna, 2010).

Stroking requires displaying a good attitude toward the other party, such as by speaking positively about the individual (Donna, 2010).

Sources of authority

Coercive power refers to a person's ability to punish another individual by numerous measures, such as firing, removal of privileges, reprimand, or demotion from his or her current position within an organization. This source of power is essential for conflict resolution since parties will be terrified of the potential repercussions (Donna, 2010).

Legitimate power – This refers to the power that an authority grants to an individual. This authority grants the individual the legal authority to provide certain directives. In conflict resolution, legitimate authority is effective because parties are obligated to comply with directives. However, neither coercive nor lawful power is necessarily effective in resolving conflicts through negotiation. This is because the persons involved may be unwilling to divulge information.

Information power comprises a person's ability to access critical information that can strengthen the negotiation process. The power of information is effective in conflict resolution. This is because the effectiveness of dispute resolution is contingent on the available facts. However, if the information obtained is biased, information power may not be effective. This may lead to an inadequate resolution of the conflict.

Referent power – This power is derived from a person's ability to command power as a result of his or her characteristics. This form of power is beneficial in conflict resolution because both parties have faith in the one serving as the mediator. However, this form of power may not be effective because not all parties involved may support an individual's efforts at reconciliation.

Because they have the capacity to reward, lawful and coercive power sources are the most effective in dispute resolution.

Negotiation moral principles

A company's success is heavily reliant on its ethical standards. This is because it might help a company to instill its ideals in its business partners. The team of negotiators will evaluate the following ethical principles:

Discussing the benefits that Wal-Mart will receive by carrying the company's items. Prioritize the benefits of the business's partners over the firm's wants and demands. Listening to the opposing party's argument rather than showcasing the company's ego. This can be accomplished by actively listening and evaluating their viewpoint. Individual ideals should be removed from the negotiation process. The team should prioritize the organization's objectives.

These rules will ensure the success of the process, so enhancing the company's capacity to achieve a significant competitive advantage.

Bibliography

Barker, R. & Angelopulo, G. (2005). Integrated organizational communication. New York: Juta Company.

Donna, B. (2010).

Interpersonal conflict and effective communication.

Web.

[supanova question]

The Importance Of Leadership And Management In Business Development My Assignment Essay Help London

Introduction

The terms leadership and management are commonly used interchangeably inside any business. Leadership and management, on the other hand, describe two completely distinct notions. In spite of this, this article will address the distinction between leadership and management, as well as the explanation for their having the same or similar features.

Review of the literature on Management and Leadership

In modern commercial or industrial enterprises and the people that comprise them, “management” is generally viewed as the concept and strategy implemented for an organization's efficiency and success. Moreover, in order for a firm to emerge, be financially stable, and operate effectively, the key management and leadership skills must be fully comprehended.

Nonetheless, if these core abilities are tackled in a competent manner, the organization will be able to oversee and manage its employees in crisis conditions where the business must grow at all costs. In addition, the fundamental skills required for the management and leadership of an organization are: (1) finding a solution to a problem and making a decision; (2) developing a plan for a specific course of action; (3) a formally scheduled meeting with management; (4) granting subordinates the authority to make certain decisions; (5) communication; and (6) self-control.

Nonetheless, these competencies also serve as the foundation for the development of a more refined conventional mode of operation or behavior in the management and leadership of a company. Despite the tremendous interest in the growth of managers and leaders and the abundance of study conducted over the past few decades, the issue remains open to examination, with unsettling concerns still unanswered.

Nevertheless, management development plans are frequently employed as a method to reduce discriminatory attitudes and diversity in businesses; yet, it is not uncommon for such development to actually exacerbate inequity in the workplace.

All of this suggests that at least a portion of the relevance of management and leadership development may not rest in its performance impact or personal utility. Perhaps the influence of such activities has more to do with the manner in which scarce resources are allocated, corporate messages are disseminated, the orientation that characterizes the thinking of a group or nation and ethical stances are reinforced or undermined, and management identities are forged.

Leadership is a component of administration

As an attribute, body of knowledge, or skill, leadership is one of the helpful or important traits a manager must possess. However, thorough analysis is required to differentiate between leadership and management.

The primary objective of a manager is to maximize the production of an organization through managerial strategy. To achieve this, however, managers in all businesses must assume the following responsibilities:

organisation establishing recruitment conducting or leading Influence (others or oneself) deftly, typically to one's benefit

With these functions, leadership may be assessed as one of the fundamental components of an organization's successful performance. In addition, a manager must possess conventional authority to effectively and successfully lead a company. For any new problem-solving program or strategy to acquire control, the organization's top management must be well-connected and worthy of imitation. This obligation cannot be transferred to another individual. (Daniel 1994).

In some conditions that accompany or impact an organization's event or activity, leadership is unnecessary. Self-motivated groups, for instance, do not necessarily require a leader, although they may learn that leaders are in control. The assertion that a leader is not always required demonstrates that leadership is merely a useful or important human communicative and interaction trait and is not of the utmost significance.

Divergences in opinions

Managers think incrementally through regular increments or additions, whereas leaders think radically. According to Richard Pascale's book Managing on the Edge, managers are responsible for doing the right things, whereas leaders are responsible for doing the right things. ” (Richard,1990, p.65). This indicates that managers adhere to business policy and written principles, whereas leaders rely on their own intuitive knowledge (without the use of rational procedures), which can be advantageous to the success and growth of an organization. Additionally, leaders are more emotionally driven or motivated than managers. The available workforce is controlled by their emotions rather than their capacity to learn; to comprehend and profit from experience (John, 1990, p.113). This snippet demonstrates why the working team prefers leaders.

Leaders are characterized by their varied qualities. They are openly distrustful and unwilling to confide in specific, long-standing practices; they doubt a statement that is assumed to be accurate and from which a conclusion can be formed, and they are unwilling to confide in such practices. They seek conformance to reality or actually and draw conclusions based on the truth, rather than bias (John, 1990, p.113).

Subordinate role within the Leadership

Frequently, in groups with an average number of members, it is lower-ranking members with particular talent and skills in human resource management that lead the group towards attaining its objectives and ensuring the organization's success.

Daniel F. Predpall emphasized that leaders must execute the fundamentals of managing and dealing with an organization's people resource. Daniel's principles are strategy, values, vision, and purpose (Daniel, 1994). Nonetheless, it is important to highlight that if a person with a lesser rank becomes the leader of an organization with a manager, an open conflict may ensue owing to their divergent perspectives on events.

Fidelity

Labour groups inside an organization are more loyal to their leader than the managers; thus, this loyalty is fostered by a leader who accepts blame in times of crisis, places a high social value on group accomplishment, and appreciates the workers.

John Fenton (1990) defined a leader as a person who must comprehend and bring out the success of a cooperative unit through the use of a graphical depiction of the relationships between particular numbers plotted in relation to a set of axes, along with innovative concepts (John, 1990, p.114).

He added that leaders are sensitive and conscious individuals who are familiar with their team and boost their collective self-confidence (John, 1990, p.113).

The Distinction Between Leaders and Supervisors

A leader is a person who naturally directs a team, as determined by the team's choosing, whereas the team must be subservient to managers. Regarding this, the manager was able to acquire this height or position due to his lengthy service and commitment, but not because of his important and distinguishing leadership quality. Interestingly, a leader may lack the fundamental abilities of human resource management, yet his vision fosters cooperation among his lower-ranking colleagues.

Management Roles

In most situations, management consists of experts in their respective fields who grasp the methodological aspects of leadership in the management of an organization.

In conclusion, the distinction between leadership and management consists of:

Leadership is establishing new management and vision for an organization's team, whereas a leader is the individual in charge of the vision or management to achieve success. Management decides or directs people/resources in an organization's labor force in accordance with predetermined values or concepts.

The distinction between leadership and management can be understood by examining their interdependent nature.

Researchers discovered that leadership without management establishes a systematized practical approach for the workforce without taking into account the techniques for achieving such an approach. On the other side, management without leadership allocates resources to maintain the status quo, ensuring that the organization's operations are in conformity with its previous plans.

The mutual combination of leadership and management generates innovative proposals for a choice or future course of action and manages the necessary resources to implement them.

Conclusion

In conclusion, in rare instances leaders function as figureheads without any directed innovation; this is not leadership per se, but the individual who acts in this fashion would be considered a leader.

In addition, the fields of management and leadership represent two distinct approaches to human resource and organizational management. However, the manager employs a known form and rotational method of approach, whereas leaders use intense emotion or feeling to stimulate the team's productivity.

Leadership involves initiating new direction or helpful suggestions regarding decisions or future course of action for a group of individuals within an organization, whereas management involves demonstrating the managerial way by conducting or leading and the ability to control or determine policy based on traditional principles. Nonetheless, any individual in an organization might be considered a figurative leader if they appear to be the head of an autonomous group.

In addition, the process of developing culture is the defining characteristic of leadership. Leadership and culture are nonetheless two sides of the same coin. Leadership differs from management in that leaders build and alter cultures, whereas managers and administrators live within them.

Lastly, if a leader is interested in making an organization great, he or she must extend his or her perception and positive reception of how current organization life has not advanced in tandem with the increased understanding of how an effective company might be managed.

Consequently, regardless of the quality of their objectives, many CEOs continue to dominate their firms using antiquated mindsets. Executives would benefit from thorough forethought to reflect on and define their personal philosophy towards organizational leadership, as well as to describe what they seek.

References

Daniel, F. P (1994). Journal of Management in Engineering, pp. 30-31, "Developing Quality Improvement Processes In Consulting Engineering Firms"

John, F. (1990). "101 Ways to Improve the Performance of Your Business." Mandarin Business, London.

P. Richard, "Managing on the Edge," 1990. Penguin Book, New York, New York.

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Learning Function In Organization Design My Assignment Essay Help London

Table of Contents
Introduction Historical and Theoretical Foundations of Organisation Design Design Alternatives Functions of Organisational Culture and Training Recommendations and Conclusion on the Importance of the HR Role References Appendix A

Introduction

The primary objective of organization design activities is to ensure that managers deploy only the most efficient structures to facilitate relationships and interactions between units and departments, with the emphasis on defining staff roles and responsibilities. The experience of one of the main oil and gas firms in terms of supporting organization design and executing associated changes in the training function must be thoroughly analyzed. The issue is that the company chosen for this case study did not achieve exceptional success in establishing its organization design. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the organization design of the chosen company, evaluate design alternatives for the training function, examine organizational culture, examine the role of human resource management, and provide recommendations for improving the organization design of the chosen company.

The company chosen for analysis is a leader in the oil and gas industry and is located in the Middle East. The enterprise was created in the 1970s in response to the region's increasing oil output. The establishment of the corporation contributed to the economic growth of the country in which it is based. Currently, the country produces 3 million barrels of oil per day in addition to petrochemicals and other petroleum products. The organization is committed to continuous development and expansion of its operations. In 2017, a new purpose, vision, and strategic objectives until 2030 were created with an emphasis on adopting new organizational paradigms and constructing an efficient and lean organization in order to modernize the organization's design. The company’s mission is to promote the nation and uncover the potential of its natural and people resources, according to its vision statement. According to its objective, the organization is performance-driven, invests in people, and optimizes resource utilization.

Human resources have a direct impact on the success of the company's operations, hence human capital (HC) plays an important role in the business. In addition, the corporation has numerous subsidiaries, and communication between them and headquarters (HQ) has to be well-organized. Managers lacked standardization in their operations and documentation, communication routes, and rules, and considerable departmental obstacles existed. To address existing problems in organization design and enhance the work of human resources, the following HC objectives were formulated: to drive effective workforce planning, deliver the best HC solutions, drive the digital agenda for working with HC, recruit the best candidates, provide effective training, invest in developing talents, and drive cultural changes.

Historiography and theory of organisational design

Organizational design is the process of ensuring that a corporation can optimize its activities by organizing its structure and communication effectively and flexibly. Organizational design should focus on removing departmental boundaries and enhancing interactions, collaboration, and teamwork to improve performance and achieve strategic objectives (Alvesson and Sveningsson 2015; Stanford 2013). The distinction between organization design and organization development is that organization design is concerned with the formation of a business in accordance with its purpose, vision, and mission (Stanford 2013). In contrast, organization development is related with advancing the specified form or design to ensure the achievement of the organization's purpose, vision, and mission.

For this research, the organization design of the chosen company has been picked for further analysis because it is essential to comprehend which components of design pertaining to the training function can impact the company's HC. This project's organizational design concepts include a concentration on component alignment, structure reconfigurability, adaptability, and evaluation (Stanford 2013). In addition, the organization design criteria for this project include a focus on the suitability of the selected design in relation to the company's strategy, resources, human capital, and environment in order to improve performance.

In the selected company, emphasis was placed on the traditional idea of hierarchy and specialization, as well as the impact of contextual and environmental elements, such as the importance of culture and tradition in business in the Middle East. According to Meidell and Kaarb (2017), many businesses in the Arab world continue to emphasize traditional patterns of organization design that emphasize authority and direction. Considering the functions of the HC Directorate inside the organization, it is fair to conclude that this structure was inefficient. Thus, the company's structure was drastically altered, with a focus on rearranging divisions and units and duplicating some tasks and positions at the headquarters and subsidiaries. There was a lack of clear directions on how to communicate, proceed with tasks, and perform the same roles, which hindered communication between HQ and subsidiary employees with same responsibilities.

The Star model and the input-output model by Nadler and Tushman are two models that are typically employed in organization design. Thus, the model proposed by Nadler and Tushman is founded on the concept of open-systems organizations. This model comprises elements such as an informal organization (the behavioral aspect), a formal organization (the structural aspect), work, leadership, individuals, inputs, and outputs (Chikere and Nwoka 2015; Stanford 2013). The paradigm explains organizations as dynamic, receptive to interactions and change, and its success is predetermined by the environmental influence and congruence between all of its aspects (Král and Králová 2016; Stanford 2013). Due to the variety of provided components, this model is too complex to be easily understood, and several of its elements are frequently exaggerated.

The only components of Galbraith's Star model are Strategy, Structure, Process, Rewards, and People. The guiding premise for adopting this paradigm is that each component influences another, and structural modifications can influence each component (Figure 1). Because simple changes in hierarchy affect the workforce, the process, and the strategy, the organization should be designed using a complicated approach, not restructured. For the further analysis of organization design in the selected company, the Star model is chosen since it is efficient and simple to use in the context of a specific firm in order to meet corporate strategic objectives (Gallos 2017; Stanford 2013). This concept, when utilized during the five phases of organization design, can assist a corporation create a balanced structure.

Figure 1 depicts the Star design.

(Date of origin: The Star model)

During five phases, organizational design changes are implemented. Understanding the need for change and preparing for it comprise Phase 1. Due to unclear and conflicting duties of HQ and Corporate Training managers, a lack of communication, and poorly defined SLAs, the training function in the selected firm was not carried out effectively. Thus, leadership became focused on modifying the mission, values, organizational structure, and business processes and procedures. Nonetheless, the emphasis on duplication teams and training functions over the course of a year revealed structural vulnerabilities in the organization. In addition, leadership lacked a focus on people, which impeded the organization of effective communication between training teams and units. During this phase, it was essential to identify stakeholders (the HC Directorate, unit managers, and sponsors) and establish transformation objectives.

At Phase 2, it was important to assess the current structure, collect situational data, and plan relevant operations. The survey results and interviews revealed that managers and employees did not comprehend their training roles and duties. The objective of the third phase of the re-design project was to create a thorough implementation strategy. Phase 4 saw the conclusion of the transition In Phase 5 the review of the outcomes was conducted. There were problems with the management style because managers did not motivate employees to participate in and adopt changes in organization design and structures, employees were not provided with the necessary information or manuals on how to handle observed changes, and specifics of the Middle Eastern culture and behavioral patterns did not appear to be taken into account to make changes smooth (Meidell and Kaarb 2017; Stanford 2013). Building complex structures with duplicated HQ and corporate teams, as well as ignoring the demands of the employees, were the primary consequences of implementing the new organizational structure.

Available Design Options

From 2016 to 2017, the corporation in question focused heavily on reorganizing organizational activities to improve operations and human capital management. The Human Capital Department's training function has been integrated into the wider Talent Capabilities Development Unit. The benefit of this technique according to the Star model is the ability to impact the strategy, people, processes, and structure, as well as the rewards, within the context of a balanced and tightly regulated scheme. However, the associated design choice picked by the organization was inadequate due to the creation of multiple Training teams for the headquarters and subsidiaries (corporate teams), which resulted in the duplication of their tasks. There was no evidence of successful communication and teamwork. Therefore, in 2017, a greater emphasis was placed on the centralization of activities, and the Human Capital Department's organizational structure was recommended based on the analysis of required Full-Time Equivalent (FTE) to achieve strategic goals through 2030.

It is necessary to refer to the functional organization based on the Star model in order to solve the problem of organizing the training function when two separate training teams for the headquarters and subsidiaries operate in the company under the direction of different leaders and implementing different programs, causing confusion. Previously, the HQ training team reported to the Employee Relations department, whereas corporate teams reported to the Human Capital and Administration Director. The circumstance caused challenges with communication, information exchange, training program implementation, and budgeting. Consequently, the degree of employee satisfaction with training declined. In 2017, training team functions were duplicated, presenting difficulties for team leaders. In July 2018, a new departmental organization was approved (Figure 2; Figure 3).

Figure 2 depicts the Human Capital Department prior to its overhaul. After changes, the Human Capital Department is depicted in Figure 3.

The new functional organization with an emphasis on centralization is suitable for achieving new HC goals. By placing the training function under the Talent Capabilities Development Unit, managers improved communication between line managers and employees, enhanced the sharing of strategy, clarified roles and responsibilities, and prioritized more controlled training options while avoiding confusion in the distribution of duties and responsibilities. To explain how the training function will be implemented, a new high-level function manual for Training was created to be implemented by the Talent Capabilities Development Unit and to inform all managers of the function's objectives and strategies for achieving them. The activity-based analysis was completed, and talent development activities were also presented from the standpoint of attaining the company's strategy by influencing people.

KPI, SLA, and RACI matrices were employed to ensure success and progress in employee training, as well as to measure the results. In the context of the Star model, these processes may contribute to the conception of the organization's design, as opposed to the organizational structure or matrix. The modifications to the design based on the Star model with an emphasis on centralization contributed to the development of a system for performing the controlled training function for Group Companies, with an emphasis on group workforce planning and training. As a result, a unified operating model is provided that contributes to the achievement of the company's strategic aims.

Functions of Organisational Culture and Training

It is essential to identify an entrepreneurial (basic structure) form, a machine bureaucracy, a professional bureaucracy, a divisionalized form, and an adhocracy when following Henry Mintzberg's classifications of organizations and cultures (Parikh 2016; Stanford 2013). Additionally, there are matrix and distinct organizations. All of these types impact the company's accepted culture, as well as the accompanying conventions and behaviors. Mintzberg recognized four significant elements that can influence organizational design and culture: the coordination of activities, the functions of employees, the degree of centralization, and a particular cultural and economic backdrop (Parikh 2016). It is essential to note that the primary method for coordinating efforts was selected improperly, as the training department had previously given training without doing a thorough examination of the company's and employees' needs. Thus, the training efforts did not ensure beneficial outcomes because the employees' performance, feedback, and needs were not successfully addressed.

The lack of support and communication from management, as well as problems with focusing on decentralization or centralization as the best choice for the company, led to employee frustration and resistance to change because they did not know how to deal with the change that was implemented ineffectively and worked inefficiently over the course of a year. Consequently, it was vital to educate managers on how to select proper training for staff and utilize more relevant resources and programs. The leaders of the discussed company failed to determine the functions of employees in HQ and corporate training teams and address the cultural context in which people require guidelines, support, and time to adapt to significant changes in organization design in the context of Middle Eastern culture (Alvesson and Sveningsson 2015; Stanford 2013).

According to Mintzberg's theory, the organization did not successfully implement the training function within the context of its culture. Thus, cultural norms and behaviors typical of the chosen organization were not considered when communicating with employees and addressing their reluctance to change. The Human Capital Department could not identify the behaviors and competences required for effective transitions in order to promote new values and encourage employee engagement. To develop this culture, managers must participate in workshops on culture awareness, acquire guides, comprehend the new notion of Business Partners, and learn how to select training.

The Value of the HR Function

Human resource (HR) managers play a significant role in promoting and influencing organization design because they analyze the strategies developed by leaders and propose the most effective approaches and methodologies for implementing the change and achieving the necessary transformation in organization design and processes (Stanford 2013). Although external consultants were asked to encourage organizational design and structural modifications within the chosen company, no effective results were realized. This can be explained by the fact that HR managers must offer sophisticated strategies for implementing the desired changes and must collaborate with experts in order to reach an agreement. An HR manager is responsible for analyzing organization design concepts based on their appropriateness to the company's culture.

Despite the aspirations of leaders, not all models, ideas, and techniques are equally applicable to all organizational environments. Thus, the role of HR managers in this situation is to analyze employees’ needs and expectations, adopt the proposed models to their interests, and promote the change with the focus on addressing

Strategic Supply Chain Management: Evaluation And Performance My Assignment Essay Help London

Summary of Contents
worldwide sourcing Flexibility in the supply chain is important Integration Information Flows for the Supply Chain Information technology's function in supply chain management Application Reference for RFID

Global corporations' supply chain strategies have seen a significant transition as a result of the introduction of globalization, along with changes to production techniques. The majority of multinational corporations have moved their operations and obtained raw materials from countries with cheap labor costs in an effort to lower manufacturing costs and increase profit margins (Hong & Holweg 2004, p.3). Therefore, this study will evaluate a number of strategic supply chain management approaches that are available to firms that operate on a worldwide scale.

By synchronizing, monitoring, and managing operations, a supply chain management system's primary purpose, according to Kaufman (1997), is to remove communication barriers and redundancies (p.14). The majority of companies in the industrialized West are under increasing pressure to outsource manufacturing and supply chain operations to developing nations with relatively low labor costs in order to reduce operational costs and maintain competitiveness in both domestic and international markets at a time when Asian countries like India and China are experiencing rapid industrialization progress. The strategic supply network's sourcing strategy for procuring raw materials and components for these facilities has been significantly impacted by outsourcing.

The choice to acquire raw materials from areas with lower labor costs has a strong business case in terms of competitive advantages. For example, in the US automobile industry, component suppliers have relocated their operations to Mexico while their European counterparts have done the same in Eastern Europe to take advantage of these nations' low labor costs (Hong & Holweg 2004, p.4). Trade restrictions have been lowered and effective logistical networks have made the rivalry more appealing on a global scale. For instance, in the US auto sector, 28% of a car's value comes from South Korea, followed by 17.4% from Japan, 7.6% from Germany, 5% from Taiwan, 2.6% from the UK, and 1.6% from Ireland. Only 37.4% of the value of cars is produced in the US (Antras & Helpman 2004, p. 554).

worldwide sourcing

Global sourcing, according to Monczka and Trent (1991), is the process of creating a global sourcing strategy over the course of four stages (p.2). Only domestic purchase is the name of the first phase. Companies buy products from domestic vendors who source internationally. Companies do not require international sourcing data during this time. Advanced global data networks are also absent from them. The second phase is known as overseas purchasing based on necessity. This stage is defined by the lack of a capable local supplier or by the fact that other businesses are reaping the benefits of offshore outsourcing.

Thus, in order to maintain a competitive edge in terms of cost and efficiency, local enterprises are forced to seek out offshore sourcing. When the company understands that a certain foreign supply chain management approach yields significant benefits, the third stage, overseas purchasing, as part of the procurement plan, takes place. The transition to stage three is the result of businesses receiving lower buying prices from international sourcing. The fourth step, which is the most sophisticated procurement plan, replicates the actual foreign sourcing effort. Building a global strategic supply chain management network involves cooperation between manufacturing, technology, and supply chain divisions in the fourth stage (Monczka &Trent 1991. p.4).

Chain management techniques are available to multinational corporations. To quantify the cost of the supply system associated with sourcing techniques, one might make use of the Total Acquisition Cost Model (TACM), created by Lowson. With the help of this model, businesses will be able to compare the rigidity costs of international buying to the flexible domestic supply. The rigidity cost includes problems like long lead times and rigidity as a response to shifting market needs (Lowson 2002, p. 79). The lead-time for supply, inventories at a certain supply phase, the level of customer service, and the performance of vendors, which includes vendor process time and the quality of supplier services, may all be evaluated using the TACM model (Lowson 2002, p. 82).

Flexibility in the supply chain is important

For businesses that conduct global operations, the supply chain's flexibility is essential (Lummus et al. 2003, p.1). International businesses need to implement a flexible supply chain strategy for a number of reasons. First, the growing need for mass customisation necessitates that supply chains accommodate customers' individual needs without incurring additional costs (Holweg & Phil 2001, p.75). Second, because demand is so unpredictable in many sectors, including the textile and electronics industries, creating a flexible supply chain management system may effectively reduce risk. Third, unexpected changes in business cycles necessitate quick product creation and quick responses to client demands around the world in order to shorten response times to market changes and maintain competitiveness (Hong & Holweg 2004, p.19).

Chain of Supply Integration

The information revolution, increased worldwide rivalry brought on by demand-driven marketplaces, and the emergence of unique inter-organizational interactions are the main forces behind supply chain integration inside a global business. The three essential components of an integrated supply chain structure are inventory management, information and cash flow management, and supply chain interactions, according to Handfield and Nicholas (1999). (p.65). Thus, collaboration, cooperation, trust, information sharing, reciprocal technology, and the management of linked supply chain operations are the foundation of supply chain integration.

An integrated supply chain management approach may enable the business to maximize profit margins and maintain its competitiveness in both the home and international market (Power 2005, p. 253). Since its inception, the idea of integrated supply chain management has evolved to the point that it now operates as a corporate unit apart from traditional organizational boundaries. At the moment, it is driven by customer needs through accessibility to online marketplaces. Companies are forced to use outsourced services in their operations as a result of this new trend in order to cut costs and cycle time.

Information Transfers

Utilizing information technology in strategic supply chain management activities can help businesses reduce their levels of dynamic and minute complexity. For instance, the bullwhip effect is a typical supply chain management outcome resulting from complex, dynamic situations. Poor customer service, excessive inventories, erroneous capacity planning, increased transportation expenses, and lost revenue are the features of this effect (Chen et al. 2000, p.269). When businesses purchase more production materials to take advantage of decreasing unit prices, the bullwhip effect occurs. Therefore, the Bullwhip effect's final result is a reduction in profit margins or higher costs for end customers. As a result, neither the customers nor the suppliers are able to forecast their anticipated cash flows or profits (Power 2005, p.254).

Information technology's function in supply chain management

Global organizations' supply chain management methods can benefit greatly from information technology. For instance, businesses may now access essential information via the internet and fiber optic networks, eliminating information-related delays in any supply chain network. Companies now have unrestricted access to information that is timely, accurate, and economical because to the internet's rapid global adoption.

The growing usage of e-mail services to enhance communication inside and outside of companies serves as an illustration of this change. Word processing files and transactional documents like invoices and orders are now sent between commercial partners via email. As a result, email is frequently used to facilitate supply chain communication between business partners in a global setting (Power 2005, p.254).

The supply chain management operations of globally active organizations have been significantly impacted by a dramatic revolution in internet technology and software. Extensible Markup Language (XML) and EDI/XML, for instance, have made it easier for commercial partners to exchange information efficiently over the internet. Due to HyperText Markup Language's limitations, XML was created as a fundamental language for internet communication. Trading partners can now share critical information (formerly available via EDI) using XML at a lower cost. It enriches the transcript with semantics and meaning, allowing the computer to decode the content. Similar to HTML, XML is similarly user-friendly and simple to modify (Power 2005, p.254).

ERP systems (created from MRPII systems), order management systems to computerize the order execution process, warehouse management systems to manage inventory, transport management systems to plan and dispatch shipments, superior planning and scheduling systems to develop and manage production plants, and customer relationship management systems to improve information flow through the supply chain system are just a few of the software applications that have been developed.

These systems have historically had weak connections between various components of an organization. Numerous company systems can be integrated using a superior and potent XML application that supports supply chain integration. For instance, businesses can utilize XML translation software to decode a variety of communication formats. For instance, an EDI purchase order can be translated into an XML document that the supplier's inventory system can easily understand (Power 2005, p.255).

Application of RFID

Consistency for data encoding on RFID tags that mimic the contemporary bar codes on the Universal Product Code (UPC) system is one of the critical components of RFID deployment in the supply chain. These standards help to streamline the electronic transactions that happen between the enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems of the companies when one firm ships supplies to another. As suppliers enter a warehouse, the standards will determine how middleware handles the data scanned by an RFID reader. The same information is likewise communicated to an enterprise application by it. The primary industry standards for RFID application are the ERCglobal requirements and standards for the supply chain. The specification for putting data on RFID tags is handled by EPCglobal Inc. In order to establish and maintain the EPC network as the global norm for the automatic and accurate identification of any product in the supply chain, EPCglobal was founded as a non-profit organization in 2003.

One of the main issues with demand planning is the lack of trustworthy data; therefore, using RFID would produce accurate data related to the inventory of finished goods, work-in-progress, and in-transit stages with reliable completion dates. Data retrieved through RFID can eliminate data inaccuracies caused by a lack of data or human error. The main drivers for organizations to improve their supply chain management procedures are consumer demands for high-quality products at reasonable pricing. A proper understanding of the market's demand for goods and services will help in the development of efficient supply chain, marketing, and production strategies. The RFID prediction provides the input for balancing supply and demand through cumulative planning (Sabbaghi & Vaidyanathan 2008, p.78)

Order fulfillment is a crucial step in meeting customer demands and improving the effectiveness of the supply chain. RFID will make it easier to automate processes for selection, stocking, cross-docking, and avoiding expensive logistical mistakes like delivering goods to the wrong places. An organization can pinpoint the location of the commodities, follow their progress through the supply chain, and make quick routing decisions thanks to RFID technology. For instance, RFRID portals can be used to read tags and update inventory levels automatically as tagged cases enter the supply center. These portals are strategically placed around the facility. The exact purchase order will be compared to the incoming supplies, and any discrepancies will be clearly visible (Sabbaghi & Vaidyanathan 2008, p.78)

The usage of RFID in the industrial industry helps simplify assembly line processes. There is no question that the production line's computerization will reduce cycle time and increase production. The supply chain's visibility and speed will increase thanks to the implementation of RFID and its enhanced tracking capabilities. With their just-in-time assembly lines, producers will benefit from this procedure. For instance, Procter & Gamble (P&G) is sure that RFID technology can help the company track the status of each item throughout the supply chain and production process. P&G anticipates that using RFID will result in working capital savings of roughly $0.9 billion and inventory cost savings of an additional $210 million (Sabbaghi & Vaidyanathan 2008, p.78.)

Reference

Global Sourcing. Journal of Political Economy 112, 552-580. Antras, P., and Helpman, E. 2004.

Bullwhip effect and forecasts using exponential smoothing, F. Chen, J. Ryan, & D. Simchi-Levi, 2000. 47, 269–286 Naval Research Logistics

An empirical investigation of delivery speed and reliability was conducted by Handfield, Pannesi, and R. in 1992. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 12(6), 60-74

Successful Build-to-Order Strategies originate with the Customer, according to Holweg, M. and Pil, F. K. (2001). 74–83, Sloan Management Review.

Evaluating the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Global Sourcing Strategies: A Conceptual Note. Hong, E., & Holweg, H. 2004. UK's Cambridge. College of Cambridge.

Nobody succeeds unless the customer speaks, according to R. Kaufman (1997). 58, 14–16 of Apparel Industry Magazine

Assessing the Operational Cost of Offshore Sourcing Strategies, Lowson, R. 2002. 13, 79-89, International Journal of Logistics Management.

Supply Chain Flexibility: Building a New Model, Lummus, R., Duclos, & Vokurka, 2003. 4, 1–13, in the Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management

Global Sourcing: A Development Approach, Monczka, M. & Trent, J. (1991). 27(2), 2-8 of the International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management

Supply chain management integration and implementation: a review of the literature, Power, D. 2005. An international Journal, 10, 252-263.

Effectiveness and Efficiency of RFID Technology in Supply Chain Management: Strategic Values and Challenges, Sabbaghi, A., & Vaidyanathan, G. (2008). 3, 71–81 of the Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research

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Expansionary Monetary And Fiscal Policies My Assignment Essay Help London

Introduction

During a recession, expansionary fiscal policy is a more effective means of stimulating consumer spending. As was shown during the Great Recession, monetary policy failed to supply the level of aggregate demand necessary to promote production. By maintaining interest rates at the zero lower bound, the Fed has been able to exclude crowding-out consequences. Expanding fiscal policy is implemented through increasing government spending and decreasing taxation. A monetary policy that is expansionary targets the interest rate and the money supply via the reserve ratio, discount rate, and open market operations.

Policy fiscal expansion

reducing taxes

By reducing taxes, expansionary fiscal policy can be implemented. When the federal government reduces taxes, the disposable income of people and enterprises rises (Amacher & Pate, 2012). The purchasing power of households and businesses increases as disposable income rises. It increases the amount of goods and services consumed. An increase in total expenditure leads in a rise in demand, which drives a rise in capital goods production and investment. The GDP increases when production increases.

When individuals are pessimistic about future growth, the impact of lower taxes may diminish. During the 2008-recession, the U.S. government decreased taxes by around 45 percent, according to Carvalho, Eusepi, and Grisse (2012). Tax cuts are more effective when the economy is not experiencing a recession. Carvalho et al. (2012) explain that during a recession, households are prone to conserve gains in disposable income. When job security is uncertain, employees will want to set aside a larger amount of money for preventive purposes (Amacher & Pate, 2012). It results in lower-than-anticipated demand and GDP growth of -33333 percent.

Reducing taxes is intended to promote expenditure and aggregate demand. In response to the Great Recession, the Bush-era tax relief initiatives were extended for an additional two years by the Obama administration (Amacher & Pate, 2012). During a recession, Amacher and Pate (2012) argue that increasing government expenditure is preferable to lowering taxes. In addition to boosting savings, tax cuts have a lower multiplier than government spending increases.

In the current economic climate, where the interest rate is at the zero lower bound, tax policy can be an advantageous alternative. The effectiveness of monetary policy is diminished when interest rates are close to zero. Correia, Farhi, Nicolini, and Teles (2012) contend that utilizing taxes to target employment and investment can be more effective than a monetary policy that is expansionary. Initially, the effect appears promptly. It is also less expensive and has no long-term adverse effects. The government can target labor tax reductions and new capital goods investment (Correia et al., 2012). Rather than waiting for the consequences of expansionary monetary policy, the government can boost employment and production in a timely manner by reducing taxes on specific industries.

augmentation of government spending

Increasing government spending increases demand for both finished products and inputs. The primary objective of raising government spending is to raise total demand (Amacher & Pate, 2012). Investment and employment will be stimulated by an increase in the aggregate demand. In classical economic theory, wages and profits are employed to generate a second level of demand for products and services (Amacher & Pate, 2012). It is anticipated that a portion of the increase in government spending will be used to construct and enhance infrastructure, which attracts investment. Government expenditures on health care and education are also increased since they improve production.

Transfer payments are another area where government expenditures might be raised. In 2008, during the Great Recession, the federal government raised transfer payments. All increases in spending result in an increase in aggregate demand, which stimulates output. A rise in output and productivity boosts the rate of GDP expansion.

During a recession, increasing government expenditure might be a useful tactic. Recessions are accompanied by deflationary pressures, which is one of the reasons why. Carvalho et al. (2012) explain that when the economy is running at full employment, an increase in government spending may cause inflation. Deflationary pressure counteracts the inflationary effect of expansionary fiscal policy during a recession. Deflationary factors helped to keep inflation below the 2% target during the Great Recession (Labonte, 2015).

Ball, DeLong, and Summers (2014) argue that expansionary fiscal policy is the government's most effective remaining instrument when the interest rate is at the zero bound and unemployment remains high. A rise in government spending raises aggregate demand and generates jobs in a direct manner.

One of the considerations of expansionary fiscal policy is the method of increasing expenditures. When the government sells bonds to raise funds, market interest rates rise. According to Amacher and Pate (2012), this results in a crowding-out effect. Increased market interest rates may discourage private investments. Fishback (2010) also addresses the question of a potential crowding out impact in the post-Great Recession economy. However, the Federal Reserve has maintained interest rates at the zero lower bound, which may eliminate the likelihood of a crowding-out effect. According to DeLong and Tyson (2013), the crowding-out effect occurs when greater government borrowing causes short-term and long-term interest rates to climb. By increasing the capital cost of private investment, the crowding out effect would limit the effect of additional government spending. In such a scenario, it would cut total demand by some amount and diminish the multiplier effect of government expenditure.

An growth in the budget deficit is another concern regarding the rising government expenditures. In 2009, the budget deficit rose from 3,3 percent in 2008 to 9,9 percent (Fishback 2010). The national debt climbed from 36 percent in 2007 to 64 percent in 2010 as a result of the rise in government spending (Fishback, 2010). During the Great Depression, a comparable increase in the national debt took roughly ten years. DeLong & Tyson (2013) explain that a country with a high ratio of public debt to GDP will have slower per capita GDP growth. However, the impact of a substantial increase in public debt is little.

Policy of monetary expansion

Reduced reserve ratio requirements

The Fed reduces the reserve ratio when pursuing an expansionary monetary policy. When the reserves ratio is decreased, banks are better able to create money (Amacher & Pate, 2012). It increases the maximum amount that banks can lend, hence expanding access to credit.

The Fed has maintained a low reserve ratio for a very long period. During the Great Recession, banks' reserves climbed to $3 trillion as a result of the Federal Reserve's purchase of financial assets (Cochrane, 2014). Out of $3 trillion, just $80 billion was required as reserves, for a reserve ratio of approximately 2.5%. (Cochran, 2014). It demonstrates that banks may lend around forty times their reserves. The deposit multiplier, according to Amacher and Pate (2012), is 1/rr, where RR is the reserve ratio (1/0.025 = 40).

During the recession, however, the Fed paid interest on bank reserves (Cochrane, 2014). Cochrane (2014) says that the interest policy on reserves has contributed to low inflation since banks are not compelled to offer loans in pursuit of profit. There is a belief that banks were unable to offer loans during the crisis due to the increased risk. The prices of assets that may serve as collateral were fluctuating (Carvalho et al., 2012).

It is expected that a reduced reserve ratio will boost banks' ability to create money. The availability of financing is meant to stimulate investment, hence boosting employment and the demand for capital goods and raw resources. It results in increased aggregate demand and GDP. However, increasing loan availability has not resulted in the anticipated level of investment after the Great Recession. One of the reasons for this is that banks will only lend to consumers with a low risk profile. Due to the heightened unpredictability of aggregate demand, businesses were likewise hesitant to borrow more.

The discount rate declines

In an expansionary monetary policy, the Federal Reserve reduces the discount rate, allowing banks to obtain short-term loans from central banks at a cheaper cost. A lower discount rate encourages banks to maintain minimum reserve levels. It deters banks from maintaining excess reserves. When the discount rate is low, banks charge clients reduced rates of interest. According to Amacher and Pate (2012), the Fed utilizes the discount rate as a signal for the interest rate that banks should charge their clients. Since the Great Recession, the Fed has maintained the discount rate close to 0 percent, which is known as the zero lower bound. From roughly 5.25 percent in September 2007 to about 0.25 percent in December 2008 (Labonte, 2015). During the recession, the Fed decided to make loans to both banks and non-banks.

The Federal Reserve aims to reduce the federal funds rate (Labonte, 2015). The Federal Reserve can drop the federal funds rate by lowering the discount rate. The discount rate is an alternative to the federal funds rate, which is the interest rate at which banks lend to one another (Amacher & Pate, 2012). Because they may access emergency liquidity at a cheaper cost, banks will be more ready to issue loans at a lower discount rate.

Labonte (2015) shows that a low interest rate may increase expenditure on housing, consumer durables, and corporate investment, all of which are sensitive to interest rate changes. Lower interest rates have the effect of boosting the money supply, which increases aggregate demand. During a recession, one of the worries is that people and businesses can become oblivious to decreasing interest rates (Amacher & Pate, 2012). After the recession, lower discount rates stimulated demand and GDP growth. Nonetheless, it is smaller than anticipated since families and businesses are less sensitive to low interest rates.

Buying investments

The purchase of securities increases the amount of money available for borrowing and spending. When the government purchases assets from banks, the available funds for lending grow. By purchasing from households, the government increases the amount of money available for expenditure. Amacher and Pate (2012) argue that the government increases bank reserves in both instances. Between 2009 and 2014, as part of an expansionary monetary strategy, the Fed boosted its balance sheet to $4.5 trillion by purchasing assets from banks valued more than $2.8 trillion (Labonte, 2015). The program had the immediate effect of increasing the amount of reserves maintained by banks and other financial institutions.

According to Cochran (2014), banks kept approximately $3 trillion in reserves. In 2011 and 2012, the Fed planned to purchase $85 billion per month in mortgage-backed securities (MBS) in an effort to reduce long-term interest rates and stabilize mortgage markets (Leonard & Lazarus, 2013). Amacher and Pate (2012) argue that, in addition to stimulating private investments, lower interest rates may make government loans more affordable.

Additionally, open market operations target interest rates. Labonte (2015) explains that the purchase of financial assets reduces the associated interest rates. Low interest rates raise the demand for commodities with high sensitivity to interest rates. According to Ball, DeLong, and Summers (2014), the rate of recovery from the Great Recession has been modest. It is possible that investment and consumer expenditure are less susceptible to interest rate reductions. Ball et al. (2014) examine the possibility of a liquidity trap due to the inability of lower interest rates to stimulate aggregate demand as anticipated.

The expansion of bank reserves and the Federal Reserve's balance sheet may generate inflationary pressures (Labonte, 2015). However, globalization can lead to a greater outflow of wealth from the United States to countries with higher interest rates (Amacher & Pate, 2012). The outflow of capital diminishes the effect of low interest rates on investment attraction. It also decreases the inflationary pressures that may result from an increase in the money supply. According to Bordo (2012), an expansionary monetary policy may lead to an increase in asset prices and inflation. In the Great Recession, the Federal Reserve's actions were masked by decreasing asset values.

The purchase of securities increases the money supply, which may lead to inflationary pressures. Romer and Romer (2013) explain that the Fed has been careful with monetary policy since unemployment and inflation are interdependent. In order to avoid a rise in unemployment, the Fed was hesitant to use monetary tools to lower the money supply during the Great Depression. People were apprehensive about inflation during the Great Recession due to the Federal Reserve's expansionary monetary policies (Romer & Romer, 2013).

The Federal Reserve has postponed quantitative easing tapering for a second time to avoid a possible rise in interest rates before the economy has fully recovered (Rehbock, 2013).

Conclusion

Directly, expansionary fiscal policy is intended to boost employment and total demand. According to the classical conception, the indirect effect of the government's employment creation should be a rise in aggregate demand. The government's demand for goods is meant to promote investment by businesses contracted to supply such items. The multiplier provides an increase in aggregate demand and supply. The GDP increases as production rises.

The expansionary fiscal policy proved more effective than the expansionary monetary policy during the Great Recession. An increase in bank reserves, interest rates at the zero lower limit, and an expansion in credit availability did not result in the predicted boost in investment. Tax reductions that target certain investment sectors may be more effective than expansionary monetary policy.

References

Amacher, R., & Pate, J. (2012). Fundamentals of macroeconomics Web. Bridgepoint Education, San Diego, CA.

Ball, L., B. DeLong, and L. Summers (2014). The relationship between fiscal policy and full employment. Web.

Bordo, M. (2012). Monetary policy that is expansionary can cause asset price booms. Web.

Carvalho, C., Eusepi, S., & Grisse, C. (2012). What did analysts anticipate for policy actions during the global recession? Current Economic and Financial Issues, 18(2), 1-11. Web.

Cochrane, J. (2014). Monetary policy with reserve interest. Web.

Correia, I., Farhi, E., Nicolini, J., & Teles, P. (2012). Unorthodox fiscal policy at the zero lower bound. Web.

DeLong, J., & Tyson, L. (2013). What do we think now about discretionary fiscal policy as a stabilization policy instrument that we did not think in 2007? Web.

P. Fishback (2010). 1930s monetary and fiscal policy of the United States. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, volume 26, issue 3, pages 385 to 413. Web.

Labonte, M. (2015). Current monetary policy and Federal Reserve conditions are discussed. Web.

Leonard, D., & Lazarus, E. (2013). Domestic operations on the open market in 2012 Web.

Rehbock, T. (2013). There is a universe of difference between Fed and ECB monetary policy. Web.

Romer, C., & Romer, D. (2013). The most dangerous idea in Federal Reserve history: Monetary policy doesn’t matter. American Economic Review, 103(3), 55-60. Web.

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