Employee Morale And Job Satisfaction At Google Write My Essay Help

Motivation of employees is an essential HR function that affects morale levels, as does a positive workplace culture. The financial components of a career, such as bonuses and benefits, have a significant impact on job satisfaction. However, the majority of employees also value organizational culture and working relationships. Feeling valued at work can enhance the link between staff and management, foster firm loyalty, and inspire employees to invest greater effort in their responsibilities.

Google is an extraordinarily successful firm whose success is due to its employees. Its paradigm of employee motivation is distinctive in that it is not associated with the typical leadership theory that stresses results, but instead focuses on the workers. The company's working culture reflects its idea of fostering a joyful and productive work environment. According to its more than 50,000 employees, it has therefore garnered numerous prizes for being the best place to work (Tran, 2017). People Operations (POPs) (human resources) at Google are data-driven in their approach to talent development. Firms use innovative approaches to boost employee morale and work satisfaction as strategic means to improve overall performance and attain organizational objectives.

Methods Currently Used to Improve Employee Morale and Job Satisfaction

Since its inception, Google's work culture and emphasis on people have been crucial to its success. The founders of the company aspired to establish a brand based on the outstanding ingenuity of its personnel. The objective was to create an ideal workplace based on the SAS Institute's principles of trust and inclusion (Tran, 2017). In accordance with this idea, Google's present work culture is defined by competitive compensation, adaptability, transparency, and autonomy.

The organization employs a data-driven (people analytics) approach to employee motivation and engagement. Google collects and analyzes data through POPs in order to discover the most effective ways to satisfy employees and assist them in become more productive in their professions. Google has cultivated a culture of openness regarding its company strategy in order to increase staff morale and promote organizational credibility. According to Tran (2017), each quarter the executive chairman informs all employees of the launch strategy, new products, and quarterly objectives. In addition, annual staff surveys shape the company's operations for the next year. Thank God It's Friday question-and-answer sessions with Google's founders increase transparency and ensure that employee voices are heard and valued. Allowing workers greater control over the timing and manner of task completion is another way. Google's employees are free to determine their own work schedules. In addition, employees are permitted one day each week to perform a desired task or pursue personal hobbies.

Flexibility in project timetables, reporting time, dress code, and identification symbols is another another method in which Google boosts employee morale and job satisfaction. The office design, which includes wall-climbing facilities and slide-like construction, encourages fun and productive interaction. The easygoing yet stimulating environment at Google motivates employees. Routine, tedious jobs can reduce employee motivation and excitement. Google provides its employees with a 20% allocation for a desired project or new challenge (Tran, 2017). The 80-20 guideline promotes diversity and encourages employees to pursue their professional passions.

Additionally, working at Google comes with a variety of additional perks designed to boost morale. The employees has access to complimentary lunches and a volleyball field near their offices. In addition, the company provides a car wash, medical coverage, and transportation to and from work each day. Flex spending accounts, paid holidays, attractive wages, and other advantages constitute extrinsic incentive (Tran, 2017). The corporation is renowned for its distinctive employee benefits, including maternity benefits, tuition reimbursement, and reimbursement of legal fees.

Recommendations for Enhancing Employee Morale and Job Fulfillment

Given the competitive nature of the IT business, it is essential for Google to boost employee morale and work satisfaction. Five modifications to Google's strategy are advised based on study findings to boost corporate morale and work satisfaction. The first is establishing connections based on trust to avoid workers from feeling exploited. There have been reports of disgruntled employee walkouts about workplace difficulties, notably the failure of POP to confront sexual misconduct by high-ranking management (Tran, 2017). Those who file complaints internally with the POP risk being demoted, assigned to undesirable projects, or terminated. Consequently, consistent HR processes and procedures for addressing workplace challenges would boost employee trust and motivation.

A second recommended technique is establishing a staff diversity board to promote equity and fairness. Discrimination against female employees who complain of sexual harassment can diminish morale and job satisfaction. Schaefer (2010) asserts that providing employees respect and permitting them to fail without fear of retaliation encourages their creativity and productivity. If not addressed, concerns about retaliation might significantly impact morale and task performance.

Equal employee benefits and awards for contractors and other Google employees is also advocated as a further improvement. Equal terms and conditions for all of its global employees will foster a sense of affiliation with the company and with coworkers (Zigarmi et al., 2010). Google may also minimize stress and improve employee satisfaction by balancing their workload. To limit employee turnover and resignations, the organization should provide employees, including contractors, with reasonable duties and competitive pay rates.

Rationale

The aforementioned solutions address the highlighted shortcomings in Google's current employee engagement efforts. Creating connections built on trust through equitable and consistent HR policies can ensure that all employees feel appreciated and engaged, leading to a rise in morale. A staff diversity board is suggested to assist Google in ensuring procedural fairness in HR activities and investigating workplace issues with respect and objectivity. Equal employee benefits for contractors and a balanced workload would reduce workplace stress, discontentment, and turnover. Employees who are satisfied and motivated perform well in their tasks, and their beliefs and attitudes are aligned with the strategic goals of the firm, resulting in enhanced organizational performance.

Google's Methods for Supporting Change

Change is a continuous process at Google, and staff are accustomed to it. The organization has designed a four-phase structure to guide internal change. It includes identifying the need for change (why), developing a vision for the desired transformation (what), identifying the key stakeholders who will be impacted (who), and developing implementation plans (how) (Tran, 2017). Establishing the necessity of the transformation and its alignment with the organizational or project objective is the initial step. Here, the problem to be tackled along with associated threats and opportunities are recognized. At this point, the input and specific personnel required are also identified.

Google evaluates anticipated strategic priorities, the desired state, risks, and opposing viewpoints before deciding on the change's vision. To encourage buy-in, affected individuals are involved from the start. Before implementing a change, its leaders are identified and any potential resistance is addressed. During the stage of implementation, the emphasis changes to sustaining the transformation and assessing its success. Using this strategy, Google can avoid disruptive reorganizations during a transition.

Moving to the cloud can present technological upgrade and cultural obstacles. Google utilized an adoption framework for the cloud that centered on people, technology, and procedures. In addition, four aspects were incorporated into the strategy: continuous learning, effective leadership, efficient upscaling, and security (Turner, 2017). The people component required assistance from the top down to guarantee appropriate resources for the shift. In addition, teamwork, communication, expectations, roles, and performance evaluation were taken into account.

Key Results in Human Resource Morale

The HR team at Google has established critical indicators to support its mission of producing a motivated and productive workforce. They include absenteeism, training and development, employee retention, demographics, benefit costs, employee engagement, reported grievances, and employee ideas. These indicators were incorporated into Google's HR operations in order to lead data-driven HR choices through its people analytics tool. They are useful indications of the corporate culture, diversity, and employees' general engagement – a critical factor for maintaining talented, motivated individuals in order to effectively compete in the technology business.

Google has performed well in the majority of its human resource metrics. Using flexible scheduling, the average monthly absentee rate has been decreased to 4.0% from the aim of 2.5%. The number of training and development hours per employee per year has been raised, and the turnover rate has been kept low by implementing a retention algorithm that proactively addresses the issues of departing employees. At Google, racial diversity is high but gender inclusion is low, with a 19.5% gender gap. To close this gap, hiring and promoting women engineers have been implemented. To boost staff morale, Google has also made significant strides in improving benefit costs, employee involvement, staff comments and ideas, and grievance management.

Positive Change Achieving Capability of Organizational Efforts

Technology is a rapidly evolving sector, and based on my studies and personal experience, Google has skillfully managed key changes. The company's model of change, which has facilitated a smooth transition to new organizational processes, has parts of Lewin's model. According to Baran et al. (2018), organizations must design strategies to lessen resistance and manage change efficiently. Evidently, Google investigated the ADKAR and Lewin models and incorporated some concepts into its four-phase framework.

In planning for a shift, such as migrating to the cloud, the organization considers three crucial criteria to ensure a smooth transition. First, Google places a premium on the human element of initiatives such as software improvements. The failure to involve employees is the biggest barrier to effective change management. At Google, executives and managers are tasked with inspiring change and ensuring enough project resources. As all employees are involved in the solution-creation process, effective communication of goals, roles, and expectations at routine meetings helps reduce opposition.

Second, Google immediately discusses the rationale for change to all stakeholders. It helps minimize ambiguity and ensures that people are concentrating on the positive aspects of the shift. Additionally, the intended outcome or future state is articulated, which instills confidence in the individual and communal capacities to handle the change. Thirdly, the execution plan is defined to managers and staff to ensure that everyone is aware of a tested change. The result is a higher adoption rate as a result of less anxiety and resistance.

Recommendations

Google must address unfavorable employee attitudes and management challenges that occur in its interdependent divisions in order to better its response to change. One suggestion is to provide excellent formal or informal training to provide employees with the skills necessary to work productively during and after the change. Microlearning modules and on-the-job mentoring are two of Google's most important training delivery strategies (Baran et al., 2018). The strategy would generate change champions and diminish resistance.

Adopting a support framework for employees who have trouble adjusting to the new workplace is another suggestion. Counseling services can assist individuals in coping with the emotional repercussions of change or reorganization. A strategy of open door would also ensure that employee issues and anxieties are addressed. Google's workplace policy changes should be managed by negotiation and agreement, according to best practices. Agreements reached through negotiation can assist in avoiding opposition from crucial individuals or departments.

Conclusion

The HR department at Google has transformed employee engagement, motivation, and change management. The organization understands the importance of people in achieving its strategic objectives and aims. As a result, Google has developed an organizational culture oriented on talent development, which is the wellspring of innovative ideas and market competitiveness. Using its people analytics platform, the organization has found the most effective methods for boosting staff morale and work satisfaction. It employs tactics such as transparent and open procedures, flexible scheduling, cultural flexibility, and competitive compensation to improve the work environment and encourage its employees. Google's ability to effectively manage change is a result of its evidence-based four-phase structure. It has established defined HR criteria for employee morale and job satisfaction to prevent employee turnover, which would be detrimental to company competitiveness and success.

References

Baran, B. E., Filipkowski, J. N., & Stockwell, R. A. (2018). Human resource management perspectives on organizational change. 19(3), pages 201-219 in the Journal of Change Management. Web.

Schaefer, J. (2010). How to boost worker morale. Rural Telecom, 29(3), 40-42.

Tran, S. K. (2017). A reflection of culture, leadership, and management at GOOGLE. Web. International Journal of Corporate Social Responsibility.

Turner, A. (2017). How do intrinsic and extrinsic motivation influence organizational performance culture? Cogent Education, 4(1), p.

Zigarmi, D., Houston, D., Diehl, J., & Witt, D. (2010). A fresh perspective on employee engagement. Director of Learning, 9(6), 32-35.

Eight Human Resources Metrics for Google

Key Result Area (Samples) KPI (Examples) Objective Current Variance

Average daily, weekly, or monthly absentee rate: 2.5% to 4% 1.5%

Cost per rental Cost of recruiting a new employee

Recruitment Time required to fill a position on average

Internal/External Staffing Percentage of Employees Filled Internally versus Externally

Instruction and Advancement annual training hours per employee 43 hours, 49 hours, six hours

Instruction and Advancement Cost per employee per year for

Performance Management Percentage of employees who complete a performance plan

Employee Retention Voluntary/involuntary turnover rate 90% 83% 7%

Replacement, vacancy, and separation expenses

Average duration of employee employment

Demographics Employee diversity metrics 50 percent white, 50 percent minority, and 50 percent male 53.1% are white, 46.9% are minorities, 69.1% are male, and 3.1% are of a specific race.

19.1% gender

Average cost of benefits per employee is $10.79 per hour, $6 per hour, and $4.79 per hour.

Employee morale/engagement% workers ranking morale/engagement 100% 80% 20%

Grievances Annual number of employee grievances: 0 to 45

Number of occupational accidents

Workers' Comp Expenses Cost of workers' compensation/number of workers

Total number of sick days taken

number of employee ideas # of employee suggestions provided 50 annually 44 annually 6

Other

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McDonald’s Company’s Strategic HR Direction Write My Essay Help

Executive Synopsis

Human resource management policies, strategies, and practices are essential organizational instruments. Human capital is the most valuable asset for any firm; hence, all concerns affecting the workforce will immediately impact organizational performance. It has been discovered that issues of personnel planning, recruiting, selection, retention, motivation, evaluation, and industrial relations are of severe importance and are often addressed through effective human resource management strategies. In a variety of commercial organizations, including McDonald's Corporation, we observe that many employees are neglected and are frequently disheartened and unmotivated to execute their jobs. Therefore, as a manager, one must develop a way for employees to receive frequent and substantial appreciation from their employer. If these conflicts are not avoided, performance will be subpar. However, unwelcome changes in the form of transfers, plant dysfunction, and unprofessional interpretation of policies to employees have been observed in the Human Resource Departments of the majority of organizations, resulting in power imbalances between the employer and employee and consequently poor performance, slower growth, and fewer opportunities for development.

Introduction

Strategic management can be defined as the process by which managers establish an organization's long-term objectives, establish specific performance objectives, develop strategies to achieve these objectives in light of all relevant internal and external circumstances, and commit to carrying out the selected action plans. Strategic Human Resource management focuses on the entire performance of an organization's employees in relation to the achievement of predetermined goals. McDonald's Corporation was founded in 1940 and is reportedly the largest fast food restaurant chain in the world. It sells, among other types of cuisine, chicken, hamburgers, breakfasts, milkshakes, soft drinks, salads, fruits, and carrot sticks (Brewster, 1995).

Current McDonald's policy

It has been noted that the firm's policies are effective and efficient; hence, the company has been successful in its operations, as indicated by the revenue it receives at the end of each fiscal year. McDonald Company has developed policies that promote truthfulness, fairness, hard effort, and an ethical attitude in the workplace. Bylaws of the Corporation specify how employees are expected to interact with management, including wage payment, dividend payment to stakeholders, director roles, and the payment of dividends to stakeholders. McDonald's board of directors ensures that political contributions are made in a manner consistent with the corporation's core values and to protect or enhance shareholder value. This policy was implemented because the corporation recognizes that public policy issues have the potential to affect its production endeavors, the entire staff, franchisees, and the surrounding community in which its restaurants operate. In accordance with the McDonald's Corporation Policy on Audit and Non-Audit Services Provided by an External Audit Firm, the board of directors hires an independent auditor who is responsible for ensuring that the organization's financial activities are conducted efficiently and effectively. The company has also developed a sound social responsibility strategy in which it participates in community programs, promotes environmental safety, and collaborates with its suppliers to progress their practices (Wagar, 1998).

McDonald Corporation's Management Issues

The actions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling are used to increase the efficiency of a company through the implementation of management principles. The corporation's management, through its planning function, is responsible for developing a calendar of business activities that will result in the achievement of predetermined objectives. The planning managers describe the tasks to be performed and the expected output from the workforce. The organizing function of McDonald Corporation must address the issue of assigning assignments to employees according to their various areas of expertise. If the allocation method is perceived as incorrect and oppressive by the employees, this will inevitably result in poor organizational performance. Therefore, they must convince the employees that everything will be fine and that their interests will be protected. The leading/directing function of the organization include teaching to employees how to accomplish a variety of duties, as well as employing charismatic executives who may encourage employees to have a good attitude toward their work. The Controlling management practice is accountable for monitoring the outcomes of any endeavors and can thus make any necessary alterations (Laursen and Foss, 2003).

Change Management

There is a unique relationship between an organization's change management strategies and techniques and its overall success. Certain human resource practices are essential for all organizations, including McDonald Corporation, and failure to follow them will result in subpar performance. Utilizing the below-discussed strategies is crucial for accelerating the organization's sales and profit growth. The primary components of change management techniques include employee motivation and retention tactics, personnel selection and management strategies. If simultaneously adopted in the organization, this method generates a family-like group and atmosphere (Worren and Moore, 1999).

Change management in the context of business is McDonald Corporation's unified and strategic approach to managing its workforce. It blends academic, social, and business principles in the implementation of workforce management approaches for McDonald Corporation. These procedures are intended to align with the company's goals, objectives, vision, and mission, with a particular focus on growth and development. An organization such as McDonald Company must effectively recruit, retain, and manage its employees. There is a presumption that employees are merely business assets in an organization, but human resource development professionals explain that these employees have varying life goals and needs that can be utilized by the organization to achieve its objectives while assisting the individuals in advancing their careers. (Kottler, 2002).

These are some of the fundamental functions of change management at McDonald's Corporation.

Personnel planning Recruitment and employment fostering workplace relations Personnel development and performance monitoring Personnel planning Management of training, compensation, and benefits

It is believed that the change management strategies utilized in strategic human resource management improve the procedures, processes, and policies designed in accordance with the strategic management of McDonald Corporation's tasks. This strategic management encourages strategic planning and critical thinking in all elements of employee evaluation, issue solving, and counseling. Knowledge about employee behavior, performance, and needs aids the organization in addressing diverse concerns, such as culture, religion, and race, head-on. In reality, research have demonstrated that certain human resource approaches have positively impacted corporate performance via workforce alignment. (1994, Sparrow and Hilltop).

Personnel planning

Cases of either overstaffing or understaffing are in some manner damaging to an organization's operations, making manpower planning a crucial function. If the organization is understaffed, the company's economies of scale and orders for specialization are lost. On the other hand, if an organization continues to overstaff, it becomes wasteful and costly. The McDonald Company's human resource development officers consequently incorporate these aspects into their planning processes. They guarantee that the organization's personnel is sufficient to fulfill its general responsibility requirements.

In order to determine the extent to which the McDonald Company may maintain, choose, or reduce its employees, an assessment of its existing and future workforce requirements is performed beforehand. Therefore, change management is used to balance the resources allocated for human resource development in order to maintain the organization's structures and goals. In addition, it helps provide an overall image or overview of the current workforce. This information may include age, gender, quantity, forecasting capabilities, and experience. Taking into account all of these criteria will ensure that the organization prioritizes workforce obligations and their upkeep. (Kottler, 2002) Workforce planning also includes a rigorous analysis and statistical evaluation of the organization's human resource requirements. This will assist the organization in planning for any future actions required to streamline its processes. Such measures may include labor cuts, layoffs, or retirement, if possible. As the organization's missions expand, stricter labor planning becomes necessary. Human resource development consequently enables McDonald Company management to anticipate future personnel management shortages, excesses, or wants (Murray and Schoonover, 1988).

Employee selection, training, and recruiting

The most effective way for an organization such as McDonald Company to improve its financial performance is to hire, select, and train the right individuals. To attain this objective, the most effective strategic practice is typically known as job-fit practice. This method is excellent for organizations that do not want their staff to undergo rigorous training and would rather have them do their jobs immediately using abilities acquired elsewhere. Another option is individual-organizational fitness. In this instance, the McDonald Company strives to recruit and select individuals with high moral standards who are compatible with its values, culture, and structure. (Kottler, 2002).

To assess the analysis of the upcoming assignment, change management approaches have been implemented. These approaches will assist management in selecting candidates with desirable attitudes and traits that match the job description. To assure the success of this process, some firms are enlisting the aid of professional recruiters to help them find the best candidates on the market. Although the process may be quite costly for the organization, it is deemed worthwhile. This practice is conducted with the intention of encouraging applicants to attend the selection process. This can be accomplished by providing competitive compensation and other advantages.

The whole workforce of McDonald Company has received management training in preparation for future managerial responsibilities. This is typically done in reaction to the company's business needs. It instructs its personnel in the development of selling chicken, hamburgers, breakfasts, milkshakes, soft drinks, salads, fruits, and carrot sticks, among other types of food, in order to address the challenges posed by new competitors. McDonald Company maintains well-trained, recruited, and selected workers. Managers and other employees are recruited via multiple levels of selection. Certain personnel who join the organization at a higher level undergo formal training (usually twenty four months training). Fresh graduates are provided with twelve months of training opportunities, while experienced managers are provided with three months of training to help them acquire team, financial, and sales management skills. Good training will assist employees to become innovative, and this creativity is suitable for the creation of new items that will be readily accepted by the market. This technique of change ensures that the company is able to satisfy the needs of the modernized market and client base, hence enhancing the company's overall sales margin (Laursen and Foss, 2003).

Employment Communication

Employment communication is the communication between employees in an organization, which is regarded as the most important factor that must be taken into account for improved coordination between taskforces within an organization. This indicates that McDonald Company employees are able to exchange information with their employers in a formal or informal manner. This enables employees to communicate with their employers about their issues, health concerns, working conditions, and legal concerns. Findings indicate that a healthy and supportive work environment is the most important component in establishing strong employment relationships. Strong employment connections are typically characterized by helpful and friendly coworkers, interesting work, a healthy and safe workplace, assistance in combining work and family life, and appropriate working demands. High levels of employee trust and commitment are correlated with perceptions of employer concern. If employees are dissatisfied with these features, they can request a meeting with the managerial staff, which is a formal means of interacting with the authorities. (Mark, 2001).

Through the supply of training, equipment, and information, McDonald's demonstrates its dedication to its employees' needs, which are consequently required to complete their tasks, through the delivery of the resources necessary to do the job successfully. Additionally, resources are likely to make workloads more manageable and increase worker productivity. Through training, it is possible to convey to employees what is expected of them to complete their tasks and the regulations necessary to do all tasks. Clearly, employment ties at McDonald Company are significant for both employees and employers. Strong employment relationships significantly influence job satisfaction, skill use and development, workplace morale, and worker absenteeism at McDonald Company, according to research. Strong employment relationships have a positive effect on the quality of work life and the performance of the business. On the other hand, perceived problems with compensation and job security have a greater impact on an employee's willingness to perform efficiently than the quality of their employment connections (Palmer and Akin, 2006).

Successful utilization of human resources and abilities is connected with effective employment communication. Employees with great employment communication have more opportunity to develop and apply their talents and abilities in a free environment since they have ways to express their feelings. This promotes the development of human capital, which is vital to both individual well-being and good organizational objectives.

In this example, we discover that this communication is typically influenced by a number of elements, such as the organizational change, which is stated to have the potential to negatively impact employees, eliciting informal methods of expressing dissatisfaction. Restructuring and downsizing are connected with lower levels of worker trust, commitment, communication, and influence. Employees may refuse to work in protest, or they may fight change through a strike. Before the changes are implemented, they should be effectively communicated so that staff are not taken off guard. Employers or the authorities should be responsible for persuading employers of the advantages of the proposed modifications to the present organizational structure, policies, and processes (Hoyer, 2001).

Decision making method

McDonald Company's most crucial change management aspect is the incapacity of senior managers to provide the necessary support for the achievement of organizational goals. It is evident that the actions of numerous senior managers has significantly contributed to the organization's lack of success. This is explicitly witnessed in the decision making process. Senior managers have adopted behavior of self centeredness and they always think that they are the only one who makes viable decisions in relation to goals being attained. This has resulted in lower-level managers and staff declining to participate.

Amazon.com Inc.’s Success Strategies In E-Commerce Write My Essay Help

Introduction

Amazon.com is a global firm that specializes in e-commerce. In 1994, Jeffrey P. Bezos started it (Kotler & Keller, 2012, p. 443). It has developed to become the leading internet store throughout time. Thus, it poses a competitive challenge to e-commerce businesses around the world. Currently, it is regarded as the most successful e-commerce corporation ever to exist. This study examines the secrets underlying its successful techniques.

Why Amazon is Successful

Amazon.com's success is largely attributable to their marketing approach. To optimize revenues, the corporation currently lists a selection of new products online (Kotler & Keller, 2012, p. 443). It began as a conventional bookstore and eventually expanded its operations online. This development assisted the organization in establishing a solid and dependable global consumer base. Its attempts to aid other vendors with product promotion have also contributed to its success (Kotler & Keller, 2012, p. 443). Through its internet platform, the company aids other bookshops in the marketing of their products. Thus, it draws a greater number of book sellers and customers.

Amazon.com has tailored its rates to match the needs of its clients, in addition to diversifying its marketing techniques. Extreme pricing can destroy a firm's competitive edge (Bharadwaj et al., 2013, p. 472). The majority of individuals favor items that are economical and of high quality. Amazon.com has been able to increase its performance and attract more customers by utilizing a pricing strategy that gives customers with the desired value at relatively cheaper prices.

Additionally, the organization is well-known for its rapid deliveries at lower prices and free shipping to certain locations (Kotler & Keller, 2012, p. 443). This strategy allows them to easily retain consumers, receive additional purchases, and maintain a high level of customer satisfaction.

In addition to the aforementioned factors, Amazo.com's decision to embrace internet technology has been a significant contributor to its success (Bharadwaj et al., 2013, p. 472). The company stays current with the most recent Internet technology, which has allowed it to optimize various web services available online. This strategy has allowed the company to create a global consumer base. Additionally, technology has enabled the company to diversify its product and service offerings. Currently, its product line consists of, among other things, DVDs, CDs, new computer software, and electronics (Kotler & Keller, 2012, p. 443).

According to Kotler and Keller (2012, p. 443), numerous firms seek to fulfill their goals by creating a willingness to take risks with new technology to improve business operations. Typically, they do so in an effort to create dependable and high-quality services that bring value to their organizations and increase client satisfaction.

Technology facilitates the reduction and simplification of administrative paperwork and superfluous procedures in businesses (The Price of the Paperless Revolution, 2010, P. 1). It also aids them in developing new product lines as necessary, as they are aware that all products and services eventually become irrelevant if they are not adjusted to meet customers' ever-changing wants. Therefore, with the aid of technology, they remain in touch with the tastes, preferences, and evolving market features of their clients. This is possible due to the fact that technology enables businesses to receive consistent input from current clients, hence generating leads for new product and service ideas.

Will Kindle disrupt the publishing industry?

Amazon.com has effectively disseminated the notion that the value of a traditional book has diminished with the arrival of new technology (The Price of the Paperless Revolution, 2010, p. 1). Supposedly, the digital book is simple to handle and can be transported without effort, allowing one to travel with an entire library. Additionally, the digital book may be readily translated into many languages. Once printed, traditional books are limited to a single language and can only be read by those who are fluent in that language. Therefore, the development of digital books has made translating, transporting, and utilizing them much simpler and less expensive.

Before the advent of electronic books, the bookselling industry in traditional bookstores was booming (Anscombe, 2012, p. 69). People could stand in line in libraries while searching for books to purchase. Today, however, libraries are filled with dusty volumes since people have migrated into the electronic age (Kirk, 2013, p. 60). Through computers, books are easily available and may be turned into nearly any format the reader wishes.

In addition, the e-book technology has reduced costs because it eliminates the concept of printing expenses (The Price of the Paperless Revolution, 2010, p. 2). There is no need to urge buyers to purchase e-books because they are readily available online. Consequently, some marketing and advertising costs are eliminated. The small storage space requirement of electronic books contributes to their popularity. In contrast to traditional books, which require a great deal of storage space, the e-book store is located on the computer. If they are represented in print mode, a single computer can store books that would ordinarily be held by multiple libraries (Anscombe, 2012, p. 69). The digital book is secure and always safe, even in the event of natural calamities. The online storage of digital books functions as a backup, which cannot be damaged under any circumstances.

In addition, when a buyer purchases a digital book, it is immediately accessible. The customer only needs to click a computer mouse to acquire the book. This convenience saves time and energy that would have been invested traveling to a bookstore. The kindle book may also be read at night in the dark because the devices that contain it typically include their own light (Anscombe, 2012, p. 70). This characteristic offers the Kindle book an allure that draws a large number of consumers. As a result of the e-reduced book's weight, page navigation is also simplified.

Another innovative aspect of the digital book is that many copies can be ordered from several locations simultaneously and delivered to the buyer in the comfort of their own homes. Based on all the benefits the Kindle offers over traditional books, it has already transformed the book industry.

What is the future of Amazon.com? Is Cloud Computing the Right Path for the Organization? Where else may this plant grow?

Amazon.com is one of the world's top providers of cloud computing (Kotler & Keller, 2012, p. 443). It features a variety of product offerings, such as simple storage service (S3) and elastic compute cloud (EC2), which are web services used to regulate Internet-based offers and enable corporate operations (Kotler & Keller, 2012, p. 443). It is straightforward and expedites the reduction or doubling of computing services within seconds.

Cloud computing also offers simple queue services (SQS). Together with Internet websites, this service provides a secure environment for computer resources. Many of these cloud-computing services align a variety of small, medium, and large businesses with customized goods for particular clients (Calloway, 2012, p. 163). Additionally, cloud computing reduces total IT expenditures and offers highly distributed service accessibility (Calloway, 2012, p. 164).

It substitutes the infrastructure required to launch a firm at the lowest cost achievable. It also anticipates the demands of customers and encourages businesses to embrace innovative apps to meet those needs (Calloway, 2012, p. 164). For example, simple storage service (S3) software provides a safe method for online data storage.

In addition, cloud computing has improved the provision of services. In a very brief amount of time, millions of operations can be executed. The software also aids in bringing applications to a specialized market in the world at a low cost and in a timely manner (Kotler & Keller, 2012, p. 443). The devices purchased through the service might assist a business in expanding its global market share. Amazon.com can now attempt to deliver items and other services directly to the customer's front door. It can also expand into other services, such as international mobile communication, and contemplate establishing data centers throughout the globe (Calloway, 2012, p. 167). Therefore, cloud computing is a potential expansion strategy for Amazon.com.

Small businesses that wish to compete with Amazon.com should ultimately evaluate their size, prices, the effectiveness of their offerings, and client satisfaction (Mudambi & Schuff, 2010, p. 185). Success requires regulating everything not only for the company's success, but also for the customer's delight. As the Internet continues to permeate every aspect of people's lives, businesses should continue to exploit this potential to advance and expand their operations. As new computer-related technologies appear every few years, the digital revolution has not yet reached its zenith.

References

Anscombe, Nicholas Nicholas (2012). E-reader upheaval? 7(2) Engineering & Technology: 68-71. Web.

Bharadwaj, A., El Sawy, O., Pavlou, P., & Venkatraman, N. (2013). To the next generation of insights in digital business strategy. MIS Quarterly, 37(2), pages 471 to 482

Calloway, Timothy J. (2012). Cloud computing, clickwrap contracts, and liability exclusions: A perfect storm? 11(1), 163-174, Duke Law & Technology Review.

Kirk, S. (2013). The audio library of the twenty-first century; out with the dusty bookshelves! 60-63 in American Music Teacher, 62(5).

Kotler, P., & Keller, K.L. (2012). Marketing Management (14th edition). Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Mudambi, S. M., & Schuff, D. (2010). (2010). What makes an online review helpful? A study of Amazon.com user reviews. 34(1), 185-200, MIS Quarterly

The Cost of the Digital Revolution (2010). 86(4) Virginia Quarterly Review, 1-2.

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Professional Ethics And Individual Rights And Freedoms Write My Essay Help

Summary of Contents
Introduction Human Aspects Discussion and Concluding Remarks Concerning Organizational Communication Culture References

Introduction

This paper is a summary of six publications by Ezzamel, Willmott, and Worthington (2001), Fleming and Spicer (2003), Orton (2000), Morrison and Milliken (2000), Piderit (2000), and Vince and Broussine (2000). (1996). The researchers investigated the elements that hinder (or facilitate) organizational change. This paper assesses their arguments and hypotheses using a three-pronged framework that describes their findings as organizational culture concerns, communication issues, and human factors (which affect organizational change). By bridging the gap between theory and experience, this research identifies novel insights for change management.

Human Aspects

According to Vince and Broussine (1996), the organizational focus in change management should shift from problem-solving and planning-based techniques to human emotions and interpersonal relationships. Specifically, they emphasize the necessity to comprehend how human uncertainty and defensiveness impact organizational transformation. According to Vince and Broussine (1996), human factors influence change management through influencing the acceptance of the change process by individuals.

In this analysis, we must examine multiple factors. For instance, change resistance is an attitude problem that most firms might resolve by appealing to human needs. Those who do so have a greater likelihood of obtaining staff support for change management. Faucheux (2013), for instance, tells the story of an American church (Jeff's Church) that intended to construct a new sanctuary for its worshippers but got complaints from some of its members for excluding them from the project.

The church resolved this issue by forming a steering committee that solicited input and participation from all church members. Eventually, the majority of members supported the project because they felt engaged in the process of transformation (Faucheux, 2013). This analysis demonstrates that focusing on people's emotions and interpersonal relationships, as Vince and Broussine (1996) emphasize, is essential to the success of organizational change.

Piderit (2000) supports the emphasis on human attitudes as a precondition for organizational change by arguing for a new approach to employee resistance. He asserts that people's attitudes influence their resistance to change (or support for it). In this context, Piderit (2000) asserts that achieving a balance between organizational and personal requirements will promote ambiguous attitudes about change. To achieve this, he suggested gaining an understanding of the evolution of employee resistance to change. Likewise, he underlined the need to comprehend how personnel react to proposed changes (using a bottom-up approach). He utilized this argument to describe the egalitarian transformation process (Piderit, 2000).

Communication

According to Morrison and Milliken (2000), the primary hindrance to organizational change is the failure of organizations to articulate the challenges that affect firm and employee performance. According to them, it is "unwise" for such firms to allow stakeholders to express organizational difficulties. They refer to this as "organizational silence" (Morrison & Milliken, 2000).

To encourage organizational change, the researchers researched the contextual elements that led to organizational change and proposed that removing these variables would promote change. This viewpoint is consistent with Faucheux's (2013) claims, which emphasized the need for managers to explain organizational change challenges to all stakeholders. In addition, he stated that the executive team must convince all stakeholders to support the change management process (Faucheux, 2013; Morrison & Milliken, 2000). Thus, personnel would comprehend the necessity of welcoming change. Such a strategy has been fruitful.

For instance, in 1981 British Airways hired a new manager who wished to restructure the company because he recognized that it was suffering from resource waste (Faucheux, 2013). The airline's staff was reduced as a result of his numerous reorganization efforts. However, before he did so, he informed all the organization's stakeholders of the necessity to restructure. This process geared employees up for the upcoming transformation. In the end, his efforts paid off, preventing the imminent collapse of the London-based airline (Faucheux, 2013).

Organization Culture

According to Fleming and Spicer (2003), subjectivity and power relations are significant elements in organizational change. These components largely comprise organizational culture. In this regard, Fleming and Spicer (2003) assert that the majority of employees who comprehend an organization's culture are likely to favor organizational change, but those who do not comprehend it hinder the process. The latter group does so due to feelings of isolation.

In addition, cynicism becomes a prevalent feature of their work performance. To describe this occurrence, Fleming & Spicer (2003) state, "We call this the ideology interpretation because power is reproduced inadvertently when one disidentifies with it" (p. 157). In general, Fleming and Spicer (2003) feel that cultural power has a significant effect on an organization's capacity to embrace change. Similarly, they assert that subjectivity impacts a company's adaptability (subjectivity might not necessarily come from within the organization). This fact also demonstrates that what many individuals may perceive as change-related frustrations may not necessarily be the case.

Orton (2000) utilized the aforementioned philosophy to illustrate how internal communications impact organizational design processes in the US intelligence community. On the basis of Weick's theory of organization development, he investigated the effect of three design assumptions on an organization's design process. According to his research, the organizational design process was constrained by dominant variables, causal laws, and executive directives (the three organization design assumptions) (Orton, 2000). Overall, Orton (2000) emphasized the necessity for companies to transition from simple to dependable architectures.

Ezzamel et al. (2001) have questioned the reason for employing new waves of management (as mentioned above) as the only prerequisite for re-engineering organizational processes. After analyzing the experiences of dissatisfied managers who attempted to re-engineer organizational processes, the researchers discovered that the majority of employees could easily deploy personal and collective forms of resistance to promote (or oppose) organizational change (Ezzamel et al., 2001). Although the authors recognize that external organizational variables, such as market shifts, play a role in organizational change, they assert that associating with prior working methods has a stronger effect on organizational change. Consequently, the authors acknowledge the importance of focusing on the impact of employee work experiences on organizational development.

Analysis and Conclusion

After reviewing the six studies featured in this paper, it becomes clear that organizational transformation is a dynamic and diverse subject. Human factors, communication, and organizational change emerge as the most significant elements influencing the process. As Ezzamel et al. (2001) note, despite the fact that many types of literature acknowledge the need for adopting modern change management paradigms, such as lean management, it is equally important to recognize the role that an employee's experience plays in shaping his resistance (or support) to the change management process.

Therefore, change management should concentrate on getting the "human aspect" correct before addressing other crucial concerns, such as communication and organizational culture. This study emphasizes the importance of a multidimensional approach to change management. In addition, it emphasizes the importance of combining past and present organizational requirements while designing future organizational processes.

References

The authors Ezzamel, Willmott, and Worthington are M. Ezzamel, H. Willmott, and F. Worthington (2001). In The Factory That Time Forgot, there is power, control, and opposition. 38(8), 1053-1079, Journal of Management Studies.

Faucheux, M. (2013). Successful Change Management Plan Examples Web.

P. Fleming and A. Spicer (2003). Implications of Working at a Cynical Distance for Power, Subjectivity, and Resistance. 10(1), 157-179, Organization.

Morrison, E. W., & Milliken, F. J. (2000). In a pluralistic world, organizational silence is an obstacle to change and growth. 25(4), pages 706-725, Academy of Management Review

Orton, J. D. (2000). Enactment, Sensemaking, and Decision Making: Redesign Processes in the US Intelligence Reorganization of 1976 37(2) Journal of Management Studies.

Piderit, S. K. (2000). A Multidimensional View of Organizational Change Attitudes: Rethinking Resistance and Recognizing Ambivalence The Academy of Management Review, volume 25, number 4, pages 783-794.

R. Vince and M. Broussine (1996). Accessing and Managing the Emotions and Relationships Underlying Organizational Change: Paradox, Defense, and Attachment 17(1) Organization Studies, pp. 1-21.

[supanova question]

The Report Of Hubbard Computers Using Dell Computers As Pure Play Company Write My Essay Help

Introduction

In calculating the weighted cost of capital of a non-listed firm for the purposes of an initial public offering, the industrial average is employed. A business within the same industry will be utilized. The ratio is used to assist the company in determining the market price for its shares. Individual components of the capital structure will be utilized for estimating.

Common shares

In the fundamental calculation of cost of capital, loan stocks are also comparable. Ordinary shares have value since it is anticipated that they would generate dividends.

Ex-dividend and cum dividend

Before we begin a detailed examination of dividends and how they relate to share prices, a few words must be mentioned regarding how shares are traded on the secondary capital market. Typically, shares are traded cum dividend, meaning that whoever purchases them will get dividends paid by the company. When a dividend is paid to shareholders other than the buyer, the shares are considered to be ex-dividend, and anyone who purchases them after the ex-dividend date will not get the dividend. It will be paid to former owners who have sold their shares since the closing date, notwithstanding the fact that they will no longer own the stock on the dividend payment date. As the share transitions from being traded cum dividend to being traded ex-dividend, it is not surprising that the share's price falls by the amount of the upcoming dividend.

Whenever the current market price of a share, P0, is utilized in an equation involving dividends and the cost of equity, one must use the ex-dividend price. To determine the ex-dividend price, we must subtract the amount of the upcoming dividend per share from P0.

Dividend model

A dividend model will be utilized to assess the questioned corporation. This metric evaluates the accessible cash flows to stock and debt holders.

PO = Ke(1+g)/r-g

In this company, however, there is no room for expansion, and I assume there is no expansion. However, we lack all the information necessary for growth.

Also, retained profit is utilized as a source of capital when using book values. It has an opportunity cost for shareholders because if such earnings were distributed, they could be used to create investments that generate revenue. However, it would be improper to deduct the cost of retained profit individually. The retained profits associated with a given share would be reflected in the dividend valuation model for that particular share. Thus, if the cost of equity is appropriately computed, the fact that the equity comprises a portion of share capital and a portion of retained profit will be automatically accounted for. Using Dell as an example, the cost of equity utilizing dividend growth will be

PO = D0(1+g)/Ke-g

PO = 8.39 dollars on the market

D1 = Dividends equal to zero

This indicates that this model will not be utilized, as it has not generated a profit for some time.

Capital asset price model

This leaves the capital pricing model as the only method for estimating the cost of equity. The CAPM proposes a greater risk rate than the dividend growth model. Jack Treynor, William Sharpe, John Linther, and Jan Mossin establish the Capital Asset Pricing Model, or CAPM. CAPM is a pricing methodology for individual securities and portfolios. Since he invests in assets, the investor is exposed to a higher level of risk. A portfolio or asset may take the form of bonds, stocks, options, warrants, real estate, and all its other possible forms.

In this type of model, investors exhibited aversion to risk. Given two assets with the same projected return, it is anticipated that they will select the asset with the lower risk. A non-diversifiable risk portfolio can help investors reduce their risk. Diversification reduces portfolio risk while maintaining the same return. Using the formula, we will determine the level of investment risk;

Individual investments' / beta

Reward-to-risk ratio = the securities on the market (portfolio) Benefit-risk ratio

Or

Ke = Rf + Bs (Rm – Rf)

Where: Ke = equity capital cost

Rf– the return achievable with a risk-free investment.

The model posits that, given a certain projected return, investors will prefer lower risk to higher risk. Certain a given degree of risk, investors favor bigger returns over lower ones. Investors cannot accept lesser returns in exchange for greater risk. The model assumes that all investors share the same opinion regarding the risk and potential returns of all assets. Additionally, the model assumes there are no taxes or transaction expenses.

Ke = Rf + Bs (Rm – Rf)

Where: Ke = equity capital cost

Rf– the return on a risk-free investment (such as a U.S. Treasury note) equals 2.5%.

Rm – the typical return on all investments (e.g , S & P 500 stock index)

Bs – beta (systematic) risk of the security. = 1.31 as of 6 March 2009.

And it is commonly considered that the difference between the market rate and the market free rate is 7%; consequently, the premium (Rm – Rf) of 7% will be utilized to determine the cost of capital.

Ke = 2.5% + 1.31(7%) = 11.67%

Loan term debt

With listed loan stocks, we should be aware of the loan stock's current market value, the contracted interest payment and dates, and the principle payback amount and date. Thus, in the preceding evaluation statement, we should know all factors except k. Solving for k will yield the required cost of capital value. Remember that the goal of calculating the cost of capital is to establish a discount rate for use in the valuation of an unlisted company. This refers to either the savings that would result from repaying the source of capital, or the cost of raising additional funds from the source.

Corporations periodically issue perpetual loan stocks. These lending stocks have no due date and will theoretically continue to pay interest forever. Similar to, but more straightforward than, the computation for redeemable loan stock cost of capital.

Where all Cn values are identical as n approaches infinity.

PEO = ∑Cn (1-T)

N =1 (1 +KL)n

The tax rate in this instance is 35%

In this example, though, we already know the yield, so we just need to determine the effective cost of capital. The loan capital for the company is as follows:

Rate (%) monetary amount (million) Yield (%) Formula

Effective yield (1-tax) tax rate

4.7 600 4.791 4.791 (1-0.35) 3.11

5.65 500 6.215 6.215(1-0.35) 4.04

6.5 400 8.365 8.365(1-0.35) 5.44

7.1 300 7.143 7.143(1-0.35) 4.64

Weighted Average Capital Cost

The subsequent assumptions

There is a known target ratio for the financing elements, which will continue for the duration of the investment project under consideration; The costs of the various elements will not change from the calculated costs in the future; and The investment under consideration has a risk profile comparable to the average of other projects undertaken by the business.

Then it makes sense to use the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) as the discount rate.

Using opportunity cost necessitates considering the savings in financing costs that would result if financing were to be expedited rather than investing in the project. Alternately, it could be viewed as the added expense of acquiring the necessary funds to sustain the project. If a target exists, repayment of funding or the acquisition of further financing would be conducted in accordance with the target.

The three assumptions indicated at the beginning of this section all relate to the fact that in investment project evaluation and any other situation where we may seek to evaluate the cost of capital, we are interested in the future cost. The final assumption, about risk, may require a remark. We know that the required rate of return/cost of capital depends in part on the level of risk surrounding the cash flows of the investment project in question based on a combination of intuition, casual observation of real-world events, and a sound theoretical premise.

This corporation will utilize a cost of capital of 11,3555 percent when evaluating capital projects. This is the average weighted cost of capital. It remains true so long as the variables are held constant and the underlying assumptions are upheld.

Noting that the rate is the acceptable rate is important. This charge applies just to this assignment.

Weighted Average Capital Cost Based on Market Values

The source (a) Market Value (c) (In thousands) Proportions (d) Cost% (e) Densely weighted (f)

16,310 000.00 0.91 11.67 10.571

4.7% Debt 597,960 0.03 3.11 0.103

5.65% Debt 480,555 0.03 4.04 0.108

6.5% Debt 318,960 0.02 5.44 0.096

7.1% Debt 298,608 0.02 4.64 0.077

Total 18,006,083 1.0000

10.955

The market-based weighted cost of capital is 10.955%

Sometimes, the weighted average cost of capital is referred to as the total cost of capital. This can be used to assess the net present value of a project if the project's risk is comparable to that of the firm's existing assets and the firm expects to maintain its desired capital structure.

Using book values will result in a weighted average cost of capital of

Cost of Capital Calculated Using Book Values

The source (a) Market Value (c) (In thousands) Proportions (d) Cost % (e) (e) Densely weighted (f)

4.159 million 0.7 11.67 8.145

4.7% Debt 600,00 0.1 3.11 0.313

5.65% Debt 500,000 0.08 4.04 0.339

6.5% Debt 400,000 0.07 5.44 0.365

7.1% Debt 300,000 0.05 4.64 0.234

Total 5,359,000 1.0000

9.396

Using Book values, the capital cost weighted average is 9.396%.

Best choice

Because market values are determined by market forces such as demand and supply, they are more applicable to this company. Book value cannot undervalue or overvalue the company's shares. The New York stock exchange efficiently values all equities, and these non-listed shares of this corporation will be valued using market prices.

Potential problems

Several issues are likely to arise if this company's stock is evaluated using market values, including either overvaluation or undervaluation. Using available information about the company and the industry, market forces in the New York Stock Exchange value stocks. Therefore, according to this theory, shares that are not listed on a stock exchange are not priced correctly because there are no demand and supply forces.

For a share to be considered price efficient, it must always reflect all information about the company that is available to investors in order for them to make sensible decisions regarding the prices of shares. This means that the current price of a share listed on a stock exchange represents the present value of the future economic gain an investor would receive from holding that share. The stock exchange works as a conduit between the manager and the investor; hence, the share prices of the company reflect the manager's financial actions.

All accessible information regarding the company is rapidly and rationally incorporated into the share prices of the company. This is due to the fact that brokers and the general public examine the trading of shares on the market. Some of these individuals have knowledge and expertise regarding the movement of shares and what type of incentive boosts the value of shares. When they see favorable information regarding the potential for financial benefit from shares, they purchase the stock. This information is accurate and derived from a variety of sources, including financial documents.

The current market valuation of the company does not even come close to the company's book value estimation. Compared to these prior market assessments, the present share price of approximately $8.39 remains high. There is also a significant contrast between the last internet stock bubble and the current real estate collapse the economy is suffering. Real estate has caused the recession, which has had significant effects on retail and manufacturing. It also affects the economy's financial and credit capabilities.

The simplest way to handle this problem is to assess the value of the peer group – build the right universe of comps – please justify the group you select and offer summaries and/or company descriptions for each firm to support your choice. Comp selection entails conducting research on the firm, its industry, and other information sources in order to determine its peer group.

One of the businesses that are comparable to Hubbard computing will be chosen. This company likewise manufactures computers, the only distinction between them and Hubbard computer. This is what has occurred.

Conclusion

When evaluating the numerous approaches for valuing Hubbard computer stock, the recommendation for what to do with Hubbard computer stock is to keep the stock. Since Dell had not distributed dividends, the valuation method utilizing the Free Cash Flow method already implies the lack of significance. Hubbard computer's worth should be increased by issuing dividends from another computer company.

References

Fischer, D.E., and R.J. Jordan, Security Analysis and Portfolio Management, Prentice-Hall, India, 2006, pages 559-560.

Business finance theory and practice. Prentice Hall, 2003.

Business finance: application, models, and cases, published by Prentice Hall in 2002.

Web.

Web. Westerfield R., Jaffe, and Jordan (2007); McGraw-Corporate Hill's finance fundamental principles and applications

White, G. I., E. C. Sondhi, and D. Fried, The Analysis and Use of Financial Statements, Wiley, 1999.

[supanova question]

Chicago Food And Beverage Company: Case Study Write My Essay Help

The contemporary environment offers numerous opportunities for international interaction. This affects the operations of numerous multinational companies in particular. Their personnel must travel, connect with new partners, and establish new branches in foreign nations. On the one hand, this presents great development opportunities. Conversely, international interaction is significantly more complex than interaction between states.

Therefore, it is essential to evaluate the various facets of these activities and approach them with greater care. The instance of the Chicago Food and Beverage Company is a noteworthy example of worldwide operation (Bodolica & Waxi, 2007). This paper's objective is to explore and analyze the issues this organization faces.

In the scenario at hand, firm managers adhere to a precise traditional staffing framework: each employee through distinct stages of development. After achieving some success and working for a given amount of time in the organization, they can advance to the next level. Such a structure is prevalent in modern corporations. Undoubtedly, it has numerous benefits, as it enables employees to become genuine professionals gradually (McNulty, & Brewster, 2017). In addition, people fully grasp what they must accomplish to progress the organization to the subsequent level of development. This decreases the amount of competitiveness inside the organization, hence contributing to an improvement in the organizational climate.

This framework had a severe impact on the work of Paul, the new manager of the Vietnamese branch of the organization. First, he lacked sufficient foreign experience. As a result, he has not attained sufficient management heights to get adequate compensation. Second, he was placed in an unusual environment with a new group of people. On the one hand, this is an excellent move for his career advancement. However, his higher-ranking teammates were hesitant to instantly accept him into their team (Bodolica & Waxi, 2007). Thus, Paul's employment at this branch became increasingly problematic, in part due to business policy.

In any event, Paul desired the discussed stance. He desired this position because the possibility to manage a company abroad presents an exceptional chance for professional development. Initially, it enabled him to communicate with overseas colleagues (Chen. 2019). Second, he will have the chance to demonstrate his competence in a significant role and become more professional in the eyes of corporate executives (Takeuchi et al., 2019). The third benefit of relocating overseas is the provision of housing and transportation. Therefore, Paul was able to remain calm regarding these aspects of life during the journey. In addition, the cost of living in Vietnam is lower than in the United States, thus he was able to fully immerse himself in the culture of another nation while working abroad.

Notable is the fact that Paul is the ideal candidate for an expatriate job. The company's managers immediately recognized his ambition and the essential openness for such work. In addition, his education level and experience living overseas bolstered his legitimacy in their eyes. Paul was able to complete his tasks despite the psychological challenges connected with living and working in a new location. This is how he earned the managers' trust and demonstrated his eligibility for high-level, responsibility responsibilities.

Undoubtedly, there are deficiencies in the company's expatriate management that should be recognized. Given the number of branches in various nations, for instance, each need skilled managers. They must also be modified for use in a certain country. The instance demonstrates that this is not always the case; hence, Paul had less comfortable working conditions than he may have had. It is vital to strengthen the HR department and pay close attention to expatriate personnel in order to rectify this scenario.

Despite this, the instance demonstrates that the organization gives ample chances for growth. Paul had not worked for the company for six years when he became a senior employee (Bodolica & Waxi, 2007). However, he earned a swift career advancement and leadership support. This indicates that managers evaluate a variety of personal and professional elements in addition to formal considerations. This is one of the advantages of working for this company.

Additionally, it is important to consider the good characteristics of the company's worldwide policy as a whole. Some businesses choose to recruit specialists in foreign nations. These individuals can unquestionably have a greater comprehension of the components of conducting business in their nation (Wiernik et al., 2017). Nonetheless, it is evident that the Chicago Food and Beverage Company prefers to cooperate with personnel from the central office. Managers are able to rely on them due to their training and performance requirements. This is why employees such as Paul can enjoy a unique international experience.

As stated previously, the organization offers a variety of expatriate compensation options. Such expenses include, for example, lodging and transportation. Additionally, it should be noted that expatriate personnel keep a portion of their income in their home country. In this approach, individuals are not "abandoned" and continue to feel like a member of the organization (Bader et al., 2016).

Unquestionably, the benefits of this strategy include favorable working circumstances and a sense of dependability and security. Unfortunately, employees may not be able to utilize all of these benefits in a foreign country, rendering some bonuses meaningless. Simultaneously, live human communication (one of the greatest perks of any occupation) may not be of the required standard.

The Human Resources department at the US headquarters might take steps to increase expatriate happiness. First, this department must be expanded so that each employee overseas receives greater attention. It can be built not just within the main headquarters, but also in separate sections for each country to make communication more accessible.

Thus, individuals such as Paul will not feel abandoned and alone in a foreign place. Meyer et al. (2016) remark, "Cultural, economic, and social factors can be listed as external factors that have some effect on expatriates" (p. 139). Moreover, according to Qureshi et al. (2017), "corporations are increasingly struggling to meet the challenges of knowledge transfer, control, and cross-unit coordination" (p. 321). Consequently, it would be more convenient to have a different management team for each branch.

The monetary and non-material pay of employees must also be revised. Even employees with fewer than six years of service can be compensated according to the economic conditions of a foreign country, if they have worked abroad. Intangible rewards in the form of honor certificates or even promotions will also assist improve the spirits of employees. Despite the prestige of working in another country, it is rather challenging; consequently, expatriate personnel must be maintained consistently.

Thus, the case under consideration provides a vivid illustration of the organization's foreign efforts. Upon examination, it becomes evident that this process is fraught with numerous obstacles. If a corporation opens overseas branches and sends personnel there, the manager must work with them with heightened vigilance.

Not only should it be kept in mind that their labor must be compensated differently since they work under different conditions, but also that their working conditions must also be taken into account. It is also essential to note that working in a foreign environment is mentally demanding. Therefore, those in expatriate roles require ongoing support and assistance; only then will the company's growth be rapid and efficient.

References

Bader, B., Schuster, T., Bader, A. K. (2016). Expatriate management: Transatlantic discussions. Springer.

Bodolica, V., & Waxi, M. (2007). The difficulties of managing foreign assignments at a Chicago food and beverage firm. International Academy of Case Studies Journal, 13(3), 31-42. Web.

Chen M. (2019). The influence of expatriates' cross-cultural adaptation on work stress and job engagement in the high-technology industry. 10, 2228 Frontiers in psychology

McNulty, Y., and C. Brewster (2017). Establishing boundary requirements for corporate expatriates through theorizing expatriate's meaning. Web site for the International Journal of Human Resource Management.

Meyer, B., Meyer, V. Jr., Da Silva, K., Brandão, L. (2016). Managing expatriates: An examination of the experience of a multinational Brazilian firm. Revista de Ciências da Administracão, 18(46), 137-147.

Takeuchi, R., Li, Y., & Wang, M. (2019). (2019). Examining the Effects of Work Experiences on Longitudinal Change Patterns in the Expatriates' Performance Profiles 45(2) Journal of Management 451–475.

Qureshi, M., Shah, S., Mirani, M., & Tagar, H. (2017). A conceptual paper aimed at understanding expatriate employment performance. 7.320-332 International Journal of Academic Research in the Business and Social Sciences

Wiernik. B., Rüger, H., & Ones, D. (2017). Private and public success elements in managing expatriates Verlag Barbara Budrich.

[supanova question]

Strategy Implementation Of Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. Write My Essay Help

Hertz Global Holdings is a major player in the automobile and equipment rental markets. It operates under conditions of intense rivalry, which necessitates the continual development and enhancement of its strategy. The latter should consider a large variety of aspects that affect the operation of the organization.

Recent concerns relating to Hertz's business operations have resulted in disastrous implications for the company. Consequently, the discussion of its business plan in the current environment appears to be an appropriate course of action. This study intends to analyze Hertz's market position, assess the company's corporate social responsibility, and identify the company's growth potential.

Hertz's Background

Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. is involved in the automobile and equipment rental industries on a global scale. This equipment rental is managed by Hertz Equipment Rental Corporation. The company operates in four segments: U.S. automobile rental, international car rental, worldwide equipment rental, and all other businesses. In the United States, the segment sells automobiles, crossovers, and light trucks, as well as related products and services (Hertz Global Holdings, 2020).

The worldwide car rental division is involved in the global rental market. The equipment division then rents industrial, construction, and material handling equipment, among others. Donlen, "which provides rental and fleet management services," is included under the All Other Operations division (Hertz Global Holdings, 2020, p. 141).

According to Noe, Pully, and Reavis (2018, p. 2), "in 2005, Hertz was purchased by three private equity investment firms, which then went public in 2006." The company's headquarters are located in Naples, Florida, and it has contemporary properties around the world.

Internal and External Environment Evaluation

It seems reasonable to assert that the examination of Hertz's current market position necessitates the use of multiple significant management models. In this regard, the significance of Porter's Five Forces, PESTLE, Porter's Value Chain, and core competencies has been demonstrated. Thus, the aforementioned technologies are suitable for analyzing the current status of Hertz. In order to make a logical argument, both primary and secondary evidence from reputable sources will be utilized.

PESTLE Analysis

The PESTLE model is a method for analyzing an organization's external environment. It takes political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental concerns into consideration (Hall, 2020). Today, the withdrawal agreement relating to the United Kingdom's exit from the European Union is the most influential force in Hertz's political structure.

Considering the international scope of the company's operations and the significance of the European market, such situations create concern in the automobile rental business. Nonetheless, this industry is typically not significantly impacted by political considerations; for the company, this climate may be regarded favorable.

The effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) in the United States are among the most important economic factors for Hertz. Supposedly, this change will lead to a drop in the tax rates on real estate and business earnings, as well as an increase in market activity. Then, reducing mortgage interest rates and reducing tax incentives at the state and local levels will wean the government from the detrimental practice of intervening with pricing processes. Additionally, rental demand is an important component to consider, and it can be considered that it is stable and advantageous for the organization.

There are also a lot of social factors to consider. There has been a recent trend toward lowering the minimum age for car rental consumers. Such a strategy is based on the substantial demand from young drivers in wealthy nations. Hertz follows this trend and lowers the minimum age to hire a vehicle from 20 to 18 at all corporate-owned facilities in the United States and Canada (Tore, 2020, para. 1).

COVID-19 also has a significant societal influence, which should be emphasized. People are compelled to minimize their usage of public transportation, and many must rent cars. Consequently, despite its devastating effects on the entire world and all businesses, the pandemic has some positive effects on the rental industry. In contrast, COVID-19 compelled Hertz to seek US bankruptcy protection (CNBC, 2020). These benefits did not result in long-term earnings.

In the context of technology, Hertz has also accomplished remarkable things. For example, the company has introduced a service called DriveU. It is a driver service that picks up a person at a specified spot and transports him or her to the desired location. Together with Air France, the corporation is "offering the new transfer service with private driver Hertz DriveU at over 300 airports worldwide" (Hertz and Air France, 2019, para. 1).

Attached computer dashboards display the names of passengers and follow their flights in the event of last-minute adjustments. Modern competition necessitates substantial investments in technology advancement, and Hertz does not appear to be an outlier in this respect. Constantly, corporate representatives assert that this strategy results in superior strategic fleet management. Hertz adheres to the industry-wide trend of incorporating biometric technology, which is reinforced by favorable consumer feedback.

Then, a variety of legal issues will be investigated; the automobile rental business is highly regulated due to a substantial number of consumer protection legislation. Such conditions are necessitated by the need to protect the personal information and interests of customers. Clients must supply a substantial amount of this confidential personal information. In the European context, for instance, there is the General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR.

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) was developed to harmonise data privacy legislation in Europe, safeguard citizens, and modify organizations' approaches to data privacy (Navoar, 2018). According to Navotar (2018, paragraph 6), the GDPR should be viewed more as an opportunity than a danger. If a business is GDPR-compliant, it establishes a strong client relationship. Since he or she knows that the information provided will be secure, he or she will not hesitate to supply additional information.

Lastly, the current environmental condition and international organization regulations need the creation and implementation of sustainable business strategies. It implies that Hertz should adhere to eco-friendly practices, such as maintaining a fuel-efficient fleet. In particular, the UN Sustainable Development Goals heavily influence the policy of all industries (The SDGs explained for business, no date). To save its well-known brand and reputation, Hertz must demonstrate a sophisticated awareness of and commitment to these goals.

The Five Forces Analysis of Porter

Porter's evaluation tool for the external environment includes five indicators: threats of new entrants, bargaining strength of suppliers, threats of replacement services or goods, and competitive rivalry. Utilizing this tool enables for the depiction of Hertz's external conditions through the stated dimensions (The five forces, no date). It is plausible to assert that the route for enhancing the company's competitiveness is highly dependent on an accurate understanding of the elements listed above.

As the industry demands considerable initial investments and implies severe rivalry, the threat of new entrants is limited. It is difficult for these new entrants to compete with industry titans such as Hertz and Avis. However, Hertz's performance could be impacted by new industry entrants introducing innovations or using pricing tactics that are less expensive. To counteract this challenge, the company will prioritize sustainability and ongoing progress. New competitors will not be able to compete with such a suitable policy of the well-known company.

By collaborating with several partners who offer raw materials, suppliers' bargaining strength in the automobile rental business may be diminished. Recently, Hertz chose to use the formula of one supplier per nation, which it had previously employed for a time (Ludwig, 2014). Thus, the stated influence may be seen high; nonetheless, Hertz creates substantial ties with these suppliers and selects those that tend to rely on the company. This instills a great deal of confidence in the earliest sectors of the value chain and provides a high level of assurance for the strategy.

Due to the company's global reach, purchasers have little negotiating leverage. Hertz has a large customer base comprised of clients from all around the world. Regularly, consumers opt for Hertz due to the company's excellent reputation and recognizable brand. In this aspect, Hertz Global Holdings does not appear to experience any pressure. Although customers have options, Hertz is not significantly impacted by these alternatives.

As there are no uniquely diverse items or services on the market, the threat of substitute goods or services is also low. Hertz recognizes the significance of being both a product-oriented and service-oriented organization. This emphasizes the crucial strategic factor of knowing the needs and requirements of the consumer, which the company appears to implement effectively. Therefore, Hertz Global Holdings' principal objective, within the scope of this threat, is not to reduce the quality of its services and to continue its development. It may be sufficient for a corporation with such international potential and a stellar reputation.

Lastly, the competitive competition of the sector is fierce; owing to its global activities, Hertz must contend with industry titans such as Enterprise Holdings and Avis Budget Group. This industry attribute may result in reduced prices and a decline in the market's overall profitability. Increased competitive pressures from outside the industry (Baker, 2019, para. 11).

Competitors are modifying their policies, enhancing their sustainable practices, and seizing every opportunity to be innovative. These difficult conditions force Hertz to invest much in continual market research and the hiring of related specialists to determine the optimal business model. At this juncture, it appears crucial to analyze the internal environment of the company utilizing Porter's Value Chain and core competencies.

The Value Chain Analysis of Porter

Michael Porter's key instrument for evaluating an organization's internal environment is to determine how a business creates value and gets a competitive edge. There are two categories of business activities: primary and secondary (Tardi, 2020). The former consists of inbound logistics, operations, outgoing logistics, marketing, sales, and service, whereas the latter comprises the organization's infrastructure, technical development, human resource management, and procurement.

Within the context of inbound logistics, the car rental business may be viewed as a distinct segment. Hertz does not manufacture its automobiles, but rather gets them from sources; the company has no manufacturing operations. There is no requirement for the corporation to coordinate the incoming transport of raw materials to facilities or warehouses. In this context, inbound logistics refers to those of automakers such as General Motors, Fiat, Ford, Kia, Toyota, Nissan, and Hyundai, among others (Hertz Global Holdings, 2020). In this sense, Hertz's partners typically exhibit a substantial commitment to the recognized norms of the automotive sector.

It may be reasonable to assert that Hertz has constructed a suitable and consistent operating system. The company manages "both airport and non-airport locations that utilize common vehicle fleets, are supervised by common national, regional, and local area management, and utilize numerous common systems" (Hertz Global Holdings, 2020, p. 2).

According to Hertz Global Holdings (2020, p. 2), "both types of locations are components of a single, unified vehicle rental business." Hertz operates internationally and in the United States. As stated previously, the company offers car rental services for both business and pleasure, with airport and non-airport sites. This significantly expands the scope of Hertz's business operations.

Then, "in addition to vehicle rental, our Donlen subsidiary offers integrated vehicle leasing and fleet management solutions" (Hertz Global Holdings, 2020, p. 44). Thus, the company has a diverse revenue capacity, a flexible cost structure, and the ability to alter fleet options.

The company's outbound logistics also exhibits a number of distinguishing features. As noted in the five forces analysis, Hertz has a tendency to limit the number of suppliers per country. These vendors deliver their automobiles to the company's facilities and provide all required documents and warranties. "During the year ended December 31, 2019, we [Hertz] operated a peak rental fleet of approximately 567,600 vehicles in our US Rental Car segment and 204,000 vehicles in our International Rental Car segment" (Hertz Global Holdings, 2020, p. 9). It may be believed that the company's large fleet and remarkable numbers are among its key competitive advantages.

Hertz is one of the most seasoned actors in the industry. Due to its history and excellent reputation, the company does not need to devote a great deal of resources to advertising and marketing. However, it employs a number of effective sales and marketing initiatives to attract and keep customers.

Hertz's "sales force calls on insurance and leasing companies, automobile repair shops, and vehicle dealers, among others, whose employees and associates need to rent vehicles for business purposes or replacement rental needs" (Hertz Global Holdings, 2020, p. 4). The company promotes its automobile rental services through a variety of media outlets, partner publications, and direct mail. Additionally, Hertz engages in a variety of other promotional endeavors, including press and public relations campaigns.

Hertz's developed and noteworthy customer service services may be viewed as an additional competitive advantage. Support is available 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and is prepared to meet any client demands and needs. In addition, the corporation offers many client loyalty programs with numerous rewards.

Participants in the Hertz Gold Plus Rewards program, for instance, frequently bypass the rental counter and proceed directly to their vehicle upon their arrival at our site (Hertz Global Holdings, 2020, p. 6). Hertz Fast Lane is another prominent service that distinguishes the company's performance. It enables Hertz Gold Plus Rewards members to bypass the rental desk and exit the airport via faster biometric ID verification (Hertz Global Holdings, 2020, p. 7). The organization demonstrates a predilection for client service, which highlights its service-oriented strategy.

Now, it is crucial to analyze the company's support activities, starting with the infrastructure. The Board of Directors and five committees manage Hertz: the Audit Committee, Compensation Committee, Finance Committee, Nominating and Governance Committee, and Technology Committee (Hertz Global Holdings, 2020).

All top executives are well-respected, seasoned experts who know how to remain competitive in the face of intense competition. The company claims that it has established “corporate governance policies which are intended to ensure that our corporate affairs will be managed in compliance with high ethical standards and the requirements of law” (Hertz, no date, para. 1). Such an approach shows that Hertz has no issues with crucial

Effective Communication And Training In Implementing A Performance Management System Write My Essay Help

Communication between management and employees is essential for an organization's success. It can assist eliminate worker resistance and arrange their work, taking into account both their requirements and the company's goals. Managers must convey the proper message to employees and ensure the company's dependability and credibility. Therefore, the majority of businesses install a Performance Management System to improve team communication and create a healthy environment for all employees.

Frequently, corporations use rating systems to analyze employee performance, determine their strengths and shortcomings, and give necessary training. Occasionally, the system fails, and workers' performance evaluations may be erroneous, leading to misunderstandings among the team.

Various rater errors may arise when rating a customer service employee. It occurs because the person evaluating only considers one positive or bad component of a worker's performance; the grader is either overly lenient or too harsh, evaluating on a higher scale or, conversely, too low (Aguinis, 2019). Moreover, the worker is frequently graded based on their first impression rather than their continual work performance, or they are compared to the boss (Aguinis, 2019).

If such errors occur, they must be immediately identified and eliminated, since they can lead to miscommunication between employees and executives and, as a result, reduce the overall performance of the firm (Aguinis, 2019). As a result, the overall job performance of workers would decline.

For adequate overall performance, the alignment of company goals with personnel goals and performance management systems is essential. To achieve it, the organization must first examine its goals, the means to attain them, and the aims and demands of its employees (Aguinis, 2019). It is essential to determine them before to adopting the performance management system, so that communication between employees and leaders is formed from the start. Otherwise, leaders run the risk of misguiding the team, which can harm the entire process. It can be beneficial to select the proper training program for managers so that all objectives are met with the greatest value to both employers and employees (Aguinis, 2019).

A performance management system can aid in the improvement of presentation organization. Still, it cannot guarantee that the aims of leaders and employees are aligned, therefore it risks providing a misleading evaluation with various inaccuracies.

Companies evaluate employees' work presentations in order to improve their Management performance. To avoid rater errors, the business should train its raters so that they can accurately evaluate the job performance of its employees. Typically, evaluators do not have sufficient time to learn all aspects of workers' job performance in depth. Consequently, occasionally rater errors occur due to the fact that they evaluate based on their own knowledge (Harari & Rudolph, 2017). Companies should give raters with training to ensure their ability to accurately estimate progress.

The majority of training procedures are devoted to studying various errors and their causes and reducing the likelihood of an error occurring (Harari & Rudolph, 2017). Raters learn how to avoid these errors so that their evaluations are adequate with minimal flaws, and they are able to assist future employees in delivering improved performances (Harari & Rudolph, 2017). For instance, rater errors in the evaluation of Customer Service are typically the result of feedback and comments from consumers. During the employee evaluation process, the management of a customer service employee should consider all aspects of job performance and personal attributes, not just client input.

Specifically, this is the primary emphasis of the Rater Error Training. To help the rater better operate the evaluation process and make the best assessment possible based on current knowledge with minimal disturbance, the training is intended to help the evaluator identify all flaws and learn how to prevent them in future evaluations (Moser et. al., 2016). For instance, halo effect mistake happens when raters rely solely on one performance to determine overall work performance, and strictness occurs when the evaluator rates the performance negatively (Moser et. al., 2016). Contrast Effect refers to the practice of evaluating a worker based on comparisons to others rather than his actual job performance (Moser et. al., 2016).

The most frequent errors are the First Impression error and the Similar-to-Me error, which occur when the assessment focuses on a single judgment while neglecting the whole performance and when the workers are judged based on their similarities with the leaders (Moser et. al., 2016). The Rater Error Training is designed to instruct raters on how to prevent these errors and obtain the most accurate assessment of work performance (Moser et. al., 2016). This training focuses mostly on adhering to the standards system, but it does not guarantee that future faults that were not caught by the system will not occur. Therefore, raters will not be trained and may produce erroneous ratings in the future.

While Rater Error Training focuses mostly on reducing errors as opposed to improving assessment accuracy, Frame-of-Reference Training increases rating correctness for a better understanding of employees' work performance (Moser et. al., 2016). In this instance, assessors are instructed to modify the rater standards in order to better comprehend the overall performance of the workforce. They are instructed not to mindlessly follow the system, but also to utilize their own thoughts and judgment to achieve the most precise outcomes (Moser et. al., 2016). It benefits the rating system and can contribute to an adequate evaluation. However, this approach is excessively dependent on the human element, as evaluators can grade workers not only based on evaluation requirements, but also using their own discretion.

Rater Errors Training teaches raters how to identify and avoid errors; but, it does not improve the accuracy of the evaluation. Frame-of-Reference Training, on the other hand, is the polar opposite; it teaches how to attain higher assessment correctness without explaining how to avoid rater errors. Therefore, this research proposes merging the previously discussed rater error training techniques to produce superior outcomes.

In conclusion, Management Performance System can benefit the organization by maximizing employer-employee communication. Ensuring trust and solid team relationships among all employees helps motivate workers to perform with more dedication. To have a better knowledge of employees' job performance, businesses should evaluate them extensively. To avoid errors in the assessment process, however, firms should offer raters with the appropriate training, which is intended to teach them how to avoid certain errors and provide an accurate appraisal of an individual's overall job performance.

References

Aguinis, H. (2019). Performance management was published by John Wiley & Sons in Hoboken, New Jersey.

Harari, M. B., & Rudolph, C. W. (2017). A meta-analysis evaluating the influence of rater accountability on performance evaluations. Human Resource Management Review, 27(1), pp. 121 to 133. Web.

Moser, K., Kemter, V., Wachsmann, K., Kover, N. Z., & Soucek, R. (2016). Evaluating rater training using double-pretest, single-posttest designs: a study of testing effects and the moderating effect of rater self-efficacy. 29(18), pages 2609–2631, in The International Journal of Human Resource Management. Web.

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Global Financial Crisis: Financial Reporting Write My Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Causes of the Financial Crisis Resolutions to the Financial Crisis Bibliography

Introduction

As a result of the contemporary global financial crisis, numerous obstacles have evolved, especially for those in the capital markets. These problems change the formulation of significant rules by policymakers. According to Linn, the financial crisis has spread like a plague and sown confusion regarding personal finances (2008). Regulatory boards endeavor to find a remedy for this dilemma. According to Herz, "while accounting did not cause the crisis and will not end it, it did reveal a number of areas where standards and overall transparency need to be improved" (2009, p. 3). This is a significant problem in the modern world.

The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) is concerned with the dissemination of transparent and objective financial information based on the performance and financial situations of a firm. This is done to investors and financial markets. This is intended to facilitate informed investment decisions and the allocation of capital between nations. They do not, however, govern the capital. The government trust reserves funds, while the capital is controlled by significant investors and banks. Therefore, the global financial crisis cannot be totally attributed to standard regulators. Numerous academics have advanced the argument on the financial slump in nations. The question is how to address it so as to generate economic growth directed toward enhancing the quality of life for individuals.

The cause of the Financial Crisis

"The immediate cause of the crisis was the 2005-2006 bursting of the U.S. housing bubble" (Justin 2007 p. 12).

This prompted significant investors to borrow from banks for the purpose of constructing homes. However, this procedure was regarded as extremely hazardous. Government and private interest organizations have played significant roles in the expansion of subprime lending. According to Steven, this is because they promote riskier lending practices.

Similar to the savings and loan business in the 1980s in the United States, government-sponsored corporations may have economic degradation difficulties necessitating government intervention ( 1999 p. 2). Some government agencies' deregulatory policies contributed to the financial crisis. According to Robert, the Securities and Exchange Commission loosened the net capital limit in 2004, allowing investment banks to grow debt levels that fueled mortgage-backed securities (2008). Paul argued that by these principles, the shadow banking system's financial entities are not considered to be bonds; this permits them to incur extra debt obligation relative to their capital base (2009).

Moreover, fundamental supporting infrastructure is lacking. This restricts the flow of information to investors, which exacerbates economic disaster. Some nations lack clear economic methods and a transparent price discovery system. This has caused significant decision makers to fall behind in the growth of economic marketplaces. Moreover, other countries have sophisticated regulatory systems; they have complex accounting and financial reporting rules, making it difficult for investors to grasp the board's standards. As a result, this contributes to the economic downturn.

Some western nations' accumulation of riches has caused the global economy to deteriorate. This is due to the fact that the collected capital was not in circulation and hence did not result in lucrative investments. In the United States, for instance, the costs of healthcare, fuel, and other needs have increased. This increases the people' cost of living.

Remedy for the Financial Crisis

Herz argued that key accounting and reporting rules must be improved and strengthened. Extremely critical information must be protected. In addition, it is practical to reassure financial investors and enforce credit evasion swaps and futures. There are only a few gaps that the board must close in order to increase openness. In addition, suitable infrastructures should be created to enable financial markets' timely flow of vital information, informed decision-making, and efficient processes. The periphery financial reports' transparency also adds to the nation's progress. Since government entities and banks control the flow of capital, they should play a crucial role in ensuring its equitable distribution (2009 p. 6)

As members of the investment community, members expect impartiality and transparency that does not favor special interest groups; the standard setting board should ensure precision to sound financial markets that are relevant, honorable, and provide timely information. These standards should be modified to establish a basis for stable economic growth that inspires trust in the nation's citizens, so promoting economic progress.

The government, according to Linn, should prioritize providing sustained public support. This will contribute to the nation's bright future. They must foster a close working relationship between citizens. They should ensure that the administration of public confidence in their economic system is effective. The Treasury Department should provide money market funds with protection. They can do so utilizing a fund established during the Great Depression (2008 p. 1). This is because the money market is not entirely secure, as capital market swings are possible.

The regulatory board should address the issue of concurrent global market operations. They should accomplish this by resolving policy disputes; hence, they should create consensus aims and objectives. They are even capable of coordination. Consequently, many nations will have access to markets, which will provide them a competitive advantage. Our financial and regulatory system must be reformed with the general population in mind.

This is vital to provide the public with superior and advantageous services. In certain instances, according to Herz, a single accounting or reporting move may not fulfill the objectives of regulators, reporting to investors, and capital markets. Transparency on the different treatments is essential in such situations. In addition, it is inappropriate to reduce or weaken the external treatment of investors to satisfy the wishes of regulators (2009 p. 12).

There should be appropriate guidelines for institutions, financial products, and market participants. This is done to identify and successfully adjust risks and returns associated with financial assets and commitments. These policies should not be designed for oversight and enforcement of lapses. It should ensure the integration of various policies for more effective and accountable formulation. In addition, the regulatory board should evaluate fair value measurement and credit disclosure. They should provide exact information to prospective investors in order for them to plan how to obtain favorable lending arrangements.

According to the World Bank's "Topics in development financial crisis" report, the global economy is exhibiting signs of recovery. Nonetheless, poor countries remain in a recession. Therefore, they require further aid to stimulate their economy. Poor countries are capable of increasing global demand, but they need access to capital. The World Bank is requesting a crisis response facility in order to provide these nations with prompt and effective aid.

In 2009, the bank granted 60 billion dollars to countries experiencing a financial crisis. It implemented programs to protect the most vulnerable. They did it by implementing a global food crisis program (GFRP) that supplied food aid to nations suffering from famine. They also provided swift social response programs that ensured the equitable distribution of essential social necessities. In addition, they assisted with infrastructure maintenance.

This ensured the flow of commerce, bolstered the ailing banking system, and supported microfinance. In addition, it has facilitated liquidity on the financial markets by guaranteeing African investment and leveraging faster and more effective insurance capabilities. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, which was unveiled in June 2009, has bolstered support for agricultural financing; this was done in rural areas so as to expand financing in such regions. The World Bank has formed partnerships with other nations in order to assist the poorer nations (2009).

This formula serves as a safeguard against future occurrences of such financial catastrophes. According to Shiller, the answer to the subprime mortgage crisis includes information and creativity at the expense of collective sense (2008). The current financial crisis was precipitated by the Federal Reserve, bankers, mortgage brokers, and homebuyers' errors. Therefore, we must implement rational ways to escape the predicament.

Crisis situations necessitate leadership and certainty. They must bolster the confidence of the populace (This financial crisis needs a global solution 2008). The government must also ensure the people's transparency. It has become evident that the actions of a single government are insufficient to make a noticeable change.

Conclusion

Accounting did neither cause or resolve the global financial crisis. The only thing regulators should do to ensure transparency is to close minor loopholes. According to Herz, the current economic crisis teaches us that the United States economy and domestic issues are shared by a number of other nations as well. In the past two years, we have witnessed the formation of a global economic crisis, which has brutally demonstrated that national markets and economies are now inextricably interconnected (2009 p. 5).

Some of the difficult accounting and reporting issues resulting from the financial crisis are attributable to inadequate regulation and risk management, hazardous lending, and unsecure practices. In addition, the market for structured credit products and derivatives has lacked the necessary market infrastructures. Under such deplorable conditions, accounting and evaluation are significantly impacted, therefore they cannot bear sole responsibility.

A nation large enough to provide its residents with whatever they desire is also large enough to expel them. Therefore, the government must intervene and encourage residents' initiative and motivation. It should focus less on personal wealth and more on public accountability. Additionally, the Treasury must successfully manage the nation's trust refunds. A prosperous nation is one that can build a solid foundation with the bricks hurled at it by others. In order to achieve sustainable economic growth, the government should deploy blazing zeal, supported by common reason and perseverance.

Bibliography

Accounting for Economic Events, published by Scholars Book Co. in Houston in 1965.

According to Deegan, C. (2009). Financial Accounting Theory, Third Edition, North Ryde, New South Wales, Australia: McGraw-Hill Australia.

Herz, R. H 2009. Thoughts and observations on establishing a more stable financial system: History does not repeat itself; rather, individuals repeat history. National press association

2007 Justin, L. "Egg Cracks Differ in Housing and Finance Shells." WSJ.com (Wall Street Journal). Web.

Linn, A Personal Financial Crisis in 2008: What You Should Know.

Rule Allows Banks to Accumulate Debt. (n.d.) New York Times-The Reckoning-Agency. 04. New York Times-The Reckoning-agency.

n.d. NYT-The Reckoning-

Fannie reached a tipping point as a result of pressure to assume greater risk. The Reckoning, NYT.

Paul, K 2009. The Return of Depression-Era Economics and the 2008 Financial Crisis. The W.W. Norton Company, Ltd.

The future of the financial industry, Finance Department, New York University Stern School of Business, n.d. Philippon, T., and C., n.d. Cornell University.

Robert, E., and T. Mark. 2008. "More Horrible Facts about Republicans." Ludwig von Mises Institute. Web.

Robert J. Shiller 2009. How the current global financial crisis arose and what may be done about it. United States publishers Web.

The Subprime Solution is the Stanbic bank of the United States. (2008). This global economic crisis requires a worldwide response. United States' Stanbic bank Web.

1999, Steven A.H., "Fannie Mae Eases Credit To Help Mortgage Lending," The New York Times: section.

World Bank 2009 What the World Bank is Doing Regarding Development Financial Crises. World Bank website.

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NextDC Limited Firm’s Corporate Governance And Capital Market Write My Essay Help

NXT Limited's Corporate Governance Audit and Risk Management Committee

NEXTDC Limited (ASX: NXT) is an Australian data center operator that delivers innovative connectivity services and data center outsourcing solutions that enable corporate transformation across the nation. As an ASX-listed firm, adherence to financial reporting rules is required. The Board members comprise the Audit and Risk Management Committee (ARMC) of NEXTDC, which plays a crucial role in corporate governance (NEXTDC, 2019). As noted in Appendix 1, Jennifer Lambert, the chair of the ARMC, is independent, as are the majority of other members. In other words, there are no variables that could impede independent judgment.

In addition, as shown in Appendix 1, fifty percent of ARC members have accounting and risk management knowledge. Dr. Doyle has served on the Audit, Governance, and Sustainability Committees, whilst Mr. Lambert has 25 years of experience in financial management and accounting (NEXTDC, 2020). It is the responsibility of the ARMC to assist the Board in exercising its obligations and corporate governance with respect to NEXTDC's financial reporting, risk management systems, internal control structure, and internal and external audit processes. Thus, the committee's activities impact the company's value and efficiency. Compatibility of the NEXTDC's ARMC with qualities such as an independent chair and members, as well as their experience in accounting and risk management, suggests stronger, superior company results.

Literature Review

Numerous academics investigate the role and positive impacts of the audit and risk management committee's (ARC) independence and expertise on a firm and its shareholders. According to Toumeh et al. (2020), the independence of the ARC from management increases the monitoring function's efficiency and the quality of financial reporting, while reducing earnings management methods. Toumeh and Yahya (2017) create a conceptual framework using agency theory to investigate the moderating effect of independent ARC on the link between free cash flow and earnings management strategies. They reveal a negative association between the independent audit committee and the employment of financial statement-manipulating procedures by a corporation (Toumeh & Yahya, 2017). Therefore, such an ARC attribute can boost the firm's financial reporting's dependability to better inform its stakeholders.

Another factor to evaluate is the impact of the ARC on the company's performance and valuation. Research by Chariri and Januarti (2017) contributes to the debate by establishing a positive relationship between audit committee expertise and meeting frequency and the quality of integrated reports, which is related with enhanced stakeholder confidence. Another study reveals that the independent board and audit committee have a positive impact on net interest margin and market value (Chou & Buchdadi, 2017). In addition, it highlights independence and expertise as essential to the monitoring function and, consequently, the company's productivity. Mohammed et al. (2019) examine the firm's financial performance and propose that it can be enhanced by the introduction of an independent audit committee. Evidence provided by Barka and Legendre (2017) and supported by the agency theory demonstrates that an independent board improves the equity and economic performance of a corporation. However, according to the researchers, a fully independent ARC is connected with poorer business performance (Barka & Legendre, 2017). On the basis of the literature review, it can be concluded that NEXTDC Limited's corporate governance policy and practice have a positive effect on the company's performance.

Choice in Accounting and Quality

Important Audit Concerns Addressed by PwC

NEXTDC Limited's independent auditor, PwC, issued a report on the financial statements' conformity with Australian Auditing Standards. According to NEXTDC's (2020) annual results, PwC identified "data centre services revenue recognition" and "non-current asset additions" as the most significant for the present audit method (p. 100). Revenue recognition, the first identified significant audit matter (KAM), is a cause for worry due to its significance to accurate financial reporting and, in turn, the company's success. In order for users to comprehend a company's financial results, the Australian Accounting Standards Board (AASB) stipulates that performance responsibilities must be outlined in customer contracts (NEXTDC, 2020). In order to improve the data infrastructure, NEXTDC Limited continues to invest in additional data centers over the reporting year, making noncurrent asset additions a crucial KAM. This project's capital expenditures contribute significantly to the consolidation of the balance sheet (NEXTDC, 2020). Increasing value also means attracting more clients and increasing earnings and revenue. As an external auditor, PwC plays a crucial role in identifying KAMs and curbing aggressive financial reporting conduct.

NEXTDC Limited's Revenue Recognition and Cost Capitalization Accounting Policies

Consider if the application of NEXTDC Limited's accounting standards on revenue recognition and expense capitalization could result in financial misstatements or earnings management opportunities. According to Putri and Sujana (2018), the agency theory suggests that the company's principals and management have divergent interests due to their distinct objectives. The manager, or agent, is motivated to meet their own economic needs, whereas the company owner, or principal, is motivated to increase profits. The risk of substantial misstatement associated with revenue recognition must be addressed by an external auditor. The report by NEXTDC (2020) specifies data center services, interest income, and payouts from investments as "major business activities" for revenue recognition (p. 64). Additionally, the corporation states that client contracts guarantee specific performance metrics, including as uptime and on-time service delivery (NEXTDC, 2020). The diversity of available income measuring and revenue recognition procedures poses a threat to earnings measurement systems. However, as highlighted by the external auditor, the company's compliance with AASB 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers implies improved disclosures.

The accounting policy of NEXTDC Limited regarding the capitalization of costs is an additional crucial factor to consider. Costs that are capitalized provide a clearer picture of the entire amount of capital invested in assets. Inappropriately capitalized costs, on the other hand, can mislead investors into believing that the company's profit margins are greater than they actually are. According to Ofori et al. (2019), the positive accounting theory states that management may employ earnings management strategies through accrual rules or real actions. Due to the relevance of this KAM, addressing the company's cost capitalization strategy and evaluating the techniques employed to measure capitalized costs are crucial. NEXTDC capitalizes its investments in new data centers in compliance with Australian Accounting Standards. According to NEXTDC's (2020) annual report, $411 million has been capitalized as additions to Property, Plant, and Equipment, while $7 million has been capitalized as Intangible Assets (p. 102). According to PwC, the completed audit revealed no material misrepresentation as of the reporting date.

Important Audit Concerns and Quality of Financial Reporting

The effect of KAM disclosure in audit reports on the quality of financial reporting must be examined. According to studies, main audit issues are related to a smaller expectation gap, which improves the quality of financial reporting and audits (Ofori et al., 2019). As reported by Gold et al. (2020), a study involving “6,000 financial statement preparers” and supported by the accountability hypothesis demonstrated that enhanced openness as a result of KAMs results in increased accountability pressure. Managers anticipate scrutiny of their decisions, which can improve the quality of financial statements. In addition, aggressive financial reporting habits are diminished by KAM's existence relative to their absence (Gold et al., 2020). The auditors' clarity in presenting information appears to have minimal influence, as improvements in reporting are identified in audit reports that disclose important audit problems. Therefore, it can be inferred that KAMs can serve as a useful tool for enhancing the quality of financial reporting by reducing aggressive financial reporting behaviors.

Capital Market Analysis

Cumulative Abnormal Returns

NEXTDC Limited has announced that its Share Purchase Plan (SPP) would conclude on 5 May 2020. NEXTDC (2020) and SPP report that the business "successfully raised $862 million through an institutional placement" (p. 19). Financial announcements are recognized as a factor influencing stock price responses. Calculations of stock returns, All Ordinary Index returns, and cumulative abnormal returns were performed using data acquired for NEXTDC and are depicted in Table 2 of Appendix 2. Appendix 3 contains a graph of the outcomes of the abnormal returns. This metric permits investors to determine the true magnitude of gains and losses.

Price Response to NEXTDC's Share Purchase Plan Announcement

The outcomes of the information perspective study indicate that although positive news results in an increase in share price, negative news leads in a decrease in share price. According to NEXTDC (2020), the SSP followed the firm's completion of a $672 million placement to institutional investors in May, which was conducted at a placement price of $7.80 per share (p.20). As can be observed, a successful SSP increased the number of ASX equities on the market, resulting in a decline in price as the demand and supply curve moved (Rankin et al., 2018). As a result, SPP is typically supplied at a discount. Positive anomalous stock returns on the preannounced days of investment distinguish plan-offering corporations (Rankin et al., 2018). Capital market research is predicated on the idea that equity markets are efficient.

References

Barka, H. B., & Legendre, F. (2017). A panel data examination of the effect of the board of directors and the audit committee on firm performance. 21(3):737-755. Journal of Management & Governance. Web.

Chariri, A., & Januarti, I. (2017). Audit committee characteristics and integrated reporting: An empirical study of Johannesburg Stock Exchange-listed corporations 305-318 in European Research Studies Journal 20(4B). Web.

Chou, T. K., and A. D. Buchdadi (2017). Independent board, audit committee, risk committee, meeting attendance and its effect on performance: An analysis of listed Indonesian banks 8(3), 24-36, International Journal of Business Administration. Web.

Gold, A., Heilmann, M., Pott, C., & Rematzki, J. (2020). Influence important audit issues on financial reporting behavior? 24(2) International Journal of Auditing: 232-244. Web.

Mohammed, B. H., H. H. Flayyih, Y. N. Mohammed, and H. Q. Abbood (2019). Effect of audit committee features on firm financial performance: An empirical examination of listed companies on the Iraq stock exchange Engineering and Applied Science Journal, 14(14), 4919-4926. Web.

NEXTDC (2019). Charter for the Audit and Risk Management Committee. Web.

NEXTDC (2020). Annual report for FY20. Web.

Ofori, A. O. A., Gabriel, K., Owusu, N. A., & Kudjo, E. N. W. (2019). The theories of financial accounting have consequences on accounting practice. Web.

Putri, Y. K. W., & Sujana, I. K. (2018). The impact of bid-ask spread and leverage on earnings management, with effective corporate governance as a moderating element. 5(3), 8-21, International Research Journal of Management, IT, and Social Sciences. Web.

Rankin, M., K. Ferlauto, S. C. McGowan, and P. A. Stanton (2018). Recent developments in accounting (2nd ed.). Australia branch of John Wiley and Sons.

Toumeh, A. A., & Yahya, S. (2017). The functions of a moderating independent audit committee and audit quality in stock market segmentations, free cash flow, and earnings management (The case of Jordan from an agency theory perspective). Web.

Toumeh, A. A., Yahya, S., & Amran, A. (2020). Independent audit committee's moderating effect on free cash flow surplus, stock market segmentation, and earnings management. Global Business Review, 1-30. Web.

Characteristics of the audit committee presented in Appendix 1.

Annual report page citation

List the ARC members, including Douglas Flynn

Stuart Davis

Jennifer Lambert (Chair)

Dr Eileen Doyle p. 25

p. 26

p. 27

p. 29

Is the ARC chair autonomous? ☒Yes ☐No ☐N/A

Are the bulk of ARC members (e.g., >50%) independent? ☒ Yes No Other

What percentage of ARC members have competence in accounting and risk management? 50%

Appendix 2: Cumulative abnormal return

On 5 May 2020, NXT will raise funding to construct a third data center in Sydney.

Date All Ords Index Return on NXT Index Share Price Share Return Unusual Predicted Return Return Alpha Beta CAR-1 day CAR-2 day CAR-5 day

14-Apr-20 5542.50

9.27

0.00 0.27 5.00% 7.18% 9.25%

15-Apr-20 5523.30 -0.35% 9.28 0.11% 0.12% -0.01%

16-Apr-20 5467.60 -1.01% 9.16 -1.29% -0.06% -1.23%

17-Apr-20 5544.70 1.41% 8.83 -3.60% 0.59% -4.19%

20-Apr-20 5414.70 -2.34% 8.90 0.79% -0.42% 1.21%

21-Apr-20 5278.60 -2.51% 8.53 -4.16% -0.47% -3.69%

22-Apr-20 5273.80 -0.09% 8.44 -1.06% 0.18% -1.24%

23-Apr-20 5272.80 -0.02% 8.61 2.01% 0.20% 1.81%

24-Apr-20 5300.70 0.53% 8.48 -1.51% 0.35% -1.86%

27-Apr-20 5388.30 1.65% 8.38 -1.18% 0.65% -1.83%

28-Apr-20 5381.20 -0.13% 8.50 1.43% 0.17% 1.26%

29-Apr-20 5463.80 1.53% 8.63 1.53% 0.62% 0.91%

30-Apr-20 5597.70 2.45% 8.87 2.78% 0.87% 1.92%

1-May-20 5325.00 -4.87% 8.95 0.90% -1.10% 2.00%

4-May-20 5389.50 1.21% 9.44 5.47% 0.53% 4.94%

5-May-20 5478.10 1.64% 9.45 0.11% 0.65% -0.54%

6-May-20 5464.80 -0.24% 9.52 0.74% 0.14% 0.60%

7-May-20 5449.90 -0.27% 9.55 0.32% 0.14% 0.18%

8-May-20 5488.00 0.70% 9.56 0.10% 0.40% -0.29%

11-May-20 5559.10 1.30% 9.55 -0.10% 0.56% -0.66%

12-May-20 5497.30 -1.11% 9.44 -1.15% -0.09% -1.06%

13-May-20 5513.70 0.30% 9.40 -0.42% 0.29% -0.71%

14-May-20 5418.00 -1.74% 9.35 -0.53% -0.26% -0.27%

15-May-20 5492.80 1.38% 9.36 0.11% 0.58% -0.47%

18-May-20 5557.50 1.18% 9.51 1.60% 0.52% 1.08%

19-May-20 5658.80 1.82% 9.49 -0.21% 0.70% -0.91%

20-May-20 5680.10 0.38% 9.45 -0.42% 0.31% -0.73%

21-May-20 5660.90 -0.34% 9.40 -0.53% 0.12% -0.65%

22-May-20 5608.80 -0.92% 9.41 0.11% -0.04% 0.14%

25-May-20 5729.90 2.16% 9.45 0.43% 0.79% -0.36%

26-May-20 5889.90 2.79% 9.56 1.16% 0.96% 0.21%

Appendix 3: Graph of results

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Job Analysis And Selection Techniques Write My Essay Help

Introduction

Job studies can reveal the fundamental competences required to do a certain job effectively. However, human resource (HR) professionals need an accurate and dependable selection technique in order to make sound selections. This paper will examine job analysis, employee selection, and the influence of job analysis on employee selection. Additionally, the paper gives examples illustrating the relationship between job analysis and the chosen selection strategy.

Job Analysis

Job analysis entails examining a position to determine its activities, responsibilities, and required qualifications. The major purpose of a job analysis is to discover the compatibility between employees and jobs, evaluate performance, appraise compensation packages, and identify training requirements. Data derived from job analysis can be utilized for workforce planning, recruiting and selection, training and development, pay, performance management, career and succession planning, and risk management. Human resource officers typically collect data on:

Knowledge and abilities necessary to execute the job; Machines and equipment utilized in the job; Working environment; Financial budgeting; Work activities and attitudes; Required supervision

Once HR has gathered this information, they will group positions according to the framework for job families.

Staffing & Selection

Recruitment includes screening, shortlisting, and choosing the most qualified candidate for the post. The recruitment process evaluates a candidate's qualifications and experience to determine whether they fulfill the standards and demands of the organization (Picardi, 2019). Both internal and external factors might impact a company's ability to acquire the best suitable candidates. The internal aspects include the brand image, size, recruitment policies, and job image of the firm (Picardi, 2019). External elements consist of the unemployment rate, labor legislation, legal issues, rivals, and demographic aspects. A productive recruitment procedure can increase production. Interviewing candidates and evaluating their abilities and credentials to determine if they are a good fit for the post constitutes selection.

Selection Techniques

To identify competent individuals, businesses may choose to perform either an internal or an external search. Internal selection refers to the choosing of applicants from within an organization, whereas external selection refers to the hiring of individuals from outside the organization. The typical methods of selection include:

Assessment tests (aptitude, psychometric, and skills/knowledge-based assessments); Individual interviews; Panel interviews; Assessment centers; Medical or entrance examinations.

Assessment Centers

These are formal evaluations requiring candidates to complete task-related tasks. The candidates are grouped in a remote area and instructed to complete a variety of tasks under the watch of an evaluator. Typically, the business offers interviewers with simulations of actual problems, tasks, or scenarios; the finalists are tasked with resolving the challenges as if they were real. Observing the candidates' performance during the examination, the evaluators will assign them a standard rating score. This strategy assists in determining a candidate's managerial or promotion potential. Typically, evaluation centers are conducted for at least a full day or multiple days.

Interviews

Interviews allow potential applicants and the interviewer to communicate directly. The interviews may be formal or unstructured, depending on the preferences of the employer. Structured interviews are based on a specific criterion established to satisfy the needs of the position. The criterion evaluates the required knowledge, skills (both soft and technical), and abilities (KSA) to execute a job (Schaafsma et al., 2016). There is no consensus on evaluation standards for unstructured interviews because the interviewer determines the questions. In one-on-one interviews, candidates exclusively interact with a single interviewer. In a sequential interview, the candidates will confront a series of interviewers one at a time (Schaafsma et al., 2016). In large organizations, panel-based interviews are the norm, with the candidate meeting two or more interviewers concurrently.

Selection Evaluation Exams

Tests of Situational Judgment, Cognitive Abilities, and Personality

Situational judgment tests evaluate a candidate's ability to appropriately manage scenarios they are likely to encounter on the job. The majority of the examinations are either written or video-based. The responses are collected on a booklet or computer, and based on the responses, the employer evaluates the performance of the candidates. The cognitive ability test can evaluate a candidate's mental abilities, such as their mathematical aptitude, reasoning, linguistic skills, and reading comprehension. These exams are highly predictive of a candidate's job performance (Nguyen et al., 2019). Typically, tests consist of multiple-choice questions and are either manually or electronically administered. The sum of the candidate's cognitive test scores shows his or her mental capacity. The purpose of personality tests is to identify whether a candidate will fit into the company's culture. Extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability are frequently evaluated traits.

Job-Related Knowledge Tests and Medical Exams

Job knowledge tests are essential for determining a candidate's technical capacity to perform their job. The assessments evaluate the candidate's understanding of the essential job domains. When a corporation does not provide introductory training prior to employment, the examinations are very valuable. In the absence of injury or illness, medical checks are performed to determine whether a candidate is physically or mentally fit for the position. When the position is physically demanding, necessitates high cleanliness standards, or poses a threat to the candidate's health and well-being, medical examinations are required.

Biographical Information

Employers can also decide based on biodata inventory (level of education, employment history, and age). The biodata strategy entails collecting information on a candidate's background and personal characteristics. Ducey (2016) found in his study that biographical data is an efficient and cost-effective selection approach that can improve human capital management efficiency. This selection methodology can help reduce expenses associated with designing, executing, and maintaining selection procedures while facilitating the efficient management of the organization's human capital. The concept is that a candidate's prior performance will predict future performance. Candidates may be required to provide biodata information on their application form, and the employer will verify the information provided.

Methods for Job Analysis and Selection

Employers may use a single selection method or a combination of two or more to choose the best qualified candidates. Numerous firms fail to hire productive staff because selection decisions are based on assessments whose scientific validity has not been established. Therefore, the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) suggests that businesses always do a job analysis to determine the optimal selection technique.

In accordance with this guideline, HR should first do a task analysis to define staff responsibilities. The employer would need to observe or interview specialists in order to compile a list of tasks. The second step is to determine which knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) are required for optimal job performance. Thirdly, the employer must do a survey and data analysis to determine which tasks and KSA are essential to the work. The fourth stage is to choose an assessment exam that properly measures the KSA and key duties that a candidate must possess prior to starting the position.

Adapted from the Society of Human Resource Manager (Pulakos, n.d.).

Figure 1 depicts which evaluation exams are based on tasks and which are based on KSAs. Employers can utilize the job analysis to determine which test measures their desired qualities most accurately. The extent to which a test regularly assesses something is its dependability. For instance, a cognitive test is dependable if it does not produce different results each time a person takes it. In contrast, a test's validity refers to the extent to which the measurement tool can predict future work performance.

Cognitive and occupational knowledge exams have good validity, minimal administration costs, and positive candidate ratings (Pulakos, n.d.) Nonetheless, these tests have a substantial negative impact and are likely to discriminate against minority and protected groups. Work samples tests are the most effective tests due to their high validity, low negative impact on minorities, low cost, and favorable applicant perception (Pulakos, n.d.). However, it is important to note that no test is appropriate for all scenarios, and employers must tailor the tests to their needs.

Influence of Job Analysis on Selection Test-Based Employee Selection

A company can do a job analysis to recruit and promote the most qualified candidate for a position. Through careful job analysis and the selection of relevant and dependable assessment tests, it is possible to confirm the compatibility of the candidate with the position.

Psychological Test

A personality test necessitates a person-centered approach that emphasizes human characteristics such as personality traits. Matz et al. (2017) discovered that personality can predict work performance. Therefore, it can be utilized for candidate selection. A job analysis for a sales position, for instance, may suggest that the successful candidate must be conscientious, affable, and emotionally stable. The employer will then select an appropriate personality test and administer it to the candidates. The candidate with the highest scores for the aforementioned characteristics will be selected since they possess the qualifications necessary for work success. Despite the importance of personality assessments in relationship jobs, empirical evidence demonstrates that they are useless at predicting future success (Meinert, 2015). Therefore, the HR department must administer a supplementary test that evaluates other essential duties and KSA for the role.

Cognitive Checkup

The cognitive examination will be advantageous for technical positions that require critical thinking skills. In roles involving business analytics, accounting, and logistics management, among others, critical thinking is a crucial KSA. The company will require a cognitive evaluation to establish whether candidates possess the necessary critical reasoning and problem-solving skills to execute the job (Nguyen et al., 2019). The HR department will give a brief multiple-choice test to evaluate the candidates' competence.

The cognitive test is also used to determine if an applicant possesses the technical knowledge required for the position. The company will administer a content-valid work sample test to assess the candidate's overall job knowledge. This test's predictive validity is supported by studies demonstrating that cognitive abilities can reliably predict work performance (Ishola et al., 2018). The exams have a high level of validity and are highly recommended by HR professionals. Nonetheless, cognitive testing can bias against protected groups, which is a breach of equal employment legislation. The employer must modify the examinations to accommodate the demands of the protected groups.

Examining Your Health

Certain companies are required by law to conduct pre-employment medical examinations. These positions include those in rail safety, heavy truck driving, chemical and supply firms, etc. In such cases, the appropriate HR employees will need applicants to undergo task-related examinations in order to identify specialists who fulfill the necessary medical requirements to perform job-related responsibilities. The employer will observe or conduct interviews with field experts to determine which medical exams are required (Jarvis, 2018). HR will also be responsible for analyzing applicable work-related rules and regulatory obligations.

The applicants may be required to undertake a thorough medical examination that includes eyesight, heart, spine, limbs, and urine (to test blood sugar levels). Companies required by law to provide an alcohol and drug test will also request a medical evaluation on the same day (Schaafsma et al., 2016). Police officers, firefighters, and positions requiring heavy lifting will undergo a physical examination. The medical examination is typically one of the final phases in the employment process and attempts to enhance workplace safety. The candidates will be selected based on the results of medical examinations. Employers must also be aware of anti-discrimination rules while implementing these exams. The American Disability Act prevents employers from requiring a medical exam prior to making an offer of employment. Due to the sensitivity of the matter, the employer must warn candidates in advance that a medical checkup is required and explain or provide an explanation for its necessity.

Hybrid Test Methodology

Job analyses are not a new concept in the military, but they have grown significantly to meet the requirements of current HR planning and management. HR professionals in the military categorize and assess the required structure and abilities for entry into the military training program. Typically, HR employs task inventories to identify candidates for training. A task inventory is a catalog of the actions that comprise a certain job in an organization. After generating a task inventory, selection strategies are hybrid, combining task-related analysis and KSA analysis.

For instance, military positions require a physical examination (task-oriented) and a psychological evaluation (KSA). The physical examination will determine whether the applicant can withstand the physically demanding and stressful requirements of the position. In contrast, the psychological examination will determine if the candidate possesses the discipline, secrecy, order, and respect for the chain of command that are essential for military jobs. Other examples include administering a scenario assessment test to see how a physician will handle high-risk and time-sensitive hospital circumstances. The job analysis can also assist HR in identifying potential workplace dangers and implementing the necessary health and safety equipment to improve workplace safety. Using the analysis, HR can also pick individuals with the right educational qualifications that match the job's responsibilities. Education levels are excellent predictors of work performance (Ishola et al., 2018). Due to the fact that the job analysis establishes the level of compensation for the position, human resources will select candidates whose salary or compensation expectations match that level.

Conclusion

Job analysis and selection enhance the strategic focus of an organization by facilitating talent management. Job analyses aid HR professionals in identifying the tasks and KSA necessary to do a job successfully. The data generated from the process of job analysis should guide the selection decision-making approach. There is no single recruitment technique that is suitable for all occupations, however job analysis can assist businesses in selecting valid tests deemed crucial in forecasting workers' future performance.

References

A. J. Ducey (2016). The transnational generalizability of biographical data: A study inside a multinational company [Doctoral dissertation, unpublished]. Southern University of Florida

The phrase Jarvis, C. (2018). Examination of the body and health evaluation. The Elsevier Health Sciences journal.

Ishola, A. A., Adeleye, S. T., & Tanimola, F. A. (2018). The effect of education, professional qualifications, and years of experience on the job performance of accountants. 4(1), 33–44, Journal of Accounting and Financial Management. Web.

Matz, S. C., Kosinski, M., Nave, G., & Stillwell, D. J. (2017). In digital mass persuasion, psychological targeting is an effective method. Web. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

Meinert, D. (2015). What exactly do personality tests reveal? SHRM. Web.

Morris, S. B., R. L. Daisley, M. Wheeler, and P. Boyer (2015). A meta-analysis evaluating the association between individual evaluations and job performance. Applied Psychology Journal, 100(1), 5–20. Web.

Nguyen, N. N., Nham, P. T., & Takahashi, Y. (2019). Ability-based emotional intelligence, cognitive intelligence, and job performance. Sustainability, 11(8), 1–16. Web.

Picardi, C. A. (2019). Recruitment and selection: workforce planning and assessment strategies Publications by SAGE.

Pulakos, E. (n.d.). A guide to implementing formal assessments to build a high-quality workforce using selection assessment methodologies. SHRM Institute. Web.

Schaafsma, F. G., Mahmud, N., Reneman, M. F., Fassier, J-B., & Jungbauer, F. H. W. (2016). Pre-employment screenings to prevent occupational injury, illness, and sick leave. Cochrane Database Systematic Review, 2016(1), 1–38. Web.

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Miami School District’s Negotiation With Parents Write My Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Stakeholders negotiating technique Supporting the board of the school Application of values and culture References

Introduction

The Miami school system proposes to redraw the boundaries of its schools to improve service efficiency. The proposal to redraw the boundary has been presented for implementation, however parents oppose the concept. The parents are unhappy with the proposals and do not believe that this exercise will result in any efficiency gains. In this article, the concerns of stakeholders are examined, and a solution to the problem is proposed. Additionally, the article will incorporate ethical and cultural values associated with the issue.

Stakeholders

Stakeholders are individuals or organizations with a vested interest in a certain topic. The subject of the Miami school is education, as it is an educational institution, and students are the subjects affected by the decision to redraw district lines. This can be determined based on the impacts identified by parents in relation to the proposed withdrawal of school borders. Educational stakeholders are consequently subject-matter stakeholders. Students are the first type of stakeholders in the Miami district school lawsuit. Students have a strong interest in the education system since they are its immediate beneficiaries. Any modification implemented at the school will likely have an effect on the kids. The parents are the next category of educational stakeholders. The parents have a vested interest in their children's education; hence, they will be impacted by any changes implemented at the school.

The general staff of an educational system is also considered to be a stakeholder in the system because they contribute daily to the fulfillment of specific goals that can be characterized as their interests. Teachers, for instance, impart knowledge to pupils, but a greater proportion of non-teaching employees contribute significantly to the students' wellbeing. The community as a whole relies on schools to assist in the formation of future-oriented, developmentally-focused youth. Government institutions participate in the education system as agencies responsible for implementing government provisions and providing support for an effective education system. The government oversees and governs the state and national education systems through various agencies. Other stakeholders in educational systems such as Miami's include retired residents, individuals who no longer have school-aged children, higher education institutions, and educational organizations (Michael, n.d., p. 1).

negotiating technique

Providing a choice of options to the parties engaged in the conflict being discussed is one of the methods that has a significant bearing on the outcome of any negotiation. Since the purpose of negotiation is to find a middle ground, a variety of options will enhance the likelihood that the parties will decide on one of them, hence increasing the likelihood of negotiation success. Exposing the benefits that the parties can obtain from the different possibilities is an additional tactic in the negotiation process. It entails selling the possibilities to the parties so they may comprehend the benefits of a suggested conflict resolution. Using a persuasive tone will aid the panel in persuading the parties that the proposed solutions are not being pushed upon them, but rather are being suggested because they are advantageous to the parties. The use of the "what-if technique" is also a vital instrument for conflict resolution (Mehta, 2009, p. 92).

Negotiations, as an effort to identify common ground, require the participation and willingness of both sides to the conflict in order to reach a resolution. Silence or refusal to participate in the negotiations by one or both parties will significantly impede the negotiation's success. Engaging the participants in the negotiating process by eliciting their views will encourage them to be open and cooperative. By fostering open-mindedness among the conflicting parties, this technique will contribute to the dissolution of any rigid positions that the parties may have formed. In order to break a stalemate and secure a compromise for the disputing parties, it is also necessary to persuade them that their respective positions may not be the best (Mehta, 2009).

Supporting the board of the school

It will require intelligence and tact to convince the parents to support the school's intentions. The school board can articulate openly and persuasively the positive effects that the increased mobility of pupils will have as a result of redrawing school boundaries. In addition to focusing solely on the negative effects that mobility would have on their children, the negotiation team can also provide these advantages in order to encourage parents to consider the beneficial effects mobility will have on their children. The advantages of mobility for students might be emphasized to parents. The parents can be informed, for instance, that students who have previously participated in international mobility have demonstrated a significantly higher level of competence as well as academic knowledge and skills and general competence such as adaptability, initiative, assertiveness, decisiveness, persistence, written communication skills, problem-solving ability, planning, coordinating, and organizing (Garben., 2011, p. 77). In order to advocate for the proposal to redraw the school boundaries, it will be crucial, for instance, to persuade parents of the advantages of mobility by telling them that their children will be exposed to these positive characteristics. The argument that students' interaction with new friends and groups helps them develop interpersonal skills, as well as convincing parents that travel time and costs are less important than the benefits their children will gain from mobility, can be fundamental arguments in favor of the school board (Garben, 2011).

Application of values and culture

The aforementioned argument for persuading the parents to support the board's strategy is founded on the ethical and moral foundations of honesty. The argument is built on the culture of honesty, as the arguments on their rights are based on researched facts that were published as truth (Guasco and Robinson, 2007).

References

Garben, P. (2011). The European Union's Higher Education Law, the Bologna Process, and Harmonization via Subterfuge. The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International, located in Alphen.

M. Guasco and P. Robinson (2007). Principles of negotiation: approaches, strategies, and tactics for reaching agreements. Entrepreneur Press, New York, New York

Mehta, S. (2009). 112 Strategies for Negotiation and Mediation Success: Techniques from a Professional Mediator. House in Bloomington, Indiana.

Michael, W. (n.d.). Creating the schools we need. Web.

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Decision Making And Problem Solving Of Kraft Foods And Cadbury Write My Essay Help

Approaches Employed

Kraft Foods Group has recognized that the environment in the United Kingdom differs significantly from its native setting. This is exacerbated by the fact that the local community opposed the acquisition. As a result, Kraft Foods's beginning was extremely tough. The company had to find a means to overcome this obstacle (2006, p. 132). This company's management had to dissect the difficulties in order to devise a remedy. The company recognized that the issue was not limited to the external environment. There was an internal problem. When Kraft Foods purchased Cadbury, Cadbury's workers were maintained. Except for the senior management unit, all of Cadbury's systems survived. Cadbury's management structure was altered to mirror that of Kraft Foods. The management of Kraft Foods recognized that this was one of the company's management issues.

Therefore, the organization divided the issues into two categories. The first issue was an internal one resulting from a change in management strategy. Kraft Foods realized that it needed to develop a management strategy that would be acceptable regionally. The management recognized that the senior executives, some of whom were from the parent company, were unfamiliar with democratic management strategies (McLaughlin & Aaker 2010, p. 75). They favored a fixed management system in which the top management gave directives that flowed hierarchically. The diagram below illustrates the optimal management strategy for this subset of employees.

As depicted in the diagram, the management structure does not permit the top manager to communicate directly with subordinate staff. The management will reach out to the workforce through the department heads (Merna & Al-Thani 2006, p. 87). The chief executive may also engage with departmental heads through a legal representation. Always, the message takes the shape of instructions.

The people who initially worked for Cadbury were quite unfamiliar with this kind of management. They recognized that the independence they had previously enjoyed was no longer applicable. The figure below depicts the type of management strategy to which the employees were accustomed.

As the preceding diagram demonstrates, the top management might readily reach out to the individual without regard to hierarchy. Thus, it was simple to consult them on numerous organization-related matters (McLaughlin & Kaluzny 2006, p. 48). Employees were also able to reach out to management and provide feedback on the strategies employed by management. This was no longer a viable option. They were required to adhere to a fixed management approach, which included communicating with their immediate supervisors. The issue with this technique was that a communication from junior staff would only reach upper management if the middle management unit deemed it valuable. Most of the time, it would be severely deformed by the time it reaches its destination. To combat this issue, this company chose a combination of both tactics (Misra 2008, p.118).

The employees would be permitted to contact with the executive team if they had concerns that they deemed confidential or crucial to the firm. Additionally, the senior management might engage with the staff directly, especially if the situation warranted it. In typical business operations, management would issue directives in a hierarchical fashion. They would communicate with the staff via the middle management. Additionally, the staff would be permitted to communicate with middle management as required (Liew 2009, p. 121). This mixed strategy was significant since it would accommodate both the previous Cadbury employees and the top management who had been transferred to this site in the United Kingdom.

The second issue involved the exterior environment. The external environment was crucial to the corporate acquisition choice. This action was even opposed by the administration. The simplest method to address this would be to convince the community that Cadbury is still present on the local market. This would involve keeping the Cadbury name. By keeping this name, locals would be led to assume that the original Cadbury still exists (Kotter & Rathgeber 2006, p. 89). The management would accomplish this by transforming Cadbury into a subbrand of the main brand. The administration would attempt to avert a situation in which the local populace rebels against its products. Instead of advertising its primary brand, the company would promote the majority of its items under the Cadbury name. The management of Kraft Foods has explored participating actively in different corporate social responsibilities in this country in an effort to increase the brand's popularity. Environmental conservation has been one of the primary activities in which this company has participated. This has given this company a positive reputation in the community. The company thinks that this technique will increase local acceptance of the Kraft Foods brand.

The management essentially utilized cognitive theory to handle this issue. The administration realized that the problem was in the minds of the affected individuals, not in the infrastructure (Kotter 2007, p. 99). Taking this into account, the management decided to enter the brains of the members of the society and change it so that it would embrace the brand. Therefore, problem-solving was predicated on attention and memory. This company will engage in constructive initiatives that will attract the attention of the community. The company would then repeat this process in order to build a lasting impression of the brand in the minds of consumers. This cognitive approach was appropriate because the target audience was aware of the issue.

Achievements

Success is always evaluated from multiple perspectives. This company has achieved some measure of success on multiple fronts. Using the two ways that were taken, it is true that this company has managed to bring its internal environment into harmony (Hoyle 2009, p. 28). When operations began, the upper management was visibly out of control of the staff. There was a significant discrepancy between the upper management's strategies and the employees' preferences. The upper management considered it peculiar that a subordinate employee would enter his office to express himself or seek explanation. Also surprising to the junior staff was the fact that the upper management was no longer directly accessible to them. Nonetheless, the decision to combine the two strategies was a huge success. The management is aware that there are situations in which employees need direct access to them (Mohibullah 2006, p. 68). The employees also believe there are instances in which it is appropriate to communicate with their superiors according to the established communication structure. Every member of this fraternity has come to recognize that everyone has a function within the organization (Hill & Jones 2010, p. 93). The company currently has a team of committed and self-motivated professionals who collaborate to achieve the company's goals.

The promotion plan for the sub-brand Cadbury was quite effective. This brand's products are enthusiastically embraced by society. This secured the sustainability of this company's operations (Hicks 2004, p. 70). Moreover, Cadbury was already well-known in the area, so the market need less convincing to purchase the items. Kraft Food utilized this market's goodwill to promote items that were uncommon in this market. The company has also managed to overcome the external environment's hurdles. The company has developed a specialization in environmental protection efforts. It is one of the businesses associated with environmental protection in the community. This company's decision to engage in numerous additional corporate social responsibilities has given it a favorable reputation in this community. The community is gradually accepting this company as a member. The fact that the brand cares about the welfare of the community makes it a part of the community itself. This enables management to determine that the market will accept this product (Heldman & Baca 2007, p. 39). The decision to combine bureaucratic strategy with a pluralistic paradigm has yielded enormous benefits for this organization.

Evaluation of the Approaches Employed

This company's approach was sufficient to ensure its sustainability in the local environment. To conduct a critical examination, it would be useful to examine two instances in which such mergers were either a complete success or a complete failure.

Case Study 1: Daimler Chrysler Merger

Daimler is a German automaker renowned for producing prestigious vehicles such as Mercedes Benz. Chrysler, on the other hand, is an American automaker that likewise specializes in luxury vehicles, but some of its products are aimed at middle-class consumers (Hartman 2002, p. 115). In 1998, the two companies formed a collaboration that they named the Merger of Equals. It was believed that the two businesses were renowned for producing luxurious automobiles. This was the most straightforward method for Daimler to join the American market. Even though Daimler already had a considerable market share in the United States, the decision to form a partnership with Chrysler was hailed as clever. Chrysler, though, valued the niche Daimler had carved out for its products. This corporation has carved out a niche for its Mercedes-Benz in which no other brand could provide real competition. On the domestic market, Mercedes-Benz was extremely popular with high-ranking government officials, affluent businesspeople, and those desiring a prestigious automobile (Evans & Lindsay 2008, p. 32). A merger will result in the two companies sharing the market niche.

This was the primary error in this merger. After a brief merger period, Daimler purchased Chrysler. It kept the Chrysler brand name in American markets and other regions deemed loyal to the Chrysler brand. The problem began in Germany. The local market in Germany refused to acknowledge Chrysler's prestige parity with Daimler. They believed that Daimler was the only division of the company that could provide them with the needed level of automobile quality. The clash between business cultures was another reason why this merger was unsuccessful. Therefore, the market rejected Chrysler products (Dahlgaard & Dahlgaard 2006, p. 72). Chrysler's worth began to decline at an unforeseen rate. The management was aware that this transaction was certain to fail. It was evident that Chrysler was having a negative impact on the Daimler brand, rather than the predicted positive impact. The market came to believe Daimler would compromise its products in order to develop Chrysler. The administration had to take action before it was too late. It proclaimed the transaction a complete failure and later sold Chrysler for less than 10 percent of what it paid for the company.

Case Study 2: The Merger of Exxon and Mobil

The Exxon and Mobil merger is one of the most successful corporate mergers in history. On November 30, 1999, Exxon and Mobil combined to establish ExxonMobil (Wilson 2008, p. 116). The two enormous corporations realized that they faced the same market possibilities and challenges. In addition, they found they shared the same vision. The management consequently explored creating a company that would be able to meet market demands as effectively as feasible. They chose to pool their resources in order to meet market needs. Therefore, the management of the two enterprises signed an agreement that led to the foundation of the two firms. The company shifted its headquarters to Irving, Texas.

This had a good effect on the operations of the merged companies. The two American companies discovered that it was far easier to face issues as a combined force than as two independent businesses. The corporations' combined efforts to conquer further markets in Europe and North America improved their market share. Additionally, the company pushed swiftly to acquire new markets in South America, Asia, and Africa. This company is currently ranked as the largest oil company in the world, with a 3 percent market share. Forbes ranked the firm as the largest company in the world. As Dahlgaard (2007, p.119) explains, the combination turned out to be just what the managements of the two companies had projected.

Evaluation of the Acquisition Strategy Employed by Kraft Foods to Acquire Cadbury

To properly evaluate the strategy employed by Kraft Foods, it would be necessary to assess the tactics employed in the two situations above and discover why one was unsuccessful and the other was successful.

There are a lot of similarities and distinctions between the two incidents. They both agree that the merger brought together large enterprises with a global perspective. In both instances, the enterprises engaged were generating attractive profits; consequently, it was necessary to share production expenses and minimize competition in order to reach a common objective. In all instances, the merger attempted to increase market share for the combining enterprises (Dahlgaard, Kristensen, & Kanji 2006, p. 62). The two cases also differed in some ways. Exxon and Mobil were both American companies, but the merger between Daimler and Chrysler brought together companies from two different nations. The management strategies of Daimler and Chrysler were deferred, although Exxon and Mobil had many management similarities. Exxon and Mobil's combination did not experience the same business environment challenges as the merger between Daimler and Chrysler. These are some of the most noticeable contrasts between the two mergers.

Kraft Foods Strategy

Importantly, Kraft Foods must come out strong and enhance its tactics if this deal is to achieve the anticipated local success. As noted in the introduction to this paper, a number of organizations in the United Kingdom opposed the acquisition. The initial opposition came from the government, which disapproved of the takeover of Cadbury (Chao 2007, p. 79). The majority of society was likewise opposed to this choice. The final and most severe issue was the mismatch between Kraft Foods and Cadbury workers. The merger between Daimler and Chrysler followed the same pattern. It may be worse with the Daimler-Chrysler merger since locals believe their company has been taken from them (Rayment 2001. P. 25). This is an additional difficulty that Daimler did not experience.

Promotion Opportunity Analysis For Coke-Cola Product Write My Essay Help

Introduction

Analysis of promotional opportunities is the process of identifying the market audiences for a certain product or company organization. To be able to build an effective analysis of promotional opportunities, it is essential that the correct judgments on available resources are made. Such decisions will be based on the evaluation of environmental elements, as well as the needs, desires, and expectations of the targeted clients. By taking such measures, it will be feasible to develop a promotion opportunity analysis that is highly effective and meets all of Coke-goals. Cola's (Clow and Baack, 2004).

There are two main objectives that the promotions opportunity analysis aims to achieve within the organization: first, to discover the promotional possibilities that already exist within the company, and second, to identify the unique qualities of each target client or audience. These are the primary objectives that Coca-Cola marketers attempt to attain, and if they are met, the business organization achieves the greatest level of marketing success (Clow and Baack, 2004).

Main body

When doing a study of promotional opportunities, several processes are undertaken. They consist of completing a communication market analysis, establishing marketing communications objectives, establishing a communications budget, developing promotional tactics, and connecting the developed techniques to the strategies. Adherence to these processes leads in a successful analysis of promotional opportunities and attainment of the desired goals (Clow and Baack, 2004).

Communication market analysis

This is one of the most important steps in analyzing promotional opportunities; for Coca-Cola, communication is a crucial aspect of achieving promotional goals. The corporation has been able to identify the organization's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and dangers in relation to its promotional plans through communication market analysis. The corporation has utilized all corporate communication tactics to produce outstanding product promotion results. The corporation uses advertising campaigns, event sponsorship, mass media, and a variety of other communication tactics to convey product information to the market (Clow and Baack, 2004).

Certain aspects of communication marketing are studied for an efficient market communication analysis. These elements include a competition analysis, an opportunity analysis, a study of the target audience, and a positioning analysis. These components facilitate the marketing planners' comprehension of the marketing communication's strengths, limitations, opportunities, and threats.

Competitive evaluation

The Coke-Cola Company has conducted a competitive analysis with a primary focus on the competitive environment within and surrounding the organization. Under competitive analysis, certain aspects are evaluated, and one of the strategies for conducting competitive analysis is to analyze Porter's five forces. The first step is to determine the level of competition, which involves identifying the number of rivals on the market. Additionally, the level of competition for Coca-product Cola's is quite strong, as there are many other soft drink manufacturers on the market. These companies have been competitors on the market, but the Coke-Cola product has been able to overcome competition power and achieve a competitive advantage over various Pepsi drinks and other rival products.

The other important aspect of competitive analysis is the threat of substitutes. Coca-marketers Cola's have been able to identify competitors in the market and the substitute products they offer, as well as the quality of their products and any other aspect that may entice customers to purchase their product. Using this data, Coke-marketers Cola's have developed more effective competitive strategies, giving their product a market advantage over its competitors (Clow and Baack, 2004).

Coca-marketers Cola's have utilized buyer power analysis to determine the type of customers they have and their contribution to the product's market success. Since buyers play a crucial part in ensuring that the company firm's items sell on the market, the marketers are familiar with how to interact with them. Coca-Cola performs a supplier power analysis to determine the company's ability to attract customers to its business organization. Through this, the company determines its own capacity and potential for customer retention (Clow and Baack, 2004).

The business organization should determine the entrance hurdles that other business organizations face in order to access the same market. The Coca-Cola firm employs entrance barriers to safeguard its products from unqualified competitors. The company possesses patent rights on the formula for creating coke-coca goods, which has remained unknown to the majority of its market competitors. Although competitors have attempted to discover Coca-exact Cola's formula, they have never been able to do so. This is the reason Coke-goods Cola's have been so competitive on the market and have such a large market share. When there are no barriers, competition may be more intense than when there are barriers compared to when there are barriers (Clow and Baack, 2004).

Opportunity evaluation

This refers to the analysis of potential opportunities for the firm to extend its activities. It is a "structured method for evaluating ideas in relation to market conditions." The Coca-Cola corporation conducts an in-depth opportunity analysis, which is accomplished through marketing research in which marketers attempt to uncover the many opportunities available on the market that may be leveraged by the company to obtain a competitive advantage on the market. Opportunity analysis is crucial, particularly during times of intense market competition, since it facilitates the identification of various methods that can be employed to sustain competitive advantage. Through this, Coca-marketers Cola's have been able to build strategies that enable them to seize all market opportunities, so gaining a competitive advantage (Entr200, 2008).

The first step in opportunity identification is to identify the organization's prospective opportunities; Coca-Cola identifies its potential opportunities through market research and interaction with its customers. After identifying prospective prospects, the primary purpose and objectives for analysis are determined. The primary purpose and objectives of Coca-Cola are to meet and successfully satisfy customer needs. This will decide the most realistic option for the firm, as some prospects may not warrant investment depending on the organization's goals (Entr200, 2008).

The opportunity-related data is acquired; the data should be based on primary sources. The Coca-Cola business conducts market research in order to obtain primary data on the demands of its customers; this enables successful customer satisfaction and attainment of goals. Since implementation relies on the acquired data, data collecting is a procedure that should be treated seriously. The final step is the data analysis and interpretation of the results. The acquired data on the market is examined, which helps to provide a clear direction for implementing the market's prospective opportunities (Entr200, 2008).

Target market study

In order to do a successful target market analysis, the first step is to identify the targeted market, which refers to the clients that a business organization aims to acquire. After identifying the target market, it becomes easier to determine the actual needs of the target market, making it simpler to determine what to offer. Coca-Cola defines the target markets for its various soft drinks. The Coke-Cola drink's target market encompasses nearly every adult in society; marketers conduct campaigns and other promotional programs to determine whether the target market has been reached. It also conducts market research to determine which market segments purchase specific coke-cola beverages. Such factors have aided in market analysis.

To get a competitive advantage over market competitors, it is essential to understand the target market. Also, it becomes easier to build marketing plans that perfectly fit the requirements of the target market. The analysis of the target market also assists in finding the various market opportunities that may be leveraged. In addition, it is performed to guarantee that the target market objectives are satisfied, which includes determining whether the intended items advertised to the target market are supplied and whether the target market is convinced to use the products. When objectives are not fulfilled, new approaches to the targeted market are designed and deployed in order to achieve the desired goals. Due to this, Coca-Cola products have earned a competitive advantage over rivals on the market (Clow and Baack, 2004).

Customer research

The success of Coke-products Cola's on the market is also dependent on an examination of the customer base. This enables the organization to identify the specific market clients for its items. This is because it is easier to produce items that completely fit the wants of the market's customers when you understand your clients. The company has been successful in developing soft drinks that meet consumer demand. In addition, it has been able to devise tactics for acquiring potential clients and retaining existing ones. (2004) Clow and Baack

Customer analysis also aids in fostering positive relationships with customers in the marketplace, allowing those with complaints to communicate them to the firm in a manner that facilitates problem resolution. This is quite helpful for understanding the market's clients and determining how to contact potential market customers. Also, it becomes simpler to identify the needs of the market's clients and to devise methods for effectively meeting those needs. To ensure this, the organization has a support team that handles all customer companies; with this, they are able to identify their errors and swiftly repair them.

Market segmentation strategy

These are ways used to split the market depending on the many features of the items offered by a company organization. Organizations design market segmentation methods to ensure that diverse client needs within distinct market segments are handled appropriately.

The Coca-Cola company has split its market based on the varying needs of consumers. For instance, the company has developed goods for persons with health issues such as diabetes, as well as a number of options for the general public. In a highly competitive business climate, market segmentation is typically crucial for the success of corporate organizations. In addition to demographics, geographies, and age, the corporation segments its products using additional approaches, such as geographic regions and age. When markets are split, a business focuses solely on a certain segment and optimizes the prospects available in that market (Clow and Baack, 2004).

Different challenges are discovered based on the market segment employed by the firm, which is analyzed. The identification of weaknesses and threats is followed by their transformation into strengths and feasible business prospects. This is the significance of market segmentation analysis, as it is utilized to optimize the market segmentation's benefits (Clow and Baack, 2004).

Corporate strategy

Corporate strategies assist businesses to accomplish their objectives within the allotted time frame. They are the driving force behind any business organization's success in the business world. Corporate plans are typically crucial to the success of a company firm, and hence, they are typically followed to strictly.

Corporate image management

These are the types of methods that the company organization employs in order to create its reputation in the marketplace, which requires the implementation of a number of essential elements. A solid corporate image plan typically begins with an analysis of how an organization is perceived both inside and outside. The corporation conducts surveys with management and all personnel inside the business organization in order to establish its corporate image. In addition, additional surveys are conducted on the market to determine how the product is perceived by society. This enables the company to capitalize on its strengths and address its weaknesses, so gaining a competitive edge in the market. Corporate image is crucial to the existence of a commercial organization since it is via the corporate image that the organization establishes its reputation in the market, and coca-cola goods have established a positive reputation in the market (Hollinden, 2006).

Corporate image strategies attempt to enhance or construct the image of a company entity. Some of these techniques include establishing a strong brand name in the marketplace, like Coca-Cola has already done and continues to do. In addition to attracting clients, a strong brand name on the market boosts market share. The majority of company plans are typically centered on promotional or marketing techniques used to sell the organization's products. Coke-promotional Cola's activities contribute to the development of its brand identity and business reputation (Hollinden, 2006).

Brand creation and positioning techniques

Brand creation and positioning strategies are crucial to the success of any commercial organization when developing corporate strategies. To construct a powerful brand name in the marketplace, the first step is to create a brand name that customers will associate with and will also be able to associate with the firm. The coke-cola company came up with the brand name that has become the anthem of the market; this has also contributed to the product's strong market share. Awareness of a corporate organization and its products has expanded substantially as a result of the company's strategy of building a strong brand name. Through the brand name the company has established strong feelings and reactions and favorable view towards the whole company and the products (Hollinden, 2006).

Distribution method

A company may have a good brand name and image, but its distribution strategy may not be at all advantageous. These are the tactics employed to transport products from the business organization to the market's intended consumers. Distribution techniques ensure that items reach their intended market clients in a timely manner.

Financial Statements’ Analysis And Interpretation Write My Essay Help

Executive Synopsis

This research article evaluates how businesses can read and analyze financial statements. Financial statements are utilized by "managers, customers, investors, creditors, and regulatory agencies," among others (Drake & Fabozzi, 2012, p.43). These consumers have varied informational requirements. Consequently, it is vital that enterprises provide the aforementioned stakeholders with the necessary information. The paper describes the many methodologies available to the study of financial accounts, with a focus on ratio analysis. Discussed are several forms of financial ratios. In an effort to show and explain financial ratios, a variety of examples are offered. The study emphasizes the significance of combining multiple types of financial measurements to enhance the usefulness of financial statements for a variety of stakeholders.

Introduction

Analysis and interpretation of financial statements provide the ideal opportunity to comprehend the information presented in the accounts. The most prevalent financial statements are the balance sheet, cash flow statement, and income statement (Drake & Fabozzi, 2012, p.86). Internal and external stakeholders use the information offered in the financial statement. Analyzing and evaluating financial statements in order to give stakeholders with indicators and trends about a certain firm. According to Drake and Fabozzi (2012), the information requirements of stakeholders differ based on the decisions the users want to make. Users of financial statements may face information overload as a result of the precise data offered, emphasizing the significance of studying and interpreting the data presented in the financial statement. In the process of examining financial accounts, numerous strategies and methodologies are employed. Among these techniques are horizontal analysis, trend analysis, vertical analysis, and ratio analysis (Edwards & Ivancevich, 2010, p.72). Analyzing the link between distinct financial statement totals is the purpose of ratio analysis. In assessing financial statements, there are two primary categories of financial ratios: measurements of profitability and measures of an organization's debt-paying ability. This article analyzes financial statements using the method of ratio analysis.

Indicators of debt-paying capacity

Several ratios can be used to determine a company's ability to pay its debts. Included in this category are liquidity ratios and solvency ratios. The ratios are primarily based on the present liabilities and assets of an organization. Working capital, current ratio, inventory ratios, quick ratio, current ratios, accounts receivable turnover, and net sales to working capital are the primary liquidity ratios.

ratio of working capital to total assets

Calculate this ratio by subtracting current assets from current liabilities (Edwards & Ivancevich, 2010, p.61). Current liabilities include obligations that an entity must settle during the current accounting period. Current assets, on the other hand, refer to assets that can be quickly converted into cash. As a result, working capital is utilized to determine the surplus quantity of money or finances an organization has in order to continue operating. By maintaining an adequate level of working capital, a business can avoid short-term debt-payment difficulties.

Working capital gives only the difference between current assets and current liabilities, hence it does not give users of financial information absolute knowledge. However, this relationship can be stated as a ratio. This ratio is known as the current ratio or working capital ratio, which is derived by dividing a company's current assets by its current liabilities (Kieso et al., 2011, p.94). The graph below compares the current assets and liabilities of firms X and Y during their respective 2012 fiscal years.

Sum in US Dollars

Corporations X and Y

Current assets 168,000 500,000

Current liabilities 46,000 378,000

liquid assets 122,000 122,000

The graph demonstrates that both companies have equal operating capital. However, as shown below, their working capital ratios differ.

Company X = Current assets =168,000 =3.65:1 / Current liabilities 46,000

Company Y= Current assets =500,000 =1.32:1 / Current liabilities 378,000

According to the calculations above, firm X has a greater working capital than company Y. Therefore, Company X is in a better position than Company Y to satisfy its present debt obligations.

Rapid ratio

This proportion is also known as the acid-test ratio. This ratio is used to "determine a company's immediate debt-paying capacity" (Lee, 2006, p.111). Consequently, only the most liquid assets, such as current marketable securities, receivables, and cash, are considered. Less liquid current assets, such as prepaid expenses and stock/inventory, are not included. The following formula is utilized to calculate the quick ratio.

Current ratio = Current assets/Current liabilities

Using the preceding formula, the quick ratio of Company X may be determined as follows:

168,000/46,000= 2.04:1

Ratio of accounts receivable

If the company's quick ratio grows to 2.28:1 in 2013, this indicates that it will be unable to satisfy its present debt obligations.

In the course of their operations, the majority of businesses want to maximize their sales revenue. Offering credit to clients is one of the techniques used by businesses to maximize income. However, it is essential for businesses to ensure that bad debt costs are kept to a minimum. Therefore, businesses must maximize their debt collection efforts without losing clients. The accounts receivable turnover and the average collection period are the two primary ratios that may be used to determine a company's debt collection period. The turnover of accounts receivable is determined by dividing net credit sales by average accounts receivables. Lin, Liu, and Liang (2010) define net credit sales as "total account sales minus sales discount and returns" (p.54). The graph below depicts the turnover of accounts receivable for Company X.

Period ending 2012 (Amount in dollars )

Net sales (a) 800,000

(a) Initial receivables of $55,000

50,000 closing receivables

Average receivables (d)= (b+c)÷2 52,500

Turnover of accounts receivables (ad).

800,000

52,500=15.23

This study reveals that the average turnover of Company X's receivables throughout its 2012 fiscal year was about 15.23 times. According to Mohana and Rao (2011), a company with a high rate of receivables turnover can collect debts more effectively. Conversely, a company with a relatively low rate of receivables turnover may encounter difficulties in meeting its short-term debt obligations. Based on the turnover of accounts receivable, Company X's average days to collect receivables can be calculated as shown below.

The average number of days to recover accounts receivable is 365 days minus 15.23 days, or 24 days.

This research reveals that it took the Company 24 days to collect its receivables, which is a reasonably brief period for the firm to collect its receivables. Therefore, it may be asserted that the company's existing financial responsibilities are effectively met.

Inventory proportions

In order for an organization to maximize its sales revenue, effective inventory management is crucial. According to Heflin and Shaw (2000), an organization's holding costs, such as insurance, increase when there is an excess of inventory. In addition, the stock may become obsolete. On the other side, a company with insufficient inventory may have seen a decline in sales margins or other production-related issues, etc. The inventory turnover ratio is used to measure an organization's inventory management efficiency. The ratio indicates the number of times a corporation restocks its inventory during one year. The inventory turnover ratio is computed by dividing the cost of goods sold by the average inventory determined by dividing the sum of the opening and closing inventories (Heflin & Shaw, 2000, p.5). The graph below explains how inventory turnover is calculated.

Inventory turnover = Cost of goods sold / Average inventory = $600,000 / $55,000 = 10.9

The firm's inventory turnover ratio is reasonably high at 10.9, indicating that Company X effectively manages its inventory.

Solvency indices

According to Ryu and Jang (2004), solvency ratios are important for estimating a company's ability to pay its long-term debts. Moreover, solvency ratios are important for displaying the funding structure of an organization. Creditors are one kind of individuals who are concerned with solvency ratios. Moyer, McGuigan, and Kretlow (2008) believe that creditors are anxious about whether or not their customers will be able to repay their debts. A high solvency ratio indicates that an organization is able to pay its debts. Stockholders are concerned with the investment decisions of a company. Businesses must minimize their investment risk. Various solvency ratios can be used to evaluate the long-term debt-paying capacity of an organization. These ratios include "debt ratios, plant-assets to long-term liabilities, and the frequency with which interest is earned" (Moyer, McGuigan & Kretlow, 2008, p.54).

Calculating debt ratios

The two primary types of debt ratios are the ratio of debt to assets and the ratio of debt to equity. The debt-to-asset ratio is used to determine the proportion of an organization's assets that are financed by debt. In contrast, "the debt-to-equity ratio is used to determine the proportion of creditor to owner financing; it is calculated by dividing an organization's total liabilities by its total stockholders' equity" (Moyer, McGuigan & Kretlow, 2008, p.57). In contrast, the ratio of debt to assets is determined by dividing the total assets by the total assets. Applying these calculations to Company X yields the following results:

Sum in US Dollars (2012)

Total liabilities

166,000

total shareholder equity $3,620,000

Total equity

508,000

Using the following data, the company's debt-to-asset ratio is determined as follows:

Total liabilities divided by total assets equals 166,000 / 508,000 = 33%.

ratio of debt to equity = 146,000 / 362,000 = 0.45

The corporation financed 33% of its assets using debt, according to the data. Additionally, the company's liability per dollar of shareholders' equity is 0.40.

Number of occasions interest is accrued

This ratio "is used to determine an organization's interest burden" (Tugas, 2012, p.88). Typically, this ratio is used to assess the financial risk of an organization. In addition, creditors use the ratio to assess a company's ability to pay periodic interest. A ratio of at least two times is deemed sufficient for protecting the lenders' interests in a given organization. Nonetheless, an extremely high ratio shows that an organization is not effectively utilizing its existing financial facilities. The ratio is determined by dividing earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) by interest expense (Tugas, 2012, p.89). The graph below depicts the performance of the Company during its 2012 fiscal year.

Agricultural assets and long-term obligations

Interest earned per year = 50,000 / 8,000 = 6.25

This ratio is used to evaluate an organization's ability to manage its long-term debts. Companies use their plant assets as collateral to get credit financing from various financial institutions during the course of their operations. Before extending credit facilities, financial institutions assess an organization's asset base to determine its financial stability. Long-term assets must be financed by long-term liabilities (Kieso et al., 2011, p.119). Likewise, short-term assets ought to be financed with short-term obligations. The ratio is computed using the formula below.

Net plant asset versus long term obligations

Sum in US Dollars

Net plant assets 300,000

Bonds 100,000

The ratio of plant assets to long-term liabilities is 300,000 to 100,000.

=3:1

Performance ratios

Profitability is defined by Tugas (2012) as an organization's ability to generate earnings. Financial statements are used by both internal and external stakeholders to gauge an organization's potential to make profits. There are two primary kinds of profitability measures, including those used to measure the managerial performance of an organization and stock market ratios.

Management effectiveness evaluation

These ratios reflect "the proportion of sales that result in profits and the efficiency with which a company's assets can be used to generate sales" (Kieso et al., 2011, p.119).

Net margin

This ratio is determined by dividing net income by net sales (Kieso et al., 2011, p.119). A large net margin is indicative of a company's vitality.

Asset turnover percentage

This ratio is used to assess the "proportion of sales revenue generated for every dollar invested in an organization's assets" (Kieso et al., 2011, p.120). The graph below displays the asset turnover of Company X.

Quantity in dollars

Net sales (a) 800,000

Opening assets (b) 355,000

Closing assets (c) amount to 408,000

Average assets (d)=(b+c)÷2 381,500

Asset turnover (a÷d) 2.09

Payback on Investment

This ratio is used to determine the profitability of an organization. It depicts the ratio of a company's net income to its average total assets. A high rate of return on investment is indicative of a company's exceptional financial performance. Return on Investment is determined by dividing net revenue by the average value of all assets (Moyer, McGuigan & Kretlow, 2008, p.93).

Return on property (ROA)

The ratio is used to evaluate a company's ability to generate profits from its assets. A high ROA indicates that an organization uses its assets effectively and efficiently. In 2010, Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) was assessed to have a return on assets of 3.97%, which is a rather low rate, indicating that the company is not effectively utilizing its assets.

Return on Investment

The ratio measures the profitability of shareholders' investments. Due to financial leverage, Return on Equity (ROE) is typically greater than Return on Investment (ROI). Financial leverage is defined by Drake and Fabozzi (2012) as debt financing used to secure assets. ROE reflects the efficiency with which a company reinvests its profits to generate further profits. ROE is determined by dividing net income by average shareholder equity (Moyer, McGuigan & Kretlow, 2008, p.95). This is seen by the calculation shown below.

Return on equity = a minus b = 30,00/377,000 = 7.96%

Stock market ratios

Various ratios are utilized by prospective investors while making investment selections. Investors are concerned with the company's dividends and earnings, among other factors. These factors are utilized by investors when deciding whether to purchase shares.

A multitude of stock ratios, including earnings per share, book value, price earnings ratios, and dividend earnings, can be relied upon by investors. The earnings per share (EPS) is determined by dividing the net income available for distribution to common shareholders by the average number of outstanding common shares (Tugas, 2012, p.46). Following is the formula used to get the book value per share.

[Equity of shareholders – Preferred rights] ÷ [Available common shares]

The price-earnings ratio is used to compare the earnings per share (EPS) of a company to its current market price. The price-earnings ratio is computed by dividing the share price by the earnings per share.

Conclusion

Businesses are required to prepare financial statements, which are utilized by a variety of internal and external stakeholders. Their relevance stems from the fact that they are crucial indicators of an organization's effectiveness. Nonetheless, the information included in the financial accounts may be extensive. The necessity of analyzing and evaluating the financial statements is highlighted by the fact that the information overload may prevent the intended users from gaining the promised benefits. Financial statements may be analyzed using a variety of approaches and procedures. Horizontal analysis, trend analysis, vertical analysis, and ratio analysis are the primary methodologies. Profitability ratios, leverage ratios, liquidity ratios, and efficiency or activity ratios are the primary categories of financial ratios that can be employed in the process of interpreting financial statements. Profitability ratios advise users about the efficiency with which a company generates profits.

Financial ratios provide adequate information for users, such as managers, to compare a company's performance with that of its competitors and the average for the industry. In addition, managers might utilize financial ratios to comprehend the company's trend. Consequently, a company can adopt the essential modifications.

Recommendations

In order to ensure that consumers of financial statements comprehend the information offered in various financial statements, it is essential for businesses to consider the following factors.

Firms should combine a variety of financial statement analysis techniques in order to prevent information overload among users. In order to address the informational needs of diverse internal and external stakeholders, organisations should combine a variety of financial ratios.

Bibliography

Drake, P., & Fabozzi, F. (2012). Financial statement analysis. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.

H. Edwards and E. Ivancevich (2010). Administrative accounting Freeload Press in New York, New York

Heflin, F., and K. Shaw (2000). Negative selection, inventory holding costs, and inventory depth. 2(3) Journal of Financial Research: 1-7

Kieso, D., Weygndt, J., & Warfield, T. (2011). Intermediate accounting practices Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley

Lee, T. (2006). Financial reporting and corporate governance, published by John Wiley & Sons in Chichester, England.

Lin, W., Liu, C., & Liang, G. (2010). Analysis of the debt-paying capacity of Taiwan's shipping industry. 4(1), 77-82, African Journal of Business Management.

Mohana, R., & Rao, R. (2011). Financial statement reporting and analysis. PHI Learning is headquartered in New York, New York.

Moyer, R., McGuigan, J., & Kretlow, W. (2008). Management of finances in the present day. Cengage Learning, New York, New York

Ryu, R., & Jang, S. (2004). A comparison of commercial and casino hotel performance as measured by cash flow ratios and traditional ratios. 12(1), 16-28, Journal of Hospitality Financial Management.

Tugas, F. (2012). A comparative examination of the financial ratios of listed companies in the Philippines' education subsector from 2009 to 2011. Manila, Philippines: De La Salle University.

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Positive Organizational Behavior In Businesses Write My Essay Help

Introduction

Human resource managers have struggled for millennia to improve and optimize human talents and capacities in order for businesses to function optimally. Modern human resource managers utilize positive organizational behavior to promote the talents and abilities of employees in various businesses. Positive organizational behavior, according to Luthans (2002), is the application of positive psychology to promote "human strengths and psychological capacities that can be measured, developed, and effectively managed for performance enhancement in the modern workplace" (p. 59).

The adoption of positive organizational behavior by human resource managers as a method for boosting organizational performance has been verified by both theoretical and empirical research. Positive organizational behavior is predicated on the mental wellness of employees.

Positive organizational behavior asserts that the promotion of individual strengths and talents is vital to boosting organizational performance, given that the mental health of employees impacts their performance. According to Luthans (2002), the inclusion of positive psychology into the organizational environment is a work in progress. According to this approach, additional research is required to determine the origin, development, and effects of positive organizational behavior in contemporary organizations. In order to provide relevant recommendations, the research paper investigates theoretical and empirical studies of positive organizational behavior and its implementation in commercial organizations.

Theoretical Research

Conceptual Perspective

Positive organizational behavior is rooted in positive psychology, which investigates how positive attitudes and emotions enhance the behavior of employees and, consequently, their performance. Positive attitudes and emotions of employees are linked to organizational performance, according to the positive organizational behavior. According to Youssef and Luthans (2007), positive psychology is essential for enhancing organizational behavior since it focuses on employees' qualities and abilities. The capacity of an organization to mold the abilities and capabilities of its personnel is contingent on its management techniques.

The development of optimism, self-efficacy, resilience, and hope, according to proponents of positive organizational behavior, is crucial for increasing the performance of employees (Johnston, Foxx, Jacobson, Green, and Mulick 2006). This indicates that organizational behavior corresponds with employee performance and is, thus, a crucial part of human resource management. The application of positive psychology focuses on empowering individuals to overcome negative experiences and cultivate resilience and optimism in the face of the constant emergence of new problems in the workplace.

Positive psychologists believe in the maximization of human strengths and capacities as the theoretical foundation of positive organizational behavior. Human strengths and capacities vary from person to person and organization to organization, depending on human resource management practices. Positive psychology is the use of scientific information and abilities to the modeling, measurement, development, and management of employee performance through the modification of their strengths and talents. Positive psychology is an appropriate psychological method for empowering employees because their performance is influenced by psychological factors.

According to Memari, Valikhani, Aghababaee, and Davali (2013), psychological capital impacts organizational effectiveness. In this view, the implementation of positive psychology approaches increases psychological capital and, subsequently, the performance of an organization's employees. Therefore, positive organizational behavior and positive psychology are inseparable factors that influence employee performance.

Applications within Business Groups

Prior to the implementation of positive organizational behavior, human resource managers employed aversive employee management tactics, which dehumanized and demotivated workers. However, the advent of positive psychology has led to the implementation of positive organizational behavior as a means of encouraging and motivating individuals to perform well in their various roles. Positive organizational behavior is a non-punitive method for altering and enhancing the performance of an organization's personnel (Johnston, Foxx, Jacobson, Green, and Mulick 2006).

As a subset of positive psychology, the use of positive psychology has proven helpful in motivating individuals to maximize their skills and abilities at work. Thus, human resource managers use ethical, advantageous, and non-punitive tactics to improve the performance of employees through positive organizational behavior.

Typically, business organizations utilize a variety of people capabilities and qualities to foster the development of effective organizational behavior. Self-efficacy, resilience, hope, and optimism are the four components of human capabilities and strengths (Wright 2003). Self-efficacy is the capacity of employees to do a certain activity. Self-efficacy is based on the notion that employees possess innate abilities that enable them to do specified tasks within a given time frame. According to this view, the objective of positive organizational behavior is to increase employee self-efficacy.

Business organizations that enhance their employees' self-efficacy outperform those that do not (Wright 2003). If human resource managers understood the self-efficacy potential of their staff, they would implement the right initiatives. Positive organizational behavior has become an integral method for developing a profitable culture of performance in contemporary commercial companies.

In addition to use resilience to promote healthy organizational behavior among employees, business companies also employ this trait. In essence, employee resilience is the capacity to maintain self-efficacy in the face of multiple obstacles, such as failures, disagreements, transformations, and increased responsibilities (Luthans 2002). Positive psychology views resilience as a behavior, as opposed to the traditional view that it is a quality of the individual. Positive psychology emphasizes that resilience is not a characteristic of personality, but rather a behavior that employees must adopt as an important component of organizational capability.

Thus, the role of human resource managers is to build a resilient culture among employees through fostering resilient behavior. According to Luthans and Yousef (2007), resilient personnel are proactive and attentive to the ever-changing needs of business organizations. Therefore, resilience is essential to the development of proactive and adaptive organizational behavior in contemporary businesses.

Since optimism and hope drive employees to overcome obstacles, they are essential components of healthy organizational behavior. Hope is a motivating force for employees since it invigorates them to generate commitment and concentration, which are vital for achieving organizational goals and objectives. Positive psychologists, in contrast, view optimism as a cognitive trait that reflects the expectation of positive outcomes among employees.

The achievement of a business organization's vision, mission, goals, and objectives is contingent on its organizational behavior. Fundamentally, employees must have optimism and hope to optimize their performance in the face of obstacles. Consequently, the application of positive organizational behavior in fostering optimism and hope among employees is essential for the establishment and management of a determined workforce in a business. According to Nelson and Cooper (2007), organizations can easily achieve their objectives and goals if their personnel are dedicated and focused. In this view, business organizations motivate their employees to be hopeful and optimistic so that they can keep their self-efficacy and increase their resilience despite the problems they face.

What enabled the application to function?

Positive organizational behavior is effective in organizations because it emphasizes variables that promote human resource development. Positive organizational conduct emphasizes employees' capabilities and strengths rather than their faults (Nelson & Cooper 2007). Positive organizational behavior is feasible because it maximizes the abilities and qualities of people, as opposed to other human resource management solutions that focus on addressing flaws. Given that the capabilities and qualities of employees impact organizational success, their enhancements would result in a proportional increase in performance. Therefore, positive organizational behavior is a feasible technique for enhancing organizational performance, as it strives to cultivate the capabilities and qualities of employees.

The four components of positive organizational behavior, namely self-efficacy, resiliency, hope, and optimism, are behavioral elements as opposed to personality qualities. Therefore, because they are more behavioral variables than personality traits, employees can acquire them effectively if human resource managers utilize them correctly. Human resource managers deploy positive organizational behavior by ensuring that the organizational culture accepts self-efficacy, optimism, hope, and resiliency as measurable organizational behavior traits.

The modification of organizational behavior, according to Luthans (2002), is more effective than innate personality attributes. Positive organizational behavior is a viable technique for enhancing organizational performance, according to this viewpoint.

Positive organizational behavior is useful not just for enhancing organizational performance, but also for fostering an organizational culture that values and fosters the principles of good governance. The establishment of a motivating corporate culture offers considerable benefits for both the organization and the personnel. Positive organizational conduct promotes civic virtue, civility, altruism, and conscientiousness (Memari, Valikhani, Aghababaee, & Davali 2013). Given the competitive nature of the business world, these behaviors are crucial for fostering a commendable organizational culture. Therefore, the implementation of positive organizational behavior is effective since both employees and employers profit.

Empirical Studies

Defects Determined by the Study

Positive organizational behavior is crucial to enhancing organizational behavior, according to empirical investigations. Nonetheless, empirical investigations have uncovered a number of shortcomings in the use and evaluation of positive organizational behavior. The validity of the findings is one of the shortcomings that researchers face. According to Ojo (2009), organizational behavior is a multifaceted feature of an organization that is influenced by a variety of corporate factors.

Employees supply biased information, which affects the validity of the study's conclusions, as they are continually attempting to project a positive image of the company. The disadvantage of a study that evaluated how to develop positive organizational behavior through learning is that the results are dependent on behavioral and attitude-based work outcomes rather than positive organizational behavior (Lis 2012). According to this perspective, while evaluating the outcomes of a study, researchers must consider biases and other confounding variables.

Obtaining a representative sample of participants is a shortcoming encountered by researchers conducting studies on good organizational behavior. According to Holloway (2012), the character of the personnel selected by researchers for a study differs by business. For instance, a government organization has one set of employees whereas a non-government organization has a separate set. Given that personnel come from diverse organizational backgrounds, it is impossible, in this opinion, to infer specific behavioral trends from the harmonization of the findings. In addition, Luthans and Youssef (2007) note that positive organizational behavior focuses solely on the behavior of employees, whereas personality and leadership aspects have a substantial impact on the performance of businesses.

Because implicit factors alter their consequences, assessing positive organizational behavior among employees is fraught with error. According to Harms and Luthans (2012), a fundamental obstacle for organizational behavior researchers appears to be frustration with the applicability of implicit measures (p. 590). The lack of convergence between implicit and explicit metrics is the source of the unhappiness. In addition, due to the fact that behavioral change takes months and years for beneficial organizational behavior to become obvious, the accuracy of the data is dependent on a specific time period of the study (Avey, Luthans, & Jensen 2004). Consequently, the validity of the findings is contingent upon the time period within which a study was conducted.

Recommendations for Future Research

Positive psychologists must identify these elements and take them into account when evaluating research findings, as they mediate the association between positive organizational behavior and performance. Increase positive organizational psychology features since optimism, hope, resilience, and self-efficacy are not the only ones. Positive psychologists should provide standard ways for implementing and evaluating positive organizational behavior in modern, highly complex and dynamic enterprises. Future research should investigate the relationship between personality factors and leadership roles and organizational behavior. Researchers should align organizational behavior with culture in an effort to comprehend the cultural characteristics of individuals.

Questionnaires Used

Several questionnaires are used in research investigations to assess positive organizational behavior. Psychological capital is a questionnaire that measures employees' self-efficacy, resilience, optimism, and hope (Harms & Luthans 2012). Additional research has refined the psychological capital questionnaire and developed the Implicit PsyCap Questionnaire (I-PCQ). Organizational climate questionnaire (OCQ) is another type of questionnaire that assesses numerous positive organizational behavior characteristics (Holloway 2012). This measure is essential for analyzing the effect of company culture on employee behavior. In addition to numerous other scales and questionnaires, happiness measures (HM), the brief resilience scale (BRS), the strengths usage and current knowledge scale (SUCK), and the adult hope scale (AHS) are suitable to the research of positive organizational psychology.

Conclusion

Positive organizational behavior is a crucial component of human resource management because it enables people to realize their full potential and, as a result, improves organizational performance. Both theoretical and empirical research has demonstrated that the adoption of positive organizational behavior is an effective method for improving organizations' human resources. According to positive psychologists, hope, self-efficacy, optimism, and resiliency are the most important characteristics of positive organizational behavior and are therefore useful parameters for evaluating the capabilities and qualities of employees.

Despite the fact that the implementation of positive organizational behavior is effective, empirical research identify a number of limitations. The nature of faults in empirical studies relates to data validity, biases, research design, the complexity of constructs, and the presence of confounding variables. Therefore, the research paper recommends that positive psychologists identify confounding variables, examine additional aspects of positive organizational behavior, develop assessment standards, investigate the influence of personality traits, and harmonize the various variables that mediate positive organizational behavior. Examples of confounding variables include management styles, motivation levels, and the form of rules.

Additional factors of positive organizational behavior, such as the productivity, experience, and age of employees, would provide a complete evaluation of such behavior. Regarding evaluation standards, I would propose the introduction of standard questionnaires, models, or scales to improve the precision of judging positive organizational behavior. Personality traits such as introversion and extroversion must be taken into account when evaluating positive organizational behavior because they have a substantial impact on human behavior. Therefore, these suggestions are suitable for fostering the implementation of positive organizational behavior in corporate companies.

References

Human Resource Management, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 677-692, 2004. Avey, J., F. Luthans, and S. Jensen. "Psychological capital: A positive resource for reducing employee stress and turnover."

Harms, P., and F. Luthans, "Measuring Implicit Psychological Constructs in Organizational Behavior: An Example Using Psychological Capital," Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 589-595, 2012.

Holloway, J. (2012). Leadership conduct and organizational climate: an empirical research in a non-profit company.

Johnston, J., R. Foxx, J. Jacobson, G. Green, and J. Mulick (2006). Positive behavior support with applied behavior analysis.

A. Lis, "How to Strengthen Organizational Behaviors that Foster Experiential Learning? The case of military organizations, Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management, and Innovation, volume 8, number 4, pages 21 to 34.

Emerging good organizational behavior. Journal of Management, vol. 33, no. 3, 2007.

Positive organizational behavior: Developing and managing psychological strengths. Academy of Management Executive, 16(1):57-72, 2002.

Memari, H., Valikhani, M., Aghababaee, Z., and Davali, M. (2013). The impact of positive organizational behavior on Behbahan.

Nelson, D., and Cooper, C. (2007). Positive organizational behavior. London: Pine Forge Press.

Organizational culture and business performance: Empirical data from Nigeria. Journal of Business Systems, Governance, and Ethics, volume 5, number 2, pages 1-12, 2009.

Positive organizational behavior: A concept whose time has come, Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 437-442, T. Wright, 2003.

Youssef, M., and F. Luthans. "Positive organization behavior in the workplace: The impact of hope, optimism, and resilience." Journal of Management, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 774-800, 2007.

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Theory X And Y In The Organizational Management Write My Essay Help

Summary of Contents
Introduction The notion has been conceptualized. Managerial presumption and the detection of immoral missives: Applications of Theory X and Theory Y The effects of theories X and Y on managerial tasks Finale Works Cited

Introduction

Douglas McGregor's theories, Theory X and Theory Y, represent the diametrically opposed presuppositions of human behavior that are essential to the practice of management (Travis 827). Individual conducts are viewed in Theory X as repulsive to the work processes, immature, and in need of strict supervision. In Theory Y, on the other hand, people are said to be naturally inclined toward work processes, responsible and creative on an individual level, and have improved self-control in their positions. McGregor represented the positive side of human behavior in this theory (Travis 827). It is anticipated that managers holding the assumptions of Theory X would be very different from the managers holding the assumptions of Theory Y based on these characteristics. However, in reality, most managers use both theories, depending on the situation and environment (Falk, Kopelman, and Prottas 274).

The notion has been conceptualized.

Theory X and Theory Y were established with the premise that the management approach depends on what is thought to be driving employee motivation (Kopelman, Prottas, and Davis 256). In other words, managers are either using one of the ideas on their management style of the business, according to Douglas McGregor. In reality, the majority of managers alternate between Theory X and Theory Y. Kopelman, Prottas, and Davis discovered that the majority of managers either embrace the traits of either of the theories in their management style 258 in their study on the impact of McGregor's assumptions on managerial processes.

The premise behind Theory X is that people are inherently irresponsible and dislike working hard (Travis 829). As a result, people are forced to carry out the tasks they are given. In other words, when people are not driven or required to complete the majority of their job procedures, they cannot work. Self-interest is thought to be the primary motivator of effort (Travis 829). Such managers are more inclined to use a tight incentive and punishment system to inspire subordinate personnel (Travis 829). Such managers are also inclined to establish a great deal of rigid regulations and compliance requirements (Travis, 829). There is a lack of trust between management and employees in these firms. There is a clear separation between the management and the workforce. Since managers are hunting for small mistakes, the workers feel intimidated (Fisher 356).

Theory Y has a different perspective on the management style. According to Theory Y, people are motivated to work since it is a natural phenomenon and is necessary for their survival (Fisher 356). Employees are seen to be more innovative, to have problem-solving skills, and to be driven by needs for self-actualization within an enterprise (Fisher 356). In other words, the primary motivator for people to work is the ongoing urge to achieve whatever they view as significant in life (Fisher 356). They execute the necessary tasks without relying on sanctions. Theoretically, there is mutual trust between management and employees (Fisher 356). The atmosphere established within the business promotes development and creativity (Fisher 356).

Fisher suggested that by using Theory Y and Theory X in conjunction with other models, managers have the capacity to test their managerial controls 357. Fisher discovered that Theory Y is the dominant leadership style used by social work supervisors when researching the subject. The hypothesis is consistent with how social workers are taught to evaluate their clients, which is why. Fisher said that neither theory has been fully used in the principles of social work 359 because there is no actual investigation that supports this. Fisher says that managers should continue to employ Theory X and Theory Y to evaluate their fundamental presumptions and compare them to what they really do in the workplace 359. Fisher went on to say that it is crucial to assess what is actually happening and what drives employees rather than establishing management procedures on presumptions 359. Fisher's findings concur with those of earlier studies, particularly those that looked at how different theories affected employees' motivation.

Theory X and Theory Y applications

The McGregor-proposed theories of X and Y have been used extensively in managerial practice. Understanding ethical behavior in the workplace is one area where Theory X and Theory Y have been utilized (Neuliep 301). Neuliep used the ideas to look at how management techniques affected the ability to recognize organizational ethics. The study's findings showed that among the managers who exhibited the traits of each theory, there were no appreciable differences in how they perceived ethics (Neuliep 301).

However, a study's closure analysis reveals that managers who adhere to Theories X and Y have significant differences in how they perceive the effectiveness of unethical action (Neuliep 301). The study's findings agreed with those of previous studies that had been done in the area. In general, the data show that the superiors' managerial presumptions play a significant role in the decision to use immoral acts (Neuliep 301).

managerial supposition and identifying immoral missives

According to the Neuliep investigations, one of the organizational structures where moral decisions are made most frequently is the one between managers and less experienced employees. Decisions that are unethical can be taken with ease because to the top-down power imbalances between senior management and the junior employees 303. Furthermore, because the management's primary responsibility is to direct and control the behavior of the less senior employees, there is a higher likelihood that these individuals may make judgments that are viewed as immoral as a result. The management's success is determined on their capacity to motivate and influence subordinates to achieve the corporate objectives (Neuliep 303). The superiors occasionally find themselves in a defensive position where they must weigh the interests of the company with their own and the subordinate employees'. In these circumstances, managers frequently make immoral choices in an effort to appease all parties (Neuliep 301).

Studies claim that the managerial presumptions held by superiors play a significant role in the decision to adopt immoral acts. According to McGregor's assumptions, some managers in these circumstances would be Theory X oriented, while others would be Theory Y oriented. Comparatively to managers who were more focused on Theory Y, Theory X-oriented managers were more prone to make immoral actions (Neuliep 304). McGregor asserts that Theory X-oriented managers would presume that workers are immature, unmotivated, lazy, and disdainful of their jobs. They would also assume that they need external control and would avoid their obligations (Neuliep 304).

In contrast, Theory Y managers would presumptively believe that the workers are mature, responsible, and motivated to work toward the organization's objectives (Neuliep 304). In fact, these managers would create the ideal environment for the workers to accomplish the objectives of the company. In addition, Theory Y managers are more likely to choose morally responsible actions in neutral circumstances.

Studies suggest that Theory X and Theory Y managers, although using effective employee-management techniques, have different ethical standards. These research suggest that managers who show theory X are more prone to employ anti-social persuasion techniques like threats. Additionally, these managers are more prone to use coercion and punishment as one of the rewards (Neuliep 304). However, Theory Y managers have been found to be more prone to apply pro-social winning strategies including ingratiation and gaining the respect of their staff (Neuliep 304).

Additionally, Neuliep discovered some data that suggests Theory X and Theory Y managers have different ethical standards when using persuasion tactics on their subordinate workers 304. Neuliep, for instance, discovered that Theory X-oriented managers would choose anti-social persuasion techniques even when they are aware of how unethical they are. However, the key finding of the Neuliep study is that there is very little difference between Theory X and Theory Y managers' perceptions of organizational ethics (Neuliep 307). Therefore, it may be said that some organizational behaviors may not be significantly impacted by the management assumptions. The claim does not refute the overarching claim that the assumptions behind the theories have a significant impact on the management style of the business. In reality, it is consistent with the study's findings, which tend to examine how the theoretical presumptions affect organizational behaviors other than management and leadership styles.

The effects of theories X and Y on managerial tasks

In addition to other behavioral features, Theory X and Theory Y have been found to have an impact on organizational leadership, control, and planning. In reality, a number of research have focused on how the theoretical presumptions affect employees' motivation. However, the planning procedures within the firm are more impacted by management concepts. The presuppositions of Theory X have been discovered to have a significant impact on how organization managers establish their goals when it comes to planning.

In fact, according to the results of numerous research, Theory x supervisors typically set goals without informing the less experienced workers. To put it another way, Theory X managers do not establish requirements that permit the involvement of subordinates in decisions that establish the goals (Travis 829). The firm's planning procedures exclude the junior staff. On the other hand, Theory Y managers promote cooperation between the staff and the management, resulting in goals that are created with input from all parties. The achievement of the goals established is likely to occur under such circumstances. Employee commitment to achieving the common aims and objectives is probably higher.

Business managers who are inclined toward Theory X presumptions are more likely to have a tyrant governance style. The authoritarian aspect of the leadership style may create work redundancy and resistance, which could ultimately lead to a decrease in overall productivity. The top-down information flow that occurs in Theory X firms, where decisions are taken at the managerial level and passed on to the lower-level employees, is typically what distinguishes them. On the other hand, Theory Y companies are characterized by participative leadership. Almost all choices are made with input from the workforce (Travis 829). Employees are empowered to seek out greater responsibilities and are more committed to goal achievement thanks to the participative leadership style. The Theory Y organizations promote a downward-towards information flow in which managerial choices are based on the recommendations of the personnel below them.

The external control is what defines the Theory X organization in terms of control. Managers take on the role of the performance manager in these circumstances. In other words, the managers establish performance goals that must be met. Employees are evaluated based on their output. The majority of the time, past performances are used to evaluate current ones. In other words, historical records are frequently emphasized. Instead, according to Theory Y, supervisors tend to regulate the entire process depending on how well their subordinates can exercise self-discipline (Travis 829). Employee self-control makes internal organizational control procedures simpler. Additionally, according to Theory Y, managers should coach their staff on how to better meet the needs of the organization. In other words, rather than focusing on who is to blame for previous failures, Theory Y leaders prepare their subordinates for improved future performances.

The abstract relationships between Theory Y and Theory X are always distinct and in direct opposition, as was already mentioned. Studies on organizational behavior, however, have not revealed if this particular connection occurs. In other words, depending on the situation, the managerial processes, such as planning, controlling, and leading, apply the features of both theories (Travis 829). Managers are frequently observed adopting the traits of both theories almost equally, according to empirical studies. However, these research concur that the theory's claims are accurate and have an impact on management and organizational behavior.

Conclusion

There has been extensive use of Theory X and Theory Y in organizational managing processes. In addition, the two theories have been connected to other leadership behaviors. Theory X and Theory Y represent the exact opposing presuppositions of human action that are directly relevant to the practice of management, as shown in the majority of studies. It is usually assumed that in Theory X, managers frequently have an unfavorable opinion of employees' behaviors, especially when those behaviors include hating their jobs, acting irresponsibly, and requiring tight supervision. Managers, on the other hand, are considered to have a positive character of human behavior according to Theory Y, where people are seen to be innately motivated by work processes, responsible and creative on an individual level, and to have more self-control in their responsibilities.

It is anticipated that managers holding the assumptions of Theory X would be completely different from the managers who hold the assumptions of Theory Y regarding the distinct difference of these features. However, actual research suggests the opposite. The majority of managers use both ideas in reality, depending on the situation and environment. Studies on the impact of the theoretical hypotheses on other organizational behaviors also show no discernible change. In other words, decisions about other organizational behaviors, like ethics, are made independently of Theory X and Theory Y. In general, it may be said that Theory X and Theory Y have a bigger impact on how the organization is managed.

Works Citation

Richard E. Kopelman, David J. Prottas, and David W. Falk. A measure of theory X and Y managerial assumptions is being developed further. Printed in Journal of Managerial Issues 24.4, 2012, pp. 271-287.

Motivation and Leadership in Social Work Management: A Review of Theories and Related Studies, Elizabeth A. Fisher. Print. Administration in Social Work, 33, 347–367 (2009).

Toward a Construct-Valid Measure: Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Y by Richard E. Kopelman, David J. Prottas, and Anne L. Davis. Printed in Journal of Managerial Issues 20.2 (2008), pp. 255-271.

The Impact of Theory X and Theory Y Management Style on the Perception of Ethical Behavior in Organizations, by James W. Neuliep. 301–311 in Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 11.2 (1996).

Travis, L. Russ. “Theory X/Y Assumptions as Predictors of Managers’ Propensity for Participative Decision Making.

” Management Decision 49.5 (2011): 823 – 836. Print.

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Methodology: Research Design Write My Essay Help

Exhaustive interviews

Research design involves questions of how to organize a research study. It includes addressing issues such as how to conduct data collection and analysis. In addition, it describes how the researcher will select empirical units of the study, such as individuals, cases, and circumstances, in order to answer his or her research questions within the available time and with the available resources (Flick, 2009, p.128). Ragin, as referenced by Flick (2009, p.128), describes a research design as a technique for obtaining data and interpreting evidence that enables the researcher to answer any study-related questions.

In-depth interviews are one of the most important qualitative research methods (Lewis & Ritchie, 2003, p.138). Other qualitative research methods include focus groups, analysis of archive materials, and participant or nonparticipant observation. Individual/group, structured, and unstructured interviews are categories for qualitative research interviews. Unstructured interviews are another name for in-depth interviews. Typically, an in-depth interview is described as a dialogue (Lewis & Ritchie, 2003, p.138). Some social scientists, like Sidney and Beatrice Webb, as referenced by Lewis & Ritchie (2003, p.138), have described in-depth interviews as purposeful discourse. According to Lewis & Ritchie (2003, p.138), an in-depth interview is a fundamental method for constructing information about a particular social phenomenon of interest through regular human interaction. It is important to highlight, however, that there are many obvious distinctions between a normal chat with another person or a group and an in-depth interview because the objectives and roles of researchers and interviewees are vastly different (Lewis & Ritchie, 2003, p.138). However, a well-designed in-depth interview should appear naturalistic and bore some resemblance to everyday dialogue.

There are a number of advantages to conducting an in-depth interview, particularly for a researcher who seeks thorough knowledge on a person or group's experiences and thoughts. This technique provides a framework for other data and/or a more complete depiction of the examined topic. The second interview allows the researcher to properly combine structure with flexibility. This permits issues and subjects to be discussed in the sequence that is most advantageous for each participant (s). This, in turn, enables answers to be thoroughly examined and probed, making it easier for the researcher to be aware to unexpectedly crucial problems raised by the interviewee (Lewis & Ritchie, 2003, p.138). Thirdly, an in-depth interview is interactive; hence, information is repeated through a natural relationship between the interviewer and interviewee (Maxwell, 2005, p.150). Fourthly, an in-depth pattern permits the researcher to investigate the components that support participants' opinions, beliefs, motives, responses, and emotions (Lewis & Ritchie, 2003, p.138). This, in turn, influences the researcher's explanatory evidence, which is an essential aspect of qualitative research (Lewis & Ritchie, 2003, p.138). In addition, employing in-depth interviews enables the researcher to employ a variety of probes and other strategies to achieve explanation, penetration, and exploration depth of a response. In this study, therefore, in-depth interviews will be conducted in order to collect sufficient data on Saudis' desire to connect effectively with international visitors.

However, there are a number of limitations to in-depth study. For example, it is time-consuming since it requires extensive interviews with participants. Moreover, these people reside in distinct locations and exhibit distinct behaviors and personalities. During the actual interview, the outcomes of the interviews must also be recorded and examined in order to respond to the questions presented. All of these essential tasks need sufficient time, which may not be readily available. This study will necessitate extensive travel across Riyadh in order to collect diverse data that can reveal the desired variability. Variety is typical of social phenomena, and this research's subject exhibits such variability. The interviewing method may also necessitate the use of a translator who can facilitate communication between the researcher and willing interviewees if the interviewees do not speak English, thus consuming additional time. Even if the researcher and the participants speak the same language, the researcher must possess professional, communication, and social-emotional abilities to guarantee that participants cooperate constructively, without excessive pressure or animosity.

Participants

Participants are essential to the success of this study. Such information is the primary source of data for this type of research, which requires participants to respond to questions asked during the study. In fact, the outcomes of this study will not be a generalization, but rather a deeper knowledge of Saudis' desire to engage with overseas visitors based on the researcher's experience from the perspectives of sample groups of Riyadh-based Saudi people (Maykut & Morehouse, 1997, p.44; King, Keohane & Verba, 1994, p.7). The study will therefore employ purposive sampling to ensure that selected participants increase the variability of the produced samples (Merriam, 2009, p.266).

Simple criteria will be used to pick interviewees to guarantee adequate regional coverage of Riyadh, which is the primary sample population. To qualify as a participant, one must first be a Saudi national who has resided in Riyadh for at least two years. Second, he or she must be a Saudi national whose native tongue is Arabic alone. Different purposeful sample groups consisting of 15 to 20 Riyadh residents from various social classes will be assembled (Holloway, 1997, p.144). They will also include participants who have traveled to countries in various regions of the world. Sample sets will also include literate, illiterate, and semi-illiterate interviewees (Merriam, 2009, p.266; Rubin & Babbie, 2010, p.448). The researcher will conduct interviews at the most convenient locations, such as participants' houses if consent has been acquired, public markets, and any other location where s/he is ethically (religiously and legally) permitted to conduct interviews.

References

Flick, U. (2009). A Brief Overview of Qualitative Research. The city of London: SAGE.

I. Holloway (1997). Concepts fundamental to qualitative research. Wiley-headquarters Blackwell's are in London.

King, G., Keohane, R., & Verba, S. (1994). Scientific inference in qualitative social inquiry design. Princeton University Press is based in Princeton, New Jersey.

Lewis, J., & Ritchie, J. (2003). The practice of qualitative research: a guide for social science students and researchers. New York, New York: SAGE

Maxwell, J. (2005). A participatory strategy for qualitative research design. SAGE is headquartered in New York.

Maykut, P., and R. Morehouse (1994). A Philosophical and Practical Introduction to Qualitative Research Taylor & Francis Group, New York.

Merriam, S. (2009). A manual for qualitative research design and implementation. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Rubin, A., & Babbie, E. (2010). Social research methodologies Cengage Learning's headquarters are located in London.

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Introduction To Finance Write My Essay Help

INTRODUCTION TO FINANCE: Finance is the integral part of business. The economic development of any country, depends upon the ‘existence of a well- organized financial system. It is the financial system, which supplies the necessary financial input for the production of goods and services, which in turn promotes the well-being, and standard of people of the country. Finance, and function of finance are the part of the economic activity. Finance is the essential, need for all type of organization viz., small, medium, large-scale industries, and agriculture and service sector. Over the 60 years of independence, the availability of finance, has been made easy through functioning of commercial banks, development banks and primary markets. But all these services and instruments are associated, with different types of costs. Hence, it had become a necessity to make use of such sources not only to recover the cost but also to increase, the wealth of investors. Contrary to this, the new economic reforms created a challenging, environment in the economy. This calls for effective utilization of funds, to yield the pre-determined returns of a firm’s success and its survival, depends upon how efficiently it is able to generate funds, as and when needed. Finance, holds the key to all activities. The Sanskrit says, ‘Arthasachivah’ which means, ‘Finance’ reigns supreme’, speaks volume for the significance of the function, of finance in any organization. According to Paul G. Hassings..,

‘Finance is the management of the monetary, affairs of a company. It includes determining what has to be paid for the money of the best terms available, and devoting the available funds to the best uses’.

‘Finance’ guides and regulates, investment decisions and expenditures. The expenditure decision may pertain, to recurring expenditure or they may be about capital budgeting. To get the best out of the available funds, is major task of finance. The finance manager, has to perform this task most efficiently if he is to be successful. The finance function, does not draw any distinction between the private sector and the public sector. It is important, even indispensable to the both sectors, even the government treats finance as a, signpost to control a measure what it has achieved or propose to achieve. It may be rightly, considered as the sinew of any business activity, and that is how its importance is recognized in any branch of science. Every business activity requires financial support, because financial viability, is the center theme of any business preposition. This point of view is well brought out by Mr. A.L. KINGSHOTT, who states.

‘Finance is the common denominator for a vast range of corporate objectives, and the major part ,of any corporate plan must be expressed in financial terms’.

Financial decision, must be viewed in the light of financial viability of its financial outcomes. It is difficult to conceive a policy decision, which does not have financial implications. Moreover, business activities are not mutually exclusive; there dependence on each other, and can be measured only in terms of finance. Any economic transaction, consists of buying and selling, which implies money transactions, but it may not involve immediate payment of money, as there may be credit terms involved. In any transaction therefore, whether it is buying or selling, the payment of money, at present or in future, is involved.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

An organization communicates, its financial information to the users through financial statements and reports. Financial statement contains summarized information of the organizations – financial affairs, organized in a systematic form. These statements comprises of the income statements or profit and loss account and the position statements or the balance sheet.

To give a full view of the financial affairs, of the undertaking it is also necessary to include statement of retained earnings, a statement of changes , in the financial position and a few schedules such as schedules of fixed assets, and schedule of debtors.

Income Statement: The profit and loss account set out income as well as expenses of the same period and after matching the two, the difference that is net profit or net loss, is shown as the difference between the two sides of the account. Thus, the earning capacity and the potential of the organizations are reflected by its profit and loss account.

Balance Sheet: Also known as the position statement, displays all the total resources of a business and the owners, creditors equity in these resources. It indicates the statement of affairs of the business at a particular moment of time and thus, its nature.

Profit and Loss Appropriation account: Also known as statement of retained earnings, is generally a part of the profit and loss account. It shows, how the profit of the business for the accounting period is appropriated, towards reserve and dividend and how much of the same is carried forward, as retained earnings

Fund Flow Statement: Also known as the statement of changes in financial position, summarizes the changes in the assets, liabilities and owners’ equity between two balance sheet dates. Thus, it is a statement of flows, i.e. it means the changes have been taken in the financial position of the firm of two balance sheet dates. It summarizes the sources, and uses of the funds obtained.

FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

Financial analysis, is the process of identifying the financial strength and weakness of the firm by properly establishing, relationships between the items of the balance sheet and profit and loss account. The purpose of financial analysis is, to disclose the information available in the financial statements so as to judge the profitability, and financial health of the organization.

The first task of the financial analyst is to select the information relevant to the decisions under consideration from the total information available in the financial statement. Secondly, to arrange the information in a way that would highlight the significant relationships.

Finally, to interpret and draw inferences, and conclusions. In brief, financial analysis, is the process if selection, relation and evaluation of profitability and financial soundness and health of the organization.

TECHNIQUES OF FINANCIAL STATEMENT

A financial analyst, analyses the financial statement by selecting the appropriate techniques according to purpose of the analysis. Financial statements may be analyzed by means of any of the following techniques:

‘ Comparative Statement analysis.

‘ Common Size Statement analysis.

‘ Trend analysis.

‘ Ratio analysis.

‘ Fund Flow Statement.

‘ Cash Flow Statement.

‘ Cost Volume Profit analysis.

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

Comparative Analysis means, comparison of two or more comparable alternatives, processes, products, qualifications, sets of data’s, systems, etc. In accounting, for example, changes in a financial statement’s items over, several accounting periods could be presented together to detect the emerging trends in the, firm’s operations and results.

Comparative Analysis is performed by professionals, who prepare reports using financial tools and techniques that make use of information taken from financial statements and the other reports. These reports are usually, presented to top management as one of their base in making business decision.

These decisions include the following:-

‘ Continue or discontinue in its main operation or part of its business;

‘ Make or purchase certain materials, in the manufacture of its product;

‘ Acquire or rent/lease certain, machineries and equipment in the production of its goods;

‘ Issue stocks or negotiate for a bank loan, to increase its working capital;

‘ Make decisions regarding investing and lending capital;

‘ Other decisions that allow management to make an, informed selection on various alternatives in the conduct of its business.

Comparative analysis often assesses the firm’s:-

1. Profitability ‘ Firm’s ability, to earn income and sustain growth in both short-term and long-term. A company’s degree of profitability, is usually based on the income statement, which reports on the company’s results of operations

2. Solvency ‘ Firm’s ability to pay of its obligation to creditors and third parties in the long term.

3. Liquidity – its ability to maintain a positive cash flow, while satisfying immediate obligations.

4. Stability- the firm’s ability is to remain in business in the long run, without having to sustain significant losses, in the conduct of its business. Assessing a company’s stability requires the use of the income statements and the balance sheet, as well as other, financial and non-financial indicators.

Methods of Comparative Analysis

Comparative analysts often compare on the basis of following things:

‘ Past Performance – Across historical time periods, for the same firm (the last 5 years for example),

‘ Future Performance – Using historical figures and certain, mathematical and statistical techniques, including present and future values, This extrapolation method is the main source, of errors in financial analysis as past statistics can be the poor predictors of future prospects.

‘ Comparative Performance – Comparison between the similar firms.

Comparing financial ratios is merely one way of conducting, financial analysis. Financial ratios face several theoretical challenges:

‘ They say little about the firm’s prospects, in an absolute sense. Their insights about, relative performance, require a reference point from other time periods or any similar firms.

‘ One ratio, holds little meaning. As indicators, ratios can be logically interpreted in at least two ways. One can be partially overcome this problem by combining several related ratios, to paint a more comprehensive and exact picture of the firm’s performance.

‘ Seasonal factors, may prevent year-end values from being representative. A ratio’s values may be distorted as the account balances will change from the beginning to the end of an , accounting period. Use average values, for such accounts, whenever it is possible.

‘ Financial ratios, are no more objective than the accounting methods employed. Changes in accounting policies, or choices can yield drastically different ratio values.

Financial analysts, can also use percentage analysis which involves reducing a series of the figures as a percentage of some base amounts. For example, a group of items can be expressed, as a percentage of net income. When proportionate changes in the same figure, over a given time period expressed as a percentage is known as horizontal analysis. Vertical or common-size analysis, reduces all items on a statement to a ‘common size’ as a percentage of some base value, which assists in the comparability with other companies of different sizes. As a result, all Income Statement items are divided by Sales, and all the other Balance Sheet items are divided by Total Assets.

Another method is, comparative analysis. This provides a better way to determine trends. Comparative analysis, presents the same information for two or more time periods and is, presented side-by-side to allow for easy analysis.

BALANCE SHEET BASICS

In financial accounting, the balance sheet or statement of financial position is a summary of the financial balances, of a sole proprietorship, a business partnership or a company. Assets, liabilities and ownership equity, are listed as of a specific date, such as to the end of its financial year. A balance sheet is often described as a “snapshot of a company’s financial condition”. The balance sheet is the only statement which applies to a single point at time of a business’ calendar year. Understanding balance sheet, is very important because it gives an idea of the financial strength of a company at any given point of time.

The various components of balance sheet are as follows:-

‘ Assets: – Anything tangible or intangible that is capable, of being owned or controlled to produce value and that is, held to have positive economic value is considered as an asset.

‘ Gross block: – The total value of all the assets that a company own’s and value is determined by the amount ,it cost to acquire these assets. It is inclusive of depreciation, that is to be charged on each asset.

‘ Net block: – If the gross block is less accumulated depreciation on assets. Net block is actually what; the asset is worth to the company.

‘ Capital Work-In-Progress: – sometimes, at the end of the financial year, there is some construction or installation going-on in the company. Which is not complete, such installation is recorded in the books as: capital work in progress because it is asset for the business.

‘ Investments: – If the company has made some, investments out of its free cash, it is recorded, under the head investments.

‘ Inventory: -The raw materials, work-in-process goods and completely finished goods that are considered to be the portion of a business assets which are ready or will be ready for sale.

‘ Receivables: – include the debtor’s of the company, i.e., it includes all those accounts which are to give money back to the company.

‘ Other Current Assets: – include all the assets, which can be converted into cash, within a very short period of time like cash in bank etc.

‘ Liabilities:- In financial accounting, a liability is defined as an obligation of an entity, arising from past transactions or events, the settlement of which may result in the transfer or use of assets, provision of services, or other yielding of economic benefits in the future.

‘ Share Capital: – Share capital or issued capital refers to as the portion of a company’s equity that has been obtained by trading stock, to a shareholder for cash or an equivalent item of capital value. Share capital usually comprises the nominal values of all shares issued, and less those repurchased by the company. It includes both ordinary shares and preference shares. If the market value of shares is greater than their nominal value (value at par), the shares are said to be at a premium, which is also called as share premium.

‘ Reserves and surpluses: – Amount appropriated out of earned surplus, retained earnings for future plan or unforeseen expenditure. It includes, the free reserves of the company which are built out of the genuine profits of the company. Together they are known as net worth of the company.

‘ Total debt: – It includes the long term and short debt of the company. Long term is for a longer duration, usually for a period more than 3 years like debentures. Short term debt, is for a lesser duration, usually for less than a year like bank finance for the working capital.

‘ Creditors: – They are those entities to which the company owes’s money.

‘ Other Liabilities and Provisions: – It includes, all the liabilities that do not fall under any of the above head and various provisions made.

PROFIT AND LOSS STATEMENT

Profit and Loss Statement which is also known as the Income Statement is a company’s financial statement that indicates how the revenue, which is money received from the sale of products and services, before expenses are taken out, also known as the “top line” is transformed into the net income, which is the result after all revenues and expenses have been accounted for, also known as the “bottom line”. It displays, the revenues recognized for a specific period, and the cost and expenses charged against all these revenues, including write-offs (e.g., depreciation and the amortization of various assets) and taxes. The purpose of the income statement is to show manager’s and investors whether the company made or lost money, during the period being reported.

Items in Profit & Loss Statement

Operating Expenses

‘ Revenue: -Cash inflows, or other enhancements of assets of an entity during a period from delivering, or producing goods, rendering services, or other activities that constitute the entity’s ongoing, major operations. It is usually presented as the sales minus sales discounts, returns, and allowances.

‘ Expenses: – Cash outflows, or other using-up of assets or incurrence of liabilities during a period, from delivering or producing goods, rendering services, or carrying out other activities that constitute, the entity’s ongoing major operations.

‘ General and Administrative Expenses: -Represent expenses, to manage the business; which includes salaries of officers/executives, legal and professional fees, utilities, insurance, depreciation of office building and the equipment, office rents, office supplies, etc.).

‘ Selling Expenses: -It represents, expenses needed to sell products which include salaries of sales people, commissions, and travel expenses, advertising, freight, shipping, depreciation of sales store buildings and equipment, etc.

‘ R & D Expenses: -Investigative activities, that a business chooses to conduct with intention of making a discovery that can either lead to the development of a new products or procedures, or in the improvement of existing products or procedures.

‘ Depreciation/Amortization: -It is the charge, with respect to fixed assets / intangible assets that have been capitalized, on the balance sheet for a specific accounting period. It is a systematic and rational allocation of cost, rather than the recognition of market value decrement.

Non-operating Expenses

‘ Other Revenues or Gains: -They are, revenues and gains from other than primary business activities (e.g. rent, income from patents). It also includes unusual gains, that are either unusual or infrequent, but not both (e.g. gain from sale of securities or gain from disposal of fixed assets).

‘ Other expenses or losses: – Expenses or losses which are not related to primary business operations, (e.g. foreign exchange loss).

‘ Finance costs ‘ It is the cost of borrowing from various creditors (e.g. interest expenses, bank charges).

‘ Income tax expense: – It is the sum of the amount payable to tax authorities for the current reporting period (current tax liabilities/ tax payable) and the amount of deferred tax liabilities (or assets).

Irregular Items

They are reported separately, because this way the user can better predict future cash flows. Irregular items most likely may not appear in next year. These are reported as net of taxes.

‘ Extraordinary items: -They are both, unusual (abnormal) and infrequent, for example, unexpected natural disaster, expropriation, prohibitions, under new regulations. [Note: natural disaster, might not qualify depending on location (e.g. frost damage would not qualify in Canada, but would in the tropics).

‘ Changes in accounting principles: -For example, deciding to depreciate, an investment property that has previously not been depreciated. However, changes in the estimates (e.g. estimated useful life of fixed assets) do not qualify.

‘ Discontinued operations: -These are the most common type of irregular items. Shifting business location, stopping production temporarily, or changes due to technological improvement, do not qualify as discontinued operations.

1.2 SPECIFIC INTRODUCTION

RETAIL BACKGROUND OF INDUSTRY

The Indian retail industry, is divided into organized and unorganized sectors. Organized retailing, refers to trading activities undertaken by licensed retailers, that is, those who are registered for sales tax, income tax, etc. These include the corporate-backed, hypermarkets and retail chains, and also the privately owned large retail businesses. Unorganized retailing, on the other hand, refers to the traditional formats of the low-cost retailing, for example, the local kirana shops, owner manned general stores, paan/beedi shops, convenience stores, hand-cart and pavement vendors, etc. India’s retail sector is wearing new clothes and with a three-year compounded annual growth rate of 46.64 per cent, retail is the fastest growing sector, in the Indian economy. Traditional markets, are making way for new formats such as departmental stores, hypermarkets, supermarkets and specialist stores. Western-style malls, have begun appearing in metros and second-rung cities alike, introducing the Indian consumer, to annul paralleled shopping experience. The Indian retail sector, is highly fragmented with 97 per cent of its business being run by the unorganized retailers, like the traditional family run stores and corner stores. The organized retail however is at a very nascent stage, though attempts are being made to increase its proportion to 9-10 per cent by the year 2015 bringing in huge opportunities for prospective new players. This sector is the largest source of employment after agriculture, and has deep penetration, into rural India generating more than 10 percent of India’s GDP.

The last few years witnessed immense growth by this sector, the key drivers being

the Changing consumer profile and demographics, increase in the number of international brands, available in the Indian market, economic implications of the Government increasing urbanization, credit availability, improvement in the infrastructure, increasing investments in technology, and real estate building a world class shopping environment for the consumers. In order to keep pace with the increasing demand, there has been, a hectic activity in terms of entry of international labels, expansion plans, and focus on technology, operations and processes .This has led, to more complex relationships involving suppliers, third party distributors and retailers, which can be dealt, with the help of an efficient supply chain. A proper supply chain will help to meet the competition head-on, manage stock availability; supplier relations, new value-added services, cost cutting and most importantly reduce the wastage levels in fresh produce.

Large Indian players: like Reliance Ambani’s, K.Rahejas, Bharti AirTel, ITC and many others are making significant investments, in this sector leading to emergence of big retailers who can bargain with suppliers to reap, economies of scale. Hence, discounting is becoming, an accepted practice. Proper infrastructure is a pre-requisite in retailing, which would help to modernize India and facilitate rapid economic growth. This would ,help in efficient delivery of goods and value-added services to the consumer making a higher, contribution to the GDP. International retailers see India as the last retailing, frontier left as the China’s retail sector is, becoming saturated. However, the Indian Government restrictions on the FDI are creating, ripples among the international players like Walmart, Tesco and many other, retail giants struggling to enter Indian markets. As of now the Government has, allowed only 51 per cent FDI in the sector to ‘one-brand’ shops like Nike, Reebok, etc. However, other international players are taking alternative routes to enter ,the Indian retail market indirectly via strategic licensing agreement, franchisee, agreement and cash and carry wholesale trading (since 100 per cent FDI is allowed, in wholesale trading).

RETAIL INDUSTRY

India has one of the largest numbers, of retail outlets in the world of the 12 million retail outlets present in the, country, nearly 5 million sell food and related products. Though the market has, been dominated by unorganized players, the entry of domestic and international, organized players is set to change the scenario.

Organized retail segment has been ,growing at a blistering pace, exceeding all previous estimates. According to a, study by Deloitte Haskins and Sells, organized retail has increased its share, from 8 percent of total retail sales in 20012 to 10 percent in 2013. The, fastest growing segments have been the wholesale cash and carry stores, (150 percent) followed by supermarkets (100 percent) and hyper markets, (75-80 percent). Further, it estimates the organized segment to account for 25 per cent of the total sales by 2014.

India retail industry is the, largest industry in India, with an employment of around 8% and contributing, to over 10% of the country’s GDP. Retail industry in India is expected to rise, 25% yearly being driven by strong income growth, changing lifestyles, and, favorable demographic patterns.

It is expected that by, 2016 modern retail industry in India will be worth US$ 200-225 billion. India, retail industry is one of the fastest growing industries with revenue expected, in 2014 to amount US$350 billion and is increasing at a rate of 5% yearly. A ,further increase of 7-8% is expected in the industry of retail in India by growth in ,consumerism in urban areas, rising incomes, and a steep rise in rural consumption. It has further been predicted that the retailing industry in India will, amount to US$ 21.5 billion by 2015 from the current size of US$ 7.5 billion.

Shopping, in India has witnessed a revolution with the change in the consumer buying, behavior and the whole format of shopping also altering.

Industry, of retail in India which has become modern can be seen from the fact that there, are multi-stored malls, huge shopping centers, and sprawling complexes ,which offer food, shopping, and entertainment al under the same roof.

India retail, industry is expanding itself most aggressively; as a result a great demand for, real estate is being created. Indian retailers preferred means of expansion is ,to expand to other regions and to increase the number of their outlets in a city,. India retail industry is progressing well and for this to continue retailers as well, as the Indian government will have to make a combined effort.

Retail sector, one, of India’s largest industries, has presently emerged as one of the most dynamic, and fast paced industries of our times with several players entering the market.

India is being, seen as a potential goldmine for retail investors from over the world. India, gets 2nd position according to AT Kearney’s annual Global Retail Development, Index (GRDI). India earned $511 billion in the year of 2012 and drawing both, local as well as global players. Organized retail accounts still less than 5% of the, market is expected to grow at CAGR of 40%, from $20 billion in 2007 to $107, billion by 2013 and to $1.3 trillion by 2018, at a CAGR of 10%. India has one, of the largest numbers of retail outlets in the world. One of the 12 million retail, outlets, present in the country, nearly 5 million sell food and related products. Though, the market has been dominated by unorganized player, the entry of domestic, and international organized players is set to change the scenario.

As the contemporary, retail sector in India is reflected in sprawling shopping centers, multiplex- malls, and huge complexes offer shopping, entertainment and food all under one roof, the concept of shopping has altered in terms of format and consumer buying behavior, ushering in a revolution in shopping in India. This has also contributed to large, scale investments in real estate sector with major national and global players, investing in developing the infrastructure and construction of the retailing, business.

The retailing configuration, in India is fast developing as shopping malls are increasingly becoming familiar, in large cities. When it comes to development of retail space specially the malls, the Tier, II cities are no longer behind in the race. If development plans till 2007 is studied, it shows the projection of 220 shopping malls, with 139 malls in metros and the, remaining 81 in the Tier II cities. The government of states like Delhi and, National Capital Region (NCR) are very upbeat about permitting the use of, land for commercial development thus increasing the availability of land for, retail space; thus making NCR render to 50% of the malls in India.

Wal-Mart, the world’s largest retail, chain, recently joined Bharti to operate within India. Some MNC giants already, serving from the past couple of years like SPAR group, Carrefour, Marks &, Spencer, Metro. Local retailers such as Future group, RGP group and Reliance, have all taken an early lead due to their aggressive expansion plans.

The outlook for private consumption, has become more negative and customers are becoming more cautious. The retail, sector is concentrated. Indian retail chains are meeting the stiff competition, through increased efficiency, centralizing purchases, forming international, alliances and expanding operations.

INDIAN RETAIL INDUSTRY- ITS GROWTH, CHALLENGES AND OPPURTUNITIES.

As the contemporary retail, sector in India is reflected in sprawling shopping centers, multiplex- malls, and huge complexes offer shopping, entertainment and food all under one roof, the concept, of shopping has altered in terms of format and consumer buying behavior, ushering, in a revolution in shopping in India. This has also contributed to large- scale, investment in real estate sector with major national and global players investing, in developing the infrastructure and construction of relating business.

The trends that are driving the growth of retail sector in India are:

‘ Low share of organized ,retailing

‘ Falling real estate, prices

‘ Increase in disposal, income and customer aspiration

‘ Increase in expenditure, for luxury items

Another credible factor in the, prospects of retail sector in India is the increase in the young working, population. In India, hefty pay packets, nuclear families in urban areas, along, with increasing working- women and emerging opportunities in the service sector. These key factors have been the growth drivers of the organized retail, sector in India which now boast of retailing almost all the preferences of, life- Apparel & Accessories, Appliances, Electronics, Cosmetics and Toiletries, Home & Office Products. With this the retail sector in India is witnessing, rejuvenation as traditional markets make way for new formats such as departmental, stores , hypermarkets, supermarkets and specially stores.

The retailing, configuration in India is fast developing as shopping malls are increasingly, becoming familiar in large cities. When it comes to development of retail space, specially the malls, the Tier II cities are no longer behind in the race. If development, plans till 2007 is studied it shows the projection of 220 shopping malls, with 139, malls in metros and the remaining 81 in the Tier II cities. The government of, states like Delhi and national capital region (NCR) are very upbeat about, permitting the use of land for commercial development, thus increasing, the availability of land for retail space; thus making NCR render to 50% of the, malls in India.

The Indian Retail Scene

India, is the country having the most unorganized retail market. Traditionally it is a, family’s livelihood, with their shop in the front and house at the back, while they, run the retail business. More than 99% retailers, function in less than 500 square feet of shopping space. Global retail consultants, KSA Techno park have estimated that organized retailing in India is expected to ,touch Rs 35,000 crore in the year 2013-14. The Indian retail sector is estimated at ,around Rs 90,000 crore, of which the organized sector accounts for a mere, 2 percent indicating a huge potential market opportunities that is lying in the ,waiting for the customer savvy organized retailer.

Purchasing power of Indian urban consumer is ,growing and branded merchandise in categories like Apparels, cosmetics, Shoes, Watches, are slowly ,becoming lifestyle products that are widely accepted by the urban Indian. consumer. Indian retailers need to advantage of this growth and aiming to grow, diversify and introduced new formats have to pay more attention to the brand, building process. The emphasis here is on retail as a brand rather than retailers, selling brands. The focus should be on branding the retail business itself. In their, preparation to face fierce competitive pressure, Indian retailers must come to, recognize the value of building their own stores as brands to reinforce their, marketing positioning, to communicate quality as well as value for money. The Indian, retail scene has witnessed too many players in a short time, crowding several, categories without looking at their core competencies, or having as well, thought out branding strategy.

Strategies, Trends and Opportunities

Retailing in India is gradually inching its way toward, becoming the next boom industry. The whole concept of shopping has altered, in terms of format and consumer buying behavior, ushering in a revolution in, shopping in India. Modern retail has entered India as seen in sprawling shopping, ce

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2.7 RESEARCH DESIGN USED :

The conception of research design plan is the critical step in the research process. The design ,of the study constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. In other words the research design is a conceptual structure with in which,h research is conducted.

2.8 DATA COLLECTION METHODS :

Primary Data: – Primary data are those data which are collected for the first time, and thus hap,pen to be original in character. It is extracted with the help of discussions co,nducted with senior managers with respect to factors affecting the performance.,

Secondary Data: – Secondary data are those data which are already collected by someone else ,and which have already passed through the statistical process. These data are g,athered by Books, Lectures, Notes, and Official Websites etc.

The study make,s extensive use of secondary data. ‘Secondary data are those which have already,y been passed through the statistical process’. The data which is pre-essential for ,this study relating to comparative analysis of Balance Sheet and PROFIT AND L,OSS A/c was based on secondary source of data. This data will be collected fro,m materials provided by Rakshitas Pvt. Ltd., discussions conducted with store m,anagers and some essential

Financial Accounts books.

2.9 LIMITATIONS :,

‘ Data provided is very limited due to the subjectivity of it being highly confidential.,

‘ The data taken for interpretation is for a limited period.

‘ Assumptions, are to be taken into consideration while doing analysis and interpretation, of data.

‘ Due to limited, information, depth analysis could not be made.

2.10 RESEARCH MEASURE TOOLS :

Various financial techniques and statistical tools are used to measure the data used in the study. Column graphs, pie chart etc. is used to highlight the statistical inference,s. The study cannot be completed without balance sheet and profit and loss a/c. ,Therefore three years balance sheet and profit & loss a/c has been taken out for ma,king proper research.

2.11 ANALYSIS OF DATA :

The data collected is secondary, and it’s compiled, classified, tabulated and then analyzed u,sing financial techniques and statistical tools. Graphs and charts are used to hig,hlight the statistics. Based on this data and analysis, inferences are drawn accor,dingly.

2.12 OVER VIEW OF THE CHAPTER :

The Project I,s Presented in the following chapter :-

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

This chapter includes introduction to finance, theorectical back ground for the study of the ,various performance, introduction to finance, definition of retail industry and di,fferent type of industry.

CHAPTER 2 : DESIGN OF THE STUDY

This chapter I,ncludes the projects introduction of the subject background, statement of the, problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, need and purpose of study,, research methodology, research design, data collection method primary and seco,ndary data, limitations, research measure tools and analysis of data.,

CHA,PTER 3 : PROFILE OF THE COMPANY

This c,hapter contains the profile of the company, its origin and background, board of directors, number of branches and organization structure.

CHAP,TER 4 : DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This ch,apter consists of Table, Graphs, Analysis and Interpretation based on the question,nairies.

CHAPT,ER 5 : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCULSIONS AND RECOM,MENDATIONS

This chap,ter includes findings based on objectives of the study, conclusion drawn from the f,indings and recommendations given from the analysis.

Chapter:-3

PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION

COMPANY PROFILE

RAKSHITAS PVT.LTD.

Rakshitas business con,cept is to offer a broad and varied range of apparels that allows customers to fin,d their own personal style to choose from more than 150 remiums national and int,ernational brands.

Rakshitas is aimed at everyone in the family with an interest in modern basics, fashion, quality and affo,rdable pricing. Customers should always be able to find clothes and accessories ,at Rakshitas for every occasion. The collections are extensive and new arrivals, being launched week after week in each of the 4 floors spread across 20,000 s,q. ft. for Men, Women, Kids and Teen’s casual wear, formal wear, denim wea,r, ethnic and Kancheevaram silks etc. The range and collections are supplemen,ted by matching costume jewellery, premium international watches, perfumes, ,lingerie’s.

Mission

Our mission is to achieve excelle,nce in the products and services we offer, in the methods we employ and in the res,ult we produce.

Products

Menswear: menswear,r means clothing for men. Rakshitas provide various brands for menswear which ,includes formal shirts, casual shirts, trousers, jeans etc. of several variety of int,ernational as well as national brands, for example: -levis, pepe jeans, killer, lee, w,rangler etc.

Women’s wear: Women’s wear means ,clothing for women. Rakshitas provides the best options for women’s apparel rang,ing from skirts to ethnic, casuals as well as formals.

Kids wear: Kids wear are meant only for kids or children ranging below age of 12 years. Rakshitas provides awesome collection for kids which include children formal wear, kurtas, shirt,s etc.

Party wear: Party wear dresses are meant for wearing in parties, functions, special occasions etc. Rakshitas provides variety ranges of party wear which includes lehngas, wedding dresses, traditional indian dress etc.

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Control and organisational behaviour (pengendalian dan perilaku organisasi) melbourne essay help

PENGENDALIAN DAN PERILAKU ORGANISASI

PERILAKU ORGANISASI

Untuk membuat dasar yang nantinya dapat digunakan manajemen dalam menyusun system pengendalian manajemen, maka kita perlu mengetahui lebih dalam mengenai perilaku organisasi. Berikut ini adalah beberapa penjelasan mengenai teori akuntansi sebagai bentuk pemahaman terhadap organisasi.

Definisi Organisasi

Secara umum, organisasi diartikan sebagai sekumpulan orang yang melakukan kerjasama demi mencapai tujuan ‘ tujuan yang telah ditentukan bersama. Organisasi tercipta ketika orang ‘ orang bergabung dan melakukan sesuatu untuk berbagai tujuan dan organisasi dapat mencakup segala aspek dalam kehidupan. Organisasi dapat bersifat formal dan informal. Pekerjaan di dalam suatu organisasi dapat dibagi ‘ bagi dan dikoordinasi sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan keahlian tiap ‘tiap anggota organisasinya untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi tersebut. Suatu organisasi haruslah going concern, dalam arti organisasi tersebut diasumsikan akan hidup selamanya.

Teori Perilaku Organisasi (Theory of Organization Behaviour)

Ada beberapa teori yang menjelaskan mengenai mengapa dan bagaimana orang ‘ orang berperilaku dalam organisasi. Berikut ada dua penjelasan mengenai teori tersebut :

1. Teori jenjang kebutuhan

Teori ini menjelaskan bahwa setiap manusia memiliki kebutuhan yang banyak dan harus dipenuhi dan kebutuhan serta keinginan tersebut tersusun secara rapih, sehingga apabila ada satu kebutuhan terpenuhi maka setelah itu ia akan berusaha memenuhi kebutuhannnya yang lebih tinggi. Dalam teori ini tersirat bahwa system pengendalian manajemen juga didasarkan pada kebutuhan manusia yang terkoordinasi dan dilakukan sesuai dengan tujuan organisasi.

2. Teori motivasi pencapaian

Teori ini lebih mengacu pada perilaku atasan atau manajer dalam perannya saat berorganisasi. Untuk mencapai keberhasilan dan mendapat sebuah kekuasaan, maka manajer tersebut juga perlu memiliki keinginan yang kuat agar dapat menghasilkan prestasi dalam organisasi.

TEORI ORGANISASI

Pengetahuan yang dalam mengenai organisasi sangatlah diperlukan oleh para pelaku organisasi dalam pelaksanaan system pengendalian manajemen organisasi tersebut. Para pelaku organisasi harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui semua poin dalam organisasi termasuk sejarah organisasi, tujuan organisasi, bagaimana perilaku para pelakunya hingga reaksi organisasi tersebut terhadap lingkungan.

Tak berbeda dengan teori perilaku akuntansi, dalam teori organisasi juga terdapat banyak teori yang membahas mengenai organisasi. Dan disini akan dibahas mengenai dua teori juga tentang organisasi, yaitu :

1. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Dalam

Banyak organisasi dianggap indepen dan tidak terlalu memperhatikan lingkungan luar oleh beberapa teori. Teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam ini banyak dijadikan dasar oleh sebagian besar system pengendalian manajemen dalam suatu organisasi hal tersebut didasarkan karena dalam teori ini mencakup tanggung jawab dalam pengambilan keputusan yang berlaku menurut proyek ‘ proyek, program ‘ program serta komponen ‘ komponen fungsionalnya.

2. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Luar

Teori ini adalah teori kebalikan dari teori sebelumnya yaitu teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam. Teori ini beranggapan bahwa suatu organisasi selalu berhubungan dengan lingkungan di sekitarnya. Ada dua jenis organisasi yang menganut teori organisasi yang berorientasi keluar ini, yaitu :

– Organisasi system umum terbuka

– Organisasi system manajemen

TIPE ORGANISASI

Ada tiga jenis atau tipe organisasi, yaitu :

1. Organisasi Fungsional

Dalam tipe organisasi ini, penekanan lebih ditujukan kepada manajer yang sangat harus bertanggung jawab terhadap suatu fungsi tertentu, seperti fungsi produksi, fungsi pemasaran dan fungsi lainnya yang diterapkan dalam organisasi tersebut. Fungsi ‘ fungsi tersebut dapat dihimpun oleh fungsi yang lebih tinggi dalam organisasi itu juga. Organisasi ini berpotensi membuat efisiensi perusahaan yang lebih baik karena menggunakan masukan ‘ masukan dari manajerial yang lebih tinggi.

2. Organisasi Divisi

Dalam organisasi ini, semua manajer harus bertanggung jawab terhadap hamper keseluruhan fungsi dalam proses produksi serta distribusi lini pada organisasi tersebut. Orientasi organisasi divisi lebih terbuka yang berarti lebih menekankan bahwa para manajer harus peka terhadap pengaruh ‘ pengaruh yang dating dari luar yang mungkin dapat mempengaruhi kinerja organisasi.

3. Organisasi Matriks

Ada dua struktur organisasi dalam organisasi matriks, yaitu ditata berdasarkan fungsi dan ditata berdasarkan program. Pada organisasi matriks, para manajer bertanggung jawab penuh atas profitabilitas dari lini produk organisasi tersebut dimana proses produksi dilakukan oleh unit ‘ unit organisasi fungsional.

Teori Kemungkinan (Contingency Theory)

Untuk mengendalikan suatu manajemen menggunakan tiga macam pendekatan, antara lain :

1. Pendekatan tradisional

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada perencanaan, pendekatan dan pengendalian.

2. Pendekatan system

Pendekatan ini menekankan padapenggunaan sumber daya manusia sebagai pertimbangan dalam pengambilan keputusan.

3. Pendekatan perilaku

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada pengendalian manusia termasuk di dalamnya motivasi dan prediksi.

PERILAKU MANAJEMEN

Organisasi dan sistemnya yang rumit akan mempengaruhi perilaku manusia menjadi rumit pula.

Konsep Fundamental

Agar suatu organisasi ‘terkendali’ maka para anggota organisasi harus mengetahui dengan baik apa sebenarnya yang diinginkan oleh manajemen. Untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut, dapat menggunakan banyak informasi yang telah disediakan oleh manajemen organisasi seperti anggaran hingga kebijakan organisasi. Tujuan organisasi dibuat oleh para manajer senior dan dilaksanakan oleh manajer operasional untuk selanjutnya para manajer senior menerapkan system pengendalian manajemen untuk mengontrol organisasi tersebut.

Persepsi Tujuan

Para manajer operasional harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui apa tujuan organisasi. Para manajer operasional tersebut dapat secara mudah mendapatkan informasi ‘ informasi yang mereka butuhkan dari berbagai sumber baik dari dokumen maupun percakapan informal saja. System pengendalian manajemen yang efektif dapat menguatkan kepastian suatu perusahaan.

Organisasi Informal

Adanya organisasi informal di dalam organisasi formal sering menyebabkan adanya salah persepsi mengenai tindakan yang diharapkan. Hubungan pada organisasi informal tidak tercantum di dalam bagan organisasi, padahal hal tersebut cukup penting untuk pemahaman system pengendalian organisasi tersebut.

Motivasi

Reaksi pada pelaku organisasi terutama manajemen terhadap organisasi dapat berbeda tergantung pada motivasinya. Motivasi dapat bermacam ‘ macam, misalnya kenaikan gaji, promosi, pujian dan lain ‘ lain. Motivasi timbul dari dalam pribadi masing ‘ masing, tetapi motivasi dapat dipengaruhi oleh rangsangan dari lingkungan sekitarnya.

Keselarasan Tujuan (Goal Congruence)

Setiap manusia memiliki tujuan pribadi, begitu juga dengan organisasi yang juga memiliki tujuan bersama. Salah satu tugas penting system pengendalian adalah menyelaraskan kedua tujuan tersebut serta mencapainya demi mendapatkan kepuasan bersama. Semakin kuat hubungan antara tujuan pribadi dan tujuan organisasi, maka ssistem pengendalian organisasi tersebut akan semakin kuat juga.

Kerjasama dan Konflik

Suatu organisasi tidak akan berjalan dengan baik apabila para anggotanya tidak bekerjasama dengan baik secara terkoordinasi, untuk itu di dalam organisasi sangat dibutuhkan kerjasama yang terkoordinir dan selaras. Selain itu, organisasi juga harus menjaga koordinasi dan keselarasan tersebut agar tidak terjadi konflik yang dapat mengganggu kinerja organisasi. Konflik tersebut dapat terjadi karena berbagai alasan, salah satunya adalah dengan adanya persaingan didalam organisasi tersebut.

Iklim Organisasi (Organizational Climate)

Secara singkat, iklim organisasi dapat diartikan sebagai hasil kombinasi dari struktur formal dan struktur informal pada suatu organisasi. Dan menurut pemahaman saya iklim organisasi merupakan suasana di dalam organisasi dimana tiap pelaku organisasi di dalam organisasi saling membantu, saling menilai, dan memahami antara satu dengan yang lain. Iklim organisasi ikut mengambil bagian penting dalam organisasi. Keduanya saling mempengaruhi satu sama lain.

Tipe Pengendalian

Pelaku pengendalian Sumber arah pengendalian Macam ‘ macam Pengendalian

Ukuran prestasi dan tingkah laku Isyarat untuk tindak koreksi Imbalan untuk prestasi Hukuman untuk kegagalan

Organisasi formal Rencana organisasi, strategi, tanggapan atas persaingan Anggaran, biaya standar, target penjualan penyimpangan Penghargaan manajemen, insentif uang, promosi Minta penjelasan

Kelompok informal Keterikatan bersama cita’cita kelompok Norma-norma kelompok penyimpangan Pengakuan rekan, keanggotaan, kepemimpinan Ejekan, pengasingan, permusuhan

Perorangan Tujuan pribadi, aspirasi Harapan pribadi, target antara Dugaan akan kegagalan di masa yang akan dating, target tak tercapai Kepuasan karena ‘terkendali’ kegembiraan Merasa gagal

Sumber : Disarikan dari Gene W. Dalton dan Paul R. Lawrence, Motivation and Control in Organizations (Homewood, III. : Richard D. Irwin, 1971). Hak Cipta 1971 oleh Richard D. Irwin Inc.

Variasi dalam Pengendalian

Hakekat system pengendalian manajemen dibedakan menurut sifat pekerjaan, macam organisasi, lingkungan daan peran manajer. Berikut adalah tiga dimensi yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penggunaan dan pengembangan system pengendalian manajemen :

1. Besar keleluasaan manajemen

2. Besar interdependensi

3. Rentang waktu pelaksanaan

FUNGSI KONTROLER

Kontroler dapat diartikan sebagai petinggi atau pejabat yang bertanggung jawab atas apa yang telah direncanakan oleh organisasi dan bagaimana pengoperasiannya. Tanggung jawab para kontroler berbeda ‘ beda di tiap organisasi bahkan di tiap divisinya. Tanggung jawab kontroler didasarkan pada posisinya masing ‘ masing. Tanggung jawab tersebut dilaksanakan secara langsung. Selain tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian tersebut, berikut ini adalah fungsi lain dari kontroler :

a. Menyiapkan laporan kepada pihak pemerintah serta pihak ‘ pihak luar lainnya.

b. Mempersiapkan pengembalian pajak.

c. Mempersiapkan dan melakukan analisa terhadap laporan prestasi keuangan.

d. Membantu para manajer dengan cara melakukan analisa sertab menafsirkan laporan ‘ laporan tersebut.

e. Menggunakan prosedur pemeriksaan intern dan pengendalian akuntansi, memastikan validitas informasi, menetapkan usaha perlindungan yangcukup terhadap berbagai penyimpangan serta melakukan pemeriksaan operasional.

f. Melakukan pengembangan kepada orang ‘ orang yang ia pimpin serta berperan langsung dalam penambahan pengetahuan mengenai fungsi kontroler

g. Mengadakan manajemen kas, asuransi serta kegiatan ‘ kegiatan lainnya demi pengamanan kekayaan perusahaan.

Hubungan dengan Organisasi Lini

Kontroler juga memiliki hak untuk membuat kebijakan ‘ kebijakan dalam organisasi. Namun keputusan ‘ keputusan tersebut merupakan realisasi pelaksanaan kebijakan ‘ kebijakan yang telah dibuat oleh manajer lini. Dengan kata lain, terdapat keselarasan antara kedua belah pihak. Hal tersebut tentunya sangat baik untuk menjaga kelancaran jalannya organisasi tersebut.

Kontroler Divisi

Kebanyakan perusahaan atau organisasi membagi organisasinya tersebut menjadi beberapa divisi yang dikepalai oleh seorang manajer. Manajer divisi tentu juga memiliki kontroler divisi. Dalam hal ini, kontroler divisi harus patuh kepada manajer divisi dan juga kontroler perusahaan yang terkadang beda kepentingannya. Penilaian prestasi terhadap kontroler divisi dapat dilakukan dengan menilai beberapa poin, antara lain :

– Laporan akuntansi dan keuangan

– Pengetahuan mengenai operasi divisi

– Sasaran dan pelaksanaan kepatuhan terhadap kebijakan

– Kontribusi manajemen

– Pengetahuan terhadap akuntansi

– Kejujuran dan profesionalisme

– Kemauan bekerjasama

– Organisasi dan staf

– Inisiatif dan semangat

HUBUNGAN LINI-STAF

Seorang manajer divisi dapat dikatakan tidak memiliki staf maupun asisten pribadi. Manajer tersebut mendapatkan bantuan dari :

1. Tenaga yang ditugaskan untuk membantunya dari staf umum, insinyur serta petugas pembelian

2. Staf pusat yang dapat dimintai bantuan kapan saja sebanyak mungkin.

HUBUNGAN MANAJER DIVISI ‘ KONTROLER

Untuk mencapai kesuksesan organisasi dalam hubungannya dengan manajer divisi, maka organisasi perlu membina kerjasama yang baik dan solid di tiap ‘ tiap manajemen. Berikut merupakan beberapa factor yang dapat mempengaruhi hubungan baik adalah :

1. System akuntansi yang seragam dan terpusat

2. Sasaran ‘ saasaran keuangan yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya untuk tiap ‘ tiap divisi.

(Pertumbuhan penjualan serta besar laba penjualan)

3. Pembagian laba antara kontroler dan manajer

SISTEM AKUNTANSI

Selain memiliki tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian organisasi, divisi kontroler juga memiliki kewenangan atas system akuntansi yang akan digunakan oleh organisasi tersebut termasuk di dalamnya menetapkan cara dan jenis pos ‘ pos yang harus mereka awasi. Sistem akuntansi dijadikan dasar dalam penyusunan laporan keuangan beserta analisisnya.

SASARAN ‘ SASARAN DIVISI

Seperti yang telah disebutkan pada bagian sebelumnya, perusahaan atau organisasi memiliki sasaran keuangan, yaitu pertumbuhan penjualan dan tingkat laba. Tingkat laba dalam organisasi atau perusahaan ditetapkan sebaga persentase penjualan. Berikut ini adalah beberapa factor penentu target laba penjualan :

1. Kemungkinan pematenan produk

2. Besar laba atas investasi yang diinginkan

3. Besar laba industry bersangkutan

4. Besar laba investasi bersangkutan

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Business notes: Creative problem solving aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

1 Unit 1 – Creative problem solving

1.1 Introduction

A business leader is expected to identify problems, implement solutions and find business opportunities. To do so, they must learn to plan, analyse situations, identify and solve problems (or potential problems), make decisions, and set realistic and attainable goals for the business/unit. These are the fundamental thinking/creative requirements for leadership, and these set direction to a successful future. Without this critical competence, you will have to rely on others to do your thinking for you, or you will simply have to learn to nurture your creative thinking skills which will help you on your journey towards successful business.

Creative thinking forms part of this continuous problem solving process, and is the fundamental basis for facilitating in the development of solutions, new initiatives, products or services. In an entrepreneurial context, the end result of this process should be directly linked to a feasible opportunity in the market environment.

Quote – What lies behind us and what lies before us, are tiny matters, compared to what lies within us. – William Morrow

The creative problem solving process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Problem analysis

‘ Solution analysis

‘ Decision analysis

‘ Solution implementation

1.2 The process

The creative problem solving process consists of an important core process, namely the idea generation process see figure 1. This is an important step, especially if you need to come up with creative ideas for products, services, and processes, to solve a consumer problem. The idea generation process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Step 1 – Generating ideas

‘ Step 2 – Developing ideas into a concept

‘ Step 3 – Converting a concept into a tangible or intangible product

‘ Step 4 – Finally protecting the tangible or intangible product

Figure 1 – The process of creative thinking (idea generation)

Initially you need to understand the problem and find the root cause of the problem. Many techniques are available to find the causes of problems, you can use the 5 Why technique in this case, if you are familiar with it. The more advanced courses will describe how to use the major problem identification techniques, but this course will focus on the idea generation process.

1.3 Where to start

In the entrepreneurial phase, the best way to start the idea generation process is when you are required to come up with a new product or service, to identify a potential consumer problem. Initially, focus on identifying problems in the area of your expertise (your knowledge base).

If you have no knowledge of the problem, the product development stage could be a challenge for you.

You will learn in the next section that not all problems are opportunities, and entrepreneurs should be careful as to how they approach this stage, when generating ideas in trying to identify a new product or service.

1.4 Problem versus opportunity

In most cases, the idea-generation phase in the creative problem solving process is neglected. Individuals normally identify a problem or an opportunity (which may seem like an opportunity, but is actually just an idea), and then develop a new product in line with the new assumed idea or opportunity. It is therefore important to distinguish between an idea and an opportunity. Resources may be wasted if a mere idea is incorrectly perceived as an opportunity.

Any opportunity is initially problem based (e.g. a coffee shop in a destination where there is a lack thereof, this creates several problem situations and potentially feasible opportunities for the entrepreneur). The creative thinking (idea generation process) involved, is the means to solving these problems, and bring forth solutions to the market problems, which create further opportunities.

1.4.1 Difference between problem and opportunity

There is, however, a critical difference between a problem and opportunity. Consider the following:

‘ Is it an idea or an opportunity to develop a high speed train between two major cities which are not far from each other? Some may say it is a great idea, but when you need to pay R200 a day to make use of it, it is simply not an opportunity. Only a few people would make use of the service, resulting in a negative impact on the market.

‘ If it is possible to transport people between the two cities for a lower cost, say R10, it would possibly be a more feasible opportunity.

Here is a good example of an opportunity – Around the turn of the twentieth century, a shoe manufacturer sent a representative to Africa, to open up a market in the undeveloped area in that continent. After exploring the culture for a month, the rep sent a telegram to the home office shouting,

‘Disaster! Disaster! These people do not wear shoes. Bring me home immediately!’

A short time later, another shoe company sent their agent to Africa for the same purpose. A month later his home office also received a telegram:

‘Opportunity! Opportunity! These people do not wear shoes! Triple production immediately!’

Quote – Every situation contains the potential for disastrous problems or unprecedented success. The event is what we perceive it to be. Unknown

Now the question arises: How do I distinguish between an idea and an opportunity? Looking at above examples, every problem is not an opportunity, and it really depends at how you are looking at the problem. If you see a viable opportunity in a problem then you are looking at the problem with a different perception than most people (the glass is half full or half empty). From a business perspective all opportunities are not necessarily a viable opportunity, the market determines the available opportunities. Without the knowledge to interpret the market conditions, you could miss it totally in terms of your opportunity analysis.

Table 1 shows the different industries in South Africa, the level of entrepreneurial activity, and how the same opportunity differs in each of these market areas.

1.4.2 The global entrepreneurship monitor

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor ‘ specifically identified the entrepreneurial activity in the various industries of South Africa. It can be generalized to state that an industry with a high level of entrepreneurial activity, gives away more business opportunities (e.g. manufacturing, retail, hotel, restaurant and business services), while one with a lower level will indicate far less opportunities (e.g. agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing, finance, insurance, real estate and health, education and social services).

If we analyse just one ‘high-opportunity’ industry, for instance manufacturing, it may be an opportunity today to manufacture a final product, and export it to an international market. A ‘low-opportunity’ industry, for instance insurance (especially in the market entry phase), may be negative as having an extremely high crime rate and insurance companies have to pay out claims at an alarming rate. It is also evident that low-opportunity industries may create feasible opportunities.

An entrepreneur should therefore be wary of following a fad, (latest trend) and exploiting assumed opportunities in a ‘popular’ industry.

Percentage of Entrepreneurs

ISIC Category Start-ups New Firms Total

Agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing 1,3 2,6 1,6

Mining, construction 9,7 5,0 4,1

Manufacturing 14,3 19,1 13,8

Transport, communications, utilities 9,8 0,7 8,0

Wholesale, motor vehicle sales, repairs 6,0 6,5 6,3

Retail, hotel, restaurant 40,8 47,7 43,5

Finance, insurance, real estate 0,3 5,2 1,4

Business services 10,1 7,9 9,4

Health, education, social services 2,6 0,7 2,3

Consumer services 11,0 3,5 9,7

Source: Driver. Wood, Segal & Herrington, 2001

Table 1 – The percentage of entrepreneurs in the different industries in South-Africa

1.4.3 What is an opportunity?

What exactly is an opportunity and how does an entrepreneur exploit a feasible opportunity? According to Hesrich & Peters (2002), an opportunity is the process whereby the entrepreneur assesses whether a certain product, service or process, will yield the necessary earnings based on the resource inputs that are required to manufacture and market it.

The nature of opportunities needs to be assessed – thus, what leads to the existence of an opportunity? The following factors may result in an opportunity:

‘ General and specific problems faced by consumers

‘ Market shifts

‘ Government regulations

‘ Competition

There are two equally important criteria in the assessment of an opportunity. Firstly, the size of the market – will the number of customers reward the input and energy required, to create and deliver the product?

Secondly, the length in terms of the frame of the opportunity (window of opportunity). For example, is the demand for this product only a short fashionable phenomenon or is it based on sustainable business, or how long will it take before someone else (a competitor), to grab the opportunity?

These two aspects should also link directly to the personal skills and competence of the entrepreneur. For example, entrepreneurs with no skills or interest in information technology will not necessarily achieve their personal goals. They should rather venture into an opportunity which suits their experience and personality.

1.4.4 Transform opportunity into a business

Table 2 shows how the development of a business plan links to the identification and evaluation of opportunities, the determination of the resources required and the eventual management of the enterprise. All of these factors play a significant role in the correct assessment of the business opportunity.

This means that the business plan must explain in sufficient detail how the business will exploit the situation, to transform the opportunity, into solving a problem for the consumer, which generates extraordinary profits for the people involved.

Identify and evaluate the opportunity Develop the business plan Determine the resources needed Manage the enterprise

Creation and length of opportunity

Real and perceived value of opportunity

Risk and returns of opportunity

Opportunity versus skills and goals

Competitive situation Title page

Table of contents

Executive summary

Description of business

Description of industry

Marketing plan

Financial plan

Production plan

Organisational plan

Operational plan

Summary

Appendices Existing resources of the entrepreneur

Resource gap and available supplies

Access to needed resources Management style

Key variables for success

Identification of problems and potential problems

Implementation of control systems

Source: Hisrich, R.D. & Peters, M.P. 2002: 40. Entrepreneurship. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Table 2 – Link between Opportunity and business plan

1.5 Instruction

Exit and resume to your current page.

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The importance of employee engagement in an organization college essay help online free

1.4 Literature Review

Mark Kilsby and Stephen Beyer (1996) ‘ Engagement and Interaction : A comparison between supported employment and acts’. This research study was conducted with the help of interaction and commitment patterns of 13 supported employees and 38 regular adult training center attainders of the organization. Direct observation was used as method of data collection, within the 13 employment sites and a representative sample of ATC organized activities. Because of the higher level of task specific dialogue between individuals and the service of the organization it is found that there is more of social interaction in ACT. Interaction of employees with public within office hours was the cause for this as per the study conducted.

Douglas R. May, Richard L, Gilson and Lynn M . Harter (2004) ‘The Psychological Conditions Of Meaningfulness ,Safety And Availability And The Engagement Of The Human Spirit At Work’. This shows the study about a U.S western company which explored the determinants and mediated the effects of tree psychological conditions they are meaningful, safe and available. The above studies shoes that all the three factors (meaningfulness, safety and availability) have a positive relation with the engagement of an employee in the organization. In other words they are completely associated with the psychological safety where as loyalty to co worker norms and self- consciousness are negatively related.

Despoina Xanthopaolou, Arnold B, Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti and Wilmar B.Schaufeli (2009) ‘Work Engagement And Financial Returns : A Diary Study On The Role Of The Job And Personal Resources’. The above study shows that how daily fluctuations in job can affect the level of personal resource , financial returns and work engagement. Different level of analysis revealed that day level job resources had an effect on work engagement through the day level personal resources. When there was a control for the general level of personal resources and organizational engagement Day level work engagement showed a positive way towards day level training, which in turn showed the financial returns.

Dan-Shang Wang and Chia ‘Chun Hsieh (2013) ‘The Effect Of Authentic Leadership On Employee Trust And Employee Engagement’ they have examined the genuine leadership on employee engagement through employee trust. They have collected data from 386 employees from top 1000 manufacturing companies and top 500 service companies in Taiwan. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis on the employees. Later on the results shows that the consistency between the supervisors , words and actions as well as their moral perceptions are optimistically related to employee engagement , when only supervisors are consist between the words and actions in positively related employment trust. The study shows how employee engagement had a positive trust on employee. Employee trust has a partial link between authentic leadership and employee engagement.

Benjamin J.C, Yuan and Michael B.H. Lin (2012) ‘Transforming Employee Engagement Into Long-Term Customer Relationships: Evidence From Information Technology Salespeople In Taiwan’. This article shows that when information sales people in Taiwan have perceived more transformational leadership and they were more expected to show increased development in work engagement. Over a period of time it was found that increased development in work engagement influenced the increased customer relationship. It showed how employee engagement is indirectly co related with customer relationship.

Xander M.Bezuijen, Karen Van Dam, Peter T . Van Den Berg and Henk Thierry (2010) ‘How Leaders Stimulate Employee Learning : A Leader ‘ Member Exchange Approach’. This study investigated how the three factors as such as leader member exchange, goal setting, and feedback are related to employee engagement in the learning activities. Here, two different mechanisms were proposed , first one a mediating mechanism telling that leader member exchange shows specific leader behavior. The second one is it as a moderating mechanism , holding that leader member exchange will strengthen the effect of leader behavior from 7 organizations a sample of 1112 employees was taken , to measure the leader member exchange approach. 233 of the direct leaders answered that they find difficulty in rating employee engagement in learning activities.

Maureen F.Dollard and Arnold B. Bakker (2010) ‘Psychosocial Safety Climate As A Precursor To Conducive Work Environment , Psychological Health Problems , And Employee Engagement’. This article shows the gap between work psychology and psychosocial working condition. Where we construct a psychosocial working condition PSC. It explains how PSC influences the senior management in psychological working conditions and in psychological health and engagement. They use the job demand and resources as a frame work and uses a multi level thinking into their explanation

James R.Jones (2009) ‘Comparative Effects On Race/Ethnicity And Employee Engagement On Withdrawal Behavior’. This study have added knowledge on the basis of effects on employee attachment. In addition to that it provides more evidence on looking at all types of employees as a single entity which can lead to false results.

Shane Crabb ( 2011) ‘The Use Of Coaching Principles To Foster Employee Engagement’. The above article focuses on the human condition that leads to the happiness of fulfillment and flourishing of employee engagement. Where positive psychology results in so many questions from traditional psychological approaches .Which have mean to focus on a different model of human functioning with healing people fail. In another way positive psychology takes additional holistic approach to human life. Seeing the positive and negative aspects of context when establishing what is right , working and good of people.

Roberta A . Neault and Deidre A .Pickerel (2011) ‘Career Engagement : Bridging Career Counseling And Employee engagement’ . this article is showing that employee counselors helps individuals in maximizing their career engagement at any career stage of an individual. When you facilitate career engagement it contributes to employee engagement which employee are looking for. They even encourages others to use the career engagement and employee engagement models as vehicles to combine the employers to interest in engagement counselors to create interest in supporting the development of employee an motivate them to work.

2.1 Title: A Cross Sectional Study Of Employee Engagement In Apollo Hospitals.

2.2 Objectives:

1. To determine the level of Employee Engagement in Apollo Hospitals.

2. To identify the factors of Employee Engagement.

3. To analyze and suggest strategies for improvement.

2.3 Research Methodology:

I had adopted descriptive research design for the purpose of this

Survey on employee engagement. The primary data was collected from the 100 employees conveniently selected from Apollo Hospitals Bangalore, through structured questionnaire.

2.4 Limitations:

1) The survey was carried out for a sample sized of 100 working staff only.

2) Findings and suggestion of this research are applicable only to Apollo Hospitals.

3) As an fact finding study advanced statistical tools or analysis are not used.

Table 1.1 Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

X 1 2 3 4 5

I have adequate opportunities for professional growth in this organization. (X1) 10 20 32 19 19

I receive the training I need to do my job well.(X2) 2 52 22 16 08

My manager is actively interested in my professional development and advancement.(X3) 32 21 12 18 17

My manager encourages and supports my development (X4) 08 10 40 18 24

I am encouraged to learn from my mistakes (X5) 52 23 16 04 05

My work is challenging, stimulating, and rewarding(X6) 28 14 33 16 09

X1 ?? XI X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5 X6 ?? X6

10 50 2 10 32 160 08 40 52 260 28 140

20 80 52 208 21 84 10 40 23 92 14 56

32 96 22 66 12 36 40 120 16 48 33 99

19 38 16 32 18 36 18 36 04 08 16 32

19 19 08 08 17 17 24 24 05 05 09 09

TOTAL 283 TOTAL 324 TOTAL 333 TOTAL 260 TOTAL 413 TOTAL 336

Table 1.2 Calculation Of Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

283/100 2.83 324/100 3.24 333/100 3.33 260/100 2.60 413/100 4.13 336/100 3.36

RANKED 6 RANKED 4 RANKED 3 RANKED 5 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.3 Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Opportunities for growth

INFERENCE

The above table shows that the employees are encouraged to learn from their mistakes that is 4.15 out of 5.the work is stimulating rewarding and challenging is ranked 2nd.the manager is actively interested in employees professional growth is

ranked 3rd.the level of opportunity for professional growth shows the least ranking.

Table 1.4: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 20 32 19 19 100

Chart 1.1: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

Interpretation:

32% of the employees from the given population says that they have a neutral opportunity to grow where as 10 % stands in the outstanding category and 20% of them in good category. An equal no of employees disagree to the fact in the other hand that is 19% of the given population.

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 52 22 16 8 100

Table 1.5: Showing Training

Chart 1.2: Showing Training

Interpretation:

In the given sample 52% of the employees agrees to the fact that they receive good training in order to do their job efficiently and 2% strongly agrees. where 22 % is neutral to the situation given.16 % of them do not get proper training they required to do their jobs and 8 % strongly disagree to it. It is clear that the organization is giving a proper training to employees to make their work effective.

Table 1.6: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 21 12 18 17 100

Chart 1.3: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

Interpretation:

Most of the employees agree that their manager takes attention in their professional development steps. 32 % to 25 of the employees from the given sample have strongly agreed and agreed to it respectively. whereas 12 % is neutral to it . but 18% to 17% disagrees and says that they are not taken care in respective of their advancement in profession.

Table 1.7: Showing Encouragement And Support

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 10 40 18 24 100

Chart 1.4: Showing Encouragement And Support

Interpretation:

From the above graph its clear that 40% of the employees neither agree or disagree that management encourage them or support them. 8% to 10% agrees that they have been supported by the management . but 18 % to 24 % disagree to the fact that management supports them .

Table 1.8: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

52 23 16 4 5 100

Chart 1.5: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

Interpretation:

More than half , 52% of the employees states that they have a challenging stimulating and rewarding work. A very few of them disagree to it 4 % to 5% . and 23 % of them agrees t it there is a majority of people agreeing to it.

Table 1.9: Showing Encouragement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

28 14 33 16 9 100

Chart 1.6: Showing Encouragement

Interpretation:

There is a 28% of people agreeing to it. And 16 % to 9 % disagreeing to the fact that they are not encouraged to learn from their mistakes .

Table 1.10: Showing Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

X 1 2 3 4 5

My manager understands the benefits of maintaining a balance between work and personal life. (X1) 02 13 08 48 29

My job does not cause unreasonable amounts of stress in my life. (X2) 30 13 08 48 29

The amount of work I am asked to do is reasonable. (X3) 40 20 12 14 14

I am able to satisfy both my job and family/personal responsibilities. (X4) 27 12 08 09 44

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4

02 10 30 150 40 200 27 135

13 52 13 52 20 80 12 48

08 24 08 24 12 48 08 24

48 96 48 96 14 28 09 18

29 29 29 29 14 14 44 44

TOTAL 211 TOTAL 351 TOTAL 370 TOTAL 269

Table 1.11: Showing Calculation Of Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

Table 1.12: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace

211/100 2.11 351/100 3.51 370/100 3.7 269/100 2.69

RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2 RANKED 3

INFERRENCE

By analysing the given data using weighted average method that the level of stress reduced in the employees is 3.51 out of 4 , and the amount of work the employee is asked to do is 3.7. the employee is able to balance between family and personal responsibility is 2.69 . the managers understanding in the benefits and maintaining balance between work and personal life should be taken care because it is got only 2.11 which have least rank

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 13 8 48 29 100

Table 1.13: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Chart 1.7: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Interpretation:

Only 2% of the employees says that there is a balance between work life and personal life. 13% of them agrees to it and 8% is neutral to it.but 48% of the sample disagrees and 29 % of them strongly disagrees to it.

Table 1.14: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

30 13 8 48 29 100

Chart 1.8: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

Interpretation:

30% of the employees strongly agrees that the job doesn’t cause much stress where 13% of them agrees and 8% is neutral to it. But 48%of them disagree nd 29% strongly disagrees and states that job causes stress in their life.

Table 1.15: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.9: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

Interpretation:

40% of them strongly agrees that they have sufficient amount of work and they do not feel any stress where 20 % of them agrees. 12% of the sample is neutral.14% of them disagrees they don’t have suffient amount of work or they are overloaded with the work given.

Table 1.16: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.10: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

Interpretation:

44% of them strongly disagree that they are not able to complete their job, family and personal responsibilities. 27 % to 12 % agrees to it and 8% is neutral to that. It shows that employees are not satisfied with the amount of work given to them.

Table 1.17: Showing Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X 1 2 3 4 5

My ideas and opinions count at work. (X1) 03 18 19 32 28

I am comfortable sharing my opinions at work. (X2) 10 08 28 42 12

We work to attract, develop, and retain people with diverse backgrounds. (X3) 10 13 09 56 12

Senior management is genuinely interested in employee opinions and ideas. (X4) 24 23 36 07 10

People with different ideas are valued in this organization. (X5) 20 18 40 13 09

Table 1.18: Calculation Of Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

3 15 10 50 10 50 24 120 20 100

18 72 08 32 13 52 23 92 18 72

19 57 28 84 09 27 36 108 40 120

32 64 42 84 56 112 07 14 13 26

28 26 12 12 12 12 10 10 09 09

TOTAL 234 TOTAL 262 TOTAL 253 TOTAL 344 TOTAL 327

234/100 2.34 262/100 2.62 253/100 2.53 344/100 3.44 327/100 3.27

RANKED 5 RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.19: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Personal Expression / Diversity

INFERRENCE

By analysing the above table it shows that senior management is interested in personal opinions which shows the rank 1. And people with different ideas are valued in the organisation are considered 3.27 out of 5. Employees are free to share their ideas 2.62. the employees work in such a manner to attract and retain others 2.53 ,which has got the 4th rank. Ideas counted at work has got the least rank where they have to work on that part.

Table 1.20: Showing Idea And Opinion Count

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

3 18 19 32 28 100

Chart 1.11: : Showing Idea And Opinion Count

Interpretation:

Only 3% of the employees agree that the management listens to their ideas and opinions. 18% of them agree to it as well. 19 % is neutral to the situation. Whereas there is a huge no of the sample size that is32% to 28% who is disagreeing to it. Their opinions and ideas are not taken seriously by the management.

Table 1.21: Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 8 28 42 12 100

Chart 1.12 : Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

Interpretation:

The conducted shows that onl10% to 8% employees are comfortable in sharing their problems with the upper management. Rest of the sample that is 42% is disagreeing that they are not comfortable in sharing their ideas or problems.12% of them strongly disagrees.

Table 1.22: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 13 9 56 12 100

Chart 1.13: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

Interpretation:

56% of the employees disagrees that they don’t work to attract ,develop or retain customers. Where 10% to 13% agrees to the statement . a little sample size of 12% strongly disagrees to the statement .

Table 1.23: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

24 23 26 7 10 100

Chart 1.14: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

Interpretation

The management shows interest in taking employees ideas and opinions.24% of them agrees and 23% of the strongly agrees to the statement. A huge sample ,36% id neutral to the statement. But a little sample, 7% to 10% disagrees to the statement.

Table 1.24: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

20 18 40 13 9 100

Chart 1.15: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

Interpretation:

20% to 18% of the employees agree that people with different ideas are well accepted in the organization. 40% to the employees are neutral to the statement. 13 % to 9% of the sample disagrees to the statement on the other hand.

Table 1.25: Showing Weighted Average On Compensation

X 1 2 3 4 5

I am paid fairly for the work I do. (X1) 19 42 12 25 2

My salary is competitive with similar jobs I might find elsewhere.(X2) 32 12 28 23 5

My benefits are comparable to those offered by other organizations.(X3) 8 29 28 32 3

I understand my benefit plan. (X4) 42 15 19 9 15

I am satisfied with my benefit package. (X5) 58 12 11 6 13

Table 1.26: Calculation Of Weighted Average On Compensation

X1 vX1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

19 95 32 160 08 40 42 210 58 290

42 168 12 48 29 116 15 60 12 48

12 36 28 84 28 84 19 57 11 33

25 50 23 46 32 64 09 18 06 12

02 02 05 05 03 03 15 15 13 13

TOTAL 351 TOTAL 343 TOTAL 307 TOTAL 360 TOTAL 396

Table 1.27: Showing The Rank Of Each Component Of Compensation

351/100 3.51 343/100 3.43 307/100 3.07 360/100 3.60 396/100 3.96

RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 5 RANKED 2 RANKED 1

INFERENCES

The above table shows that the employees are satisfied with the benefit package they are given 3.96 out of 5.the employees understand their plan is 3.60. the fair pay is ranked 3rd.the employees salary is competitive with others is ranked 4th. The salary is not comparable with salary with others which has been ranked the least, rank 5.

Table 1.28: showing Fair Pay

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

19 42 12 25 2 100

Chart 1.16: Showing Fair Pay

Interpretation:

19% to 42% of the Employees agree that they are paid fairly according to the amount of work they do. But 25% to 2% of the sample size disagrees to the statement. And 12% is neutral to it.

Table 1.29: Showing Salary Competitiveness

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 12 28 23 5 100

Chart 1.17: Showing Salary Competitiveness

Interpretation:

32% of the employees agrees that they get a competitive salary when compared to other organizations with same designation. 12% of them strongly agrees to it .28% of them are neutral to the statement. 23% to 5% is disagrees to the statement in the other hand.

Table 1.30: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 29 28 32 3 100

Chart 1.18: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

Interpretation:

There is balance, 29% of the employees agrees and 32 % of them strongly disagrees that they have a comparable benefits.28% of them are neutral in the other hand.

Table 1.31: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

42 15 19 9 15 100

Chart 1.19: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

Interpretation:

42% of the employees agrees that they understand their benefit plan. 15% strongly agrees ,where 19% is neutral.9% to 15% disagrees to the fact and says they don’t understand the benefit plans they are given.

Table 1.32: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

58 12 11 6 13 100

Chart 1.20: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

Interpretation:

58% of them are satisfied with their benefit package. 12% strongly agrees. Whereas little sample of 6% to 13% disagrees to the statement. Or they are not happy with their benefit package.11% is neutral to it.

Summary of Findings

‘ Most of the employee’s ability state the opinion firmly and positively is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability in exercising the professional duties without assistance is better than acceptable standard.

‘ The Emotional Stamina of the majority of the employees is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the Employee’s Ability to work co-operatively and collaboratively to achieve common goal is better than acceptable.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to effectively guide a group through an appropriate process to help to achieve their desired outcomes is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to clarify and establish with a group roles and responsibilities, common goal and plan to achieve them and group behavioural is outstanding.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to deal with multiple issues and details, alertness and learning capacity is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to see and think beyond the obvious and formulate original solution is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to present ideas, concept, plan and procedure clearly to the target group is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Concern for excellence of the majority of the employee’s is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s Aware of what is going on in the workplace and responds in a suitable manner to situations as they is better than acceptable.

‘ The understanding between the top level and employees are in good terms.

‘ Employees do understand their benefits and opportunities given by the organisation.

‘ The employees are paid fairly according to the work done.

‘ Freedom of sharing new ideas and opinions are welcomed in the organisation.

‘ The employees are able to make a balance between personnel and work life. which reduces the amount of stress in them.

‘ The organisation encourages the employee to learn from their mistakes.

‘ Recommendations

‘ In this organization employee engagement study must be regularly done in order to check the level of employee effectiveness.

‘ Since many of the employees are performing different jobs to what they were doing at the time of their joining they need training to perform the new work allotted them.

‘ Different sources of employee engagement tactics must be encouraged in employees.

‘ The top management should support the lower level employees since it is considered a major hurdle in effective employee engagement and the employees must also be made aware of importance of engagement at work system

‘ The employees should be then and there motivated for work.

‘ The understanding between management and employees should be increased.

‘ Level of stress in work should be reduced.

‘ Better benefit package should be given to the employees.

Conclusion

In the report we have discussed the importance of employee engagement in an organization and how it affects the efficiency of work and productivity. Employment counselors should help individuals to maximize their career engagement at any stage of their career. Basically employee engagement should be a buzz word for the employee engagement and a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization. Employee engagement is gaining its importance and popularity in work places and its impact in many ways. It emphasis on the importance of employee engagement in a organization, an organization should thus give more importance for its employees than any other variable as they are the powerful contributors to a company’s competitiveness. Thus it shows that employee engagement should be a continues process for learning, improvement, measurement and action of an employee.

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The limitations of the Chit Acts free college essay help

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The financial system assumes strategically a very important role in channelling the funds from surplus units to deficit units. The financial system here refers to the group of institutions, markets and instruments which helps in formation of capital and thus accelerates to the pace of economic development.

The base of this study stems from the fact that there exists a gap between gross capital formation and gross domestic savings in India. So, there exists the need to augment the growth rate of voluntary domestic savings. This goal can be realized by widening and strengthening the working of different financial intermediaries which will result in mobilizing savings from various income level categories. .It is in this context that the role of the Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries like Chit Finance should be appreciated in supplementing the functions of the Banking Institutions.

Chit funds are Chit funds are the Indian equivalent of the Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCA). ROSCAs are famous in many parts of the world and is seen as an instrument to ‘save and borrow’ simultaneously. ROSCAs basically started as a way to help in fulfilling the needs of the low-income households as it enables the people to convert their small savings into lump sums. The concept of chit funds originated more than 1000 years ago. Initially it was in the form of an informal association of traders and households within communities, wherein the members contributed some money in return for an accumulated sum at the end of the tenure. Participation in Chit funds was mainly for the purpose of purchasing some property or, in other words, for ‘consumption’ purposes. However, in recent times, there have been tremendous alterations in the constitution and functioning of Chit funds. A significant difference between Chit Funds and ROSCAs are that in most places ROSCAs are user-owned and organized informally, but chit funds have been formally institutionalized in India. (Chit Funds-An innovative access to finance for low income households, 2009)

1.1.1 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY CHIT FUNDS?

Chit fund is a savings-cum-borrowing instrument. The basic aim of this instrument is to pool small amount of savings by all the members which is then managed by a foreman. The foreman has the responsibility to act as a trustee-cum-supervisors for the process of collection and allotment of the pooled amount.

Chit funds represent a traditional form of saving-cum-credit institution evolved before the bank system was introduced in rural India. There are many who avail themselves of this avenue for saving for a reasonable return.

1.1 NEED AND RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Despite the growth of a wide range of savings avenues and the widespread network of banks and other financial institutions, it has been found that Chit scheme still forms an important part in the asset portfolio of many households and firms in India and especially in South India including Karnataka. Also, the review of literature shows that there are only a few studies on Chit Finance. Therefore, the need to conduct the study stems from the requirement to understand Chit Funds in Bangalore.

1.2 NEED TO CONDUCT THE STUDY

The research titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study tries to point out the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests feasible recommendations for improving the working of such institutions.

.3.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’.

VARIABLES UNDER INVESTIGATION

1. Age

2. Occupation

3. Monthly income

4. Gender

5. Bank loan

6. Regular participation in chit fund

7. Membership in multiple chit schemes

8. Cause for participating in multiple schemes

9. Preferred avenue of saving

10. Preferred source of finance

11. Safety

12. Better service

13. Flexibility

14. Timely Payment

15. Low commission

16. Personal contact

17. Unregistered chit funds membership

18. Cause for participating in unregistered chit funds

19. Cause for not participating in unregistered chit fund

3.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

3.5.1 OBJECTIVE(PRIMARY)

1. To understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members.

2. To identify the important predictors behind chit fund participation

3.5.2 OHER OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

1. To estimate interest rates in registered chit funds.

2. To compare the relative ratings of Chit subscribers towards registered and unregistered chit funds on

3. To estimate the return on Chit Funds.

3.6 HYPOTHESIS

There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

1. Null hypothesis

2. Alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

.

3.8 SAMPLING METHOD

Members of four registered chit fund companies in Bangalore. The four registered chit fund companies were selected due to the large size of their subscriber base.

3.8.3 SIZE OF SAMPLE

150 respondents

3.9 MECHANISM OF STUDY

3.9.1 PRIMARY RESEARCH

Questions relating to behaviour and financial pattern will be found out through questionnares

3.9.2 SECONDARY RESEARCH

‘ Reports on chit fund industry

OVERVIEW OF INDIAN CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

4.1.1 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CHIT FUND COMPANIES:

According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on 31st December, 2013:

Volume of registered chit companies: 5412

Volume of chit companies in Karnataka: 703

Number of chit fund companies in Bangalore: 315

UNREGISTERED CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

Although unregistered chits are an informal source of finance but still they are a significant part of the chit fund industry. Though they are more easily accessible as compared to registered chit funds.

4.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ attempt in The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study also examines the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests suitable recommendations for improving the functioning of such institutions.

4.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY

‘ Unwillingness of the members to share their income and financial details made the task of data collection somewhat difficult.

‘ Collecting data became difficult since I don’t know the regional languages.

5.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis is done on the primary data collected from 150 chit funds members in Bangalore

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

5.4.1 Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.070a 16 .013

Likelihood Ratio 35.945 16 .003

Linear-by-Linear Association 8.809 1 .003

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .455 .013

Cramer’s V .228 .013

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=31.070 was p=.013, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (Phi and Cramer’s V -0.455).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. This means that different age groups of the chit fund members have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As can be seen from the table above that those who belong to ’36-45 years’ have saving as the predominant reason to participate whereas members of other age groups do not have any dominant reason to participate.

5.4.2 Hypothesis 2:

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

. Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 10.018a 4 .040

Likelihood Ratio 10.478 4 .033

Linear-by-Linear Association 6.876 1 .009

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .258 .040

Cramer’s V .258 .040

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=10.018 was p=.040, less than 0.05.

.We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (0.258)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis. This means that males and females have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As it can be seen that males participate in chit funds for business and personal consumption purposes apart from saving whereas women predominantly participate to save.

5.4

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 82.176a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 97.665 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 15.696 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .740 .000

Cramer’s V .427 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (0.740)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the self-employed members mainly participate to avail for business reasons whereas salaried employee participate mainly for personal consumption purposes.

Hypothesis 5:

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 66.691a 20 .000

Likelihood Ratio 43.579 20 .002

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.804 1 .028

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .667 .000

Cramer’s V .333 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=66.691) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong (0.667)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the members of age group’36-45 years’ are more interested in bidding for business related purposes where members of other age groups bid mainly for emergency needs.

5.4.6 Hypothesis 6:

. Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.167a 5 .209

Likelihood Ratio 7.885 5 .163

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.120 1 .290

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .219 .209

Cramer’s V .219 .209

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.167) was p=.209, more than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.7 Hypothesis 7:

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 180.915a 15 .000

Likelihood Ratio 160.460 15 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 28.379 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.098 .000

Cramer’s V .634 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that self-employed people bid in chit scheme mostly for business purposes, salaried people for emergency needs and housewives for household purposes.

5.4.8 Hypothesis 8:

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 123.331a 35 .000

Likelihood Ratio 106.298 35 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.957 1 .026

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=123.331) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.907)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that low income members bid mostly for consumption reasons whereas higher income members bid for business related and emergency purposes.

SUMMARY:

Reason to bid in chit fund has the strongest association with the occupation of the chit fund members as the probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000 and the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098).

5.4.

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 21.702a 16 .153

Likelihood Ratio 23.775 16 .095

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.397 1 .122

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=123.331) was p=.153, more than 0.05. Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.10 Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 20.510a 4 .000

Likelihood Ratio 29.038 4 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 7.062 1 .008

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .370 .000

Cramer’s V .370 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=20.510) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (.370).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis.

5.4.11 Hypothesis 11:

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 67.261a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 60.380 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.507 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .670 .000

Cramer’s V .387 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=67.261 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong(.670).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to cause in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. Salaried people save their money in chit fund with no particular purpose. But self-employed people are equally interested in saving for house purchase as well as for general purpose.

SUMMARY:

chit fund is most closely associated with occupation of the chit fund members as it has the highest value of chi-square statistic and Phi coefficient.

5.4.12 Hypothesis 12:

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 56.697a 3 .000

Likelihood Ratio 67.900 3 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 36.400 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=56.697) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (.615).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘membership in multiple chit schemes are related to differences in ‘having currently bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that those members currently having bank loan have invested in only one chit scheme whereas those members who do not have availed bank loan have invested in more than one chit schemes.

5.4.13 Hypothesis 13:

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 96.660a 7 .000

Likelihood Ratio 85.378 7 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 59.577 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell(10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.08.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=96.660 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.803).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘participation in unregistered chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that mostly low- income members have participated in unregistered funds. This is because the registered funds have become expensive due to the increase in their operational cost as a result of stringent regulations.

5.2.14 Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 28.049a 5 .000

Likelihood Ratio 31.806 5 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.967 1 .085

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 2 cells (15.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.79.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .432 .000

Cramer’s V .432 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=28.049) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (.432).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to prefer chit fund over bank’ are related to differences in ‘having bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that members who have bank loan have preferred chit fund over bank mainly due to better dividends. But those who do not have bank loan prefer chit fund over bank mainly due to better service in terms of more personalized service.)

5.2..15 Hypothesis 15: To identify significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds using Binary Logistic Regression

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 0 Constant -1.046 .186 31.574 1 .000 .351

Model Summary

Step -2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R Square Nagelkerke R Square

1 37.170a .533 .576

a. Estimation terminated at iteration number 6 because parameter estimates changed by less than .001.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a bank_loan(1) 1.068 1.265 14.715 1 .000 11.720

reason_2 2.286 4 .683

reason_2(1) 1.336 1.077 1.540 1 .215 3.805

reason_2(2) .134 2.239 .004 1 .952 1.143

reason_2(3) -.559 1.896 .087 1 .768 .572

reason_2(4) .731 1.347 .294 1 .588 2.076

reason_3 4.874 5 .431

reason_3(1) 1.188 .924 1.652 1 .199 3.279

reason_3(2) 1.661 2.048 .658 1 .417 5.263

reason_3(3) -1.654 1.228 1.813 1 .178 .191

reason_3(4) .404 1.192 .115 1 .735 1.497

reason_3(5) -17.379 20.722 .000 1 .700 .000

reason_4 .355 4 .986

reason_4(1) -1.047 1.850 .320 1 .571 .351

reason_4(2) -.839 1.979 .180 1 .672 .432

reason_4(3) -.932 1.637 .324 1 .569 .394

reason_4(4) 3.519 4.199 .000 1 .600 3.746

reason_5 8.553 5 .128

reason_5(1) -.254 1.768 .021 1 .886 .776

reason_5(2) -19.245 9.890 .000 1 .999 .000

reason_5(3) 1.420 1.338 1.126 1 .289 4.136

reason_5(4) -.747 1.306 .327 1 .567 .474

reason_5(5) .561 1.342 .174 1 .676 1.752

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a Safety -.075 .320 4.377 1 .011 0.928

Flexi -.178 .426 3.337 1 .021 0.837

commision -.185 .188 1.868 1 .026 0.831

payment -.267 .178 1.657 1 .097 0.766

service -.859 .412 1.348 1 .083 0.424

personal -1.122 .163 .996 1 .079 0.329

Constant 3.058 2.440 1.571 1 .010 21.291

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: : bank_loan, reason_2, reason_3, reason_4, reason_5.imp1, imp2, imp3, imp4, imp5, imp6.

INTERPRETATION:

‘ -2 Log Likelihood statistic is 37.170. This statistic how poorly the model predicts the decisions — the smaller the statistic the better the model. Since, 37.170 is a relatively small number therefore, this model is able to predict the decisions in a better way.

‘ Here Cox & Snell R Square statistic indicates that 53.3% of the variation in the regular participation in chit funds is explained by the logistic model.

‘ In our case Nagelkerke R Square is 0.576, indicating a moderate relationship of 57.6 % between the predictors and the prediction.

‘ If it is less than .05 then, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

‘ In this case, we can see that bank loan, safety, flexibility and low commission have contributed signi’cantly to the prediction of regular participation in chit funds but other variables are not significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds.

‘ Since only bank loan has p=.000, therefore we can say that bank loan is the most significant predictor

among other significant predictors. This is followed by safety (p=.011), flexibility (p=.021) and low commission (p=.026).

‘ Here, the EXP (B) bank loan is 11.727. Hence when bank loan is availed by one unit (one person) the odds ratio is 11 times as large and therefore people are 11 more times likely not to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) with safety is .928. Hence when safety is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .928 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) flexibility is 837. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .837 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) low commission is .831. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .831 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

SUMMARY

Bank loan is the most significant predictor of regular participation in chit funds. This is followed by safety, flexibility and low commission.

Instalment no No of months remaining Monthly subscription Prize amount PV of monthly subscription(PV of outlow at 10%) PV of Prize amount(PV of inflow at 10%) Net Present Value(PV of inflow – PV of outflow)

1 24 2000 50000 2000 50000 10444.9

2 23 1500 35000 1488.1 34723.1 -4832.0

3 22 1500 35000 1476.4 34448.4 -5106.7

4 21 1500 35000 1464.7 34175.9 -5379.2

5 20 1500 35000 1453.1 33905.5 -5649.6

6 19 1500 35000 1441.6 33637.3 -5917.8

7 18 1500 35000 1430.2 33371.2 -6183.9

8 17 1500 35000 1418.9 33107.2 -6447.9

9 16 1620 38000 1520.3 35660.6 -3894.5

10 15 1620 38000 1508.2 35378.5 -4176.6

11 14 1700 40000 1570.2 36945.9 -2609.2

12 13 1700 40000 1557.8 36653.6 -2901.5

13 12 1780 42000 1618.2 38181.8 -1373.3

14 11 1780 42000 1605.4 37879.8 -1675.3

15 10 1780 42000 1592.7 37580.1 -1975.0

16 9 1860 44000 1651.1 39058.2 -496.9

17 8 1860 44000 1638.0 38749.2 -805.9

18 7 1860 44000 1625.1 38442.6 -1112.5

19 6 1940 46000 1681.6 39872.1 317.0

20 5 1940 46000 1668.3 39556.6 1.5

21 4 1940 46000 1655.1 39243.7 -311.4

22 3 1940 46000 1642.0 38933.2 -621.8

23 2 1940 46000 1629.0 38625.2 -929.8

24 1 1940 46000 1616.1 38319.7 -1235.4

25 0 1940 46000 1603.3 38016.5 -1538.6

39555.1 934465.9 -54411.4

[supanova_question]

Merit goods best college essay help

Merit goods are goods which will be under-provided by the market, therefore they will be under-consumed. They are thought by the governments to be good for the populations and so the governments want them to be consumed to a great extent. They increase the private and social benefits and cause the social benefit be higher than the private one. The best examples of them, apart from all the public goods, can be the education, health care, sports facilities and the opera.

Although the majority of the merit goods is provided by the private sectors, not all the people can afford buying them, therefore they will be under-consumed. That is why the government is needed to destroy the market failure increasing the supply and consequently raising the consumption.

To explain the reasons for government to provide the merit goods, I need to apply some examples of them. The first one can be the education. It is significant for the governments to provide it so that the society would be well-educated. Governments determine the period of education required for people (the compulsory education) to maintain the proper level of education of the society. The governments find education an important aspect that should be available for everyone as it cause the whole country to have better both economic growth and economic development.

Considering another example such as health care, the situation is quite similar. The governments want to provide the population with it because they care about the high states of health of society in their country. To gain these, the countries need to have high quality of health care. Governments often offer people unpaid programs consisting of preventative medical examination which contribute to maintain the high number of healthy people. This is also connected with the problems of the labour market. The healthier people are, the more efficient their work is, the greater revenue firms have and countries are more developed because of taxations.

Other examples like sport facilities or the opera are meant for people to become physically and culturally developed but their availability is not as important as in the case of the previous examples. That is why they are not as much provided by the governments as the rest of the merit goods.

Although most of the merit goods provided by the governments are free, the fact is that they are paid through the taxes that the societies pay. The number of the merit goods of particular types that the governments provide or subsidize depends on the necessity of them. If they are provided, the societies’ benefits get higher and so is the public treasury of the countries.

[supanova_question]

Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father college essay help service

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.

[supanova_question]

Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks college application essay help online

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

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WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation essay help site:edu

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) instant essay help

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior extended essay help biology

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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User Demand Modelling Based On Domain Modelling Write My Essay Help

V. ON-DEMAND SERVICES

User demand modelling based on domain modelling; domain demand models are the basis for modelling users personalized demands. A demand model that supports uncertainty, consumers may be unspecific or provide incomplete information, accurately predicting resource demands is a key concern of demand modelling. User scenario modelling, modelling demands in uncertain scenarios, a probabilistic-constrained fuzzy logic as well as its speculative method.

VI. PROVISIONING PLANS

The cloud broker considers the reservation plan as medium- to long-term planning, since the plan has to be reserved in advance such as 1 or 3 years and the plan can significantly reduce the total provisioning cost. Also, the broker considers the on-demand plan as short term planning, since the plan can be purchased anytime for short period of time such as one week when the resources reserved by the reservation-plan are insufficient.

VII. PROVISIONING STAGES

When a cloud provider accepts a request from a cloud customer, cloud must create the appropriate number of virtual machines (VMs) and allocate resources to support them. The services are provided by several different ways: advance provisioning, dynamic resource provisioning and self-service provisioning.

In advance resource provisioning, the customer contacts with the provider for services and the cloud provider prepares the appropriate resources in advance of start of service. The customer is charged for a resource they consumed either in a flat fee or is billed on a monthly basis.

In dynamic resource provisioning, the cloud provider allocates more resources as consumers needed and removes them when they do not want to use. The customer is billed on a pay-per-usage basis.

In user self-provisioning (also known as cloud self-service), the customer buy resources from the cloud provider by creating an account and paying for resources either with a credit card or net banking. The provider’s resources are available for customer use within an hour.

VIII. PSO PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION

PSO learned from the scenario and used it to solve the optimization problems. PSO is a robust stochastic optimization technique based on the movement and intelligence of swarms. It uses a number of agents (particles) that constitute a swarm moving around in the search space looking for the best solution. Each particle is treated as a point in a N-dimensional space which adjusts its ???flying??? according to its own flying experience as well as the flying experience of other particles. Each particle keeps track of its coordinates in the solution space which are associated with the best solution (fitness) that has achieved so far by that particle. This value is called personal best , pbest. Another best value that is tracked by the PSO is the best value obtained so far by any particle in the neighborhood of that particle. This value is called gbest.

IX. ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD

AES is a block cipher with a block length of 128 bits. AES allows for three different key lengths: 128, 192, or 256 bits. Each round of processing includes one single-byte based substitution step, a column-wise mixing step, a row-wise permutation step and the addition of the round key. The order may differ for these four steps are executed for encryption and decryption. Unlike DES, the decryption algorithm differs substantially from the encryption algorithm. AES requires the block size to be 128 bits, the original rijndael cipher works with any block size that is a multiple of 32 as long as it exceeds 128. The state array for the different block sizes still has only four rows in the rijndael cipher. However, the number of columns depends on size of the block. For example, when the block size is 192, the rijndael cipher requires a state array to consist of 4 rows and 6 columns.

X. CONCLUSION

In Cloud Computing, the resource provisioning mechanism uses Stochastic Programming model. These models consider many numbers of scenarios which leads to time and computational. The utility model employed by commercial cloud providers has demotivated the need for efficient and responsive economic resource allocation in high-performance computing environments. Economic resource allocation provides a well-studied and efficient means of scalable decentralized allocation it has been stereotyped as a low performance solution due to the resource commitment overhead and latency in the allocation process. The high utilization strategies are designed to minimize the impact of these factors to increase occupancy and improve system utilization. The Scenario Reduction algorithm is applied to reduce the uncertainties in cloud computing and by formulating PSO particle swarm optimization algorithm, the total cost of the resources can be reduced.

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Implementing Swifinet need essay help

ABSTRACT

Use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) has resulted in many revolutionary changes in human life. WSN has gain significant concentration from scientist and end users. ‘SWiFiNet’ is task distributed reusable system architecture. In this architecture complex functionality has been transfer to the second tire devices of the system. Second tire devices are provided with more resources. ‘SWiFiNet’ satisfy the desire architecture of the WSN. This paper aims to analyze various reusable wireless sensor networks and concept related to ‘SWiFiNet’. And it provides the existing architecture of ‘SWiFiNet’ and also the functionality of the component of the reusable network architecture. This paper also provides idea about the proposed ‘SWiFiNet’ which will be developed on IEEE 802.15.4 MAC/PHY layer which will be having more advantages over its counterparts.

Keywords:- WSN, SWiFiNet, Reusable architecture.

I. INTRODUCTION:

Use of wireless network is increasing in every field, day by day. WSN is extensively use where wired network cannot be deployed or is expensive to deploy. WSN opens many ways for research community to further enhance wireless communication efficiency and productivity. Many protocols and algorithms has been developed to addressed many kind of issues related to WSN. But most of these protocols and algorithms concentrate on routing, energy efficiency, reliability and congestion control.

No more research is done on creating some integrated network architecture that will make the implementation of any WSN application easy. It means to make the components of the WSN system reusable. The main focus of WSN is on creating more and more efficient wireless interfaces. The wireless sensor network generally developed for specific work. These work include climate reporting, military applications, fuel level indicator and many more. While creating such system one has to start from the scratch and it becomes burdensome.

So, for all these difficulties, one solution is to create reusable WSN framework. This kind of framework is developed in ‘SWiFiNet’. It is a task distributed System Architecture for WSN.

This paper provides overview of ‘SWiFiNet’ and reusable architecture for WSN. In first section provided introduction about WSN and ‘SWiFiNet’. Second section provides related work regarding task distributed network architecture. Third section provides design goals of reusable architecture. Fourth section provides WSN architecture along with ‘SWiFiNet’ architecture comparison. Fifth and last part concludes the paper.

II. RELATED WORK

There has been attempts to make hierarchical task distributed reusable wireless sensor network architecture. Most of such proposals were developed using 802.11. The different applications related to reusable WSN architecture is as follows:-

ART wise gateway architecture was presented by Leel et al [4]. The architecture is two tire architecture. Tier one uses IEEE 802.15.4 and tire two uses 802.11. Linfeng develop Environmental adaptive Architecture model for wireless sensor network [5]. It was two tire architecture. The second tire was capable of adding number of nodes without affecting two tire architecture. ANGLE [5] architecture was develop for the health care applications. In this application authors claims that it can be reused for any other application.

Open and reconfigurable wireless sensor network has been proposed by Triantafyllidis. It was developed for pervasive health monitoring. Its main emphasis was on easy extension with additional sensor functionality. ZUMA [6] was developed for centralize smart phone platform which will interconnects all kinds of smart phone devices.

The ReWINS [3] research initiative is an attempt to advance such an end-to-end solution with support for incremental arrangement through a transparent lower layer implementation and control architecture and a user-friendly application interface.

Wireless Integrated Network Sensors or the WINS [7] project and NIMS project at University of California, Los Angeles is about ad-hoc wireless sensor network research dealing mainly with constructing micro-electronic mechanical sensors (MEMS) [8], effective circuit design, and design of self-organizing wireless network architecture. Though these projects have been successful in demonstrating a network of self-organized sensor wireless nodes, they seem to have a bias towards environmental and military applications. Also they use proprietary RF communication technology and hence the solutions are limiting for wide scale deployments in industries.

Motes and Smart Dust project [9] at University of California, Berkeley involved creating particularly low-cost micro-sensors, which can be suspended in air, buoyed by currents. Crossbow Inc. has commercialized the conclusion of this project. Here again the solution is limiting, as exclusive communication technologies have been used to achieve inter-device communication. Further, the focus has been on development of sensors and their communication rather than how the sensors will be integrated to form systems. This is generally termed as the ‘bottom-up’ approach, which may not be suitable for building complex systems.

Pico-Radio [10] ‘ A group headed by Jan Rabaey at University of California, Berkeley is trying to build an integrated wireless application interface called Sensor Network Service Platform. An attempt is to develop an interface that will abstract the sensor network and make it transparent to the application layer. A introductory draft describing the application interface has been recently released. They believe in a ‘top down approach’ (from control to sensor nodes) for building sensor networks which is probably more suitable for building complex systems.

Recently, there have been several work initiatives like TinyDB [11], Cornell’s Cougar etc. to develop a declarative SQL-like language to query sensors and define certain standard query services. Here the employment is sensor-interface specific and not a general or abstracted sensor networking platform. These query services can be implemented with ease on top of our (developed) wireless interface and sensor networking platform and can be made generic by extending them for other sensors.

Other research initiatives in this field include MIT’s ??AMPS, Columbia University’s INSIGNIA, Rice University’s Monarch. Though there have been a lot of research efforts in developing ad-hoc wireless networks, the focus has been on developing smart wireless sensor interfaces and not much attention has been paid to the actual application integration. Typical approach has been to develop powerful smart wireless interfaces, which supports the important features/requirements for a particular class of applications (like military, environment sensing or more focused applications like fuel-level control in automobiles). The result is a number of wireless interfaces appropriate for a certain class of application; but almost no interoperability between them. We believe that the deployment of wireless infrastructure in industries will occur in incremental stages and thus interoperability (between different sensor-networks) and extendibility (according to application needs) will form the basic requirements of any prospective solution. A prospective good solution would be an end-to-end solution, which is modular and extendable.

All of the above applications were the forward steps towards the making of reusable network architecture. From the comparison of the above all network architecture, it is clear that user of hierarchical network give advantage over flat network. And three tire architecture is also better for reusable WSN architecture.

EXISTING SYSTEM:-

‘SWiFiNet’ [1] is task distributed and reusable component architecture. The task layer hierarchical model of ‘SWiFiNet’ is as shown in the given figure. It follows hierarchical architecture comprising of Master node, router node and sensor node. The base layer is 802.15.4 MAC/PHY layer.

Table 1. Comparison between different reusable wireless sensor network applications

Sr. No Application/Project Purpose of Application/Project Limitations

1 ART gateway architecture To develop Hierarchical two tire architecture each tire having different base MAC/PHY The system is more complex due to different protocol in each layer.

2 EAWNA To develop tire two in such a way that adding more sensor dose no affect the architecture The focus is given more on second tire of architecture.

3 ANGEL For health care application. Claimed to be reusable Reusable for specific health care application

4 ReWins To develop such an end-to-end solution The main focus is given on industrial scenarios.

5 Wireless Integrated Network Sensor Building efficient circuit design, and design of self-organizing wireless network architecture These project seems to have bias towards environmental and military application

6 Motes and smart dust project Creating low cost micro sensor which can suspended in air The focus is on sensors rather how they will be integrated

7 Pico-Radio To make sensor network transparent to application layer Suitable for building complex systems only

8 TinyDB To develop declarative SQL-like language to query sensor Not a generic or abstracted sensor networking platform

.

The upper layer to this layer is DLL task layer. All the network communication is controlled by this layer. The functionality of different device component of the architecture is as given below:

Sensor node: The task of sensor node is restricted to sensing background and connecting the neighboring nodes or the master node. When the packet is handed over to any parent node, then it is the responsibility of the parent node to transfer the packet to the master node. In this node’s layer architecture, the network layer will have the addresses of the parent devices. It will be stored in the table. Two types of addresses are present in the table. First one is primary parent address and the other is secondary parent address. If primary address parent is not available then secondary parent address will be try by the node.

If network layer don’t contain any table then a ‘Hello’ packet request is broadcast into the network. Then the neighboring device will issue the join request. The join request will be accepted if the device meets LQI threshold criteria.

Router Node: – Router nodes are come in use when sensor nodes are not in the range of Master Node. Clustering is also possible using router node. In ‘SWiFiNet’ distributed architecture the functionality of the router node increased remarkably. The complex implementation of any application or protocol will be deployed on the second tire devices. The router node network layer also maintains the table containing entries of the parent devices to the router node. It can be router node again or router will send the information directly to the master node. Router nodes will generate join request if they receive hello packet request from any sensor node.

Master node: The complete topology information of the network is maintain by the master node. When there is queried transmission model, master node will generate query and send it in the network. Whenever the routing tables are updated in end nodes or router nodes will send the information to the master node.

Sensor node Router Node Master Node

Fig 1. Distributed architecture of ‘SWiFiNet’

III. PROPOSED MODEL:

The ‘SWiFiNet’ model developed [1] is successfully implemented on the hardware as the architecture of the ‘SWiFiNet’ is defined. But ns-2 simulation of ‘SWiFiNet’ is based on 802.11a. As the basic idea of MAC/PHY layer is to have 802.15.4 which will work more efficiently on the ‘SWiFiNet’ architecture. The architectural diagram [1] is as shown below:-

In many of the sensor network architecture the sensor nodes are based on the 802.11a, but in ‘SWiFiNet’ MAC/PHY layer is based on 802.15.4. It is having low bandwidth comparative to the 802.11a. As the ns-2 modulation of the architecture is done using 802.11a, we cannot compare the exact result of hardware simulation and the software simulation.

Dynamic source routing (DSR) has similar characteristics as of ‘SWiFiNet’. After comparing the hardware results [1] with DSR it is found that ‘SWiFiNet’ is having better performance against many parameters. Implementation of ‘SWiFiNet’ using ns-2 on 802.15.4 IEEE is not yet checked against other protocols and hardware results.

The software architecture [2] of the ‘SWiFiNet’ agent is as shown in figure 2. This diagram shows the network component simulation in ns-2. The devices can be identified by the variable passed from TCL script. 1 value represent master node. 2 value represent router node and 3 value represent sensor node.

Fig 2: Component simulation in ns-2

IV. Conclusion:-

The survey paper provides a detailed comparison and description of the well-known projects and applications which are developed from reusable architecture point of view. ‘SWiFiNet’ is basically a task distributed generic reusable architecture for WSN. The functionality of sensor node is reduced and has been transferred to the second tire devices like router node. By doing so sensor nodes are restricted to gather information and connecting to neighboring nodes. As time synchronization overhead is not present the lifetime of the network increase.

This reusable architecture can be used for various range of applications and can be configured accordingly. This paper gives proposed ‘SWiFiNet’ system which will be based on 802.15.4 IEEE standard and will be useful for researchers in many ways.

V. REFERENCES:

[1] A. H. Willig, J. H. Karowski, N. Baldus, H. Huebner, A., “The ANGEL WSN Architecture,” in Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 2007. ICECS 2007. 14th IEEE International Conference on, 2007, pp. 633-636.

[2] A. W. Rohankar, Mrinal K. Naskar, Amitava Mukharjee, ‘SWiFiNet’: Task Distributed System Architecture for WSN’ in IJACSA Special Issue on Selected Papers from International Conference & Workshop On Advance Computing 2013.

[3] A. W. Rohankar, Mrinal K. Naskar, Amitava Mukharjee, ‘A step towards reusable WSN architecture’, International Journal of Research and Reviews in Wireless Sensor Networks (IJRRWSN) vol. Vol. 2, 2012.

[4] B. S. P. Harish Ramamurthy, Rajit Gadh, “Reconfigurable Wireless Interface for Networking Sensors (ReWINS),” in proceeding of the 9th IFIP International Conference on Personal Wireless Communications (PWC 2004), 2004.

[5] J. C. Leal, A. Alves, M. Koubaa, A., “On a IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee to IEEE 802.11 gateway for the ART-WiSe architecture,” in Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 2007. ETFA. IEEE Conference on, 2007, pp. 1388-1391.

[6] L. Linfeng, “Research on Environment-Adaptive Architecture Model of Wireless Sensor Networks,” in Networks Security Wireless Communications and Trusted Computing (NSWCTC), 2010 Second International Conference on, 2010, pp. 130-133.

[7] M. N. K. V. G. Soini, J. Rabaey, J. M. Sydanheimo, L. T., “Beyond Sensor Networks: ZUMA Middleware,” in Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2007.WCNC 2007. IEEE, 2007, pp. 4318-4323.

[8] Micro-Adaptive Multi-domain Power-aware Sensors (??AMPS) project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://www-mtl.mit.edu/research/icsystems/uamps/

[9] Pico-Radio project at University of California, Berkeley,URL:http://bwrc.eecs.berkeley.edu/Research/Pico_Radio/

[10] Smart Dust and motes project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/~pister/SmartDust/

[11] ] TinyDB project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://telegraph.cs.berkeley.edu/tinydb

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The Relationship between Manager Assertiveness and having to tell Employees Exactly What to Do english essay help online

Not only is it important to tell workers exactly what to do by being direct, but it is of an equal importance to be assertive with them. If a manager is too passive with his or her employees, it may lead to a managerial mess, as many workers constantly try to test managers’ boundaries.

One of the main reasons as to why employees end up misbehaving in the workplace is primarily because they are not managed correctly, and those who are in authority allow them to get that way. When it comes to being a manager, you shouldn’t expect employees to respect you on a personal level, but you should expect them to respect your authority on a professional level.

Managers should not only be consistently setting up new boundaries, but they should also be enforcing them. Without enforcing them, if an employee overpasses it and nothing is advised to him or her, they will think it is okay to continue to do so. How will they know that it is wrong unless you tell them? It is of an utmost importance to also advise them that you can’t tolerate it.

As a manager, to do their job they have the innate obligation to do only the things that is right for the company that he or she works for. This includes of setting the appropriate boundaries, and not exercising too much sympathy and empathy as it may cause the manager to get too involved with their personal lives. Otherwise, he or she may promote favoritism thereby causing other employees to be jealous. Although this may be true, there is no need to be overly rude and cold towards employees. Being assertive and setting boundaries doesn’t always mean one has to be disrespectful or even rude to their employees. The difference between an authoritarian manager who respects their employees and for managers who don’t differentiates the results of whether or not employees comply or commit themselves to work. In order to have them commit rather than only comply, it is important to be respectful while being assertive. When employees are willing to commit, they are more than likely to deliver work that exceeds a manager’s expectations. (Alexander Hamilton Institute, 2012)

The Importance for Managers to Be a Leader

When it comes to capabilities to effectively communicate with employees, good managers are able to sustain and encourage self-assurance, enthusiasm, and emotional stability while pursuing their day-to-day activities. The position of being a manager can, at times, be quite stressful and overwhelming, so the ideal manager should not let it get to them.

Why is this important when it comes to effectively advising employees as to what has to be done?

If managers aren’t able to maintain self-control of their emotions, then it is likely that they won’t be able to do well at leading employees. Managers are commonly seen as a workplace role model, so if their employees see them as unable to maintain control, it is likely the employees won’t either, thereby leading to decreased amounts of productivity.

Why Communication Is a Key Aspect for Managers

In order to ensure efficient productivity among employees, it is important for them to be able to effectively communicate with them. Moreover, they must also be able to report to higher managers regarding productivity statistics and the like. Not only will great managers be able to communicate well with employees to advise them what they have to do, but they will also be active listeners. Without being able to listen to an employee when he or she has questions about their job or what they have to do, it is likely that they won’t end up doing what they are supposed to do. Another important trait for managers is being able to get a message across without having to overly emphasize it verbally. They know how to implement non-verbal communication techniques such as body language in order to get an important message across to employees. (Melinda Hill Mendoza, n.d).

Common Traits of a Good Employee’ Where You Don’t Have to Be As Specific

There are various indicators that strongly determine whether or not if you have to be overly specific when trying to get an employee to do something. Here I’ve included some of the top traits when it comes to being an effective listener as an employee.

‘ Action Oriented: When you tell an employee to do something, and if he or she is action-oriented, you will see them do it right away’ no questions asked. Although sometimes their work may not be sufficient, most of the time they will provide great work with high levels of productivity. Also, when it comes to productivity, they usually get things done a lot sooner than employees who are stagnant.

‘ Intelligent: Intelligence is important for an employee to thoroughly understand what you want them to do without you having to be too specific with them. Not only that, but when you tell an intelligent employee what to do, most of the time they will do it perfectly correct. It is very rare for an employee who has high levels of intelligence to ask too many questions for additional specificity.

‘ Ambitious: Having an employee with ambition is important because they are well-known to come up with creative ideas that can bring the productivity of any company to the next level. So rather than spending extra time telling them exactly what they have to do, they will work right away, and by the time they are done they will provide you with a genius idea to do things quicker, and you may want to consider forwarding it to your boss.

‘ Autonomous: Employees with an autonomous trait are known to begin working on a project the second you explain to them what needs to be done. They are extremely independent and they require no ‘hand-holding’ whatsoever. This is an important trait, because as a manager, they have a lot of tasks on hand and they don’t want to be wasting it answering a hundred questions about completing a simple task.

‘ Confidence: It is more likely for an unconfident employee to ask questions about exactly what they need to do than a confident employee. This is primarily due to the fact that employees who are confident will trust there instinct on what they’ve heard from the manager, and they won’t second guess their initial impression. On the other hand, unconfident employees will lack their confidence in trusting their understanding, causing them to ask a lot of unnecessary questions.

‘ Leadership: After confidence comes leadership. When you are explaining a task to an employee with leadership skills, you will be confident that they will over-deliver on your expectations. They have the experience to not only deliver the job promptly without any questions ask, but they can set the bar higher in terms of quality and productivity.

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Learning Theory Behaviorism (Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme) free essay help online

2.0 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme

Teori Behaviorisme merupakan satu pendekatan pemikiran yang menekankan peranan pengalaman dalam mengawal tingkah laku. Pengasas teori ini adalah J.B Watson yang popular dengan teori Little Albert. Namun, selain daripada J.B Watson terdapat tokoh lain yang turut mengkaji tentang teori ini. Mereka adalah Skinner, Thondike dan Pavlov. Teori pemerolehan bahasa Behavioris pada zaman sebelum ini lebih menekankan tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat sahaja. Bagi mereka perkara yang berlaku dalam otak manusia tidak dapat dikenalpasti. Mereka membuat analogi otak manusia sama seperti sebuah kotak hitam yang gelap. Oleh itu mereka tidak mementingkan peranan otak dalam pemerolehan bahasa.

Golongan mazhab ini menolak pendapat yang menghubungkan operasi kognitif dengan pemerolehan bahasa. Seseorang dianggap telah belajar sesuatu jika dia dapat menunjukkan perubahan perilakunya. Menurut teori ini dalam belajar yang penting adalah input yang berupa stimulus dan output yang berupa reaksi (respond). Stimulus adalah apa saja yang diberikan guru kepada pelajar, sedangkan respon berupa reaksi atau tanggapan pelajar terhadap stimulus yang diberikan oleh guru tersebut. Proses yang terjadi antara stimulus dan respon tidak penting untuk diperhatikan kerana tidak dapat diamati dan tidak dapat diukur. Yang dapat diamati adalah stimulus dan respon. Oleh sebab itu, apa yang diberikan oleh guru iaitu stimulus dan apa yang diterima oleh pelajar iaitu respon harus dapat diamati dan diukur. Teori ini mengutamakan pengukuran kerana pengukuran merupakan perkara yang penting untuk melihat terjadi atau tidak perubahan tingkah laku tersebut.

2.1 Teori Behaviorisme menurut J.B Watson

J.B Watson (1878-1958), seorang ahli psikologi di Amerika Syarikat, merupakan orang pertama mencipta istilah behaviorisme untuk menghuraikan tingkah laku manusia. Kajian banyak dipengaruhi oleh Teori Pelaziman Klasik Pavlov. Kajian beliau, yang terkenal ialah mengenai emosi kanak-kanak dengan menggunakan Model Pelaziman Klasik. Mengikut Watson, tingkah laku manusia merupakan reflex terlazim iaitu suatu gerak balas yang dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman klasik. Dengan kata lain, semua pembelajaran adalah pelaziman klasik Watson berpendapat gerakan-gerakan refleks yang mudah misalnya berkelip mata, bersin apabila hidung gatal dan sebarang tindakan yang dilakukan secara semulajadi adalah tingkah laku yang diwarisi dan tidak perlu dipelajari. Selain daripada tingkah laku, Watson pula menjalankan kajian tentang pembelajaran emosi semula jadi iaitu takut, marah, dan kasih saying. Emosi manusia atau perubahan dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman.

2.1.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran J.B Watson

Menurut beliau, semua tingkah laku boleh dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman. Tingkah laku positif boleh diajarkan melalui ransangan yang sesuai. Seterusnya, untuk menguasai kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah, pelajar perlu belajar cara perhubungan gerak balas secara sistematik. Selain itu, teori ini memberi implikasi untuk mengukuhkan apa yang telah dipelajari dalam ingatan, latihan- latihan hendaklah dijalankan secara kerap. Dalam proses pengajaran,guru hendaklah menggunakan rasangan yang boleh memotivasikan murid untuk minat belajar dan mengelakkan pengunaan ransangan yang membawa kepada kesan negatif.

2.2 Teori Behaviorisme menurut Thorndike

Menurut Thorndike, belajar adalah proses interaksi antara stimulus dan respon. Stimulus adalah apa yang merangsang terjadinya aktiviti belajar seperti fikiran, perasaan, atau hal-hal lain yang dapat dikesan melalui pancaindera. Manakala, respon adalah reaksi yang muncul apabila peserta dididik ketika belajar, dan yang dapat pula adalah berupa fikiran, perasaan, gerakan atau tindakan. Jadi, perubahan tingkah laku akibat kegiatan belajar dapat dikategorikan sebagai konkrit, iaitu yang dapat diamati, atau tidak konkrit iaitu yang tidak dapat diamati. Meskipun aliran behaviorisme sangat mengutamakan pengukuran, tetapi tidak dapat menjelaskan bagaimana cara mengukur tingkah laku yang tidak dapat diamati. Teori Thorndike ini disebut pula dengan teori koneksionisme. Thorndike berjaya membentuk tiga hokum iaitu Hukum kesediaan, Hukum latihan, Hukum kesan. Hukum kesediaan merupakan keupayaan persiapan seseorang individu di dalam kendirinya untuk memulakan sesuatu aktiviti pembelajaran. Manakala hokum latihan pula menyatakan bahawa semakin byak latihan yang dijalankan semakin bertambah kukuh ikatan gerak balas yang tertentu dengan ransangan yang berkaitan. Hukum kesan menyatakan bahawa ikatan ransangan dengan gerak balas akan bertambah kukuh sekiranya individu memperolehi kesan yang memuaskan selepas gerak balasnya dihasilkan.

2.1.2 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike

Antara implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike ialah untuk meningkatkan tahap kesediaan belajar, guru harus menggunakan motivasi yang sesuai. Selain itu, ia juga dapat mengukuhkan pertalian antara ransangan dengan gerak balas pelajar dengan memperbanyak aktiviti latihan, ulangkaji, aplikasi serta pengukuhan dalam keadaan yang menyeronokkan. Seterusnya memberikan ganjaran atau peneguhan untuk respon antau gerak balas yang betul daripada pelajar. Memberi peluang kepada pelajar untuk menikmati kejayaan dalam pembelajaran mereka.

2.3 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Pavlov merupakan salah seorang daripada ahli teori Behavioris selain daripada Skinner, Thondike dan Watson. Beliau dilahirkan pada 14 September 1849 di Ryazan, Rusia Tengah. Beliau telah meninggal dunia pada 27 Februari 1936 di Leningrad Rusia ketika berusia 86 tahun. Ivan Pavlov merupakan ahli fisiologi, psikologi dan ahli fizik berbangsa Rusia. Sebagai seorang yang sangat mencintai bidang fisiologi beliau telah meminta seorang pelajar duduk di sebelah katilnya dan merekodkan perihal kematiannya. Beliau terkenal dengan orang pertama yang mendeskripsikan fonomena pelaziman klasik atau pelaziman responden. Teori pelaziman klasik adalah tentang tingkah laku pembelajaran yang telah dipelopori oleh Ivan Pavlov ( 1849-1936). Pada tahun 1980-an. Pavlov mengkaji fungsi pencernaan pada anjing dengan melakukan pemerhatian pada kelenjar air liur. Dengan cara itu, beliau dapat mengumpulkan, menyukat dan menganalisis air liur haiwan itu dan bagaimana ia dapat diberikan makanan pada keadaan yang berbeza. Beliau sedar anjing akan mengeluarkan air liur sebelum makanan sampai ke mulutnya dan mencari hubungan timbal balik antara air liur dengan aktiviti perut. Pavlov hendak melihat rangsangan luar dapat mempengaruhi proses ini. Oleh itu contoh paling awal dan terkenal bagi pelaziman klasik melibatkan pelaziman air liur pada anjing kajian Pavlov.

2.4 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme B.F Skinner

Manakala menerusi B.F Skinner pula, beliau mengutarakan teori behaviorisme adalah teori. Menurut Nana Sudjana, 1990 pendekatan Skinner adalah operant conditioning, yang merupakan penerusan dan perluasan secara tepat dari hokum Thorndike. Ia mengakui adanya fenomena conditioning yang klasik dari Pavlov dalam perilaku manusia dan binatang, tetapi itu tidak dianggap terlalu penting.

2.4.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran B.F Skinner

Sesuatu kemahiran atau teknik yang baru dipelajari hendaklah diberi peneguhan secara berterusan dan diikuti secara berkala supaya kemahiran atau teknik itu dapat dikukuhkan dan dikekalkan. Selain itu, penggunaan peneguhan positif yang membawa keseronokan adalah lebih berkesan daripada peneguhan negative yang membawa kesakitan. Seterusnya, prinsip penghapusan melalui proses pelaziman operan adalah sesuai digunakan untuk memodifikasikan tingkah laku pelajar yangtidak diingini, misalnya menghentikan peneguhan yang diberikan dahulu sama ada peneguhan positif atau negatif

2.5 Kelebihan teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Kelebihan yang pertama yang kami perolehi melalui teori ini adalah teori ini sangat sesuai untuk melatih atau mendidik kanak-kanak yang masih memerlukan bantuan daripada orang dewasa di sekeliling mereka. Sebagai contoh kanak-kanak tadika memerlukan bimbingan dan perhatian yang khusus daripada orang di persekitarannya terutamanya guru-guru mereka kerana mereka mudah mengikuti apa yang diajar dan disuruh selain suka meniru perlakuan orang di sekelilingnya. Selain itu, mereka juga suka dengan bentuk-bentuk penghargaan yang diberi kepadanya seperti pujian dan melalui bentuk penghargaan tersebut ianya dapat membangkitkan semangat ingin belajar dalam diri mereka.

Kelebihan yang kedua adalah guru tidak perlu mengambil masa yang lama untuk memberi penerangan yang panjang tentang pembelajaran kepada murid-murid. Hal ini kerana murid-murid akan dibiasakan belajar dengan sendiri kecuali sekiranya murid menghadapi sesuatu masalah dan memerlukan penjelasan yang lebih daripada guru. Dalam hal ini guru perlu memberikan penerangan dengan jelas.

Selain daripada itu, teori ini juga menekankan kemahiran lisan berbanding kemahiran membaca dan menulis. Melalui aspek kemahiran lisan yang ditekankan dapat memberikan kelebihan kepada murid kerana aspek lisan iaitu mendengar dan bertutur penting dalam situasi harian murid. Boleh dikatakan bahawa kemahiran ini adalah kemahiran terkerap yang digunakan manusia untuk berkomunikasi antara satu sama lain.

2.6 Kelemahan Teori Behaviorisme

Dari segi kelemahan pula, penerapan teori behavioris yang kurang tepat dalam sesuatu situasi pembelajaran boleh mangakibatkan berlakunya proses pembelajaran yang tidak kondusif bagi murid-murid kerana pembelajaran berlaku dalam keadaan sehala dimana ianya berpusatkan kepada guru sahaja. Guru hanya mengajar dan melatih murid manakala murid hanya menerima apa yang diajar oleh guru mereka tanpa memberi sebarang maklum balas. Malah dalam teori pembelajaran ini murid berperanan sebagai pendengar dan mereka menghafal apa yang didengar dan dipandang sebagai cara belajar yang efektif. Penggunaan hukuman merupakan salah satu cara untuk guru mendisiplinkan murid dan hal ini akan mendatangkan akibat buruk kepada murid.

Kelemahan yang kedua ialah proses pembelajaran dikatakan kurang memberikan gerak balas yang bebas bagi pelajar untuk berinteraksi serta untuk mengembangkan idea. Hal ini kerana sistem pembelajaran tersebut lebih tertumpu kepada rangsangan dan gerak balas yang ditunjukkan. Sekiranya tiada rangsangan maka tindak balas tidak akan berlaku. Sebagai contoh, guru akan memberi rangsangan dalam bentuk hadiah dan daripada situ barulah murid akan memberikan jawapan yang dikehendaki oleh guru. Sekiranya perkara ini berlaku secara berterusan dikhuatiri murid akan terlalu bergantung terhadap rangsangan dari luar sedangkan murid harus memiliki rangsangan dari dalam diri mereka sendiri sebagai satu cara pembelajaran.

Kelemahan yang ketiga menurut teori ini adalah penambahan ilmu pengetahuan lebih tertumpu kepada buku teks. Hal ini kerana mereka belajar mengikut urutan kurikulum yang sangat ketat sehinggakan buku teks merupakan buku wajib dalam pembelajaran mereka malah mereka juga perlu dikehendaki memahami dan mempersembahkan kembali isi pembelajaran di dalam buku teks tersebut dengan baik. Hal ini boleh mendatangkan kesan buruk kepada pelajar kerana ilmu pengetahuan yang mereka peroleh tidak begitu berkembangan dengan hanya tertumpu kepada satu buah buku sahaja.

2.7 Implikasi teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Yang pertama ialah guru perlu sedar bahawa kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balas boleh dilazimkan iaitu dipelajari. Sebagai contoh apabila guru ingin menyuruh murid-murid beratur ketika waktu rehat di kantin sekolah guru boleh mengaitkannya dengan cara untuk berjaya dalam kehidupan. Implikasi yang seterusnya ialah kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balasdapat dikukuhkan melalui latihan. Semakin kerap rangsangan itu dikaitkan dengan sesuatu gerak balas, semakin kukuh gerak balas terlazim itu. Sebagai contoh guru ingin murid-murid supaya tidak mengaitkan mata pelajaran matematik dengan kesukaran, dengan memberi mereka latihan- latihan yang mudah dan apabila mereka beransur mahir menyelesaikan masalah yang sukar maka guru bolehlah menukar aras pembelajaran kepada tahap yang sederhana sukar dan seterusnya ke aras pembelajaran yang sukar.

Di samping itu, dalam proses pembelajaran, generalisasi boleh berlaku. Ini bermakna perkara yang dipelajari dalam situasi A boleh dipindahkan ke situasi B. Sebagai contoh guru mata pelajaran sains mengaitkan kejadian pencemaran alam sekitar yang mengakibatkan kemusnahan alam semula jadi dengan kemusnahan alam yang berlaku seperti tsunami yang melanda Bandar Acheh.

faktor motivasi memainkan peranan yang penting bagi menghasilkan gerak balas yang diinginkan. Dalam hal ini pemberian ganjaran perlu diberi perhatian. Sebagai contoh ketika murid menjawab soalan yang diberikan oleh guru dengan betul maka guru boleh memberikan pujian kepadanya atau dengan memberikannya hadiah supaya pada waktu pembelajaran yang seterusnya pelajar tersebut akan lebih menumpukan perhatian di dalam kelas untuk memperoleh pujian yang diingini. Namun sekiranya pelajar tersebut tidak dapat menjawab soalan yang diberi maka guru perlulah membimbing pelajar tersebut supaya mereka tidak berasa terpinggir dan seterusnya dapat bersama-sama memahami tajuk pembelajaran pada ketika itu.

Selain itu juga, dalam proses pembelajaran tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat, diamati, diukur dan dikawal hendaklah diberi perhatian. Hal ini kerana melalui perubahan tingkah laku yang ditunjukkan oleh murid guru boleh mengambil sebarang tindakan sekiranya ianya di kesan lebih awal. Sebagai contoh sekiranya seseorang murid menunjukkan tingkah laku yang negatif seperti tidak faham tentang apa yang diajar oleh guru maka guru boleh membuat pemulihan terhadap dirinya. Dalam pembelajaran, penghapusan boleh berlaku jika peneguhan tidak diberikan. Ini bermakna, sekiranya sesuatu tingkahlaku tidak diperkukuhkan melalui ganjaran, tingkahlaku itu mungkin akan terhapus begitu sahaja. Konsep pemulihan serta-merta juga dapat membantu seseorang guru meningkatkan keberkesanan pembelajaran

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Research design admission college essay help

2.7 RESEARCH DESIGN USED :

The conception of research design plan is the critical step in the research process. The design ,of the study constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. In other words the research design is a conceptual structure with in which,h research is conducted.

2.8 DATA COLLECTION METHODS :

Primary Data: – Primary data are those data which are collected for the first time, and thus hap,pen to be original in character. It is extracted with the help of discussions co,nducted with senior managers with respect to factors affecting the performance.,

Secondary Data: – Secondary data are those data which are already collected by someone else ,and which have already passed through the statistical process. These data are g,athered by Books, Lectures, Notes, and Official Websites etc.

The study make,s extensive use of secondary data. ‘Secondary data are those which have already,y been passed through the statistical process’. The data which is pre-essential for ,this study relating to comparative analysis of Balance Sheet and PROFIT AND L,OSS A/c was based on secondary source of data. This data will be collected fro,m materials provided by Rakshitas Pvt. Ltd., discussions conducted with store m,anagers and some essential

Financial Accounts books.

2.9 LIMITATIONS :,

‘ Data provided is very limited due to the subjectivity of it being highly confidential.,

‘ The data taken for interpretation is for a limited period.

‘ Assumptions, are to be taken into consideration while doing analysis and interpretation, of data.

‘ Due to limited, information, depth analysis could not be made.

2.10 RESEARCH MEASURE TOOLS :

Various financial techniques and statistical tools are used to measure the data used in the study. Column graphs, pie chart etc. is used to highlight the statistical inference,s. The study cannot be completed without balance sheet and profit and loss a/c. ,Therefore three years balance sheet and profit & loss a/c has been taken out for ma,king proper research.

2.11 ANALYSIS OF DATA :

The data collected is secondary, and it’s compiled, classified, tabulated and then analyzed u,sing financial techniques and statistical tools. Graphs and charts are used to hig,hlight the statistics. Based on this data and analysis, inferences are drawn accor,dingly.

2.12 OVER VIEW OF THE CHAPTER :

The Project I,s Presented in the following chapter :-

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

This chapter includes introduction to finance, theorectical back ground for the study of the ,various performance, introduction to finance, definition of retail industry and di,fferent type of industry.

CHAPTER 2 : DESIGN OF THE STUDY

This chapter I,ncludes the projects introduction of the subject background, statement of the, problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, need and purpose of study,, research methodology, research design, data collection method primary and seco,ndary data, limitations, research measure tools and analysis of data.,

CHA,PTER 3 : PROFILE OF THE COMPANY

This c,hapter contains the profile of the company, its origin and background, board of directors, number of branches and organization structure.

CHAP,TER 4 : DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This ch,apter consists of Table, Graphs, Analysis and Interpretation based on the question,nairies.

CHAPT,ER 5 : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCULSIONS AND RECOM,MENDATIONS

This chap,ter includes findings based on objectives of the study, conclusion drawn from the f,indings and recommendations given from the analysis.

Chapter:-3

PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION

COMPANY PROFILE

RAKSHITAS PVT.LTD.

Rakshitas business con,cept is to offer a broad and varied range of apparels that allows customers to fin,d their own personal style to choose from more than 150 remiums national and int,ernational brands.

Rakshitas is aimed at everyone in the family with an interest in modern basics, fashion, quality and affo,rdable pricing. Customers should always be able to find clothes and accessories ,at Rakshitas for every occasion. The collections are extensive and new arrivals, being launched week after week in each of the 4 floors spread across 20,000 s,q. ft. for Men, Women, Kids and Teen’s casual wear, formal wear, denim wea,r, ethnic and Kancheevaram silks etc. The range and collections are supplemen,ted by matching costume jewellery, premium international watches, perfumes, ,lingerie’s.

Mission

Our mission is to achieve excelle,nce in the products and services we offer, in the methods we employ and in the res,ult we produce.

Products

Menswear: menswear,r means clothing for men. Rakshitas provide various brands for menswear which ,includes formal shirts, casual shirts, trousers, jeans etc. of several variety of int,ernational as well as national brands, for example: -levis, pepe jeans, killer, lee, w,rangler etc.

Women’s wear: Women’s wear means ,clothing for women. Rakshitas provides the best options for women’s apparel rang,ing from skirts to ethnic, casuals as well as formals.

Kids wear: Kids wear are meant only for kids or children ranging below age of 12 years. Rakshitas provides awesome collection for kids which include children formal wear, kurtas, shirt,s etc.

Party wear: Party wear dresses are meant for wearing in parties, functions, special occasions etc. Rakshitas provides variety ranges of party wear which includes lehngas, wedding dresses, traditional indian dress etc.

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Control and organisational behaviour (pengendalian dan perilaku organisasi) essay help fairfax

PENGENDALIAN DAN PERILAKU ORGANISASI

PERILAKU ORGANISASI

Untuk membuat dasar yang nantinya dapat digunakan manajemen dalam menyusun system pengendalian manajemen, maka kita perlu mengetahui lebih dalam mengenai perilaku organisasi. Berikut ini adalah beberapa penjelasan mengenai teori akuntansi sebagai bentuk pemahaman terhadap organisasi.

Definisi Organisasi

Secara umum, organisasi diartikan sebagai sekumpulan orang yang melakukan kerjasama demi mencapai tujuan ‘ tujuan yang telah ditentukan bersama. Organisasi tercipta ketika orang ‘ orang bergabung dan melakukan sesuatu untuk berbagai tujuan dan organisasi dapat mencakup segala aspek dalam kehidupan. Organisasi dapat bersifat formal dan informal. Pekerjaan di dalam suatu organisasi dapat dibagi ‘ bagi dan dikoordinasi sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan keahlian tiap ‘tiap anggota organisasinya untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi tersebut. Suatu organisasi haruslah going concern, dalam arti organisasi tersebut diasumsikan akan hidup selamanya.

Teori Perilaku Organisasi (Theory of Organization Behaviour)

Ada beberapa teori yang menjelaskan mengenai mengapa dan bagaimana orang ‘ orang berperilaku dalam organisasi. Berikut ada dua penjelasan mengenai teori tersebut :

1. Teori jenjang kebutuhan

Teori ini menjelaskan bahwa setiap manusia memiliki kebutuhan yang banyak dan harus dipenuhi dan kebutuhan serta keinginan tersebut tersusun secara rapih, sehingga apabila ada satu kebutuhan terpenuhi maka setelah itu ia akan berusaha memenuhi kebutuhannnya yang lebih tinggi. Dalam teori ini tersirat bahwa system pengendalian manajemen juga didasarkan pada kebutuhan manusia yang terkoordinasi dan dilakukan sesuai dengan tujuan organisasi.

2. Teori motivasi pencapaian

Teori ini lebih mengacu pada perilaku atasan atau manajer dalam perannya saat berorganisasi. Untuk mencapai keberhasilan dan mendapat sebuah kekuasaan, maka manajer tersebut juga perlu memiliki keinginan yang kuat agar dapat menghasilkan prestasi dalam organisasi.

TEORI ORGANISASI

Pengetahuan yang dalam mengenai organisasi sangatlah diperlukan oleh para pelaku organisasi dalam pelaksanaan system pengendalian manajemen organisasi tersebut. Para pelaku organisasi harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui semua poin dalam organisasi termasuk sejarah organisasi, tujuan organisasi, bagaimana perilaku para pelakunya hingga reaksi organisasi tersebut terhadap lingkungan.

Tak berbeda dengan teori perilaku akuntansi, dalam teori organisasi juga terdapat banyak teori yang membahas mengenai organisasi. Dan disini akan dibahas mengenai dua teori juga tentang organisasi, yaitu :

1. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Dalam

Banyak organisasi dianggap indepen dan tidak terlalu memperhatikan lingkungan luar oleh beberapa teori. Teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam ini banyak dijadikan dasar oleh sebagian besar system pengendalian manajemen dalam suatu organisasi hal tersebut didasarkan karena dalam teori ini mencakup tanggung jawab dalam pengambilan keputusan yang berlaku menurut proyek ‘ proyek, program ‘ program serta komponen ‘ komponen fungsionalnya.

2. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Luar

Teori ini adalah teori kebalikan dari teori sebelumnya yaitu teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam. Teori ini beranggapan bahwa suatu organisasi selalu berhubungan dengan lingkungan di sekitarnya. Ada dua jenis organisasi yang menganut teori organisasi yang berorientasi keluar ini, yaitu :

– Organisasi system umum terbuka

– Organisasi system manajemen

TIPE ORGANISASI

Ada tiga jenis atau tipe organisasi, yaitu :

1. Organisasi Fungsional

Dalam tipe organisasi ini, penekanan lebih ditujukan kepada manajer yang sangat harus bertanggung jawab terhadap suatu fungsi tertentu, seperti fungsi produksi, fungsi pemasaran dan fungsi lainnya yang diterapkan dalam organisasi tersebut. Fungsi ‘ fungsi tersebut dapat dihimpun oleh fungsi yang lebih tinggi dalam organisasi itu juga. Organisasi ini berpotensi membuat efisiensi perusahaan yang lebih baik karena menggunakan masukan ‘ masukan dari manajerial yang lebih tinggi.

2. Organisasi Divisi

Dalam organisasi ini, semua manajer harus bertanggung jawab terhadap hamper keseluruhan fungsi dalam proses produksi serta distribusi lini pada organisasi tersebut. Orientasi organisasi divisi lebih terbuka yang berarti lebih menekankan bahwa para manajer harus peka terhadap pengaruh ‘ pengaruh yang dating dari luar yang mungkin dapat mempengaruhi kinerja organisasi.

3. Organisasi Matriks

Ada dua struktur organisasi dalam organisasi matriks, yaitu ditata berdasarkan fungsi dan ditata berdasarkan program. Pada organisasi matriks, para manajer bertanggung jawab penuh atas profitabilitas dari lini produk organisasi tersebut dimana proses produksi dilakukan oleh unit ‘ unit organisasi fungsional.

Teori Kemungkinan (Contingency Theory)

Untuk mengendalikan suatu manajemen menggunakan tiga macam pendekatan, antara lain :

1. Pendekatan tradisional

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada perencanaan, pendekatan dan pengendalian.

2. Pendekatan system

Pendekatan ini menekankan padapenggunaan sumber daya manusia sebagai pertimbangan dalam pengambilan keputusan.

3. Pendekatan perilaku

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada pengendalian manusia termasuk di dalamnya motivasi dan prediksi.

PERILAKU MANAJEMEN

Organisasi dan sistemnya yang rumit akan mempengaruhi perilaku manusia menjadi rumit pula.

Konsep Fundamental

Agar suatu organisasi ‘terkendali’ maka para anggota organisasi harus mengetahui dengan baik apa sebenarnya yang diinginkan oleh manajemen. Untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut, dapat menggunakan banyak informasi yang telah disediakan oleh manajemen organisasi seperti anggaran hingga kebijakan organisasi. Tujuan organisasi dibuat oleh para manajer senior dan dilaksanakan oleh manajer operasional untuk selanjutnya para manajer senior menerapkan system pengendalian manajemen untuk mengontrol organisasi tersebut.

Persepsi Tujuan

Para manajer operasional harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui apa tujuan organisasi. Para manajer operasional tersebut dapat secara mudah mendapatkan informasi ‘ informasi yang mereka butuhkan dari berbagai sumber baik dari dokumen maupun percakapan informal saja. System pengendalian manajemen yang efektif dapat menguatkan kepastian suatu perusahaan.

Organisasi Informal

Adanya organisasi informal di dalam organisasi formal sering menyebabkan adanya salah persepsi mengenai tindakan yang diharapkan. Hubungan pada organisasi informal tidak tercantum di dalam bagan organisasi, padahal hal tersebut cukup penting untuk pemahaman system pengendalian organisasi tersebut.

Motivasi

Reaksi pada pelaku organisasi terutama manajemen terhadap organisasi dapat berbeda tergantung pada motivasinya. Motivasi dapat bermacam ‘ macam, misalnya kenaikan gaji, promosi, pujian dan lain ‘ lain. Motivasi timbul dari dalam pribadi masing ‘ masing, tetapi motivasi dapat dipengaruhi oleh rangsangan dari lingkungan sekitarnya.

Keselarasan Tujuan (Goal Congruence)

Setiap manusia memiliki tujuan pribadi, begitu juga dengan organisasi yang juga memiliki tujuan bersama. Salah satu tugas penting system pengendalian adalah menyelaraskan kedua tujuan tersebut serta mencapainya demi mendapatkan kepuasan bersama. Semakin kuat hubungan antara tujuan pribadi dan tujuan organisasi, maka ssistem pengendalian organisasi tersebut akan semakin kuat juga.

Kerjasama dan Konflik

Suatu organisasi tidak akan berjalan dengan baik apabila para anggotanya tidak bekerjasama dengan baik secara terkoordinasi, untuk itu di dalam organisasi sangat dibutuhkan kerjasama yang terkoordinir dan selaras. Selain itu, organisasi juga harus menjaga koordinasi dan keselarasan tersebut agar tidak terjadi konflik yang dapat mengganggu kinerja organisasi. Konflik tersebut dapat terjadi karena berbagai alasan, salah satunya adalah dengan adanya persaingan didalam organisasi tersebut.

Iklim Organisasi (Organizational Climate)

Secara singkat, iklim organisasi dapat diartikan sebagai hasil kombinasi dari struktur formal dan struktur informal pada suatu organisasi. Dan menurut pemahaman saya iklim organisasi merupakan suasana di dalam organisasi dimana tiap pelaku organisasi di dalam organisasi saling membantu, saling menilai, dan memahami antara satu dengan yang lain. Iklim organisasi ikut mengambil bagian penting dalam organisasi. Keduanya saling mempengaruhi satu sama lain.

Tipe Pengendalian

Pelaku pengendalian Sumber arah pengendalian Macam ‘ macam Pengendalian

Ukuran prestasi dan tingkah laku Isyarat untuk tindak koreksi Imbalan untuk prestasi Hukuman untuk kegagalan

Organisasi formal Rencana organisasi, strategi, tanggapan atas persaingan Anggaran, biaya standar, target penjualan penyimpangan Penghargaan manajemen, insentif uang, promosi Minta penjelasan

Kelompok informal Keterikatan bersama cita’cita kelompok Norma-norma kelompok penyimpangan Pengakuan rekan, keanggotaan, kepemimpinan Ejekan, pengasingan, permusuhan

Perorangan Tujuan pribadi, aspirasi Harapan pribadi, target antara Dugaan akan kegagalan di masa yang akan dating, target tak tercapai Kepuasan karena ‘terkendali’ kegembiraan Merasa gagal

Sumber : Disarikan dari Gene W. Dalton dan Paul R. Lawrence, Motivation and Control in Organizations (Homewood, III. : Richard D. Irwin, 1971). Hak Cipta 1971 oleh Richard D. Irwin Inc.

Variasi dalam Pengendalian

Hakekat system pengendalian manajemen dibedakan menurut sifat pekerjaan, macam organisasi, lingkungan daan peran manajer. Berikut adalah tiga dimensi yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penggunaan dan pengembangan system pengendalian manajemen :

1. Besar keleluasaan manajemen

2. Besar interdependensi

3. Rentang waktu pelaksanaan

FUNGSI KONTROLER

Kontroler dapat diartikan sebagai petinggi atau pejabat yang bertanggung jawab atas apa yang telah direncanakan oleh organisasi dan bagaimana pengoperasiannya. Tanggung jawab para kontroler berbeda ‘ beda di tiap organisasi bahkan di tiap divisinya. Tanggung jawab kontroler didasarkan pada posisinya masing ‘ masing. Tanggung jawab tersebut dilaksanakan secara langsung. Selain tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian tersebut, berikut ini adalah fungsi lain dari kontroler :

a. Menyiapkan laporan kepada pihak pemerintah serta pihak ‘ pihak luar lainnya.

b. Mempersiapkan pengembalian pajak.

c. Mempersiapkan dan melakukan analisa terhadap laporan prestasi keuangan.

d. Membantu para manajer dengan cara melakukan analisa sertab menafsirkan laporan ‘ laporan tersebut.

e. Menggunakan prosedur pemeriksaan intern dan pengendalian akuntansi, memastikan validitas informasi, menetapkan usaha perlindungan yangcukup terhadap berbagai penyimpangan serta melakukan pemeriksaan operasional.

f. Melakukan pengembangan kepada orang ‘ orang yang ia pimpin serta berperan langsung dalam penambahan pengetahuan mengenai fungsi kontroler

g. Mengadakan manajemen kas, asuransi serta kegiatan ‘ kegiatan lainnya demi pengamanan kekayaan perusahaan.

Hubungan dengan Organisasi Lini

Kontroler juga memiliki hak untuk membuat kebijakan ‘ kebijakan dalam organisasi. Namun keputusan ‘ keputusan tersebut merupakan realisasi pelaksanaan kebijakan ‘ kebijakan yang telah dibuat oleh manajer lini. Dengan kata lain, terdapat keselarasan antara kedua belah pihak. Hal tersebut tentunya sangat baik untuk menjaga kelancaran jalannya organisasi tersebut.

Kontroler Divisi

Kebanyakan perusahaan atau organisasi membagi organisasinya tersebut menjadi beberapa divisi yang dikepalai oleh seorang manajer. Manajer divisi tentu juga memiliki kontroler divisi. Dalam hal ini, kontroler divisi harus patuh kepada manajer divisi dan juga kontroler perusahaan yang terkadang beda kepentingannya. Penilaian prestasi terhadap kontroler divisi dapat dilakukan dengan menilai beberapa poin, antara lain :

– Laporan akuntansi dan keuangan

– Pengetahuan mengenai operasi divisi

– Sasaran dan pelaksanaan kepatuhan terhadap kebijakan

– Kontribusi manajemen

– Pengetahuan terhadap akuntansi

– Kejujuran dan profesionalisme

– Kemauan bekerjasama

– Organisasi dan staf

– Inisiatif dan semangat

HUBUNGAN LINI-STAF

Seorang manajer divisi dapat dikatakan tidak memiliki staf maupun asisten pribadi. Manajer tersebut mendapatkan bantuan dari :

1. Tenaga yang ditugaskan untuk membantunya dari staf umum, insinyur serta petugas pembelian

2. Staf pusat yang dapat dimintai bantuan kapan saja sebanyak mungkin.

HUBUNGAN MANAJER DIVISI ‘ KONTROLER

Untuk mencapai kesuksesan organisasi dalam hubungannya dengan manajer divisi, maka organisasi perlu membina kerjasama yang baik dan solid di tiap ‘ tiap manajemen. Berikut merupakan beberapa factor yang dapat mempengaruhi hubungan baik adalah :

1. System akuntansi yang seragam dan terpusat

2. Sasaran ‘ saasaran keuangan yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya untuk tiap ‘ tiap divisi.

(Pertumbuhan penjualan serta besar laba penjualan)

3. Pembagian laba antara kontroler dan manajer

SISTEM AKUNTANSI

Selain memiliki tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian organisasi, divisi kontroler juga memiliki kewenangan atas system akuntansi yang akan digunakan oleh organisasi tersebut termasuk di dalamnya menetapkan cara dan jenis pos ‘ pos yang harus mereka awasi. Sistem akuntansi dijadikan dasar dalam penyusunan laporan keuangan beserta analisisnya.

SASARAN ‘ SASARAN DIVISI

Seperti yang telah disebutkan pada bagian sebelumnya, perusahaan atau organisasi memiliki sasaran keuangan, yaitu pertumbuhan penjualan dan tingkat laba. Tingkat laba dalam organisasi atau perusahaan ditetapkan sebaga persentase penjualan. Berikut ini adalah beberapa factor penentu target laba penjualan :

1. Kemungkinan pematenan produk

2. Besar laba atas investasi yang diinginkan

3. Besar laba industry bersangkutan

4. Besar laba investasi bersangkutan

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Business notes: Creative problem solving college essay help free

1 Unit 1 – Creative problem solving

1.1 Introduction

A business leader is expected to identify problems, implement solutions and find business opportunities. To do so, they must learn to plan, analyse situations, identify and solve problems (or potential problems), make decisions, and set realistic and attainable goals for the business/unit. These are the fundamental thinking/creative requirements for leadership, and these set direction to a successful future. Without this critical competence, you will have to rely on others to do your thinking for you, or you will simply have to learn to nurture your creative thinking skills which will help you on your journey towards successful business.

Creative thinking forms part of this continuous problem solving process, and is the fundamental basis for facilitating in the development of solutions, new initiatives, products or services. In an entrepreneurial context, the end result of this process should be directly linked to a feasible opportunity in the market environment.

Quote – What lies behind us and what lies before us, are tiny matters, compared to what lies within us. – William Morrow

The creative problem solving process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Problem analysis

‘ Solution analysis

‘ Decision analysis

‘ Solution implementation

1.2 The process

The creative problem solving process consists of an important core process, namely the idea generation process see figure 1. This is an important step, especially if you need to come up with creative ideas for products, services, and processes, to solve a consumer problem. The idea generation process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Step 1 – Generating ideas

‘ Step 2 – Developing ideas into a concept

‘ Step 3 – Converting a concept into a tangible or intangible product

‘ Step 4 – Finally protecting the tangible or intangible product

Figure 1 – The process of creative thinking (idea generation)

Initially you need to understand the problem and find the root cause of the problem. Many techniques are available to find the causes of problems, you can use the 5 Why technique in this case, if you are familiar with it. The more advanced courses will describe how to use the major problem identification techniques, but this course will focus on the idea generation process.

1.3 Where to start

In the entrepreneurial phase, the best way to start the idea generation process is when you are required to come up with a new product or service, to identify a potential consumer problem. Initially, focus on identifying problems in the area of your expertise (your knowledge base).

If you have no knowledge of the problem, the product development stage could be a challenge for you.

You will learn in the next section that not all problems are opportunities, and entrepreneurs should be careful as to how they approach this stage, when generating ideas in trying to identify a new product or service.

1.4 Problem versus opportunity

In most cases, the idea-generation phase in the creative problem solving process is neglected. Individuals normally identify a problem or an opportunity (which may seem like an opportunity, but is actually just an idea), and then develop a new product in line with the new assumed idea or opportunity. It is therefore important to distinguish between an idea and an opportunity. Resources may be wasted if a mere idea is incorrectly perceived as an opportunity.

Any opportunity is initially problem based (e.g. a coffee shop in a destination where there is a lack thereof, this creates several problem situations and potentially feasible opportunities for the entrepreneur). The creative thinking (idea generation process) involved, is the means to solving these problems, and bring forth solutions to the market problems, which create further opportunities.

1.4.1 Difference between problem and opportunity

There is, however, a critical difference between a problem and opportunity. Consider the following:

‘ Is it an idea or an opportunity to develop a high speed train between two major cities which are not far from each other? Some may say it is a great idea, but when you need to pay R200 a day to make use of it, it is simply not an opportunity. Only a few people would make use of the service, resulting in a negative impact on the market.

‘ If it is possible to transport people between the two cities for a lower cost, say R10, it would possibly be a more feasible opportunity.

Here is a good example of an opportunity – Around the turn of the twentieth century, a shoe manufacturer sent a representative to Africa, to open up a market in the undeveloped area in that continent. After exploring the culture for a month, the rep sent a telegram to the home office shouting,

‘Disaster! Disaster! These people do not wear shoes. Bring me home immediately!’

A short time later, another shoe company sent their agent to Africa for the same purpose. A month later his home office also received a telegram:

‘Opportunity! Opportunity! These people do not wear shoes! Triple production immediately!’

Quote – Every situation contains the potential for disastrous problems or unprecedented success. The event is what we perceive it to be. Unknown

Now the question arises: How do I distinguish between an idea and an opportunity? Looking at above examples, every problem is not an opportunity, and it really depends at how you are looking at the problem. If you see a viable opportunity in a problem then you are looking at the problem with a different perception than most people (the glass is half full or half empty). From a business perspective all opportunities are not necessarily a viable opportunity, the market determines the available opportunities. Without the knowledge to interpret the market conditions, you could miss it totally in terms of your opportunity analysis.

Table 1 shows the different industries in South Africa, the level of entrepreneurial activity, and how the same opportunity differs in each of these market areas.

1.4.2 The global entrepreneurship monitor

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor ‘ specifically identified the entrepreneurial activity in the various industries of South Africa. It can be generalized to state that an industry with a high level of entrepreneurial activity, gives away more business opportunities (e.g. manufacturing, retail, hotel, restaurant and business services), while one with a lower level will indicate far less opportunities (e.g. agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing, finance, insurance, real estate and health, education and social services).

If we analyse just one ‘high-opportunity’ industry, for instance manufacturing, it may be an opportunity today to manufacture a final product, and export it to an international market. A ‘low-opportunity’ industry, for instance insurance (especially in the market entry phase), may be negative as having an extremely high crime rate and insurance companies have to pay out claims at an alarming rate. It is also evident that low-opportunity industries may create feasible opportunities.

An entrepreneur should therefore be wary of following a fad, (latest trend) and exploiting assumed opportunities in a ‘popular’ industry.

Percentage of Entrepreneurs

ISIC Category Start-ups New Firms Total

Agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing 1,3 2,6 1,6

Mining, construction 9,7 5,0 4,1

Manufacturing 14,3 19,1 13,8

Transport, communications, utilities 9,8 0,7 8,0

Wholesale, motor vehicle sales, repairs 6,0 6,5 6,3

Retail, hotel, restaurant 40,8 47,7 43,5

Finance, insurance, real estate 0,3 5,2 1,4

Business services 10,1 7,9 9,4

Health, education, social services 2,6 0,7 2,3

Consumer services 11,0 3,5 9,7

Source: Driver. Wood, Segal & Herrington, 2001

Table 1 – The percentage of entrepreneurs in the different industries in South-Africa

1.4.3 What is an opportunity?

What exactly is an opportunity and how does an entrepreneur exploit a feasible opportunity? According to Hesrich & Peters (2002), an opportunity is the process whereby the entrepreneur assesses whether a certain product, service or process, will yield the necessary earnings based on the resource inputs that are required to manufacture and market it.

The nature of opportunities needs to be assessed – thus, what leads to the existence of an opportunity? The following factors may result in an opportunity:

‘ General and specific problems faced by consumers

‘ Market shifts

‘ Government regulations

‘ Competition

There are two equally important criteria in the assessment of an opportunity. Firstly, the size of the market – will the number of customers reward the input and energy required, to create and deliver the product?

Secondly, the length in terms of the frame of the opportunity (window of opportunity). For example, is the demand for this product only a short fashionable phenomenon or is it based on sustainable business, or how long will it take before someone else (a competitor), to grab the opportunity?

These two aspects should also link directly to the personal skills and competence of the entrepreneur. For example, entrepreneurs with no skills or interest in information technology will not necessarily achieve their personal goals. They should rather venture into an opportunity which suits their experience and personality.

1.4.4 Transform opportunity into a business

Table 2 shows how the development of a business plan links to the identification and evaluation of opportunities, the determination of the resources required and the eventual management of the enterprise. All of these factors play a significant role in the correct assessment of the business opportunity.

This means that the business plan must explain in sufficient detail how the business will exploit the situation, to transform the opportunity, into solving a problem for the consumer, which generates extraordinary profits for the people involved.

Identify and evaluate the opportunity Develop the business plan Determine the resources needed Manage the enterprise

Creation and length of opportunity

Real and perceived value of opportunity

Risk and returns of opportunity

Opportunity versus skills and goals

Competitive situation Title page

Table of contents

Executive summary

Description of business

Description of industry

Marketing plan

Financial plan

Production plan

Organisational plan

Operational plan

Summary

Appendices Existing resources of the entrepreneur

Resource gap and available supplies

Access to needed resources Management style

Key variables for success

Identification of problems and potential problems

Implementation of control systems

Source: Hisrich, R.D. & Peters, M.P. 2002: 40. Entrepreneurship. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Table 2 – Link between Opportunity and business plan

1.5 Instruction

Exit and resume to your current page.

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The importance of employee engagement in an organization college essay help online

1.4 Literature Review

Mark Kilsby and Stephen Beyer (1996) ‘ Engagement and Interaction : A comparison between supported employment and acts’. This research study was conducted with the help of interaction and commitment patterns of 13 supported employees and 38 regular adult training center attainders of the organization. Direct observation was used as method of data collection, within the 13 employment sites and a representative sample of ATC organized activities. Because of the higher level of task specific dialogue between individuals and the service of the organization it is found that there is more of social interaction in ACT. Interaction of employees with public within office hours was the cause for this as per the study conducted.

Douglas R. May, Richard L, Gilson and Lynn M . Harter (2004) ‘The Psychological Conditions Of Meaningfulness ,Safety And Availability And The Engagement Of The Human Spirit At Work’. This shows the study about a U.S western company which explored the determinants and mediated the effects of tree psychological conditions they are meaningful, safe and available. The above studies shoes that all the three factors (meaningfulness, safety and availability) have a positive relation with the engagement of an employee in the organization. In other words they are completely associated with the psychological safety where as loyalty to co worker norms and self- consciousness are negatively related.

Despoina Xanthopaolou, Arnold B, Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti and Wilmar B.Schaufeli (2009) ‘Work Engagement And Financial Returns : A Diary Study On The Role Of The Job And Personal Resources’. The above study shows that how daily fluctuations in job can affect the level of personal resource , financial returns and work engagement. Different level of analysis revealed that day level job resources had an effect on work engagement through the day level personal resources. When there was a control for the general level of personal resources and organizational engagement Day level work engagement showed a positive way towards day level training, which in turn showed the financial returns.

Dan-Shang Wang and Chia ‘Chun Hsieh (2013) ‘The Effect Of Authentic Leadership On Employee Trust And Employee Engagement’ they have examined the genuine leadership on employee engagement through employee trust. They have collected data from 386 employees from top 1000 manufacturing companies and top 500 service companies in Taiwan. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis on the employees. Later on the results shows that the consistency between the supervisors , words and actions as well as their moral perceptions are optimistically related to employee engagement , when only supervisors are consist between the words and actions in positively related employment trust. The study shows how employee engagement had a positive trust on employee. Employee trust has a partial link between authentic leadership and employee engagement.

Benjamin J.C, Yuan and Michael B.H. Lin (2012) ‘Transforming Employee Engagement Into Long-Term Customer Relationships: Evidence From Information Technology Salespeople In Taiwan’. This article shows that when information sales people in Taiwan have perceived more transformational leadership and they were more expected to show increased development in work engagement. Over a period of time it was found that increased development in work engagement influenced the increased customer relationship. It showed how employee engagement is indirectly co related with customer relationship.

Xander M.Bezuijen, Karen Van Dam, Peter T . Van Den Berg and Henk Thierry (2010) ‘How Leaders Stimulate Employee Learning : A Leader ‘ Member Exchange Approach’. This study investigated how the three factors as such as leader member exchange, goal setting, and feedback are related to employee engagement in the learning activities. Here, two different mechanisms were proposed , first one a mediating mechanism telling that leader member exchange shows specific leader behavior. The second one is it as a moderating mechanism , holding that leader member exchange will strengthen the effect of leader behavior from 7 organizations a sample of 1112 employees was taken , to measure the leader member exchange approach. 233 of the direct leaders answered that they find difficulty in rating employee engagement in learning activities.

Maureen F.Dollard and Arnold B. Bakker (2010) ‘Psychosocial Safety Climate As A Precursor To Conducive Work Environment , Psychological Health Problems , And Employee Engagement’. This article shows the gap between work psychology and psychosocial working condition. Where we construct a psychosocial working condition PSC. It explains how PSC influences the senior management in psychological working conditions and in psychological health and engagement. They use the job demand and resources as a frame work and uses a multi level thinking into their explanation

James R.Jones (2009) ‘Comparative Effects On Race/Ethnicity And Employee Engagement On Withdrawal Behavior’. This study have added knowledge on the basis of effects on employee attachment. In addition to that it provides more evidence on looking at all types of employees as a single entity which can lead to false results.

Shane Crabb ( 2011) ‘The Use Of Coaching Principles To Foster Employee Engagement’. The above article focuses on the human condition that leads to the happiness of fulfillment and flourishing of employee engagement. Where positive psychology results in so many questions from traditional psychological approaches .Which have mean to focus on a different model of human functioning with healing people fail. In another way positive psychology takes additional holistic approach to human life. Seeing the positive and negative aspects of context when establishing what is right , working and good of people.

Roberta A . Neault and Deidre A .Pickerel (2011) ‘Career Engagement : Bridging Career Counseling And Employee engagement’ . this article is showing that employee counselors helps individuals in maximizing their career engagement at any career stage of an individual. When you facilitate career engagement it contributes to employee engagement which employee are looking for. They even encourages others to use the career engagement and employee engagement models as vehicles to combine the employers to interest in engagement counselors to create interest in supporting the development of employee an motivate them to work.

2.1 Title: A Cross Sectional Study Of Employee Engagement In Apollo Hospitals.

2.2 Objectives:

1. To determine the level of Employee Engagement in Apollo Hospitals.

2. To identify the factors of Employee Engagement.

3. To analyze and suggest strategies for improvement.

2.3 Research Methodology:

I had adopted descriptive research design for the purpose of this

Survey on employee engagement. The primary data was collected from the 100 employees conveniently selected from Apollo Hospitals Bangalore, through structured questionnaire.

2.4 Limitations:

1) The survey was carried out for a sample sized of 100 working staff only.

2) Findings and suggestion of this research are applicable only to Apollo Hospitals.

3) As an fact finding study advanced statistical tools or analysis are not used.

Table 1.1 Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

X 1 2 3 4 5

I have adequate opportunities for professional growth in this organization. (X1) 10 20 32 19 19

I receive the training I need to do my job well.(X2) 2 52 22 16 08

My manager is actively interested in my professional development and advancement.(X3) 32 21 12 18 17

My manager encourages and supports my development (X4) 08 10 40 18 24

I am encouraged to learn from my mistakes (X5) 52 23 16 04 05

My work is challenging, stimulating, and rewarding(X6) 28 14 33 16 09

X1 ?? XI X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5 X6 ?? X6

10 50 2 10 32 160 08 40 52 260 28 140

20 80 52 208 21 84 10 40 23 92 14 56

32 96 22 66 12 36 40 120 16 48 33 99

19 38 16 32 18 36 18 36 04 08 16 32

19 19 08 08 17 17 24 24 05 05 09 09

TOTAL 283 TOTAL 324 TOTAL 333 TOTAL 260 TOTAL 413 TOTAL 336

Table 1.2 Calculation Of Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

283/100 2.83 324/100 3.24 333/100 3.33 260/100 2.60 413/100 4.13 336/100 3.36

RANKED 6 RANKED 4 RANKED 3 RANKED 5 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.3 Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Opportunities for growth

INFERENCE

The above table shows that the employees are encouraged to learn from their mistakes that is 4.15 out of 5.the work is stimulating rewarding and challenging is ranked 2nd.the manager is actively interested in employees professional growth is

ranked 3rd.the level of opportunity for professional growth shows the least ranking.

Table 1.4: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 20 32 19 19 100

Chart 1.1: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

Interpretation:

32% of the employees from the given population says that they have a neutral opportunity to grow where as 10 % stands in the outstanding category and 20% of them in good category. An equal no of employees disagree to the fact in the other hand that is 19% of the given population.

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 52 22 16 8 100

Table 1.5: Showing Training

Chart 1.2: Showing Training

Interpretation:

In the given sample 52% of the employees agrees to the fact that they receive good training in order to do their job efficiently and 2% strongly agrees. where 22 % is neutral to the situation given.16 % of them do not get proper training they required to do their jobs and 8 % strongly disagree to it. It is clear that the organization is giving a proper training to employees to make their work effective.

Table 1.6: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 21 12 18 17 100

Chart 1.3: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

Interpretation:

Most of the employees agree that their manager takes attention in their professional development steps. 32 % to 25 of the employees from the given sample have strongly agreed and agreed to it respectively. whereas 12 % is neutral to it . but 18% to 17% disagrees and says that they are not taken care in respective of their advancement in profession.

Table 1.7: Showing Encouragement And Support

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 10 40 18 24 100

Chart 1.4: Showing Encouragement And Support

Interpretation:

From the above graph its clear that 40% of the employees neither agree or disagree that management encourage them or support them. 8% to 10% agrees that they have been supported by the management . but 18 % to 24 % disagree to the fact that management supports them .

Table 1.8: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

52 23 16 4 5 100

Chart 1.5: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

Interpretation:

More than half , 52% of the employees states that they have a challenging stimulating and rewarding work. A very few of them disagree to it 4 % to 5% . and 23 % of them agrees t it there is a majority of people agreeing to it.

Table 1.9: Showing Encouragement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

28 14 33 16 9 100

Chart 1.6: Showing Encouragement

Interpretation:

There is a 28% of people agreeing to it. And 16 % to 9 % disagreeing to the fact that they are not encouraged to learn from their mistakes .

Table 1.10: Showing Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

X 1 2 3 4 5

My manager understands the benefits of maintaining a balance between work and personal life. (X1) 02 13 08 48 29

My job does not cause unreasonable amounts of stress in my life. (X2) 30 13 08 48 29

The amount of work I am asked to do is reasonable. (X3) 40 20 12 14 14

I am able to satisfy both my job and family/personal responsibilities. (X4) 27 12 08 09 44

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4

02 10 30 150 40 200 27 135

13 52 13 52 20 80 12 48

08 24 08 24 12 48 08 24

48 96 48 96 14 28 09 18

29 29 29 29 14 14 44 44

TOTAL 211 TOTAL 351 TOTAL 370 TOTAL 269

Table 1.11: Showing Calculation Of Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

Table 1.12: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace

211/100 2.11 351/100 3.51 370/100 3.7 269/100 2.69

RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2 RANKED 3

INFERRENCE

By analysing the given data using weighted average method that the level of stress reduced in the employees is 3.51 out of 4 , and the amount of work the employee is asked to do is 3.7. the employee is able to balance between family and personal responsibility is 2.69 . the managers understanding in the benefits and maintaining balance between work and personal life should be taken care because it is got only 2.11 which have least rank

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 13 8 48 29 100

Table 1.13: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Chart 1.7: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Interpretation:

Only 2% of the employees says that there is a balance between work life and personal life. 13% of them agrees to it and 8% is neutral to it.but 48% of the sample disagrees and 29 % of them strongly disagrees to it.

Table 1.14: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

30 13 8 48 29 100

Chart 1.8: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

Interpretation:

30% of the employees strongly agrees that the job doesn’t cause much stress where 13% of them agrees and 8% is neutral to it. But 48%of them disagree nd 29% strongly disagrees and states that job causes stress in their life.

Table 1.15: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.9: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

Interpretation:

40% of them strongly agrees that they have sufficient amount of work and they do not feel any stress where 20 % of them agrees. 12% of the sample is neutral.14% of them disagrees they don’t have suffient amount of work or they are overloaded with the work given.

Table 1.16: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.10: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

Interpretation:

44% of them strongly disagree that they are not able to complete their job, family and personal responsibilities. 27 % to 12 % agrees to it and 8% is neutral to that. It shows that employees are not satisfied with the amount of work given to them.

Table 1.17: Showing Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X 1 2 3 4 5

My ideas and opinions count at work. (X1) 03 18 19 32 28

I am comfortable sharing my opinions at work. (X2) 10 08 28 42 12

We work to attract, develop, and retain people with diverse backgrounds. (X3) 10 13 09 56 12

Senior management is genuinely interested in employee opinions and ideas. (X4) 24 23 36 07 10

People with different ideas are valued in this organization. (X5) 20 18 40 13 09

Table 1.18: Calculation Of Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

3 15 10 50 10 50 24 120 20 100

18 72 08 32 13 52 23 92 18 72

19 57 28 84 09 27 36 108 40 120

32 64 42 84 56 112 07 14 13 26

28 26 12 12 12 12 10 10 09 09

TOTAL 234 TOTAL 262 TOTAL 253 TOTAL 344 TOTAL 327

234/100 2.34 262/100 2.62 253/100 2.53 344/100 3.44 327/100 3.27

RANKED 5 RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.19: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Personal Expression / Diversity

INFERRENCE

By analysing the above table it shows that senior management is interested in personal opinions which shows the rank 1. And people with different ideas are valued in the organisation are considered 3.27 out of 5. Employees are free to share their ideas 2.62. the employees work in such a manner to attract and retain others 2.53 ,which has got the 4th rank. Ideas counted at work has got the least rank where they have to work on that part.

Table 1.20: Showing Idea And Opinion Count

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

3 18 19 32 28 100

Chart 1.11: : Showing Idea And Opinion Count

Interpretation:

Only 3% of the employees agree that the management listens to their ideas and opinions. 18% of them agree to it as well. 19 % is neutral to the situation. Whereas there is a huge no of the sample size that is32% to 28% who is disagreeing to it. Their opinions and ideas are not taken seriously by the management.

Table 1.21: Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 8 28 42 12 100

Chart 1.12 : Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

Interpretation:

The conducted shows that onl10% to 8% employees are comfortable in sharing their problems with the upper management. Rest of the sample that is 42% is disagreeing that they are not comfortable in sharing their ideas or problems.12% of them strongly disagrees.

Table 1.22: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 13 9 56 12 100

Chart 1.13: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

Interpretation:

56% of the employees disagrees that they don’t work to attract ,develop or retain customers. Where 10% to 13% agrees to the statement . a little sample size of 12% strongly disagrees to the statement .

Table 1.23: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

24 23 26 7 10 100

Chart 1.14: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

Interpretation

The management shows interest in taking employees ideas and opinions.24% of them agrees and 23% of the strongly agrees to the statement. A huge sample ,36% id neutral to the statement. But a little sample, 7% to 10% disagrees to the statement.

Table 1.24: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

20 18 40 13 9 100

Chart 1.15: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

Interpretation:

20% to 18% of the employees agree that people with different ideas are well accepted in the organization. 40% to the employees are neutral to the statement. 13 % to 9% of the sample disagrees to the statement on the other hand.

Table 1.25: Showing Weighted Average On Compensation

X 1 2 3 4 5

I am paid fairly for the work I do. (X1) 19 42 12 25 2

My salary is competitive with similar jobs I might find elsewhere.(X2) 32 12 28 23 5

My benefits are comparable to those offered by other organizations.(X3) 8 29 28 32 3

I understand my benefit plan. (X4) 42 15 19 9 15

I am satisfied with my benefit package. (X5) 58 12 11 6 13

Table 1.26: Calculation Of Weighted Average On Compensation

X1 vX1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

19 95 32 160 08 40 42 210 58 290

42 168 12 48 29 116 15 60 12 48

12 36 28 84 28 84 19 57 11 33

25 50 23 46 32 64 09 18 06 12

02 02 05 05 03 03 15 15 13 13

TOTAL 351 TOTAL 343 TOTAL 307 TOTAL 360 TOTAL 396

Table 1.27: Showing The Rank Of Each Component Of Compensation

351/100 3.51 343/100 3.43 307/100 3.07 360/100 3.60 396/100 3.96

RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 5 RANKED 2 RANKED 1

INFERENCES

The above table shows that the employees are satisfied with the benefit package they are given 3.96 out of 5.the employees understand their plan is 3.60. the fair pay is ranked 3rd.the employees salary is competitive with others is ranked 4th. The salary is not comparable with salary with others which has been ranked the least, rank 5.

Table 1.28: showing Fair Pay

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

19 42 12 25 2 100

Chart 1.16: Showing Fair Pay

Interpretation:

19% to 42% of the Employees agree that they are paid fairly according to the amount of work they do. But 25% to 2% of the sample size disagrees to the statement. And 12% is neutral to it.

Table 1.29: Showing Salary Competitiveness

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 12 28 23 5 100

Chart 1.17: Showing Salary Competitiveness

Interpretation:

32% of the employees agrees that they get a competitive salary when compared to other organizations with same designation. 12% of them strongly agrees to it .28% of them are neutral to the statement. 23% to 5% is disagrees to the statement in the other hand.

Table 1.30: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 29 28 32 3 100

Chart 1.18: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

Interpretation:

There is balance, 29% of the employees agrees and 32 % of them strongly disagrees that they have a comparable benefits.28% of them are neutral in the other hand.

Table 1.31: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

42 15 19 9 15 100

Chart 1.19: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

Interpretation:

42% of the employees agrees that they understand their benefit plan. 15% strongly agrees ,where 19% is neutral.9% to 15% disagrees to the fact and says they don’t understand the benefit plans they are given.

Table 1.32: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

58 12 11 6 13 100

Chart 1.20: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

Interpretation:

58% of them are satisfied with their benefit package. 12% strongly agrees. Whereas little sample of 6% to 13% disagrees to the statement. Or they are not happy with their benefit package.11% is neutral to it.

Summary of Findings

‘ Most of the employee’s ability state the opinion firmly and positively is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability in exercising the professional duties without assistance is better than acceptable standard.

‘ The Emotional Stamina of the majority of the employees is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the Employee’s Ability to work co-operatively and collaboratively to achieve common goal is better than acceptable.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to effectively guide a group through an appropriate process to help to achieve their desired outcomes is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to clarify and establish with a group roles and responsibilities, common goal and plan to achieve them and group behavioural is outstanding.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to deal with multiple issues and details, alertness and learning capacity is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to see and think beyond the obvious and formulate original solution is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to present ideas, concept, plan and procedure clearly to the target group is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Concern for excellence of the majority of the employee’s is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s Aware of what is going on in the workplace and responds in a suitable manner to situations as they is better than acceptable.

‘ The understanding between the top level and employees are in good terms.

‘ Employees do understand their benefits and opportunities given by the organisation.

‘ The employees are paid fairly according to the work done.

‘ Freedom of sharing new ideas and opinions are welcomed in the organisation.

‘ The employees are able to make a balance between personnel and work life. which reduces the amount of stress in them.

‘ The organisation encourages the employee to learn from their mistakes.

‘ Recommendations

‘ In this organization employee engagement study must be regularly done in order to check the level of employee effectiveness.

‘ Since many of the employees are performing different jobs to what they were doing at the time of their joining they need training to perform the new work allotted them.

‘ Different sources of employee engagement tactics must be encouraged in employees.

‘ The top management should support the lower level employees since it is considered a major hurdle in effective employee engagement and the employees must also be made aware of importance of engagement at work system

‘ The employees should be then and there motivated for work.

‘ The understanding between management and employees should be increased.

‘ Level of stress in work should be reduced.

‘ Better benefit package should be given to the employees.

Conclusion

In the report we have discussed the importance of employee engagement in an organization and how it affects the efficiency of work and productivity. Employment counselors should help individuals to maximize their career engagement at any stage of their career. Basically employee engagement should be a buzz word for the employee engagement and a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization. Employee engagement is gaining its importance and popularity in work places and its impact in many ways. It emphasis on the importance of employee engagement in a organization, an organization should thus give more importance for its employees than any other variable as they are the powerful contributors to a company’s competitiveness. Thus it shows that employee engagement should be a continues process for learning, improvement, measurement and action of an employee.

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The limitations of the Chit Acts online essay help

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The financial system assumes strategically a very important role in channelling the funds from surplus units to deficit units. The financial system here refers to the group of institutions, markets and instruments which helps in formation of capital and thus accelerates to the pace of economic development.

The base of this study stems from the fact that there exists a gap between gross capital formation and gross domestic savings in India. So, there exists the need to augment the growth rate of voluntary domestic savings. This goal can be realized by widening and strengthening the working of different financial intermediaries which will result in mobilizing savings from various income level categories. .It is in this context that the role of the Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries like Chit Finance should be appreciated in supplementing the functions of the Banking Institutions.

Chit funds are Chit funds are the Indian equivalent of the Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCA). ROSCAs are famous in many parts of the world and is seen as an instrument to ‘save and borrow’ simultaneously. ROSCAs basically started as a way to help in fulfilling the needs of the low-income households as it enables the people to convert their small savings into lump sums. The concept of chit funds originated more than 1000 years ago. Initially it was in the form of an informal association of traders and households within communities, wherein the members contributed some money in return for an accumulated sum at the end of the tenure. Participation in Chit funds was mainly for the purpose of purchasing some property or, in other words, for ‘consumption’ purposes. However, in recent times, there have been tremendous alterations in the constitution and functioning of Chit funds. A significant difference between Chit Funds and ROSCAs are that in most places ROSCAs are user-owned and organized informally, but chit funds have been formally institutionalized in India. (Chit Funds-An innovative access to finance for low income households, 2009)

1.1.1 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY CHIT FUNDS?

Chit fund is a savings-cum-borrowing instrument. The basic aim of this instrument is to pool small amount of savings by all the members which is then managed by a foreman. The foreman has the responsibility to act as a trustee-cum-supervisors for the process of collection and allotment of the pooled amount.

Chit funds represent a traditional form of saving-cum-credit institution evolved before the bank system was introduced in rural India. There are many who avail themselves of this avenue for saving for a reasonable return.

1.1 NEED AND RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Despite the growth of a wide range of savings avenues and the widespread network of banks and other financial institutions, it has been found that Chit scheme still forms an important part in the asset portfolio of many households and firms in India and especially in South India including Karnataka. Also, the review of literature shows that there are only a few studies on Chit Finance. Therefore, the need to conduct the study stems from the requirement to understand Chit Funds in Bangalore.

1.2 NEED TO CONDUCT THE STUDY

The research titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study tries to point out the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests feasible recommendations for improving the working of such institutions.

.3.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’.

VARIABLES UNDER INVESTIGATION

1. Age

2. Occupation

3. Monthly income

4. Gender

5. Bank loan

6. Regular participation in chit fund

7. Membership in multiple chit schemes

8. Cause for participating in multiple schemes

9. Preferred avenue of saving

10. Preferred source of finance

11. Safety

12. Better service

13. Flexibility

14. Timely Payment

15. Low commission

16. Personal contact

17. Unregistered chit funds membership

18. Cause for participating in unregistered chit funds

19. Cause for not participating in unregistered chit fund

3.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

3.5.1 OBJECTIVE(PRIMARY)

1. To understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members.

2. To identify the important predictors behind chit fund participation

3.5.2 OHER OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

1. To estimate interest rates in registered chit funds.

2. To compare the relative ratings of Chit subscribers towards registered and unregistered chit funds on

3. To estimate the return on Chit Funds.

3.6 HYPOTHESIS

There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

1. Null hypothesis

2. Alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

.

3.8 SAMPLING METHOD

Members of four registered chit fund companies in Bangalore. The four registered chit fund companies were selected due to the large size of their subscriber base.

3.8.3 SIZE OF SAMPLE

150 respondents

3.9 MECHANISM OF STUDY

3.9.1 PRIMARY RESEARCH

Questions relating to behaviour and financial pattern will be found out through questionnares

3.9.2 SECONDARY RESEARCH

‘ Reports on chit fund industry

OVERVIEW OF INDIAN CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

4.1.1 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CHIT FUND COMPANIES:

According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on 31st December, 2013:

Volume of registered chit companies: 5412

Volume of chit companies in Karnataka: 703

Number of chit fund companies in Bangalore: 315

UNREGISTERED CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

Although unregistered chits are an informal source of finance but still they are a significant part of the chit fund industry. Though they are more easily accessible as compared to registered chit funds.

4.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ attempt in The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study also examines the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests suitable recommendations for improving the functioning of such institutions.

4.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY

‘ Unwillingness of the members to share their income and financial details made the task of data collection somewhat difficult.

‘ Collecting data became difficult since I don’t know the regional languages.

5.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis is done on the primary data collected from 150 chit funds members in Bangalore

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

5.4.1 Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.070a 16 .013

Likelihood Ratio 35.945 16 .003

Linear-by-Linear Association 8.809 1 .003

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .455 .013

Cramer’s V .228 .013

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=31.070 was p=.013, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (Phi and Cramer’s V -0.455).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. This means that different age groups of the chit fund members have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As can be seen from the table above that those who belong to ’36-45 years’ have saving as the predominant reason to participate whereas members of other age groups do not have any dominant reason to participate.

5.4.2 Hypothesis 2:

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

. Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 10.018a 4 .040

Likelihood Ratio 10.478 4 .033

Linear-by-Linear Association 6.876 1 .009

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .258 .040

Cramer’s V .258 .040

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=10.018 was p=.040, less than 0.05.

.We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (0.258)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis. This means that males and females have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As it can be seen that males participate in chit funds for business and personal consumption purposes apart from saving whereas women predominantly participate to save.

5.4

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 82.176a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 97.665 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 15.696 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .740 .000

Cramer’s V .427 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (0.740)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the self-employed members mainly participate to avail for business reasons whereas salaried employee participate mainly for personal consumption purposes.

Hypothesis 5:

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 66.691a 20 .000

Likelihood Ratio 43.579 20 .002

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.804 1 .028

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .667 .000

Cramer’s V .333 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=66.691) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong (0.667)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the members of age group’36-45 years’ are more interested in bidding for business related purposes where members of other age groups bid mainly for emergency needs.

5.4.6 Hypothesis 6:

. Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.167a 5 .209

Likelihood Ratio 7.885 5 .163

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.120 1 .290

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .219 .209

Cramer’s V .219 .209

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.167) was p=.209, more than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.7 Hypothesis 7:

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 180.915a 15 .000

Likelihood Ratio 160.460 15 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 28.379 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.098 .000

Cramer’s V .634 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that self-employed people bid in chit scheme mostly for business purposes, salaried people for emergency needs and housewives for household purposes.

5.4.8 Hypothesis 8:

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 123.331a 35 .000

Likelihood Ratio 106.298 35 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.957 1 .026

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=123.331) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.907)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that low income members bid mostly for consumption reasons whereas higher income members bid for business related and emergency purposes.

SUMMARY:

Reason to bid in chit fund has the strongest association with the occupation of the chit fund members as the probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000 and the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098).

5.4.

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 21.702a 16 .153

Likelihood Ratio 23.775 16 .095

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.397 1 .122

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=123.331) was p=.153, more than 0.05. Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.10 Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 20.510a 4 .000

Likelihood Ratio 29.038 4 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 7.062 1 .008

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .370 .000

Cramer’s V .370 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=20.510) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (.370).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis.

5.4.11 Hypothesis 11:

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 67.261a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 60.380 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.507 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .670 .000

Cramer’s V .387 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=67.261 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong(.670).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to cause in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. Salaried people save their money in chit fund with no particular purpose. But self-employed people are equally interested in saving for house purchase as well as for general purpose.

SUMMARY:

chit fund is most closely associated with occupation of the chit fund members as it has the highest value of chi-square statistic and Phi coefficient.

5.4.12 Hypothesis 12:

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 56.697a 3 .000

Likelihood Ratio 67.900 3 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 36.400 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=56.697) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (.615).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘membership in multiple chit schemes are related to differences in ‘having currently bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that those members currently having bank loan have invested in only one chit scheme whereas those members who do not have availed bank loan have invested in more than one chit schemes.

5.4.13 Hypothesis 13:

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 96.660a 7 .000

Likelihood Ratio 85.378 7 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 59.577 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell(10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.08.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=96.660 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.803).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘participation in unregistered chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that mostly low- income members have participated in unregistered funds. This is because the registered funds have become expensive due to the increase in their operational cost as a result of stringent regulations.

5.2.14 Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 28.049a 5 .000

Likelihood Ratio 31.806 5 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.967 1 .085

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 2 cells (15.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.79.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .432 .000

Cramer’s V .432 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=28.049) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (.432).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to prefer chit fund over bank’ are related to differences in ‘having bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that members who have bank loan have preferred chit fund over bank mainly due to better dividends. But those who do not have bank loan prefer chit fund over bank mainly due to better service in terms of more personalized service.)

5.2..15 Hypothesis 15: To identify significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds using Binary Logistic Regression

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 0 Constant -1.046 .186 31.574 1 .000 .351

Model Summary

Step -2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R Square Nagelkerke R Square

1 37.170a .533 .576

a. Estimation terminated at iteration number 6 because parameter estimates changed by less than .001.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a bank_loan(1) 1.068 1.265 14.715 1 .000 11.720

reason_2 2.286 4 .683

reason_2(1) 1.336 1.077 1.540 1 .215 3.805

reason_2(2) .134 2.239 .004 1 .952 1.143

reason_2(3) -.559 1.896 .087 1 .768 .572

reason_2(4) .731 1.347 .294 1 .588 2.076

reason_3 4.874 5 .431

reason_3(1) 1.188 .924 1.652 1 .199 3.279

reason_3(2) 1.661 2.048 .658 1 .417 5.263

reason_3(3) -1.654 1.228 1.813 1 .178 .191

reason_3(4) .404 1.192 .115 1 .735 1.497

reason_3(5) -17.379 20.722 .000 1 .700 .000

reason_4 .355 4 .986

reason_4(1) -1.047 1.850 .320 1 .571 .351

reason_4(2) -.839 1.979 .180 1 .672 .432

reason_4(3) -.932 1.637 .324 1 .569 .394

reason_4(4) 3.519 4.199 .000 1 .600 3.746

reason_5 8.553 5 .128

reason_5(1) -.254 1.768 .021 1 .886 .776

reason_5(2) -19.245 9.890 .000 1 .999 .000

reason_5(3) 1.420 1.338 1.126 1 .289 4.136

reason_5(4) -.747 1.306 .327 1 .567 .474

reason_5(5) .561 1.342 .174 1 .676 1.752

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a Safety -.075 .320 4.377 1 .011 0.928

Flexi -.178 .426 3.337 1 .021 0.837

commision -.185 .188 1.868 1 .026 0.831

payment -.267 .178 1.657 1 .097 0.766

service -.859 .412 1.348 1 .083 0.424

personal -1.122 .163 .996 1 .079 0.329

Constant 3.058 2.440 1.571 1 .010 21.291

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: : bank_loan, reason_2, reason_3, reason_4, reason_5.imp1, imp2, imp3, imp4, imp5, imp6.

INTERPRETATION:

‘ -2 Log Likelihood statistic is 37.170. This statistic how poorly the model predicts the decisions — the smaller the statistic the better the model. Since, 37.170 is a relatively small number therefore, this model is able to predict the decisions in a better way.

‘ Here Cox & Snell R Square statistic indicates that 53.3% of the variation in the regular participation in chit funds is explained by the logistic model.

‘ In our case Nagelkerke R Square is 0.576, indicating a moderate relationship of 57.6 % between the predictors and the prediction.

‘ If it is less than .05 then, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

‘ In this case, we can see that bank loan, safety, flexibility and low commission have contributed signi’cantly to the prediction of regular participation in chit funds but other variables are not significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds.

‘ Since only bank loan has p=.000, therefore we can say that bank loan is the most significant predictor

among other significant predictors. This is followed by safety (p=.011), flexibility (p=.021) and low commission (p=.026).

‘ Here, the EXP (B) bank loan is 11.727. Hence when bank loan is availed by one unit (one person) the odds ratio is 11 times as large and therefore people are 11 more times likely not to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) with safety is .928. Hence when safety is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .928 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) flexibility is 837. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .837 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) low commission is .831. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .831 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

SUMMARY

Bank loan is the most significant predictor of regular participation in chit funds. This is followed by safety, flexibility and low commission.

Instalment no No of months remaining Monthly subscription Prize amount PV of monthly subscription(PV of outlow at 10%) PV of Prize amount(PV of inflow at 10%) Net Present Value(PV of inflow – PV of outflow)

1 24 2000 50000 2000 50000 10444.9

2 23 1500 35000 1488.1 34723.1 -4832.0

3 22 1500 35000 1476.4 34448.4 -5106.7

4 21 1500 35000 1464.7 34175.9 -5379.2

5 20 1500 35000 1453.1 33905.5 -5649.6

6 19 1500 35000 1441.6 33637.3 -5917.8

7 18 1500 35000 1430.2 33371.2 -6183.9

8 17 1500 35000 1418.9 33107.2 -6447.9

9 16 1620 38000 1520.3 35660.6 -3894.5

10 15 1620 38000 1508.2 35378.5 -4176.6

11 14 1700 40000 1570.2 36945.9 -2609.2

12 13 1700 40000 1557.8 36653.6 -2901.5

13 12 1780 42000 1618.2 38181.8 -1373.3

14 11 1780 42000 1605.4 37879.8 -1675.3

15 10 1780 42000 1592.7 37580.1 -1975.0

16 9 1860 44000 1651.1 39058.2 -496.9

17 8 1860 44000 1638.0 38749.2 -805.9

18 7 1860 44000 1625.1 38442.6 -1112.5

19 6 1940 46000 1681.6 39872.1 317.0

20 5 1940 46000 1668.3 39556.6 1.5

21 4 1940 46000 1655.1 39243.7 -311.4

22 3 1940 46000 1642.0 38933.2 -621.8

23 2 1940 46000 1629.0 38625.2 -929.8

24 1 1940 46000 1616.1 38319.7 -1235.4

25 0 1940 46000 1603.3 38016.5 -1538.6

39555.1 934465.9 -54411.4

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Merit goods admission college essay help

Merit goods are goods which will be under-provided by the market, therefore they will be under-consumed. They are thought by the governments to be good for the populations and so the governments want them to be consumed to a great extent. They increase the private and social benefits and cause the social benefit be higher than the private one. The best examples of them, apart from all the public goods, can be the education, health care, sports facilities and the opera.

Although the majority of the merit goods is provided by the private sectors, not all the people can afford buying them, therefore they will be under-consumed. That is why the government is needed to destroy the market failure increasing the supply and consequently raising the consumption.

To explain the reasons for government to provide the merit goods, I need to apply some examples of them. The first one can be the education. It is significant for the governments to provide it so that the society would be well-educated. Governments determine the period of education required for people (the compulsory education) to maintain the proper level of education of the society. The governments find education an important aspect that should be available for everyone as it cause the whole country to have better both economic growth and economic development.

Considering another example such as health care, the situation is quite similar. The governments want to provide the population with it because they care about the high states of health of society in their country. To gain these, the countries need to have high quality of health care. Governments often offer people unpaid programs consisting of preventative medical examination which contribute to maintain the high number of healthy people. This is also connected with the problems of the labour market. The healthier people are, the more efficient their work is, the greater revenue firms have and countries are more developed because of taxations.

Other examples like sport facilities or the opera are meant for people to become physically and culturally developed but their availability is not as important as in the case of the previous examples. That is why they are not as much provided by the governments as the rest of the merit goods.

Although most of the merit goods provided by the governments are free, the fact is that they are paid through the taxes that the societies pay. The number of the merit goods of particular types that the governments provide or subsidize depends on the necessity of them. If they are provided, the societies’ benefits get higher and so is the public treasury of the countries.

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Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father academic essay help

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.

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Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks gp essay help

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

[supanova_question]

WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation essay help writer

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) popular mba argumentative essay help

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior college admission essay help houston tx

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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