Job Analysis, Section 1
Job analysis is essential to the HR department's performance since it determines its objectives and actions. According to Robbins et al. (2016), it serves to develop the job description, which then guides "recruitment, training, setting performance standards, evaluating performance, and compensation" (p. 113). Without a job analysis, it will be unclear who is the ideal candidate for the role or whether the current staff are functioning satisfactorily. As a result, the organization will struggle to identify possibilities for improvement, whether through performance corrections or the incentive of high-performing employees.
From the standpoint of an individual, employment analysis helps them obtain merit-based raises and promotions while avoiding overwork. With clearly defined target competencies and performance goals, the employee may concentrate on achieving them without being sidetracked by extraneous activities, which will be assigned to a position that is suited to them. As a result, workers will perform better, which will boost the organization's overall performance. This expansion, coupled with a greater understanding of the company's human resources requirements and objectives, facilitates the planning and execution of the corporate strategy, to the advantage of all business members.
The need for the assessment is a result of technological advancements at the factory that did not result in matching adjustments to employee responsibilities. As a result, the owner of the company is concerned that there may be a competency mismatch between certain roles and their occupants. This expectation is likely to result in subpar performance from those who are not suited to their current positions. However, there is no objective standard against which their outcomes can be compared, and subjective reviews are related with prejudice and politicized concerns, making it difficult to utilize either of these tools.
This research suggests using behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) to address the problem. The tool, according to Prien et al. (2009), compiles a list of behaviors that support success or failure with the assistance of a number of highly experienced individuals. These practices are then grouped and arranged into dimensions that are used to define the role and assess the performance of each employee. This instrument was chosen because it assists in defining the essential abilities of each role from the staff's perspective, resulting in a superior grasp of each position's actual responsibilities. As a result, the resulting position descriptions can be more readily accepted by employees and can help dispel management's preconceptions regarding the evolution of distinct functions.
It is necessary to consider both internal and external variables while conducting a job analysis and writing role descriptions. Mader-Clark (2013) suggests taking into account the present economy, employment market, and competitiveness while writing job descriptions to meet current needs. The first two will assist in determining which candidates are available for employment and under what conditions, while the third will provide information on which skills are in demand by organizations that are comparable. Thus, it will become clearer which capabilities the organization lacks and whether they should be acquired externally or developed inside.
Specific descriptors gathered from external sources include factors such as a position's worth in terms of salary. To attract the employees the business requires, it must provide appropriate positions at or above market rates. For the sake of competition, the corporation might assess the talents deemed essential by analyzing its job descriptions in job advertisements. It can then determine whether it already has personnel with these skills and whether they are crucial to its operations. Using this information, the firm may determine its employment needs and create competitive job postings to fill the present vacancies.
The most pressing issue at work today is the introduction of new technology, which people may not be exploiting to their full potential. Consequently, the following data categories outlined by Morgeson et al. (2019) should be prioritized: duties, professional standards, machines, tools, and equipment, workers and job activities, and future modifications. These sections detail the changes that have occurred since the last job analysis conducted by the organization. Therefore, by evaluating them, the HR staff can comprehend the changing responsibilities and requirements of various positions.
After collecting and analyzing this data, the organization can modify its job design and performance evaluation procedures. The former can adapt the new obligations of the post, phasing out responsibilities that are no longer relevant and potentially transferring some tasks to other positions to alleviate the strain on the workforce. The performance review may also emphasize factors that are directly related to enhanced work outcomes. Consequently, it will reward and punish behaviors more precisely, which will benefit the firm in the long run.
A job description consists of multiple components, each of which must be carefully addressed. Picardi (2019) identifies these as the job's title, overview, department or function, reporting structure, FLSA status, pay grade, working conditions, educational, experience, and KSAO requirements, and, ultimately, the job's fundamental duties and responsibilities. The title must be carefully reviewed to ensure uniformity and FLSA compliance. The summary assists the candidate in comprehending the duties of the position. The department or functional area's name facilitates this comprehension while preserving the internal coherence of information systems. The reporting structure represents the organization's supervisory structure, which is particularly significant for large and complicated firms but also pertinent for smaller businesses. The classification of the employment under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) determines whether the position is salaried or hourly and if it qualifies for overtime pay.
The pay grade assists the HR department in estimating the value of each role and the approximate salary that employee should get. The working conditions outline the worker's schedule, travel requirements, availability requirements, and other pertinent characteristics. The educational criteria assist establish eligibility for the post based on formal diplomas and training certificates, and the experience requirements do the same for the eponymous characteristic. Knowledge, skills, abilities, and other requirements (KSAO) include less clearly defined attributes that are nonetheless vital to a person's professional success, such as Doyle's soft skills (2020). Lastly, the job analysis produces the main activities and responsibilities, which are crucial for understanding and evaluating performance. All of these components provide the essential structure of the job description that gives sufficient information to meet the needs of the business.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) statute, and Bona fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ) regulations are among the employee-related laws that must be followed. To comply with OSHA, each position's job description must include the category to which it belongs depending on the degree of exposure to hazards. Workers who conduct hazardous occupations must obtain proper training and be provided with the necessary protective equipment. For the ADA, it is crucial to distinguish between essential and non-essential duties for each position (Mitchell & Gamlem, 2017). Unlike essential tasks, non-essential duties cannot be used to exclude a candidate from a post. Codifying the distinction in the job description prevents discrimination, whether deliberate or not.
EEO law and BFOQ regulations should be discussed concurrently, as they cover the same spectrum of potential difficulties. The goal of these laws is to prevent discrimination based on ethnicity, race, religion, gender, and other immutable qualities. According to EEO standards, these qualities cannot be legally included in a job description or utilized to screen applicants for the same post. However, BFOQ acts as an exception by establishing parameters under which religion, sexual orientation, and other generally irrelevant attributes may be included as job qualifications. The first pertains to certain positions within religious groups, such as Catholic theology lecturers, and the second to jobs needing a specified gender (such as a restroom attendant). However, BFOQs as acceptable EEO defenses are infrequent and only relevant to a limited number of employment. The clause is highly unlikely to apply to the business profiled in this report, given it meets few to none of the conditions.
The selected job description format is appropriate for the organization because it has all of the relevant elements. It ensures legal compliance and prevents the organization from being sued for damages. In addition, it allows the HR department and managers to tailor their expectations for each employee according to their position. Leaders may avoid misunderstandings and treat each person equitably if they have a thorough awareness of each employee's duties and the company's obligations to respect and meet their requirements. After the knowledge required for compensation, promotions, hiring, and other HR tasks is collected and arranged in the job description, these activities will be significantly expedited. In general, the job description format described in this report will assist the organization in enhancing its operations, assuming the information is updated to reflect the current state of affairs.
The job description will also assist employees in better comprehending their jobs and responsibilities. Vandenabeele (2016) emphasizes the significance of this understanding and knowledge of the employee's impact on the organization to the HR department and its goal. With consistent and clear job descriptions, employees' responsibilities can be explained with a minimum of misconceptions and discrepancies. They are able to comprehend the selection criteria for the position, the desired performance, and the constraints of their role. They can infer their impact on the organization based on their personal knowledge of the task they perform and the prospective outcomes of successes or failures. Employees will likely be more motivated and perform better if they have a clear grasp of their position within the organization and the steps they must take to attain their goals.
The purpose of a performance evaluation is to distinguish employees who successfully complete their tasks from those who struggle. The former are rewarded, while the latter are made aware of their issues and assisted in resolving them. If the organization must evaluate raises, promotions, or, conversely, actions such as layoffs, it will prioritize high-performing employees for the positive outcomes and those who do poorly for the negative outcomes. According to Falcone and Tan (2013), the objective of this method is to encourage merit within the organization, which will increase performance. Having specific examples of what the firm values and disapproves of helps employees adjust to the company's needs. They can then increase their performance, so improving the company and securing positive evaluations and the related perks, thereby integrating their personal and business interests.
Essential functions and responsibilities are the element of the job description that will be evaluated in the performance review. The HR department will have collected the metrics by which the execution of these activities is judged during the initial job analysis. In addition, it will have evaluated which acts are deemed good and which are deemed inadequate. Using this information, it is feasible to analyze the performance of each employee and determine if certain characteristics of their performance are desirable or undesirable. Depending on the nature of the individual performance category, the evaluation should combine both objective and subjective measurements. While numerical results are easier to grasp, they typically do not provide a whole picture and are susceptible to abuse.
Historically, performance evaluations have occurred at regular periods, often once a year, and in a formal setting. However, as Trost (2019) argues, this strategy has recently been subjected to severe criticism for its ineffective use in the increasingly agile setting of contemporary business. This paper suggests utilizing a less formal and unscheduled system in which HR department representatives interact with employees to deliver and receive feedback. They will analyze previous achievements and failures and attempt to develop strategies for enhancing the former and avoiding the latter. By doing so, the department will be able to engage with employees and boost their morale, while also generating higher performance results as a result of lessening the impact of change on the workforce. To reach this objective, however, it is vital to examine and discuss performance that is pertinent to the role and the individual.
The HR department will use both objective data from the company's data collection activities and subjective information from workers' supervisors to do the evaluation. The former will be utilized to obtain objectively measurable performance metrics and compare them to those derived from the job analysis. For results more closely related with conduct and comparable immeasurable aspects, supervisors will share their impressions of the employee, preferably with particular events mentioned. The obtained outcomes will then be compared to the company's managers' objectives and shared with the workforce. Along with suggestions for improvement, the employees will have the option to respond to the review and express their input. To boost worker morale and encourage them to put up their best effort, goals may be changed to a certain extent, if justified.
Evaluation of performance is related with several opportunities for enhancing the company's operations. As stated previously, the corporation will prioritize the merit of its employees' work, that is, acts that enhance the company's performance. In addition, it will assist distinguish the best performers from the worst and present them with incentives such as pay raises and promotions to places where they can contribute more to the organization. This study presents a technique of performance management that has the potential to improve ties between leadership and employees by facilitating more mutual understanding. Workers will have a greater understanding of the company's strategic aims and vision, and will be able to provide feedback and ensure that the implementation of this plan takes into account actual realities.
However, performance evaluations are also related with a number of concerns and obstacles that require the HR department to exercise considerable care and monitoring. Hanscom et al. (2018) cite potential problems include contextual circumstances, contradictory performance appraisal aims, and rater desire to mislead evaluations. Depending on the context, the evaluation standards may not reflect reality, and cultural differences might impact the areas of performance a management focuses. Hanscom et al. (2018) examine the inconsistency of utilizing the same evaluations for incentive administration and feedback gathering, as both objectives are incompatible. To ensure that neither item skews the results of the other, distinct evaluative methods must be applied to each. Finally, the temptation of managers to manipulate evaluation outcomes in order to avoid reducing staff morale must be considered and handled.
The current HR framework of the organization requires a comprehensive redesign, which will consist of three distinct phases. First, it is required to do a job analysis for each position in the organization in order to determine which behaviors enhance or hinder performance. The responsibilities of each employee have evolved through time, and there is currently much misunderstanding on who is responsible for which duties. Following this method, each position's new job description can be formulated and implemented. Defining responsibilities and bringing clarity, they will assist in resolving the confusion regarding the tasks and tools that should be employed by each employee, so eliminating the ambiguity. Every employee will understand what is expected of them and be able to develop and apply the required competencies.
Following the development of job descriptions, the performance evaluation process can commence. It is a continual procedure that occurs throughout the company's existence and aims to ensure that each employee meets the management-set objectives. The evaluation will combine both objective information from the company's records and the supervisor's subjective impressions. This information will be compared to the factors specified in the job description and rated satisfactory or problematic based on the results. The results will then be communicated to the employee in the form of frequent, informal discussions between HR personnel and the employee, during which both parties will seek to address issues and provide feedback. Through this approach, the organization should be able to eliminate biases while strengthening its connections with employees and ensuring the success of its strategy.
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