Business Ethics: The Issue Of Self-Driving Cars Essay Help App

Table of Contents
Introduction The Uber Model and the Possible Future of Self-Driving Automobiles Bibliography Citations


It is difficult to discuss the ethics of driverless cars because many grave situations cannot be resolved without the occurrence of fatalities. In spite of the low frequency of traffic accidents involving driverless vehicles, the majority of virtual scenarios involve extreme situations in which the car must decide who to kill. Real-world incidents indicate that there are a great deal of negative reactions to self-driving cars, despite the extreme nature of these situations. One of the most recent disasters to occur in the city of Tempe, Arizona, demonstrated that failure to adhere to specified ethical norms and undertake a comprehensive analysis of all possible circumstances could result in death. 1 Ethical dilemmas at every junction, crosswalk, and even the most commonplace turn demonstrate that the majority of businesses developing driverless vehicles are unprepared for specific situations that could result in human deaths.

Existing self-driving car laws do not provide sufficient consideration to the safety of cyclists and pedestrians, according to the backdrop of the issue. This generates a conflict of interest between automobile occupants and all other participants in traffic. According to existing studies, an autonomous vehicle cannot react rapidly enough to avert a collision or human death (for instance, if a child runs onto the road). 2 3

Engineers must determine a safe driving speed without compromising too much maneuverability. The compromise that engineers must make between environmental effect and mobility has resulted in legal and moral outrage against Uber related to human death. After a fatal accident, this article examines how Uber failed to ensure the safety of both passengers and pedestrians and discusses the future of autonomous vehicles.

Case Study of Uber

When driverless cars began to dominate the market a few years ago, a number of companies began testing, as the benefits of introducing them to public highways appeared quite promising. Uber was one of the corporations that encouraged other businesses to assist them in testing and deploying driverless cars on national roads. A woman was struck and killed by an Uber vehicle in Tempe, Arizona, despite the presence of a backup emergency driver. 4

Uber became the first firm whose autonomous vehicle killed a pedestrian while the vehicle's autonomous features were operational. Immediately following the failure of testing in Tempe, all Uber operations involving autonomous vehicles were suspended (including Toronto, Pittsburgh, and San Francisco). Immediately following the incident, Uber's management issued a statement mandating the presence of safety drivers in all autonomous vehicles.

Initial testing requirements should have included the presence of a safety driver who could take control of the vehicle in an emergency. Unmanned driverless vehicles do not respond in any manner to moral responsibility concepts or legal and regulatory aspects of present autonomous vehicle rules. Even if autonomous cars could have been a business-friendly benefit for the state's (Arizona) economy, the company (Uber) should have resolved the ethical issues before conducting field tests in Tempe.

In 2017, a collision occurred in Tempe between an autonomous vehicle and a vehicle with a human driver behind the wheel.

5 As it was determined that the accident occurred due to the human driver's error, the city police ignored the circumstance and disapproved of the necessity for further safety laws.

Uber's decision to cease all testing of autonomous vehicles appears to be a reasonable move. Nonetheless, the lack of prior judgment and risk assessment (together with the absence of measures across the state police) indicates that the corporation was unprepared for complicated circumstances that could result in serious legal and ethical repercussions. The fatal tragedy involving a pedestrian may have been averted if the corporation had taken the time to develop more stringent enforcement methods. Uber was not the first company to disregard the rising responsibility associated with the introduction of autonomous vehicles on public roads, as evidenced by the current situation of the driverless vehicle business as a whole. 6 Before unleashing autonomous vehicles on roads shared with human drivers, other producers of driverless cars gathered more data and conducted more closed tests in response to the fatal collision in Tempe.

The legal and regulatory dimensions of autonomous automobiles, as well as the concept of ethical responsibility, must be addressed by the creators. In 2016, a man was killed in a collision between an autopiloted Tesla and a tractor-trailer. The analysis revealed that there were no flaws in Tesla's technology, indicating that the challenge of driverless automobiles cannot be solved by creating perfect software and integrating suitable logic into all vehicle structures. 7

The Tempe accident has already brought a great deal of attention to the importance of self-driving cars, making Uber partially responsible for the future of self-driving cars that are projected to fill the roads in the near future. Uber will approach their disruptive technology with an excessive level of care, as the general public's response to driverless cars has become less enthusiastic. This is a favorable outcome based on human negligence, recklessness, and lack of attention to detail, as well as the death of a person unrelated to Uber or driverless vehicles.

The Potential Future of Self-Driving Automobiles

Before undertaking field tests of autonomous vehicles, it is necessary to solve a number of ethical and legal problems, as Uber's experience demonstrates. This suggests that more organizations that rely on driverless vehicle technology must prioritize predictive operations in order to protect pedestrians and passengers. Uber, Tesla, Google, and the remaining companies must offer as much flexibility as possible to their driverless car software and applications before entering the autonomous vehicle market.

Uber may be interested in collecting feedback from society to determine how other traffic participants and driverless vehicles may balance their opposing interests on a long-term scale in order to avoid future ethical and legal concerns. At present, the concept of completely safe self-driving cars appears to be unachievable, as everyday traffic scenarios continue to pose a threat to everyone, including the passengers of autonomous vehicles.


Herrmann, Andreas, Walter Brenner, and Rupert Stadler. How the Driverless Revolution Will Change the World Due to Autonomous Driving. Emerald Group Publishing, New York, 2018.

Patrick Lin, Keith Abney, and Ryan Jenkins and Ryan Jenkins. From Autonomous Vehicles to Artificial Intelligence: Robot Ethics 2.0 2017 Oxford: Oxford University Press

Hod Lipson and Melba Kurman. The Future of Driverless Vehicles and the Road Ahead Cambridge: MIT Press, 2016.

Mind-Society: From Brains to the Social Sciences and Professions, by Paul Thagard (Treatise on Mind and Society). 2019 Oxford: Oxford University Press

Zon, Noah, and Sara Ditta. Take the Wheel, Robot: Government Policy for Automated Vehicles University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 2016.


Robot Ethics 2.0: From Autonomous Vehicles to Artificial Intelligence by Patrick Lin, Keith Abney, and Ryan Jenkins (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017), Driverless: Intelligent Cars and the Future of the Road, by Hod Lipson and Melba Kurman (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2016) , Noah Zon and Sara Ditta, number 18. Take the Wheel, Robot: Government Policy for Automated Vehicles (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2016), 67. Andreas Herrmann, Walter Brenner, and Rupert Stadler, How the Driverless Revolution Will Change the World Due to Autonomous Driving (New York: Emerald Group Publishing, 2018), 90. Mind-Society: From Brains to the Social Sciences and Professions (Treatise on Mind and Society), by Paul Thagard (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019), 25. Herrmann, Brenner, and Stadler, Autonomous Driving, 96. 41. Thagard, Mind-Society.

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Vision For The Instructional Program Essay Help App

Mission and vision are two interrelated notions that prompted positive organizational transformations. They prescribe which methods and approaches must be implemented to attain desired objectives. These objectives at Gems World Academy (GWA) include encouraging students to aspire to become responsible leaders. Their multilateral growth and academic success, which is the objective of GWA and the district, require a diversified approach to education. In light of this, the present study will examine the significance of the school's mission and vision statements, explain their interrelationships, and analyze how these concepts might influence and direct the instructional program's design, including curriculum, instruction, and evaluation.

Program Instructional Objectives

The objective of the school district is to "inspire inquisitive, knowledgeable, reflective, and intercultural learners to become morally responsible leaders with the skills and attributes required to create a more interconnected and prosperous world" (GEMS World Academy, 2019a, para. 1). According to Tomal, Schilling, and Trybus's (2013) definition of mission, it explains why all schools in Chicago, including GWA, exist and what their primary motivations are. Moreover, vision reveals where the school is headed and what it strives to be (Tomal et al., 2013).

GWA's academic curricula are distinct from those of other private schools in the region. The GEMS World Academy (2019a) declares that it strives to introduce innovation into the learning process, highlight multiculturalism, give students with cultural exchange opportunities, and expose them to the world's complexity and diversity. In addition, the instructional program ensures student safety, which is a primary concern for both parents and the school. Overall, the objective of the district is to promote the healthy development of children. Thus, the mission of the district and the defined vision are tightly intertwined.

Educational Program Summary


The current GWA curriculum includes a variety of disciplines, depending on the grade level of the pupils. For instance, the international baccalaureate education curriculum for grades 6 through 12 has eight topic groupings. Included are mathematics, language and literature, the natural and social sciences, design, individuals and societies, language acquisition, physical and health education, and the arts (GEMS World Academy, 2019b). Each of the groups provided has its own set of learning standards. In mathematics, for instance, students are required to be able to apply their knowledge to solve problems in both familiar and unfamiliar contexts, exhibit an understanding of the framework's branches, and use acceptable mathematical language.

In language and literature, students should be able to organize their thoughts through various means of communication, comprehend the connections between the components of a text, and generate effective written and spoken texts. Through scientific inquiries, students are expected to build intellectual and practical skills in science, analyze the consequences of scientific advances, and interpret qualitative and quantitative data (GEMS World Academy, n.d.). Other subject groups' learning standards encourage students to analyze the content of spoken and visual texts, apply critical thinking, construct assessments to evaluate answers, and increase their personal and social development.

The current curriculum adheres to the school's objective since it affords pupils the opportunity to become responsible leaders. In accordance with the aforementioned vision statement, the new curriculum can be structured around the core concepts of each academic area. Participants in the program may have the opportunity to investigate issues in depth and in numerous contexts. It can be based on curriculum ideas such as the inclusion of factual information and disciplines, the establishment of links with prior knowledge and experiences, the emphasis on full comprehension, and the development of practical skills. It may be possible to create universal learning standards applicable to a variety of topic areas. As the standards will not be divided into multiple groups, this strategy may improve the personality qualities and academic skills of young children. In order to create academic achievement and the healthy development of pupils, the upgraded program may also seek to foster educators' self-confidence and their capacity to interact with other experts. In the domains of mathematics and science, for instance, educators can interact with college professors and researchers who can help organize classes and learning activities for individuals.


The instructional approaches of GWA heavily include innovations and technologies. For instance, the facility incorporates science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) laboratory work into students' activities and offers open-project learning spaces to promote self-directed education (GEMS World Academy, n.d.). In addition, the institution ensures that all students are actively engaged in the learning process. GWA provides training in Mandarin, Spanish, and French in addition to English for all grade levels. Teachers encourage students to strengthen their cultural awareness and intercultural ties in the future.

To accomplish the school's defined vision, it is necessary to continue using the aforementioned instructional strategy. According to Tomal et al. (2013), encouraging students to participate in the learning process is one of the most essential components in fostering their dedication to study. Therefore, the emphasis must be placed not only on the core concepts of the disciplines taught at the school, but also on the differences and interests of the students. The school must establish extra tools for detecting potential misunderstandings between teachers and students, particularly in the social sciences and language. In addition, the school should provide access to collaborative, deliberative, and knowledge-enhancing methods. As in a traditional classroom, education for all subject areas should be dependent on the learners' level of comprehension and skill, their preferences, and their motivations; GWA must continue to adhere to this idea. Leaders must match the specific interests of teachers with the school's need for change and improvement, in addition to the district's mission and GWA's vision.


According to GEMS World Academy (n.d.), the purpose of the school's assessment is to allow for student reflection and the identification of future learning goals. In addition, evaluation methods aim to improve instructional practices and foster favorable school-wide attitudes toward personal development. There are summative and formative evaluations in place, such as observation, selected answer, open-ended activities, performance evaluation, and self and peer evaluation (GEMS World Academy, n.d.). In addition, the school utilizes report cards that allow students to submit comments and express their views on the learning process; the report cards employ a 1-7 scoring scale. Finally, students have portfolios that showcase their accomplishments. These documents provide information regarding people' participation in the educational process and their progress, as well as samples of their work.

Current assessment procedures can be described as effective. They permit analyzing the work and progress of students from multiple angles. Adjustments to assessment techniques may involve additional evaluations of teachers' efficacy in relation to students' classroom performance. Educators can examine a student's language skills during oral assessments, as well as the communicative tactics they employ with their peers. It is ideal to begin the program with a preliminary assessment of teachers' skills, which can then be compared with data from final observations and assessments. This will allow for the monitoring of both the students' progress and the instructional programs' overall efficacy.


Because the school's present approaches to instruction, assessment, and curriculum are congruent with its goal, it is likely that during the next three to five years, the instructional program vision will be successfully implemented. Clearly, the academy endeavors to employ effective teaching tactics in the learning process. It is likely that, as time passes, the school will produce other innovations intended to support instructors and improve students' academic achievement. In three to five years, it is expected that all program participants will have the essential tools and demonstrate high levels of performance; GWA will equip them with a variety of appropriate resources to achieve this. It denotes that the vision's aims and objectives will be substantially realized and will be progressed to encourage further improvement and enhancement of teachers' competence.


The mission and vision statements of a school are crucial to curriculum directors because they explain what the school must accomplish and why it is essential. It is reasonable to conclude that the described concepts and components of content, training, and evaluation are related to GWA's vision and objectives. They attempt to improve teachers' competency and self-assurance, as well as link the personal interests of students with educational requirements. GWA employs efficient methods for curriculum development, instruction, and assessment. It allows for the possibility that the school will continue to do well in the future.


GEMS Global Academy (2019a). About ourselves. Why a GEMS curriculum? Web.

GEMS Global Academy (2019b). Upper school (grades 6-12). Web.

GEMS Global Academy (n.d.). Middle school. Secondary school Curriculum outline. Web.

Tomal, D. R., C. A. Schilling, and M. A. Trybus (2013). Leading school improvement by maximizing available resources Plymouth, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Education.

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Coca-cola Company’s Employee Diversity Essay Help App

Table of Contents
Executive summary Literature review Analysis of diversity in the workplace Management analysis conclusion Recommendations Bibliography

Executive synopsis

The extremely diversified nature of society determines the composition of workforces in enterprises around the world. In numerous respects, society is stratified, and each stratum has its own set of standards and ideas. These norms and ideas permeate the workplace and have a significant impact on labor productivity. Despite the diversity of a particular workforce, it is the responsibility of management to attempt to establish order and enhance production (Pless & Maak 2004).

Race and ethnicity are the most common diversities. People of different skin tones and tribes share a staff room and are entrusted by management to work together for the firm's benefit; nevertheless, this may never occur due to the diverse mentalities that these two aspects have been determined to generate among people. Race and ethnicity produce discord and favoritism; these two factors would halt productivity. Thus, the management must deliberate and devise means to ensure that people of varied backgrounds do not manifest their variety at the workplace. The other great source of diversity in religion, religious, and cultural beliefs is that it can divide individuals of the same race and ethnicity (Bernard 2007).

Coca-Cola is the leading beverage manufacturer in the world. The company, which was founded in Atlanta, Georgia in 1892, has had the most impressive growth rate and product diversification, which can be attributed to the good management that it has implemented. This organization has branches in two hundred countries across the globe. This suggests that the company employs individuals from many cultures, religious backgrounds, ethnicities, and even races. The company's good growth over its years of operation is sufficient evidence of the management's effectiveness in consolidating its workforce and operating with them despite their diversity.

Literature review

Several literary works, however, do not consider the workforce's diversity as a wholly bad characteristic. According to Jayne and Dipboye (2004), diversity in the workplace is a competitive advantage. A diversified workforce affords every member of society, regardless of background, equal opportunities. A company that provides equal job chances to all members of society is more likely to benefit from diversity, given that each individual's potential is unique. Thus, the workplace becomes more competitive, which would eventually lead to increased business production.

A developing company is one whose diversity level is increasing. Companies that expand into newer territories are more likely to have a more diverse workforce, as they are more likely to hire locals from such locations. In some regions, women were never intended to be employed, and for a very long time, they were viewed as mere objects of pleasure for men. When a company breaks this norm and begins to hire even female employees, the region's economy is boosted, and with more economic power, the firm's products have a greater chance of being purchased. This is typically an indirect advantage of labor diversity.

On the other side, (Ollapally & Bhatnagar, 2009) examines the negative effects that variety may have if not effectively handled. Some of these stratifying elements are accompanied by a series of preconceptions; if these were allowed to take effect in the workplace, productivity would undoubtedly suffer. When individuals from different origins begin to share a staff room with preconceptions deeply ingrained in their thoughts, the likelihood that they will not cooperate is indeed significant. Without good cooperation inside the company, production suffers.

In organizations where diversity is not properly handled, minorities in the workplace often feel marginalized, which hinders their productivity. Minorities are a group of people who do not find themselves to be numerically comparable to others in the organization; members of the same faith or tribe who find themselves outnumbered in the organization tend to feel threatened. This person would immediately associate their modest number with societal stereotypes. Therefore, they would perform each and every task with uncertainty.

Analysis of diversity in the workplace

Coca-Cola has one of the most diversified workforces in the world, as it is one of the world's major global corporations. From its Atlanta headquarters, personnel come from a variety of backgrounds. African Americans, Britons, and white Americans hold diverse cultural and religious values. In order to achieve the firm's goals, they are required to put aside their differences and work together for the welfare of the organization.

The corporation has operations in other countries, where there are also various social strata, but it must still recruit its employees from the same society. Tribe and ethnicity are strongly ingrained in the African continent, but Coca-Cola is the leading beverage in this region. All of this variation in the social spheres eventually finds its way into the workplace, but it is the responsibility of management to find a way to use this diversity to its benefit.

Analysis of administration

Coca-Cola has one of the most effective management systems for addressing workplace diversity. In the various nations where the company has a presence, the management applies a variety of tactics to prevent diversity from hindering the required level of productivity.

The company is proud to be an equal-opportunity employer in their employment practices. It provides employment possibilities on an equitable basis to all applicants. Those who successfully achieve the qualifications are given the opportunity to serve, regardless of their background. This method assures that the company only employs qualified specialists and does not discriminate in any way.

The farm has never assigned unfamiliar managers unfamiliar regions. In its efforts to expand, Coca-Cola has always employed individuals with extensive regional knowledge. Such managers are aware of the differences in their regions, therefore finding strategies for coping with them is not a challenge (O'Leary & Weathington, 2006).

The company provides a welcoming environment for all of its employees, from fundamental motivational tools such as compensation to recognition. All of these are performed solely based on the amount of dedication of the staff. They discourage features of bias and encourage employees to be treated equally. This climate is sufficiently competitive and very conducive to production. Since its founding, the Coca-Cola Corporation's global expansion has been attributable, in part, to these and numerous more policies the company has continued to implement (Stefan, Christof & Jochen 2008).


In retrospect, personnel diversity both a boon and a liability for the organization. Diversity in the workforce can result in more inventions that boost output, hence fostering the growth of the company. Nonetheless, with ineffective management, diversity can serve as the foundation for a company's demise. The responsibility for achieving either of these falls solely on the management. The management must therefore go beyond the aspects of diversity in society and focus on the beneficial characteristics that variety generates.


Companies must employ the most diversified workforce possible. It would be irresponsible for a business to ignore this reality and recruit its whole employees from a homogenous population.

The diversity of the workforce provides various advantages that would boost the firm's productivity; consequently, managers must properly manage the diversity of the workforce to achieve the firm's goals and objectives.


Bernard, K., "Structural Fighting: Strategies and Tactics" (Bernard, K., 2007). Oxford University is located in Oxford.

Jayne, A., and L. Dipboye, "Leveraging Diversity to Improve Business Performance: Research Findings and Recommendations for Organizations," Human Resource Management, vol. 43, no. 4, Winter Jones, pp. 409-424, 2004.

Ollapally, A., and Bhatnagar, J. (2009). The Holistic Approach to Diversity Management: HR Implications.

Beyond the Business Case for Diversity in Organizations. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, volume 18, number 4, issue 4, pages 1-10, 2006.

Building an Inclusive Diversity Culture: Principles, Process, and Practice, by M. Pless and T. Maak, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 129-147, 2004.

Stefan, L, Christof, W & Jochen, S 2008. Designing the markets, services, and networks of E-Business systems. Seventh workshop on E-commerce. Springer, Paris.

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Computer Hacking As An Emerging Risk Essay Help App

Contents Listing
Introduction Hacking a computer Discuss the causes of this developing risk. Reasons why the threat of computer hacking may not be on the horizon Putting to rest the doubts Conclusion References


The maximizing of profits is a goal shared by numerous organizations worldwide. Due to the inherent unpredictability of the future, some businesses have taken the effort to insure their operations in case a risk materializes. Any organization that conducts day-to-day operations may be exposed to a variety of developing threats. The topic at hand is computer hacking as a growing risk, its impacts (both good and negative), and how risk managers should address it in order to help the organization achieve its primary objective.

Hacking a computer

Computer hacking is described as the alteration of computer hardware and software to achieve goals beyond the authors' intentions. Hackers are those who participate in the act of hacking. A hack is an unskilled professional who interferes with the work of others. Hacking is commonly connected with the younger age, who enjoys computer programming more regularly. This is an application of their problem-solving talent in the actual world. Despite the fact that their purpose is typically to demonstrate their talents and abilities, some candidates have gone a step farther by discreetly acquiring important company information (Jones & Ashenden, 2005).

However, hacking has beneficial impacts in that it provides a platform for the younger generation to demonstrate their programming skills. In addition, some corporations have embraced hackers in order to utilize their expertise in identifying security weaknesses in order to expedite their repair. This has effectively prevented theft and other significant computer-related offenses. Ken Thompson, a well-known hacker, contributed to the creation of the UNIX operating system through his hacking activities. Despite this, hacking can be a devastating tool. Intruders can gain access to sensitive data that can be used to facilitate identity theft, which may be difficult to rectify. Additionally, hackers can acquire access to personal emails, putting them in a better position to obtain important information that, if interfered with, can result in the individual's demise. The information may also include sensitive information that could be exploited against a person.

According to users, hacking is the most thrilling activity. Numerous individuals and the business sector have benefited greatly from this development. The hackers can be utilized to create a firm system that cannot be hacked or accessed by a legitimate user. Participants in hacking are always proficient in their skills, thus they are able to get unauthorized access to the system. This also suggests that their skills, if utilized by the business sector, will be of great benefit and will not pose a significant risk to them. The possibility of hacking endangers the company's data and daily operations. This put the company at risk, particularly if their equations or procedures were accessible by unauthorized parties. This allows competitors to take advantage of the circumstance and catapult themselves to levels they could not have reached without the information they have acquired. This demonstrates the risk associated with computer hacking and system hacking in the business sector. The primary reason for the emergence of this risk in the corporate sector is thoroughly analyzed. The companies that are in a position to increase the use of hacking to their benefit will be discussed in a later section. There is ample evidence that the society in which we live has been built with all of its sections represented; hence, hackers are not just a nuisance but also a vital part of society (Feldstein, 2010).

Discuss the causes of this developing risk.

This risk is on the rise in the corporate environment due to a variety of factors and circumstances. This risk is initially appearing as a security alert issue to the corporate world, warning them that they must be able to secure their assets. This entails protecting all of the company's information in order to maintain its unassailable competitive edge. Since the inception of technology, computer hacking has existed throughout the world. In accordance with their abilities and capabilities, hackers have been able to hack. In addition, they demonstrate their ability to the business world. This is a beneficial development for the corporate sector, since it ensures they are constantly one step ahead of hackers. Technology is a dynamic industry that requires ongoing change; as a result, people who do not keep up with the demands of technology are always hacked by professionals. This necessitates that businesses speed their inventions continuously in order to protect their interests.

Existence of a method that can be exploited by the malicious worm is further increasing the risk. These are used to gain access to the system's data or to delete any files or documents stored on the system. The exploits of these worms are extremely dangerous due to the fact that they may be programmed to wait for any type of command in order to acquire the commanding codes.

This risk is also on the rise because there are so many educated individuals without employment. This growing number of unemployed youngsters are idle, but they have the necessary skills to hack computers; as a result, they experiment with their ideas in this area. They are generally successful because they invest sufficient time in understanding the obstacles they face. In addition, they internalize their theoretical knowledge in order to apply it to the corporate sector's actual applications. This causes the risk to be prevalent in businesses that lack a secure operating line (Wang, 2006).

This threat is also on the rise because the majority of hackers seek to send a message to key authorities, such as the government, that they should not rely on their system too much. This has been used as a political statement indicating the might of the victorious side, i.e., hackers or authorities. This has allowed countries such as the United States of America and others to make hacking into computer systems illegal. Additionally, the systems have been enhanced to prevent any anybody from hacking into them. Efforts have been made to protect the system from hackers. The government systems are no longer susceptible to such hackers due to the institutionalization of mechanisms that prohibit or prevent the hackers from accessing the systems.

Managers must be aware of the issues surrounding computer hacking, including the exploits of the worm. Managers must acknowledge that hacking exists and is illegal; thus, there must be mechanisms that detect when a system is being hacked and faces security dangers. Managers should also utilize the detected hackers' skills to develop high-tech software that is difficult for an outsider to compromise. The usage of hackers is also crucial since they revolutionize the globe and are aware of how computers are evolving, making it easier for them to determine how computers are changing (Tipton & Krause, 2008).

Reasons why the threat of computer hacking may not be on the horizon

As the world of computing advances, cybercriminals will always be one step ahead, according to an anonymous joke. This view can be supported by extensive analysis. Cybercrime is continually on the cutting edge of countermeasures aimed to prevent it. However, computer scientists appear to be somewhat at ease with the notion that the ever-changing nature of cybercrime motivates them to create more complex and versatile computer systems.

However, the computer possibilities are simply the tip of the iceberg when it comes to curiosity. Cybercrime has existed since the invention of computers, to be honest. At each realization of a new computing fantasy, skeptics are ready to dismiss the concept. This can essentially be considered as a scientific conflict. One attempts to discredit or criticize the work of a fellow developer by arguing that the existing system is quite flawed or formidable.

If it serves the goal of illustration, let us return to the working life of our most distinguished computer geniuses. Mark's initial breakthrough in conceptualizing and bringing Facebook to life occurred when he hacked into the website of Harvard students. Consequently, he earned prominence. Former buddies continue to assert that he stole their entire concept (Parks, 2007).

The life of Bill Gates, who dropped out of college to found Microsoft, the world's most successful and flexible software company, is marked by a striking paradox. According to Gates, school was no longer tolerable. He has oversaw the most significant advancements in computer software over the course of his career. These two examples are unmistakable proof that the world of computers is rife with inventive possibilities. These two well-known individuals were and continue to be innovative. It could be much more terrible if they used their creativity to spread cyber and computer-related crimes.

Consequently, it may be stated that knowledge in the realm of computing can be employed for both constructive and destructive objectives. In the same way, though, the majority of knowledgeable and experienced professionals seek to positively impact the computing sector. One of the reasons for this is that there is an unbounded potential to earn tremendous profits from respectable business. This is bolstered by international patents and copyright regulations, as well as government incentives (Gupta, 2004).

Despite this, credit card security has been a source of concern. Credit card fraud continues to be the most common sort of fraud. Cybercriminals hack into banking and accounting systems, stealing confidential data and information with the intent of detecting their vulnerabilities. They would then move funds to untraceable accounts from remote locations after hacking into these systems. Even a vital system, such as that of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, might be rendered inoperable by these attacks. However, these and other drawbacks do not warrant worry. Institutions and companies do not only stand by and observe. Experts in computer security respond to each threat with at least five countermeasures, thereby preventing the occurrence of widespread dangers. There is also a growing trend among governments around the world to employ infamous computer hackers and criminals to improve computer security. Instead of incarcerating these repeat offenders, it is argued that they could contribute to society in a beneficial manner (Kizza, 2006).

Putting to rest the doubts

There are negative skepticisms in the corporate sector regarding the capabilities of hackers and how to counter them. The computer era is rife with a variety of broad and diverse concerns that can be exploited for computer hacking risk management. The management of the majority of businesses lacks confidence in their own willpower or manpower, as well as its hackers. The potential hackers are well-equipped with a breadth of knowledge, and as a result, they are in a better position to solve the majority of the firm's problems; therefore, the company might consider them for the position of computer specialists. In addition, they are able to develop software that is full of innovation, thereby securing the company's data and enhancing its security (Scambray & McClure, 2007).

There is complete consensus regarding the approaches that management must employ in order to realize the full benefits of risk management. The opinions of third parties regarding the flaws of the company's system must be taken into account, and a thorough critical analysis must be conducted. Those corporations that are technological behemoths have taken advantage of the people's knowledge, but not their application skills. The corporation is essential in the design of policies that have a substantial positive impact on the organization. In order to achieve the ideal change or challenge in the organization, the negative consequences must also be used.

There are numerous instances in which the administration fails to implement security-related functions. Utilizing professionals who can track the activity of hackers is crucial in light of the need of preventing cyberattacks. The software must be updated in order to support the use of an up-to-date system, which minimizes the likelihood of hackers gaining access to it and, as a result, reduces the risk of exposing the system. To eliminate computer risk, a password should be used to allow all wireless connections (Crouhy & Mark, 2006).

The hacker's powers should be countered by a tidal wave of support from the personnel. This will be carried out by employing competent computer specialists with the necessary equipment. When there is sufficient understanding of the problem, the danger is negligible. This is quite beneficial for watching the methods and behaviors of hackers from a close range in order to prevent the vice from occurring. The corporate management should be able to upgrade their system at all times in order to boost the system's security level. Credit card fraud has been the subject of heightened vigilance due to the fact that hackers utilize access to credit card data to get security-related data. They hack the credit cards in order to collect the information that can be utilized to counterfeit their items. This is a security breach that must be addressed amicably by the company's management, who must also devise suitable steps to prevent information loss or exposure.

The deployment of Routers to protect the company's network from hackers is reasonable. Additionally, the organization should install a firewall to prevent hacking of the system. Firewall is a highly useful piece of software that eliminates all unwanted traffic networks from the system. Additionally, it prevents hackers from gaining illegal system access. This is really beneficial because it enables system access with administration approval (McGraw, 2006).


Computer hacking has been with us for a very long time; therefore, society and the business sector must embrace it and take necessary action. There is a need for all of us to leverage the hacker's knowledge in order to circumvent the associated danger. With all of its inhabitants and systems on board, the society is complete. Consequently, this suggests that the ideas of the current generation are extremely vital. There is a need to accommodate hackers and maximize their potential by putting them on the proper road, as they can potentially be global economic drivers.


The essentials of risk management. Crouhy, M. D., and R. Mark, 2006. 2006 – New York: McGraw-Hill Professional

Feldstein, M.K., 2010. Hacking a computer: Windows Master Control Panel Shortcut. New Jersey: General Bookstore

Gupta, S., 2004. Computer System Intrusions Mittal Publications in New York Jones, A. & Ashenden, D., 2005. Protecting your network and information assets using risk management for computer security. New York: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Kizza, J. M., 2006, Computer network security and cyber ethics, second edition, McFarland, London.

McGraw, G. (2006). Software security: incorporating security. P.J. Parks's 2007 New York: Addison-Wesley book. Hacking of computers New Jersey: Gale

2007 – Scambray, J., and S. McClure. Windows security secrets and remedies revealed by hacking. York: McGraw-Hill Professional.

Information Security Management Handbook, 2nd edition, by H.F. Tipton and M. Krause. Fort Pierce: Auerbach.

Wang, W., 2006. What they won't tell you about the Internet in computer book version 4.0. 4th ed. No Starch Press in New York

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The Teamwork: Learning To Work Together Essay Help App

Table of Contents
Introduction Discussion chapter Conclusion Bibliography


Teamwork is one of the most essential factors influencing the performance and profitability of modern businesses. Teams are crucial to the success of any firm. Critics say that for a successful performance, team members must collaborate to accomplish the project's overall objectives. In many organizations, work statements are closely related to plans, which can be characterized as a declaration of purpose and must be held by the project's owners. Even on a single project, it is the planner's responsibility to understand and document the team's thoughts. It is not the planner's responsibility to decide and dictate what individuals should do. This places the quality policy at the apex of the pyramid because there is likely just one policy, which may be contained in a quality manual. Each phase begins with a collection of data and concludes with a collection of deliverables. At the conclusion of each phase, there is a ‘gateway’ through which the project can only continue if the necessary approvals are obtained. The team selected for study is a real team employed by Hitachi Group, a pharmaceutical firm. The team is primarily responsible for regulating product quality and introducing cost-effective enhancements and solutions to existing items.

Discussion chapter

Teams are defined by LaFasto and Larson (2001) as "unique types of groups… composed of members who are not only technically competent but also skilled at collaborating with one another to achieve their common goal" (p. 4). In a pharmaceutical corporation, functional departments and workers are integrated mostly through teams. The team members agree to accept the project manager's authority for the length of the project. It is noteworthy to note that the team includes more "senior" members than the project manager. Currently, conventional vertical authority connections have shifted, and day-to-day workplace issues may require agreement or negotiation. Therefore, it is essential that communications be basic, simple, and easily understood, without insulting the intelligence of individual or institutional investors. Both the company and its shareholders face a similar problem; both must learn what is required to fully comprehend the issues being debated, the company from the perspective of communicating the issues and the stockholder from the perspective of comprehending the advantages and disadvantages of competing, complex, and frequently persuasive arguments (Belbin, 2006).

According to Scholtes et al. (2003), the key stages of team development include formation, integration of new members, norming, and performance. Each of these phases is essential for success since it establishes the objectives and course of development. The hierarchy will stretch upwards from the functional manager to the board of directors. Alongside this portion of the hierarchy will be a separate hierarchy for the project management team. Program managers must supervise project managers, who may include phase managers, planners, and other project-related engineers, to ensure efficient work (Scholtes et al, 2003). For instance, when confronted with the possibility of transitioning to a team-based work environment, several U.S. employees expressed worries that represented their individualistic ideals. As temporary team structures, multicultural teams, and virtual teams expand, these team-savvy professionals will be able to lead their enterprises in the successful deployment and utilization of teams in international contexts (Carr, 2002).

To counter these possible obstacles, human resource professionals should support the sharing of practices inside and between businesses, observe and adapt to organizational environmental trends, and keep a heightened awareness of cultural convergence. Ahead-of-the-curve trends in the utilization of teams will be more manageable for human resource professionals who are competent at adjusting fundamental HR procedures and can adapt their assumptions (Scholtes et al, 2003). Effective communication is essential for enhancing employees' knowledge of the value of their contribution to the organization's success and for establishing a dialogue with their managers that can boost employees' contributions. Change and organizational transformation are unlikely to occur if the performance management system does not incorporate new values. Senior management's declarations are insufficient to drive the new behaviors required for cultural transformation; rather, these behaviors must be woven into the fabric of performance and everyday efforts and priorities. Thus, if an organization's objective is to boost worker participation, its computer applications cannot be neglected (Cleland, 1996). They can enhance or impede information sharing and interaction inside an organization, so facilitating or inhibiting the growth and maintenance of worker engagement.

Effective communication is the foundation of teamwork and performance management, fusing all elements of organizational success into a single, aligned process that directs employee performance toward the same organizational goals and reinforces and maintains this alignment through reward and recognition programs. In a highly competitive business environment, businesses' chances of success can be enhanced if the full potential of this technology can be tapped and utilized. "clarity in team goals, a plan for improvement, clearly defined roles, clear communication, beneficial team behaviors, balanced participation, and awareness of group processes" are the top recommendations for effective teamwork (Scholtes et al , 2003, p. 6-10).

Each team should establish a combination of outcome- and process-oriented measurements as essential performance indicators. Process measures reveal crucial team behaviors that can be altered to improve results. Teams should avoid creating an excessive number of measurements. If a metric is not essential for guiding the team's conduct, it should be discarded. Most experts advise that teams monitor six to ten performance indicators (Cordery, 2005). In team-based companies, individuals are accountable for several levels of collective performance. The performance of individuals, teams, and business units must be reviewed. Optimizing performance at a single level may have detrimental effects on performance at other levels. The relationship between conduct at one level and performance at a different one may be tenuous. People frequently worry that they will not receive appropriate performance feedback when the emphasis is on communal performance. Therefore, evaluation systems should evaluate actions that contribute to the performance of other organizational units or levels. Control and coordination are required for task performance (Cleland, 1996). The author writes, "An advantage of the earned value method is that we are not limited to a global overview of the project. Analysis of the budget and schedule can occur at any level of the work breakdown hierarchy (LaFasto and Larsen, 2001, p. 54).

The greatest obstacles for the team will be autonomous thought and decision making. Managers manage problems, plan and assign tasks, and deal with personnel issues such as absence and discipline. All of these responsibilities were formerly the purview of management. For the team to be effective, it must now have the responsibility and authority to implement solutions. At every level of the business, from the executive suite to the mailroom, a compelling vision is required. A properly communicated vision provides this function and communicates the need for change. This need is typically greater than the organization and is something the person can accommodate. Every organization has an external goal that individuals can commit to and that is essential to the organization's survival (Cleland, 1996).

The majority of team members should focus on the overall business strategy while ignoring minute specifics. Additionally, transformational leadership is based on change, yet the majority of people reject and dread continuous change. Thus, the major problem is the capacity to concentrate on goals and the challenges surrounding them. If team members accept one another's expertise, the majority of personality conflicts will resolve themselves. Moreover, the more time a team devotes to interpersonal relationships, the less efficient it gets. There is an inverse relationship between the time spent on "people problems" and the effectiveness of a team. This will result in team members responding to feedback with commitment to team objectives, interest in the team task, and attraction to the team (Cordery, 2005). There may be one team member to whom no one has ever provided input. This employee's feedback and request for assistance in embodying the team's ideals is a momentous event for the team. It would be clearly risky to permit inexperienced personnel to serve as their primary source of feedback. Interfering practices between reaction and delayed feedback, which are highly probable in the workplace, might hinder progress. However, stockholders must rely on communications they get from both sides of the argument, as well as commercials, newspaper articles, and analyst reports. In addition, the stockholder is hampered by the sheer volume of information received from both parties when terms and conditions change or materially important facts become available (Gratton and Erickson, 2007).

Effective executives that define lucid goals for the entire organization are essential to the industry. At Hitachi, where decision-making and problem-solving skills have contributed to their success, managers gladly assume responsibility for the problems of others and return them with ready-made answers. In fact, the reason why great managers attain authority in the first place is because they accept responsibility and resolve issues with such composure. Managers are rarely promoted for providing the necessary leadership for adaptable work. Management acquires performance commitment through contractual arrangements, whereas leadership gains commitment through empowerment. As the business world has become more conscious of these discrepancies, more and more resources have been devoted to leadership training and education (LaFasto and Larsen, 2001).

Management can be viewed as an organization that pays record remuneration to attract the brightest and most talented executives to guide them through the volatile business environment of the present day. Many boards and executive recruiters believe that an exceptional group of persons possesses leadership skills with nearly universal applicability. With the understanding that firms long seen as paragons of managerial performance were faltering in the face of significant competitive difficulties, many began to assume that the two professions required distinct sets of skills. It was possible for a business to be well-managed yet poorly led. In prosperous times, a well-managed business may experience considerable success. Adopting a marketing (diversity-based) perspective, it appears futile to argue that research should be structured to give analytic knowledge or intuitive information. Every staff member should feel that they are an integral part of the team, accepting the beliefs and customs of the publishing industry. It is essential to differentiate between aim and style of implementation, as only actions have an impact on organizational performance and its successful planning (Teale, 2003). Their only shared characteristic is their professional expertise, which enables them to ensure that the objective is well-defined and that high performance standards are established. The manner in which objectives and expectations are formed is a matter of style, but establishing them is a matter of performance and favorable outcomes. Individuals who wish to develop their leadership abilities should consider situational elements and decision outcomes (LaFasto and Larsen, 2001).


In conclusion, effective and successful teams prioritize team-goal-related concerns. Both relate to the way a leader leads a team and bring focus to the work at hand, yet they differ in very particular ways. Combining individual strengths entails influencing as opposed to commanding. Influencing demands a distinct skill set than hierarchical management, in which direction is the norm. One of the most effective ways a leader may exert influence is by setting a good example. Leaders and managers can implement training and education programs to ensure the professionalism of their employees. This method will assist managers in fostering a positive organizational culture and environment. With this information, a team leader can transfer responsibility more readily in order to create budget-friendly strategies that are effective.


Belbin R (2006). Team Roles at Work, Butterworth-Heinemann, UK

Carr C (2002). Teamwork: Lessons from America's leading corporations on putting teamwork to work. Prentice Hall of Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey

The phrase Cleland D. I. (1996). Strategic Management of Teams, published in the United States by John Wiley and Sons.

Cordery, J., "Teamwork," in Holman, D., Wall, T.D., Clegg, C.W., Sparrow, and A. (2005). The Fundamentals of the Modern Workplace John Wiley and Sons, United Kingdom,

L. Gratton and T. J. Erickson (2007). Harvard Business Review, November, pages. 101-109, 8 techniques to establish collaborative teams

LaFasto, F., Larsen, C. (2001). When teams work most effectively. Publications by Sage.

Scholtes, P. R. Joiner, B. L., Streibe, B. J. (2003). (2003). Third edition of The Team Handbook. The third edition of Joiner/Oriel Inc.

Management Decision Making, by M. Teale, Financial Times Prentice Hall, London, UK, 2003.

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Business Credit And Taxation Essay Help App

Considerations pertaining to taxes and business credit

When planning the manner of business financing, tax rules must be taken into account because they influence the capital structure decisions made by the organization. For instance, the proportion of funds created by the reinvestment of earnings or the sale of a particular type of securities. The Internal Revenue Service imposes different restrictions and requirements on corporate credit-related tax concerns (IRS). In order to reduce the tax burden imposed on a company, crucial decisions must be made about the firm's finance policies.

If properly designed, business credits can provide significant tax advantages to a company. Principal and interest payments on the credit facility are categorized as business costs and are therefore deductible from taxable income. To be eligible for a tax deduction, a business must be able to determine the amount of credit accepted, and the assets and expenses funded must have been obtained for use in the operation of the business.

The majority of company credits are not considered a source of income. For instance, when a company negotiates with a lender or creditor to decrease its debt or write off the loan, the company will incur taxes on the forgiven or written off amount. In the event that a business extends credit and the debtor defaults on the loan, the business can claim tax deductions on the amounts forgiven or written off against the amount that is taxable. Nonetheless, if the monies are recovered in the future, the company must recognize them in the preceding tax period.

When a company's principal operation is financial facilitation or intermediation for other companies, its annual income is liable to taxation after deducting all deductible expenses. And any interest collected on loans and advances made to its customers and clients is taxed. When a business charges interest on delinquent accounts, but this is not its primary activity, it may deduct this amount from its overall revenue.

Business credit as a source of financing minimizes the amount of business income liable to tax because the interest charged on business credit is tax deductible. In contrast to equity financing, where taxes are computed before dividends and bonuses are paid out, taxes are calculated after dividends and bonuses are paid out. Credit for businesses can be either accountable or unaccountable. Utilization of business credit as a means of financing suggests that the company's depreciation policies have an influence on the method of business financing that has not been fully acknowledged.

For a business that purchases and sells taxable products and services on credit, taxation can be used to fund its operations. When a business purchases products on credit from another supplier, sales tax is declared after a specific period and the goods have already been taxed, therefore the credit extension is advantageous for both parties. Specific provision for bad and doubtful debts is a tax-deductible expense that is not subject to taxation on the firm's taxable amount.

In preparing its financial statements, a business must utilize either the cash or accrual method of accounting. This facilitates the accounting for any company credits accumulating at the conclusion of the fiscal year and ensures the accuracy of tax filings. A company's fiscal year should correspond with its business cycle. However, the Internal Revenue Service compels debt-driven businesses to use a calendar year.

Creating tax forms after receiving company credit.

Internal Revenue Services Taxpayers and tax-exempt institutions use tax forms to record financial information and determine taxes owed to the federal government. Businesses submit different tax forms based on whether the taxpayer is an individual or the type of business, such as a sole proprietorship, corporation, or partnership. There are certain tax forms that a business must file if it has obtained credit to increase operations. The following variations pertain to company credit:

Individuals must complete Form 1040, United States Individual Income Tax Return. This form contains eleven schedules that must be completed in relation to company credit. Schedule B if the taxpayer gets or pays interest or dividends; Schedule C if the taxpayer is a sole proprietor; and Schedule F if the taxpayer acquires business credit to finance business activities. In the event of tax refunds or credits due to unclaimed deductions, Form 1040X must be filed.

Sole entrepreneurs use Form Schedule C to report business-related income and expenses. As an individual who files tax returns, the owner is subject to income tax, which is a progressive tax. If the business uses business credit to finance its operations, it must determine the costs incurred to seek further financing, and if it extends credit to others, it must record the resulting income. Form Schedule D is used by individuals, partnerships, and corporations to report their capital gains and losses. Capital gains result from the sale of a fixed asset for more than its book value, whereas capital losses result from the sale of an asset for less than its book value.

After company credit has been received, there are several Form 1099 adjustments to be made. This form is used to compile and file a return of information to report various forms of business income. Depending on the nature of the credit transaction, these variants include Form 1099-C when a company's debts are cancelled or written off. If a company delivers dividends or bonuses to its shareholders, Form 1099-DIV must be completed.

When a company uses credit to support its operations, there is a change in Corporate Control and Capital Structure, and the company is required to file Form 1099-CAP. If a business extends credit to other businesses and generates interest income, it must submit Form INT. A company must submit Form 2553 if, after receiving credit, it decides to be classified as a Subchapter S corporation (called Election by a Small Business Corporation). This form is used to allow a business that is not by default a corporation to elect to be taxed as an S-corporation. This may be the result of a change in the capital structure of the company.

Form 2555 must be filed if the company has extended credit to other firms outside the United States or secured funding or a creditor outside the United States (called Foreign Earned Income). This indicates the credit income or expense from abroad sources that is excluded from United States income tax. Form 2555 can also be used to claim deductions that are not taxable. A taxpayer cannot exclude or include more foreign income than is earned or accumulated abroad during the tax year.

The Internal Revenue Service requires every employer to complete Form W – 2 for each employee who is paid a salary, wage, or other form of remuneration in accordance with the employment contract. Employers are required to disclose instances in which they pay employees after services have been rendered or pay for services in accruals on Form W-2 so that the appropriate deductions can be made.

Managing a debt-heavy corporation using business credit

Obtaining business finance to launch, maintain, or expand operations carries the danger of falling into a debt trap. Some businesses rely more on credit transactions to retain clients, or because such is the nature of the industry. There are two primary areas through which a company might incur debt. First, there are debts resulting from nonpayment of dues or obligations. Occasionally, businesses may choose to obtain goods or services on credit or borrow funds to operate. If these commodities are not paid for immediately, they can result in commercial debt. Second, bad debts resulting from awaiting account payment by consumers or debtors. This might have a negative impact on the company's liquidity, rendering it unable to pay its bills and commitments on time.

Business debts have a variety of negative repercussions on the company, including lowering its value, weakening stakeholder confidence in its operations, rendering it unable to control costs, and diminishing product quality. For a firm that is financed through credit, obligations must be paid on time when they become due, and the business must also pay the cost of borrowing the funds through interest or, in the case of grants, renounce certain chances. The organization also has goals that it must achieve within a given time range.

Debt can also be used to balance the liquidity of a company in order to ensure its stability. However, excessive debt can lead to illiquidity and impede the operations of a business. The accumulation of debts can result in bankruptcy and, ultimately, the liquidation of a corporation that is unable to meet its obligations. Long-term depreciation of a company's worth can be caused by ineffective debt management. Since the debt holders have assumed a risk by financing the company, they risk losing their funds if the company is unable to pay its debts. Thus, debt holders are also involved in choices regarding the firm's stability, such as the debt accumulation limit and required levels of liquidity.

Business debt management entails managing the company's indebtedness to support its long- and short-term goals. This procedure entails enlisting skilled advisors to assist the company in properly managing its debts. In managing a debt-driven company with business credit, shareholders and debt holders may employ the following strategies: first, debt negotiation, in which the business negotiates with its suppliers for debts on the debt limit, creditor's turnover time, and the fees associated with credit sales. Second, the company should commit to eliminating debt. This is intended to maintain the various company's debt, for example by deciding to eradicate all credit card debt within a specified time frame.

Thirdly, the company can introduce a consolidation strategy. This will help consolidate all of the company's debts into a single debt, so that instead of making many monthly payments, the company will simply make one payment to a single creditor. On a straight-line basis, the interest rate charged on debt consolidation loans is less than the cumulative interest charged on debts or loans. Debt settlement, credit cards, and business equity can all contribute to a consolidation plan. Fourthly, if the company is unable to collect cash from its creditors, it might use debt collection firms to collect the outstanding debts on its behalf. Fifthly, if the previous options fail, the only remaining options are bankruptcy or liquidation. The company may be declared bankrupt by a court of law at the request of its creditors, its owners, or the company itself.

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Blockbuster Marketing Strategy Analysis [SWOT, Porter’s Forces, & Marketing Mix] Essay Help App

In 2002, Blockbuster's most effective approach was the global expansion and application of new technology, such as e-commerce. Read this examination of Blockbuster's business model for more information on the company's difficulties and successes.
Table of Contents

Introduction SWOT Analysis Porter's Five Forces Analysis Blockbuster Financial Performance and Marketing Mix Organizational Lenses Response to Globalization Market Elements Conclusion


Blockbuster Inc. is an American firm specializing in the renting of music, movies, and video games. It is one of the world's largest providers of video and game rental supply chains to DVD retailers. The company's headquarters are located in Dallas, Texas. Blockbuster Inc. was started in 1985 by a 29-year-old man named David Cook, who was instrumental in the company's rise to prominence before its administration was taken over by Joe Mitchell, who became the company's CEO five years later. The corporation has proceeded to expand into a multi-billion dollar enterprise and even participated in a joint venture with Viacom in 1994 valued more than $8.5 billion. With effective competitive strategies, the corporation has maintained its dominance in the DVD video rental industry and the provision of home video games not only in the United States, but also in other countries. Blockbuster has been able to successfully operate in this industry and even diversify, particularly in the game entertainment market. It works largely in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada, with a large number of employees in each country where it operates. As of the end of December 2006, Blockbuster employed around 67,500 employees in the United States and generated more than $5.6 billion in revenue, according to projections from 2007. With an operating profit of $80 million, the business is able to strategically fulfill market demands.

Consequently, this study will examine Blockbuster Company's strengths, weaknesses, prospects, and dangers. In addition, it will assess its marketing techniques and other market research forces in light of Porter's five strategies. The focus will be on the strategic management of the organization as viewed through the three lenses of organizational analysis and action.

Remarkable SWOT Analysis

In order to conduct a thorough analysis of the organization, a SWOT analysis will be utilized to describe all of the aspects that influence it. The SWOT analysis will enable it to divide the components into two categories. First, it describes Blockbuster's internal aspects, including its strengths and faults. Second, it categorizes the external elements that have been discovered as contributing to or impeding the growth and expansion of the business. These external elements are opportunities and threats.

The diagram below depicts a SWOT analysis of Blockbuster, Inc.



Control of end-user sales by updating DVDs and other cassettes in stores every hour. Superior goods and the most recent video and game cassettes Superior longevity and durability Electronic commerce and its possibilities in the far east devoted administration and leadership



Failure to collaborate with the movie players Unsatisfactory pricing Absence of a defined plan to approach large markets such as Africa Limitation of funding and expertise Insufficient staff retention inadequate management coverage and




Development of new items and, failing that, creation of products comparable to those of Netflix or any other competitor. Superior profit margins Responding to novel concepts, such as customers valuing the quality of online products Seeking the services of reliable suppliers, particularly in populous nations like China.



Impact of laws such as the Children's Protection Act Retaining Mr. James as CEO is crucial to the company's survival. Demand on the market, particularly during the summer months, makes sales unpredictable. Observed negative publicity in 2004 Good employees may leave the organization.

The following is a detailed SWOT analysis of Blockbuster; the company's strengths over the past decade have been branding and expansion. Blockbuster Inc.'s strong brand name gives it a competitive advantage over other video rental firms, such as NetFlix, which is Blockbuster Inc.'s primary competitor. According to the most recent study, the corporation has investments in practically every country, with large subsidiaries in Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada. The company has achieved global expansion as a result of its adaptability to new tactics, which has been recognized both domestically and globally, particularly since 2002, when it adopted e-commerce. Blockbuster has been expanding its customer base by entering overseas markets and acquiring subsidiaries from other companies, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. According to 2007 financial data, the company's sales and profits have significantly increased to a value of $5.6 billion based on its financial standing. Additionally, the company's great reputation for quality products and services has helped it achieve its market objective.

In the last three years, Blockbuster has been able to achieve a considerable number of incremental subscriber growths as a result of an improvement in strategic management relative to the market environment. This has been the case due to the company's advantageous economic model. The company feels that its competitor, NetFlix, has been able to maintain a substantial market share due to the strength of its brand and online offerings such as Friends Network and Watch Now. Blockbuster's inability to mail DVD queue orders, as a result of a lack of product availability, has been the primary obstacle preventing it from reaching this level. Currently, fifty percent of Blockbuster users can manipulate their queues in order to receive the movies that are essential to their happiness.

"Blockbuster Inc.'s core competency is the use of 'online stores' to meet its customers' needs." It has developed new technical approaches and strategies to assist its international logistic systems, i.e. to monitor the performance of its international subsidiaries. People are trained as part of the company's human resource development strategy in order to adapt to market shifts that require hands-on knowledge of how services and products are delivered to consumers.

Additionally, Blockbuster has been involved in corporate responsibility, particularly in the United States and other countries where it has opened subsidiaries. The corporation has sponsored teams in the past for competitions in the film industry, sponsored prizes for the movie industry, and various luncheons linked to entertainment.

In its pursuit of improved financial performance, however, the corporation has encountered several weaknesses. Due to shifting product costs and decreased demand for older films, the business has been experiencing difficult times. Since 2003, the corporation has incurred enormous losses, particularly big statutory losses, which has led to throttling, conflicts, and legal actions being taken against it. The losses have been ascribed to the sector's substantial investments in technology, such as the online download industry and online marketing. Despite this fact, Blockbuster Inc. is a highly profitable business that only has difficulties in providing high-quality services and goods that are consistent with contemporary culture.

Even with its many strengths, Blockbuster Inc. may be vulnerable in some areas due to its lack of control over the rate at which services and products are produced. Because of the strict trade restrictions, Blockbuster is unable to meet the international challenge of accessing new markets beyond what it has already acquired. Some nations are advancing rapidly in terms of technology and are now capable of launching their own online video operations; therefore, Blockbuster Inc. must improve internally and prepare its technical team for greater technology-related advancements.

There are numerous potential for Blockbuster Inc. in emerging markets around the world. In addition to other regions, Africa, Asia, and Australia are home to significant emerging markets. In reality, Blockbuster Inc. declared in 2004 that it would be investing more than 230 million dollars in the Australian market through the establishment of strategic alliances.

Another possibility that is clear for the organization is the new inventive ways in the marketing department. Customers desire equipment and services that are compatible with contemporary technology. Utilizing web retail marketing that incorporates mails, mobile phone approaches, and e-commerce to suit market demands is one of the available and successful creative ways that Blockbuster can apply.

The most obvious threat to the company is competition. This company faces intense rivalry, as nearly all companies will attempt to embrace and surpass it financially, technologically, etc. The competitors, including Hollywood Entertainment Corporation, Hastings Investment Inc., and NetFlix, pose the greatest danger. As a global leader in the video rental industry, Blockbuster Inc. is vulnerable to political challenges and other concerns, such as GATT's laws. In fact, "Blockbuster faces the challenge of ensuring that only appropriately rated films are sold to target populations." Some of their competitors are boosting their efforts to make their products environmentally friendly; as a result, there will be price deflation for services, resulting in price rivalry for participants in this area.

The fact that employees are not actively participating in the actual design of the company's aims and objectives has led to mistrust of the organization. Before opting to employ them as a means of enhancing production, these and other distinct concerns must be thoroughly examined. Long-term, it will result in the dissolution of individual connections, which will negatively impact their overall productivity at the organization. The leadership of this organization should oppose employee participation, innovation, and new product development in order to promote these values.

The Porter's Five Forces Model's Blockbuster

The market research conducted by Blockbuster has outlined the company's market position and capabilities in terms of customer perception of DVD rental quality and viable competition from other competitors. Blockbuster Inc. has implemented this method efficiently to assess and monitor the company's performance in relation to its customers. Similar to how the majority of movie rental firms employ a marketing approach that emphasizes newer releases over older ones. This is evident given that the organization adapts to customer preferences. Generally, the corporation places greater attention on market factors and does not label new releases as Blockbuster favorites. A statement placed on ( indicates, "This company regularly sells a big quantity of new release copies following the first renting rush. Typically, these copies are advertised as "previously viewed" for between $10 and $15, and sometimes as low as $3.99. Additionally, our organization welcomes trade-ins of worn DVDs, which are sold alongside the existing stock of previously leased movies to generate a larger range of titles for trade.

Customers who may fall prey to the black market and counterfeit goods typically face a greater risk of product substitution. In this day of online marketing and advancements in technology, it is simple to swap options. Due to the expansion of contemporary film production, competition and marketing have intensified as companies strive to increase their market share. The costs of products are now quite low, and there are abundant replacements with minimal distinguishing characteristics.

Similar to other industries, the home entertainment industry is filled with competition and conflict. Blockbuster has been able to contain the majority of its competitors, but price adjustments pose a problem. Most companies charge cheap monthly fees, resulting in increased competition, particularly in the United States when NetFlix decreased its monthly fees by over 5%. Some competitors are also extremely aggressive and may extend their competition to non-price-based strategies such as marketing and innovation. This company spends a great deal of money on marketing and promoting the products of its competitors through a variety of channels in an effort to reach the consumers who spend their money on the firm's products. The industry has experienced a drop in growth over the years, however new markets are emerging with high growth rates.

In the rental market, the bargaining power of the consumers may exert pressure on the company in terms of price changes and buyer volume in relation to switching costs. Due of cheap switching costs, consumers do own power. However, the vast majority of purchasers are individuals as opposed to groups. Price negotiations and discounts are inappropriate in this instance due to preferences and customer information dissemination logistics.

Market factors such as the effectiveness of the supply chain, the knowledge of the suppliers, and the firm's financial ability to persuade suppliers to work harder. In rare instances, suppliers may refuse to work, resulting in a shortage and mistrust from customers. As with prices, certain providers charge overly high prices, resulting in negative customer and business relationships. The majority of suppliers lack the authority to change product availability or pricing. They also do not experience a lack of inputs or logistical capacity. Typically, performance and quality offering are of utmost importance to suppliers. Some supply chains may not be able to handle a large market, resulting in inefficient customer service.

Profitable markets and companies with a competitive advantage in terms of high revenue will outcompete those that are still financially vulnerable under this Porter's Five Forces model. Profits are likely to continue to decline as long as new marketing methods and business models continue to emerge in the video rental sector, where there are several new entrants. Market research and development has created a barrier for new entrants into this industry. However, leisure gaming products are very inexpensive since they do not require technical competence, which is common in pricey sporting wear. This requires endorsements, promotions, and well-established kinds, which can be costly to deploy for new entrants.

Incredible Financial Results and Trends

An examination of Blockbuster's financial performance places the company ahead of its rivals. In the past five years, Blockbuster has endured financial turmoil, particularly on the losing end. In terms of financial loss, it has incurred significant losses, particularly between 2002 and 2004. In 2002 for example, Blockbuster lost $ 1.6 billion and a further $ 1 billion in 2003. In 2004, however, when the corporation recorded a $ 1.2 billion loss, the figure increased dramatically. Currently, the market worth of the company has increased, which bodes well for its future.

Leadership Development: International Business Machines Essay Help App


International Business Machines (IBM) is an information technology-focused computer technology firm. The corporation specializes in the production of computer hardware, software, and consulting services. This paper will analyze IBM from the standpoint of leadership development (De Wit & Meyer 2004).

IBM has progressed over the years to become the number two desktop maker and seller in the world, behind Lenovo. Experts and market analysts predict that IBM will surpass Lenovo as the leading desktop vendor in the future years. It is also noteworthy that its affiliate firms are thriving (Castells 2011). In an effort to be the best producer and marketer of a variety of items, the corporation has purchased several key competitors and strategic partners. The acquisition of Nokia's Smartphone segment was the most notable and potentially the most strategic merger. IBM's acquisition of the division came as something of a surprise, given the sector's waning global popularity and the company's internal restructuring. However, the company swiftly converted this misery into riches and wealth (Drury 2007).

IBM has continued this business model in a number of nations as a result of its past successful acquisitions and mergers. This initiative is motivated mostly by the company's ambition to establish a global footprint. Consequently, the corporation continues to purchase strategically positioned minor players in local areas where it shifts. The method is highly beneficial for integration into local markets and ultimately product appreciation in such markets. Entry into new markets is easier from a local position than from headquarters (Chase & Aquilano 2006).

This study will investigate IBM's leadership with the intent of analyzing the management and top leadership's leadership styles. The researcher will investigate the shortcomings and strengths of such leadership styles as well as their impact on IBM's growth.

The Question and Objectives of the Study

Research Problem

Numerous organizations are impacted by globalization and technical advancements, which create a dynamic global corporate environment. Due to these developments, businesses must develop the most effective strategies that will allow them to achieve their long-term goals without forcing them to leave the market. In response to these challenges, firms have increased their competitiveness through strategic planning, with management establishing existing business conditions in the business environment, which are then used to determine the most effective strategies that will increase the firm's competitiveness after their implementation. This article will examine the influence of strategic management on IBM's sales growth. The study will examine strategic management from the standpoint of leadership development.

Objectives of Study

This research attempts to:

Determine the organizational leadership component of IBM Company and the organizational leadership effectiveness of the company.

Importance of Research

The outcomes of this study will be crucial to the creation of corporate and operational strategies by global company managers. The use of the insights will enable these businesses to compete more intelligently. In addition to shedding insight on the most suitable model for formulating and implementing the most competitive leadership strategy, the gathered data shed light on the optimal model. Customers will gain because their wants and expectations will be met by the products offered by enterprises, resulting in increased customer satisfaction. It will also aid academics and researchers in the advancement of leadership strategy theory and empirical data. In addition, the study's conclusions will be applicable to the general service sector.

Literature Review

This section will examine the literature concerning IBM and leadership development theories.

Transformational Leadership Style

The leadership style investigates the higher levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which are related to a fundamental outlook on life. A strategic plan is comprised of many elements that are crucial to a business. The plan should begin with a purpose and vision statement. These two elements are crucial because they define IBM's current and long-term objectives. The two components show the firm's objectives. With these components, the company may regularly evaluate their accomplishments (Sarros & Santora 2001).

Personality is the continuous realignment of an individual's psychological processes, which dictates his adaptations to his current environment. This is reflected in the exterior characteristics or interior manifestations manifested through external actions. Extensive research on personality contributed to the development of personality theory. This concept suggests that an individual’s innate traits are revealed through their conduct in a consistent manner across time. However, the structures, cultures, beliefs, conventions, and surroundings in which a person operates (Scott-Halsell, Shumate, and Blum, 2008) can occasionally impact the consistency of such behavior. Five major personalities have arisen from the typology of personality attributes. They consist of a variety of qualities, such as creativity, diligence, anxiety, and goal orientation. Other typologies are extremely specific or unreliable in their breadth. They consist of a four-factor evaluation that generates sixteen personality types and a broad measurement that yields Type A and Type B personalities, respectively (Hitt & Hoslisson 2008).

The current CEO of IBM has a Machiavellian philosophy that directs his attention to detail, which explains why he reorganizes the workers' details and creates job descriptions and work procedures. He believes that "the end justifies the means." In contrast, the prior CEO is a textbook narcissist. In addition, it demonstrates that she was excessively seeking recognition and could not compete with others (Eeden, Cilliers and Deventer, 2008).

Style of Transactional Leadership

The leadership style considers rewards and penalties in the pursuit of organizational objectives. Different scholars provide varying definitions of a leader's worth. In the end, though, it can be summed up as a collection of evaluative and steadfast ideas that serve as a guide for personal choices in everyday settings. Therefore, values are a moral compass that educates a person of right and wrong. Most people adopt these values early in life, which makes them stable and enduring (Eeden, Cilliers and Deventer, 2008). Although creating typologies of values is difficult, scholars have made hasty attempts, resulting in two major classifications. Rokeach Value Classification and Schwartz Values Circumplex are the classifications. There is a direct connection between values and individual conduct (Eeden, Cilliers and Deventer, 2008). However, their application corresponds to the circumstance. For instance, we must have a compelling reason to apply our values to events that present a case or remind us of our beliefs, necessitating their application (Manzoor 2012). The case study offers a situation in which the two CEOs must apply their personal ideals. The former CEO emerges as a person whose values are driven by the need to impress her superiors (Eeden, Cilliers and Deventer, 2008).

IBM and Management Strategies

IBM is a multinational corporation with a presence in many nations. In several nations, the organization has regional activities. Global expansion has been the company's operational approach, which has enabled it to defeat key tech industry competitors such as Dell, Lenovo, and Apple Inc. However, since the global economic collapse, the company's operations plan has undergone significant revisions in order to remain relevant and competitive. The corporation has established two distinct business divisions. One concentrates on developed markets and the other on emerging markets (Masdoor 2011). Using this dual approach, the business has continued to localize its activities (Mintzberg & Ghoshal 2003). The localizations have advanced to the point where the corporation now manufactures some of its products in unconventional nations, such as Russia and Brazil. This is the company's approach for catering to specific markets and retaining local jobs, which is what local governments require. This ultimately results in customer loyalty and increases IBM product sales (Kay 1993).

The scope of IBM's operations necessitates a streamlined and concentrated supply chain. (Schreyogg & Busse, 2006) The corporation is decentralizing operations in the belief that this will further enhance the supply chain. The company's long-term objective is to be the most sophisticated designer and engineer of a variety of technology goods. Thus, the organization utilizes innovative resources such as employees and research. Recognizing the increasing demand for non-PC devices and the waning attraction of personal computers in conventional and emerging countries, the company has increased its productivity and inventiveness to develop relevant solutions (Mintzberg & Ghoshal 2003). The company's tablets and smart phones are ranked second on the global market, with significant demand outside of traditional markets (Radon, 2012). Consequently, the corporation must maintain its unwavering commitment to operational efficiency in order to comprehend the success of all these products in the numerous markets (Davenport & Brooks 2004).

IBM's sales have increased steadily during the previous five years. The company's total sales increased by 12 percent during the 2012/2013 fiscal year, thanks to the exceptional performance of the tablet and smartphone sectors. Although the company's sales destinations are diverse, the extraordinary expansion of the tablet industry in China stands out. After Apple, the business ranked second in tablet sales in China (Sher & Lee 2004). PC sales also demonstrated a consistent performance for the corporation. Despite the lack of growth in established countries, the sales of PCs in emerging markets were rather noteworthy (Johnson, Whittington & Scholes 2011). For instance, shipments surged in Asia, the Middle East, and to a lesser extent, Africa. The trend is likely to continue as further government initiatives to increase internet adoption in those nations gather momentum. IBM will likely increase PC sales in these emerging markets in the foreseeable future (Barney 2002).

Regarding the sales of tablets, smart phones, and other technologically inclined devices that replace PCs, conventional markets are the primary draws. However, in emerging regions IBM's sales of its new devices are thriving (Chapman, Hopwood & Shields 2006). Apple and IBM, as early entrants in these marketplaces, have established themselves with remarkable authority. Therefore, IBM must continue its two-pronged approach to market penetration in order to fully penetrate these markets with its new products (Ahrens & Chapman 2007).

According to popular leadership theories, effective leadership requires followership control and effective communication channels (Gray & Larson 2008). The leader must effectively communicate his or her vision to the entire team. Moreover, good managers must have the flexibility to adapt from one management model to another based on the demands of different individuals and the circumstances. In addition, effective leadership necessitates knowledge of extraordinary strategies for encouraging personnel to adhere to established policies and regulations. The leader should acquire the respect of subordinates by the efficient completion of assignments (Haberberg & Rieple 2007).

Leadership Theories: Functional Theory

This theory analyzes and predicts the leadership behaviors that contribute to organizational success. The notion states that a leader's principal objective is to ensure that the group has all it needs to succeed. Functional leadership is vital in the study and enhancement of team leadership. Additionally, organizations have utilized the notion in a broader, more inclusive context. According to the notion, a leader serves crucial functions. Environmental monitoring, supplementary activities, and coaching are a few of them (Mintzberg & Ghoshal 2003).

The research reveals a crucial aspect of employee motivation. Clearly, this is insufficient to encourage individuals in the workplace. Many elements contribute to leadership-based employee motivation. Perhaps the author was solely interested in these factors. On the other hand, it is likely that he selected CEOs whose organizations had done enough to excite employees through all other techniques. Although encouraging employees with increased pay implies that they lack emotion, this is an outdated theory. In the current climate, the first motivational gesture that companies should embrace is monetary compensation. As a result of the economic downturn, employees are struggling to satisfy basic obligations such as mortgage payments. Consequently, the leader misses the context (Hansen, Mowen & Guan 2007).

Before beginning the problem-solving process, the consultant must grasp the department's mission, structure, associations, management styles, current incentives, and other helpful tools, according to the diagnostic approach to this issue. The purpose of the research is to accomplish significant missions and objectives within a specific time frame. The organization of an institution, including the present chain of command, is its structure. The department may be underperforming mostly because of its given duty or the duties it must execute. Any consultant who wishes to handle any type of conflict utilizing the diagnostic technique must comprehend the relationships between the organization's numerous stakeholders. For example, the management-employee connection is essential for resolving employee difficulties. In this regard, whether or not individuals work as a team and whether or not multiskilled teams consult with one another when providing essential services.

In terms of management and administration, technology influences the success of any firm on the present worldwide market, although this is not discussed in the evaluated literature. The diagnostic method indicates that the consultant who intends to implement it must understand the link between personnel and technology. The difficulties concerning the underperformance of social work practitioners have a good relationship with management. Therefore, it is essential to comprehend the management features utilized in the department's operations (Harris & Bromiley 2007).

Useful Reinforcement

As a result of the beneficial influence of leadership, a change in behavior provides positive reinforcement for the ideas and performance of individuals. People's best performances are elicited by the appropriate stimuli provided through reinforcements. For instance, if an employer praises and appreciates an employee whenever he arrives on time, it will have a favorable influence on him. In exchange for this incentive, the employee will consistently arrive on time in order to receive this appreciation. Positive reinforcement is currently a highly effective technique for influencing the behavior of subordinates. It encourages individuals to perform their best. Numerous major and prosperous businesses have employed positive reinforcement to their advantage with great success (De Wit & Meyer 2004).

Leadership by Example

The goal of servant leadership is to empower followers. An organization can benefit from a servant leadership style that emphasizes patience and kindness. I agree with stewardship and servant leadership when they are utilized appropriately. For the larger welfare of an organization, stewardship and servant leadership solicit inquiries from followers. In this form of leadership, the followers ultimately become the leaders, and the leader's actions are determined by the followers' perspectives and beliefs. This sort of leadership can be advantageous to an organization since the wants and opinions of its followers are met. Leaders are typically involved in all facets of an organization, whereas followers are typically not. Consequently, steward leadership can be detrimental.

Ethics As A Human Resource Issue Essay Help App

Table of Contents
Introduction Human Resources and Ethics Conclusion Works Cited


Ethics refers to the principles or standards that define proper and improper behavior. The majority of people nowadays believe that humanity is experiencing a moral crisis. Covering up mistakes, cheating, and misrepresenting, among other unacceptable activities, are now accepted by a wide segment of the population. This practice has also expanded to the corporate sector. The poor performance of commercial organizations is a result of unethical behavior, particularly among employees. This paper will examine ethics as a Human Resource concern. It is believed that when there is ethical behavior in a corporate organization, the performance of the organization improves.

The Ethics of Human Resources

In the realm of business, managers profit from the illegal use of insider stock knowledge as well as other unethical actions. Concern over this anticipated decline in ethical standards is being addressed by companies, and the majority of corporate organizations rely on human capital to establish an ethical culture. Human resources is concerned with morality. This is due to the fact that if employees of any firm decide to behave unethically, the repercussions are felt by the company's performance, shareholders, employees, and clients. Every day, the employees of any corporation must make a large number of decisions, and if they do so in an unethical manner, the company's productivity, revenues, and reputation will all suffer.

According to (1), since the vast majority of ethics inquiries involve Human Resource issues, it follows that the officers in charge of ethics must consult with Human Resource and utilize their expertise to interpret the regulations, resolve disputes, and consult on the mechanisms to prevent future problems.

In a workplace where decision-making authority has been decentralized to the lowest levels, the employee must comprehend the necessity of making the proper choice the first time. However, success in dealing with ethics is contingent not just on how an organization punishes individuals who behave in unethical ways, but also on how the organization rewards both good and poor behavior.

In order to establish an effective code of ethics, Human Resource should be careful not to overlook significant issues. These may include matters pertaining to human character, product safety, environmental concerns, and even community and civic concerns. The basic goal here is that an ethics program that must be effective boosts employee morale, since many employees choose to work for company companies that they believe are ethically oriented.

According to (1), Linda K., a business professor, asserts that ethics actually function well in a company organization when they are woven into the organization's fabric, which is where Human Resources come into play. He suggests that, in order to accomplish this, it will be necessary to collaborate with individuals from throughout the company organization, the majority of whom should be from the Human Resources department.

Ethics is not something that is added to a corporation; rather, it should be incorporated into the performance evaluation process. This relates to how the organization's employees and management cultivate trust and integrity. The ethics should be incorporated into the pay system.

It is the job of the Human Resources department of any firm to provide communication, education, and training to its employees regarding the significance of their decisions. This can bolster the confidence of these personnel in situations where they must take actions that are ethically correct but may not be popular. The fundamental argument or dispute concerns whether or not ethics can be taught.

Organizations with ethics programs recognize that the majority of unethical choices are the consequence of ignorance rather than deliberate misconduct (2).

The business executives, particularly those in charge of human resources, can implement behaviors and corporate procedures that reduce the prevalence of unethical business activities while simultaneously enhancing their firms' market competitiveness. Despite the fact that companies in the United States of America have a lower level of ethics than at any other time in history, these companies have benefited from the progress made in this area in recent years. If employers retain their knowledge of what has been learned in recent years, this trend is expected to continue.

Ethics is not a fixed objective. As a result of the influence of components in a very intricate web, social values continue to fluctuate over time. Employers must be vigilant with regard to these values and if there is a practical opportunity to address issues that arise in their organizations (10).

As a first step in addressing ethical issues, managers are expected to recognize that there are always conflicts of interest. These conflicts stem from multiple origins. Human Resources is responsible for ensuring that employees are aware at all times that there is an open door policy through which they can enquire about issues that affect them.

The issue of achieving overly demanding corporate objectives and ensuring the company's survival is one of the origins of conflict (1). These two concerns create a conflict of interest that divides personnel between adhering to ethical standards and providing service to their business organization.

The existence of a conflict of interest also results from the fact that personnel of an organization are expected to protect their livelihoods while attempting to conduct their work in an ethical manner. Recent research in which British Human Resources experts were interviewed revealed that ethical behavior was only occasionally a function of individual values. However, in the majority of cases, ethical behavior was heavily influenced by external influences, with the fear of jeopardizing one's work or future employment prospects being among the most significant (146). The study determined that the combination of employees' fear of losing their jobs and their loyalty to the firm prompted them to remain mute without taking action and to cooperate with even unethical business practices.

The corporate culture is primarily responsible for unleashing these tensions that hamper ethical decision-making. In an environment where there is little regard for ethical behaviour, employees are persuaded that voicing resistance to unacceptable behavior is pointless and potentially harmful. According to (151), formal codes of conduct, the organization's vision and mission statements, among other difficulties, have low impact on the organization if they are opposed by business practices and the actions of executives.

Creating an ethical corporate environment requires more than developing new standards and revising the goal statement. This necessitates eliminating the immoral practices that may permeate business environments. This is an opportunity for the Human Resources department leaders in any company organization, but the setting will ultimately be heavily influenced by the actions and mindset of the executives.


As a result of the preceding conversation, it has been determined that the Human Resources department must confront the subject of ethics with vigor. This is especially significant when considering that the performance of any commercial organization is affected by ethics.

In order for the firm to fulfill its objectives, it is the job of the Human Resources department to guarantee that there is ethical behavior among both employees and management. Employees should be encouraged to behave ethically, and not merely out of fear of losing their jobs or jeopardizing their future employment opportunities. The Human Resource department is primarily responsible for adopting this step on behalf of the corporate organizations in order to educate their employees about ethical conduct and make them aware of the need of exhibiting ethical actions.

There should be an understanding within the organization that formal codes of conduct, the organization's vision and mission statements, among other issues, have minimal impact on the organization when unethical business practices and the actions of unethical leaders are in conflict with those issues.

Sources Cited

Anonymous. "Ethics and Human Resources." Web., 2010.

Joseph, J., and E. Esen. "Business Ethics Survey." 2003, Society for Human Resource Management, Alexandria, Virginia

Carroll Lichnit. "Why ethics is an HR issue." FindArticles. Web. 2010.

Ethics as a dependent variable in individual and organizational decision-making. Lovell, A. May 2002, Journal of Business Ethics, 37(2), pp. 145–163.

Winstanley Diana, Woodall Jean, and Heery Edmund, Business ethics and human resource management: Themes and issues. Journal of Human Resources Review. MCB UP Ltd. Vol 25, Issue 6, Pg 5 – 12, 1996.

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On Your Mark: Company Financial Assessment Essay Help App


This article aims to summarize the nature of On Your Mark's business and its business plan, as well as to evaluate the firm's internal and external risk factors. This will provide a study of the firm's financial status and a determination of its creditworthiness. In addition, the report will describe the company's competitive position and summarize the financial and accounting control systems in place to ensure compliance with regulatory agencies.

Examination and Discussion

The business of the company is manufacturing. On Your Mark is a manufacturer of athletic gear and equipment. I had recently gone public through an initial public offering (IPO). It employs a developmental strategy, given the industry to which it belongs is in a growth phase. Having an IPO would need joining a market with larger competitors, which it may not have had previously (On Your Mark, n.d.).

With an investment of nearly $50 million in the production of seven unique and distinct products for seven various markets, the company is undoubtedly a rising and innovative one (On Your Mark, n.d.). Each product segment is becoming autonomous, with its sales, marketing, and manufacturing people assuming implicit autonomy. However, the divisions are unified by their shared support departments. This would include allowing each division to cater to the specialized demands of product- and market-segmented customers. A product can be defined as distinct if it satisfies a certain need or desire (Kotler, 1994). As a topic of strategy, the term "strategy" can also refer to specialization, segmentation, and diversification.

Internal and external business risk considerations

The internal risk and external risks are manageable, given that the organization has taken steps to mitigate risk in significant areas. As each division has its own functional areas, the corporation appears to have granted each division autonomy or independence with regard to internal human resource risk factors. Asset management has been minimized as an external risk element. The company has sufficient money, lucrative operations, and acceptable leverage, as will be detailed in greater detail below. It also has good organizational direction by investing in growth strategies based on the life or development stage of the sector (Porter, 1980).

As previously noted, the company used product diversification to handle external risk factors such as the escalating rate of technological advancement and the unstable economic climate. It could mean decreasing the danger of a business becoming stagnant and insensitive to changing external conditions. As will be detailed later, it had implemented financial and accounting control systems, which would limit the external risk of regulation that could compel suspension or closure in the event of a breach.

The firm's financial position.

On Your Mark's financial health can be determined by analyzing the company's financial leverage and liquidity. Financial leverage or long-term capacity to maintain their long-term stability or solvency. By comparing a company's entire debt to its total equity, solvency could indicate its ability to recover long-term investments that may take longer to generate the required returns (Helfert, 2001). At 82.5%, the company's debt-to-equity ratio or gearing is clearly inferior to the industry average of 50%. Refer to Annex A. Since debts can still be matched with equity, however, a capital structure of less than 100% indicates that the company is not so highly leveraged as to be excessively dangerous for expansion purposes. It has a higher liquidity than its competitors, with a current ratio of 1.45 compared to 1.25 for the industry average. Refer to Annex A. Taking 1.0 as another standard, this is an extremely high value.

To determine whether the company's financial state is sustainable, one must evaluate its current profitability and level of efficiency. As discovered, the business is more profitable and efficient than the industry average.

Compared to the industry average of 125%, the company's return on equity (ROE) of 132% indicated exceptional operating and financial success. Refer to Annex A. Such a ROE level would function as a magnet to attract a great deal of additional investment. It would entail earning more than the invested amount in years. Investors anticipate a return of $125 for every $100 in U.S. currency. This may be explained by the fact that the industry is still in its early stages of development and profitability remains high. This is consistent with the CFO's assertion that the division can make significant investments in new acquisitions and product development. The aforementioned profitability is maintained by the company's more efficient operations than its average industry competitors.

On Your Mark displayed a higher ratio on nearly all efficiency metrics. As its return on assets is greater than the industry average, this may also indicate a more efficient method of earning profits from firm assets. The company's clearly superior profitability and efficiency relative to the industry average may be further supported by its greater net operating margin and net profit margin. The resulting operational profit margin was calculated to be 40.5%, compared to the average in the industry of 35%. In contrast, the net profit margin was 26.4% compared to the industry average of 25%. Refer to Annex A.

Greater inventory turnover and faster receivable turnover and asset turnover than the industry average are additional evidence of the company's superior efficiency. The shorter collection period and longer payment period relative to the industry may be the consequence of terms negotiated with customers and suppliers, and the same should strengthen the company's competitive standing. Refer to Annex A.

The company's creditworthiness

The Five Cs of credit, which are capacity, condition, capital, and collateral, are typically considered when assessing creditworthiness (Lasher, 1994). The ability to pay in terms of liquidity, which was previously assessed to be quite high, would be referred to as capacity. The criterion would pertain to the terms of any potential borrowing and whether or not they are favorable to the company. This criterion cannot be used to determine creditworthiness in the absence of the terms of the loan sought. However, due to its shorter collecting duration and longer payment period, the corporation may pass this criteria. Collateral is the capacity to offer security, which can be reported given its appropriate financial leverage. A character would refer to its reputation, and the success of its IPO should demonstrate that its reputation can be trusted (Lasher, 1994).

The firm's competitive position

The competitive position can be determined by analyzing how the company competes with its market rivals. Does it possess the necessary market and financial position to be defended? The CFO's vigorous pursuit of new business prospects, including expansion and acquisition, as well as the development and deployment of new goods (On Your Mark, n.d.), would show that the company can confidently compete with new products in its industry. This is due to the fact that it offers seven various items in seven distinct markets (On Your Mark, n.d.). It has a differentiation strategy that might improve the company's profitability and ensure that it does not have to compete directly with rivals for price reductions, but rather on the basis of how its products vary from those of rivals (Porter, 1980). With the knowledge that the company can pursue growth and development, this may be read as considerable support from the company's upper management, which currently favors growth and expansion. Due to the fact that it is generally more lucrative, efficient, and liquid than its competitors, it may be deemed to be in a strategic financial position to defend a reasonable market position.

The existing financial and accounting control methods

It is possible to classify the financial and accounting control mechanisms in place to ensure compliance with applicable regulatory agencies. These may include how the organizational structure of the corporation has assigned responsibilities with the guarantee that these executives would be held accountable. Since government rules are intended to safeguard the investing public, the corporation must have effective corporate governance controls to ensure accountability.

This researcher's role as division manager, with the responsibility for compiling and reporting on budget/forecast data, for purposes using financial information in decision making, and for assessing and valuing new business opportunities, which will ultimately have to be presented to upper management and approved by the latter, could be indicative of good internal control within the organization necessitating compliance with applicable regulations.

In addition, the manager of the athletic team division who reports to the plant manager has the correct functional responsibility, as this researcher is seen as an integral part of the operation.

Having to work closely with the chief financial officer (CFO) and having the support of the accounting department's accountants in budget/forecast would not hinder the division's ability to operate efficiently and effectively, nor will it compromise the quality of internal control (On Your Mark, n.d.). Since CFOs and CEOs are required to certify the truthfulness of things relating to financial information, the CFO above the division level complies with law, particularly the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. (Welytok, 2008). As operations division chief, the major responsibility should be the growth and development of distinctive and quality products to ensure the survival and expansion of the division and On Your Mark. The same is supported by the organization's current structure.


This researcher discovered that the company's expansion plan was supported by the company's strengths and shortcomings. It has a solid financial standing and passed the creditworthiness examination. It meets the requirements for efficient and effective financial and accounting control. With the company's increased profitability and efficiency vis-à-vis industry rivals, it should be simple to invest in the company for greater wealth.


E. Brigham and J. Houston. (2002). Fundamentals of Financial Management.

Kotler, P. (1994). Marketing Management. Analysis Planning. Implementation and Control, Prentice-Hall, London.

a device for cutting using a blade (1994). The ideal business strategy simplified Made Simple. Doubleday.

Porter, Michael, 1980, Competitive Strategy. Free Press in London

Welytok (2008). Sarbanes-Oxley for Dummies.


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Balfour Beauty And Granite Essay Help App


The functioning of any company enterprise is crucial. Different parties have differing interests in the business, necessitating a reliable basis for evaluating the business's success so that they can make educated decisions. Investors are extremely worried about the company's performance since it determines the profitability and security of their investments. A company that is performing well draws investors, whereas a company that is operating poorly exposes investor capital to risk, thereby discouraging investors. Creditors are equally vital to the business. They provide short-term credit to facilitate the business entity's activities. Their interest in determining a commercial entity's performance stems from the requirement to determine how secure their interests are in the hands of the entity under review. Customers are interested in the entity's future prospects in order to ensure that their relationships will last and that they will continue to enjoy the company's products in the foreseeable future. Due to the fact that they have the ability to alter the firm's performance, management is very interested in determining how well the company is performing. In situations where the business entity is not functioning as planned, it is necessary to identify the causes of poor performance and then take the necessary corrective actions to reverse the trend. If the performance is satisfactory, the management is still responsible for enhancing the good performance by enhancing the company's operations in the direction of even greater performance.

In establishing a company's success, a number of factors are considered, which, when combined, provide a holistic assessment of the company's performance. The most fundamental tools of financial analysis are the annual company reports that are typically generated. The two fundamental reports are the profit and loss (P&L) account and the balance sheet. The profit and loss account provides an examination of the economic activities that took place throughout the year. It compares the inflows to the equivalent outflows to get a clearer sense of the year's profitability. The balance sheet, on the other hand, provides an evaluation of the financial position's progress or decline as a result of the year's activities. Additionally, financial ratios are an essential instrument for financial analysis. They are based on both the income statement and the balance sheet. They are superior indicators of a company's performance because they provide a more comprehensive study of performance through comparison. This report compares the performance of Balfour Beatty Inc. and Granite. It calculates accounting ratios and uses them to produce a comparison of the 2008 performance of the two companies based on their respective financial statements. It then evaluates the objectives and strategies of the two organizations, as well as their governance and policies regarding crucial topics such as depreciation and inventory valuation. In addition, it performs a segmentation study on the two companies (Csanad, 2010, par5).

Business profile

Belfour Beatty is an international construction, engineering, investment, and services company. It undertakes big construction projects, including highways, schools, hospitals, and any other construction-based infrastructure projects. The company's sophisticated clientele necessitates quality and on-time delivery to assure dependability in a volatile market. According to the chief executive, it is always a challenge to sustain the strong velocity that keeps the business ahead of the competition.

The corporation is involved in four significant businesses. The first section is concerned with building management. Here, the organization provides specialist services for generating designs, constructing buildings, maintaining and managing structures. The corporation is also the market leader in the building and maintenance of railway lines and systems. Again, the organization provides complex civil engineering services for the creation of infrastructures such as energy generating, transportation systems, and water systems. In certain industries, the corporation also engages in the building of privately held infrastructure. The corporation has been listed as the nineteenth largest contractor in the world. The business is the global leader in the development of railway systems (Balfour Beatty, 2008, par3).

The organization is led by a robust board of directors comprised of professionals from various fields. Ian Tyler, the chief executive officer, is a certified public accountant with extensive expertise as a financial director. Andrew McNaughton, the chief operational officer, is a chartered engineer with extensive experience as a director of engineering-related projects. Other executive directors include Peter Zinkin, the Director of Planning and Development, who has held numerous high finance posts in the past and is an active member of the committee of leadership, management, and governance at the Higher Education Funding Council in London: The finance director is a 45-year-old chartered accountant with an engineering degree, Duncan Magrath.

Steve Marshall, who is also a chartered accountant and holds executive and non-executive senior roles at other equally large firms, is among the non-executive directors. Chemical engineer Robert Walvis has worked for the Royal Dutch Shell Group. Hubertus Krossa has previous experience as the CEO of the KION group. Gordon Sage, Mike Donovan, Graham Robert, and Iain Ferguson are among the others.

Granite, on the other hand, is a global construction megacorporation. Additionally, the organization specializes in undertaking large-scale infrastructure initiatives. The majority of projects include of roads and highways, paving and grading services, excavations and mining services, as well as the creation of distinctive infrastructure designs. Construction of airports, bridges, railways, and dams, as well as residential and commercial projects, are further examples. These exercises are extremely similar to those conducted by Belfour Beatty.

Additionally, the organization is directed by a group of professional and seasoned business executives. The majority of the senior management team have spent their whole careers in the construction sector, while others have outside experiences that provide vital insights to management. William Dorey has served as president and CEO of the corporation since its founding in 1968. Executive vice president and Chief Operating Officer is James H. Roberts. He's been with the company since 1981. Mark Boitano is the Executive Vice President, while LeAnne Stewart joined the company in 2008 as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. Michael Donnino is a senior vice president and the manager of the Granite east region, while Jigisha Desai is a vice president and the company's treasurer. Kent Marshall is a vice president and oversees the development of the major project, while John Franich is a vice president and oversees the Granite west division. Michael Futch is the General Counsel and Randy Kremer manages building materials. Others include the controller, Laurel Krzeminski, and the head of human resources, Peg Wynn (Annual Report 2008, par4).

As can be observed, the organizational structure of the two companies differs. Belfour Beatty has a highly centralized leadership structure, but a bigger number of both executive and non-executive leaders, indicating that roles are distributed across a larger number of individuals. However, granite's system is less centralized. It is led by a small number of central executives and has divided its operations into two divisions, Granite East and Granite West, each of which has its own designated leaders.

Objectives and methods

The two businesses have robust aims and plans designed to increase their operations and profitability over time. Balfour & Beatty seeks to continuously position itself inside the infrastructure market in a manner that provides future growth potential. Internally refined abilities ensure that clients' needs are consistently met. The most essential long-term plan is to assure the ongoing expansion of shareholder value in an ethical manner. In accordance with its short- and long-term objectives, the company plans to build its business in four sectors. The primary objective is to increase the number of contracts executed within the United Kingdom. As a second measure of diversification, the corporation will offer technical and professional services inside its conventional market regions. Finally, it attempts to build domestic enterprises overseas as an extension of the successful UK model.

Granite, on the other hand, attempts to provide consistent, long-term shareholder value growth. It accomplishes this by establishing a consistent history of outstanding performance, which attracts clients and leads to improved growth prospects. The company seeks to establish a solid reputation and a favorable market position. All of its decisions and operations are governed by a strict code of conduct. Sincerity is the defining characteristic. The company is committed to being honest and open in its business transactions. Secondly, the organization strives to function with integrity, meaning that everyone is expected to always do the right thing. In addition to ensuring that partnerships are always maintained, thirdly, elements of fairness in dealings are upheld. Again, accountability should be upheld at all times, and corrective action should be conducted without complaint in cases of deficiencies. Other approved principles include dependability, which entails that the corporation should only make commitments if it is certain of keeping them, and citizenship, which entails complete adherence to the law and environmental protection. These values are anticipated to drive the company's future potential.

Comparison of accomplishments

As demonstrated in the previous section, the two construction companies are robust and operate globally. The existence of public corporations implies that a comprehensive financial analysis would aid investors in determining the best spot to invest. The examination focuses on the performance of the two companies in terms of their potential to generate returns and their financial health.

A comparison of the 2008 performance of the two companies to that of 2007 reveals a significant improvement. Balfour Beatty's revenue increased from £7,488,000 in 2007 to £9,486,000 in 2008. In 2008, profits before taxes rose from £157 million to £270 million. Granite's revenue decreased from $2,738,914,000 to $2,674,244,000. In 2008, the net income increased from $112,065,000 to $122,404,000. Manifestly, the annual performance of the companies has improved.

Ratios de rendement

Beginning with earnings per share (EPS). This refers to the ratio of net earnings to the number of common shares outstanding. It determines the return on each share and is influenced by shareholding dilution (Liquidity Ratios, 2010, par2). The EPS for Balfour Beatty has increased to 42.9 pence ($0.65) from 39.3 pence ($0.55) in 2007. In contrast, Granite reported an earnings per share of $3.25, an increase from $2.74 in 2007. This indicates that granite returns per share are greater than those of Balfour and Beatty.

Gross profit ratio measures the profit margins earned by sales before indirect costs are deducted. The ratio for Balfour Beatty has decreased to 6.67% from 6.77% the prior year. The gross profit percentage for Granite has increased from 15% to 17.5%.

The net profit ratio indicates the ability of revenues to generate profits after accounting for expenses. Balfour Beatty's net ratio is 2.85 percent. This results in a net profit of $2.85 for every 100 dollars of revenue. For Granite, the ratio is now 4.6%, a rise from the 4.1% recorded in 2007. Once more, it appears that granite is more lucrative than Balfour Beatty.

Return on assets measures the company's assets' ability to create returns. Divide the net income by the average total assets. The ratio for Balfour is 0.05. The ratio for Granite sits at 0.10 Again, this suggests that Granite's assets can provide higher returns than Balfour Beatty's.

In terms of profitability, the conclusion is that Granite is performing far better than Balfour Beatty. A detailed examination of these ratios reveals that Granite has performed exceptionally well. This is because the company's revenue decreased while its profitability increased. This could be the outcome of an increase in efficiency, a significant factor in the industry's competitiveness (Rashid, 2010, par4). Granite is exhibiting clear indications of increasing internal efficiency, a factor that could prove to be extremely influential in defining the company's future.

Cash flow and gearing ratios

The financial analysis is incomplete without a consideration of the company's capacity to meet its obligations. This determines the risk of investing in the company's stock (Leverage / Gearing Ratios, 2010, par.

The current ratio evaluates the relationship between current assets and current liabilities. It helps establish the company's ability to satisfy its short-term current liabilities using its current assets. Balfour Beatty's current ratio is at 0.77. The fact that the ratio is less than one indicates that the company's current assets cannot cover its current liabilities. The ratio for granite stands at 25.1. This indicates that the company is able to fulfill its responsibilities.

The borrowing ratio, on the other hand, defines the company's shareholders' debt. It is the ratio between total debt and total equity. The ratio for Balfour is 0.24, but the ratio for Granite is 0.43. This suggests that Balfour stockholders are less indebted than Granite shareholders.

The debt-to-asset ratio demonstrates the amount to which a company's assets are committed to its debts. Balfour's ratio is 0.19, while Granite's ratio is also 0.19. This means that the company's assets are committed in equal measure to its liabilities.

It is evident from these ratios that Granite has performed better than Balfour Beatty. All profitability and income ratios favor Granite, whereas the gearing ratios do not indicate a substantial difference in risk between the two companies.

Depreciation and inventory valuation

After acquisition, both entities amortize assets at the same rates. The qualifying price is the qualifying value. Due to the capital-intensive nature of the construction sector, the values of amortization have a considerable impact on the firms' profitability, therefore the need for a financial analysis.

Current market prices are used to the valuation of inventories. This is because construction companies have a substantial amount of work in progress at any given moment. Again, these are dispersed throughout a broad operational region. Therefore, it is prudent to utilize the available records to determine the overall value of the inventories for accounting purposes.

Environmental policies

The two corporations have major environmental concerns. In the majority of cases, massive infrastructure development can significantly degrade the surrounding natural ecosystem. The two companies have established methods for limiting the environmental impact of their activities.

Granite is committed to being the building industry's global leader in environmental protection. In this regard, the organization engages its entire employees in an effort to persuade them to embrace ecologically friendly work practices. The company strives to exceed environmental laws in every jurisdiction in which it works by employing the most effective techniques. Second, it employs technology to ensure a more efficient use of resources such as electricity and recycles materials whenever possible. The organization is also devoted to enhancing its internal processes in an effort to become even more environmentally conscious. Lastly, it aims to engage diverse stakeholders constructively in order to develop sustainable conservation programs.

Belfour Beatty recognizes the immense responsibility entrusted to them. As a result, they are dedicated to constructing infrastructure with low or even positive environmental impact. The organization has established precise metrics of environmental impacts, which it employs to design projects and then shares for use in following initiatives.

In addition, the corporation is always looking for ways to reduce carbon emissions inside its operations and through creating an efficient transportation system. In addition to inventing procedures that utilize less water, it has also implemented effective waste management methods.

The above research provides a clear picture of the organizational structure and performance of the two global construction firms. According to the financial study, the two companies have excellent potential for the future due to their solid performance. For 2008, it is evident that Granite has performed better than Balfour Beatty. Again, the corporations' environmental concerns and policies are comparable.


Annual Report 2008. Granite. Web.

2008 Balfour Beatty web page

Csanad, D., 2010. Financial statements' significance Web.

Leverage / Gearing Ratios (2010). Web. Accounting.

Liquidity Ratios, 2010. Web-based accounting

Rashid, J.,2010. The significance and significance of financial statement analysis Web.

Appendix 1

Annual Report and Accounts of Balfour Beatty plc for the year ended 2008 (complete document available on the company's website, "Investors" section).

Financial Ratios

Leverage Ratio

Borrowing Ratio = Total Short-Term and Long-Term Borrowings / Total Equity

Present Ratio

Current Ratio equals Current Assets divided by Current Liabilities.

Earnings Per Share (EPS)

EPS = Earnings Per Share.

Net Income / Weighted Average Number of Outstanding Common Shares

Ratio de Profit brut

Gross Profit Ratio = Gross Profit multiplied by 100 divided by Sales

Where Gross Profit equals sales minus direct expenses

Ratio de Profit Net

Profit Margin Ratio = Profit Margin x 100 / Revenue

Return on Investment

Net income divided by the average total assets.

Where Total Resources =

(Total Assets at the Start + Total Assets at the End) / 2

Return on Investment (ROE)

Return on Equity (ROE) = Net Income / Average Stockholders´ Equity

Where Average Stockholders´ Equity = (Beginning Stockholders´ Equity + Ending Stockholders´ Equity) / 2

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Influencing Employees: Personality And Work Essay Help App


To influence employees is to modify their job behavior. Human resource managers must be able to exert influence over their employees. This impact motivates employees to perform at their highest level. Human resource managers can influence employees through a variety of strategies. These strategies include logical persuasion, inspirational appeal, consultation, teamwork, employee personality, perception, and emotional intelligence on the part of managers. This essay examines three techniques for affecting the performance of employees: personality, perception, and emotional intelligence.


Influencing involves modifying the conduct of others. Influence enables a person to determine some things that would be unattainable in regular circumstances. Human resource managers must have the capability to influence people. Managers utilize influence to motivate their people to provide best performance. In a team structure, the leaders exert influence to ensure that all team members are engaged. Several management techniques, including learning and development, may be employed to affect employee performance. The process results in the effective management of individuals and teams, which improves the organization's performance. Individual personnel and teams are responsible for their ongoing service delivery, behavior, and skill development. Influence is therefore a long-term strategic process that tries to build an acceptable culture that connects individuals with long-term objectives.

Effective employee management fosters a collaborative approach that influences the performance, growth, and objectives of each employee. It compels human resource managers to devise methods for managing the organization's working relationships and enhancing their own and their workers' performance.

The Reasoning

Managers should influence their staff to behave responsibly at work. They must ensure that employees feel valued at their place of employment. In this way, employees would acquire a good attitude and a sense of organization loyalty. Therefore, managers should provide assistance and collaborate with employees to accomplish their objectives. Although there are additional methods for influencing employee performance, this study focuses on three strategies. Personality, perception, and emotional intelligence are these strategies.

These three strategies are interdependent, and managers must apply them to exert influence over staff. Personality establishes the distinctiveness of an employee, whereas perception describes how one perceives his or her environment (Barrick & Ryan, 2003). This environment may include other employees, management, or the organization itself. Emotional intelligence describes a manager's ability to manage workplace tensions (emotions). Personality may alter an employee's view. For instance, an employee with an active personality may find their job to be engaging (perception). Another example might be an employee with a volatile disposition who views more customer or staff questions as a sort of disruption (perception). Consequently, an employee's personality determines how s/he views various job scenarios.

How employees respond to instructions, workloads, or management practices is influenced by their perceptions of the workplace, which are shaped by their individual personalities. Most likely, either the employees or the managers will be irritated by how each party reacts to the situation-altering influences (Maloa, 2001). A manager must demonstrate emotional intelligence to effectively address the problem. As a leader, s/he utilizes this quality to control both his/her own and the employees' emotions. The idea presented here is that a manager can use emotional intelligence to influence the perceptions of employees based on their personalities. In this manner, the manager influences employees to support the organization's objectives.

The Employees' Characteristics

Every individual has a distinguishing trait that sets him or her apart from others. By gaining a grasp of their employees' personalities, managers obtain insight into how they are likely to feel or behave in particular scenarios. To effectively motivate employees, it is necessary to comprehend their personalities. This information also aids in assigning staff employees to their respective positions.

Personality fluctuates with time. Roberts, Walton, and Viechtbauer (2006) report that between the ages of 20 and 40, persons exhibit high levels of social dominance, emotionality, and conscientiousness. Additionally, as people age, they become less receptive to new experiences. Even during childhood, a person's personality can alter, and this is considered to have lasting effects on individuals. The employees' workplace conduct is determined by their personalities.

For instance, friendly people are typically extroverted and can affect the workplace by encouraging social events and teamwork. In positions that need independence or freedom, personality has a significant impact on employee conduct (Barrick & Ryan, 2003). Five characteristics explain the differences in personality. These characteristics characterize employees as being receptive, diligent, extraverted, amiable, and neurotic. The characteristics create the acronym OCAEN. Each individual possesses a certain amount of these characteristics, which are known as the major five structures. The structure of the big five is given below.

Characteristics of personality: the top five (Bratton, 2015, p. 106)


This attribute is characterized by curiosity, creativity, inventiveness, and a yearning for new knowledge. Employees with a high level of openness do exceptionally well in scenarios involving the acquisition of new ideas. According to Barrick and Ryan (2003), these employees are both highly driven to acquire new abilities and well-suited for training. When in a new workplace, individuals utilize their openness to receive performance critiques and build relationships. Consequently, they readily adapt to new settings (Williams, 2001). When confronted with a dilemma, those with an open mind are typically inventive. They are also highly adaptable to change. Unfortunately, such individuals may lack ardour when tasks become routine, and this is the greatest drawback of open-minded personnel.

A excellent example is a new hire who moves across departments to acquaint themselves with other employees and their responsibilities. A human resource manager can influence such employees by responding to their inquiries with relevant and comparative information. After responding to an employee's questions, the manager should simultaneously provide a challenge (LePine, 2003). An employee inquires about the previous year's sales volume, and the manager responds by stating that it was below the target or that of competitors. The management then requests that the employee devise a new plan for his/her department that can increase sales by a specified percentage.


This characteristic reflects an employee's ability to be systematic, time-conscious, organized, results-oriented, and reliable. According to Barrick and Ryan (2003), this characteristic predicts a person's performance across all occupations. People that are conscientious perform well and are highly driven. They have a low number of job changes and absences, and they display a high level of workplace safety. Consequently, conscientiousness can be utilized to define employee job satisfaction. Managers should foster goal-oriented leadership in order to obtain the highest performance from dedicated personnel. They must communicate SMART objectives to staff. The employee performance objectives should coincide with the organization's objectives. In the preceding example of sales volume, the manager could ask a conscientious employee to oversee an organization-wide activity that, if implemented, could result in an increase in sales volume. A excellent illustration would be the way in which departments manage their costs or time.


This feature assesses the employee's "extroversion, sociability, and enjoyment of social interaction" (Ryan, 2003, p. 84). According to Barrick and Ryan (2003), these workers are qualified for sales positions. They are effective managers whose leadership is inspirational. Extraverts are well-suited to social situations, such as where strong networks are required. Due to their sociability, individuals rapidly adjust to new tasks and are content in their work situations. Others may find the talkative and outgoing personality of extraverts to be annoying and upsetting. Due to the disruptive nature of this category, managers can impact the performance of these persons by assigning them solo tasks or positions requiring social influence. In a kitchen, for instance, this individual is assigned a single-output task, such as washing dishes, and not chopping vegetables.


This characteristic measures "the extent to which employees are sensitive, kind, tolerant, affable, trustworthy, and warm" (Ryan, 2003, p. 84). Employees who are agreeable get along well with their coworkers. Their disposition has no effect on this characteristic. When they assume leadership roles, they foster a conducive work atmosphere for the employees, hence enhancing job output. Individuals with a high level of agreeableness are suited for tasks that require change-oriented communication. This is true because, when in a disagreement, they may avoid it, missing an opportunity for positive development. High-agreeable employees' performance can be influenced by managers who assign them duties requiring patience and pleasant interactions. Workplaces where employees perform complex tasks and constantly grumble about the circumstances are one example. The performance of these employees can be positively affected by giving them a manager of this type, as an agreeable manager can create a favorable environment. He/she will guarantee that staff love their complicated task.


This attribute reflects "the extent to which a person is irritable, anxious, moody, and temperamental; such individuals have difficulty regulating their emotions; as a result, they frequently experience stress and depression" (Ryan, 2003, p. 92). They struggle to establish and maintain relationships. They are inaccessible to their coworkers. These individuals express dissatisfaction with their jobs and consequently threaten to quit. When they are in a position of authority, they create an unfavorable work atmosphere. Less neurotic personalities, on the other hand, have more happy than negative moods. They demonstrate devotion to the company's values as well as job happiness. Neuroticism is the only quality for which a high score is undesirable. Human resource managers should therefore seek for candidates with low neuroticism. If a manager has individuals in this group, he or she should avoid assigning them to leadership positions or frontline positions that need direct consumer interaction. The management can assign these employees activities linked to their hobbies, so reducing their likelihood of becoming frustrated.


Perception illuminates how humans notice and interpret environmental stimuli. People are typically insensitive to environmental factors. They have a tendency to overlook certain fundamentals that are obvious to their peers. What individuals "perceive in their environment depends on their values, fears, needs, and emotions" (Maloa, 2001, p. 88). As a result of these mental tendencies, people's perceptions may be utterly inaccurate. Several sorts of perceptions are detailed in the next section.

Visual Perception

Managers evaluate their staff based on their visual perception. This component also enables individuals to take conclusions from the surrounding environment, be it physical or social, as well as draw the correct deductions from the available data. Consequently, it is essential to recognize the component of bias in visual perception.

As an illustration, a staff member observes his or her coworkers using the Internet during office hours. If this employee has an unfavorable view of his or her coworkers, s/he may report this case to the appropriate authorities without considering that the coworkers may have been seeking work-related information. This propensity to fill in gaps produces prejudice. Essentially, if an employee's visual perception is skewed, s/he will reach incorrect conclusions on a certain issue.


Typically, when evaluating themselves, individuals make biased conclusions due to their own skewed perspectives. Self-enhancement bias occurs when an individual exaggerates his or her performance and talents. People believe they are more powerful or capable than their peers judge them to be. This characteristic impacts egotistic staff employees the majority of the time (Maloa, 2001). Self-effacement bias is a second type of self-perception. In this situation, individuals tend to underestimate their talents or performance. They have a gloomy outlook on occurrences. All of these prejudices impair employee performance in the workplace. As an illustration, employees with self-enhancement bias may question why they are not receiving promotions, bonuses, or other perks.

Social perception

This feature emphasizes how individuals perceive one another in a specific setting. This perspective is biased, and as a result, individuals form distorted impressions about others. A stereotype, which refers to the generalizations of the traits of a group, is an example of social bias. These generalizations could be positive or bad (Kusluvan, 2003). People may assume, for instance, that women are more trustworthy than males or that a particular race produces superior workers. The formation of stereotypes is the result of selective perception. This assertion entails "paying selective attention to certain environmental aspects while ignoring others" (Kusluvan, 2003, p. 101). A manager with a background in marketing, for instance, encourages adjustments and advancements in that industry. Due to this prejudice, it is unlikely that individuals will observe acts that contradict their ideas. Specific people are resistant to contradictory facts due to the durability of the first impression they acquire of certain others. Any information obtained to dispute the initial impression is ineffective because the first impression has already been created (Dykes & Monroe, 2010).

How employees view their employment impacts the effectiveness with which a business achieves its objectives. If employees have favorable opinions of their occupations, firms are more likely to experience high worker retention, staff loyalty, and enhanced financial success. The perceptions of employees can be positively changed by expressing to them clear goals and how they can contribute to reaching those goals. This makes employees feel like they are a part of the organization, and as a result, they become collected and work toward a common objective. Human resources should involve their employees in the planning procedure, solicit their feedback, and adopt their suggestions. In this manner, employees will have a positive impression.

Emotional Intelligence (EI)

Emotional intelligence is a skill that needs a manager to perceive, comprehend, and manage his/her own and other employees' emotions. Managers with strong emotional intelligence notice and comprehend their own and their employees' emotional states. They then use this information to cultivate positive relationships and achieve great success through improved management. The four main characteristics of emotional intelligence are (Kite & Kay, 2012):


This characteristic refers to a manager's capacity to detect and name their emotions, as well as describe how these elements influence their thoughts and behavior. Self-awareness enables managers to objectively recognize and accept their own strengths and flaws. This factor contributes to high levels of confidence.


This characteristic emphasizes a manager's ability to regulate impulsive emotions and actions. This element promotes the healthy expression and management of emotions.

Social consciousness

This dimension emphasizes the ability to comprehend and sympathize with the perspectives of others.

Relationship administration

This element entails "building and maintaining good relationships, communicating clearly, inspiring and influencing others, and managing conflict effectively through social awareness" (Kite & Kay, 2012, p. 86).

Emotional intelligence can assist human resource managers in assembling high-performing teams with a positive work environment. This objective can be attained by enhancing their communication skills, fostering relationships, and establishing a pleasant work atmosphere. In any workplace, disagreements negatively impact employee performance (Goleman, 2009). Influencing the staff's well-being is likely to induce unnecessary tension. For small businesses, emotional intelligence is essential. This

KND Corporation’s Human Resource Plan Essay Help App


KND Corporation is a Fall River, Massachusetts-based garment manufacturer. Kevin Smith, who spent the majority of his life working in a factory, launched the company in 2011. Smith has vast experience in production, having spent the majority of his life in a factory. The company has grown from 20 to 400 people over the years, with Smith retaining his position as CEO. The company went public in 2016, and the Board of Directors currently consists of five individuals holding the largest number of shares.

The slogan of the company, “Where fashion meets quality,” embodies the values of the top management and KND's core values. Nevertheless, the firm has performance, motivation, and communication challenges that necessitate a well-designed human resources management plan.


KND Corporation makes medium-priced clothes for girls and women under the brand name Bliss, which is sold online, in four physical locations in Portland, Boston, Springfield, and Manchester, and in multi-brand stores throughout the United States. Although Smith plans to expand to other nations in the future, KND is currently focused on creating more locations in the United States and remains local.

Therefore, KND's primary competitors are domestic apparel businesses such as All American Clothing Co., Flynn Skye, and Hackwith Design House. KND has competition from huge and well-known brands such as Zara, H&M, and American Apparel, in addition to other medium-sized apparel producers. Given the intense competition in the apparel industry, KND Corporation must implement an exceptional human resources structure to promote sales growth.

Design, production, distribution, sales, marketing, and administration comprise the organization's six primary operational facets. The primary objective of production and distribution departments is to prevent retail stockouts and expedite product delivery to online customers. The sales division is responsible for identifying new distribution partners and analyzing sales performance. The marketing department is responsible for managing the online store and promoting the Bliss brand to prospective partners and customers. The accounting department, management, the CEO, and the Board of Directors comprise the administration, which is involved in the overall functioning of the organization.

The seasonal nature of KND Corporation's projects necessitates the collaboration of all divisions to design, create production, sell, and distribute garments for a new season. Fall/winter and spring/summer are the two seasonal lines offered by KND, as they are by the majority of other apparel businesses. Beginning with designers and concluding with the delivery of new collections to distributors, stores, and individual clients, projects are completed in a linear fashion. This slightly simplifies processes, but lengthens the time required to complete each project.

Organizational Structure

The organizational structure of KND is very flat, with three to five levels of hierarchy between the top management and normal staff in the majority of departments. Figure 1 depicts the organizational structure of the corporation, including significant jobs. A flat organizational structure has benefits and drawbacks, but it can be advantageous for KND. According to a research by Narman, Johnson, and Gingnell (2014), it fosters employee autonomy and helps workers to meet their requirements for self-actualization, resulting in more motivation.

Nonetheless, in the context of organizational challenges, a flat structure's lack of oversight could have a negative effect on performance (Narman et al., 2014). To reap the benefits of its flat organizational structure, KND Corporation must create and implement an effective human resources policy.

Figure 1 depicts the organizational structure of KND Corporation.

Flat organizations may also encounter communication problems if they lack a dependable method for transmitting information internally. KND mostly communicates via business e-mails and in-person meetings. This communication method has existed since the company's inception. Due to the amount of e-mails and the time-consuming nature of face-to-face communication, this method may result in the loss of critical information in medium and big businesses.

Organizational Culture

Significantly impacting the behavior and performance of an organization's human resources is its culture. It is defined by the company's and its employees' shared values and attitudes in connection to seven important domains: innovation and risk-taking, attention to detail, outcome orientation, people orientation, team orientation, aggression, and stability (Robbins & Judge, 2018). In KND corporation, attention to detail, stability, and outcome orientation are emphasized, whilst other dimensions are neglected. This impairs human resource management, innovation, and teamwork, creating problems for the company culture.

Goal-setting, company rules, and purpose and vision statements are all instruments that can aid in redefining business culture. To create a new workplace culture, it is vital to match human resource management activities with the new culture. The emphasis on innovation, for instance, necessitates the selection and recruitment of creative individuals, whereas team orientation necessitates training in teamwork, dispute resolution, and organizational relations.

Main Issues

To achieve success in the domestic retail market, which is currently KND Corporation's primary objective, the company must make high-quality clothes at an accessible price, provide superior customer service, and cultivate long-term partnerships with distributors and partners. According to the research of the organization, there are three major obstacles to KND's development.

First, the organization-wide lack of employee incentive to reach performance goals hinders their capacity to execute duties. For instance, the four retail locations frequently encounter stockouts, indicating that the distribution and production departments have failed to resolve and prevent this problem in the future. The sales department has reported a decline in sales, which may be due to subpar service at offline retailers. As KND corporation has a low turnover rate and the majority of its employees have been with the company for at least two years, these difficulties imply low motivation and necessitate a tailored approach to human resource management.

The company's organizational culture is also detrimental to its performance. To achieve the company's domestic development objectives, the organization must prioritize innovation, team performance, and employee satisfaction. This will enable the corporation to produce more appealing and fashionable clothing while ensuring that teams and employees are highly motivated to accomplish performance goals.

Thirdly, as seen in Figure 1, the corporation lacks a separate human resources department, which is unexpected considering its size. KND Corporation's human resource management is impacted by the fact that the majority of HR responsibilities are undertaken by CEO Kevin Smith or departmental managers. The corporation must establish a human resources department and hire at least two professionals to assess employee performance and develop strategies for its enhancement. This would make a substantial contribution to KND's human resource management, as departmental managers and the CEO typically lack the skills necessary to properly conduct HR functions.

Lastly, KND Corporation's communication approach does not correspond with its size and objectives. A combination of email and face-to-face contact could result in messages being misplaced and decrease employee productivity. For instance, a huge amount of e-mails may cause employees to become less attentive and miss vital messages, but face-to-face communication may distract people from their work and cause them to forget portions of the content.

Plan for Human Resource Management

Selection and Recruiting

Recruitment and selection play an important role in the company's human resources strategy since they contribute to the development and preservation of organizational culture. According to Robbins and Judge (2018), businesses that aim to cultivate a vibrant corporate culture should hire candidates with comparable beliefs. Given that KND is recommended to include cooperation and innovation into its organizational culture, the company should seek out people with considerable teamwork experience and an innovative mindset.

HR specialist is the position that KND Corporation needs to fill most urgently at this time. Because the business lacks present individuals with relevant work experience and education, external recruiting would be advantageous. This strategy allows the firm to recruit new talent and is suited for newly created roles (Sharma & Sharma, 2018). KND Corporation's best choice would be to publicize the vacancy on major job search sites, as this would attract more candidates without requiring a significant cost (Sharma & Sharma, 2018).

It is crucial to design a realistic and comprehensive HR expert job description in order to ensure that applicants meet the necessary qualifications. According to the University of Pittsburgh (n.d.), a job description should be succinct and include the most pertinent information about the position, including the duties and responsibilities of the position and a description of the ideal candidate. The proposed explanation is as follows:

Title of the position: Human Resources Specialist KND Corporation is searching for two HR Specialists to direct human resource management operations. HR Specialists will be responsible for developing and implementing the organization's human resource management initiatives. Important responsibilities for this role include recruitment, selection, training, motivation, and communication, among other essential HR responsibilities. HR Specialists will also be responsible for performing internal performance evaluations and applying their understanding of human resource management and research to resolve any HR-related difficulties. The ideal applicant for this role will possess a bachelor's degree in Management, Psychology, or Sociology and at least three years of experience in human resources management. In addition, they should have exceptional cooperation and analytical skills, as well as a creative approach to problem-solving.

This job description would be excellent for recruiting people who meet the company's requirements, as it specifies the necessary abilities and experience. It also serves as an introduction to the role by describing the primary responsibilities and objectives. Since the job description is succinct and to-the-point, it is unlikely that KND will receive applications from applicants who do not meet the qualifications, which will facilitate the recruitment and selection process.

The management should be able to recognize individuals with good teamwork abilities and a creative approach to problem-solving by asking the appropriate interview questions. According to the information supplied by Sharma and Sharma (2018), it is crucial to inquire about the applicant's prior experience in these areas and to have them assess their strengths and weaknesses. Based on this knowledge, the following interview questions are appropriate:

What is your teamwork experience? Describe a moment in which you were compelled to collaborate with others. How would you assess your performance and what are some areas in which you could make improvements? Why do you believe teamwork is crucial to the success of an organization? Do you consider yourself to be a creative individual? What is the rationale, or why not? Describe a situation in which you were compelled to utilize your ingenuity to solve an issue. How do you believe corporations can foster employee creativity and innovation?

These questions will accomplish three essential selection process goals by asking them. First, it will demonstrate whether or not the candidate has the necessary expertise and talents in innovation and teamwork. It will also aid in evaluating the candidate's capacity for personal and professional growth. Lastly, it will inspire prospective workers to apply their expertise in the workplace and demonstrate that their culture is compatible with KND's new organizational culture.

Remuneration and Advantages

When designing the organization's compensation and benefits package, it is crucial to consider the employee value proposition (EVP). An EVP's primary objective is to attract and retain talent inside a business, hence enhancing performance outcomes and workforce quality. According to Goswami (2015), firms with superior EVPs demonstrated greater employee loyalty, job satisfaction, and motivation. These findings make EVP a vital tool for KND Corporation, enabling the organization to address some HR concerns.

EVPs vary from firm to organization and focus on a combination of employer and employee requirements. According to Goswami (2015), the most effective EVPs address compensation and benefits, work-life balance, and professional development. To encourage excellent HR outcomes and build KND's corporate culture, it would be advantageous for the company to design a salary and benefits package with these ideas in mind. Since store managers have a direct impact on the company's financial performance, this position will serve as an example of a good compensation and benefits package.

A store manager's salary should consist of annual base pay and bonuses. Providing lucrative bonuses based on sales performance will motivate shop managers to increase sales at their retail locations, resulting in continual high performance (Sharma & Sharma, 2018). On the basis of this concept, the base compensation should be comparable to that of other organizations, while the perks should be somewhat greater. According to, fifty percent of retail store managers in Boston, Massachusetts earn less than $65,000 annually (“Retail store manager,” 2019).

Consequently, establishing an annual pay of $65,000 and adding quarterly and annual performance bonuses would make KND a competitive employer and contribute to its EVP. The average annual bonus for store managers in Boston, Massachusetts is approximately $5,000, thus KND should offer more than that (“Retail store manager,” 2019). Quarterly bonuses of $1,500 should be given to managers whose stores exceed their monthly sales goals by at least 10%, and yearly bonuses of $4,000 should be paid to those whose stores increased sales by at least 15% over the course of the year. This would encourage store managers to enhance the performance of their personnel, resulting in increased output.

The organization's benefits package should offer employees value beyond monetary issues. According to Sharma and Sharma (2018), employee perks should enhance the quality of an employee's life. It would be advantageous for KND Corporation to provide store managers with complete health insurance that includes dental care, four weeks of paid vacation per year, paid sick days, and a pension scheme, such as a 401(k) retirement plan.

These benefits are beneficial to employees because they promote health promotion and a healthy work-life balance. Additionally, health insurance and paid time off were found to be associated with lower turnover intentions and greater job satisfaction (Ko & Hur, 2014). In addition, store managers should earn a 15 to 20% discount on all KND clothing lines to encourage brand loyalty.

Performance Administration

Performance management is also vital for KND Corporation because it will raise staff productivity and lead to higher sales. It is advised that KND utilize management by objectives (MBO) as a performance management and appraisal method, as the company's primary objectives are to build organizational culture and boost employee motivation. The MBO process involves defining company objectives and translating them into employee objectives in order to evaluate and reward employee performance (Aksoy & Bayazit, 2014). In

Staff Attrition And Implications For Human Resource Managers Essay Help App

Executive Synopsis

Human resource managers are responsible for managing the company's human resources to ensure the achievement of corporate objectives and strategic plans. Attrition, the voluntary or involuntary loss of personnel, is one aspect of this obligation. Typically, the procedure occurs when an employee decides to transfer to a different organization or retire. However, some organizations have a weak organizational culture, which results in personnel turnover due to dissatisfaction with working conditions, compensation, perks, and other aspects of the job. The three studies analyzed in this research ascribe high turnover rates to work hours, salary, an insufficient work-life balance, and some organizational issues, such as a lack of supervisor support. Notably, two of the studies focus on the retail and hospitality industries, whilst one explores the job of a technology-related field; the disparities in outcomes can be attributable to the diverse work environments. This paper examines three publications on attrition and its ramifications for HR managers, as well as discusses various research methodologies.



It is inevitable for an organization to lose some of its employees; the progressive decline in personnel occurs as a result of retirement, transfer to a different company, and in certain situations, termination. Even though most businesses encounter some level of attrition, excessive rates can be detrimental and lead to a shortage of personnel. Consequently, the necessary duties may go uncompleted due to a lack of capable individuals. In light of this, an HR manager should monitor existing attrition rates and ensure that the organization avoids having to confront high turnover.

Attrition is the process through which a corporation gradually reduces the number of its employees. This may be due to non-organizational circumstances, such as death or retirement; but, in some cases, attrition is a result of an unsuitable organizational environment. This study focuses on voluntary attrition because it can negatively impact an organization's effectiveness. From a human resources standpoint, attrition entails additional expenses and resources to account for departing employees. Costs connected with recruiting, hiring, and training new employees provide a considerable obstacle. By understanding the attrition rates, an HR manager may successfully fill essential positions with candidates depending on the organization's needs. According to a report by Itachi (2017), high attrition is not only related with increased costs but also a loss of knowledge and expertise. Consequently, high attrition has both financial and non-financial ramifications for an organization, which can have a negative impact on its operations.

In general, attrition can be reduced by implementing a motivation policy, fostering a positive business culture, and implementing compensation programs. The objective is to prevent high-performing and key personnel from leaving the organization. This research analyzes three papers on employee attrition and synthesizes current knowledge on how human resource managers might address attrition. In addition, it will describe the strengths and weaknesses of research methodologies.


Phases of the Research Method

There are a total of ten steps in every research procedure. First, a researcher must identify a serious, attention-demanding subject (Cooper, 2018; Itani, 2017). Second, they should conduct a literature review and gather evidence proving the issue's significance and how others have tackled it. The third step is the formulation of a hypothesis, which consists of a specific research question and a potential solution to a problem. Determining the design and sample techniques is the next phase in the study procedure. The next step in the research process is data collection, which can be conducted utilizing both primary and secondary sources. The data must be analyzed through data processing and measurement. The next phase is hypothesis testing, in which the researcher examines the data in respect to the hypothesis. If the hypothesis is true, the researcher then interprets the theory and the study's findings; this is the final step in the research process. A researcher creates a report including findings, objectives, and methods to discuss the results.

This study examines research in which interviews or questionnaires were employed. A questionnaire is an efficient method for collecting responses from study participants because it may be distributed face-to-face or through internet resources such as Survey Monkey. Surveys may contain either closed-ended or open-ended questions, although the majority employ closed-ended questions since it allows the researcher to analyze and interpret results more rapidly.

The primary benefit of a survey is that it can be conducted by a single researcher, who will distribute and analyze the questions. Nevertheless, because there is no face-to-face connection between the responder and interviewer, survey questions can be misinterpreted. Another downside is the subjectivity of responses and the inability to ask clarifying follow-up questions.

In contrast to surveys, interviews are designed to acquire a great deal of information from respondents, who are encouraged to respond in a manner that is comfortable to them and to devote as much time as necessary to each response. There are three different sorts of interviews: unstructured, semi-structured, and structured. The distinction is in the degree of direction an interviewer provides to participants. The primary benefit of any type of interview is the quantity of information a researcher may gather, but some responses may differ from what was initially intended. In addition, interviews are face-to-face contacts, so the interviewer can ask follow-up questions and explain certain responses as needed. In contrast to surveys, however, interviewing requires more time for planning and execution and is more expensive. Overall, both surveys and interviews are viable data gathering procedures, with the primary difference between the two being the amount of effort required to complete each and the amount of information that can be gathered.


The Initial Study

In 2019, Haldorai et al. conducted study to discover the causes of turnover at five-star hotels. Notably, this study focuses on an industry where turnover is typically high due to the demanding nature of the jobs and the need to work on a 27/7 schedule. Prior study led the authors to investigate the following variables: work hours, work-life balance hampered by job duties, emotional weariness, professional growth, inadequate remuneration, and work environment (Haldorai et al., 2019). This study examined 308 full-time workers with at least one year of experience.

Using Average Variance Extracted, the authors evaluated the validity of a number of models containing different sorts of components (AVE). According to the findings, emotional labor, work overload, and interpersonal conflicts cause short-term desire to leave the company (Haldorai et al., 2019). In the medium term, the issue of work-life balance contributed to the employee's intention to depart. Ultimately, both short-term and long-term attrition led to the intention to leave an organization over the long term.

In addition to the questionnaire, the researchers also utilized the pull-push mooring framework. This concept is used to explain human migration, but it may also be applied to human resource management, as it is based on the push and pull forces that motivate a person to leave or stay, respectively. Figure 1 depicts several sorts of attrition reasons. In addition, anchoring elements are the societal, personal, or cultural perceptions and attitudes that influence how a certain occupation is regarded.

Figure 1: Types of characteristics that cause employee turnover, according to Haldorai et al(2019) .'s study (created by the author).

This study's strength is the authors' emphasis on short-term, medium-term, and long-term plans to leave. In addition, the researchers included questions that should provide insight into the reasons why people do not want to join the hospitality industry, allowing HR managers to have a comprehensive assessment of the industry and organisational factors that may need to be altered in order to hire people more effectively. Due to the strategy employed by Haldorai et al. (2019), one of the limitations of this study is the subjectivity of the responses. Another potential concern is that this study's questions were closed-ended, which prevented participants from expressing their own perspective on attrition.

The Second Research

The second investigation was undertaken in 2020 by Gayathri and Thaiyalnayaki.

In Chennai, 473 women employed by information technology (IT) organizations were requested to complete a questionnaire. The author utilized journals, magazines, and other printed materials to build a questionnaire containing likely attrition-rate-influencing elements. The following variables contributed to employee turnover in these IT companies: salary, organization climate and culture, lack of superior assistance, and lack of career advancement chances (Gayathri and Thaiyalnayaki, 2020). Therefore, in the IT industry, financial compensation and company culture are issues that cause employees to leave.

This study explores a business in which the nature of work differs from the hospitality and retail sectors, primarily because employees are not required to interact with consumers face-to-face all the time and work hours are not determinative. Thus, Gayathri and Thaiyalnayaki (2020) did not report on issues of work hours and work-life balance; rather, the focus switched to the firms' environments and prospects for career advancement. This study's strength is that Gayathri and Thaiyalnayaki (2020) utilized two techniques of data collecting, including questionnaires and a literature analysis, to obtain primary and secondary data, respectively. The authors' focus on Indian enterprises is a restriction, as replies from IT employees in other locations may differ.

The Third Research

Bagchi (2020) conducted an interview-based study of the attrition rates and causes for the Indian retail business. The author used face-to-face interviews because previous research on the topic yielded general conclusions.

The frontline staff cited "competitive pay, work-life imbalance, and work stress due to long working hours" as the reasons they left their retail employment (Bagchi, 2019, p. 20). In addition, the author claims that the average service duration indicated by respondents is 12 months, indicating that retail business turnover rates are high.

An important finding of this survey is that employees are satisfied with their work environment and flexibility, and the majority report feeling valued in their employment. However, Bagchi (2020) states that the majority of interviewees are unsure about their employers' policies, such as those regulating leave requests, and are unaware of available professional development options. Additionally, many say that they have little time to spend with their families.

This study's design is its greatest asset, as interviews enabled the author to get an in-depth understanding of HR functions and attrition. In addition, the author presents a great deal of information from the interviews that demonstrates the flaws with the way retail organizations structure the work of their frontline employees, which is really useful. Consequently, despite some limitations, such as a small sample size, this study is a solid piece of research that identifies the factors that contribute to high turnover rates in the retail industry.

Analysis of the Sources

Despite analyzing distinct businesses and employing diverse data gathering techniques, the findings of all three studies are comparable. In addition, all writers concur that high attrition negatively impacts the organization's ability to function. Notably, a study by Haldorai et al. (2019) incorporates the three categories of attrition causes and the short-, medium-, and long-term perspectives, making it the most exhaustive analysis of attrition variables among the three studies. Other researchers employed a simplified method for constructing interview and survey questions, incorporating literature-derived likely attrition contributors.

The precise attrition variables associated with the various industries that were the focus of these studies vary. For instance, the two studies that focused on work-intensive sectors that relied on their employees' communication and cooperation with customers demonstrate that work circumstances, particularly work hours and emotional discomfort, are the most significant drivers to employee turnover (Bagchi, 2020; Haldorai et al., 2019). In a different instance, organisation-specific elements, such as culture, environment, communication with leadership, and career advancement chances, were considered as the most significant by employees.

Nonetheless, there is a potential that bias affected the responses of the employees. For instance, Bagchi (2020) polled current employees of a retail chain, and their responses indicate that they are satisfied with their work environment and culture. Despite the fact that the study is anonymous, the existing employees may be hesitant to reveal their true thoughts about the work owing to concerns that their coworkers may discover the truth. The two other studies likewise focused on analyzing the responses of the present employees, therefore these studies may be susceptible to bias. Even departure interviews do not provide complete clarity regarding a departing employee's objectives, as the departing employee may avoid providing feedback to their employer.

Data Analysis

Based on the three investigations, six attrition variables are distinguished in Figure 2. These factors are most likely to influence an employee's choice to leave a company: According to the findings of three research studies, high employee turnover is caused by extrinsic, or organization-specific factors, such as compensation, perks, and management conduct. The following are the most important churn factors:

Work and life equilibrium Compensation Organisation's culture Work Conditions Policies Assistance from superiors Career development opportunities

Figure 2. The attrition factors are based on the findings of three research (created by the author).

Because the employees are dissatisfied with their working conditions, they choose to quit, making employee turnover an urgent issue at these organizations. Numerous factors prevent individuals from enjoying their professions and maintaining healthy interpersonal relationships. As a result, essential activities may be neglected since no one is available to execute them. Companies experiencing attrition confront a variety of problems, including decreased production and financial losses, among others. However, particular tactics can be implemented to prevent a high level of attrition in a business.

Initially, it is advantageous for the business, the client, and the salesperson to look for ways to enhance the skills of the employees. Numerous foci utilize multiskilling as a method to be more efficient. Effectively utilized, it can also be considered as a development tool. Representatives will be trained in new skills within certain timeframes or upon reaching a particular level of presentation (Cooper, 2018). When correctly communicated, this offers employees a sense of accomplishment and creates variety in the workplace. It can be performed without a monetary reward, thereby motivating employees to remain with the company longer as they advance along the expertise path, while also achieving the business's productivity requirements.

Transparency and communication are crucial to the success of any firm. Every business needs its staff

Leadership Style Of Director Of A Children’s Centre Essay Help App

My Leader's Management Roles

A variety of duties and responsibilities are required to maintain a children's center not only afloat but thriving at its highest level. My leader is the managing director of a children's center and the preschool affiliated with it. She is responsible for the day-to-day running of the center, which involves the overall administration of all areas, such as the availability of supplies, scheduling of personnel, interviewing of parents, and budgetary considerations. She is present to guarantee that the center operates efficiently. She also collaborates with a Board of Directors comprised primarily of parent volunteers. They make final judgments regarding certain financial matters. In addition to managerial problems, she engages in strategic planning with the staff to provide ideas for additional centre and children-related decisions. Although she does not have a teaching assignment, she is available to serve as a substitute teacher when necessary.

Culkin (1997) distinguishes between the functions of managers and institution leaders. Managers are concerned with the specifics of everyday practice, such as operating processes, finances, and other policies, whereas leaders are more concerned with reflective, dynamic, value-based planning and organization. In other words, managers are responsible for establishing and overseeing systems, whereas leaders provide vision, direction, set standards, and make difficult decisions.

My leader plays a crucial role in the early childhood program she oversees. She is a hands-on leader who must go into the nitty-gritty details of each area of concern, as well as someone who can see the big picture. The figure that follows illustrates the scope of her tasks, which might appear daunting to the average reader. However, because my leader strives for greatness, she takes all of these nuances to heart in order to deliver excellent community service.

Numerous of these jobs and responsibilities are typical of directors of daycare centers, including personal management, employee management, training facility management, and maintenance management. Directors are accustomed to programming and administering children's curricula, as well as communicating with employees and families (Geoghegan, Petriwskgj, Bower 2003).

The Board of Directors is also accountable to my leader. She provides them with the necessary information, such as grant awards, and options so they may make informed judgments. The majority of the Board's final decisions concern financial and budgetary matters.

My Leader's Management Styles

According to my observations of my leader, she is always in charge of the situation. She acknowledges having a democratic leadership style. She is at ease creating goals with a team, prioritizing how to attain those goals, and assigning responsibility such that everyone makes an equal contribution to the collaborative effort. She can discern the appropriateness of various leadership styles for various people and situations. However, she finds it most challenging to apply an authoritarian leadership style when she has reprimand an employee who does not adhere to the standards she must impose. In the next sections, the leadership styles of my boss will be studied based on Sullivan's (2003) categories of participatory, educational, and facilitative leadership styles.

My Leader as a “Participative” Leader

My first impression of my leader was her compassion for worker problems. She stated she got an early start to her day due to a phone call from a sick colleague who informed her she could not come to work. My leader has since reorganized staff responsibilities to accommodate the absence. If she has no other option, she is willing to be a substitute so that operations in the center are not affected.

Another indication that she is a participative leader is the fact that one of the teachers brought her over to show her a platypus drawing that one of the students had created. This demonstrated that she is seen as someone significant enough to share someone's pleasures, even though she held a position of superiority to that someone.

My leader is an admitted team player. She states that she appreciates this quality in others. She explains, "I admire and encourage team players. I have witnessed individuals in early childhood by alone, which I find tough. I appreciate having team members that can see the big picture. It's gratifying when people go above and above for the preschool. The community should pull together, since we are a communal service (See Interview with Early Childhood leader, Appendix 2).

Participative leadership implies that a leader considers not just her own involvement or opinion, but also that of everyone else. My leader occasionally uses a democratic approach to decision-making by polling everyone's opinion and allowing the majority to rule. She asserts that she is a just leader in her own way.

My Leader's Qualities as a "Educative" Leader

My leader's willingness to allow me to interview and observe her is sufficient for me to consider her an Educative leader. She is aware that I will profit greatly from this assignment, and that it is an integral part of my education to observe a true educational leader in action. My leader is essentially a teacher. She is willing to teach me the ropes and even introduces me to others, such as the parents and instructors, as if to vouch for me as a student under her tutelage.

She also encourages her employees to attend paid training opportunities to enhance their abilities by posting notices on the bulletin board. Throughout their careers, teachers must be receptive to new learning in order to facilitate the emergence of new educational trends and views. Clearly, early childhood leaders are required to influence, inspire, and motivate people to perform at their best. As a director of an early childhood program, it is vital that he or she acquires an understanding of the many behaviors and strategies required to boost the effectiveness of the center's personnel (Sullivan, 2003). Obviously, as a teacher, she pushes for the children they serve to receive a high-quality education. Her attitude is that every child should have equal access to the service so that he or she can realize their maximum potential. She asserts, "Children require a safe, stimulating learning environment with an emphasis on acceptance and inclusion." ” (See Interview with Early Childhood leader, Appendix 2)

My Leader's Facilitative Leadership Style

Clark (2008) describes leadership as "the process by which an individual influences others to achieve a goal and directs the organization so that it becomes more cohesive and coherent." (Clark, 2008, para.3). The key word in this instance is influence. My leader understands how to utilize her position to assist others in achieving their objectives. She shares:

"I usually provide issues or suggestions and see how they come together. But I do have visions, such as wanting the atmosphere to be tidied up at the end of the day. Others may have a different perspective, so it's interesting to put it out there and hear what others have to say. Then there are regulations and policies, which are simply the rules, and it is my responsibility to guarantee that they are adhered to. (See Interview with a Leader in Early Childhood, Appendix 2)

My leader's direction is quite subtle, as she allows her employees to shine on their own. She allows them to openly voice their ideas, but she also knows when to accept them if they align with the organization's concept. A competent leader has a clear vision of where she wants to go and directs people in the direction of that vision. She collaborates with others on means to achieve their goals, rather than focusing authority on herself. In doing so, she enables students to have confidence in their abilities and encourages them to embrace possibilities and challenges. Due to her strong effect, everyone respects her and follows her while pursuing a similar purpose for the organization's growth and development (Leithwood & Riehl, 2003). This perspective is supported by Shoemaker (2000), who states that "effective leadership is required to foster purpose, creativity, imagination, and drive" (p.41) among other staff members. My leader must establish excellent leadership abilities and devise techniques that inspire intrinsic motivation in employees, so enabling them to perform autonomously. My leader is an integral part of "learning how to progress from good practice to best practice" (Rodd, 2006). She is pushing her colleagues to reach their full potential and create prospects for an exciting future in the Early Childhood profession in this manner.

My Leader’s Essence

My leader's warmth and eloquence made me feel so welcome in her world. She was able to accommodate me despite her extremely demanding schedule by offering a candid interview and allowing me to witness her in action. I learned a great deal from the experience, including her secret goal of not setting out the chairs before the parents' assembly to encourage them to interact and socialize first, rather than instantly finding their own corners and isolating themselves from the group.

The leadership styles utilized to examine my leader, Participative, Educative, and Facilitative, were an accurate reflection of how I perceived her. She participated by simply being herself and demonstrating that she was on par with her staff, rather than flaunting her superiority over them. It was simple for her to earn their respect in this manner, and it is now a given that her staff recognizes her as an authoritative figure. She demonstrates the path for others, including myself, her employees, and even the parents. She does not impose her beliefs on others, but rather encourages people to arrive at their own understandings. This further establishes her as a facilitative leader.

I can tell how demanding her position as managing director was since she was always multitasking and being productive at it. She claims that her management responsibilities at the office prevent her from devoting much time to the early childhood program, yet I observe that when she is in the presence of children, she immediately assumes the role of a caring early childhood professional. I observed this during our visit to the sister preschool, when she interacted with the young pupils, and at the parent interview with the new child, when she amused him with a puzzle.

Her demeanor is what attracts individuals to her. Her employees has no qualms about approaching her with any concerns… whether inquiring about the payroll, discussing work schedules, or simply sharing an inspiring student's work. As the leader of an Early Childhood Centre, she appears to excel in her various tasks.

My leader represents my conception of an ideal, effective leader. A person who has a clear vision of how an institution should operate best fits this description. She has the knowledge and abilities to get there, as well as a positive attitude and a high level of emotional intelligence in dealing with people. She does not view herself as the central figure in the transformation process, but rather shares her leadership with crucial individuals, such as her employees, who have a direct impact on the organization. Her compassionate, attentive, and sensitive demeanor is geared toward the growth and development of the institution and its members.


Clark, D. (2008). Leadership Concepts in Hutter, A.D. (1982). Poetry in psychoanalysis: Hopkins, Rosetti, and Winnicott. International Review of Psychoanalysis, Volume 9, pages 303 to 16

1997, "Administrative leadership," in Leadership in Early Care and Education, edited by S.L. Kagan and B.T. Bowman, National Association for the Education of Young Children, Washington, DC, pp. 23-44.

Geoghegan, N., A. Petriwskgj, L. Bower, and D. Geoghegan. "Eliciting dimensions of educational leadership in early childhood education." Journal of Australian Research in Early Childhood Education, vol. 10, no.

Liethwood, K.A., and C. Riehl (2003). What We Know About Effective School Leadership. NCSL.

C.C.J. Shoemaker, "Leadership and the role of the leader," in Leadership and Management of Programs for Young Children, 2nd edition, Pearson Education, Boston, 2000, pp. 38-44.

Learning to Lead: Effective Leadership Skills for Teachers of Young Children, by David Sullivan, 2003. Redleaf Press, Saint Paul, Minnesota

Leadership in Early Childhood: The Pathway to Professionalism, Third Edition, Allen & Unwin, St. Leonards, New South Wales, 2006.

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Enterprise Resource Planning Essay Help App

To remain competitive and provide clients with a distinct product or service, businesses must utilize their resources wisely. Many of an organization's daily duties can be performed using computers and cloud-based resources, as a result of recent improvements in the information technology sector. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) tools aid these businesses in organizing their operations effectively; yet, many have difficulty implementing this software. This article seeks to investigate the issues and limitations that impede the global adoption of ERP.

Difficulties with Adoption

The introduction of ERP can modify the company's day-to-day operational strategy; hence, these systems represent a considerable organizational change. According to Kasemsap (2015), ERP is the most significant advancement in information technology that will alter the operational strategies of several small and medium-sized businesses. It will impact their ability to grow and compete in a given industry; therefore, it is essential to identify the unique obstacles that prohibit businesses from adopting this system globally.

ERP can typically be used in the following firm components: manufacturing, supply chain, sales, finance, human resources, budgeting, and customer service (Kasemsap, 2015, p. 789). Despite the fact that this is a fantastic method for automating the aforementioned operations, the social, cultural, and organizational aspects of a particular company may hinder the ERP deployment.

It is essential to recognize that these ERP systems will be utilized by the firm's employees; hence, it is required to evaluate the readiness and attitudes towards change inside a given organization. According to Costa, Ferreira, Bento, and Aparicio (2016), the most important challenge for businesses is ensuring that employees use ERPs in the workplace. The authors refer to this issue as the productivity paradox because, in order to embrace the new ERP system, management must assure that employees are prepared to use it. In addition, according to Costa et al. (2016), the Technology Acceptance Model is the most common method used by businesses to incorporate ERPs into their operations.

The paradigm posits that individual attitudes and subjective norms within an organization predetermine implementation outcomes. Consequently, the attitudes of workers and their ability to use this software are a critical factor in the failure of ERP systems.

It is vital to investigate whether the complexity of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems influences deployment outcomes. According to Rajan and Baral (2015), the diverse nature of the end user who would utilize the program in his or her everyday work is the biggest obstacle preventing ERPs from being implemented globally. ERP systems are technically sophisticated and require a team of professionals for installation, but the number of ERP projects that have failed implies that other variables should also be considered.

When planning the deployment of an ERP, the following factors should be considered: self-efficacy, organizational support, training, and compatibility, as around two-thirds of ERP initiatives fail (Rajan & Baral, 2015, p. 105). Therefore, the specific ERP system and its complexity have no meaningful effect on implementation outcomes.

Based on the evidence presented thus far, it can be concluded that information technology literacy and preparedness to adopt the system have little impact on the decision-making and implementation processes within businesses. For executives and ERP developers, the process of teaching end users proves to be tough. For instance, one of the organizations analyzed by Seethamraju (2015) devoted six months to ensuring that its staff could utilize at least fifty to seventy percent of the ERP's capabilities. Therefore, the impact of the time and resources required to improve the knowledge of staff members regarding information systems on the total value of the ERP should be considered by the management of a company.

While ERPs are implemented inside enterprises' existing structures, the nature of the solution may need adjustments to some daily processes. According to Seethamraju (2015), the installation of ERP necessitates modifications to some existing processes, which can be a substantial issue for businesses. To ensure successful outcomes, it is crucial to have a sufficient understanding of the current processes and the impact of ERP-enabled changes, as a lack of process understanding and knowledge about the strategy of applying ERP to resolve organizational issues is another factor contributing to implementation failure.

According to Altamony, Tarhini, Al-Salti, Gharaibeh, and Elyas (2016) and Das and Dayal (2016), in order to implement ERPs globally, executives must prepare for the shift, develop an implementation strategy, and assess the impact on the end user. This strategy can help guarantee that ERP is implemented effectively and that all potential hurdles are considered.


ERP systems are essential for small and medium-sized businesses because they enable growth and efficient operations administration. However, the majority of efforts to adopt these systems are unsuccessful. The key factors influencing the outcomes of ERP implementation are a company's attitude toward change, its current information technology knowledge, and its organizational culture and practices. Proper planning and evaluation of end-user input are vital for the successful adoption of ERP systems.


Altamony, H., Tarhini, A., Al-Salti, Z., Gharaibeh, A. H., & Elyas, T. (2016). A theoretical perspective on the relationship between change management strategy and effective enterprise resource planning (ERP) installations. 7(4), 690-703, International Journal of Business Management and Economic Research.

Costa, C., Ferreira, E., Bento, F., & Aparicio, M. (2016). Determinants of enterprise resource planning adoption and satisfaction 659-671 in Computers in Human Behavior, volume 63. Web.

Das, S., & Dayal, M. (2016). (2016). Exploring the selection and implementation of cloud-based enterprise resource planning (ERP): A qualitative investigation in the Indian education sector. 18(1), 11-36, Journal of Information Technology Case and Application Research. Web.

Kasemsap, K. (2015). Implementing enterprise resource planning. The Encyclopedia of information science and technology, edited by M. Khosrow-Pour (3rd ed.; pp. 789-807). Hershey, Pennsylvania: IGI Global.

Rajan, C., & Baral, R. (2015). Adoption of ERP System: An Empirical Analysis of Factors Influencing ERP Usage and Its Impact on the End User IIMB Management Review, 27(2), 105-117. Web.

Seethamraju, R. (2015). Small and medium-sized businesses' adoption of software as a service (SaaS) enterprise resource planning (ERP) platforms (SMEs). 17(3) Information Systems Frontiers: 475-492 Web.

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Identifying A Developing Country Essay Help App

This paper aims to explain the distinguishing traits of developing nations. It also addresses the social, political, and economic dimensions of development. It concludes by examining the relationship between democracy and development, as well as the three components of development.

According to the majority of books and encyclopedias, a developing country has relatively poor living standards and an underdeveloped economic base. In addition, the Human Development Index (HDI) score and per capita income are moderately poor.

All countries that are neither a developed nation nor a failed state are typically categorized as developing nations, regardless their major characteristics. Some of the qualities listed for emerging nations are inconsistent, as certain developing nations are considerably more developed than some developed nations.

As a result, there are several stages of emerging nations, as their qualities are not necessarily identical. It depends on the individual and the country being described. Less developed countries (LDCs), least economically developed countries (LEDCs), “underdeveloped nations” or “undeveloped nations”, Third World nations, and “non-industrialized nations” are some of the names that are occasionally used. The opposite end of the spectrum is referred to as developed countries, the most economically developed countries (MEDCs), First World nations, and "industrialized nations."

Critics argue that the term 'developing' is sometimes incorrect. In the case of countries wrecked by European colonialism, the term “re-developing” is more appropriate because prosperous economic systems existed prior to colonization. Allegedly as a result of ethnocentrism, Western researchers judge these exchanges illegitimate and do not consider them "developed." The premise is that “to develop” and “to develop in a western manner” are synonymous.

Statistical indices such as income per capita (per person) (GDP), life expectancy, literacy rate, etc. are used to measure a country's development. The UN has developed the HDI, a composite indicator comprised of the aforementioned statistics, to measure the level of human development in nations for which data is available.

In general, developing nations are those that have not reached a high level of industrialization relative to their population and have a low standard of life.

Development can be viewed from three angles. Specifically, the political, economic, and social factors. The three are interconnected in significant ways. To gain a comprehensive understanding of a developed or developing country, one must comprehend the three components of development and how they contribute to the country's development status.

Typically, economic progress is discussed in terms of wealth, labor force, output, and income. It is defined as the development of a nation's or region's economic riches for the benefit of its citizens. From a policy standpoint, economic development can be characterized as initiatives that aim to improve a community's economic well-being and quality of life by creating and/or retaining jobs, sustaining or rising incomes and the tax base, and attracting or retaining businesses.

Most individuals, when explaining development, confuse economic growth and economic development, despite the fact that the two terms pertain to vastly different challenges. Economic development refers to advances in a number of indices such as literacy rates, life expectancy, and poverty rates, whereas economic growth refers to the increase of a specific metric such as real national income or gross domestic product.

The poor income of the people in developing nations is typically insufficient to feed the growing population. Because of difficulties such as corruption, poor distribution, and a large population, the economic growth is between 8 and 10 percent, and the gross domestic product is fairly low. Therefore, they rely heavily on foreign help.

In addition to the economic component of development, social and political aspects are also considered. The political aspect will allude to the ways of government in the country, while the social aspect will speak to the lifestyle of the people.

Politics is understood in terms of democracy, 'good governance,' and local self-government, inclusive of civil society engagement. These are highly affected regions in emerging nations. In these countries, dictatorship is prevalent.

Developing nations fall behind in various areas, such as infrastructure, luxury demands, lack of tourism, unclean cities, ineffective communication, and distribution network; they may also be tarnished by violence, corruption, or other wrongdoings. A developing nation has a peculiar pattern of numerous data, such as cities that are not very well-known, a large population living below the poverty line, starvation, hunger, and diseases.

There is a relationship between democracy and progress. Conventional wisdom believed until quite recently that economic progress, wherever it occurred, will automatically and rather swiftly lead to democracy. The argument, in its simplest version, is as follows: economic prosperity creates an educated and entrepreneurial middle class, which sooner or later begins to seek responsibility over its own destiny. Even tyrannical administrations are eventually forced to yield. Almost all wealthy countries in the world are democratic, whereas the converse is true.

Notable also is the functional relationship between economic and political development in all cultures, whether developed or developing. In the United States, for instance, the rise in per capita output over the past few years has been accompanied by a significant expansion in administrative operations.

There has been a lingering dispute regarding whether the GDP is a suitable indicator of development. The most common explanation for this is that it is not distributed evenly across all counties. The fact that only products and services transferred for money are recorded is another reason why this metric is inadequate. It disregards human liberty, distribution, quality of life, and sustainability once more.

GDP does not include unpaid labor, particularly women's care work. It does not include negative benefits, such as the cleanup of a toxic waste dump, which is considered a GDP gain.

Therefore, the majority of definitions for underdeveloped countries are inadequate. Even while the characteristics of developing and developed countries are specified, the majority of which pertain to the countries' living situations, the countries referred to as developing or developed do not always adhere to the established pattern.

The development of human livelihoods and improved quality of life should be the metric used to classify developed countries, and vice versa for underdeveloped nations.

One need not consult the above definitions to determine if a country is developed or not. This is due to the fact that development comprises only governance, healthcare, education, gender equality, disaster preparedness, infrastructure, economics, human rights, the environment, and their linked issues.


Joseph Guasch and J. Luis Guasch "Inventories in Developing Countries: Levels and Determinants — a Warning Sign for Competitiveness and Growth" (2001). World Bank Working Paper on Policy Research No. 2552. Web.

2004 UNDP Human Development Report: Cultural Freedom in Today's Diverse World.

Economics of development, New York/London, 1996, by Roemer, Donald R. Snodgrass.

Todaro, Michael P., Economic Development, Harlow (UK), 19976; ISBN 0582302579; Todaro, Michael P.

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United Health Group Inc.: Servant Leadership, Leadership Communication Essay Help App


Discrimination in the workplace is one of the greatest obstacles that has hindered our capacity to reach some of this company's strategic objectives. United Health Group Inc. is one of the nation's largest healthcare providers. This seventeenth-ranked Fortune 500 company has enormous potential that can be utilized to the benefit of all stakeholders. Nonetheless, discrimination against a subset of the facility's employees or customers has been one of the most significant issues affecting our business. As a member of this organization's leadership, I believe we can overcome this obstacle. We can only fulfill the company's goals if we live as a cohesive family. We should not utilize race, religion, sexual orientation, age, or any other demographic variable to divide us. We must move above ethnic prejudice and bigotry. If we make a concerted effort, we will be able to form a family that is capable of withstanding any influences in the external environment.

United Health Services

United Health Group has become one of the world's major health care providers. We have devoted many hours to achieving our current standing. This indicates that we have the potential to achieve even greater success if we are able to overcome some of the most significant flaws. I believe that discrimination towards a segment of the population is one of the organization's most significant flaws. There have been reports that Blacks experience discrimination, particularly at the hands of their bosses. According to Blanchard and Hodges (2003), leaders are responsible for respecting others if they expect people to respect them. We must combat this sin with a unified front.

Servant Leader

Leadership is one of the most influential determinants of an organization's success or failure. Due to the bold actions of great leaders such as George Washington, the United States of America was able to win independence from its colonial overlords (Sipe & Frick, 2009). These were servant leaders who sought to transform the nation without placing their own interests first. George Washington, for instance, was able to lead this nation to socioeconomic and political success by sacrificing some of his personal interests for the greater good of society. In order to be successful in this organization, we must follow in similar footsteps.

Leadership as an Obligation

In our organization, we must recognize that we were placed in positions of leadership to serve other employees. We owe it to our employer and the business as a whole to provide leadership to everyone. Leadership is not a license to oppress others and make them feel like unworthy members of our community. We are responsible for listening to them. We must comprehend their demands and choose the most effective means of meeting them. We must recognize that it is our duty to promote unity among all parties involved. Best practices begin with us, and any bad attitude we adopt will be reflected throughout the organization (Miller, 2009).

Communication Techniques

According to Trompenaars and Voerman (2009), while tackling the issue of prejudice in the workplace, one of the steps that must be addressed is to strengthen our communication techniques. We must establish efficient methods of communication with employees at various management levels. We must establish a method of communication that is not bureaucratic. Leaders should establish direct channels of communication with subordinates. This is the only way we can discover what is harming people at their workstations. The management must also devise a method for allowing employees to openly express themselves without fear of intimidation. We owe this to them since our purpose is to serve them.

Theory X by McGregor

We must take care of the leadership models we employ while mentoring other members of this organization to achievement. In a hospital context, we must recognize that some personnel may become exhausted, particularly when they overwork out of necessity. We must ensure that we do not place an excessive amount of pressure on them to perform their jobs. We must resist the desire to apply McGregor's Theory X to staff management, as doing so will induce mistrust. The staff should develop a sense of duty and trust.

Theory Y by McGregor

As leaders, we must recognize the significance of delegating responsibilities and creating the subordinate officers' confidence that the allocated work will be completed. I am requesting that the senior leaders of this organization delegate some responsibilities to their subordinates in an effort to foster a culture of trust. I am appealing to the junior supervisors to avoid the temptation to harass junior personnel. If we treat you well, it is your job to return the favor by treating your subordinate staff with deference. This will teach them to respect our clients. We will no longer receive discrimination accusations from clients. We must all adopt McGregor's Theory Y.

Collaboration at United Health Group Inc.

United Health Group's difficulties can only be handled via collaboration. Even though our company is regarded as one of the most prestigious in the world, our services are inferior than those of Johns Hopkins Hospital, the industry leader. We must avoid letting bad ethnicity interfere with our teamwork. We should both think that we are equals in the organization and that everyone deserves respect. We cannot achieve our goals if we operate as autonomous individuals who do not require the assistance of other members of the organization. Only in an environment where employees feel respected can teamwork be successful.

The advantages of the new policy

This new policy's implementation will yield enormous benefits for the organization. In the recent past, some employees have claimed that supervisors allocate tasks with bias. This is a direct manner of expressing their dissatisfaction with their treatment. These personnel do not always perform their duties (Baldoni, 2003). This problem will be addressed by this new policy. It is also true that the personnel will eventually realize they must treat each client with respect. This step will increase staff happiness and increase the hospital's market presence. The company will realize increased market profitability.


As leaders, it is our duty to confront the issue of employment discrimination. We are all aware that any type of discrimination degrades the victims. When we commit this social wrong against the junior staff, they will retaliate on the customers. When serving customers they consider to be in the same social class as their tyrannical supervisors, they would treat them with contempt, which could have a negative impact on the firm's profitability. In order to obtain a good reputation on the market, we must therefore combat discrimination at all levels of this organization. This is the only way for the company to become competitive in the market.


Baldoni, J. (2003). Leaders with excellent communication skills are excellent communicators. Manhattan: McGraw-Hill

Blanchard, K. H., and P. Hodges (2003). Transforming your heart, mind, hands, and behaviors. Country music: Countryman.

Miller, K. (2009). Approaches and techniques for organizational communication Wadsworth Cengage Learning, Boston.

Sipe, J. W., & Frick, D. M. (2009). Seven pillars of servant leadership: putting the knowledge of serving as a leader into practice. Paulist Press in New York

Trompenaars, F., & Voerman, E. (2009). Servant Leadership Across Cultures: Leveraging the World's Most Powerful Leadership Philosophy. Infinite Ideas Ltd., Oxford.

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Accounting Principles Board And Regulatory Systems Essay Help App


As with every credible language, Accountancy has its own rules and syntax, which consists of the principles on which the system is based, known as the Generally Accepted Principles (GAAP), International Accounting Standards, and US GAAP, etc., forming the theoretical base of Accountancy, and the Double Entry bookkeeping for recording transactions serving as the system's Practical Base (ICFAI Center for Management Research ICMR, 2004).

No firm can afford to stay covert in the current world, as several parties, including creditors, employees, taxes authorities, investors, the public and government, etc., are interested in business matters (C. Horngren et al., 2000). The accountants' prepared financial statements are consistent and credible since they adhere to these widely accepted standards. General Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) are necessary for two reasons:

First, to record transactions in a logical and consistent manner; and second, to adhere to the established norms and processes.

Even for the same subject, there are a range of accounting policies in operation. In designing GAAP, the three conventions of significance, impartiality, and viability are followed since the process of interpreting financial statements has become complex due to the implementation of diverse rules in numerous areas of accounting (Discussion on empirical research on accounting choice, 2001). Accounting policies take into account the diverse principles, bases, conventions, laws, and processes chosen by management in preparing and presenting their financial accounts (Ormiston, 2004).

The history of accounting

Accounting's major purpose was to determine the result of business activities, whether profit or loss, during a fiscal year and to depict the financial status of the business organization as of a specific date. However, with the passage of time, accounting demands have expanded dramatically (Nobles, 2009). Compared to the APB16 and APB17 periods released in 1970, the proportion of goodwill in a merger is substantial, therefore the goodwill will have a greater negative impact on net income. This implies that the corporation must annually write down a substantial amount of goodwill, which will impact the income statement.

Accounting is currently required to adhere strictly to the needs of taxing authorities, investors, government rules, management, and owners. This has resulted in the expanded scope of accounting, which can be elucidated as follows:

"Accounting is the art of recording, classifying, and summarizing monetary transactions and events that are, at least in part, of a financial nature, and interpreting the results thereof"

In a nutshell, science establishes the relationship between cause and effect, whereas art is the relevance of knowledge comprising certain accepted theories, doctrines, and principles. Accounting is an art, not a science, because it does not establish a cause-and-effect link; rather, it gives only the technique by which accounting objectives might be reached. Accounting is the skill of recording financial transactions in appropriate books by dividing them into desired categories and briefly summarizing the information for presentation to anybody who may need it (C. Mohan Juneja, 1982).

The structure of reporting should be designed in such a way that, as one ascends the organizational hierarchy, management reports become both more comprehensive and more concise.

Similarly, reports prepared for the lowest levels of the organizational structure should be quite detailed and, needless to say, restricted in scope. The management reports that are created for middle-level management must be more concise and comprehensive. In a word, there must be a "pecking order" in the reporting structure (The ICFAI University, 2004).

Accounting methods and standards may also influence future financial decisions made by corporations during the past accounting period, including the results. The rules and principles of accounting are fundamentally designed to provide certain standardized frameworks that facilitate the evaluation of an organization's or government's financial status. That is why, in the vast majority of instances, there are always differences between the accounting methods of other nations.

The firm's Financial Statements are the most significant instruments for determining the present financial situation of a corporation. Primarily, these are the Income Statement and the Position Statement, often known as the "Trading and Profit & Loss Account" and the "Balance Sheet," respectively.

The Balance Sheet depicts the financial health of a company at a particular point in time. For this reason, the Balance Sheet's heading reads "Balance Sheet of Xxx Company as of March 31, 20xx." The balance sheet displays the amount of capital the owner has invested in the business. To establish this amount, a list of assets and their respective values are compiled. Also noted are liabilities and their respective values. The difference between assets and liabilities is net worth, or the firm owner's equity (Klinefelter, 2000).

The income statement, on the other hand, illustrates the performance of the company over a certain time period, therefore its heading reads "Income Statement of Xxx Company for the year ended March 31, 20xx."

The primary objectives of financial reporting are:

Providing shareholders and other users of financial statements with information that ultimately serves as the basis for the implementation of decisions and actions by the relevant parties. Recreate the financial development and current situation of the business, Assist in the formulation of policies and processes for the effective operation of the business, and help the management successfully discharge its obligations and stewardship responsibilities (ICFAI Center for Management Research ICMR, 2004)

A financial statement is a collection of facts that is organized logically and consistently in accordance with accounting rules. Its objective is to convey an understanding of a business's financial challenges (Managing Stakeholders, 2002). As stated previously, financial statements depict the organization's position at a certain time (balance sheet) (Klinefelter, 2000) or may disclose a series of actions over a given time period (income statement) (ICFAI Center for Management Research ICMR, 2004).

Financial Reporting

Experts believe that the true meaning and content of critical financial information may be diluted or lost during this process. Due to the absence of well-defined procedures, rules, and regulations for financial reporting, experts felt that the accompanying graphs, pie charts, etc., tend to exaggerate the achievements of the company for the year for which the annual report is prepared and minimize the negative events that occurred during that period. This prepared the way for the Financial Accounting Standard Board (FASB) to publish a series of statements on financial reporting concepts.

According to FASB, there are two primary objectives of financial reporting, which are outlined below.

Information about venture earnings and its many mechanisms that can be measured through accrual accounting is a better indicator of enterprise performance than information about current cash inflows and expenditures. It is also vital to get information through financial reporting regarding a company entity's economic resources, commitments, owners' equity, liquidity, and management's stewardship, as well as explanations and interpretations of the information provided (Strada Capital Corporation, 1999)."

FASB has released a number of pronouncements aimed at enhancing the reporting of financial information. Individually, each recent disclosure rule gives users of financial statements with some more important information. Nevertheless, it goes without saying that financial statements, cross-reference, supplementary statements, etc. cloud the entire financial reporting process.

Multiple consumers of financial statements contend that a more simple presentation may result in ineffective communication of financial data. Précis reporting is less than the complete text of current annual reports to shareholders but more than the brief presentation of financial highlights and summary indicators that often appears in the introduction to annual reports. However, it must be understood that brief reporting would not eliminate the assertions that are required to be included in the filing or annual report. For a typical or non-financial user of financial statements, the summary reporting would only serve as primary data.

The impact of globalization must result in several innovations in the fields of finance and international stock exchanges. The convergence of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) is a recent intriguing trend (Measuring convergence of National Accounting Standards with International Financial Reporting Standards, 2005, vol: 29) (The Rationale and Effects of IFRS Adoption: The Case of the United Arab Emirates, 2006) Many consider this convergence as a strategy to sustain global financial health and stability in the majority of capital markets (“Are we reaching a universal accounting language in five years?”, 2004).

Positive aspects of financial Reporting

Consider the introduction of equipment leasing.

According to FASB regulations, if a corporation leases out property, such leases might be arranged for "off-balance-sheet" accounting treatment (Strada Capital Corporation, 1999).

Regulatory Structure

No firm can afford to stay covert in the current world, as several parties, including creditors, employees, taxes authorities, investors, the public and government, etc., are interested in business matters (C. Horngren et al., 2000).

Examining the particular corporate entity's final accounts and balance sheet is the primary method for examining its affairs.

Due to the significance of these statements, it became necessary for accountants to develop certain ideas, concepts, and customs that can be considered accounting basics.

Such widely accepted basics lend credibility and dependability to the accountants' prepared financial statements. General Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) are necessary for two reasons:

First, to be logical and consistent in recording the transactions, and Second, to conform to the established practices and procedures

Variation from one nation to another

To govern accounting information, each organization would be required to implement GAAP-based accounting policies (The boundaries of financial reporting and how to extend them, 1999).

Accounting policies take into account the multiple rules, principles, conventions, regulations, and policies implemented by the business entity's management in generating its financial statements (Ormiston, 2004).

Even for the same subject, there are a range of accounting policies in operation. In developing GAAP, the three principles of significance, impartiality, and viability are adhered to because the process of interpreting financial statements has become complex due to the implementation of diverse rules in numerous areas of accounting.

Corporate investment and financing decisions are constrained by a regulatory framework designed to

Define investment opportunities available to businesses in different ownership and size categories; Induce investments along specific lines by offering incentives, concessions, and reliefs; and Specify the technique for acquiring capital from the financial markets.


Although it is a well-known and widely accepted fact that countries outside the developed world have led the way in adopting IFRS, little information is available on how to implement the new accounting standards into regulatory systems that are unaware of the new system (The true nature of the World Bank, 2005, Vol. 15).

IFRS-prepared financial statements and reports are comparable to GAAP-prepared statements and reports, but with a somewhat higher value addition. The added value referred to here is the time saved by investors when reconciling financial information, as they typically do when comparing the stocks of companies based in different countries.


Annisette, M. 2005, Vol: 15. The actual character of the World Bank. 303 – 323 in Critical Perspectives on Accounting.

Fontes, A., Rodrigues, L. L., and Craig, R.,. 2005, vol: 29. Accounting Forum, pp. 415-436, "Measuring convergence of National Accounting Standards with International Financial Reporting Standards."

Horngren's, C. et al., 2000, Fourth Edition of Accounting. Prentice Hall, New Jersey

2004 ICFAI Center for Management Research Financial Accounting and Analysis of Financial Statements ICFAI Center for Management Research, Hyderabad.

Francis J. Discussion of empirical studies on accounting decision-making in 2001 Journal of Accounting & Economics, Volume 31, Issue 08, Pages 309 to 319.

Jacob, R. A., and C. N. Madu. 2004. “Are we five years away from a universal accounting language?

”. Foresight, Volume 6, Pages 353 and 356.

Klinefelter, Larry N. Langemeier and Danny. 2000. Balance Sheet: A Financial Management Instrument The Texas A&M University System, Agricultural Communications.

Natalie, Helen Irvine, and Lucas. 2006. The Justification and Effects of Adopting IFRS: The Case of the United Arab Emirates. 2006: University of Wollongong, Maui, Hawaii. Asia-Pacific Conference on International Accounting Issues, pages 3 through 18.

Mohan, Juneja C., R.C. Chawla & K.K. Saxena. 1982. Double Entry Accounting Ludhiana: New Delhi: Kalyani Publishers.

2009, Nobles, D. Alexander, and C. Nobles. Financial Accounting: An International Introduction. Pearson Education, Harlow.

Understanding Financial Statements (Ormiston, L. Fraser, & A. Ormiston, 2004). Pearson & Prentice Hall are located in New Jersey.

1999, Lev B. and Zarowin, p. How to extend the bounds of financial reporting. Journal of Accounting Research, volume 37, pages 353 to 385.

Slovensky, Dr. 2002. Managing Stakeholders. Healthcare Management Review, pp. 1-2.

Strada Capital Corporation. 1999. Financial Reporting Benefits. Strada Capital Corporation. Strada Capital Corporation.

The university ICFAI. 2004. MA&CS – 04200406: Management Accounting & Control Systems ICFAI University of Hyderabad

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User Demand Modelling Based On Domain Modelling Essay Help App


User demand modelling based on domain modelling; domain demand models are the basis for modelling users personalized demands. A demand model that supports uncertainty, consumers may be unspecific or provide incomplete information, accurately predicting resource demands is a key concern of demand modelling. User scenario modelling, modelling demands in uncertain scenarios, a probabilistic-constrained fuzzy logic as well as its speculative method.


The cloud broker considers the reservation plan as medium- to long-term planning, since the plan has to be reserved in advance such as 1 or 3 years and the plan can significantly reduce the total provisioning cost. Also, the broker considers the on-demand plan as short term planning, since the plan can be purchased anytime for short period of time such as one week when the resources reserved by the reservation-plan are insufficient.


When a cloud provider accepts a request from a cloud customer, cloud must create the appropriate number of virtual machines (VMs) and allocate resources to support them. The services are provided by several different ways: advance provisioning, dynamic resource provisioning and self-service provisioning.

In advance resource provisioning, the customer contacts with the provider for services and the cloud provider prepares the appropriate resources in advance of start of service. The customer is charged for a resource they consumed either in a flat fee or is billed on a monthly basis.

In dynamic resource provisioning, the cloud provider allocates more resources as consumers needed and removes them when they do not want to use. The customer is billed on a pay-per-usage basis.

In user self-provisioning (also known as cloud self-service), the customer buy resources from the cloud provider by creating an account and paying for resources either with a credit card or net banking. The provider’s resources are available for customer use within an hour.


PSO learned from the scenario and used it to solve the optimization problems. PSO is a robust stochastic optimization technique based on the movement and intelligence of swarms. It uses a number of agents (particles) that constitute a swarm moving around in the search space looking for the best solution. Each particle is treated as a point in a N-dimensional space which adjusts its ???flying??? according to its own flying experience as well as the flying experience of other particles. Each particle keeps track of its coordinates in the solution space which are associated with the best solution (fitness) that has achieved so far by that particle. This value is called personal best , pbest. Another best value that is tracked by the PSO is the best value obtained so far by any particle in the neighborhood of that particle. This value is called gbest.


AES is a block cipher with a block length of 128 bits. AES allows for three different key lengths: 128, 192, or 256 bits. Each round of processing includes one single-byte based substitution step, a column-wise mixing step, a row-wise permutation step and the addition of the round key. The order may differ for these four steps are executed for encryption and decryption. Unlike DES, the decryption algorithm differs substantially from the encryption algorithm. AES requires the block size to be 128 bits, the original rijndael cipher works with any block size that is a multiple of 32 as long as it exceeds 128. The state array for the different block sizes still has only four rows in the rijndael cipher. However, the number of columns depends on size of the block. For example, when the block size is 192, the rijndael cipher requires a state array to consist of 4 rows and 6 columns.


In Cloud Computing, the resource provisioning mechanism uses Stochastic Programming model. These models consider many numbers of scenarios which leads to time and computational. The utility model employed by commercial cloud providers has demotivated the need for efficient and responsive economic resource allocation in high-performance computing environments. Economic resource allocation provides a well-studied and efficient means of scalable decentralized allocation it has been stereotyped as a low performance solution due to the resource commitment overhead and latency in the allocation process. The high utilization strategies are designed to minimize the impact of these factors to increase occupancy and improve system utilization. The Scenario Reduction algorithm is applied to reduce the uncertainties in cloud computing and by formulating PSO particle swarm optimization algorithm, the total cost of the resources can be reduced.


Implementing Swifinet college essay help online


Use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) has resulted in many revolutionary changes in human life. WSN has gain significant concentration from scientist and end users. ‘SWiFiNet’ is task distributed reusable system architecture. In this architecture complex functionality has been transfer to the second tire devices of the system. Second tire devices are provided with more resources. ‘SWiFiNet’ satisfy the desire architecture of the WSN. This paper aims to analyze various reusable wireless sensor networks and concept related to ‘SWiFiNet’. And it provides the existing architecture of ‘SWiFiNet’ and also the functionality of the component of the reusable network architecture. This paper also provides idea about the proposed ‘SWiFiNet’ which will be developed on IEEE 802.15.4 MAC/PHY layer which will be having more advantages over its counterparts.

Keywords:- WSN, SWiFiNet, Reusable architecture.


Use of wireless network is increasing in every field, day by day. WSN is extensively use where wired network cannot be deployed or is expensive to deploy. WSN opens many ways for research community to further enhance wireless communication efficiency and productivity. Many protocols and algorithms has been developed to addressed many kind of issues related to WSN. But most of these protocols and algorithms concentrate on routing, energy efficiency, reliability and congestion control.

No more research is done on creating some integrated network architecture that will make the implementation of any WSN application easy. It means to make the components of the WSN system reusable. The main focus of WSN is on creating more and more efficient wireless interfaces. The wireless sensor network generally developed for specific work. These work include climate reporting, military applications, fuel level indicator and many more. While creating such system one has to start from the scratch and it becomes burdensome.

So, for all these difficulties, one solution is to create reusable WSN framework. This kind of framework is developed in ‘SWiFiNet’. It is a task distributed System Architecture for WSN.

This paper provides overview of ‘SWiFiNet’ and reusable architecture for WSN. In first section provided introduction about WSN and ‘SWiFiNet’. Second section provides related work regarding task distributed network architecture. Third section provides design goals of reusable architecture. Fourth section provides WSN architecture along with ‘SWiFiNet’ architecture comparison. Fifth and last part concludes the paper.


There has been attempts to make hierarchical task distributed reusable wireless sensor network architecture. Most of such proposals were developed using 802.11. The different applications related to reusable WSN architecture is as follows:-

ART wise gateway architecture was presented by Leel et al [4]. The architecture is two tire architecture. Tier one uses IEEE 802.15.4 and tire two uses 802.11. Linfeng develop Environmental adaptive Architecture model for wireless sensor network [5]. It was two tire architecture. The second tire was capable of adding number of nodes without affecting two tire architecture. ANGLE [5] architecture was develop for the health care applications. In this application authors claims that it can be reused for any other application.

Open and reconfigurable wireless sensor network has been proposed by Triantafyllidis. It was developed for pervasive health monitoring. Its main emphasis was on easy extension with additional sensor functionality. ZUMA [6] was developed for centralize smart phone platform which will interconnects all kinds of smart phone devices.

The ReWINS [3] research initiative is an attempt to advance such an end-to-end solution with support for incremental arrangement through a transparent lower layer implementation and control architecture and a user-friendly application interface.

Wireless Integrated Network Sensors or the WINS [7] project and NIMS project at University of California, Los Angeles is about ad-hoc wireless sensor network research dealing mainly with constructing micro-electronic mechanical sensors (MEMS) [8], effective circuit design, and design of self-organizing wireless network architecture. Though these projects have been successful in demonstrating a network of self-organized sensor wireless nodes, they seem to have a bias towards environmental and military applications. Also they use proprietary RF communication technology and hence the solutions are limiting for wide scale deployments in industries.

Motes and Smart Dust project [9] at University of California, Berkeley involved creating particularly low-cost micro-sensors, which can be suspended in air, buoyed by currents. Crossbow Inc. has commercialized the conclusion of this project. Here again the solution is limiting, as exclusive communication technologies have been used to achieve inter-device communication. Further, the focus has been on development of sensors and their communication rather than how the sensors will be integrated to form systems. This is generally termed as the ‘bottom-up’ approach, which may not be suitable for building complex systems.

Pico-Radio [10] ‘ A group headed by Jan Rabaey at University of California, Berkeley is trying to build an integrated wireless application interface called Sensor Network Service Platform. An attempt is to develop an interface that will abstract the sensor network and make it transparent to the application layer. A introductory draft describing the application interface has been recently released. They believe in a ‘top down approach’ (from control to sensor nodes) for building sensor networks which is probably more suitable for building complex systems.

Recently, there have been several work initiatives like TinyDB [11], Cornell’s Cougar etc. to develop a declarative SQL-like language to query sensors and define certain standard query services. Here the employment is sensor-interface specific and not a general or abstracted sensor networking platform. These query services can be implemented with ease on top of our (developed) wireless interface and sensor networking platform and can be made generic by extending them for other sensors.

Other research initiatives in this field include MIT’s ??AMPS, Columbia University’s INSIGNIA, Rice University’s Monarch. Though there have been a lot of research efforts in developing ad-hoc wireless networks, the focus has been on developing smart wireless sensor interfaces and not much attention has been paid to the actual application integration. Typical approach has been to develop powerful smart wireless interfaces, which supports the important features/requirements for a particular class of applications (like military, environment sensing or more focused applications like fuel-level control in automobiles). The result is a number of wireless interfaces appropriate for a certain class of application; but almost no interoperability between them. We believe that the deployment of wireless infrastructure in industries will occur in incremental stages and thus interoperability (between different sensor-networks) and extendibility (according to application needs) will form the basic requirements of any prospective solution. A prospective good solution would be an end-to-end solution, which is modular and extendable.

All of the above applications were the forward steps towards the making of reusable network architecture. From the comparison of the above all network architecture, it is clear that user of hierarchical network give advantage over flat network. And three tire architecture is also better for reusable WSN architecture.


‘SWiFiNet’ [1] is task distributed and reusable component architecture. The task layer hierarchical model of ‘SWiFiNet’ is as shown in the given figure. It follows hierarchical architecture comprising of Master node, router node and sensor node. The base layer is 802.15.4 MAC/PHY layer.

Table 1. Comparison between different reusable wireless sensor network applications

Sr. No Application/Project Purpose of Application/Project Limitations

1 ART gateway architecture To develop Hierarchical two tire architecture each tire having different base MAC/PHY The system is more complex due to different protocol in each layer.

2 EAWNA To develop tire two in such a way that adding more sensor dose no affect the architecture The focus is given more on second tire of architecture.

3 ANGEL For health care application. Claimed to be reusable Reusable for specific health care application

4 ReWins To develop such an end-to-end solution The main focus is given on industrial scenarios.

5 Wireless Integrated Network Sensor Building efficient circuit design, and design of self-organizing wireless network architecture These project seems to have bias towards environmental and military application

6 Motes and smart dust project Creating low cost micro sensor which can suspended in air The focus is on sensors rather how they will be integrated

7 Pico-Radio To make sensor network transparent to application layer Suitable for building complex systems only

8 TinyDB To develop declarative SQL-like language to query sensor Not a generic or abstracted sensor networking platform


The upper layer to this layer is DLL task layer. All the network communication is controlled by this layer. The functionality of different device component of the architecture is as given below:

Sensor node: The task of sensor node is restricted to sensing background and connecting the neighboring nodes or the master node. When the packet is handed over to any parent node, then it is the responsibility of the parent node to transfer the packet to the master node. In this node’s layer architecture, the network layer will have the addresses of the parent devices. It will be stored in the table. Two types of addresses are present in the table. First one is primary parent address and the other is secondary parent address. If primary address parent is not available then secondary parent address will be try by the node.

If network layer don’t contain any table then a ‘Hello’ packet request is broadcast into the network. Then the neighboring device will issue the join request. The join request will be accepted if the device meets LQI threshold criteria.

Router Node: – Router nodes are come in use when sensor nodes are not in the range of Master Node. Clustering is also possible using router node. In ‘SWiFiNet’ distributed architecture the functionality of the router node increased remarkably. The complex implementation of any application or protocol will be deployed on the second tire devices. The router node network layer also maintains the table containing entries of the parent devices to the router node. It can be router node again or router will send the information directly to the master node. Router nodes will generate join request if they receive hello packet request from any sensor node.

Master node: The complete topology information of the network is maintain by the master node. When there is queried transmission model, master node will generate query and send it in the network. Whenever the routing tables are updated in end nodes or router nodes will send the information to the master node.

Sensor node Router Node Master Node

Fig 1. Distributed architecture of ‘SWiFiNet’


The ‘SWiFiNet’ model developed [1] is successfully implemented on the hardware as the architecture of the ‘SWiFiNet’ is defined. But ns-2 simulation of ‘SWiFiNet’ is based on 802.11a. As the basic idea of MAC/PHY layer is to have 802.15.4 which will work more efficiently on the ‘SWiFiNet’ architecture. The architectural diagram [1] is as shown below:-

In many of the sensor network architecture the sensor nodes are based on the 802.11a, but in ‘SWiFiNet’ MAC/PHY layer is based on 802.15.4. It is having low bandwidth comparative to the 802.11a. As the ns-2 modulation of the architecture is done using 802.11a, we cannot compare the exact result of hardware simulation and the software simulation.

Dynamic source routing (DSR) has similar characteristics as of ‘SWiFiNet’. After comparing the hardware results [1] with DSR it is found that ‘SWiFiNet’ is having better performance against many parameters. Implementation of ‘SWiFiNet’ using ns-2 on 802.15.4 IEEE is not yet checked against other protocols and hardware results.

The software architecture [2] of the ‘SWiFiNet’ agent is as shown in figure 2. This diagram shows the network component simulation in ns-2. The devices can be identified by the variable passed from TCL script. 1 value represent master node. 2 value represent router node and 3 value represent sensor node.

Fig 2: Component simulation in ns-2

IV. Conclusion:-

The survey paper provides a detailed comparison and description of the well-known projects and applications which are developed from reusable architecture point of view. ‘SWiFiNet’ is basically a task distributed generic reusable architecture for WSN. The functionality of sensor node is reduced and has been transferred to the second tire devices like router node. By doing so sensor nodes are restricted to gather information and connecting to neighboring nodes. As time synchronization overhead is not present the lifetime of the network increase.

This reusable architecture can be used for various range of applications and can be configured accordingly. This paper gives proposed ‘SWiFiNet’ system which will be based on 802.15.4 IEEE standard and will be useful for researchers in many ways.


[1] A. H. Willig, J. H. Karowski, N. Baldus, H. Huebner, A., “The ANGEL WSN Architecture,” in Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 2007. ICECS 2007. 14th IEEE International Conference on, 2007, pp. 633-636.

[2] A. W. Rohankar, Mrinal K. Naskar, Amitava Mukharjee, ‘SWiFiNet’: Task Distributed System Architecture for WSN’ in IJACSA Special Issue on Selected Papers from International Conference & Workshop On Advance Computing 2013.

[3] A. W. Rohankar, Mrinal K. Naskar, Amitava Mukharjee, ‘A step towards reusable WSN architecture’, International Journal of Research and Reviews in Wireless Sensor Networks (IJRRWSN) vol. Vol. 2, 2012.

[4] B. S. P. Harish Ramamurthy, Rajit Gadh, “Reconfigurable Wireless Interface for Networking Sensors (ReWINS),” in proceeding of the 9th IFIP International Conference on Personal Wireless Communications (PWC 2004), 2004.

[5] J. C. Leal, A. Alves, M. Koubaa, A., “On a IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee to IEEE 802.11 gateway for the ART-WiSe architecture,” in Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 2007. ETFA. IEEE Conference on, 2007, pp. 1388-1391.

[6] L. Linfeng, “Research on Environment-Adaptive Architecture Model of Wireless Sensor Networks,” in Networks Security Wireless Communications and Trusted Computing (NSWCTC), 2010 Second International Conference on, 2010, pp. 130-133.

[7] M. N. K. V. G. Soini, J. Rabaey, J. M. Sydanheimo, L. T., “Beyond Sensor Networks: ZUMA Middleware,” in Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2007.WCNC 2007. IEEE, 2007, pp. 4318-4323.

[8] Micro-Adaptive Multi-domain Power-aware Sensors (??AMPS) project at University of California, Berkeley, URL:

[9] Pico-Radio project at University of California, Berkeley,URL:

[10] Smart Dust and motes project at University of California, Berkeley, URL:

[11] ] TinyDB project at University of California, Berkeley, URL:


The Relationship between Manager Assertiveness and having to tell Employees Exactly What to Do essay help online free

Not only is it important to tell workers exactly what to do by being direct, but it is of an equal importance to be assertive with them. If a manager is too passive with his or her employees, it may lead to a managerial mess, as many workers constantly try to test managers’ boundaries.

One of the main reasons as to why employees end up misbehaving in the workplace is primarily because they are not managed correctly, and those who are in authority allow them to get that way. When it comes to being a manager, you shouldn’t expect employees to respect you on a personal level, but you should expect them to respect your authority on a professional level.

Managers should not only be consistently setting up new boundaries, but they should also be enforcing them. Without enforcing them, if an employee overpasses it and nothing is advised to him or her, they will think it is okay to continue to do so. How will they know that it is wrong unless you tell them? It is of an utmost importance to also advise them that you can’t tolerate it.

As a manager, to do their job they have the innate obligation to do only the things that is right for the company that he or she works for. This includes of setting the appropriate boundaries, and not exercising too much sympathy and empathy as it may cause the manager to get too involved with their personal lives. Otherwise, he or she may promote favoritism thereby causing other employees to be jealous. Although this may be true, there is no need to be overly rude and cold towards employees. Being assertive and setting boundaries doesn’t always mean one has to be disrespectful or even rude to their employees. The difference between an authoritarian manager who respects their employees and for managers who don’t differentiates the results of whether or not employees comply or commit themselves to work. In order to have them commit rather than only comply, it is important to be respectful while being assertive. When employees are willing to commit, they are more than likely to deliver work that exceeds a manager’s expectations. (Alexander Hamilton Institute, 2012)

The Importance for Managers to Be a Leader

When it comes to capabilities to effectively communicate with employees, good managers are able to sustain and encourage self-assurance, enthusiasm, and emotional stability while pursuing their day-to-day activities. The position of being a manager can, at times, be quite stressful and overwhelming, so the ideal manager should not let it get to them.

Why is this important when it comes to effectively advising employees as to what has to be done?

If managers aren’t able to maintain self-control of their emotions, then it is likely that they won’t be able to do well at leading employees. Managers are commonly seen as a workplace role model, so if their employees see them as unable to maintain control, it is likely the employees won’t either, thereby leading to decreased amounts of productivity.

Why Communication Is a Key Aspect for Managers

In order to ensure efficient productivity among employees, it is important for them to be able to effectively communicate with them. Moreover, they must also be able to report to higher managers regarding productivity statistics and the like. Not only will great managers be able to communicate well with employees to advise them what they have to do, but they will also be active listeners. Without being able to listen to an employee when he or she has questions about their job or what they have to do, it is likely that they won’t end up doing what they are supposed to do. Another important trait for managers is being able to get a message across without having to overly emphasize it verbally. They know how to implement non-verbal communication techniques such as body language in order to get an important message across to employees. (Melinda Hill Mendoza, n.d).

Common Traits of a Good Employee’ Where You Don’t Have to Be As Specific

There are various indicators that strongly determine whether or not if you have to be overly specific when trying to get an employee to do something. Here I’ve included some of the top traits when it comes to being an effective listener as an employee.

‘ Action Oriented: When you tell an employee to do something, and if he or she is action-oriented, you will see them do it right away’ no questions asked. Although sometimes their work may not be sufficient, most of the time they will provide great work with high levels of productivity. Also, when it comes to productivity, they usually get things done a lot sooner than employees who are stagnant.

‘ Intelligent: Intelligence is important for an employee to thoroughly understand what you want them to do without you having to be too specific with them. Not only that, but when you tell an intelligent employee what to do, most of the time they will do it perfectly correct. It is very rare for an employee who has high levels of intelligence to ask too many questions for additional specificity.

‘ Ambitious: Having an employee with ambition is important because they are well-known to come up with creative ideas that can bring the productivity of any company to the next level. So rather than spending extra time telling them exactly what they have to do, they will work right away, and by the time they are done they will provide you with a genius idea to do things quicker, and you may want to consider forwarding it to your boss.

‘ Autonomous: Employees with an autonomous trait are known to begin working on a project the second you explain to them what needs to be done. They are extremely independent and they require no ‘hand-holding’ whatsoever. This is an important trait, because as a manager, they have a lot of tasks on hand and they don’t want to be wasting it answering a hundred questions about completing a simple task.

‘ Confidence: It is more likely for an unconfident employee to ask questions about exactly what they need to do than a confident employee. This is primarily due to the fact that employees who are confident will trust there instinct on what they’ve heard from the manager, and they won’t second guess their initial impression. On the other hand, unconfident employees will lack their confidence in trusting their understanding, causing them to ask a lot of unnecessary questions.

‘ Leadership: After confidence comes leadership. When you are explaining a task to an employee with leadership skills, you will be confident that they will over-deliver on your expectations. They have the experience to not only deliver the job promptly without any questions ask, but they can set the bar higher in terms of quality and productivity.


Learning Theory Behaviorism (Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme) free essay help online

2.0 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme

Teori Behaviorisme merupakan satu pendekatan pemikiran yang menekankan peranan pengalaman dalam mengawal tingkah laku. Pengasas teori ini adalah J.B Watson yang popular dengan teori Little Albert. Namun, selain daripada J.B Watson terdapat tokoh lain yang turut mengkaji tentang teori ini. Mereka adalah Skinner, Thondike dan Pavlov. Teori pemerolehan bahasa Behavioris pada zaman sebelum ini lebih menekankan tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat sahaja. Bagi mereka perkara yang berlaku dalam otak manusia tidak dapat dikenalpasti. Mereka membuat analogi otak manusia sama seperti sebuah kotak hitam yang gelap. Oleh itu mereka tidak mementingkan peranan otak dalam pemerolehan bahasa.

Golongan mazhab ini menolak pendapat yang menghubungkan operasi kognitif dengan pemerolehan bahasa. Seseorang dianggap telah belajar sesuatu jika dia dapat menunjukkan perubahan perilakunya. Menurut teori ini dalam belajar yang penting adalah input yang berupa stimulus dan output yang berupa reaksi (respond). Stimulus adalah apa saja yang diberikan guru kepada pelajar, sedangkan respon berupa reaksi atau tanggapan pelajar terhadap stimulus yang diberikan oleh guru tersebut. Proses yang terjadi antara stimulus dan respon tidak penting untuk diperhatikan kerana tidak dapat diamati dan tidak dapat diukur. Yang dapat diamati adalah stimulus dan respon. Oleh sebab itu, apa yang diberikan oleh guru iaitu stimulus dan apa yang diterima oleh pelajar iaitu respon harus dapat diamati dan diukur. Teori ini mengutamakan pengukuran kerana pengukuran merupakan perkara yang penting untuk melihat terjadi atau tidak perubahan tingkah laku tersebut.

2.1 Teori Behaviorisme menurut J.B Watson

J.B Watson (1878-1958), seorang ahli psikologi di Amerika Syarikat, merupakan orang pertama mencipta istilah behaviorisme untuk menghuraikan tingkah laku manusia. Kajian banyak dipengaruhi oleh Teori Pelaziman Klasik Pavlov. Kajian beliau, yang terkenal ialah mengenai emosi kanak-kanak dengan menggunakan Model Pelaziman Klasik. Mengikut Watson, tingkah laku manusia merupakan reflex terlazim iaitu suatu gerak balas yang dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman klasik. Dengan kata lain, semua pembelajaran adalah pelaziman klasik Watson berpendapat gerakan-gerakan refleks yang mudah misalnya berkelip mata, bersin apabila hidung gatal dan sebarang tindakan yang dilakukan secara semulajadi adalah tingkah laku yang diwarisi dan tidak perlu dipelajari. Selain daripada tingkah laku, Watson pula menjalankan kajian tentang pembelajaran emosi semula jadi iaitu takut, marah, dan kasih saying. Emosi manusia atau perubahan dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman.

2.1.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran J.B Watson

Menurut beliau, semua tingkah laku boleh dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman. Tingkah laku positif boleh diajarkan melalui ransangan yang sesuai. Seterusnya, untuk menguasai kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah, pelajar perlu belajar cara perhubungan gerak balas secara sistematik. Selain itu, teori ini memberi implikasi untuk mengukuhkan apa yang telah dipelajari dalam ingatan, latihan- latihan hendaklah dijalankan secara kerap. Dalam proses pengajaran,guru hendaklah menggunakan rasangan yang boleh memotivasikan murid untuk minat belajar dan mengelakkan pengunaan ransangan yang membawa kepada kesan negatif.

2.2 Teori Behaviorisme menurut Thorndike

Menurut Thorndike, belajar adalah proses interaksi antara stimulus dan respon. Stimulus adalah apa yang merangsang terjadinya aktiviti belajar seperti fikiran, perasaan, atau hal-hal lain yang dapat dikesan melalui pancaindera. Manakala, respon adalah reaksi yang muncul apabila peserta dididik ketika belajar, dan yang dapat pula adalah berupa fikiran, perasaan, gerakan atau tindakan. Jadi, perubahan tingkah laku akibat kegiatan belajar dapat dikategorikan sebagai konkrit, iaitu yang dapat diamati, atau tidak konkrit iaitu yang tidak dapat diamati. Meskipun aliran behaviorisme sangat mengutamakan pengukuran, tetapi tidak dapat menjelaskan bagaimana cara mengukur tingkah laku yang tidak dapat diamati. Teori Thorndike ini disebut pula dengan teori koneksionisme. Thorndike berjaya membentuk tiga hokum iaitu Hukum kesediaan, Hukum latihan, Hukum kesan. Hukum kesediaan merupakan keupayaan persiapan seseorang individu di dalam kendirinya untuk memulakan sesuatu aktiviti pembelajaran. Manakala hokum latihan pula menyatakan bahawa semakin byak latihan yang dijalankan semakin bertambah kukuh ikatan gerak balas yang tertentu dengan ransangan yang berkaitan. Hukum kesan menyatakan bahawa ikatan ransangan dengan gerak balas akan bertambah kukuh sekiranya individu memperolehi kesan yang memuaskan selepas gerak balasnya dihasilkan.

2.1.2 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike

Antara implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike ialah untuk meningkatkan tahap kesediaan belajar, guru harus menggunakan motivasi yang sesuai. Selain itu, ia juga dapat mengukuhkan pertalian antara ransangan dengan gerak balas pelajar dengan memperbanyak aktiviti latihan, ulangkaji, aplikasi serta pengukuhan dalam keadaan yang menyeronokkan. Seterusnya memberikan ganjaran atau peneguhan untuk respon antau gerak balas yang betul daripada pelajar. Memberi peluang kepada pelajar untuk menikmati kejayaan dalam pembelajaran mereka.

2.3 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Pavlov merupakan salah seorang daripada ahli teori Behavioris selain daripada Skinner, Thondike dan Watson. Beliau dilahirkan pada 14 September 1849 di Ryazan, Rusia Tengah. Beliau telah meninggal dunia pada 27 Februari 1936 di Leningrad Rusia ketika berusia 86 tahun. Ivan Pavlov merupakan ahli fisiologi, psikologi dan ahli fizik berbangsa Rusia. Sebagai seorang yang sangat mencintai bidang fisiologi beliau telah meminta seorang pelajar duduk di sebelah katilnya dan merekodkan perihal kematiannya. Beliau terkenal dengan orang pertama yang mendeskripsikan fonomena pelaziman klasik atau pelaziman responden. Teori pelaziman klasik adalah tentang tingkah laku pembelajaran yang telah dipelopori oleh Ivan Pavlov ( 1849-1936). Pada tahun 1980-an. Pavlov mengkaji fungsi pencernaan pada anjing dengan melakukan pemerhatian pada kelenjar air liur. Dengan cara itu, beliau dapat mengumpulkan, menyukat dan menganalisis air liur haiwan itu dan bagaimana ia dapat diberikan makanan pada keadaan yang berbeza. Beliau sedar anjing akan mengeluarkan air liur sebelum makanan sampai ke mulutnya dan mencari hubungan timbal balik antara air liur dengan aktiviti perut. Pavlov hendak melihat rangsangan luar dapat mempengaruhi proses ini. Oleh itu contoh paling awal dan terkenal bagi pelaziman klasik melibatkan pelaziman air liur pada anjing kajian Pavlov.

2.4 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme B.F Skinner

Manakala menerusi B.F Skinner pula, beliau mengutarakan teori behaviorisme adalah teori. Menurut Nana Sudjana, 1990 pendekatan Skinner adalah operant conditioning, yang merupakan penerusan dan perluasan secara tepat dari hokum Thorndike. Ia mengakui adanya fenomena conditioning yang klasik dari Pavlov dalam perilaku manusia dan binatang, tetapi itu tidak dianggap terlalu penting.

2.4.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran B.F Skinner

Sesuatu kemahiran atau teknik yang baru dipelajari hendaklah diberi peneguhan secara berterusan dan diikuti secara berkala supaya kemahiran atau teknik itu dapat dikukuhkan dan dikekalkan. Selain itu, penggunaan peneguhan positif yang membawa keseronokan adalah lebih berkesan daripada peneguhan negative yang membawa kesakitan. Seterusnya, prinsip penghapusan melalui proses pelaziman operan adalah sesuai digunakan untuk memodifikasikan tingkah laku pelajar yangtidak diingini, misalnya menghentikan peneguhan yang diberikan dahulu sama ada peneguhan positif atau negatif

2.5 Kelebihan teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Kelebihan yang pertama yang kami perolehi melalui teori ini adalah teori ini sangat sesuai untuk melatih atau mendidik kanak-kanak yang masih memerlukan bantuan daripada orang dewasa di sekeliling mereka. Sebagai contoh kanak-kanak tadika memerlukan bimbingan dan perhatian yang khusus daripada orang di persekitarannya terutamanya guru-guru mereka kerana mereka mudah mengikuti apa yang diajar dan disuruh selain suka meniru perlakuan orang di sekelilingnya. Selain itu, mereka juga suka dengan bentuk-bentuk penghargaan yang diberi kepadanya seperti pujian dan melalui bentuk penghargaan tersebut ianya dapat membangkitkan semangat ingin belajar dalam diri mereka.

Kelebihan yang kedua adalah guru tidak perlu mengambil masa yang lama untuk memberi penerangan yang panjang tentang pembelajaran kepada murid-murid. Hal ini kerana murid-murid akan dibiasakan belajar dengan sendiri kecuali sekiranya murid menghadapi sesuatu masalah dan memerlukan penjelasan yang lebih daripada guru. Dalam hal ini guru perlu memberikan penerangan dengan jelas.

Selain daripada itu, teori ini juga menekankan kemahiran lisan berbanding kemahiran membaca dan menulis. Melalui aspek kemahiran lisan yang ditekankan dapat memberikan kelebihan kepada murid kerana aspek lisan iaitu mendengar dan bertutur penting dalam situasi harian murid. Boleh dikatakan bahawa kemahiran ini adalah kemahiran terkerap yang digunakan manusia untuk berkomunikasi antara satu sama lain.

2.6 Kelemahan Teori Behaviorisme

Dari segi kelemahan pula, penerapan teori behavioris yang kurang tepat dalam sesuatu situasi pembelajaran boleh mangakibatkan berlakunya proses pembelajaran yang tidak kondusif bagi murid-murid kerana pembelajaran berlaku dalam keadaan sehala dimana ianya berpusatkan kepada guru sahaja. Guru hanya mengajar dan melatih murid manakala murid hanya menerima apa yang diajar oleh guru mereka tanpa memberi sebarang maklum balas. Malah dalam teori pembelajaran ini murid berperanan sebagai pendengar dan mereka menghafal apa yang didengar dan dipandang sebagai cara belajar yang efektif. Penggunaan hukuman merupakan salah satu cara untuk guru mendisiplinkan murid dan hal ini akan mendatangkan akibat buruk kepada murid.

Kelemahan yang kedua ialah proses pembelajaran dikatakan kurang memberikan gerak balas yang bebas bagi pelajar untuk berinteraksi serta untuk mengembangkan idea. Hal ini kerana sistem pembelajaran tersebut lebih tertumpu kepada rangsangan dan gerak balas yang ditunjukkan. Sekiranya tiada rangsangan maka tindak balas tidak akan berlaku. Sebagai contoh, guru akan memberi rangsangan dalam bentuk hadiah dan daripada situ barulah murid akan memberikan jawapan yang dikehendaki oleh guru. Sekiranya perkara ini berlaku secara berterusan dikhuatiri murid akan terlalu bergantung terhadap rangsangan dari luar sedangkan murid harus memiliki rangsangan dari dalam diri mereka sendiri sebagai satu cara pembelajaran.

Kelemahan yang ketiga menurut teori ini adalah penambahan ilmu pengetahuan lebih tertumpu kepada buku teks. Hal ini kerana mereka belajar mengikut urutan kurikulum yang sangat ketat sehinggakan buku teks merupakan buku wajib dalam pembelajaran mereka malah mereka juga perlu dikehendaki memahami dan mempersembahkan kembali isi pembelajaran di dalam buku teks tersebut dengan baik. Hal ini boleh mendatangkan kesan buruk kepada pelajar kerana ilmu pengetahuan yang mereka peroleh tidak begitu berkembangan dengan hanya tertumpu kepada satu buah buku sahaja.

2.7 Implikasi teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Yang pertama ialah guru perlu sedar bahawa kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balas boleh dilazimkan iaitu dipelajari. Sebagai contoh apabila guru ingin menyuruh murid-murid beratur ketika waktu rehat di kantin sekolah guru boleh mengaitkannya dengan cara untuk berjaya dalam kehidupan. Implikasi yang seterusnya ialah kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balasdapat dikukuhkan melalui latihan. Semakin kerap rangsangan itu dikaitkan dengan sesuatu gerak balas, semakin kukuh gerak balas terlazim itu. Sebagai contoh guru ingin murid-murid supaya tidak mengaitkan mata pelajaran matematik dengan kesukaran, dengan memberi mereka latihan- latihan yang mudah dan apabila mereka beransur mahir menyelesaikan masalah yang sukar maka guru bolehlah menukar aras pembelajaran kepada tahap yang sederhana sukar dan seterusnya ke aras pembelajaran yang sukar.

Di samping itu, dalam proses pembelajaran, generalisasi boleh berlaku. Ini bermakna perkara yang dipelajari dalam situasi A boleh dipindahkan ke situasi B. Sebagai contoh guru mata pelajaran sains mengaitkan kejadian pencemaran alam sekitar yang mengakibatkan kemusnahan alam semula jadi dengan kemusnahan alam yang berlaku seperti tsunami yang melanda Bandar Acheh.

faktor motivasi memainkan peranan yang penting bagi menghasilkan gerak balas yang diinginkan. Dalam hal ini pemberian ganjaran perlu diberi perhatian. Sebagai contoh ketika murid menjawab soalan yang diberikan oleh guru dengan betul maka guru boleh memberikan pujian kepadanya atau dengan memberikannya hadiah supaya pada waktu pembelajaran yang seterusnya pelajar tersebut akan lebih menumpukan perhatian di dalam kelas untuk memperoleh pujian yang diingini. Namun sekiranya pelajar tersebut tidak dapat menjawab soalan yang diberi maka guru perlulah membimbing pelajar tersebut supaya mereka tidak berasa terpinggir dan seterusnya dapat bersama-sama memahami tajuk pembelajaran pada ketika itu.

Selain itu juga, dalam proses pembelajaran tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat, diamati, diukur dan dikawal hendaklah diberi perhatian. Hal ini kerana melalui perubahan tingkah laku yang ditunjukkan oleh murid guru boleh mengambil sebarang tindakan sekiranya ianya di kesan lebih awal. Sebagai contoh sekiranya seseorang murid menunjukkan tingkah laku yang negatif seperti tidak faham tentang apa yang diajar oleh guru maka guru boleh membuat pemulihan terhadap dirinya. Dalam pembelajaran, penghapusan boleh berlaku jika peneguhan tidak diberikan. Ini bermakna, sekiranya sesuatu tingkahlaku tidak diperkukuhkan melalui ganjaran, tingkahlaku itu mungkin akan terhapus begitu sahaja. Konsep pemulihan serta-merta juga dapat membantu seseorang guru meningkatkan keberkesanan pembelajaran


Research design argumentative essay help online


The conception of research design plan is the critical step in the research process. The design ,of the study constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. In other words the research design is a conceptual structure with in which,h research is conducted.


Primary Data: – Primary data are those data which are collected for the first time, and thus hap,pen to be original in character. It is extracted with the help of discussions co,nducted with senior managers with respect to factors affecting the performance.,

Secondary Data: – Secondary data are those data which are already collected by someone else ,and which have already passed through the statistical process. These data are g,athered by Books, Lectures, Notes, and Official Websites etc.

The study make,s extensive use of secondary data. ‘Secondary data are those which have already,y been passed through the statistical process’. The data which is pre-essential for ,this study relating to comparative analysis of Balance Sheet and PROFIT AND L,OSS A/c was based on secondary source of data. This data will be collected fro,m materials provided by Rakshitas Pvt. Ltd., discussions conducted with store m,anagers and some essential

Financial Accounts books.


‘ Data provided is very limited due to the subjectivity of it being highly confidential.,

‘ The data taken for interpretation is for a limited period.

‘ Assumptions, are to be taken into consideration while doing analysis and interpretation, of data.

‘ Due to limited, information, depth analysis could not be made.


Various financial techniques and statistical tools are used to measure the data used in the study. Column graphs, pie chart etc. is used to highlight the statistical inference,s. The study cannot be completed without balance sheet and profit and loss a/c. ,Therefore three years balance sheet and profit & loss a/c has been taken out for ma,king proper research.


The data collected is secondary, and it’s compiled, classified, tabulated and then analyzed u,sing financial techniques and statistical tools. Graphs and charts are used to hig,hlight the statistics. Based on this data and analysis, inferences are drawn accor,dingly.


The Project I,s Presented in the following chapter :-


This chapter includes introduction to finance, theorectical back ground for the study of the ,various performance, introduction to finance, definition of retail industry and di,fferent type of industry.


This chapter I,ncludes the projects introduction of the subject background, statement of the, problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, need and purpose of study,, research methodology, research design, data collection method primary and seco,ndary data, limitations, research measure tools and analysis of data.,


This c,hapter contains the profile of the company, its origin and background, board of directors, number of branches and organization structure.


This ch,apter consists of Table, Graphs, Analysis and Interpretation based on the question,nairies.


This chap,ter includes findings based on objectives of the study, conclusion drawn from the f,indings and recommendations given from the analysis.





Rakshitas business con,cept is to offer a broad and varied range of apparels that allows customers to fin,d their own personal style to choose from more than 150 remiums national and int,ernational brands.

Rakshitas is aimed at everyone in the family with an interest in modern basics, fashion, quality and affo,rdable pricing. Customers should always be able to find clothes and accessories ,at Rakshitas for every occasion. The collections are extensive and new arrivals, being launched week after week in each of the 4 floors spread across 20,000 s,q. ft. for Men, Women, Kids and Teen’s casual wear, formal wear, denim wea,r, ethnic and Kancheevaram silks etc. The range and collections are supplemen,ted by matching costume jewellery, premium international watches, perfumes, ,lingerie’s.


Our mission is to achieve excelle,nce in the products and services we offer, in the methods we employ and in the res,ult we produce.


Menswear: menswear,r means clothing for men. Rakshitas provide various brands for menswear which ,includes formal shirts, casual shirts, trousers, jeans etc. of several variety of int,ernational as well as national brands, for example: -levis, pepe jeans, killer, lee, w,rangler etc.

Women’s wear: Women’s wear means ,clothing for women. Rakshitas provides the best options for women’s apparel rang,ing from skirts to ethnic, casuals as well as formals.

Kids wear: Kids wear are meant only for kids or children ranging below age of 12 years. Rakshitas provides awesome collection for kids which include children formal wear, kurtas, shirt,s etc.

Party wear: Party wear dresses are meant for wearing in parties, functions, special occasions etc. Rakshitas provides variety ranges of party wear which includes lehngas, wedding dresses, traditional indian dress etc.


Control and organisational behaviour (pengendalian dan perilaku organisasi) global history essay help



Untuk membuat dasar yang nantinya dapat digunakan manajemen dalam menyusun system pengendalian manajemen, maka kita perlu mengetahui lebih dalam mengenai perilaku organisasi. Berikut ini adalah beberapa penjelasan mengenai teori akuntansi sebagai bentuk pemahaman terhadap organisasi.

Definisi Organisasi

Secara umum, organisasi diartikan sebagai sekumpulan orang yang melakukan kerjasama demi mencapai tujuan ‘ tujuan yang telah ditentukan bersama. Organisasi tercipta ketika orang ‘ orang bergabung dan melakukan sesuatu untuk berbagai tujuan dan organisasi dapat mencakup segala aspek dalam kehidupan. Organisasi dapat bersifat formal dan informal. Pekerjaan di dalam suatu organisasi dapat dibagi ‘ bagi dan dikoordinasi sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan keahlian tiap ‘tiap anggota organisasinya untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi tersebut. Suatu organisasi haruslah going concern, dalam arti organisasi tersebut diasumsikan akan hidup selamanya.

Teori Perilaku Organisasi (Theory of Organization Behaviour)

Ada beberapa teori yang menjelaskan mengenai mengapa dan bagaimana orang ‘ orang berperilaku dalam organisasi. Berikut ada dua penjelasan mengenai teori tersebut :

1. Teori jenjang kebutuhan

Teori ini menjelaskan bahwa setiap manusia memiliki kebutuhan yang banyak dan harus dipenuhi dan kebutuhan serta keinginan tersebut tersusun secara rapih, sehingga apabila ada satu kebutuhan terpenuhi maka setelah itu ia akan berusaha memenuhi kebutuhannnya yang lebih tinggi. Dalam teori ini tersirat bahwa system pengendalian manajemen juga didasarkan pada kebutuhan manusia yang terkoordinasi dan dilakukan sesuai dengan tujuan organisasi.

2. Teori motivasi pencapaian

Teori ini lebih mengacu pada perilaku atasan atau manajer dalam perannya saat berorganisasi. Untuk mencapai keberhasilan dan mendapat sebuah kekuasaan, maka manajer tersebut juga perlu memiliki keinginan yang kuat agar dapat menghasilkan prestasi dalam organisasi.


Pengetahuan yang dalam mengenai organisasi sangatlah diperlukan oleh para pelaku organisasi dalam pelaksanaan system pengendalian manajemen organisasi tersebut. Para pelaku organisasi harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui semua poin dalam organisasi termasuk sejarah organisasi, tujuan organisasi, bagaimana perilaku para pelakunya hingga reaksi organisasi tersebut terhadap lingkungan.

Tak berbeda dengan teori perilaku akuntansi, dalam teori organisasi juga terdapat banyak teori yang membahas mengenai organisasi. Dan disini akan dibahas mengenai dua teori juga tentang organisasi, yaitu :

1. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Dalam

Banyak organisasi dianggap indepen dan tidak terlalu memperhatikan lingkungan luar oleh beberapa teori. Teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam ini banyak dijadikan dasar oleh sebagian besar system pengendalian manajemen dalam suatu organisasi hal tersebut didasarkan karena dalam teori ini mencakup tanggung jawab dalam pengambilan keputusan yang berlaku menurut proyek ‘ proyek, program ‘ program serta komponen ‘ komponen fungsionalnya.

2. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Luar

Teori ini adalah teori kebalikan dari teori sebelumnya yaitu teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam. Teori ini beranggapan bahwa suatu organisasi selalu berhubungan dengan lingkungan di sekitarnya. Ada dua jenis organisasi yang menganut teori organisasi yang berorientasi keluar ini, yaitu :

– Organisasi system umum terbuka

– Organisasi system manajemen


Ada tiga jenis atau tipe organisasi, yaitu :

1. Organisasi Fungsional

Dalam tipe organisasi ini, penekanan lebih ditujukan kepada manajer yang sangat harus bertanggung jawab terhadap suatu fungsi tertentu, seperti fungsi produksi, fungsi pemasaran dan fungsi lainnya yang diterapkan dalam organisasi tersebut. Fungsi ‘ fungsi tersebut dapat dihimpun oleh fungsi yang lebih tinggi dalam organisasi itu juga. Organisasi ini berpotensi membuat efisiensi perusahaan yang lebih baik karena menggunakan masukan ‘ masukan dari manajerial yang lebih tinggi.

2. Organisasi Divisi

Dalam organisasi ini, semua manajer harus bertanggung jawab terhadap hamper keseluruhan fungsi dalam proses produksi serta distribusi lini pada organisasi tersebut. Orientasi organisasi divisi lebih terbuka yang berarti lebih menekankan bahwa para manajer harus peka terhadap pengaruh ‘ pengaruh yang dating dari luar yang mungkin dapat mempengaruhi kinerja organisasi.

3. Organisasi Matriks

Ada dua struktur organisasi dalam organisasi matriks, yaitu ditata berdasarkan fungsi dan ditata berdasarkan program. Pada organisasi matriks, para manajer bertanggung jawab penuh atas profitabilitas dari lini produk organisasi tersebut dimana proses produksi dilakukan oleh unit ‘ unit organisasi fungsional.

Teori Kemungkinan (Contingency Theory)

Untuk mengendalikan suatu manajemen menggunakan tiga macam pendekatan, antara lain :

1. Pendekatan tradisional

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada perencanaan, pendekatan dan pengendalian.

2. Pendekatan system

Pendekatan ini menekankan padapenggunaan sumber daya manusia sebagai pertimbangan dalam pengambilan keputusan.

3. Pendekatan perilaku

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada pengendalian manusia termasuk di dalamnya motivasi dan prediksi.


Organisasi dan sistemnya yang rumit akan mempengaruhi perilaku manusia menjadi rumit pula.

Konsep Fundamental

Agar suatu organisasi ‘terkendali’ maka para anggota organisasi harus mengetahui dengan baik apa sebenarnya yang diinginkan oleh manajemen. Untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut, dapat menggunakan banyak informasi yang telah disediakan oleh manajemen organisasi seperti anggaran hingga kebijakan organisasi. Tujuan organisasi dibuat oleh para manajer senior dan dilaksanakan oleh manajer operasional untuk selanjutnya para manajer senior menerapkan system pengendalian manajemen untuk mengontrol organisasi tersebut.

Persepsi Tujuan

Para manajer operasional harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui apa tujuan organisasi. Para manajer operasional tersebut dapat secara mudah mendapatkan informasi ‘ informasi yang mereka butuhkan dari berbagai sumber baik dari dokumen maupun percakapan informal saja. System pengendalian manajemen yang efektif dapat menguatkan kepastian suatu perusahaan.

Organisasi Informal

Adanya organisasi informal di dalam organisasi formal sering menyebabkan adanya salah persepsi mengenai tindakan yang diharapkan. Hubungan pada organisasi informal tidak tercantum di dalam bagan organisasi, padahal hal tersebut cukup penting untuk pemahaman system pengendalian organisasi tersebut.


Reaksi pada pelaku organisasi terutama manajemen terhadap organisasi dapat berbeda tergantung pada motivasinya. Motivasi dapat bermacam ‘ macam, misalnya kenaikan gaji, promosi, pujian dan lain ‘ lain. Motivasi timbul dari dalam pribadi masing ‘ masing, tetapi motivasi dapat dipengaruhi oleh rangsangan dari lingkungan sekitarnya.

Keselarasan Tujuan (Goal Congruence)

Setiap manusia memiliki tujuan pribadi, begitu juga dengan organisasi yang juga memiliki tujuan bersama. Salah satu tugas penting system pengendalian adalah menyelaraskan kedua tujuan tersebut serta mencapainya demi mendapatkan kepuasan bersama. Semakin kuat hubungan antara tujuan pribadi dan tujuan organisasi, maka ssistem pengendalian organisasi tersebut akan semakin kuat juga.

Kerjasama dan Konflik

Suatu organisasi tidak akan berjalan dengan baik apabila para anggotanya tidak bekerjasama dengan baik secara terkoordinasi, untuk itu di dalam organisasi sangat dibutuhkan kerjasama yang terkoordinir dan selaras. Selain itu, organisasi juga harus menjaga koordinasi dan keselarasan tersebut agar tidak terjadi konflik yang dapat mengganggu kinerja organisasi. Konflik tersebut dapat terjadi karena berbagai alasan, salah satunya adalah dengan adanya persaingan didalam organisasi tersebut.

Iklim Organisasi (Organizational Climate)

Secara singkat, iklim organisasi dapat diartikan sebagai hasil kombinasi dari struktur formal dan struktur informal pada suatu organisasi. Dan menurut pemahaman saya iklim organisasi merupakan suasana di dalam organisasi dimana tiap pelaku organisasi di dalam organisasi saling membantu, saling menilai, dan memahami antara satu dengan yang lain. Iklim organisasi ikut mengambil bagian penting dalam organisasi. Keduanya saling mempengaruhi satu sama lain.

Tipe Pengendalian

Pelaku pengendalian Sumber arah pengendalian Macam ‘ macam Pengendalian

Ukuran prestasi dan tingkah laku Isyarat untuk tindak koreksi Imbalan untuk prestasi Hukuman untuk kegagalan

Organisasi formal Rencana organisasi, strategi, tanggapan atas persaingan Anggaran, biaya standar, target penjualan penyimpangan Penghargaan manajemen, insentif uang, promosi Minta penjelasan

Kelompok informal Keterikatan bersama cita’cita kelompok Norma-norma kelompok penyimpangan Pengakuan rekan, keanggotaan, kepemimpinan Ejekan, pengasingan, permusuhan

Perorangan Tujuan pribadi, aspirasi Harapan pribadi, target antara Dugaan akan kegagalan di masa yang akan dating, target tak tercapai Kepuasan karena ‘terkendali’ kegembiraan Merasa gagal

Sumber : Disarikan dari Gene W. Dalton dan Paul R. Lawrence, Motivation and Control in Organizations (Homewood, III. : Richard D. Irwin, 1971). Hak Cipta 1971 oleh Richard D. Irwin Inc.

Variasi dalam Pengendalian

Hakekat system pengendalian manajemen dibedakan menurut sifat pekerjaan, macam organisasi, lingkungan daan peran manajer. Berikut adalah tiga dimensi yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penggunaan dan pengembangan system pengendalian manajemen :

1. Besar keleluasaan manajemen

2. Besar interdependensi

3. Rentang waktu pelaksanaan


Kontroler dapat diartikan sebagai petinggi atau pejabat yang bertanggung jawab atas apa yang telah direncanakan oleh organisasi dan bagaimana pengoperasiannya. Tanggung jawab para kontroler berbeda ‘ beda di tiap organisasi bahkan di tiap divisinya. Tanggung jawab kontroler didasarkan pada posisinya masing ‘ masing. Tanggung jawab tersebut dilaksanakan secara langsung. Selain tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian tersebut, berikut ini adalah fungsi lain dari kontroler :

a. Menyiapkan laporan kepada pihak pemerintah serta pihak ‘ pihak luar lainnya.

b. Mempersiapkan pengembalian pajak.

c. Mempersiapkan dan melakukan analisa terhadap laporan prestasi keuangan.

d. Membantu para manajer dengan cara melakukan analisa sertab menafsirkan laporan ‘ laporan tersebut.

e. Menggunakan prosedur pemeriksaan intern dan pengendalian akuntansi, memastikan validitas informasi, menetapkan usaha perlindungan yangcukup terhadap berbagai penyimpangan serta melakukan pemeriksaan operasional.

f. Melakukan pengembangan kepada orang ‘ orang yang ia pimpin serta berperan langsung dalam penambahan pengetahuan mengenai fungsi kontroler

g. Mengadakan manajemen kas, asuransi serta kegiatan ‘ kegiatan lainnya demi pengamanan kekayaan perusahaan.

Hubungan dengan Organisasi Lini

Kontroler juga memiliki hak untuk membuat kebijakan ‘ kebijakan dalam organisasi. Namun keputusan ‘ keputusan tersebut merupakan realisasi pelaksanaan kebijakan ‘ kebijakan yang telah dibuat oleh manajer lini. Dengan kata lain, terdapat keselarasan antara kedua belah pihak. Hal tersebut tentunya sangat baik untuk menjaga kelancaran jalannya organisasi tersebut.

Kontroler Divisi

Kebanyakan perusahaan atau organisasi membagi organisasinya tersebut menjadi beberapa divisi yang dikepalai oleh seorang manajer. Manajer divisi tentu juga memiliki kontroler divisi. Dalam hal ini, kontroler divisi harus patuh kepada manajer divisi dan juga kontroler perusahaan yang terkadang beda kepentingannya. Penilaian prestasi terhadap kontroler divisi dapat dilakukan dengan menilai beberapa poin, antara lain :

– Laporan akuntansi dan keuangan

– Pengetahuan mengenai operasi divisi

– Sasaran dan pelaksanaan kepatuhan terhadap kebijakan

– Kontribusi manajemen

– Pengetahuan terhadap akuntansi

– Kejujuran dan profesionalisme

– Kemauan bekerjasama

– Organisasi dan staf

– Inisiatif dan semangat


Seorang manajer divisi dapat dikatakan tidak memiliki staf maupun asisten pribadi. Manajer tersebut mendapatkan bantuan dari :

1. Tenaga yang ditugaskan untuk membantunya dari staf umum, insinyur serta petugas pembelian

2. Staf pusat yang dapat dimintai bantuan kapan saja sebanyak mungkin.


Untuk mencapai kesuksesan organisasi dalam hubungannya dengan manajer divisi, maka organisasi perlu membina kerjasama yang baik dan solid di tiap ‘ tiap manajemen. Berikut merupakan beberapa factor yang dapat mempengaruhi hubungan baik adalah :

1. System akuntansi yang seragam dan terpusat

2. Sasaran ‘ saasaran keuangan yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya untuk tiap ‘ tiap divisi.

(Pertumbuhan penjualan serta besar laba penjualan)

3. Pembagian laba antara kontroler dan manajer


Selain memiliki tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian organisasi, divisi kontroler juga memiliki kewenangan atas system akuntansi yang akan digunakan oleh organisasi tersebut termasuk di dalamnya menetapkan cara dan jenis pos ‘ pos yang harus mereka awasi. Sistem akuntansi dijadikan dasar dalam penyusunan laporan keuangan beserta analisisnya.


Seperti yang telah disebutkan pada bagian sebelumnya, perusahaan atau organisasi memiliki sasaran keuangan, yaitu pertumbuhan penjualan dan tingkat laba. Tingkat laba dalam organisasi atau perusahaan ditetapkan sebaga persentase penjualan. Berikut ini adalah beberapa factor penentu target laba penjualan :

1. Kemungkinan pematenan produk

2. Besar laba atas investasi yang diinginkan

3. Besar laba industry bersangkutan

4. Besar laba investasi bersangkutan


Business notes: Creative problem solving essay help writer

1 Unit 1 – Creative problem solving

1.1 Introduction

A business leader is expected to identify problems, implement solutions and find business opportunities. To do so, they must learn to plan, analyse situations, identify and solve problems (or potential problems), make decisions, and set realistic and attainable goals for the business/unit. These are the fundamental thinking/creative requirements for leadership, and these set direction to a successful future. Without this critical competence, you will have to rely on others to do your thinking for you, or you will simply have to learn to nurture your creative thinking skills which will help you on your journey towards successful business.

Creative thinking forms part of this continuous problem solving process, and is the fundamental basis for facilitating in the development of solutions, new initiatives, products or services. In an entrepreneurial context, the end result of this process should be directly linked to a feasible opportunity in the market environment.

Quote – What lies behind us and what lies before us, are tiny matters, compared to what lies within us. – William Morrow

The creative problem solving process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Problem analysis

‘ Solution analysis

‘ Decision analysis

‘ Solution implementation

1.2 The process

The creative problem solving process consists of an important core process, namely the idea generation process see figure 1. This is an important step, especially if you need to come up with creative ideas for products, services, and processes, to solve a consumer problem. The idea generation process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Step 1 – Generating ideas

‘ Step 2 – Developing ideas into a concept

‘ Step 3 – Converting a concept into a tangible or intangible product

‘ Step 4 – Finally protecting the tangible or intangible product

Figure 1 – The process of creative thinking (idea generation)

Initially you need to understand the problem and find the root cause of the problem. Many techniques are available to find the causes of problems, you can use the 5 Why technique in this case, if you are familiar with it. The more advanced courses will describe how to use the major problem identification techniques, but this course will focus on the idea generation process.

1.3 Where to start

In the entrepreneurial phase, the best way to start the idea generation process is when you are required to come up with a new product or service, to identify a potential consumer problem. Initially, focus on identifying problems in the area of your expertise (your knowledge base).

If you have no knowledge of the problem, the product development stage could be a challenge for you.

You will learn in the next section that not all problems are opportunities, and entrepreneurs should be careful as to how they approach this stage, when generating ideas in trying to identify a new product or service.

1.4 Problem versus opportunity

In most cases, the idea-generation phase in the creative problem solving process is neglected. Individuals normally identify a problem or an opportunity (which may seem like an opportunity, but is actually just an idea), and then develop a new product in line with the new assumed idea or opportunity. It is therefore important to distinguish between an idea and an opportunity. Resources may be wasted if a mere idea is incorrectly perceived as an opportunity.

Any opportunity is initially problem based (e.g. a coffee shop in a destination where there is a lack thereof, this creates several problem situations and potentially feasible opportunities for the entrepreneur). The creative thinking (idea generation process) involved, is the means to solving these problems, and bring forth solutions to the market problems, which create further opportunities.

1.4.1 Difference between problem and opportunity

There is, however, a critical difference between a problem and opportunity. Consider the following:

‘ Is it an idea or an opportunity to develop a high speed train between two major cities which are not far from each other? Some may say it is a great idea, but when you need to pay R200 a day to make use of it, it is simply not an opportunity. Only a few people would make use of the service, resulting in a negative impact on the market.

‘ If it is possible to transport people between the two cities for a lower cost, say R10, it would possibly be a more feasible opportunity.

Here is a good example of an opportunity – Around the turn of the twentieth century, a shoe manufacturer sent a representative to Africa, to open up a market in the undeveloped area in that continent. After exploring the culture for a month, the rep sent a telegram to the home office shouting,

‘Disaster! Disaster! These people do not wear shoes. Bring me home immediately!’

A short time later, another shoe company sent their agent to Africa for the same purpose. A month later his home office also received a telegram:

‘Opportunity! Opportunity! These people do not wear shoes! Triple production immediately!’

Quote – Every situation contains the potential for disastrous problems or unprecedented success. The event is what we perceive it to be. Unknown

Now the question arises: How do I distinguish between an idea and an opportunity? Looking at above examples, every problem is not an opportunity, and it really depends at how you are looking at the problem. If you see a viable opportunity in a problem then you are looking at the problem with a different perception than most people (the glass is half full or half empty). From a business perspective all opportunities are not necessarily a viable opportunity, the market determines the available opportunities. Without the knowledge to interpret the market conditions, you could miss it totally in terms of your opportunity analysis.

Table 1 shows the different industries in South Africa, the level of entrepreneurial activity, and how the same opportunity differs in each of these market areas.

1.4.2 The global entrepreneurship monitor

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor ‘ specifically identified the entrepreneurial activity in the various industries of South Africa. It can be generalized to state that an industry with a high level of entrepreneurial activity, gives away more business opportunities (e.g. manufacturing, retail, hotel, restaurant and business services), while one with a lower level will indicate far less opportunities (e.g. agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing, finance, insurance, real estate and health, education and social services).

If we analyse just one ‘high-opportunity’ industry, for instance manufacturing, it may be an opportunity today to manufacture a final product, and export it to an international market. A ‘low-opportunity’ industry, for instance insurance (especially in the market entry phase), may be negative as having an extremely high crime rate and insurance companies have to pay out claims at an alarming rate. It is also evident that low-opportunity industries may create feasible opportunities.

An entrepreneur should therefore be wary of following a fad, (latest trend) and exploiting assumed opportunities in a ‘popular’ industry.

Percentage of Entrepreneurs

ISIC Category Start-ups New Firms Total

Agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing 1,3 2,6 1,6

Mining, construction 9,7 5,0 4,1

Manufacturing 14,3 19,1 13,8

Transport, communications, utilities 9,8 0,7 8,0

Wholesale, motor vehicle sales, repairs 6,0 6,5 6,3

Retail, hotel, restaurant 40,8 47,7 43,5

Finance, insurance, real estate 0,3 5,2 1,4

Business services 10,1 7,9 9,4

Health, education, social services 2,6 0,7 2,3

Consumer services 11,0 3,5 9,7

Source: Driver. Wood, Segal & Herrington, 2001

Table 1 – The percentage of entrepreneurs in the different industries in South-Africa

1.4.3 What is an opportunity?

What exactly is an opportunity and how does an entrepreneur exploit a feasible opportunity? According to Hesrich & Peters (2002), an opportunity is the process whereby the entrepreneur assesses whether a certain product, service or process, will yield the necessary earnings based on the resource inputs that are required to manufacture and market it.

The nature of opportunities needs to be assessed – thus, what leads to the existence of an opportunity? The following factors may result in an opportunity:

‘ General and specific problems faced by consumers

‘ Market shifts

‘ Government regulations

‘ Competition

There are two equally important criteria in the assessment of an opportunity. Firstly, the size of the market – will the number of customers reward the input and energy required, to create and deliver the product?

Secondly, the length in terms of the frame of the opportunity (window of opportunity). For example, is the demand for this product only a short fashionable phenomenon or is it based on sustainable business, or how long will it take before someone else (a competitor), to grab the opportunity?

These two aspects should also link directly to the personal skills and competence of the entrepreneur. For example, entrepreneurs with no skills or interest in information technology will not necessarily achieve their personal goals. They should rather venture into an opportunity which suits their experience and personality.

1.4.4 Transform opportunity into a business

Table 2 shows how the development of a business plan links to the identification and evaluation of opportunities, the determination of the resources required and the eventual management of the enterprise. All of these factors play a significant role in the correct assessment of the business opportunity.

This means that the business plan must explain in sufficient detail how the business will exploit the situation, to transform the opportunity, into solving a problem for the consumer, which generates extraordinary profits for the people involved.

Identify and evaluate the opportunity Develop the business plan Determine the resources needed Manage the enterprise

Creation and length of opportunity

Real and perceived value of opportunity

Risk and returns of opportunity

Opportunity versus skills and goals

Competitive situation Title page

Table of contents

Executive summary

Description of business

Description of industry

Marketing plan

Financial plan

Production plan

Organisational plan

Operational plan


Appendices Existing resources of the entrepreneur

Resource gap and available supplies

Access to needed resources Management style

Key variables for success

Identification of problems and potential problems

Implementation of control systems

Source: Hisrich, R.D. & Peters, M.P. 2002: 40. Entrepreneurship. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Table 2 – Link between Opportunity and business plan

1.5 Instruction

Exit and resume to your current page.


The importance of employee engagement in an organization write essay help

1.4 Literature Review

Mark Kilsby and Stephen Beyer (1996) ‘ Engagement and Interaction : A comparison between supported employment and acts’. This research study was conducted with the help of interaction and commitment patterns of 13 supported employees and 38 regular adult training center attainders of the organization. Direct observation was used as method of data collection, within the 13 employment sites and a representative sample of ATC organized activities. Because of the higher level of task specific dialogue between individuals and the service of the organization it is found that there is more of social interaction in ACT. Interaction of employees with public within office hours was the cause for this as per the study conducted.

Douglas R. May, Richard L, Gilson and Lynn M . Harter (2004) ‘The Psychological Conditions Of Meaningfulness ,Safety And Availability And The Engagement Of The Human Spirit At Work’. This shows the study about a U.S western company which explored the determinants and mediated the effects of tree psychological conditions they are meaningful, safe and available. The above studies shoes that all the three factors (meaningfulness, safety and availability) have a positive relation with the engagement of an employee in the organization. In other words they are completely associated with the psychological safety where as loyalty to co worker norms and self- consciousness are negatively related.

Despoina Xanthopaolou, Arnold B, Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti and Wilmar B.Schaufeli (2009) ‘Work Engagement And Financial Returns : A Diary Study On The Role Of The Job And Personal Resources’. The above study shows that how daily fluctuations in job can affect the level of personal resource , financial returns and work engagement. Different level of analysis revealed that day level job resources had an effect on work engagement through the day level personal resources. When there was a control for the general level of personal resources and organizational engagement Day level work engagement showed a positive way towards day level training, which in turn showed the financial returns.

Dan-Shang Wang and Chia ‘Chun Hsieh (2013) ‘The Effect Of Authentic Leadership On Employee Trust And Employee Engagement’ they have examined the genuine leadership on employee engagement through employee trust. They have collected data from 386 employees from top 1000 manufacturing companies and top 500 service companies in Taiwan. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis on the employees. Later on the results shows that the consistency between the supervisors , words and actions as well as their moral perceptions are optimistically related to employee engagement , when only supervisors are consist between the words and actions in positively related employment trust. The study shows how employee engagement had a positive trust on employee. Employee trust has a partial link between authentic leadership and employee engagement.

Benjamin J.C, Yuan and Michael B.H. Lin (2012) ‘Transforming Employee Engagement Into Long-Term Customer Relationships: Evidence From Information Technology Salespeople In Taiwan’. This article shows that when information sales people in Taiwan have perceived more transformational leadership and they were more expected to show increased development in work engagement. Over a period of time it was found that increased development in work engagement influenced the increased customer relationship. It showed how employee engagement is indirectly co related with customer relationship.

Xander M.Bezuijen, Karen Van Dam, Peter T . Van Den Berg and Henk Thierry (2010) ‘How Leaders Stimulate Employee Learning : A Leader ‘ Member Exchange Approach’. This study investigated how the three factors as such as leader member exchange, goal setting, and feedback are related to employee engagement in the learning activities. Here, two different mechanisms were proposed , first one a mediating mechanism telling that leader member exchange shows specific leader behavior. The second one is it as a moderating mechanism , holding that leader member exchange will strengthen the effect of leader behavior from 7 organizations a sample of 1112 employees was taken , to measure the leader member exchange approach. 233 of the direct leaders answered that they find difficulty in rating employee engagement in learning activities.

Maureen F.Dollard and Arnold B. Bakker (2010) ‘Psychosocial Safety Climate As A Precursor To Conducive Work Environment , Psychological Health Problems , And Employee Engagement’. This article shows the gap between work psychology and psychosocial working condition. Where we construct a psychosocial working condition PSC. It explains how PSC influences the senior management in psychological working conditions and in psychological health and engagement. They use the job demand and resources as a frame work and uses a multi level thinking into their explanation

James R.Jones (2009) ‘Comparative Effects On Race/Ethnicity And Employee Engagement On Withdrawal Behavior’. This study have added knowledge on the basis of effects on employee attachment. In addition to that it provides more evidence on looking at all types of employees as a single entity which can lead to false results.

Shane Crabb ( 2011) ‘The Use Of Coaching Principles To Foster Employee Engagement’. The above article focuses on the human condition that leads to the happiness of fulfillment and flourishing of employee engagement. Where positive psychology results in so many questions from traditional psychological approaches .Which have mean to focus on a different model of human functioning with healing people fail. In another way positive psychology takes additional holistic approach to human life. Seeing the positive and negative aspects of context when establishing what is right , working and good of people.

Roberta A . Neault and Deidre A .Pickerel (2011) ‘Career Engagement : Bridging Career Counseling And Employee engagement’ . this article is showing that employee counselors helps individuals in maximizing their career engagement at any career stage of an individual. When you facilitate career engagement it contributes to employee engagement which employee are looking for. They even encourages others to use the career engagement and employee engagement models as vehicles to combine the employers to interest in engagement counselors to create interest in supporting the development of employee an motivate them to work.

2.1 Title: A Cross Sectional Study Of Employee Engagement In Apollo Hospitals.

2.2 Objectives:

1. To determine the level of Employee Engagement in Apollo Hospitals.

2. To identify the factors of Employee Engagement.

3. To analyze and suggest strategies for improvement.

2.3 Research Methodology:

I had adopted descriptive research design for the purpose of this

Survey on employee engagement. The primary data was collected from the 100 employees conveniently selected from Apollo Hospitals Bangalore, through structured questionnaire.

2.4 Limitations:

1) The survey was carried out for a sample sized of 100 working staff only.

2) Findings and suggestion of this research are applicable only to Apollo Hospitals.

3) As an fact finding study advanced statistical tools or analysis are not used.

Table 1.1 Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

X 1 2 3 4 5

I have adequate opportunities for professional growth in this organization. (X1) 10 20 32 19 19

I receive the training I need to do my job well.(X2) 2 52 22 16 08

My manager is actively interested in my professional development and advancement.(X3) 32 21 12 18 17

My manager encourages and supports my development (X4) 08 10 40 18 24

I am encouraged to learn from my mistakes (X5) 52 23 16 04 05

My work is challenging, stimulating, and rewarding(X6) 28 14 33 16 09

X1 ?? XI X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5 X6 ?? X6

10 50 2 10 32 160 08 40 52 260 28 140

20 80 52 208 21 84 10 40 23 92 14 56

32 96 22 66 12 36 40 120 16 48 33 99

19 38 16 32 18 36 18 36 04 08 16 32

19 19 08 08 17 17 24 24 05 05 09 09


Table 1.2 Calculation Of Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

283/100 2.83 324/100 3.24 333/100 3.33 260/100 2.60 413/100 4.13 336/100 3.36


Table 1.3 Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Opportunities for growth


The above table shows that the employees are encouraged to learn from their mistakes that is 4.15 out of 5.the work is stimulating rewarding and challenging is ranked 2nd.the manager is actively interested in employees professional growth is

ranked 3rd.the level of opportunity for professional growth shows the least ranking.

Table 1.4: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth


10 20 32 19 19 100

Chart 1.1: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth


32% of the employees from the given population says that they have a neutral opportunity to grow where as 10 % stands in the outstanding category and 20% of them in good category. An equal no of employees disagree to the fact in the other hand that is 19% of the given population.


2 52 22 16 8 100

Table 1.5: Showing Training

Chart 1.2: Showing Training


In the given sample 52% of the employees agrees to the fact that they receive good training in order to do their job efficiently and 2% strongly agrees. where 22 % is neutral to the situation given.16 % of them do not get proper training they required to do their jobs and 8 % strongly disagree to it. It is clear that the organization is giving a proper training to employees to make their work effective.

Table 1.6: Showing Professional Development And Advancement


32 21 12 18 17 100

Chart 1.3: Showing Professional Development And Advancement


Most of the employees agree that their manager takes attention in their professional development steps. 32 % to 25 of the employees from the given sample have strongly agreed and agreed to it respectively. whereas 12 % is neutral to it . but 18% to 17% disagrees and says that they are not taken care in respective of their advancement in profession.

Table 1.7: Showing Encouragement And Support


8 10 40 18 24 100

Chart 1.4: Showing Encouragement And Support


From the above graph its clear that 40% of the employees neither agree or disagree that management encourage them or support them. 8% to 10% agrees that they have been supported by the management . but 18 % to 24 % disagree to the fact that management supports them .

Table 1.8: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward


52 23 16 4 5 100

Chart 1.5: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward


More than half , 52% of the employees states that they have a challenging stimulating and rewarding work. A very few of them disagree to it 4 % to 5% . and 23 % of them agrees t it there is a majority of people agreeing to it.

Table 1.9: Showing Encouragement


28 14 33 16 9 100

Chart 1.6: Showing Encouragement


There is a 28% of people agreeing to it. And 16 % to 9 % disagreeing to the fact that they are not encouraged to learn from their mistakes .

Table 1.10: Showing Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

X 1 2 3 4 5

My manager understands the benefits of maintaining a balance between work and personal life. (X1) 02 13 08 48 29

My job does not cause unreasonable amounts of stress in my life. (X2) 30 13 08 48 29

The amount of work I am asked to do is reasonable. (X3) 40 20 12 14 14

I am able to satisfy both my job and family/personal responsibilities. (X4) 27 12 08 09 44

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4

02 10 30 150 40 200 27 135

13 52 13 52 20 80 12 48

08 24 08 24 12 48 08 24

48 96 48 96 14 28 09 18

29 29 29 29 14 14 44 44


Table 1.11: Showing Calculation Of Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

Table 1.12: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace

211/100 2.11 351/100 3.51 370/100 3.7 269/100 2.69



By analysing the given data using weighted average method that the level of stress reduced in the employees is 3.51 out of 4 , and the amount of work the employee is asked to do is 3.7. the employee is able to balance between family and personal responsibility is 2.69 . the managers understanding in the benefits and maintaining balance between work and personal life should be taken care because it is got only 2.11 which have least rank


2 13 8 48 29 100

Table 1.13: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Chart 1.7: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life


Only 2% of the employees says that there is a balance between work life and personal life. 13% of them agrees to it and 8% is neutral to it.but 48% of the sample disagrees and 29 % of them strongly disagrees to it.

Table 1.14: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life


30 13 8 48 29 100

Chart 1.8: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life


30% of the employees strongly agrees that the job doesn’t cause much stress where 13% of them agrees and 8% is neutral to it. But 48%of them disagree nd 29% strongly disagrees and states that job causes stress in their life.

Table 1.15: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do


40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.9: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do


40% of them strongly agrees that they have sufficient amount of work and they do not feel any stress where 20 % of them agrees. 12% of the sample is neutral.14% of them disagrees they don’t have suffient amount of work or they are overloaded with the work given.

Table 1.16: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities


40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.10: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities


44% of them strongly disagree that they are not able to complete their job, family and personal responsibilities. 27 % to 12 % agrees to it and 8% is neutral to that. It shows that employees are not satisfied with the amount of work given to them.

Table 1.17: Showing Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X 1 2 3 4 5

My ideas and opinions count at work. (X1) 03 18 19 32 28

I am comfortable sharing my opinions at work. (X2) 10 08 28 42 12

We work to attract, develop, and retain people with diverse backgrounds. (X3) 10 13 09 56 12

Senior management is genuinely interested in employee opinions and ideas. (X4) 24 23 36 07 10

People with different ideas are valued in this organization. (X5) 20 18 40 13 09

Table 1.18: Calculation Of Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

3 15 10 50 10 50 24 120 20 100

18 72 08 32 13 52 23 92 18 72

19 57 28 84 09 27 36 108 40 120

32 64 42 84 56 112 07 14 13 26

28 26 12 12 12 12 10 10 09 09


234/100 2.34 262/100 2.62 253/100 2.53 344/100 3.44 327/100 3.27


Table 1.19: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Personal Expression / Diversity


By analysing the above table it shows that senior management is interested in personal opinions which shows the rank 1. And people with different ideas are valued in the organisation are considered 3.27 out of 5. Employees are free to share their ideas 2.62. the employees work in such a manner to attract and retain others 2.53 ,which has got the 4th rank. Ideas counted at work has got the least rank where they have to work on that part.

Table 1.20: Showing Idea And Opinion Count


3 18 19 32 28 100

Chart 1.11: : Showing Idea And Opinion Count


Only 3% of the employees agree that the management listens to their ideas and opinions. 18% of them agree to it as well. 19 % is neutral to the situation. Whereas there is a huge no of the sample size that is32% to 28% who is disagreeing to it. Their opinions and ideas are not taken seriously by the management.

Table 1.21: Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions


10 8 28 42 12 100

Chart 1.12 : Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions


The conducted shows that onl10% to 8% employees are comfortable in sharing their problems with the upper management. Rest of the sample that is 42% is disagreeing that they are not comfortable in sharing their ideas or problems.12% of them strongly disagrees.

Table 1.22: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain


10 13 9 56 12 100

Chart 1.13: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain


56% of the employees disagrees that they don’t work to attract ,develop or retain customers. Where 10% to 13% agrees to the statement . a little sample size of 12% strongly disagrees to the statement .

Table 1.23: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas


24 23 26 7 10 100

Chart 1.14: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas


The management shows interest in taking employees ideas and opinions.24% of them agrees and 23% of the strongly agrees to the statement. A huge sample ,36% id neutral to the statement. But a little sample, 7% to 10% disagrees to the statement.

Table 1.24: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued


20 18 40 13 9 100

Chart 1.15: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued


20% to 18% of the employees agree that people with different ideas are well accepted in the organization. 40% to the employees are neutral to the statement. 13 % to 9% of the sample disagrees to the statement on the other hand.

Table 1.25: Showing Weighted Average On Compensation

X 1 2 3 4 5

I am paid fairly for the work I do. (X1) 19 42 12 25 2

My salary is competitive with similar jobs I might find elsewhere.(X2) 32 12 28 23 5

My benefits are comparable to those offered by other organizations.(X3) 8 29 28 32 3

I understand my benefit plan. (X4) 42 15 19 9 15

I am satisfied with my benefit package. (X5) 58 12 11 6 13

Table 1.26: Calculation Of Weighted Average On Compensation

X1 vX1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

19 95 32 160 08 40 42 210 58 290

42 168 12 48 29 116 15 60 12 48

12 36 28 84 28 84 19 57 11 33

25 50 23 46 32 64 09 18 06 12

02 02 05 05 03 03 15 15 13 13


Table 1.27: Showing The Rank Of Each Component Of Compensation

351/100 3.51 343/100 3.43 307/100 3.07 360/100 3.60 396/100 3.96



The above table shows that the employees are satisfied with the benefit package they are given 3.96 out of 5.the employees understand their plan is 3.60. the fair pay is ranked 3rd.the employees salary is competitive with others is ranked 4th. The salary is not comparable with salary with others which has been ranked the least, rank 5.

Table 1.28: showing Fair Pay


19 42 12 25 2 100

Chart 1.16: Showing Fair Pay


19% to 42% of the Employees agree that they are paid fairly according to the amount of work they do. But 25% to 2% of the sample size disagrees to the statement. And 12% is neutral to it.

Table 1.29: Showing Salary Competitiveness


32 12 28 23 5 100

Chart 1.17: Showing Salary Competitiveness


32% of the employees agrees that they get a competitive salary when compared to other organizations with same designation. 12% of them strongly agrees to it .28% of them are neutral to the statement. 23% to 5% is disagrees to the statement in the other hand.

Table 1.30: Showing Comparability Of Benefits


8 29 28 32 3 100

Chart 1.18: Showing Comparability Of Benefits


There is balance, 29% of the employees agrees and 32 % of them strongly disagrees that they have a comparable benefits.28% of them are neutral in the other hand.

Table 1.31: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan


42 15 19 9 15 100

Chart 1.19: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan


42% of the employees agrees that they understand their benefit plan. 15% strongly agrees ,where 19% is neutral.9% to 15% disagrees to the fact and says they don’t understand the benefit plans they are given.

Table 1.32: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package


58 12 11 6 13 100

Chart 1.20: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package


58% of them are satisfied with their benefit package. 12% strongly agrees. Whereas little sample of 6% to 13% disagrees to the statement. Or they are not happy with their benefit package.11% is neutral to it.

Summary of Findings

‘ Most of the employee’s ability state the opinion firmly and positively is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability in exercising the professional duties without assistance is better than acceptable standard.

‘ The Emotional Stamina of the majority of the employees is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the Employee’s Ability to work co-operatively and collaboratively to achieve common goal is better than acceptable.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to effectively guide a group through an appropriate process to help to achieve their desired outcomes is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to clarify and establish with a group roles and responsibilities, common goal and plan to achieve them and group behavioural is outstanding.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to deal with multiple issues and details, alertness and learning capacity is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to see and think beyond the obvious and formulate original solution is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to present ideas, concept, plan and procedure clearly to the target group is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Concern for excellence of the majority of the employee’s is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s Aware of what is going on in the workplace and responds in a suitable manner to situations as they is better than acceptable.

‘ The understanding between the top level and employees are in good terms.

‘ Employees do understand their benefits and opportunities given by the organisation.

‘ The employees are paid fairly according to the work done.

‘ Freedom of sharing new ideas and opinions are welcomed in the organisation.

‘ The employees are able to make a balance between personnel and work life. which reduces the amount of stress in them.

‘ The organisation encourages the employee to learn from their mistakes.

‘ Recommendations

‘ In this organization employee engagement study must be regularly done in order to check the level of employee effectiveness.

‘ Since many of the employees are performing different jobs to what they were doing at the time of their joining they need training to perform the new work allotted them.

‘ Different sources of employee engagement tactics must be encouraged in employees.

‘ The top management should support the lower level employees since it is considered a major hurdle in effective employee engagement and the employees must also be made aware of importance of engagement at work system

‘ The employees should be then and there motivated for work.

‘ The understanding between management and employees should be increased.

‘ Level of stress in work should be reduced.

‘ Better benefit package should be given to the employees.


In the report we have discussed the importance of employee engagement in an organization and how it affects the efficiency of work and productivity. Employment counselors should help individuals to maximize their career engagement at any stage of their career. Basically employee engagement should be a buzz word for the employee engagement and a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization. Employee engagement is gaining its importance and popularity in work places and its impact in many ways. It emphasis on the importance of employee engagement in a organization, an organization should thus give more importance for its employees than any other variable as they are the powerful contributors to a company’s competitiveness. Thus it shows that employee engagement should be a continues process for learning, improvement, measurement and action of an employee.


The limitations of the Chit Acts easy essay help


The financial system assumes strategically a very important role in channelling the funds from surplus units to deficit units. The financial system here refers to the group of institutions, markets and instruments which helps in formation of capital and thus accelerates to the pace of economic development.

The base of this study stems from the fact that there exists a gap between gross capital formation and gross domestic savings in India. So, there exists the need to augment the growth rate of voluntary domestic savings. This goal can be realized by widening and strengthening the working of different financial intermediaries which will result in mobilizing savings from various income level categories. .It is in this context that the role of the Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries like Chit Finance should be appreciated in supplementing the functions of the Banking Institutions.

Chit funds are Chit funds are the Indian equivalent of the Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCA). ROSCAs are famous in many parts of the world and is seen as an instrument to ‘save and borrow’ simultaneously. ROSCAs basically started as a way to help in fulfilling the needs of the low-income households as it enables the people to convert their small savings into lump sums. The concept of chit funds originated more than 1000 years ago. Initially it was in the form of an informal association of traders and households within communities, wherein the members contributed some money in return for an accumulated sum at the end of the tenure. Participation in Chit funds was mainly for the purpose of purchasing some property or, in other words, for ‘consumption’ purposes. However, in recent times, there have been tremendous alterations in the constitution and functioning of Chit funds. A significant difference between Chit Funds and ROSCAs are that in most places ROSCAs are user-owned and organized informally, but chit funds have been formally institutionalized in India. (Chit Funds-An innovative access to finance for low income households, 2009)


Chit fund is a savings-cum-borrowing instrument. The basic aim of this instrument is to pool small amount of savings by all the members which is then managed by a foreman. The foreman has the responsibility to act as a trustee-cum-supervisors for the process of collection and allotment of the pooled amount.

Chit funds represent a traditional form of saving-cum-credit institution evolved before the bank system was introduced in rural India. There are many who avail themselves of this avenue for saving for a reasonable return.


Despite the growth of a wide range of savings avenues and the widespread network of banks and other financial institutions, it has been found that Chit scheme still forms an important part in the asset portfolio of many households and firms in India and especially in South India including Karnataka. Also, the review of literature shows that there are only a few studies on Chit Finance. Therefore, the need to conduct the study stems from the requirement to understand Chit Funds in Bangalore.


The research titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study tries to point out the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests feasible recommendations for improving the working of such institutions.


‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’.


1. Age

2. Occupation

3. Monthly income

4. Gender

5. Bank loan

6. Regular participation in chit fund

7. Membership in multiple chit schemes

8. Cause for participating in multiple schemes

9. Preferred avenue of saving

10. Preferred source of finance

11. Safety

12. Better service

13. Flexibility

14. Timely Payment

15. Low commission

16. Personal contact

17. Unregistered chit funds membership

18. Cause for participating in unregistered chit funds

19. Cause for not participating in unregistered chit fund



1. To understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members.

2. To identify the important predictors behind chit fund participation


1. To estimate interest rates in registered chit funds.

2. To compare the relative ratings of Chit subscribers towards registered and unregistered chit funds on

3. To estimate the return on Chit Funds.


There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

1. Null hypothesis

2. Alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.



Members of four registered chit fund companies in Bangalore. The four registered chit fund companies were selected due to the large size of their subscriber base.


150 respondents



Questions relating to behaviour and financial pattern will be found out through questionnares


‘ Reports on chit fund industry



According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on 31st December, 2013:

Volume of registered chit companies: 5412

Volume of chit companies in Karnataka: 703

Number of chit fund companies in Bangalore: 315


Although unregistered chits are an informal source of finance but still they are a significant part of the chit fund industry. Though they are more easily accessible as compared to registered chit funds.


The study titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ attempt in The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study also examines the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests suitable recommendations for improving the functioning of such institutions.


‘ Unwillingness of the members to share their income and financial details made the task of data collection somewhat difficult.

‘ Collecting data became difficult since I don’t know the regional languages.


The analysis is done on the primary data collected from 150 chit funds members in Bangalore


5.4.1 Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.070a 16 .013

Likelihood Ratio 35.945 16 .003

Linear-by-Linear Association 8.809 1 .003

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .455 .013

Cramer’s V .228 .013

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.


The value of chi-square=31.070 was p=.013, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (Phi and Cramer’s V -0.455).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. This means that different age groups of the chit fund members have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As can be seen from the table above that those who belong to ’36-45 years’ have saving as the predominant reason to participate whereas members of other age groups do not have any dominant reason to participate.

5.4.2 Hypothesis 2:

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

. Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 10.018a 4 .040

Likelihood Ratio 10.478 4 .033

Linear-by-Linear Association 6.876 1 .009

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .258 .040

Cramer’s V .258 .040

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.


The value of chi-square=10.018 was p=.040, less than 0.05.

.We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (0.258)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis. This means that males and females have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As it can be seen that males participate in chit funds for business and personal consumption purposes apart from saving whereas women predominantly participate to save.


Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 82.176a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 97.665 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 15.696 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .740 .000

Cramer’s V .427 .000

N of Valid Cases 150


We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (0.740)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the self-employed members mainly participate to avail for business reasons whereas salaried employee participate mainly for personal consumption purposes.

Hypothesis 5:

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 66.691a 20 .000

Likelihood Ratio 43.579 20 .002

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.804 1 .028

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .667 .000

Cramer’s V .333 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.


The (chi-square=66.691) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong (0.667)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the members of age group’36-45 years’ are more interested in bidding for business related purposes where members of other age groups bid mainly for emergency needs.

5.4.6 Hypothesis 6:

. Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.167a 5 .209

Likelihood Ratio 7.885 5 .163

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.120 1 .290

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .219 .209

Cramer’s V .219 .209

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.


The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.167) was p=.209, more than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.7 Hypothesis 7:

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 180.915a 15 .000

Likelihood Ratio 160.460 15 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 28.379 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.098 .000

Cramer’s V .634 .000

N of Valid Cases 150


The (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that self-employed people bid in chit scheme mostly for business purposes, salaried people for emergency needs and housewives for household purposes.

5.4.8 Hypothesis 8:

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 123.331a 35 .000

Likelihood Ratio 106.298 35 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.957 1 .026

N of Valid Cases 150


The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=123.331) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.907)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that low income members bid mostly for consumption reasons whereas higher income members bid for business related and emergency purposes.


Reason to bid in chit fund has the strongest association with the occupation of the chit fund members as the probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000 and the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098).


Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 21.702a 16 .153

Likelihood Ratio 23.775 16 .095

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.397 1 .122

N of Valid Cases 150


The chi-square=123.331) was p=.153, more than 0.05. Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.10 Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 20.510a 4 .000

Likelihood Ratio 29.038 4 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 7.062 1 .008

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .370 .000

Cramer’s V .370 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.


The chi-square=20.510) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (.370).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis.

5.4.11 Hypothesis 11:

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 67.261a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 60.380 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.507 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .670 .000

Cramer’s V .387 .000

N of Valid Cases 150


The chi-square=67.261 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong(.670).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to cause in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. Salaried people save their money in chit fund with no particular purpose. But self-employed people are equally interested in saving for house purchase as well as for general purpose.


chit fund is most closely associated with occupation of the chit fund members as it has the highest value of chi-square statistic and Phi coefficient.

5.4.12 Hypothesis 12:

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 56.697a 3 .000

Likelihood Ratio 67.900 3 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 36.400 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150


The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=56.697) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (.615).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘membership in multiple chit schemes are related to differences in ‘having currently bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that those members currently having bank loan have invested in only one chit scheme whereas those members who do not have availed bank loan have invested in more than one chit schemes.

5.4.13 Hypothesis 13:

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds


Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 96.660a 7 .000

Likelihood Ratio 85.378 7 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 59.577 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell(10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.08.


The chi-square=96.660 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.803).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘participation in unregistered chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that mostly low- income members have participated in unregistered funds. This is because the registered funds have become expensive due to the increase in their operational cost as a result of stringent regulations.

5.2.14 Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 28.049a 5 .000

Likelihood Ratio 31.806 5 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.967 1 .085

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 2 cells (15.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.79.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .432 .000

Cramer’s V .432 .000

N of Valid Cases 150


The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=28.049) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (.432).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to prefer chit fund over bank’ are related to differences in ‘having bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that members who have bank loan have preferred chit fund over bank mainly due to better dividends. But those who do not have bank loan prefer chit fund over bank mainly due to better service in terms of more personalized service.)

5.2..15 Hypothesis 15: To identify significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds using Binary Logistic Regression

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 0 Constant -1.046 .186 31.574 1 .000 .351

Model Summary

Step -2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R Square Nagelkerke R Square

1 37.170a .533 .576

a. Estimation terminated at iteration number 6 because parameter estimates changed by less than .001.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a bank_loan(1) 1.068 1.265 14.715 1 .000 11.720

reason_2 2.286 4 .683

reason_2(1) 1.336 1.077 1.540 1 .215 3.805

reason_2(2) .134 2.239 .004 1 .952 1.143

reason_2(3) -.559 1.896 .087 1 .768 .572

reason_2(4) .731 1.347 .294 1 .588 2.076

reason_3 4.874 5 .431

reason_3(1) 1.188 .924 1.652 1 .199 3.279

reason_3(2) 1.661 2.048 .658 1 .417 5.263

reason_3(3) -1.654 1.228 1.813 1 .178 .191

reason_3(4) .404 1.192 .115 1 .735 1.497

reason_3(5) -17.379 20.722 .000 1 .700 .000

reason_4 .355 4 .986

reason_4(1) -1.047 1.850 .320 1 .571 .351

reason_4(2) -.839 1.979 .180 1 .672 .432

reason_4(3) -.932 1.637 .324 1 .569 .394

reason_4(4) 3.519 4.199 .000 1 .600 3.746

reason_5 8.553 5 .128

reason_5(1) -.254 1.768 .021 1 .886 .776

reason_5(2) -19.245 9.890 .000 1 .999 .000

reason_5(3) 1.420 1.338 1.126 1 .289 4.136

reason_5(4) -.747 1.306 .327 1 .567 .474

reason_5(5) .561 1.342 .174 1 .676 1.752

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a Safety -.075 .320 4.377 1 .011 0.928

Flexi -.178 .426 3.337 1 .021 0.837

commision -.185 .188 1.868 1 .026 0.831

payment -.267 .178 1.657 1 .097 0.766

service -.859 .412 1.348 1 .083 0.424

personal -1.122 .163 .996 1 .079 0.329

Constant 3.058 2.440 1.571 1 .010 21.291

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: : bank_loan, reason_2, reason_3, reason_4, reason_5.imp1, imp2, imp3, imp4, imp5, imp6.


‘ -2 Log Likelihood statistic is 37.170. This statistic how poorly the model predicts the decisions — the smaller the statistic the better the model. Since, 37.170 is a relatively small number therefore, this model is able to predict the decisions in a better way.

‘ Here Cox & Snell R Square statistic indicates that 53.3% of the variation in the regular participation in chit funds is explained by the logistic model.

‘ In our case Nagelkerke R Square is 0.576, indicating a moderate relationship of 57.6 % between the predictors and the prediction.

‘ If it is less than .05 then, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

‘ In this case, we can see that bank loan, safety, flexibility and low commission have contributed signi’cantly to the prediction of regular participation in chit funds but other variables are not significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds.

‘ Since only bank loan has p=.000, therefore we can say that bank loan is the most significant predictor

among other significant predictors. This is followed by safety (p=.011), flexibility (p=.021) and low commission (p=.026).

‘ Here, the EXP (B) bank loan is 11.727. Hence when bank loan is availed by one unit (one person) the odds ratio is 11 times as large and therefore people are 11 more times likely not to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) with safety is .928. Hence when safety is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .928 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) flexibility is 837. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .837 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) low commission is .831. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .831 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.


Bank loan is the most significant predictor of regular participation in chit funds. This is followed by safety, flexibility and low commission.

Instalment no No of months remaining Monthly subscription Prize amount PV of monthly subscription(PV of outlow at 10%) PV of Prize amount(PV of inflow at 10%) Net Present Value(PV of inflow – PV of outflow)

1 24 2000 50000 2000 50000 10444.9

2 23 1500 35000 1488.1 34723.1 -4832.0

3 22 1500 35000 1476.4 34448.4 -5106.7

4 21 1500 35000 1464.7 34175.9 -5379.2

5 20 1500 35000 1453.1 33905.5 -5649.6

6 19 1500 35000 1441.6 33637.3 -5917.8

7 18 1500 35000 1430.2 33371.2 -6183.9

8 17 1500 35000 1418.9 33107.2 -6447.9

9 16 1620 38000 1520.3 35660.6 -3894.5

10 15 1620 38000 1508.2 35378.5 -4176.6

11 14 1700 40000 1570.2 36945.9 -2609.2

12 13 1700 40000 1557.8 36653.6 -2901.5

13 12 1780 42000 1618.2 38181.8 -1373.3

14 11 1780 42000 1605.4 37879.8 -1675.3

15 10 1780 42000 1592.7 37580.1 -1975.0

16 9 1860 44000 1651.1 39058.2 -496.9

17 8 1860 44000 1638.0 38749.2 -805.9

18 7 1860 44000 1625.1 38442.6 -1112.5

19 6 1940 46000 1681.6 39872.1 317.0

20 5 1940 46000 1668.3 39556.6 1.5

21 4 1940 46000 1655.1 39243.7 -311.4

22 3 1940 46000 1642.0 38933.2 -621.8

23 2 1940 46000 1629.0 38625.2 -929.8

24 1 1940 46000 1616.1 38319.7 -1235.4

25 0 1940 46000 1603.3 38016.5 -1538.6

39555.1 934465.9 -54411.4


Merit goods essay help fairfax

Merit goods are goods which will be under-provided by the market, therefore they will be under-consumed. They are thought by the governments to be good for the populations and so the governments want them to be consumed to a great extent. They increase the private and social benefits and cause the social benefit be higher than the private one. The best examples of them, apart from all the public goods, can be the education, health care, sports facilities and the opera.

Although the majority of the merit goods is provided by the private sectors, not all the people can afford buying them, therefore they will be under-consumed. That is why the government is needed to destroy the market failure increasing the supply and consequently raising the consumption.

To explain the reasons for government to provide the merit goods, I need to apply some examples of them. The first one can be the education. It is significant for the governments to provide it so that the society would be well-educated. Governments determine the period of education required for people (the compulsory education) to maintain the proper level of education of the society. The governments find education an important aspect that should be available for everyone as it cause the whole country to have better both economic growth and economic development.

Considering another example such as health care, the situation is quite similar. The governments want to provide the population with it because they care about the high states of health of society in their country. To gain these, the countries need to have high quality of health care. Governments often offer people unpaid programs consisting of preventative medical examination which contribute to maintain the high number of healthy people. This is also connected with the problems of the labour market. The healthier people are, the more efficient their work is, the greater revenue firms have and countries are more developed because of taxations.

Other examples like sport facilities or the opera are meant for people to become physically and culturally developed but their availability is not as important as in the case of the previous examples. That is why they are not as much provided by the governments as the rest of the merit goods.

Although most of the merit goods provided by the governments are free, the fact is that they are paid through the taxes that the societies pay. The number of the merit goods of particular types that the governments provide or subsidize depends on the necessity of them. If they are provided, the societies’ benefits get higher and so is the public treasury of the countries.


Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father college admission essay help houston tx

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.


Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks essay help fairfax

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.


WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation essay help websites

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.


Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) essay help online

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.


Respondeat Superior college admission essay help houston tx

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.